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Illustration of the Palace of Caiaphas in First Century Jerusalem
The House of Caiaphas or Palace of Caiaphas was the place where the High Priest of Israel resided, and it was here that Jesus was tried informally by the Sanhedrin. Peter also denied Jesus in one of the courts of this palace.
The House of Caiaphas
The palace of the high priest where the Lord Jesus was examined before the Council in Jerusalem, the Sanhedrin, was not only mentioned in the Bible but also became a site for a Christian church to be built, on the Hill of the Upper City.
The idea that this is the exact site of the House of Caiaphas is open for debate. Before Christ and during the time of Nehemiah, the high priest resided on the western side of the temple court area. During the time of the Maccabees the high priest resided at the Asmonaean Palace. Josephus makes mention that during the time of Jesus in first century Jerusalem, the house of Ananias (High-priest during the time of Gessius Florus) stood near the Palace of the Asmonaeans, on the eastern part of the Upper City.
Caiaphas The High Priest
Caiaphas, who’s name means "searcher" was appointed high priest (after Simon ben Camith) by the procurator Valerius Gratus, under Tiberius, 18 A.D. He continued in office from A.D. 26 to 37, when the proconsul Vitellius deposed him. He was the president of the Jewish council (Sanhedrim) which condemned the Lord Jesus to death, Caiaphas declaring Him guilty of blasphemy.
Caiaphas was the official high priest during the ministry and trial of Jesus (Matt 26:3, 57; Luke 3:2; John 11:49; 18:13, 14, 24, 28; Acts 4:6).
It was Caiaphas who, unknowingly, made the incredible prophecy concerning God’s plan of sacrificing Jesus for the sins of the nation and even the whole world:
John 11:49-50 And one of them, Caiaphas, being high priest that year, said to them, "You know nothing at all, nor do you consider that it is expedient for us that one man should die for the people, and not that the whole nation should perish."
The Romans made sure that they had total control over the all the affairs of Judea, they reserved the right to appoint not only the civil ruler but also the religious leader of the Jews, the high priest.
Josephus relates that "Joseph who was also called Caiaphas" was made high priest by the Procurator Valerius Gratus (18 A.D.) and that he was removed by the Procurator Vitellius (36 A.D.). His successor was "Jonathan the son of Ananus," (Annas of the NT) (Antiq. XVIII. ii. 2; iv. 3) .
Thus the high-priesthood of Caiaphas lasted some eighteen years, standing in marked contrast to the rapid changes in the office both before and after him. He was shrewd and adaptable enough to appease the Romans. According to John 18:13 he was the son-in-law of Annas, who had been deposed as high priest in A.D. 15 by Valerius Gratus. Neither Caiaphas nor his father-in-law is named in the gospel of Mark.
John 18:13 "And they led Him away to Annas first, for he was the father-in-law of Caiaphas who was high priest that year."
Caiaphas is first mentioned in the New Testament in the Gospel of Luke at the beginning of John the Baptist's ministry:
Luke 3:1-3 "Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea and the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene, while Annas and Caiaphas were high priests, the word of God came to John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness. And he went into all the region around the Jordan, preaching a baptism of repentance for the remission of sins.."
It is interesting that Luke phrases his statement, "Annas and Caiaphas were high priests" (sing.) The expression indicates an abnormality. Conservative scholars hold that it fittingly reflects the real situation. As high priest and head of a powerful family, Annas continued to exercise great influence through his son-in-law Caiaphas who was the official high priest. The fact that Annas did continue to exert great influence after he was removed seems evident from the fact that he was able to obtain appointment to the office for five of his sons.
After Jesus had raised Lazarus from the dead, the Sanhedrin met to discuss what to do about Jesus and ultimately plotted Jesus’ death:
John 11:47-54 "Then the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered a council and said, "What shall we do? For this Man works many signs. If we let Him alone like this, everyone will believe in Him, and the Romans will come and take away both our place and nation." And one of them, Caiaphas, being high priest that year, said to them, "You know nothing at all, nor do you consider that it is expedient for us that one man should die for the people, and not that the whole nation should perish." Now this he did not say on his own authority; but being high priest that year he prophesied that Jesus would die for the nation, and not for that nation only, but also that He would gather together in one the children of God who were scattered abroad. Then, from that day on, they plotted to put Him to death."
The proposal of Caiaphas was accepted by the Sanhedrin. John remarks that the words of Caiaphas were prophetic; they had a higher meaning than he realized. The suggestion to sacrifice Jesus to save the nation expressed the mystery of God's plan of salvation for all men through Christ's death.
When Jesus was first arrested He was first taken to Annas who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, who was high priest that year" (John 18:13)
John 18:19-24 "The high priest then asked Jesus about His disciples and His doctrine. Jesus answered him, "I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues and in the temple, where the Jews always meet, and in secret I have said nothing. Why do you ask Me? Ask those who have heard Me what I said to them. Indeed they know what I said." And when He had said these things, one of the officers who stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, "Do You answer the high priest like that?" Jesus answered him, "If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil; but if well, why do you strike Me?" Then Annas sent Him bound to Caiaphas the high priest."
Next Jesus was taken "bound to Caiaphas the high priest." John's gospel does not recount the night trial before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin, but it is found in the Gospels of Matthew and Mark (cf. Matt 26:57-68; Mark 14:53-65):
Matt 26:57-68 And those who had laid hold of Jesus led Him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled. But Peter followed Him at a distance to the high priest's courtyard. And he went in and sat with the servants to see the end. Now the chief priests, the elders, and all the council sought false testimony against Jesus to put Him to death, but found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward, they found none. But at last two false witnesses came forward and said, "This fellow said, 'I am able to destroy the temple of God and to build it in three days.' " And the high priest arose and said to Him, "Do You answer nothing? What is it these men testify against You?" But Jesus kept silent. And the high priest answered and said to Him, "I put You under oath by the living God: Tell us if You are the Christ, the Son of God!" Jesus said to him, "It is as you said. Nevertheless, I say to you, hereafter you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power, and coming on the clouds of heaven." Then the high priest tore his clothes, saying, "He has spoken blasphemy! What further need do we have of witnesses? Look, now you have heard His blasphemy! What do you think?" They answered and said, "He is deserving of death." Then they spat in His face and beat Him; and others struck Him with the palms of their hands, saying, "Prophesy to us, Christ! Who is the one who struck You?"
Ultimately in the morning they handed Jesus over to Pontius Pilate the Roman governor:
Matt 27:1-2 "When morning came, all the chief priests and elders of the people plotted against Jesus to put Him to death. And when they had bound Him, they led Him away and delivered Him to Pontius Pilate the governor."
As a Sadducee and opposed to the teaching of the resurrection, Caiaphas took a leading part in the persecution of the Early Church. The final appearance of Caiaphas in the New Testament was in Acts 4:6 he is named second among the Sadducean leaders who assembled to try Peter and John:
Acts 4:5-12 "And it came to pass, on the next day, that their rulers, elders, and scribes, as well as Annas the high priest, Caiaphas, John, and Alexander, and as many as were of the family of the high priest, were gathered together at Jerusalem. And when they had set them in the midst, they asked, "By what power or by what name have you done this?" Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said to them, "Rulers of the people and elders of Israel: If we this day are judged for a good deed done to a helpless man, by what means he has been made well, let it be known to you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead, by Him this man stands here before you whole. This is the 'stone which was rejected by you builders, which has become the chief cornerstone.' Nor is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved."
Caiaphas is no doubt that same "high priest" mentioned in Acts 5:17-21, 27; 7:1; 9:1 as the bitter persecutor of the Christians.
Acts 5:17-18 "Then the high priest rose up, and all those who were with him (which is the sect of the Sadducees), and they were filled with indignation, and laid their hands on the apostles and put them in the common prison."
The Palace of Caiaphas
The Trial of Christ
The location of the Palace of Caiaphas, where the religious leaders plotted to kill Jesus of Nazareth, and after his arrest convened his trial, has long been of interest to Christians touring the holy sites and to those who study the scriptures. The Palace of Caiaphas was also the place where the Apostle Peter was confronted in the palace courtyard, not with swords and physical battle for which he was prepared, but with public shame and ridicule in spiritual battle, which he had not foreseen.
The chilling thought on Caiaphas is that though he was a High Priest for God, he yet embodied such a hard hearted religious pride that he could not recognize the Son of God standing before him and instead was filled with a murderous hatred. His self-deception stands as a warning to all who would move up in a religious hierarchy that pride in one's righteousness, knowledge and position can be so blinding that one could stand and fight against God Himself, thinking he serves the God he is actually persecuting. Chilling.
Not only that, but the sovereignty of God can so plan and execute in the affairs of man that such a hardened high priest would serve to fulfill the type of Aaron, the first high priest who would place the lamb on the altar on Passover to commemorate the original blood of the lambs placed on the doorposts in Egypt, when Israel was protected from judgment, set free from bondage and set out for the promised land.
How awesome and powerful can God be that this High Priest Caiaphas placed Jesus on the altar of the Cross, thus truly fulfilling the purpose of his office, and of the Mosaic Covenant itself?
This Ossuary of Caiaphas was discovered in Jerusalem by archaeologists. It was carved from limestone and bears the name "Caiaphas", the name of the Temple High Priest during the time of Christ. Ossuaries were typically used to hold the bones of the dead.
The Jewish High Priests from 200 B.C to the Reign of Herod the Great
1. Simon II the Just, 220-190 B.C.
2. Onias III, 190-174 B.C.
3. Jason/Jeshua,175-172 B.C.
4. Menelaus, 172-162 B.C.
5. Alcimus, 162-156 B.C.
6. Jonathan, 153-142 B.C.
7. Simon, 142-135 B.C.
8. John Hyrcanus I, 134-104 B.C.
9. Aristobulus I, 104-103 B.C.
10. Alexander Jannaeus, 103-76 B.C.
11. Hyrcanus II, 76-67 B.C.
12. Aristobulus II, 67-63 B.C.
13. Hyrcanus II, 63-40 B.C.
14. Antigonus, 40-37 B.C.
The Jewish High Priests from Herod the Great to the Destruction of Jerusalem
15. Ananel, 37-36 B.C. (Appointed by Herod the Great)
16. Aristobulus III, 35 B.C.
17. Jesus, son of Phiabi, ? -22 B.C.
18. Simon, son of Boethus, 22-5 B.C.
19. Matthias, son of Theophilus, 5-4 B.C.
20. Joseph, son of Elam, 5 B.C.
21. Joezer, son of Boethus, 4 B.C.
22. Eleazar, son of Boethus, 4-1 B.C. - (Appointed by Herod Archelaus)
23. Jesus, son of Sie, 1 - 6 A.D.
24. Annas, 6-15 A.D. (Appointed by Quirinius)
25. Ishmael, son of Phiabi I, 15-16 A.D. (Appointed by Valerius Gratus)
26. Eleazar, son of Annas, 16-17 A.D.
27. Simon, son of Kamithos, 17-18 A.D.
28. Joseph Caiaphas, 18-37 AD.
29. Jonathan, son of Annas, 37 A.D. (Appointed by Vitellius)
30. Theophilus, son of Annas, 37-41 A.D.
31. Simon Kantheras, son of Boethus, 41-43 A.D. (Appointed by Herod Agrippa I)
32. Matthias, son of Annas, 43-44 A.D.
33. Elionaius, son of Kantheras, 44-45 A.D.
34. Joseph, son of Kami, 45-47 A.D. (Appointed by Herod of Chalcis)
35. Ananias, son of Nebedaius, 47-55 A.D.
36. Ishmael, son of Phiabi III, 55-61 A.D. (Appointed by Herod Agrippa II)
37. Joseph Qabi, son of Simon, 61-62 A.D.
38. Ananus, son of Ananus, 62 A.D.
39. Jesus, son of Damnaius, 62-65 A.D.
40. Joshua, son of Gamal iel, 63-65 A.D.
41. Matthias, son of Theophilus, 65-67 A.D.
42. Phinnias, son of Samuel, 67-70 A.D. (Appointed by The People)
Some dates cannot be known for certain.
The Bible mentions a lot concerning "Caiaphas":
John 18:28 - Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.
Acts 4:6 - And Annas the high priest, and Caiaphas, and John, and Alexander, and as many as were of the kindred of the high priest, were gathered together at Jerusalem.
Matthew 26:3 - Then assembled together the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders of the people, unto the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas,
Matthew 26:57 - And they that had laid hold on Jesus led [him] away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled.
Luke 3:2 - Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.
John 18:13 - And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year.
John 18:14 - Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.
John 11:49 - And one of them, [named] Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all,
John 18:24 - Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest.