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Ancient Israel

Alexander the Great Bows to the Jewish High Priest

It is a fascinating and worthwhile study to understand this ancient time period and its high priests. According to the Bible the high priest was the most important man in the world, for he represented the nation before God, and God before the nation. Unfortunately there were times when the priesthood became corrupt and blinded to its original intent. There were no doubt high priests in Israel’s history who sought after God. Every high priest has a story and the history of the intertestamental period is packed with adventures. One interesting story is related in the Talmud concerning Simon the Just: The Talmud relates that when Alexander the Great and his conquering legions advanced upon Jerusalem, they were met by a delegation of elders, led by the High Priest Shimon Ha Tzaddik (Simon the Righteous). When Alexander saw Shimon approaching, he dismounted and prostrated himself before the Jewish Sage. To his astonished men, Alexander explained that each time he went into battle, he would see a vision in the likeness of this High Priest leading the Greek troops to victory. In gratitude, and out of profound respect for the spiritual power of the Jews, Alexander was a kind and generous ruler. He canceled the Jewish taxes during Sabbatical years, and even offered animals to be sacrificed on his behalf in the Temple. Unfortunately, history would prove that Alexander's heirs failed to sustain his benevolence.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSAlexander_Bows_to_the_High_Pries.htm

The Duties of the High Priest in the New Testament

As in ancient times, the high priest was the head of the priesthood. After the time of Herod the Great the high priest was no longer the political leader of the people. However, he did remain president of the Sanhedrin. This function, and the fact that the high priest was always chosen from one of the leading aristocratic families in Jerusalem, meant that he still had some influence in the political sphere. As had been customary from Persian times, the high priest was nominated by the foreign power in control, in this period the Romans. The most well-known high priest in the time of Jesus was Joseph surnamed Caiaphas, who held this office from about 18 to 37 A.D. The high priest was supported by the priests who from Persian times had been divided up into twenty-four courses. Each of these courses served in the temple for one week (from Sabbath to Sabbath). Thus Zachariah belonged to the course of Abijah (Luke 1.5; cf. I Chron.24.10). Each of the courses was in turn divided into ‘father's houses’, each of which did service in the temple on a particular day. The leadership of these courses and ‘father’s houses' was in the hands of some prominent families in Jerusalem. Members of these priestly families benefited greatly from the offerings brought to the temple. The priests of a lower grade usually lived in the country and had to earn a living, generally by working some kind of a craft.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSSpiritual_Leaders.htm

The Duties of the Priests in the New Testament

The main task of the priests was to offer sacrifices in the temple. They were helped by the Levites, who apparently also served as singers and musicians in the temple.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSSpiritual_Leaders.htm

The Scribes and Rabbis in the New Testament

One important group at this time was that of the sopherim. The sopher (originally scribe) was the man of the book, the scholar whose task it was to expound and study the message of God. The scribes are mentioned in an earlier period (cf. Neh.8.2; Sirach 38.24-39.14), but only in the first century A.D. do they come into prominence especially after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. In the time of Jesus the scribes still formed a group distinct from the Pharisees, though there was a great kinship between the two. Many scribes were also Pharisees, but not all of them. After 70 A.D. the scribes and the Pharisees formed the group of rabbis.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSSpiritual_Leaders.htm

Shammai and Hillel

In the period before 70 A.D. most of the training was centered in the ‘schools' of Shammai and Hillel. After 70 A.D. that of Hillel had a dominant position. Shammai is usually thought to have been more conservative and Hillel more liberal. Hillel came from Babylon to Jerusalem as an adult, while Shammai spent his whole life in Judea. Otherwise very little is known about them and their work. Many of their apparent views come from accounts by their followers from the time after 70 A.D. and it is far from certain that these are always authentic. In Pirqe Aboth (m.Aboth I,II) Shammai and Hillel are the fifth and most famous pair of those who handed down oral teaching from the time of Moses to their own day.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSSpiritual_Leaders.htm

Annas the High Priest

Annas, who’s name means "The grace of Jehovah" was the son of Seth and appointed high priest of the Jews in 6 A.D in his 37th year. He was high priest from 6 to 15 A.D. but as long as he lived he was the virtual head of the priestly party in Jerusalem. He was chosen to the high priesthood by Quirinius, the imperial governor of Syria; obliged to give way to Ismael by Valerius Gratus, procurator of Judaea, in the beginning of Tiberius' reign, 14 A.D. Eleazar, the son of Annas, followed Ismael; then Simon; then Joseph Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas (John 18:13). In the time of Christ high priests were appointed and removed at the command of the Roman governors. Although removed from office, Annas' power and influence was so great that five of his sons, as well as his son-in-law Caiaphas and his grandson Matthias, also became high priests. Years afterward he lost the high priesthood, but even then he was popularly considered as still in office and was called "high priest"; even after Pentecost his name appears first in the list of priestly leaders: Acts 4:5-7 "And it came to pass, on the next day, that their rulers, elders, and scribes, as well as Annas the high priest, Caiaphas, John, and Alexander, and as many as were of the family of the high priest, were gathered together at Jerusalem. " In John 18:19, 22 the high priest is undoubtedly Annas, although in vs. 13 and 24 Caiaphas is mentioned as the high priest. Annas is referred to in connection with the beginning of John the Baptist's ministry, which took place "in the high-priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas" (Luke 3:2 ), as though father and son-in-law were joint holders of the office. It seems clear that due to his ability and force of character he was virtually high priest, although Caiaphas had the title. When Jesus was arrested, He was first brought before Annas (John 18:13). It was apparently Annas who questioned Him about His disciples and His teaching, and who gave orders to one of the officers standing by to strike Jesus with his hand (18:19-22). After the questioning, he sent Jesus "bound" to Caiaphas. John 18:19-24 "The high priest then asked Jesus about His disciples and His doctrine. Jesus answered him, "I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues and in the temple, where the Jews always meet, and in secret I have said nothing. Why do you ask Me? Ask those who have heard Me what I said to them. Indeed they know what I said." And when He had said these things, one of the officers who stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, "Do You answer the high priest like that?" Jesus answered him, "If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil; but if well, why do you strike Me?" Then Annas sent Him bound to Caiaphas the high priest." He was undoubtedly the ruling voice in the council that condemned Jesus, although nothing is said about his part in the proceedings that followed the preliminary questioning. He was present at the meeting of the Sanhedrin before which Peter and John defended themselves for preaching the Gospel of the Resurrection (Acts 4:6). Annas is called "high priest," Caiaphas, John, and Alexander are called "of his kindred." He lived to old age, and he had five sons apointed as high priests. Also see Josephus, The Antiquities of the Jews, XVI11. ii. 1, 2; XX. ix. 1

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSAnnas.htm

Caiaphas the High Priest

Caiaphas, who’s name means "searcher" was appointed high priest (after Simon ben Camith) by the procurator Valerius Gratus, under Tiberius, 18 A.D.. He continued in office from A.D. 26 to 37, when the proconsul Vitellius deposed him. He was the president of the Jewish council (Sanhedrim) which condemned the Lord Jesus to death, Caiaphas declaring Him guilty of blasphemy. Caiaphas was the official high priest during the ministry and trial of Jesus (Matt 26:3, 57; Luke 3:2; John 11:49; 18:13, 14, 24, 28; Acts 4:6). It was Caiaphas who, unknowingly, made the incredible prophecy concerning God’s plan of sacrificing Jesus for the sins of the nation and even the whole world: John 11:49-50 And one of them, Caiaphas, being high priest that year, said to them, "You know nothing at all, nor do you consider that it is expedient for us that one man should die for the people, and not that the whole nation should perish." The Romans made sure that they had total control over the all the affairs of Judea, they reserved the right to appoint not only the civil ruler but also the religious leader of the Jews, the high priest. Josephus relates that "Joseph who was also called Caiaphas" was made high priest by the Procurator Valerius Gratus (18 A.D.) and that he was removed by the Procurator Vitellius (36 A.D.). His successor was "Jonathan the son of Ananus," (Annas of the NT) (Antiq. XVIII. ii. 2; iv. 3) . Thus the high-priesthood of Caiaphas lasted some eighteen years, standing in marked contrast to the rapid changes in the office both before and after him. He was shrewd and adaptable enough to appease the Romans. According to John 18:13 he was the son-in-law of Annas, who had been deposed as high priest in A.D. 15 by Valerius Gratus. Neither Caiaphas nor his father-in-law is named in the gospel of Mark. John 18:13 "And they led Him away to Annas first, for he was the father-in-law of Caiaphas who was high priest that year." Caiaphas is first mentioned in the New Testament in the Gospel of Luke at the beginning of John the Baptist's ministry: Luke 3:1-3 "Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea and the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene, while Annas and Caiaphas were high priests, the word of God came to John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness. And he went into all the region around the Jordan, preaching a baptism of repentance for the remission of sins.." It is interesting that Luke phrases his statement, "Annas and Caiaphas were high priests" (sing.) The expression indicates an abnormality. Conservative scholars hold that it fittingly reflects the real situation. As high priest and head of a powerful family, Annas continued to exercise great influence through his son-in-law Caiaphas who was the official high priest. The fact that Annas did continue to exert great influence after he was removed seems evident from the fact that he was able to obtain appointment to the office for five of his sons. After Jesus had raised Lazarus from the dead, the Sanhedrin met to discuss what to do about Jesus and ultimately plotted Jesus’ death: John 11:47-54 "Then the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered a council and said, "What shall we do? For this Man works many signs. If we let Him alone like this, everyone will believe in Him, and the Romans will come and take away both our place and nation." And one of them, Caiaphas, being high priest that year, said to them, "You know nothing at all, nor do you consider that it is expedient for us that one man should die for the people, and not that the whole nation should perish." Now this he did not say on his own authority; but being high priest that year he prophesied that Jesus would die for the nation, and not for that nation only, but also that He would gather together in one the children of God who were scattered abroad. Then, from that day on, they plotted to put Him to death." The proposal of Caiaphas was accepted by the Sanhedrin. John remarks that the words of Caiaphas were prophetic; they had a higher meaning than he realized. The suggestion to sacrifice Jesus to save the nation expressed the mystery of God's plan of salvation for all men through Christ's death. When Jesus was first arrested He was first taken to Annas who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, who was high priest that year" (John 18:13) John 18:19-24 "The high priest then asked Jesus about His disciples and His doctrine. Jesus answered him, "I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues and in the temple, where the Jews always meet, and in secret I have said nothing. Why do you ask Me? Ask those who have heard Me what I said to them. Indeed they know what I said." And when He had said these things, one of the officers who stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, "Do You answer the high priest like that?" Jesus answered him, "If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil; but if well, why do you strike Me?" Then Annas sent Him bound to Caiaphas the high priest." Next Jesus was taken "bound to Caiaphas the high priest." John's gospel does not recount the night trial before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin, but it is found in the Gospels of Matthew and Mark (cf. Matt 26:57-68; Mark 14:53-65): Matt 26:57-68 And those who had laid hold of Jesus led Him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled. But Peter followed Him at a distance to the high priest's courtyard. And he went in and sat with the servants to see the end. Now the chief priests, the elders, and all the council sought false testimony against Jesus to put Him to death, but found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward, they found none. But at last two false witnesses came forward and said, "This fellow said, 'I am able to destroy the temple of God and to build it in three days.' " And the high priest arose and said to Him, "Do You answer nothing? What is it these men testify against You?" But Jesus kept silent. And the high priest answered and said to Him, "I put You under oath by the living God: Tell us if You are the Christ, the Son of God!" Jesus said to him, "It is as you said. Nevertheless, I say to you, hereafter you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power, and coming on the clouds of heaven." Then the high priest tore his clothes, saying, "He has spoken blasphemy! What further need do we have of witnesses? Look, now you have heard His blasphemy! What do you think?" They answered and said, "He is deserving of death." Then they spat in His face and beat Him; and others struck Him with the palms of their hands, saying, "Prophesy to us, Christ! Who is the one who struck You?" Ultimately in the morning they handed Jesus over to Pontius Pilate the Roman governor: Matt 27:1-2 "When morning came, all the chief priests and elders of the people plotted against Jesus to put Him to death. And when they had bound Him, they led Him away and delivered Him to Pontius Pilate the governor." As a Sadducee and opposed to the teaching of the resurrection, Caiaphas took a leading part in the persecution of the Early Church. The final appearance of Caiaphas in the New Testament was in Acts 4:6 he is named second among the Sadducean leaders who assembled to try Peter and John: Acts 4:5-12 "And it came to pass, on the next day, that their rulers, elders, and scribes, as well as Annas the high priest, Caiaphas, John, and Alexander, and as many as were of the family of the high priest, were gathered together at Jerusalem. And when they had set them in the midst, they asked, "By what power or by what name have you done this?" Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said to them, "Rulers of the people and elders of Israel: If we this day are judged for a good deed done to a helpless man, by what means he has been made well, let it be known to you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead, by Him this man stands here before you whole. This is the 'stone which was rejected by you builders, which has become the chief cornerstone.' Nor is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved." Caiaphas is no doubt that same "high priest" mentioned in Acts 5:17-21, 27; 7:1; 9:1 as the bitter persecutor of the Christians. Acts 5:17-18 "Then the high priest rose up, and all those who were with him (which is the sect of the Sadducees), and they were filled with indignation, and laid their hands on the apostles and put them in the common prison."

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSCaiaphas.htm

Jesus Before Annas and Caiaphas

Alfred Edersheim. IT was not a long way that they led the bound Christ. Probably through the same gate by which He had gone forth with His disciples after the Paschal Supper, up to where, on the slope between the Upper City and the Tyropoeon, stood the well-known Palace of Annas. There were no idle saunterers in the streets of Jerusalem at that late hour, and the tramp of the Roman guard must have been too often heard to startle sleepers, or to lead to the inquiry why that glare of lamps and torches. and Who was the Prisoner, guarded on that holy night by both Roman soldiers and servants of the High-Priest...

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSBefore_Annas_and_Caiaphas.htm

Brief History from Alexander the Great to Herod

Alfred Edersheim. The political connection of the Grecian world, and, with it, the conflict with Hellenism, may be said to have connected with the victoriuos progress of Alexander the Great through the then known world (333 B..C.). [1 We do not here discuss the question, whether or not Alexander really entered Jersalem. Jewish legend has much to tell of him, and reports many supposed inquiries on his part or discussions betweem him and the Rabbis, that prove at least the deep impression which his appearance had made, and the permanent results which followed from it.] It was not only that his destruction of the Persian empire put end to the easy and peaceful allegiance which Judaea had owned to it for about two centuries, but that the establishment of such a vast Hellenic empire. as was the aim of Alexander, introduced a new element into the world of Asia. Everywhere the old civilisationgave way before the new. So early as the commencement of the second century before Christ, Palestine was already surrounded, north, east, and west, with a girdle of Hellenic cities, while in the interior of the land itself Grecianism had its foothold in Galilee and was dominant in Samaria. But this is not all. After continuing the frequent object of contention between the rulers of Egypt and Syria, Palestine ultimately passed from Egyptian to Syrian domination during the reign of Seleucus IV. (187-175 B.C.). His successor was that Antiochus IV., Epiphanes (175-164), whose reckless determination to exterminate Judaism, and in its placeto substitute Hellenism, led to the Maccabean rising. Mad as this attempt seems,it could scarcely have been made had there not been in Palestine itself a party to favour his plans. In truth, Grecianism, inits worst form, had long before made its way, slowly but surely, into the highest quarters. For the proper understanding of this history its progress must be briefly indicated...

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSEdersheim__Brief_History.htm

The Paradox of the Priesthood

Heart Message. The priesthood under Annas and Caiphas was part of the fullness of times (Gal. 4.4) and it's pride, power and false piety reached complete fruition in their phony trial of the Son of God. Yet what they meant for evil, God the Father meant for good. The high priest tore his garments and fulfilled the calling of his office, as the Aaronic priesthood functioned for the last time in offering up the Sacrifice that would end all offerings. Caiphas, declared by the Holy Spirit the great intercession that one man should die for the nation. Christ was then made the scapegoat, and carried sin outside the city gates. The blemishless Passover Lamb was placed on the altar of the cross and His precious blood was shed, that the spirit of death would pass over all who spiritually placed that blood on the doorpost of their own hearts. Sunday morning, on the feast of Firstfruits, Christ became the Firstfruits back from the dead in the most stunning defeat of evil ever accomplished. The veil in the in the temple was rent from top to bottom, declaring that God would no longer be restricted to the temple and priestly system that He Himself instituted through Moses and Aaron. From now on, the temple of God would be the bodies of those who accept this once for all Sacrifice and the most holy place would be their hearts where He would intimately commune with them. The condemning power of the law was replaced by grace and truth that would be administered by a new priesthood handed to all believers, the very common folk that Annas and Caiphas despised. Christ the true High Priest, according to a new order, would make true intercession in compassion, rather than judgment, as God always intended. God actuated His redemptive plan for Israel and the world through His priesthood that day in Jerusalem, shining His grace and true love for all of mankind - including the priests and all the religious leaders who conspired against Him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSConclusion.htm

High Priests of New Testament Times

High Priests, Introduction , List of High Priests, Leaders of Jerusalem , Annas the High Priest , Caiaphas the High Priest , Jesus Presented to Them, From Alexander to Herod, Encyclopedias , Dictionaries , Index, Conclusion

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/

Introduction to the High Priests of Ancient Israel

BKA 121 - The Jewish High Priest's During the Time of Jesus. This Bible Knowledge Accelerator program contains a very brief overview of the history of the high priesthood through New Testament times.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSIntroduction.htm

List of High Priests in Ancient Israel

The Jewish High Priests from 200 BC to the Reign of Herod the Great
1. Simon II the Just, 220-190 B.C.
2. Onias III, 190-174 B.C.
3. Jason/Jeshua,175-172 B.C.
4. Menelaus, 172-162 B.C.
5. Alcimus, 162-156 B.C.
6. Jonathan, 153-142 B.C.
7. Simon, 142-135 B.C.
8. John Hyrcanus I, 134-104 B.C.
9. Aristobulus I, 104-103 B.C.
10. Alexander Jannaeus, 103-76 B.C.
11. Hyrcanus II, 76-67 B.C.
12. Aristobulus II, 67-63 B.C.
13. Hyrcanus II, 63-40 B.C.
14. Antigonus, 40-37 B.C.
The Jewish High Priests from Herod the Great to the Destruction of Jerusalem
15. Ananel, 37-36 B.C. (Appointed by Herod the Great)
16. Aristobulus III, 35 B.C.
17. Jesus, son of Phiabi, ? -22 B.C.
18. Simon, son of Boethus, 22-5 B.C.
19. Matthias, son of Theophilus, 5-4 B.C.
20. Joseph, son of Elam, 5 B.C.
21. Joezer, son of Boethus, 4 B.C.
22. Eleazar, son of Boethus, 4-1 B.C. - (Appointed by Herod Archelaus)
23. Jesus, son of Sie, 1 - 6 A.D.
24. Annas, 6-15 A.D. (Appointed by Quirinius)
25. Ishmael, son of Phiabi I, 15-16 A.D. (Appointed by Valerius Gratus)
26. Eleazar, son of Annas, 16-17 A.D.
27. Simon, son of Kamithos, 17-18 A.D.
28. Joseph Caiaphas, 18-37 AD.
29. Jonathan, son of Annas, 37 A.D. (Appointed by Vitellius)
30. Theophilus, son of Annas, 37-41 A.D.
31. Simon Kantheras, son of Boethus, 41-43 A.D. (Appointed by Herod Agrippa I)
32. Matthias, son of Annas, 43-44 A.D.
33. Elionaius, son of Kantheras, 44-45 A.D.
34. Joseph, son of Kami, 45-47 A.D. (Appointed by Herod of Chalcis)
35. Ananias, son of Nebedaius, 47-55 A.D.
36. Ishmael, son of Phiabi III, 55-61 A.D. (Appointed by Herod Agrippa II)
37. Joseph Qabi, son of Simon, 61-62 A.D.
38. Ananus, son of Ananus, 62 A.D.
39. Jesus, son of Damnaius, 62-65 A.D.
40. Joshua, son of Gamal iel, 63-65 A.D.
41. Matthias, son of Theophilus, 65-67 A.D.
42. Phinnias, son of Samuel, 67-70 A.D. (Appointed by The People)

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSList_of_Jewish_High_Priests.htm

El Elyon

The Highest One. Genesis 14:19 "Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Possessor of heaven and earth" - Reveals God's relationship with those who are not Abram's seed. - God is the highest of those created in His image. Gen 1:26 says he created man after his own likeness, "Likeness" means exact duplication in kind" - Balaam (gentile) referred to God as El Elyon, When Moses spoke of God's sovereignty over the nations he referred to God as El Elyon. The Book of Daniel was written in Babylon and mentions God throughout as El Elyon. - Other mentions of higher are: Deuteronomy 26:19 Nation high above all nations, Psalm 89:27 King higher than other kings, Ezekiel 41:7 Chamber higher than other chambers - A different word is used when it says that the heavens are higher than the earth (Isaiah 55:9), and the clouds are higher than a man (Job 35:5).

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#El_Elyon

El Shaddai

The One Who Blesses. Genesis 17:1 "When Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect." - El is the male God who is omnipotent and Shaddai is the female plural, which reveals both male and female in God. - Shad means breast, and as the breast nourishes the child and imparts the life of the mother, so El Shaddai speaks of God as the bountiful nourisher, and blesser of mankind. - El Shaddai sets aside the laws of nature to bountifully bless. - The Greek goddess Artemis (Diana) was created with multiple breasts. - Abraham was advanced in years and wondered about God's promise that he would bear a son, and God revealed himself as El Shaddai, who can set apart the laws of nature to abundantly bless. - He is also the God of the wrath of the almighty.

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#El_Shaddai

El Olam

The God of Times and Seasons. Genesis 21:33 "Then Abraham planted a tamarisk tree in Beersheba, and there called on the name of the LORD, the Everlasting God." - God is eternal and in every age, every generation, and within every new season to work His eternal purpose. El Olam is the God who works His will not all at once but through varied times and seasons. - Age to age, generation to generation, forever speaks of a season that has a beginning and an end. - God had a purpose before the ages that he would bring a redeemer, out of the fall of man He would bring about a greater glory for Himself and his fallen children.

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#El_Olam

El Roi

The God who Sees Me. Genesis 16:13 "And she called the name of the LORD that spake unto her, Thou God seest me: for she said, Have I also here looked after him that seeth me?" - God sees our hearts, He knows all things. He sees when we are in need and when we cry out to Him he hears. - God also sees the wicked who do not think that God sees them. He not only sees them but knows their thoughts and intents. Isaiah 29:15 - "Woe unto them that seek deep to hide their counsel from the LORD, and their works are in the dark, and they say, Who seeth us? and who knoweth us?"

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#El_Roi

Jehovah Jireh

The LORD will Provide. Genesis 22:14 "And Abraham called the name of the place, The-LORD-Will-Provide; as it is said to this day, "In the Mount of the LORD it shall be provided." - When the LORD sees a need He makes provision. He will see to it. - Provision comes from two Latin words meaning to "see beforehand" - Regarding Genesis 22 one medieval rabbi put it this way: God will manifest Himself to His people. "In the Mount of the LORD it shall be provided" "God will provide himself a lamb" - John 8:56-58 "Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw [it], and was glad. Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham? Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am." - Exodus 12:23 - "For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you."

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#Jehovah_Jireh

Jehovah Nissi

The LORD is my Banner. Exodus 17:15-16 "And Moses built an altar and called its name, The-LORD-Is-My-Banner; for he said, "Because the LORD has sworn: the LORD will have war with Amalek from generation to generation." - In the ancient world a banner was a physical object like a pole or ensign to signal the people. - God will over come all the enemies of Israel and his messiah will be a banner to Israel and the gentiles. Isaiah 11:10 "And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to it shall the Gentiles seek: and his rest shall be glorious."

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#Jehovah_Nissi

Jehovah Rapha

The LORD Who Heals. Exodus 15:26 "If you diligently heed the voice of the LORD your God and do what is right in His sight, give ear to His commandments and keep all His statutes, I will put none of the diseases on you which I have brought on the Egyptians. For I am the LORD who heals you." - God is the healer. - Man's rebellion brought sin and sickness. - God heals all sin and sickness. Psalm 103:2 "Bless the LORD, O my soul, and forget not all his benefits: Who forgiveth all thine iniquities; who healeth all thy diseases" - God heals backsliding Israel and all backsliders. Jeremiah 3:21 "A voice was heard upon the high places, weeping [and] supplications of the children of Israel: for they have perverted their way, [and] they have forgotten the LORD their God. Return, ye backsliding children, [and] I will heal your backslidings."

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#Jehovah_Rapha

Jehovah Sabaoth

The LORD of Hosts. Isaiah 14:22 "For I will rise up against them, saith the LORD of hosts, and cut off from Babylon the name, and remnant, and son, and nephew, saith the LORD." - The LORD is commander of the armies in heaven. Psalms 24:10 - Who is this King of glory? The LORD of hosts, he is the King of glory. Selah. - David and Goliath 1 Samuel 17:43-45 "And the Philistine said unto David, [Am] I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves? And the Philistine cursed David by his gods. And the Philistine said to David, Come to me, and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field. Then said David to the Philistine, Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield: but I come to thee in the name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied." - The Lord of Hosts will fight for His people Isaiah 31:4 - For thus hath the LORD spoken unto me, Like as the lion and the young lion roaring on his prey, when a multitude of shepherds is called forth against him, [he] will not be afraid of their voice, nor abase himself for the noise of them: so shall the LORD of hosts come down to fight for mount Zion, and for the hill thereof. - The Lord of Hosts is dreadful among the Gentiles Malachi 1:14 "But cursed be the deceiver, which hath in his flock a male, and voweth, and sacrificeth unto the Lord a corrupt thing: for I am a great King, saith the LORD of hosts, and my name is dreadful among the heathen."

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#Jehovah_Sabaoth

Jehovah Mikadishkim

The LORD who Sanctifies. Leviticus 20:8 "And you shall keep My statutes, and perform them: I am the LORD who sanctifies you." - The Bible says that our approach to Him is based on blood atonement because He is holy. Because of the blood God makes us holy, he sets us apart, and redeems us. - God is holy and sanctifies His people: Exodus 31:12-13 "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily my sabbaths ye shall keep: for it [is] a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am the LORD that doth sanctify you." - Jesus said His followers would be sanctified by the Word John 17:17 "Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth."

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#Jehovah_MiKadishkim

Jehovah Shalom

The LORD is Peace. Judges 6:23-24 "Then the LORD said to him, "Peace be with you; do not fear, you shall not die." So Gideon built an altar there to the LORD, and called it The-LORD-Is-Peace." - When Gideon built his altar there was no peace in Israel, only God's promise. - The LORD brings peace, wholeness, contentment, and prosperity. - Jesus is called the Prince of Peace Isaiah 9:6 - "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace."

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#Jehovah_Shalom

Jehovah Tsidkenu

The LORD our Righteousness. Jeremiah 23:5-6 "Behold, the days are coming," says the LORD, "That I will raise to David a Branch of Righteousness; A King shall reign and prosper, And execute judgment and righteousness in the earth. In His days Judah will be saved, And Israel will dwell safely; Now this is His name by which He will be called: THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS." - The LORD is a righteous (straight) God, and the source of righteousness. - The LORD is our source for righteousness Ezekiel 36:25-27 "Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean: from all your filthiness, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them." - In the New testament Jesus is our source for righteousness. 2 Corinthians 5:21 "For he hath made him [to be] sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him."

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#Jehovah_Tsidkenu

Jehovah Rohi

The LORD my Shepherd. Psalm 23:1 "The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want." - The LORD is our shepherd, he leads, protects, and cares for His people. He is a shepherd to Israel: Jeremiah 31:10 - Hear the word of the LORD, O ye nations, and declare it in the isles afar off, and say, He that scattered Israel will gather him, and keep him, as a shepherd doth his flock. - Man's need for the shepherd: Isaiah 53:6 "All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth." - Prediction of the Messiah to Come as a Shepherd: Isaiah 40:10-11 "Behold, the Lord GOD will come with strong hand, and his arm shall rule for him: behold, his reward is with him, and his work before him. He shall feed his flock like a shepherd: he shall gather the lambs with his arm, and carry them in his bosom, and shall gently lead those that are with young."

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#Jehovah_Rohi

Jehovah Shammah

The LORD is There. Ezekiel 48:35 "and the name of the city from that day shall be: THE LORD IS THERE." - God revealed through Ezekiel that in Heaven (New Jerusalem) His name will be Yahweh Shammah. - David acknowledged that the LORD is ever present: Psalm 46:1-3 "God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble. Therefore will not we fear, though the earth be removed, and though the mountains be carried into the midst of the sea; Though the waters thereof roar and be troubled, though the mountains shake with the swelling thereof. Selah." - Jesus promised His disciples that He would be with them always: Matthew 28:20 "lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world. Amen." Revelation 21:1-3 "And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea. And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God."

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#Jehovah_Shammah

Daily Life In Ancient Israel

As it did everywhere else in the Ancient World, an Israeli woman's life was centered in the home. For the majority this was a small wattle-and-daub or baked clay and straw brick house in a village constructed around a spring or well. There were walled towns but apart from Jerusalem these were not that much bigger. An outside staircase to a flat roof might add to the living space, for the climate was mild and much of life was lived in the outdoors. Larger houses were built around a central courtyard. With space at such a premium inside the walls of a town, even a small tree or bush would have been a rarity, but most of the women who lived in a village would probably have had some sort of garden as a source of food, flowers and pleasure.

Link: http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/daily_life_in_israel_at_the_time_of_christ.htm

Everyday Life in Ancient Israel

It is somewhat difficult for the average modern Catholic to transport himself back, in imagination, to the life of the Jewish race as it must have been lived in Old Testament times. Following the universal tendency of men to think that things must always have been as they are now in our own lives, we can only too easily think that the people of the Old Testament differed from us only in the fact that they lived at an earlier time and in another part of the world. Actually, there was a considerable difference, as even a moment's thought on the question would lead us to believe.

Link: http://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?id=1356&CFID=18239044&CFTOKEN=67477905

Houses of Ancient Israel

This house is representative of private houses in ancient Israel and Judah from about 1200-586 B.C.E. Such houses, called pillared houses, have been found in both urban and rural settlements. Their ground-floor plans have two or three parallel rooms, partially or completely separated by rows of pillars, extending forward from a broad room at the back. Second stories are not preserved, but through careful excavation archaeologists have been able to demonstrate their existence.

Link: http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~semitic/HOAI/adultmain.cgi?article=house.htm

Musical Instruments in Ancient Israel

Music permeates the culture of ancient Israel. In the Iron Age, the place of music in the life of the Israelites cannot be overestimated. The Bible is rich with references to music and the role that music played in the social, political, and religious aspects of ancient Israel. Festive choruses enriched marriage ceremonies with music and dancing, and music expressed the joy and thanksgiving when the sheep were sheared and the grapes were gathered. Victorious armies were met with the songs of women, celebrating the return of Israel's warriors, and apparently, music sprang up spontaneously and effortlessly in day to day life as well.(1) In the religion of the Israelites, musical instruments played meaningful roles in the festivals and in the worship at the temple. In spite of the breadth and depth of music in ancient Israel and the many references to the types of instruments in Jewish texts, the instruments themselves are never explicitly described. Because of the uncertainty that surrounds the nature of ancient Israel's musical instruments, it is difficult to ascertain with certainty the attributes of musical instruments in ancient Israel. In this paper I will survey the references to instruments in ancient Israel and try to reconstruct the attributes of ancient Israel's instruments based on archaeological finds in Israel, from the information in the texts, and from the knowledge of instruments in surrounding cultures.

Link: http://www.utexas.edu/courses/wilson/ant304/projects/projects98/campbellp/campbellp.html

Ancient Israelite Marriage Customs

Though there are some cultures in the Ancient Near East which were matriarchal in structure, Israel's was not one of them. Israel's family life was dominated by the husband (Pedersen, p. 61). When a marriage occurred the husband took his wife from her home and "ruled" over her, following the pattern of Genesis 3:16: To the woman he said, "I will greatly increase your pangs in childbearing; in pain you shall bring forth children, yet your desire shall be for your husband, and he shall rule over you." (Preuss, p. 103). Yet the Israelites "never went so far as the Muhammadan poet who says that mothers of mankind are only 'vessels' which receive the children without leaving any impress on them" (Pedersen, p. 61).

Link: http://www.theology.edu/marriage.htm

Women And The Law In Ancient Israel

The importance of marriage to the Ancient Israelites is clear enough in the Bible, but nowhere is there any information on the ceremony itself and it is likely that custom varied from one locale to another. In Leviticus 18 there is a list of prohibited relationships (a man cannot marry his sister, etc.). These appear less concerned with the dangers of inbreeding and more concerned with ensuring that no woman can be related to a man in more than one way; for example, a woman cannot be both an aunt and a wife to the same man. A man was permitted to marry his dead wife's sister since he was no longer related to her.

Link: http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/women%20and%20the%20law%20in%20ancient%20israel.htm

Education in Ancient Israel

In this groundbreaking new book, distinguished biblical scholar James L. Crenshaw investigates both the pragmatic hows and the philosophical whys of education in ancient Israel and its surroundings. Asking questions as basic as "Who were the teachers and students and from what segment of Israelite society did they come?" and "How did instructors interest young people in the things they had to say?" Crenshaw explores the institutions and practices of education in ancient Israel. The results are often surprising and more complicated than one would expect.

Link: http://yalepress.yale.edu/book.asp?isbn=9780300140118

Family and Household in Ancient Israel

The idea "Family" in ancient Israel was a more expansive concept than our modern conception of the idea. "Family" existed at three basic levels: First, there was the bayit, or the household. This was similar to our nuclear family of parents with probably two to four children, as well as multiple generations, but it also might include debt servants, slaves, concubines, resident aliens, sojourners, day laborers and orphans.

Link: http://krusekronicle.typepad.com/kruse_kronicle/2007/06/household-famil.html

Jewish Education in Ancient Times

The importance of education in ancient Judaism is clearly seen in the attitude passed down in the rabbinic dictum that the world is poised on the breath of schoolchildren. Rabbinic law still obligates the father to teach his sons Torah, as well as a trade. The duty to instruct the people has its roots in the Torah with such precepts as Deuteronomy 6:7 where the parents are required to diligently teach the children.

Link: http://www.restorationfoundation.org/volume_3/32_6.htm

Women in Ancient Israel

The Apostle Paul urged wives to obey their husbands and husbands to love their wives. This simple exhortation neatly sums up the traditional idea of the family throughout Jewish history as pictured in the Bible. The man was the head of the house and the woman was the helpmate, but they were to work together for the benefit of each: the outcome was to be a partnership.

Link: http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/women%20in%20israel.htm

Burial Practices

Ancient Jewish Laws Concerning the Burial of the Dead. In ancient Israel, burial practices were a sacred tradition that reflected the significance of death in Judaism. Ancient Jewish burial practices sought to celebrate the life of the individual while commemorating the deceased's death. Death in the Jewish religion is central because it is considered to be a part of life and a part of God's plan for humanity. In addition, the mourning that accompanies the death of a loved one is a reflection not of sorrow, but of the great value placed on the individual's life in Judaism.

Link: http://www.jesusfamilytomb.com/back_to_basics/burial_practices/burial.html

Education in Biblical Times

Education In Ancient Israel: Across the Deadening Silence. Going to school takes on a whole new meaning in this detailed study of education in biblical times. In this groundbreaking new book, distinguished scholar James L. Crenshaw investigates both the pragmatic hoes and the philisophical whys of education in ancient Israel and its surroundings. Knowledge was gained, according to Ecclesiastes and Proverbs, not only by patient observation and listening, but through communication with Wisdom, the feminine incarnation of the Divine. Drawing upon a broad range of sources, Crenshaw explores this religious dimension of education in ancient Israel, demonstrating how the practice of teaching and learning was transformed into the supreme act of worship.

Link: http://www.centuryone.com/6891-1.html

The Teacher in Ancient Israel

By Carl Schultz, Ph.D. Houghton College, Houghton, NY. My interest this morning is the role of the teacher in ancient Israel. Here the picture is not as clear as we might hope. The data are too limited, scholarly views too varied and what does emerge from all this is strange to our western, twentieth century educational models. But by incorporating what we know from surrounding cultures--Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Canaan--with what we know from Israel we are able to enlarge our information and arrive at some limited conclusions.

Link: http://campus.houghton.edu/orgs/rel-phil/schultzweb/tchrinisr.html

Schools and Literacy in Ancient Israel

Schools and Literacy in Ancient Israel and Early Judaism. As a literary corpus, the birth and the transmission of the Hebrew Bible are directly linked to the use and the spread of writing among the people from whom it is born. The study of the role of writing, as well as that of the function and training of scribes in the society of ancient Israel, are thus necessary for understanding the concrete conditions out of which different biblical books were written and transmitted to us.

Link: http://www.blackwellreference.com/public/tocnode?id=g9781405127202_chunk_g978140512720214

Family Life and Relations

The Old Testament. In Western societies individuals are often considered the societal units, brought together by some commonly felt need (commerce, industry, mutual defense, etc.). In contrast, Israel's social structure was tribal and therefore corporate (solidary) in its internal relationships, generating tightly structured communities. Whatever their size, these communities perceived themselves as totalities, bound together through internal agencies that made their presence felt in each individual member. The individual was neither overlooked, nor was he considered the unit on which the society was built. Instead, the family was the unit, and the individual found his place in society through the family and its extensions. The subtribe was really a greatly extended family; a collection of related subtribes formed a tribe; and a federation of tribes yielded a people.

Link: http://www.studylight.org/dic/bed/view.cgi?number=T251

Canaan & Ancient Israel

Daily Life Home & Family. Education, work and leisure were concentrated in and around the home. According to the Bible, the ideal family in Ancient Israel was large and patriarchal. The extended family or beit 'av (father's house) consisted of three generations (father, married sons, grandchildren) living together. Excavated houses from the Bronze and Iron Age are small and suggest an average family size of four to eight people. Although extended families might have occupied more than one house, high mortality rates probably kept most families from achieving the biblical ideal.

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

History of Education in Ancient Israel and Judah

Education is defined as, "teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible, but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positive judgement and well-developed wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialization)", then first formal education can be attributed to the nation of Israel c.1300 BCE, that is c.3300 before present, with adoption of the Torah which means "teaching", "instruction", "scribe", or "law" in Hebrew. Three positive Torah commandments, numbered ten, eleven and seventeen command provision of education in general society:

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_education_in_ancient_Israel_and_Judah

Masada, Synagogue

The ancient fortress of Masada is located near the western shore of the Dead Sea about ten miles south of the town of En-gedi. Situated on top of a cliff rising over 1,200 feet above the surrounding desert, the fortress was originally constructed during the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (103""76 BCE) and later extensively expanded under Herod the Great (37""4 BCE), who added two luxurious palaces, a Roman bathhouse, twelve huge cisterns, and a number of other structures.

Link: http://www.pohick.org/sts/masada.html

Caesarea Amphitheatre

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=7927

Caesarea Philippi

Also known as Baal-gad, Banias, Baniyas, Banyas, Barias, Belinas, Caesarea Neronias, Caesarea of Philip, Caesarea Paneas, Caesarea Panias, Caesareia Sebaste, Keisarion, Kisrin, Medinat Dan, Mivzar Dan, Neronias, Pamias, Paneas, Paneias, Paneion, Panias, Panium.

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/banias.htm

Grotto of Pan

Against the cliff and in the large cave on the left, in the third century BC, was a cult center to the fertility god Pan. This center probably was built to compete with the high place at Dan, about three miles away.

Link: http://www.followtherabbi.com/Brix?pageID=4958

Herod's Palace in Masada

Herod built the fortress-palace of Masada on a huge rock plateau overlooking the Dead Sea in the barren, remote, Judea Wilderness.

Link: http://www.followtherabbi.com/Brix?pageID=1514

Masada Palace

Herod's palace stood at the top of Masada and provided a spectacular view.

Link: http://www.ebibleteacher.com/images/MasadaPalace.jpg

Masada Palace - another photo

Herod's ornate palace stood on the top of Masada.

Link: http://www.ebibleteacher.com/images/MasadaPalace2.jpg

Storehouses of Masada

This photograph shows the remains of the 15 storehouses on the eastern side of Masada. The one on the left is as it was found by archaeologists; the others have been reconstructed. In the background above the storehouses, you can see the Dead Sea, which is partly dried up at this spot due to extensive mining of the minerals in the water. The mountains of Moab can be seen beyond.

Link: http://www.followtherabbi.com/Brix?pageID=4842

Theater at Beth Shean

This spectacular theater was built during the Roman period in the Decapolis city of Beth Shean, known also by its Greek name, Scythopolis. It was more than 360 feet in diameter and seated over 7,000 people.

Link: http://www.followtherabbi.com/Brix?pageID=4900

The Temple Podium, Caesarea Philippi

The reconstructed platform, or podium, near the cave at Caesarea Philippi was originally the base of a temple either to the Roman emperor Augustus or to Pan (or possibly both). The entrance to the Grotto (or cave) of Pan is seen to the left of the Podium. Niches in the cliff face originally held statues of Pan and other gods. The largest arched niche is next to the cave, from which a spring flowed.

Link: http://www.followtherabbi.com/Brix?pageID=4960

Niches, Caesarea Philippi

These niches originally held statues of the pagan gods worshipped at Caesarea Philippi. The largest is actually an artificial cave that leads to a niche in the cliff itself. This niche apparently held a statue of Pan. Above it is another niche with an inscription indicating that a priest named Victor dedicated the statue of the goddess in the niche to the god Pan. The statue is gone. Other niches are seen in the cliff around the cave. This rock cliff, against which the temples stood, could be viewed as the ?rock of the gods.?

Link: http://www.followtherabbi.com/Brix?pageID=4961

Mudbrick Gate of Tel Dan

In the Middle Bronze Age, around the eighteenth century BCE, the occupants of Dan constructed a massive city gate on the eastern side of the city. Built entirely of mudbricks surviving today as high as 47 courses, the gate featured three enormous arches framing the entryway into the city. Classical archaeologists once boasted that it was the Romans who invented the arch sometime in the mid-first millennium BCE. We now know not only that the arch originated in the Near East, but that the so-called Canaanite gate at Tel Dan preserves the earliest intact archway in the world at almost 4000 years old!

Link: http://teldan.wordpress.com/mudbrick-gate/

Great Theater at Ephesus

The ancient city of Ephesus is located outside the modern city of Selçuk on the Mediterranean coast of present-day Turkey. Although the region was settled as early as 5000 BC, the city whose ruins we see today dates from the 3rd BC and are the product of Hellenistic city planning and Roman renovations. Lysimachus, the Thessalian general of Alexander the Great, relocated Ephesus to its present site and constructed the city using the then modern principles of urban development envisioned by Hippodamus of Miletus. Although Lysimachus is often credited with building the "Great Theatre" at this time, there is no evidence of a theatre in the initial construction phase of the city. Stefan Karwiese of the Österreichisches Archaologisches Insitut questions the existence of a theatre at Ephesus prior to 100 BC but acknowledges the possibility that Lysimachus may have chosen the building site prior to his death in 281 BC. The magnificent theatre is set into the side of a steep hill at the center of the ancient city. Its design, location and conception may have benefited from Hellenistic influences but its size and ornamentations are the products of Empirical Rome. The theatre was built at the end of the Hellenistic period, but it was significantly altered and enlarged by the Romans during the following five centuries. The theatre remained in use until the 5th century AD.

Link: http://www.whitman.edu/theatre/theatretour/ephesus/ephesus.htm

Synagogues of Capernaum

Aside from various references to Capernaum in the Gospels, the earliest literary attestation of Capernaum is from Josephus, who refers to the village in connection with a fertile spring. The Jewish historian reports he spent a night there with a fever during the second year of the Jewish War. For centuries, Capernaum has traditionally been identified as a site located on the northwestern shore of the Sea of Galilee, about three miles west of the upper Jordan River. In 1838, Edward Robinson correctly identified there the remains of a synagogue that was partly excavated by Charles Wilson between 1865 and 1866. More extensive excavations took place in the early twentieth century, first by Heinrich Kohl and Carl Watzinger (1905) and then by Wendelin von Menden (1906""1915). In 1921, the synagogue was partially restored by Gaudenzio Orfali. In more recent times, Virgilio Corbo and Stanislao Loffreda conducted nineteen seasons at Capernaum between 1968 and 1986, excavating not only the synagogue, but also a nearby church that had long been associated with the house of St. Peter.

Link: http://www.pohick.org/sts/capernaum.html

Delos Synagogue

Although it is one of the smallest of the Aegean islands (1.3 square miles), Delos has a long and storied history. Inhabited as early as the third millennium BCE, the island was celebrated in antiquity as the legendary birthplace of Apollo and Artemis. Not only did its cult attract throngs of pilgrims throughout the Classical and Hellenistic periods, but its centralized location and sizable port allowed it to dominate maritime commerce until nearly the turn of the era.

Link: http://www.pohick.org/sts/delos.html

The Gamla Synagogue

The following is the ESV Study Bible reconstruction of the synagogue at Gamla (click the image to enlarge). The synagogue itself seems to have been built during the time of Herod the Great (1st century B.C.). The Romans destroyed it in A.D. 67, early in the Jewish revolt. Gamla was never rebuilt, which is enormously helpful for us in that we now have a very good idea of what the synagogue would have looked like in the first century A.D. The Gamla synagogue is considered by many scholars to be one of the oldest in Israel.

Link: http://www.esvstudybible.org/blog/2008/08/the-gamla-synagogue-in-the-esv-study-bible/

Solomon's Gate at Gezer

Link: http://news.webshots.com/photo/1054915263027769985JNcwys

Temple Mount

Also known as Haram, Haram Ash-Sharif, Haram esh-Sharif, Mount Moriah, the Noble Sanctuary, Temple Platform. The present Temple Mount was constructed by Herod the Great beginning in 20 B.C. Construction on it continued for 83 years until 64 A.D. when a halt was called to the project and 18,000 workers were laid off (riots resulted). The Temple Mount is 1/6 the size of today's Old City and covers 35 acres. Construction of this rectangular platform required filling in a large part of the Central Valley.

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/templemount.htm

The Citadel, Arad

View of the Iron Age Citadel looking east. The citadel is not very large, "" measuring 165 x 180 ft. [50 x 55 m.]. Above it and to the left, on the horizon, the modern city of Arad is faintly visible. Its remains consist of 12 strata "" seven of which belong to the Israelite period.

Link: http://www.holylandphotos.org/browse.asp?s=1,2,9,25,100&img=ISBNAR51

Wall of Citadel, Arad

View looking west along the southern wall of the Iron Age Citadel. Note the small salients protruding from the wall "" possibly to strengthen it. This wall was in use during strata X""VII (9th through 7th centuries B...C.).

Link: http://www.holylandphotos.org/browse.asp?s=1,2,9,25,100&img=ISBNAR53

Israelite Temple, Arad

View looking northwest at the reconstructed remains of the three""part Israelite Temple! Just right of center the stone sacrificial altar is visible. It is of biblical dimensions "" 5 x 5 x 3 cubits and had a flint slab on the top surface where the sacrifices were actually offered. It is situated in a large area equivalent to the "courtyard" of the Tabernacle or Solomon's Temple.

Link: http://www.holylandphotos.org/browse.asp?s=1,2,9,25,100&img=ISBNAR54

Synagogue, Gamala

View looking southwest at the synagogue that was excavated at Gamala... The entrance is on the west southwestern wall (above right of center). The exterior of the synagogue measures 84 x 56 ft. [25.5 x 17 m.]. Note the benches that surround the central hall and the replaced columns. On the right (north) side of the image is the northern wall of the synagogue while on the left (south) the site of Gamala falls away precipitously into the Nahal Daliyot (note the green in the upper left of the image""the hillside on the far side of the Nahal). Some suggest that it was built as early as the rule of Alexander Jannaeus (103""76 B...C.). If this is the case, then it is probably the earliest preserved synagogue in Israel.

Link: http://www.holylandphotos.org/browse.asp?s=1,2,5,18,430&img=INGLGM08

Solomonic Gate, Megiddo

View looking southeast at the six chambered gate that is located on the north edge of Megiddo. This gate is depicted on the model of Megiddo and is labeled "1a." This view shows only the foundations of one side of the gate. Note, from left to right, the first chamber (#1) was cleared of debris, the second chamber (#2) is still filled with rubble and supports a later "" four-chambered gate above it (#4 - still partially preserved), and then, on the right side of the image the third, and inner most of the chambers is visible (#3).

Link: http://www.holylandphotos.org/browse.asp?s=1,2,5,24,126&img=INJVMG60

Crusader Wall, Caesarea

The most substantial city walls are of the small Crusader city, not the larger Herodian or the still larger Byzantine ones. Here, bits of Roman columns can be seen re-used as fill near the east gate of the Crusader wall.

Link: http://www.greatmirror.com/index.cfm?countryid=197&chapterid=200&picid=4&picturesize=masters

Roman Theater and Pilate Inscription - Caesarea

The theater was built by Herod in 22-10 BC and was the first of its kind in Israel. It was continuously maintained throughout the Roman and much of the Byzantine eras. It had (and has) a seating capacity of 3,500-4,000 and was built using many granite columns from Aswan. Originally, there was a large stage that blocked the view of the sea.

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/caesarea-roman-theater.htm

Aqueduct of Caesarea Virtual Tour Panorama

The Aqueduct brought running water to the old city of Caesarea, along a raised aqueduct. The source of the water was the springs of Shummi, 10 KM away. Herod build the aqueduct in the 1st C BC. later, in the 2nd C AD it was expanded by the Romans. Later, 2 more aqueducts were built

Link: http://www.3disrael.com/caesarea/caesarea_aqueduct.cfm

Caesarea Maritima

Also known as "Caesarea as near Sebastos," Caesarea of Straton, Caesarea of Israel, Caesarea Palaestinae, Colonia Prima Flavia Augusta Caesariensis, Herodian Caesarea, Horvat Qesari, Kaisariyeh, Kessaria, "Metropolis of the province Syria Palaestina," Migdal Shorshon, Qaisariya, Qaisariyeh, Qaysariyah, Qesari, Qisri, Qisrin, Strato's Tower, Straton's Caesarea, Straton's Tower, Turris Stratonis

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/caesarea.htm

The Kotel - The Western Wall

Old City Jerusalem Virtual Tours - The Western Wall also called the Wailing wall, is the western retaining wall of the Temple Mount, the one that was closest to the Holy of Holies when the Temple stood.

Link: http://www.3disrael.com/jerusalem/kotel.cfm

Tomb of Zechariah

This grand monument is built into the rock on the foothills of Mount of Olives. According to tradition it is the tomb of the Zechariah son of Jehoiada the priest. The tomb is built on the lower western foothills of Mount of Olives, facing the old city of Jerusalem, on the eastern side of Kidron valley. This entire area is a large cemetery with thousands of tombs. It is located south to the tomb of Absalom, and adjacent to the Bnei-Hezir tombs cluster.

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/Sites/ZechariahTomb.html

Solomon's Temple

Solomon's Temple (also known as the First Temple) was, according to the Torah and the Bible, the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem. It functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. The temple was destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BCE.

Link: http://www.crystalinks.com/solomonstemple.html

Herod's Temple

The Jewish Temple in the First Century A.D. It is interesting that in the Middle East certain places have remained holy throughout the centuries, even if another religion may have taken possession of them. Today the Moslem Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is the prominent building where the Jewish temple once stood. When Jesus came to Jerusalem, the Temple had just been marvelously rebuilt by Herod the Great. The Temple area had been enlarged to a size of about thirty-five acres. Around the Temple area were double colonnades.

Link: https://bible-history.com/jewishtemple/

Herodium

Also known as el-Fureidis, Har Hordos, Herodeion, Herodion, Jebel Fureidis Herodium is 3 miles southeast of Bethlehem and 8 miles south of Jerusalem. Its summit is 2460 feet above sea level.Herod built or re-built eleven fortresses. This one he constructed on the location of his victory over Antigonus in 40 B.C.

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/herodium.htm

Ma'agan Mikhael Ancient Ship

Ships are unique. A ship is a microcosm of political, economic, cultural and technological activity. Why do we deem the discovery of a ship so significant? It serves as a bridge between different cultures and peoples carrying goods, ideas and technologies. As the sea is a bridge between cultures so is the ship the means of carrying and diffusing that culture. Comprehending the technological achievements embodied in the building of a ship, its navigation, its method of propulsion, its loading capacity and its constant confrontation with the elements is a major task. Until very recently, the structure of ancient ships was a subject relying on literary descriptions and artistic iconographic representations. However, now with the progress of nautical archaeology research, we can handle a ship's hull itself enabling us to begin to understand the magnitude of the achievements of the ancients. Such was the case with the Ma'agan Mikhael Ship - a fortuitous discovery accompanied by a dramatic touch of coincidence. The ship was found offshore Kibbutz Ma'agan Mikhael, a settlement situated approximately 30 Km south of Haifa, on the Israeli coastline, where 3 decades earlier maritime archaeology in Israel was initiated.

Link: http://multimedia.haifa.ac.il/maagan/

Caesarea, Archaeology in Israel

Some scientists believe that the breakwater walls formed an intricate system of sluicing whereby the power of the sea was weakened, but how this functioned is not known yet. What seems certain is that the earthquake of 130 BCE pushed the harbour floor up, whereby the breakwaters came to lie just under the water surface. The result of this is 17 shipwrecks lying on the ocean floor, dating until the 5th Century when the harbour finally came into disuse. The shipwrecks are as yet largely unexplored.

Link: http://www.jewishmag.com/25MAG/CESARIA/cesaria.htm

The Roman shipwreck from Caesarea

Underwater Archaeology. In 1976, a survey team of divers from the AURI discovered the frames of a large vessel in the northern anchorage of Caesarea at a depth of 2.5 m. In 1983, the CMS headed by A. Raban excavated the wreck in collaboration with the University of Maryland, the University of Colorado and the University of Victoria. The excavations revealed a ship's hull of more than 40 m long, of which a third of the original wooden construction of frames and strakes has survived. The hull is made of 8 cm thick strakes connected by mortises and tennons in the "shell first" technique. The frames, built from planks of conifer wood 16 cm thick, were closely placed (9 cm between frames). This construction is the most massive yet found for a sailing vessel from the Roman period. The wreck was dated by C14 to the end of the 1st century BC. Many pieces of the lead sheathing were scattered around the wreck. Prominent among the ceramic remains are large pithoi of a type known as dolia "" a fixed storage containers that held such staples as grain, salt or other bulk cargo. Four bronze balance bars that might have been used to weigh cargo were also found. The type of wood and the method of construction used are similar to those, characteristic of northwestern Italy and southern France. It is possible that the ship carried building material (such as volcanic tuffa) for the Herodian harbor of Sebastos [Israel Antiquities Authority]

Link: http://www.israntique.org.il/article_Item_eng.asp?sec_id=13&subj_id=121

Israel launches world's first underwater museum at Caesarea

The ancient port of Caesarea, along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, was inaugurated as the world's first underwater museum. It was the largest, most impressive port in the Roman Empire when it was inaugurated in 10 BCE. And some 2,016 years later, the ancient port of Caesarea - along the Mediterranean coast of Israel - was inaugurated again last week, this time as the world's first underwater museum. Divers can now don their wet suits and tour the sign-posted remains of the magnificent harbor built by King Herod to honor his Roman patron, Caesar Augustus. The site has been excavated over the last three decades by a team led by the late Prof. Avner Raban of the University of Haifa's Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies.

Link: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Israel+beyond+politics/Israel%20launches%20worlds%20first%20underwater%20museum%2030-Apr-2006

Two 8th century B.C. Phoenician ships

ARCHAEOLOGY: Bible's Bad Boys Weren't Such Philistines After All Michael Balter ASHKELON, ISRAEL--The discovery of two 8th century B.C. Phoenician ships loaded with wine amphoras off the southern part of Israel's coast, announced last week, may help burnish the image of the Philistines, a people who occupied the territory of the Levant nearest to where the ships were found. Frequently portrayed as villains in the Bible, the Philistines and how they came to the shores of the Middle East more than 3000 years ago are largely mysteries. Yet the underwater discovery, together with years of painstaking excavations of Philistine cities on land, are beginning to reveal a picture of a cosmopolitan people who traded widely across the eastern Mediterranean.

Link: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/285/5424/36

The Navy of King Solomon and Israel

Ancient ships in Art History: The Navy of King Solomon and Israel One particular area of interest, which is central to the story of Solomon, was the fact that he was credited with having employed a large Naval force in the conduct of his trade. In addition to having a navy Solomon is credited with being a shrewd diplomat with alliances to the kingdoms of Sheba, Egypt, and Phoenicia all of which were known to have had extensive seafaring capabilities at this time in ancient history. The Queen of Sheba alone was credited with having over 400 seafaring ships for conducting trade.

Link: http://www.artsales.com/ARTistory/Ancient_Ships/11_solomons_navy.html

The Ship of Oniyahu

Ancient Ship The Ship of Oniyahu. This coin was issued by the Bank of Israel to commemorate the ancient Hebrew seal used by Oniyahu Ben Meirav. (8th Century BCE) An ancient sailing ship with "Israel" in Hebrew, English & Arabic...

Link: http://www.commem.com/prod07si9.htm

Jewish Pirates

Jewish pirates: hardly known group of buccaneers, active in the early first century BCE. The ancient Jews were not known for their qualities as sailors. This is not surprising, of course, because Jerusalem is at some distance from the sea, and the Jews were never really interested in the coast of Judaea. It was only after the Hasmonaean high priest Simon (142-134) had added Jaffa to his dominions that the Jews possessed a port of their own... Simon's son and successor John Hyrcanus (134-104) took Ashdod, and king Alexander Jannaeus added Gaza and Strato's Tower (later called Caesaraea). The hellenized population of these towns was usually loyal to the Hasmonaean state, and not a few of them accepted Judaism. In this way, a small group of Jewish sailors was created.

Link: http://www.livius.org/ja-jn/jewish_pirates/pirates.html

Sepphoris or Zippori

The largest city in Galilee was located just south of the road from PtolemaÃ-s to Tiberias, about half-way between the Mediterranean & the sea of Galilee, on a steep ridge that rises 300 feet above the valley floor. It was fortified in the 7th c. BCE, during the Assyrian occupation of Israel & served subsequent Babylonian, Persian & Hellenistic empires as an administrative center for the region. In 104 BCE it was taken by Hasmonean forces led by either Aristobulus I or Alexander Jannai. But a generation later Gabinius, the Roman governor of Syria gave Sepphoris its own council (Sanhedrin), making it independent of Jerusalem.

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/Sites/Sepphoris.html

Adonai

The Sovereign Ruler. Genesis 15:2 - "But Abram said, "Lord GOD, what will You give me, seeing I go childless" Adonai is a plural possessive noun meaning "my Lords" - Adonai reveals God's mastership, ownership, kingship, sovereignty and rulership over man. - Whenever adon is used in the Bible for men it is translated as 'master', 'sir', or 'lord'. For example Abraham's servant Eliezer says 'my master Abraham'. - David reveals Yahweh as talking to Adonai in the Psalms 110:1. - The Bible says that the fear of Adonai is wisdom. Isaiah 40:10 "Behold, the Lord GOD will come with strong hand, and his arm shall rule for him: behold, his reward is with him, and his work before him."

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#Adonai

Elohim

The All Powerful. Genesis 1:1 "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." - Elohim is translated "God" in the English Bible and is a plural noun, although it is used with singular verbs and adjectives. For example in Genesis 1:1 it says that Elohim (plural noun) created (singular verb) the heavens and the earth. - Every nation has Elohim (false gods), but Jehovah is the true Elohim. - In Genesis 6 Elohim is concerned with creation and orders Noah to bring two of every animal into the Ark, it was Jehovah who ordered Noah to bring seven of every clean animal, because he is concerned with his covenant is man and redemption. Gen 6:13 "And God (Elohim) said to Noah...And of every living thing of all flesh you shall bring two of every kind.. to keep them alive" Gen 7:1-2 "Then the LORD (Yahweh) said to Noah," Come into the ark, you and all your household, because I have seen that you are righteous before Me in this generation. You shall take with you seven each of every clean animal.."

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#Elohim

Jehovah

The Living One. Exodus 3:14-15 "And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you. And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations." YHVH (Jehovah) was the name of the God of Israel. Translated LORD in the English Bible, the Hebrew name contained only four letters YHVH. Since no vowels have passed down to us in history we do not know how the four letters were pronounced. The name was spoken by the high priest once per year on Yom Kippur, the Great Day of Atonement. Genesis 4:26 "Then men began to call on the name of the LORD." - Jehovah is the Hebrew word Yahweh which comes from the root "hayah" which means to be, to exist, or have life. - Isaiah 43:10-11 There was no god before Yahweh or after Yahweh. - Psalm 102:27 Yahweh's years had no beginning and will have no end. - Yahweh is the name of the living Elohim - To know the name Yahweh was a special revelation, impossible to know if He was not revealed, Exodus 6:2-3. Yahweh is the God of revelation. - Every nation had gods (elohim) but Yahweh was the God of Israel and the only living God. Psalm 86:11 David says that Yahweh alone is Elohim. Also in 2 Chronicles 14:11 Israel cried out to "Yahweh our Elohim." - Exodus 3:15 Yahweh is his name forever.

Link: https://bible-history.com/namesofgod/#Jehovah

Ancient Patriarch's Clothing in the Time of Abraham

This is how a man would have dressed in ancient times about the time of Abraham which was around 1800 BC. From inside to out he wore an under garment which was bound by a girdle. Over this he wore a coat or outer garment, sometimes called a vesture. Around the head was the head cloth which was a scarf wrapped around the head. He also wore sandals and carried a tall staff.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/patriarch-clothing.html

Jesus Written in Hebrew

This is how the name "Jesus" would have been written in ancient Hebrew documents. The four letters or consonants from right to left are Yod, Shin, Vav, Ayin (Y, SH, OO, A). Jesus is the Greek name for the Hebrew name Joshua or Y'shua.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/jesus-in-hebrew.html

Watchtower in the Vineyard

This was also called a watchman's booth, which was a small sheltered tower in the midst of a vineyard. They were very important during harvest time, where the whole family would often reside. The watchtower was a symbol of protection from enemies and thieves and rising above them.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/watchtower.html

Ancient Seals and Signets

The ancient seal was a stamp or engraving set in stone, metal or some hard substance like crystal. It was usually a symbol or a figure that was used to make an impression on clay or wax, or some other soft substance. It was usually attached to an object like a possession or a document, in order to give it authenticity, ownership or authority. It was used often in the ancient world, especially in Egypt, Babylonia and Assyria and surrounding nations including Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/seals.html

Bronze Mirrors

These polished bronze mirrors were used to reflect the face. They were made of molten bronze or copper. They were round, oval, square and most of the time they had a handle. If any rust developed it was easily polished new. Later in ancient Rome mirrors were made of tin, silver and even gold..

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/bronze-mirrors.html

Dining in Ancient Rome

The ancient Hebrews, Egyptians, and Greeks. used to eat sitting on mats spread on the floor. The Romans actually reclined on couches around a table. The couches were arranged forming three sides of a square.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/romans-dining.html

Sun Dial

This ancient sun dial reveals the hours in a day. It has a surface with hour lines and a stick or gnomon which casts a shadow as the sun advances in its daily course. The sun dial is mentioned in the Bible as far back as the time of King Ahaz. Herodotus mentions that the sun dial was in use before his time in Babylonia.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/sun-dial.html

Beards and Styles

In the ancient Near East beards were prized as a sign of strength and pride. Beards came in many sizes and shapes as seen in this illustration.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/beards-styles.html

Ancient Altars

Altars of sacrifice in the ancient world.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/ancient-altars.html

Ancient Israelite House

Illustration of an ancient house of an Israelite commoner.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/ancient-house.html

Ancient Israelite Houses

First Century Israelite Houses in the Lower City.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/first-century-houses.html

Wealthy Israelite House

Illustration of a Wealthy Israelite Home

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/wealthy-israelite-house.html

Ancient Phylacteries

Phylacteries (tephillin). These are strips of leather to which is attached little square box made of parchment and painted black. The box contains four parts of the Torah written on parchment: Exodus 13:1 and 11:6; Deuteronomy 6:4-9; 11:13-21. According to Deut 6:4-9 two phylacteries were used, one for the head and one for the arm. These (called frontlets in Deuteronomy) were put on in such a way that one box rested on the head, between the eyes (seat of the mind) and the other on the left arm opposite the heart (seat of the actions and the emotions, denoting that one loves the Lord with one's heart). They are referred to as phylacteries in the New Testament (Mat 23:5).

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/phylacteries.html

Tax Collector

The Jewish people were under the yoke of foreign oppressors ever since the Babylonian captivity. During the New Testament times the land of Israel was within the province of Syria and the tax collectors were collectors of Roman taxes, they were extortioners, and very despised. The Jews detested these tax collectors not only on account of their abusive and tyrannical attitude, but because the very taxes that they were forced to collect by the Roman government were a badge of servitude and a constant reminder that God had forsaken His people. The tax collectors were always classed by the people with the harlots, usurers, gamblers, thieves, and dishonest herdsmen, who lived promiscuous, lawless lives. Some of the common terms for the tax collectors were "licensed robbers" and "beasts in human shape."

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/tax-collector.html

Ancient Torah Scroll

Illustration of an Ancient Torah Scroll

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/ancient-torah-scroll.html

Ancient Sheep Fold

Shepherds brought their sheep into the fold in the wilderness for safety. The shepherd would lay in front of the door to protect the sheep from an attacker.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/sheep-fold.html

Ancient Sling

In ancient times the "sling and stone" was sort of like a loaded weapon, and quite a valuable weapon if one had the skill to use it. The sling itself was usually made of wool, twined together, though some cultures used leather. In the middle there was a thick pouch (like a plaited thong) for holding and slinging the stone. The stones could be kept in a small pouch for rapid fire slinging. The user would place the stone in the pouch, hold both ends, waive it around the head, and fling it by letting go of one of the ropes. In the Bible "slingers" were part of the Israelite army like the archers.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/sling.html

Ancient Ox Carts

Illustration of ox carts used by the ancient Philistines

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/philistines-ox-cart.html

Tracks Between Walls

Illustration of how people travelled between city walls.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/tracks-between-walls.html

Ancient Women Traveling

Illustration of Women Traveling in Ancient Times

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/women-traveling.html

Ancient Fig Trees

Figs and fig trees are mentioned often in the ancient world, especially in Israel. The Mount of Olives was famous for its fig trees, even to this day. It was a common expression for peace and prosperity to "sit under one's own fig tree." Figs were pear shaped and the young figs were especially sweet and tasty. They were eaten raw or made into cakes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/fig-trees.html

Ancient Fishermen

Fishing goes back to the earliest of times. The Nile River in Egypt abounded in fish, and the fishing industry was very profitable there. In ancient times fish were usually caught with either a hook, a spear, or a net. In Israel the Sea of Galilee was famous for its quantities and types of fish.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/fishermen.html

Ancient Flat Roofs

This illustration shows ancient homes with flat roofs. In Israel it was common for a family to spend much time upon their housetops. The climate was usually mild and ideal for gatherings. The roof usually had three layers: the wooden beams, straw mats, and a clay top. The clay would be pressed down tight with a stone roller.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/flat-roofs.html

Ancient Men's Hair

In Israel, the Hebrew men and women wore long hair, yet it was trimmed to show humility. Baldness was wholly despised and extremely long hair was the characteristic of the Nazarite. By the time of Jesus men wore their hair much shorter. They also left their sides uncut near the ears. In Israel it was customary for hair to be kept neat and when hair was messy it was usually a sign of mourning or distress.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/hair-beards.html

Ancient Lamps

In the ancient world there wasn't electricity like today, in fact the inside of a home was about as dim as a 40-watt light bulb. In the earliest of times lamps were stone bowls filled with animal fat. They would float a wick of twisted plant fibers. Later the bowls were made of pottery filled with olive oil. Most homes would contain several oil lamps because olive oil was in abundance and therefore not expensive.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/lamps.html

Ancient Men's Head Covering

In ancient Israel there seems to have been no covering for the head except on certain occasions. For example, during times of great distress it was customary to wear a head covering.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/mens-head-covering.html

Ancient Mezuzah in Doorway

The word "mezuzah" is Hebrew for doorpost. Moses commanded that the Word of God should be written on the doorposts of every house in order to keep His words constantly in their minds and in their hearts. At a later time the Jews took this literally, by placing Scriptures (Deuteronomy 6:4-9 and 11:13-21) on a small parchment scroll within a cylinder and upon each post of every room in their houses.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/mezuzah-doorway.html

Ancient Oil Vases

Oil was stored in earthenware vessels (Heb. Asak). They were deep and narrow, with the narrowest part at the bottom. They had no handles and were usually inserted into a stone or wooden stand, or simply placed into holes in the ground. The top was capped with wood or some soft material.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/oil-vases.html

Ancient Olive Press

This sketch looks similar to a first century olive press discovered at the ruins of ancient Capernaum in Israel. In ancient times September was not only time to prepare for the New Year, but it was also time for harvesting olives. It lasted through November. Near the orchards there was usually an olive press, as sketched in the image above.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/olive-press.html

Ancient Olive Trees

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/olive-tree.html

Ancient Roads

Throughout history "˜the road' has provided an excellent metaphor for life's journey. With amazement, we can look back over the winding grades of difficulty, the narrow pass of opportunity, the choice between security or adventure, when our road divided and we had to make the call.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/roads.html

Windows

The ancient window looked very much like a fisherman's net, and was used in warm middle eastern countries. It was formed of reticulated work, and highly ornamental. They also had hinges which allowed them to be open or shut. On very hot days then sun is kept out while the air is let in through the trellis openings. .

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/windows.html

Ancient Women's Head Covering

Illustration of a Head covering for women in ancient times

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/womens-head-covering.html

King David

The tribes in the south were extremely distressed and appealed to David. He was anointed king of Judah in Hebron. It wasn't long before the tribes in the north came to Hebron and anointed him king over Israel, it was 7 years after Saul's death. David immediately captured Jerusalem from the Jebusites. He brought the Ark of the covenant (gold box containing the 10 commandments and symbolizing the throne of God) to Jerusalem, which he established as the capital (2 Sam 1-5). Jerusalem became the symbol of a unified kingdom. This all took place about 1000 B.C. When the Philistines realized what had fully happened it was too late, for Israel was a unified kingdom. David defeated them in two successive battles in the Valley of Rephaim near Jerusalem and he drove them from the hill country. The Philistines were reduced to a minor power and were not a danger to Israel anymore. In the years that followed, David conquered all his surrounding enemies one by one until his kingdom had become all-powerful, with boundaries stretching from Levo-Hamath in the Valley of the Lebanon to the River of Egypt.

Link: https://bible-history.com/map-davids-kingdom/map-davids-kingdom_king_david.html

The Extent of David's Kingdom

King David's military victories were quite impressive and magnified his authority and the boundaries of Israel. The kingdom included all of the land originally allotted to the 12 tribes of Israel (except a small portion of Philistia along the southern Mediterranean coast) and also the kingdom of Ammon. Map

Link: https://bible-history.com/map-davids-kingdom/map-davids-kingdom_the_extent_of_david_s_kingdom.html

Vassal States

Certain nations were allowed to keep their own kings, these were called vassal states. These included Moab (east of the Dead Sea ) and Edom (south of the Dead Sea), and the Damascus territory (far in the northeast). Zobah was most likely included as well but this in not conclusive. There was also a territory even farther north called Hamath which acknowledged Israel's sovereignty and submitted to David's authority. Hamath's territory stretched northeast to the Euphrates River.

Link: https://bible-history.com/map-davids-kingdom/map-davids-kingdom_vassal_states.html

From the River of Egypt to the Euphrates

King David's authority reached as far as the Euphrates River in the north, all the way down to the Gulf of Aqaba and the River of Egypt (45 miles southwest of Gaza). It is disputed whether or not this or the Nile River is the River of Egypt mentioned in the Lord's promise to their ancestor Abraham and their descendants over 800 years earlier. Genesis 15:18 "On the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying: "To your descendants I have given this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the River Euphrates""" Israel was not to be compared to the mighty empires of the ancient world like Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Media-Persia, Greece or Rome, but David was undoubtedly the strongest ruler of his day.

Link: https://bible-history.com/map-davids-kingdom/map-davids-kingdom_from_the_river_of_egypt_to_the_euphrates.html

Damascus, Zobah and Hamath

In the north David conquered Zobah and their mighty army which possessed 1000 chariots, 700 horsemen, and 20,000 foot soldiers. 2 Sam 8:3-4 David also defeated Hadadezer the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to recover his territory at the River Euphrates. David took from him one thousand chariots, seven hundred horsemen, and twenty thousand foot soldiers. It is interesting that David's army did not depend on chariots as the king of Zobah, as well as the Philistines and the Canaanites. When the men of Aram Damascus (see map) heard of the battle they came to assist Zobah and were too late. David utterly defeated them as well and they paid tribute to Israel. At this same time the king of Hamath sent his son to pay tribute to David and this secured the northern region. David placed garrisons in Damascus as he had done in Edom.

Link: https://bible-history.com/map-davids-kingdom/map-davids-kingdom_damascus_zobah_and_hamath.html

Phoenicia and the Coastal Cities

David had long since been friends with the Phoenicians and had made a treaty with Hiram, king of Tyre, who he had received materials and labor for his palace. This brought peace between them and there were never any wars between David and Phoenicia.

Link: https://bible-history.com/map-davids-kingdom/map-davids-kingdom_phoenicia_and_the_coastal_cities.html

Phoenicia and the Coastal Cities

David had long since been friends with the Phoenicians and had made a treaty with Hiram, king of Tyre, who he had received materials and labor for his palace. This brought peace between them and there were never any wars between David and Phoenicia.

Link: https://bible-history.com/map-davids-kingdom/map-davids-kingdom_phoenicia_and_the_coastal_cities.html

Ammon and Zobah

The Bible gives much more detail to Israel's war with Ammon (see 2 Sam 10). The Bible records David's kindness to Hanun, a new king of Ammon, and his kindness was scorned and David sent Joab out for war. Hanun hired mercenary soldiers from Aram (Beth-rehob, Zobah, and Maacah). When Joab met the combined armies he displayed outstanding military foresight and defeated them. He then returned to Jerusalem and Hadadezer, king of Zobah came against him with fresh troops. Israel met him across the Jordan at Helam and were victorious. Israelite supremacy was acknowledged once again. Joab then laid siege to Rabbah (site of the present day Amman Jordan) 22 miles east of the Jordan River to utterly defeat Ammon. It was during this siege that David sinned with Bathsheba, and had her husband Uriah killed by ordering Joab to place him at the front of the battle, where the fighting was the heaviest. (2 Sam 11:1-27). Rabbah was finally taken and David made it a part of his own kingdom.

Link: https://bible-history.com/map-davids-kingdom/map-davids-kingdom_ammon_and_zobah.html

The King's Highway

The King's Highway was an ancient trade route that began in Egypt, and stretched across the Sinai Peninsula to Aqaba and then northward to Damascus and the Euphrates River. One of the earliest references to the King's Highway is found in the Bible (Numbers 20:17), where the Israelites request for a safe passage through Edom: Num 20:17-21 "Please let us pass through your country. We will not pass through fields or vineyards, nor will we drink water from wells; we will go along the King's Highway; we will not turn aside to the right hand or to the left until we have passed through your territory.'" Then Edom said to him, "You shall not pass through my land, lest I come out against you with the sword." So the children of Israel said to him, "We will go by the Highway, and if I or my livestock drink any of your water, then I will pay for it; let me only pass through on foot, nothing more." Then he said,"You shall not pass through." So Edom came out against them with many men and with a strong hand. Thus Edom refused to give Israel passage through his territory; so Israel turned away from him. During the 1st millennium BC, the King's Highway linked the kingdoms of Edom, Moab, and Ammon. Several centuries later the Nabateans used this road as a trade route for luxury goods such as frankincense and spices coming up from the southern Arabian peninsula. Later the Romans renamed it the Via Nova Traiana. The highway has long been an important pilgrimage route for both Christians and Muslims: Christians used it to visit nearby holy sights such as Mount Nebo and Al Maghtas at the Jordan River, and Muslims used it as the main Haj route to Mecca until the Ottomans built the Tariq al-Bint in the 16th century."

Link: https://bible-history.com/map-davids-kingdom/map-davids-kingdom_king_s_highway.html

David's Last Days

David was Israel's greatest and truly ideal king. He was a great warrior and a man who loved God. He brought great peace and prosperity to the land. But David also had his weaknesses. He took many wives, like other kings, and this was forbidden by God. He even arranged the murder of one of his soldiers so that he could marry the man's wife who he had already seduced. David was a great sinner, but he was also very remorseful and repentant. David also took a census (headcount) of his army, showing a lack of trust in God. God punished David and Israel for his sins. The good qualities found in David are a picture of Christ who would be a descendant of David. As David, in his old age, looked back on his life and pondered on how God had delivered him from all of his enemies he sang: 2 Sam 22:4 "I will call upon the LORD, who is worthy to be praised; so shall I be saved from my enemies." 2 Sam 23:1-2 "Now these are the last words of David. Thus says David the son of Jesse; thus says the man raised up on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, and the sweet psalmist of Israel: "The Spirit of the LORD spoke by me, and His word was on my tongue. . ."

Link: https://bible-history.com/map-davids-kingdom/map-davids-kingdom_david_s_last_days.html

David - Smith's Bible Dictionary

David: (well-beloved), the son of Jesse. His life may be divided into three portions: 1. His youth before his introduction to the court of Saul; 2. His relations with Saul; 3. His reign. 1. The early life of David contains in many important respects the antecedents of his future career. It appears that David was the youngest son, probably the youngest child, of a family of ten, and was born in Bethlehem B.C. 1085. The first time that David appears in history at once admits us to the whole family circle. The annual sacrificial feast is being held when Samuel appears, sent by God to anoint one of Jesse's sons as they pass before him, 1Sa 16:6-10 Samuel sends for the youngest, David, who was "keeping the sheep," and anoints him. 1Sa 16:11-13 As David stood before Samuel we are enabled to fix his appearance at once in our minds. He was of short stature, with red or auburn hair, such as is not unfrequently seen in his countrymen of the East at the present day. In later life he wore a beard. His bright eyes are specially mentioned, 1Sa 16:12 and generally he was remarkable for the grace of his figure and countenance ("fair of eyes," "comely," "goodly,") 1Sa 16:12,18; 17:42 well made and of immense strength and agility.

Link: https://bible-history.com/map-davids-kingdom/map-davids-kingdom_david_smith_s.html

List of Jewish High Priests

1. Simon II the Just, 220-190 B.C. 2. Onias III, 190-174 B.C. 3. Jason/Jeshua,175-172 B.C. 4. Menelaus, 172-162 B.C. 5. Alcimus, 162-156 B.C. 6. Jonathan, 153-142 B.C. 7. Simon, 142-135 B.C. 8. John Hyrcanus I, 134-104 B.C. 9. Aristobulus I, 104-103 B.C. 10. Alexander Jannaeus, 103-76 B.C. 11. Hyrcanus II, 76-67 B.C. 12. Aristobulus II, 67-63 B.C. 13. Hyrcanus II, 63-40 B.C. 14. Antigonus, 40-37 B.C. Also includes The Jewish High Priests from Herod the Great to the Destruction of Jerusalem

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSList_of_Jewish_High_Priests.htm

Alexander The Great Bows to the High Priest in Jerusalem

It is a fascinating and worthwhile study to understand this ancient time period and its high priests. According to the Bible the high priest was the most important man in the world, for he represented the nation before God, and God before the nation. Unfortunately there were times when the priesthood became corrupt and blinded to its original intent. There were no doubt high priests in Israel's history who sought after God. Every high priest has a story and the history of the intertestamental period is packed with adventures. One interesting story is related in the Talmud concerning Simon the Just: The Talmud relates that when Alexander the Great and his conquering legions advanced upon Jerusalem, they were met by a delegation of elders, led by the High Priest Shimon Ha Tzaddik (Simon the Righteous). When Alexander saw Shimon approaching, he dismounted and prostrated himself before the Jewish Sage. To his astonished men, Alexander explained that each time he went into battle, he would see a vision in the likeness of this High Priest leading the Greek troops to victory. In gratitude, and out of profound respect for the spiritual power of the Jews, Alexander was a kind and generous ruler. He canceled the Jewish taxes during Sabbatical years, and even offered animals to be sacrificed on his behalf in the Temple. Unfortunately, history would prove that Alexander's heirs failed to sustain his benevolence.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSAlexander_Bows_to_the_High_Pries.htm

Annas the High Priest

Annas, who's name means "The grace of Jehovah" was the son of Seth and appointed high priest of the Jews in 6 A.D in his 37th year. He was high priest from 6 to 15 A.D. but as long as he lived he was the virtual head of the priestly party in Jerusalem. He was chosen to the high priesthood by Quirinius, the imperial governor of Syria; obliged to give way to Ismael by Valerius Gratus, procurator of Judaea, in the beginning of Tiberius' reign, 14 A.D. Eleazar, the son of Annas, followed Ismael; then Simon; then Joseph Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas (John 18:13)...He was undoubtedly the ruling voice in the council that condemned Jesus, although nothing is said about his part in the proceedings that followed the preliminary questioning. He was present at the meeting of the Sanhedrin before which Peter and John defended themselves for preaching the Gospel of the Resurrection (Acts 4:6). Annas is called "high priest," Caiaphas, John, and Alexander are called "of his kindred." He lived to old age, and he had five sons apointed as high priests.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSAnnas.htm

Caiaphas the High Priest

Caiaphas, who's name means "searcher" was appointed high priest (after Simon ben Camith) by the procurator Valerius Gratus, under Tiberius, 18 A.D.. He continued in office from A.D. 26 to 37, when the proconsul Vitellius deposed him. He was the president of the Jewish council (Sanhedrim) which condemned the Lord Jesus to death, Caiaphas declaring Him guilty of blasphemy. Caiaphas was the official high priest during the ministry and trial of Jesus (Matt 26:3, 57; Luke 3:2; John 11:49; 18:13, 14, 24, 28; Acts 4:6). It was Caiaphas who, unknowingly, made the incredible prophecy concerning God's plan of sacrificing Jesus for the sins of the nation and even the whole world: John 11:49-50 And one of them, Caiaphas, being high priest that year, said to them, "You know nothing at all, nor do you consider that it is expedient for us that one man should die for the people, and not that the whole nation should perish."

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSCaiaphas.htm

Holy Land Christian & Jewish Gifts - The Jerusalem Gift Shop

The Jerusalem Gift Shop, Religious Christian - Jewish Gifts from the Holy Land. Handmade by Israeli Artists, shipped directly from Jerusalem. Thank you for your support during these troubled times here in Jerusalem. God Bless you

Link: http://www.thejerusalemgiftshop.com

Ancient Lattice Windows

The lattice window looked very much like a fisherman's net, and was used in warm middle eastern countries. It was formed of reticulated work, and highly ornamental. They also had hinges which allowed them to be open or shut. On very hot days then sun is kept out while the air is let in through the trellis openings.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/lattice.html

silver Tetradrachm of Athens (reverse)

A new style silver Tetradrachm of Athens, struck circa 137-110 BC, the obverse showing the helmeted head of Athena and the reverse the Owl, standing on an Amphora with legend, all within wreath. This is a Very Fine example with extremely high relief on the reverse. [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.deepfield.com/anoot/a20.jpg

silver Tetradrachm of Athens (reverse)

A new style silver Tetradrachm of Athens, struck circa 137-110 BC, the obverse showing the helmeted head of Athena and the reverse the Owl, standing on an Amphora with legend, all within wreath. This is a Very Fine example with extremely high relief on the reverse. [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.deepfield.com/anoot/a20.jpg

Alexander Jannaeus

Coins relating to the Hasmonean Princes: Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan) (103 - 76 BC) AE Prutah Hendin 469, SGCv2 6087 13 mm. 1.14 gm. Die position=n/a reverse Obverse: Anchor within circle. BA[sigma]I[lambda]E[omega][sigma] A[lambda]E[csi]AN[delta]POY. Reverse: Wheel with eight ray-like spokes; Hebrew letters between rays. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/greece/judaea/alexander_jannaeus/i.html

Alexander Jannaeus (reverse)

Coins relating to the Hasmonean Princes: Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan) (103 - 76 BC) AE Prutah Hendin 469, SGCv2 6087 13 mm. 1.14 gm. Die position=n/a reverse Obverse: Anchor within circle. BA[sigma]I[lambda]E[omega][sigma] A[lambda]E[csi]AN[delta]POY. Reverse: Wheel with eight ray-like spokes; Hebrew letters between rays. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_judea_469_r.jpg

Alexander Jannaeus

Coins relating to the Hasmonean Princes: Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan) (103 - 76 BC) AE Prutah Hendin 469, SGCv2 6087 13 mm. 1.14 gm. Die position=n/a reverse Obverse: Anchor within circle. BA[sigma]I[lambda]E[omega][sigma] A[lambda]E[csi]AN[delta]POY. Reverse: Wheel with eight ray-like spokes; Hebrew letters between rays. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_judaea_469_o.jpg

Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan) (103 - 76 BC)

Coins relating to the Hasmonean Princes: Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan) (103 - 76 BC) AE Lepton Hendin 471, SGCv2 6092 14 mm. 1.28 gm. Die position=n/a reverse Obverse: Anchor within circle. BA[sigma]I[lambda]E[omega][sigma] A[lambda]E[csi]AN[delta]POY. Reverse: Wheel with eight ray-like spokes; Aramaic inscription. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.jewishcoins.net/ancient-israel-coins/herod-agrippa%20I.html

Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan) (103 - 76 BC) reverse

Coins relating to the Hasmonean Princes: Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan) (103 - 76 BC) AE Lepton Hendin 471, SGCv2 6092 14 mm. 1.28 gm. Die position=n/a reverse Obverse: Anchor within circle. BA[sigma]I[lambda]E[omega][sigma] A[lambda]E[csi]AN[delta]POY. Reverse: Wheel with eight ray-like spokes; Aramaic inscription. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.jewishcoins.net/ancient-israel-coins/herod-agrippa%20I.html

Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan) (103 - 76 BC)

Coins relating to the Hasmonean Princes: Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan) (103 - 76 BC) AE Prutah Hendin 473, SGCv2 6089 15 mm. 2.57 gm. Die position=12h reverse Obverse: Hebrew inscription surrounded by wreath. Reverse: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_jannaeus_o.jpg

Alexander Jannaeus reverse

Coins relating to the Hasmonean Princes: Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan) (103 - 76 BC) AE Prutah Hendin 473, SGCv2 6089 15 mm. 2.57 gm. Die position=12h reverse Obverse: Hebrew inscription surrounded by wreath. Reverse: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_jannaeus_r.jpg

Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan) (103 - 76 BC) reverse

Coins relating to the Idumaean Princes : Herod Agrippa I (37 - 44 AD) AE Prutah 41/42 AD Hendin 553, SGIC 5567 17 mm. 3.01 gm. Die position=12h reverse Obverse: Canopy with fringe; A[gamma]PI[pi]A BACI[lambda]EWC. Reverse: Three ears of barley, growing between two leaves; date L[stigma]. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.jewishcoins.net/ancient-israel-coins/herod-agrippa%20I.html

Herod Agrippa I (37 - 44 AD)

Coins relating to the Idumaean Princes : Herod Agrippa I (37 - 44 AD) AE Prutah 41/42 AD Hendin 553, SGIC 5567 17 mm. 3.01 gm. Die position=12h reverse Obverse: Canopy with fringe; A[gamma]PI[pi]A BACI[lambda]EWC. Reverse: Three ears of barley, growing between two leaves; date L[stigma]. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_agrippaI_o.jpg

Herod Agrippa I (37 - 44 AD) reverse

Coins relating to the Idumaean Princes : Herod Agrippa I (37 - 44 AD) AE Prutah 41/42 AD Hendin 553, SGIC 5567 17 mm. 3.01 gm. Die position=12h reverse Obverse: Canopy with fringe; A[gamma]PI[pi]A BACI[lambda]EWC. Reverse: Three ears of barley, growing between two leaves; date L[stigma]. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_agrippaI_r.jpg

Coponius (6 - 9 AD)

Coins relating to the Roman Procurators : Coponius (6 - 9 AD) AE Prutah 6 AD Hendin 635, SGIC 5606 17 mm. 1.91 gm. Die position=12h Procurator under Augustus reverse Obverse: Ear of barley; KAICAPOC. Reverse: Eight-branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates; date in field L[lambda][stigma] (year 36). [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_coponius_o2.jpg

Marcus Ambibulus (9 - 12 AD)

Coins relating to the Roman Procurators :Marcus Ambibulus (9 - 12 AD) AE Prutah 9 AD Hendin 636, SGIC 5607 17 mm. 1.86 gm. Die position=12h Procurator under Augustus obverse Obverse: Ear of barley; KAICAPOC. Reverse: Eight-branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates; date in field L[lambda][theta] (year 39).[Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_judaea_636_o.jpg

Marcus Ambibulus (9 - 12 AD) reverse

Coins relating to the Roman Procurators :Marcus Ambibulus (9 - 12 AD) AE Prutah 9 AD Hendin 636, SGIC 5607 17 mm. 1.86 gm. Die position=12h Procurator under Augustus obverse Obverse: Ear of barley; KAICAPOC. Reverse: Eight-branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates; date in field L[lambda][theta] (year 39).[Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_judaea_636_r.jpg

Valerius Gratus (15 - 26 AD)

Coins relating to the Roman Procurators : Valerius Gratus (15 - 26 AD) AE Prutah 18 AD Hendin 646, SGIC 5620 15 mm. 2.14 gm. Die position=3h Procurator under Tiberius obverse Obverse: TIB KAI CAP (Tiberius Caesar) in wreath tied with an X at bottom. Reverse: Palm branch flanked by IOY [lambda]IA, and date LE (year 5). [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_gratus_r.jpg

Valerius Gratus (15 - 26 AD) obverse

Coins relating to the Roman Procurators : Valerius Gratus (15 - 26 AD) AE Prutah 18 AD Hendin 646, SGIC 5620 15 mm. 2.14 gm. Die position=3h Procurator under Tiberius obverse Obverse: TIB KAI CAP (Tiberius Caesar) in wreath tied with an X at bottom. Reverse: Palm branch flanked by IOY [lambda]IA, and date LE (year 5). [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_gratus_r.jpg

Antonius Felix (52 - 60 AD)

Coins relating to the Roman Procurators : Antonius Felix (52 - 60 AD) AE Prutah 54 AD Hendin 652, SGIC 5626 16 mm. 1.89 gm. Die position=6h Procurator under Claudius reverse Obverse: Two shields and two spears crossed. NEPW K[lambda]AV KAICAP (Nero Claudius Caesar). Reverse: Six-branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates; above, BPIT (Brittanicus). Date in field LI[delta]/KAI (year 14). [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_felix_o.jpg

Antonius Felix (52 - 60 AD) reverse

Coins relating to the Roman Procurators : Antonius Felix (52 - 60 AD) AE Prutah 54 AD Hendin 652, SGIC 5626 16 mm. 1.89 gm. Die position=6h Procurator under Claudius reverse Obverse: Two shields and two spears crossed. NEPW K[lambda]AV KAICAP (Nero Claudius Caesar). Reverse: Six-branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates; above, BPIT (Brittanicus). Date in field LI[delta]/KAI (year 14). [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_felix_r.jpg

Porcius Festus (59 - 62 AD)

Coins relating to the Roman Procurators : Porcius Festus (59 - 62 AD) AE Prutah 58 AD Hendin 653, SGIC 5627 17 mm. 2.29 gm. Die position=12h Procurator under Nero reverse Obverse: Palm branch surrounded by date LE (year 5) and KAIC APOC. Reverse: Legend NEP WNO C (Nero) within wreath tied with X at bottom. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_festus_o.jpg

Porcius Festus (59 - 62 AD) reverse

Coins relating to the Roman Procurators : Porcius Festus (59 - 62 AD) AE Prutah 58 AD Hendin 653, SGIC 5627 17 mm. 2.29 gm. Die position=12h Procurator under Nero reverse Obverse: Palm branch surrounded by date LE (year 5) and KAIC APOC. Reverse: Legend NEP WNO C (Nero) within wreath tied with X at bottom. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_festus_r.jpg

Jewish War Coin

Coins relating to the Jewish War : Anonymous (year 3) AE Prutah 68/69 AD Hendin 664, SGIC 5640 17 mm. 2.90 gm. Die position=12h reverse Obverse: Amphora with broad rim, two handles and decorated lid. Hebrew legend. Reverse: Vine leaf on small branch. Hebrew legend. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_judaea_664_o.jpg

Jewish War Coin reverse

Coins relating to the Jewish War : Anonymous (year 3) AE Prutah 68/69 AD Hendin 664, SGIC 5640 17 mm. 2.90 gm. Die position=12h reverse Obverse: Amphora with broad rim, two handles and decorated lid. Hebrew legend. Reverse: Vine leaf on small branch. Hebrew legend. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_judaea_664_r.jpg

Palestine in New Testament Times Map

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/maps/palestine_in_nt_times.jpg

Masada Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/israel/masada1.jpg

Mesha Stele Photo

Moabite Stone
Language: Moabite (a West Semitic Language)
Medium: basalt stone stele
Size: 1.15 meters high, 60-68 centimeters wide
Length: 35 lines of writing
Honoree: Mesha, king of Moab
(late 9th century BCE)
Approximate Date: 830 BCE
Place of Discovery: Dhiban [in modern Jordan]
Date of Discovery: 1868
Current Location: Louvre Museum (Paris, France)
Inventory number: AO 5066

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/artifacts/moabite_stone.jpg

Mesha Stele Photo

Moabite Stone
Language: Moabite (a West Semitic Language)
Medium: basalt stone stele
Size: 1.15 meters high, 60-68 centimeters wide
Length: 35 lines of writing
Honoree: Mesha, king of Moab
(late 9th century BCE)
Approximate Date: 830 BCE
Place of Discovery: Dhiban [in modern Jordan]
Date of Discovery: 1868
Current Location: Louvre Museum (Paris, France)
Inventory number: AO 5066

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/artifacts/moabite_stone.jpg

Petra, Jordan4

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/petra4.jpg

Petra, Jordan5

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/petra5.jpg

Petra, Jordan6

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/petra6.jpg

Petra, Jordan7

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/petra7.jpg

Petra, Jordan8

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/petra8.jpg

Petra, Jordan9

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/petra9.jpg

The City with the Tomb of David

Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original.

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/city.jpg

The Model with the Temple and the City

Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original.

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/model1.jpg

Aerial Photo of the Model with the Temple and the City

Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original.

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/aeriel.jpg

The Psephinus Tower

NW corner of the third wall. The Psephinus Tower stood 115 feet high according to Josephus and from the top one could see both the Mediterranean Sea and the Mountains of Arabia. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/psephinus_tower.jpg

The Markets and Storehouses

Located within the second wall. can also see the dwelling quarters of the merchants. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/market_pavilions.jpg

The Hill of Calvary

Located outside the second wall. The actual site of the Cross is still under discussion. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/hill_of_calvary.jpg

The 3 Towers Built by Herod

Built to protect his palace were Herod's 3 towers.

1. Phasael Tower (the largest, named after his brother stood 145 feet high).
2. Hippicus Tower (named after a friend, and was 132 feet high)
3. Mariamme Tower (named after his beloved wife whom he had murdered. Josephus said "the king considering it appropriate that the tower named after a woman should surpass in decoration those called after men." It stood 74 feet high)

[Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/herods_3_towers.jpg

The Upper Agora in the Upper City

The area east of the Palace was known as the Upper City, this is where the wealthy Jews lived. In front of the Palace was the Upper Agora (Market Square or Forum). [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/upper_agora.jpg

The Upper Agora in the Upper City

The area east of the Palace was known as the Upper City, this is where the wealthy Jews lived. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/upper_city.jpg

Herod's Palace

The Palace consisted of 2 main buildings, each with its banquet halls, baths, and accomodation for hundreds of guests. It was surrounded with groves of trees, canals, and ponds studded with bronze fountains. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/herods_palace.jpg

Hippicus Tower

Named after a friend, and was 132 feet high. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/hippicus_tower.jpg

Mariamme Tower

Named after his beloved wife whom he had murdered. Josephus said "the king considering it appropriate that the tower named after a woman should surpass in decoration those called after men." It stood 74 feet high. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/mariamme_tower.jpg

The Royal Palace of the Hasmoneans

Located on the Western side of the Upper City. It contained a roof called the Xystus with where the people in the large square below could be addressed. It had large courts, living quarters, baths, and a service court. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/hasmoneans_palace.jpg

The Tomb of David

Behind the Palace of Caiphus stood the Tomb of David which is a monument that marks the spot where David's tomb was located. The real spot for the tomb is on the SE hill in David's city. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/tomb_of_david.jpg

The Tomb of David

Behind the Palace of Caiphus stood the Tomb of David which is a monument that marks the spot where David's tomb was located. The real spot for the tomb is on the SE hill in David's city. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/tomb_of_david.jpg

The Lower City for the Poor

On the SE hill was the Lower City, the ancient city of Jerusalem's core and on its slopes were the crowded houses of the poor. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/lower_city_houses.jpg

The Lower City

On the SE hill was the Lower City, the ancient city of Jerusalem's core and on its slopes were the crowded houses of the poor. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/lower_city.jpg

Robinson's Arch

You may notice an area with a reddish rectangle box around it. That is the area known today as the Western "Wailing" Wall. It gives an idea of how large this wall actually was. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/robinsons_arch.jpg

Western "Wailing" Wall

You may notice an area with a reddish rectangle box around it. That is the area known today as the Western "Wailing" Wall. It gives an idea of how large this wall actually was. Also in the background is Wilson's Arch which connected the Upper and Lower Cities. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/western_wall.jpg

The Hipprodrome

South near the Synagogue of the Freedmen was the Hippodrome, built by Herod like a Roman Circus, for chariot races. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/hippodrome.jpg

The Temple

Here is where the sacrifices were made. Its Facade was 165 feet high and wide and was built of 3 kinds of marble, with a foundation of blue stones. Josephus described the Temple as resembling "a snowy mountain glittering in the sun." [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/temple.jpg

The Temple (Herod's)

Here is where the sacrifices were made. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/temple2.jpg

Huldah Gates of the Temple Mount

In the wall were the gates of the prophetess Huldah. The wall measured 211 feet. The Ophel corner was so high that from its top "an Arab with a spear looked like a flax worm." [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/huldah_gates.jpg

The Porticoes Surrounding the Temple Mount

The Outer Court was surrounded by colonnade porches. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/temple_porticoes.jpg

Antonia Fortress

On the NW corner of the Temple Mount was the Fortress of Antonia. Named after Marc Antony it stood 115 feet high. This headquarters for the Roman soldiers overlooked the Temple and the city. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/antonia_fortress.jpg

Pool of Bethesda

The Pool of the Sheepmarket was just below the Fortress of Antonia. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/pool_of_bethesda.jpg

Monument of King Alexander Jannaeus

(103-76 BCE). Near the Pool of the Sheepmarket. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/monument_of_alexander_jannaeus.jpg

Women's Gate and Towers

Northern Side of the Third Wall. [Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/womens_gate.jpg

Herod's Theatre

[Model of Ancient Jerusalem during the time of Jesus and the second (Herod's) Temple, before its destruction in 70 AD. Built by archaeologists according to various historical sources: Josephus, the Mishnah, the Talmuds, the Tosephta, and the New Testament as well as archaeological discoveries. It uses mainly the same materials as the original].

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/hh/herods_theatre.jpg

Cave of the Letters Map

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/maps/cave_of_the_letters_map.jpg

Jarash, Jordan1

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/jarash1.jpg

Jarash, Jordan2

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/jarash2.jpg

Jarash, Jordan3

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/jarash3.jpg

Jarash, Jordan4

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/jarash4.jpg

Jarash, Jordan5

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/jarash5.jpg

Jarash, Jordan6

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/jarash6.jpg

Jarash, Jordan7

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/jarash7.jpg

Petra, Jordan

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/petra1.jpg

Petra, Jordan2

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/petra2.jpg

Petra, Jordan3

Nice Photo

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/petra3.jpg

Western Wall (men praying on evening of new moon)

Israel, Jerusalem, (Tony Stone Images)

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/stone/tony-920113-001.jpg

All Nations Church in Garden of Gethsemane

Israel, Jerusalem, Mary Magdalene Church at background (Tony Stone Images)

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/stone/tony-879395-001.jpg

Colonnaded street (The Cardo)

Jordan, Jerash, Roman Ruins(Tony Stone Images)

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/stone/tony-879388-001.jpg

man praying at Wailing Wall

Israel, Jerusalem, (Tony Stone Images)

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/stone/tony-865372-001.jpg

Orthodox Jews praying at Western (Wailing) Wall

Israel, Jerusalem, (Tony Stone Images)

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/stone/tony-302706-012.jpg

Petra, Khazneh (Treasury),

Jordan, Bedouin on camel in foreground. It is unknown when the Khazneh was built, but estimates put it somewhere between 100 BC to 200 AD. It was built as a tomb, but gained it`s name from stories that pirates used to hide their treasure there. (Tony Stone Images)

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/stone/tony-276690-001.jpg

Masada ruins w/Dead Sea beyond (at dawn)

Israel, Masada National Park. Ruins from Herod the Great and Zealots (Tony Stone Images)

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/stone/tony-989384-001.jpg

Mosque of Omar Dome

Corbis Images [Modern Israel] [Images]

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/corbis/corbis-10613267.jpg

Flag of Israel

Corbis Images [Modern Israel] [Images]

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/corbis/corbis-12311309.jpg

Man at Wailing Wall

Corbis Images [Modern Israel] [Images]

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/corbis/corbis-10271485.jpg

Silver Torah Case

Modern Israel] [Images]

Link: http://www.silversmiths.com/products/Silver%20Torah%20Case.htm

Clothing and Dress for Women in the Art of Ancient Greece

[Ancient Greece] [Images]

Link: http://www.fjkluth.com/cloth.html

Storage and Cooking at Karanis

A Taste of the Ancient World: [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

Link: http://www.umich.edu/~kelseydb/Exhibits/Food/text/store.html

Silver Torah Case (Closed)

Modern Israel] [Images]

Link: http://www.carolinaarts.com/301ncmus.html

Sinai Area Images

Including Satellite Photos [Ancient Israel] [Images]

Link: http://sinai.home.mindspring.com/SINAIEX.html

Empires and Cities (Ancient Israel)

Until this section is finished being indexed into the main database you can click here to see a list of links including the Bible History Online general resources on this subject, although many of these links are outdated. [Ancient Israel]

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/ah_isrl.htm

Internet Resources for the Study of Judaism and Christianity

This page lists a number of sites on the Internet that are useful for the study of Judaism and Christianity. Jay Treat UPenn

Link: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rs/resources.html

Galilee, Samaria, and Judea in the First Cent. AD

Josephus (37- after 93 CE): from The Jewish War

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/josephus-wara.html

Inscriptions from the Land of Israel

Inscriptions from the Land of Israel: Michael L. Satlow. This project seeks to collect and make available all the inscriptions from the Land of Israel that date from the Hellenistic period (c. 330 BCE) through the Persian conquest (614 C.E.). These inscriptions were written and carved in stone (and other durable materials) and inlaid in mosaics. They were written in Hebrew, Aramaic, Latin, and Greek by Jews, Christians, and pagans. [University of Virginia]

Link: http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/mls4n/

Colby-related Archaeological Projects in Israel

Colby-related Archaeological Projects in Israel: Department of Religious Studies; Colby College, Waterville, Maine 04901. "Archaeology at Colby College draws together faculty and students from the Departments of Religious Studies, Anthropology, Classics, and Geology in an interdisciplinary collaboration which has proved to be both stimulating and rewarding. This page offers to interested readers some recent reports of archaeological work conducted by Colby College students and staff in Israel. This resource is experimental and still under development however we anticipate that new materials will be added regularly."

Link: http://www.colby.edu/rel/archaeology/Israel.htm

Tel Dor Archaeological Expedition

Videos from 2007-2008 Expeditions

Link: http://www.jca.co.za/my%20contents/DOR%202008%20WEBSITE%201_files/Page895.htm

Nahal Tillah: Regional Archaeological Project in Israel

Nahal Tillah: Regional Archaeological Project in Israel. "This project will obtain new archaeological data from southern Israel to examine the role of early Egyptian civilization in the rise of urban communities in the southern Levant during the late 4th-3rd millennium BC." [Univ. of Southern California at San Diego]

Link: http://weber.ucsd.edu/Depts/Anthro/classes/tlevy/Tillah/

Caesarea Expeditions

The official home of the Combined Caesarea Expeditions, an amphibious research project that joins excavation of the terrestrial remains of Caesarea Maritima with underwater investigation of the site's ancient harbor.

Link: http://park.org/Canada/Museum/caesarea/CaesareaHome.html

Caesarea Expeditions

Construction of the Harbour Mole. The official home of the Combined Caesarea Expeditions, an amphibious research project that joins excavation of the terrestrial remains of Caesarea Maritima with underwater investigation of the site's ancient harbor. The University of Maryland and the University of Haifa sponsor the project, along with a group of distinguished participating institutions.

Link: http://australis.www2.50megs.com/caesarea/mole.html

Ioudaios Review

Archived issues of IOUDAIOS REVIEW. Primarily concerned with Judaism in the Greco-Roman period, although some reviews on early Christian studies are also available.

Link: http://www.lehigh.edu/lists/ioudaios-review

Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs

"The new website of the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, maintained by its Information Division, provides a broad range of information about Israel and its people, and comprehensive material on Israeli government, policies and foreign relations. "

Link: http://www.israel-mfa.gov.il/mfa/home.asp

Israel from the Air [At israel.gov]

Israel from the Air [At israel.gov] Pictures of archeological sites derived from the many peoples who built and ruled upon this land. Pictures of David's city, Masada, Acre, Meggido, Qumran, among others. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Link: http://israelviews.com/photos/Aerial_Photography/

Inscribed Ossuary

Jordan: Jifna; ca. 70 B.C.- 70 A.D. Limestone. Oriental Museum. Gift of Dr. Harold H. Willoughby, 1953. "The name "Yo-ezer the scribe" is inscribed on one end of this ossuary, a repository for bones. Around the end of the 1st century B.C., Jewish burial practices changed from primary burial in wooden coffins to secondary burial in small limestone caskets such as this one. The body seems first to have been buried in a pit until only the bones remained. These were then gathered up and transferred to the ossuary, which was placed in a rock-hewn communal tomb. This ossuary is decorated with incised geometric designs. The Hebrew inscription on the side reads "Yo-ezer, son of Yehohanan, the scribe."

Link: https://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/HIGH/OIM_A29791.html

Four-Horned Incense Altar

Israel: Megiddo, Stratum VA-IVB; Iron Age IIA, 10th century B.C. Limestone. Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1926. "Horned altars are described in the Bible and have been discovered at many Iron Age Israelite sites. This example is probably too small to have been used for animal sacrifice, but may have served for the other three types of offerings known to have been made: wine, incense, and grain meal mixed with oil. The Megiddo stratum in which this altar was found was characterized by large public structures and is generally thought to have been built by King Solomon. It included a four-entryway gate and a well-built double or "casemate" wall."

Link: https://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/HIGH/OIM_A13201.html

Gaming Board

Israel: Megiddo, Stratum VIIA; Late Bronze Age II, 13th century B.C. Ivory inlaid with gold and blue paste. Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1936-7. "Two types of gaming boards are found among the Megiddo ivories- one for the "game of 58 holes" and the other for the "game of 20 squares." This is one of four similarly-shaped gaming boards for the "game of 58 holes." Every fifth hole, as well as the central panel, was once inlaid with gold and blue paste. "Studs" of gold leaf found alongside the board may have capped the pegs used to play the game."

Link: https://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/HIGH/OIM_A22254.html

Griffin Plaque

Israel: Megiddo, Stratum VIIA; Late Bronze Age II, 13th century B.C. Ivory. Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1936-7. "This plaque is one of a group of ivories discovered at Megiddo in a semi-subterranean chamber that archaeologists called the "treasury," within a large building that may have been a palace. It bears the figure of a reclining griffin-a composite creature with a lion's body and a bird's head and wings. This motif is borrowed from the art of the Mycenaeans, but it is uncertain whether the object itself was made by a Mycenaean craftsman settled in Asia, by a local ivory carver imitating Mycenaean prototypes, or was imported directly from Greece."

Link: https://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/HIGH/OIM_A22212.html

Oil Lamp

Israel: Megiddo, Stratum III; Iron Age IIC, 8th century B.C. Baked clay. Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1925-34. "Lamps such as this one consist of a bowl to hold fuel, which was usually olive oil, and a spout to support a wick, which was probably made of flax. The burning wick blackened the spout and must have produced a rather smoky light. The shape of these lamps changed over time, going from an open bowl with four pinched spouts to the one-spouted type shown here and, finally, to a closed lamp with a single spout. These differences in shape are one type of evidence used by archaeologists to date the levels they are excavating."

Link: https://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/HIGH/OIM_A28336.html

Three Female Heads

Israel: Megiddo, Stratum VIIA; Late Bronze Age II, 13th century B.C. Ivory. Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1936-7. "These delicate heads belong to a group of ivories discovered at the site of Megiddo, in Israel. They had been stored in a semi- subterranean chamber that archaeologists called "the treasury," within a large building that may have been a palace. Pairs of heads such as these were attached to cosmetic boxes. A dowel inserted behind one head functioned as the hinge for a flat lid; a dowel behind the other served to fasten the lid closed. The heads show traces of Egyptian influence in their heavily curling locks of hair, which are characteristic of the Egyptian goddess Hathor."

Link: https://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/HIGH/OIM_A22263-5.html

Oil Lamp from the Levant

Oil Lamp Hecht Museum

Link: http://research.haifa.ac.il/~hecht/OIL_Lamp.html

The Second Punic War (218-202 BC) Timeline

Almost yearly timeline of events leading up to and through the Second Punic War. Also Livy`s analysis of the causes of the Second Punic War | Causes of the Second Punic War | Timeline of the Second Punic War | Alternative scenarios | After the Second Punic War

Link: http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_punic2.html

Canaanite Statuette

Israel: Megiddo, Stratum VII or VI; Late Bronze Age II, ca. 1350-1200 B.C. Gilded bronze. Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1935-6. "This statuette of a god may have been the cult figure in the Canaanite temple in the ruins of which it was found. Cast in bronze and covered with gold leaf, it is an idol of the type forbidden by the much later Hebrew prophets. The identity of this bearded and enthroned deity is uncertain but is most likely to be El-the chief god of the pantheon and father of the other gods."

Link: https://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/HIGH/OIM_A18316.html

Fragment of a Dead Sea Scroll

Israel: Qumran, Cave 4; 1st century A.D. Parchment and ink. Oriental Museum. Purchased in Jordan, 1956. "This fragment from a Hebrew manuscript was once part of a library of scrolls hidden in caves near the Dead Sea. The parchment texts, wrapped in linen and stored in pottery jars, were hidden in the first century A.D. and recovered between 1947 and 1956, at which time they became known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. The biblical writings on many of these scrolls are the earliest known Hebrew copies of Old Testament texts. The text on this fragment comes from a non- biblical Essene psalter, similar to the Psalms of the Bible."

Link: https://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/HIGH/OIM_A30303.html

Judaism and Jewish Resources

Large index [Mythology and Religion]

Link: http://shamash.org/trb/judaism.html

Best of History Ancient.Biblical Websites

Provides vast resources chosen and rated by the editors [Ancient History]

Link: http://www.besthistorysites.net/AncientBiblical.shtml

Modern Map of Israel

Brought to you by Calvary Chapel Library. Nicely laid out for easy online viewing.

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/israel-modern

Lod mosaic floor Explorations

Images. In course of a salvage excavation initiated in April 1996 in Lod, a very elaborate mosaic floor was discovered. This floor, dated to the third - fourth century A.D., probably adorned the reception hall of a Roman villa. The mosaic floor consists of two colorful rectangular carpets and a broad transverse band separating them. The mosaic contain representations of fishes and birds, wild beasts in hunting scenes, a group of African animals, a marine scene and a krater flanked by two peacocks. Israel

Link: http://israelexplorationsociety.huji.ac.il/new_Encyclopedia.pdf

Maresha Explorations

Images. In the Hellenistic period Maresha was a major town in the Judean lowlands (Shephelah). Its population was cosmopolitan in nature, including Phoenicians, Idumeans, Greeks and probably also Jews from nearby Judea. Extensive excavations in the last decade have revealed its fortifications, private houses and elaborate burial caves. Outstanding is the vast complex of subterranean caves, all cut in the soft limestone. These include hideouts and oil presses, quarries and columbaria (dovecots) - all very interesting to explore. Israel

Link: http://www.archaeology-classic.com/Israel_E/Maresha.html

Coins references/bibliography

Nicely done, in color. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/coins.html

Monastery in Ma'ale Adumim Explorations

Images. Building operations in the new town of Maale Adummim, east of Jerusalem, revealed the remains of a Byzantine monastery, built in the late 5th century CE by Martyrius. Israel

Link: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/History/Early%20History%20-%20Archaeology/Archaeological%20Sites%20in%20Israel%20-%20The%20Monastery%20of

Tiberias Explorations

Images. The city of Tiberias, named after the Roman Emperor Tiberius, was founded in the reign of Herod Antipas, the son of Herod the Great, in 20 CE, with the intention of replacing Sepphoris as capital of the Galilee. Following the Roman urban tradition, Tiberias was a planned city from its inception. As in every Roman city in Eretz-Israel, public buildings were built, both for governmental, administrative, and religious purposes, and as centers for culture and entertainment. Tiberias was inhabited during the Roman and Byzantine periods, and became a Jewish city to which the institutions of the Jewish leadership were transfered to from Sepphoris. After the Moslem conquest the city became the capital of Jund Urdun (Jordan District) and the city became an important administrative center. The city was also inhabited during the Ayyubid, Mameluk and Othman periods. Israel

Link: http://www.tiberiasexcavation.com/

Tyche from the Church of St.Bacchus Explorations

Images. A Byzantine Church was recently excavated east of Shoham. Fragments of a unique marble medallaion portraying Tyche (Fortuna) were found in the excavation area. As far as we know, no similar object has previously been found in a Church. Israel

Link: http://altreligion.about.com/library/graphics/tyche10.jpg

Yodefat Explorations

Images. The site of Yodefat, located in the Western Lower Galilee, is a few miles north of ancient Sepphoris. The site was identified as Yodefat of the Second Temple Period over a hundred years ago. According to Flavius (The Jewish Wars), the town was fortified in fear of the Romans invasion along with 18 other sites. Indeed, Yodefat, led by Josephus, was the first town to be attacked by the Romans. Vespecian and Titus, leading 60,000 legionaries, sieged the town for 47 days until its fall after a fierce battle. The Romans destroyed the town and killed most of its inhabitants. Israel

Link: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/History/Early%20History%20-%20Archaeology/Yodefat%20-%20A%20Town%20in%20Galilee

N.T. Palestine Map and Glossary.

Ancient Israel. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/glossary/ntcities.cfm

Jerusalem Fashioned For A King

Jerusalem Fashioned For A King. Long before the threshing floor of Araunah was ever purchased by David or the Temple of Solomon had ever become a twinkle in Solomon's eye, Jerusalem had long been strategically set apart in the providence of an Almighty God as the city of the great King. Not until the foundations of the great Temple of Solomon were being laid was there even the slightest glimpse of the wealth of resources available below the ground level of the magnificent city of Jerusalem. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/strategic_jerusalem.html

The Influence of the Mediterranean Sea.

The Influence of the Mediterranean Sea. Everything came to Israel by way of the Great Sea. The Roman rule and the procurator who condemned Jesus to death; as well as the Greek language, and that Greek view of life which not only created the ten cities of Decapolis but deeply influenced the more liberal Jews. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/influence_med_sea.html

Ancient City Search

This searches cities of the ancient world and brings up a description about each city. Right now only NT Israel is searchable. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/glossary/search.cfm

Seasons and Months in Palestine.

Everyday life in Israel was largely affected by that which was beyond the control of man, the seasons and the weather. This section contains a brief sketch of the seasons, climate, rainfall, dews, and months of Israel. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/seasons_months_israel.html

Israel, The Center of the World.

Little did the descendants of Abraham, also known as the Hebrews, realize what was in store for them as they entered into the land of Canaan. Their relatively small territory was right in the heart of the ancient world and on the borders of three gigantic land masses, Asia, Africa and Europe. Every great kingdom around them, from the north, south, east and west, along with their conquering monarchs would be confronted with Israel and learn about their people, their laws and the holy Oracles of the One whose kingdom will never pass away. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/israel_the_center_of_the_world.html

Helpful Maps

A growing database of maps for study and teaching. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/helpful_maps.html

Helpful Maps

A growing database of maps for study and teaching. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/helpful_maps.html

The Old Testament - A Brief Overview

This is a very simple overview of the history of the Old Testament. It follows the major people and events of the Old Testament in chronological order. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/

Important Old Testament Dates

Adam to Nehemiah. It follows the major people and events of the Old Testament in chronological order. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/BKA2Dates.htm

The Life of Jesus in Harmony

This information program takes us through the life of Christ in harmony with all four of the gospel accounts. The emphasis is on, "Y'Shua ha Mishiach" - Jesus, the Messiah. Understanding His teachings from a Hebraic backdrop, and examining His life and character in a way that gives insight into the incomprehensible love of a Man among men, One who befriended the most wretched, and felt with the deepest of emotions the beauties and agonies of the human experience. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/jesus/jesusAn_Outline_of_The_Life_of_Jesus.htm

Glossary of People, Places and Events

During the time of Christ. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/jesus/jesusGlossary.htm

Nazareth

During the time of Christ. The little town of Nazareth was one of the loveliest spots in Galilee. Situated on the southeast slope of a hollow pear shaped basin, which descends gradually from the elevated plateau 1500 feet above sea level and opens out through a steep winding way -the stem of the pear-into the plain of Esdraelon, a thousand feet lower. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/jesus/jesusuntitled00000447.htm

Babylonia

The city of Babylon was the capital of the ancient land of Babylonia in southern Mesopotamia. It was situated on the Euphrates River about 50 miles south of modern Baghdad, just north of what is now the modern Iraqi town of al-Hillah. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/babylonia/index.html

The Babylonians

Who were the Babylonians? Where were they from? Why does the Bible mention so much about them? These questions and more are often asked by curious students of the Book of Books, the Bible. One of the main interests in this region of the world is no doubt attached to some of the miraculous events that happened nearby, such as the Garden of Eden, Noah's Ark, the Tower of Babel and the magnificent kingdom built by King Nebuchadnezzar where just his gardens were recorded in history as one of the wonders of the world. In this brief program my intention is to give a general overview of the Babylonians, their people, places and events that have been substantiated as fixed facts in history. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/babylonia/index.html

Images of Herod and Family

Photos from around the net. Browsable directory. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/people/herod/

The Death of Herod the Great

Herod died in 4 BC at the age of 69. The historian, Josephus, describes the death of Herod at great length. Herods life, activities, death and the Herodium. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/ff_herod.htm

Ancient Roman History Timeline

800-146 B.C. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/rome/RomeTimeline.htm

Biblical and Historical Timeline

2090 B.C. to 150 A.D. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/rome/RomeTimeline__Biblical_History.htm

Events in Biblical History

From King David to the Return from the Babylonian Captivity. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/babylonia/BabyloniaBiblical_History.htm

Assyriological Texts

West Semitic Research

Link: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/scholarly_site/assyriological_texts/

Dead Sea Scrolls

West Semitic Research

Link: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/scholarly_site/dead_sea_scrolls/

Elephantine Papyri

West Semitic Research

Link: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/scholarly_site/elephantine_papyri/

The Leningrad Codex

West Semitic Research

Link: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/scholarly_site/leningrad_codex/

Non Semitic Inscriptions

West Semitic Research

Link: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/scholarly_site/non-semitic_inscriptions/

Northwest Semitic Inscriptions

West Semitic Research

Link: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/scholarly_site/northwest_semitic_inscriptions/

Other Papyri

West Semitic Research

Link: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/scholarly_site/other_papyri/

Syrus Siniaticus

West Semitic Research

Link: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/scholarly_site/syrus_siniaticus/

Ugaritic Tablets

West Semitic Research

Link: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/scholarly_site/

Uninscribed Objects and Seals

West Semitic Research

Link: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/scholarly_site/uninscribed_objects/

USCARC Collection

Cuneiform Tablets, Seals & Seal Impressions, Pottery, Statues & Figures, Weights, Plaques. West Semitic Research

Link: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/scholarly_site/uscarc_collection/

WSRP Database

The WSRP Database contains information and search capabilities for West Semitic Research photographs of objects and inscriptions. West Semitic Research

Link: http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/scholarly_site/database/

Israel Exploration Journal

Ancient texts, inscriptions and more. For half a century, the Israel Exploration Journal has been a major interdisciplinary, scholarly forum for current archaeological, historical and geographical research about Israel and its environs. Articles span a broad chronological range, from prehistoric through historical periods. The primary emphasis is the archaeology of Israel: the Israel Exploration Journal is a core journal and primary source of information in this field. Order Online. [Israel Exploration Society]

Link: http://israelexplorationsociety.huji.ac.il/iej.htm

Other Periodicals from the Israel Exploration Society

Excavations, Archaeology, Geography and more. [Israel Exploration Society]

Link: http://israelexplorationsociety.huji.ac.il/others.htm

Judaean Kingdom (coins)

[Ancient Near East] [Coins]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/coins.html

En Gedi Explorations

Images. Ein Gedi was a prosperous Jewish village that was destroyed, together with its synagogue, during the reign of Justinian in the mid-six century A.D. The synagogue was the last in a series built on the site, and like its predecessor of the third century A.D., it was lavishly decorated with floor mosaics. These yielded several inscriptions in Hebrew and Aramaic, a beautiful central carpet with peacocks and birds, and, in front of the north wall, a panel with three menorahs. The building, like all ancient and modern synagogues, was oriented toward Jerusalem, to the north-west of En Gedi. A bronze menorah and pyxis were found next to a semicircular niche in the north wall, which housed the Ark of the Law.

Link: http://mushecht.haifa.ac.il/hecht/archeology/ExhibitionC_eng.aspx?id=6

En-Hazeva -- Tamar Explorations

Images. The site of En Hazeva was excavated recently, revealing the remains of several desert forts, built one atop the ruins of the other, probably in the biblical period (10th-6th centuries BCE), and the later Roman fort of Tamar. Outstanding are the remains of a small Edomite shrine in which numerous cult objects (figurines, incense burners, etc.), mainly of pottery, were found. Israel

Link: http://www.bibleinterp.com/excavations/Biblical_Tamar_Park.htm

Jerusalem, Temple Mount Walls Explorations

Images. Two temples to the God of Israel were built in Jerusalem. The First Temple was built by King Solomon. The Second Temple was built by the Jews who returned from the Babylonian exile, and later replaced by King Herod with a new building. To that end, the entire Temple Mount was rebuilt on gigantic dimensions. Near the southwestern corner of the Temple Mount,, recent archaeological excavations exposed sections of the walls, an adjoining paved street and parts of monumental entrances and staircases. Israel

Link: http://www.thirdtemple.com/TempleMount/gallery.htm

Jerusalem, The 'City of David' Explorations

Images. The City of David is located on the low, southeastern hill of Jerusalem, outside the Old City walls. Here, near the spring of Gihon - the only permanent water source - the first settlement was established in the Chalcolithic period. Later a Canaanite city flourished at the site. It was this particular site that was chosen by King David, around 1000 BCE, to be his capital and the central place of worship to God. Israel

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/areag.htm

Khirbet Qumran Explorations

Images. Khirbet Qumran is a small site, close to the northwestern edge of the Dead Sea. The famous Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in the neighboring caves. The discovery was followed by the excavation of the site, which is believed to be the central site of the Jewish sect who wrote the scrolls (but there are other scholarly opinions as to the nature of the site). Israel

Link: http://www.pohick.org/sts/qumran.html

The Purpose & Heart of the Law

If anyone tries to obey the law with their entire heart and be honest before God, they would inevitably fail miserably, have their pride broken and feel their guilt before God. To break the human spirit of its pride and create a broken heart before God was the deepest purpose of the Law.

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/TAB4The_Purpose__Heart_of_the_Law.htm

Blood Atonement

This is perhaps the most difficult truth for mankind to accept, that the life of an innocent victim would be slaughtered on behalf of the guilty.

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/TAB4Blood_Atonement.htm

Yom Kippur - The Great Day of Atonement

One day each year the High Priest would draw aside the Veil and enter the Holy of Holies to make atonement (Heb. Kafar) and cover the nations sins from the judgement of God and receive forgiveness. It took place on the 10th day of the 7th month, Tishri. By our calendar that would be around the end of September or early October.

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/TAB4The_Day_of_Atonement.htm

The Five Levitical Offerings

The sacrificial system was ordained by God and placed at the very center and heart of Jewish national life. Whatever the Jews may have thought of it at the time, the unceasing sacrifice of animals, and the never-ending glow of fire at the altar of sacrifice, there is no doubt that god was burning into the hearts of every man, an awareness of their own sin. An object lesson that would make your skin crawl was to be an age long picture of the coming sacrifice of Messiah. The sacrifices pointed to Him and they were fulfilled in Him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/TAB4The_5_Levitical_Offerings.htm

The Priest`s of Ancient Israel

The repentant Israelite who had gone through the gate of the tabernacle with his sacrifice and reached the bronze altar had proceeded as far as he dare go along the path of approach to God. Beyond that it was the responsibility of priests to go on his behalf and carry out spiritual tasks in the Holy Place. This they did as representatives for all the people. To them alone was the high privilege of the calling of God to serve him more closely than the congregation of Israel or even then the specially appointed Levites could.

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/TAB4The_Priests.htm

The Consecration of the Priests

The Lord ordained specific ceremonies and sacrifices which required seven days to complete in order to consecrate a priest.

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/TAB4The_Priest.htm

The Garments of the High Priest of Ancient Israel

This section is mostly concerned with a description of the high priest`s ceremonial robes known as the garments of glory and beauty.

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/TAB4The_Priestly_Garments.htm

The Tabernacle of Ancient Israel

Exod 25:1-9 Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying: "Speak to the children of Israel, that they bring Me an offering. From everyone who gives it willingly with his heart you shall take My offering... And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them. According to all that I show you, that is, the pattern of the tabernacle and the pattern of all its furnishings, just so you shall make it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/index.htm

A Glossary of the Tabernacle of Ancient Israel

Aaron, Acacia Wood, Agate, Almond, Amethyst, etc.

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/TAB4Glossary.htm

The Ark of the Covenant

The purpose of the Tabernacle was to house the Ark in which the tablets of the Ten Commandments were placed. The Ark was a 2 ½ x 1½ cubit rectangular wooden chest with its lid being the Mercy Seat with the Cherubim of glory facing one another with wings outstretched. The blood was sprinkled between the judgment angels who were looking down and when they would see the blood the wrath of God was stayed. The Ark was overlaid with pure gold and had a gold crown.

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/TAB4The_Ark_of_the_Covenant.htm

The Mercy Seat

The Mercy Seat was the lid or cover of solid gold on the ark.

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/TAB4The_Mercy_Seat.htm

The Veil

The veil separated man from God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/TAB4The_Veil.htm

The Shekinah Glory

Exod 40:34-35 Then the cloud covered the tabernacle of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle. And Moses was not able to enter the tabernacle of meeting, because the cloud rested above it, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/TAB4The_Shekinah_Glory.htm

The Encampment of the Tribes of Israel

According to the Writings of Moses there were about 600,000 men and also women and children who left Egypt at the exodus. They came out of Egypt in rank and in file and as they journeyed in the wilderness the tribes would camp around the Tabernacle in God-specified locations.

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/TAB4The_Encampment.htm

A view down the Via Dolorosa.

Print by by Hugh Campbell III [Israel Images]

Link: http://www.hughcampbellwesternart.com/holy%20land%20prints%20by%20hugh%20campbell%20Via%20Dolorosa.htm

A view down the Via Dolorosa.

Print by by Hugh Campbell III {Holy Land Expeditions] [Israel Images]

Link: http://www.hughcampbellwesternart.com/holy%20land%20prints%20by%20hugh%20campbell%20Via%20Dolorosa.htm

Still Waters of the Jordan River near the Sea of Galile

Photo [Israel Images]

Link: http://www.holylandnetwork.com/jordan_river/a1.htm

Canaan and Ancient Israel

While many are familiar with the ancient Canaanites and Israelite peoples through stories from the Old Testament of the Bible, this exhibit explores the identities of these peoples in pre-historical times through the material remains that they have left behind.[University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Climate and Fauna of Ancient Israel

The climatic variations are largely due to it being a land hemmed in between the Mediterranean Sea to the west and the Arabian desert to the east. [University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Archaeology of Ancient Israel

Archaeology is the study of people and things from the past. Archaeologists try to discover how a group of people lived, what was important to them, what sort of religious beliefs they had, and how they interacted with their environment and with other groups of people. [University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Excavations of Ancient Israel

Artifacts appearing in the Museum's Canaan and Ancient Israel Gallery were drawn from the Museum's Syro-Palestinian collection of over 15,000 artifacts which came from these archaeological excavations. [University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Glossary of Ancient Israel

Brief glossary of terms relating to ancient Israel and Land & Time, Daily Life and Religion. [University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Bibliography of Ancient Israel

Brief Bibliography relating to ancient Israel and Land & Time, Daily Life and Religion. Includes a few childrens references. [University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Map of Ancient Canaan

The land known as Canaan was situated in the territory of the southern Levant, which today encompasses Israel, the West Bank and Gaza, Jordan, and the southern portions of Syria and Lebanon. [University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Timeline of Ancient Canaan

The dividing of ancient history into chronological periods is the product of modern scholarship. The division between the Bronze and Iron Age marks a significant technological innovation, namely the adoption of ironworking, which over time replaced bronze as the most popular metal for tools, weapons and armor. [University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Home and Family

Daily Life in Ancient Canaan - Includes Bread | Weaving | Animals | Storage | Personal Identity | Writing | Warfare | Glossary | Bibliography | Activities [University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Daily Life in ancient Canaan

Includes Home and Family | Bread | Weaving | Animals | Storage | Personal Identity | Writing | Warfare | Glossary | Bibliography | Activities [University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Economy of Ancient Israel and Canaan

Includes Labor+Crafts | Trade | Phoenicians | Glossary | Bibliography | Activities. Field labor and craft production was of central importance in the lives of ancient Canaanites and Israelites. The economy of both the Bronze and Iron Age populations was dependent on the harvest and the production of valuable trade goods such as metals worked into jewelry or weapons, and ceramics. [Manners and Customs] [University of Pennsylvania Museum]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Religion of Ancient Israel and Canaan

Includes BronzeAge | IronAge | Death | Bible | Glossary | Bibliography | Activities. Religion in the ancient Near East was closely tied to place and politics. Deities were associated with particular places, such as cities and eventually nations. Temples functioned quite literally as the god's house, where the god resided in the form of a cult statue. [Manners and Customs] [University of Pennsylvania Museum]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Bible as Artifact

The Tanak / Old Testament, as we know it today, took shape over a long period of time. In part, scholars have traced this development by studying early manuscripts, which themselves often are archaeological artifacts. [Manners and Customs] [University of Pennsylvania Museum]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Death and Burial

Death, and the proper treatment of the dead, were important issues for both Canaanites and Israelites. Appropriate arrangements included activities perpetuating the name of the deceased, offerings of food and other gifts, and the proper stewardship of family land. Upon death, males, at least, seem to have joined the ranks of their ancestors. [Manners and Customs] [University of Pennsylvania Museum]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Sarcophagi and Tombs

These sarcophagi promote a degree of individuality in death, however, that contrasts with the typical communal type of burial. [Manners and Customs] [University of Pennsylvania Museum]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Bronze Age Temples

The earliest Canaanite temples of the Bronze Age consisted of a broad room, open porch and court. Facing the entrance in the broad room was a stone altar for sacrifices. Over time, temples developed into tripartite buildings, consisting of an entrance porch and a main room with a cult niche, sometimes called the "Holy of Holies." [Manners and Customs] [University of Pennsylvania Museum]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Personal Identity

Little information survives about specific individuals in the Bronze and Iron Ages except in the Bible. Portraits, private letters and diaries are non-existent and biographical statements belong only to kings. Most people were identified by a single name, used in combination with their father's name when specificity was important. Names were often theophoric -- including the name of a god or goddess within them. [Manners and Customs] [University of Pennsylvania Museum]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Warfare

The maintenance of armies and the defense of cities were of the highest concern for the Canaanites and Israelites. Over the course of time, styles of warfare and weaponry evolved in the southern Levant. Fortified cities were built for defense against marauding bands and enemy armies as early as 3000 BCE. Most of the evidence for early warfare comes from "Warrior tombs" of the Middle Bronze Age. Warriors were equipped with a bronze belt, a "duckbill" axe or a narrow, chisel-shaped axe, a spear and a leaf-shaped dagger with a wooden handle and a stone pommel. Large rounded stones were also fastened to handles to create the mace, a primitive blunt instrument. [Manners and Customs] [University of Pennsylvania Museum]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Writing in Ancient Canaan

The maintenance of armies and the defense of cities were of the highest concern for the Canaanites and Israelites. Over the course of time, styles of warfare and weaponry evolved in the southern Levant. The alphabet is the singlemost important and enduring contribution the Canaanite culture has given to later civilization. The simple phonetic alphabet enabled the spread of literacy to the masses, rather than keeping it in the hands of the educated scribes. The earliest writing, dating to the end of the 4th millennium BCE, has been found in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Writing involves the use of a system of signs or symbols to represent the spoken language. In Mesopotamia, scribes recorded commercial transactions on clay tablets. In Egypt, hieroglyphics were inscribed in stone and written on papyrus. The earliest writing took the form of pictographic signs in which pictures were used to represent words and objects. [Manners and Customs] [University of Pennsylvania Museum]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Archaeological Excavations

Tel Beth Shemesh (1928-1933) Tel Beth Shean (1921-1933) Gibeon (1956-1962) Tell es-Sa'idiyeh (1964-1967) Sarepta (1969-1974) the Baq'ah Valley (1977-1981) Artifacts appearing in the Museum's Canaan and Ancient Israel Gallery were drawn from the Museum's Syro-Palestinian collection of over 15,000 artifacts which came from these archaeological excavations.[Manners and Customs] [University of Pennsylvania Museum]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Bread and Grain

In the Bronze and Iron Age, bread was the staple food. Since it was prepared almost every day, bread-making was one of the main activities of a household. People in Canaan and Ancient Israel consumed between 330 - 440 lbs. of wheat and barley per year. An individual typically consumed 50 - 70 % of calories from these cereals -- mostly eaten in the form of bread. Manners and Customs] [University of Pennsylvania Museum]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Weaving & Textiles

Most families in the Bronze and Iron Age wove their own cloth and made their own clothing. Like breadmaking, this was an activity that figured prominently in the daily lives of women. In antiquity, the southern Levant was famous for the weaving of luxurious patterned and colored textiles. [Manners and Customs] [University of Pennsylvania Museum]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Animals in Daily Life

People in the Bronze and Iron Age lived in close contact with domestic animals. Animals provided food, and their care and feeding was an investment and a hedge against hard times. Sheep and goats were the principal herd animals: they are mobile, resilient in drought and provide meat, milk, wool, manure, and leather. Although cattle provide most of these same products and also can be used for plowing, they are not as well adapted to dry conditions and broken terrain. [Manners and Customs] [University of Pennsylvania Museum]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Storage and Pots in Daily Life

In Canaan and Ancient Israel, people depended on storing sufficient food, fodder and seed to sustain them from one harvest to the next, and a little beyond. In the Bronze and Iron Age, people in the southern Levant never developed the kind of centralized storage and redistribution systems common in Egypt and Mesopotamia. [Manners and Customs] [University of Pennsylvania Museum]

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

Augustus Caesar

Augustus (Octavian, Octavius) is very possibly the single most important person in all of Roman history. During his very long and fantastic career, he provided many answers for the major problems of the Republic and his solutions for Roman government remained solid for another three centuries. His system was called the "Principate," and although it had its problems, it brought to the Roman Empire a succession of rulers who controlled an incredibly long period of peace and prosperity, more than Europe and the Middle East had ever known. [Bible History Online]

Link: https://bible-history.com/augustus

The Hazor Excavations

Some past excavation details as well as seasonal reports. a joint project of the Hebrew University, Complutense University of Madrid and the Israel Exploration Society. Currently being excavated are Israelite private and administrative buildings, a Canaanite high place and a large palace. Impressive works of art and four cuneiform tablets - part of Hazor's archives - have been unearthed in the past 6 seasons.

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/reports.htm

The Tax Collectors

The Jewish people were under the yoke of foreign oppressors ever since the Babylonian captivity. During the New Testament times the land of Israel was within the province of Syria and the tax collectors were collectors of Roman taxes, they were extortioners, and very despised. The Jews detested these tax collectors not only on account of their abusive and tyrannical attitude, but because the very taxes that they were forced to collect by the Roman government were a badge of servitude and a constant reminder that God had forsaken His people. The tax collectors were always classed by the people with the harlots, usurers, gamblers, thieves, and dishonest herdsmen, who lived promiscuous, lawless lives. Some of the common terms for the tax collectors were "licensed robbers" and "beasts in human shape." [Bible History Online]

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors

Jewish Literature in the First Century A.D.

Rabbinical Writings, Midrash, Tosefta, Palestinian Talmud, Babylonian Talmud, Mishnah and the Gemara and lots more. [Bible History Online]

Link: https://bible-history.com/jewishliterature

High Priests in the First Century A.D.

As in ancient times, the high priest was the head of the priesthood. After the time of Herod the Great the high priest was no longer the political leader of the people. However, he did remain president of the Sanhedrin. This function, and the fact that the high priest was always chosen from one of the leading aristocratic families in Jerusalem, meant that he still had some influence in the political sphere. As had been customary from Persian times, the high priest was nominated by the foreign power in control, in this period the Romans. The most well-known high priest in the time of Jesus was Joseph surnamed Caiaphas, who held this office from about 18 to 37 A.D. [Bible History Online]

Link: https://bible-history.com/highpriests

The Pharisees

"Pharisee" is from a Greek word (pharisaios) taken from the Heb/Aramaic "Perisha" meaning "Separated one." In the first century A.D. the Pharisees were one of the three chief Jewish sects, the others were the Sadducees and the Essenes. Of the three, the Pharisees were the most separated from the ways of the foreign influences that were invading Judaism, and from the ways of the common Jewish people in the land. [Bible History Online]

Link: https://bible-history.com/pharisees

The Scribes of the First Century A.D.

The Scribes were also called "lawyers" and the "doctors of the law". They were all highly educated from a young age, and at an appropriate time (some say by the age of 30) they were elected to office. They were not only copyists of the law, but they were also the preservers of the oral tradition, which included the commentaries and additions to the law. This oral tradition accumulated over the course of time into a great mass, and was regarded by most to be equal or even greater than the law itself.

Link: https://bible-history.com/scribes

Israel Timeline 1845-1998

This site begins with the Balfour Declaration in 1917 and wraps it up with Stage International in 2002.

Link: http://members.tripod.com/~khaleelee/timeline.html

Israel History Timeline

This site begins with 10,000 BC: first permanent settlements in Israel and ends with 1995: Pro-compromise Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin killed at a peace rally by a Jewish right-wing assassin. Includes photos.

Link: http://www.photo.net/israel/timeline

The Samaritans

In later Hebrew writings the word Samaritan speaks of the people of the district of Samaria in central Israel. They came from intermarriages of certain Israelites with the colonists from Babylon and other parts of Mesopotamia and Syria. These colonists had been placed there by the Assyrian kings Sargon II and Esarhaddon, after the Northern Kingdom of Israel had been conquered and the stronghold at Samaria fell to the Assyrians. It resulted in thousands of Israelites being deported away, never to be heard from again, and colonists being chosen by the Assyrians and placed in Samaria along with a governor. [Bible History Online]

Link: https://bible-history.com/Samaritans

Israel - Timeline

Starts at the 17th century:The Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob - patriarchs of the Jewish people - settle in the Land of Israel. Famine forces Israelites to migrate to Egypt. And ends in 1998:Israel celebrates its 50th anniversary.Israel and the PLO sign the Wye River Memorandum to facilitate implementation of the Interim Agreement. .

Link: http://contenderministries.org/middleeast/timeline.php

Tel Rehov

Recent excavations revealed successive occupational layers from the Late Bronze Age, Iron Age I and Iron Age II. Large and well preserved buildings from two occupation layers were dated to the 10th - 9th centuries BCE. Remains of the Iron Age II city, violently destroyed by the Assyrians in 732 BCE, include an 8-meter-wide mudbrick wall around the acropolis. Evidence of Assyrian slaughter was found in destroyed 8th century BCE houses.

Director: Prof. Amihai Mazar, Hebrew University of Jerusalem. [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: http://www.rehov.org/Rehov/index.htm

Sha'ar Hagolan

The Neolithic village of Sha'ar Hagolan (approx 8000-7500 years ago) is the largest and most important prehistoric art center in Israel. Over 150 art objects, mostly small female statuettes, have been collected from the surface of the site, while c. 50 have been found in recent excavations. This year work will focus on completing the excavation of a monumental building complex in the 'main area', as well as uncovering new buildings in a newly discovered area 450 m. away.

Directors: Dr. Yosef Garfinkel, Hebrew University and Michele A. Miller, Boston University. [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: http://archaeology.huji.ac.il/golan/

Tel Hazor

Canaanite and Israelite buildings north of the Sea of Galilee.

Director: Prof. Amnon Ben-Tor, Hebrew University, Complutense University, Israel Exploration Society, Ambassador University. [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/hazor.html

Tel Dor

Ancient harbor town near Kibbutz Nachsholim, 9 km north of Caesarea. King Solomon's principal port and a major Canaanite, Sea-People, Phoenician, Israelite, Assyrian, Persian, Greek, and Roman city. Since 1980, each summer a joint international team from the Hebrew University, UC Berkeley, UC Santa Barbara and Cornell, resume excavations at the Tel.

Director: Prof. Ephraim Stern, Hebrew University Jerusalem, Israel.
Group directors: Prof. Andrew Stewart, University of California, Berkeley. Prof. Rainer Mack, University of California, Santa Barbara. Dr. Jeff Zorn, Cornell University. Prof. SeJin Koh, Jerusalem University College. Walter Haury, Germany [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: http://dor.huji.ac.il/

Widow's Petition Ostracon

This pottery was discovered with 8 lines of Hebrew text. Legal Petition written around the 9th""7th centuries BCE.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/westsem/petition.html

The Pilate Inscription

The Pilate Inscription [text & interpretation] Language: Latin; Medium: limestone; Size: 82 centimeters high 65 centimeters wide; Length: 4 lines of writing; Genre: Building Dedication Dedicator: Pontius Pilate (praefect of Judea) Approximate Date: 26-37 CE; Place of Discovery: Caesarea, Israel; Date of Discovery: 1961; Current Location: Israel Museum(Jerusalem)

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/latin/pilate.html

Summary of the Torah

The Summary of the Torah by Dr. James D. Tabor. Based on Deuteronomy and Leviticus.

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/torah.html

Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Palestine

Selected texts from Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Israel by Dr. James D. Tabor. ARCHELAUS'S ETHNARCHY IS REDUCED INTO A [ROMAN] PROVINCE. THE SEDITION OF JUDAS OF GALILEE. THE THREE SECTS. THE DEATH OF SALOME. THE CITIES WHICH HEROD AND PHILIP BUILT. PILATE OCCASIONS DISTURBANCES. TIBERIUS PUTS AGRIPPA INTO BONDS BUT CAIUS FREES HIM FROM THEM, AND MAKES HIM KING. HEROD ANTIPAS IS BANISHED. CAIUS COMMANDS THAT HIS STATUE SHOULD BE SET UP IN THE TEMPLE ITSELF; AND WHAT PETRONIUS DID THEREUPON.

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/palestine.html

Josephus on John the Baptizer

Selected texts from Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Israel by Dr. James D. Tabor. HEROD THE TETRARCH MAKES WAR WITH ARETAS, THE KING OF ARABIA, AND IS BEATEN BY HIM AS ALSO CONCERNING THE DEATH OF JOHN THE BAPTIST. HOW VITELLIUS WENT UP TO JERUSALEM; TOGETHER WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF AGRIPPA AND OF THE POSTERITY OF HEROD THE GREAT.

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/palestine.html

Standard Chronology

Standard Chronology according to Judaism by Dr. James D. Tabor. Timeline of events, Ancient Empires, Roman Emperors, and Herodian Rulers

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/chronology.html

Bowls and Jars from Jericho

Bowls and Jars from Jericho (3300-1550 BCE). Courtesy The Michael C. Carlos Museum.

Link: http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/NEAREAST/d&b.html

Ancient Vases from Jericho

Vases from the tomb of the ancient Bronze age IV of the Necropolis of Jericho

Link: http://mv.vatican.va/3_EN/pages/x-Schede/MEZs/MEZs_Sala08_04_035.html

James Ossuary

The James Ossuary is an ossuary, a limestone box for containing bones, which came to light in Israel in 2002. It is claimed to have been the ossuary of James, the brother of Jesus. Its provenance is unknown. Although the Israel Antiquities Authority assess it as a modern forgery, some scholars maintain its historical authenticity. Its discovery was followed in January 2003 by another contentious archaeological "find" soon connected with Oded Golan, the so-called "Jehoash Inscription" (see below). A documentary film The Lost Tomb Of Jesus (2007) makes reference to this ossuary. By 2008, in what has been termed "one of the biggest forgery scandals ever in the history of archaeology", it has become known that an Egyptian, Samah Shoukri Ghatas, had confessed to manufacturing the many items for Oded Golan. Golan, a well-known Tel Aviv antiquities collector, is presently on trial for the forgery. [images] [Israel]

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Ossuary

The Valley of Hinnom- Gehenna

[images] [Israel]

Link: http://www.keyway.ca/htm2002/hinnom.htm

Assyrian Officers

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Assyrian Officers; 8th century BC; bas relief; Pergamon Museum, Berlin.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/assyrians5.html

Assyrian Spearmen

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Assyrian Soldiers #1: Spearmen; bas relief; 8th century BC; Pergamon Museum, Berlin

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/assyrians1.html

Beth Shean Roman period ruins 2

The row of seats to the right are toilets. [images] [Israel]

Link: http://gallery.tourism.gov.il/Pages/DisplayImage.aspx?ImageId=3183

Revadim Quarry

The Lower Paleolithic site of Revadim is located on the Southern Coastal plain of Israel. The excavations during this season revealed two distinct archaeological horizons with extremely high density of artifacts (such as handaxes, scrapers and chopping tools), which can be ascribed to the Late Acheulian. The faunal assemblage uncovered at the site comprises of horses, wild boars, deer, antelopes, wild cats and rodents.

Director: Idit Saragusti, Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University, Ofer Marder, Israel Antiquities Authorty and Dr. Rivka Rabinovich, Dep. of Zoology, Hebrew University. [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/report_detail_eng.asp?id=568&mag_id=112

Tell es-Safi/Gath Excavations Official and Unofficial weblog

Tell es-Safi (Hebrew Tel Tsafit) is a commanding mound located on the border between the Judean foothills (the Shephelah) and the coastal plain, approximately halfway between Jerusalem and Ashkelon. About 100 acres in size, it is one of the largest and most important archaeological sites in Israel. Most scholars identify Tell es-Safi with Philistine Gath, known from the Bible as the home of Goliath and Achish. Major finds from the first few seasons include the discoveries of a 9th century BCE destruction layer with extraordinarily rich remains and of a siege trench surrounding the site, whose date has yet to be determined.

Director: Idit Saragusti, Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University, Ofer Marder, Israel Antiquities Authorty and Dr. Rivka Rabinovich, Dep. of Zoology, Hebrew University. [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: http://gath.wordpress.com/

Shamshi-Adad V

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Shamshi-Adad V; Assyrian Emperor; (reigned 823""811 BC); limestone stele; Pergamon Museum, Berlin

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/king3.html

Tell es-Safi/Gath

Tell es-Safi (Hebrew Tel Tsafit) is a commanding mound located on the border between the Judean foothills (the Shephelah) and the coastal plain, approximately halfway between Jerusalem and Ashkelon. About 100 acres in size, it is one of the largest and most important archaeological sites in Israel. Most scholars identify Tell es-Safi with Philistine Gath, known from the Bible as the home of Goliath and Achish. Major finds from the first few seasons include the discoveries of a 9th century BCE destruction layer with extraordinarily rich remains and of a siege trench surrounding the site, whose date has yet to be determined.

Director: Dr. Aren M. Maeir; Co-Director: Prof. Carl S. Ehrlich [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: http://www.bibleinterp.com/excavations/Gath_Archaeological_2004.htm

Esarhaddon

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Esarhaddon; Assyrian Emperor; (ruled 681""669 BC); stele; Pergamon Museum, Berlin

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/king1.html

Aerial view of Tel Rehov

[Archaeology] [Recent Excavations] [Images]

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-389367.html

Ancient Beehives

[Archaeology] [Recent Excavations] [Images]

Link: http://anthropologynet.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/ancient-behive-tel-rehov-israel.jpg

Row of Ancient Beehives

[Images]

Link: http://anthropologynet.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/ancient-behive-row-tel-rehov-israel.jpg

Tel Rehov Beehive Door

[Archaeology] [Recent Excavations] [Images]

Link: http://damascus-road.info/images/beehives.jpg

Tel Rehov Finding Preliminary Report

[Archaeology] [Recent Excavations] [Images]

Link: http://www.rehov.org/Rehov/publications/index1.htm

Esarhaddon and Vassals

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Esarhaddon; Assyrian Emperor; (ruled 681""669 BC); with Tirhaka (Ethiopian King of Egypt); and Ba'alu (King of Tyre); dolerite stele; 3.22 meters high; Pergamon Museum, Berlin

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/king2.html

Simple Topographical Map of Israel

[Maps] [Israel]

Link: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/7987/maps.html

Assyrian Warrior King

Assyrian Cavalry (bas relief)7th century BC

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/assywk9.jpg

Tel Yarmuth

Located in the Judean foothills, about 30 kilometers from Jerusalem and 5 kms south of the modern city of Beth Shemesh, Tel Yarmuth is a site of nearly 16 hectares (40 acres), consisting of a small acropolis and a large lower city. It is traditionnally identified with the biblical city of Yarmuth (Joshua 10:3). Following an initial season of excavation in 1970 by A. Ben-Tor, of the Hebrew Unviersity of Jerusalem, Tel Yarmuth is excavated since 1980 by a team of archaeologists from the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

Director: Pierre de Miroschedji [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: http://iaa-conservation.org.il/Projects_Item_eng.asp?site_id=25&subject_id=6&id=46

Yavneh-Yam

The coastal site of Yavneh-Yam (Jamneia-on-the-Sea) is located at a wonderful bay along the Mediterranean coast, approximately equidistant between Tel Aviv (Ancient Jaffa) and Ashdod (Biblical Ashdod, Greek-Roman Azotus). Excavations carried out there since 1992 by the Department of Classical Studies, Tel Aviv University have revealed remains from the Bronze age (Second millenium BCE) up to the Middle ages (12th century CE). The site played an important role during the Maccabean wars between Judaism and Hellenism.

Director: Professor Moshe Fischer [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: http://www.tau.ac.il/~yavneyam/

Tel Tanninim

The site is located on the Mediterranean coast, some 33 km. south of Haifa and 5 km. north of Caesarea, at the outflow of Nahal Tanninim 'Crocodiles River'. Excavations since 1996 indicate that Tel Tanninim was occupied in the Persian, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine and Crusader periods. Excavations provide a unique opportunity to investigate a little known Phoenician coastal town, presumably founded by Phoenicians after this part of Israel was ceded to the king of Sidon at the end of the 6th century BCE.

Director: Prof. R. Stieglitz, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.A. [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/report_detail_eng.asp?id=380&mag_id=111

Ein Gedi Excavation (Map)

[Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: http://archaeology.huji.ac.il/eingedi/Map.htm

Maps of the Tel Rhov Dig

[Maps] [Israel] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/7987/maps.html

Ancient Near East Site Maps

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background.

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/INFO/MAP/ANE_Maps.html

Ancient Syria Site Map

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/INFO/MAP/SITE/Syria_Site_150dpi.html

Map of Trade Routes and Empires

Map of Trade Routes and great empires of the 1st Century AD.

Link: http://www.dalton.org/groups/rome/RMap2.html

Topographical Maps of Sites in Palestine

Topographical Maps of Israel. Inscriptions of the Land of Israel: Browse by Maps. This map goes into great detail with AUTOCAD renderings of the site, with links to inscriptions and pictures. Ancient map of Israel

Link: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/shepherd/ancient_palestine_ref_1926.jpg

Topographical Maps of Sites in Palestine

Topographical Maps of Israel. Inscriptions of the Land of Israel: Browse by Maps. This map goes into great detail with AUTOCAD renderings of the site, with links to inscriptions and pictures.

Link: http://www.palestineremembered.com/Acre/Maps/Story584.html

Map of Ancient Jerusalem

Ancient Jerusalem: From the University of Texas Map Collection (not copyrighted) note: Solomon's time.

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/map-of-ancient-jerusalem

HolyLand Model of Ancient Jerusalem

The scale of the Holyland Model is 1:50 (2 cm. = 1m., 1/4 in. = 1 ft.). The model was produced using the same materials that were used in the times of the original construction, such as marble, stone, wood, copper and iron. The model was completed in 1969. The sources used in planning the model were the Mishna, the Tosephtha, the Talmud, the writings of Jesephus and the New Testament. The construction of the model is due to the initiative and resources of Mr. Hans Kroch. The archaeological and topographical data were supplied by Prof. M. Avi-Yonah, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, one of the foremost authorities on the subject. Since construction, the site is continuously updated according to the latest archaeological findings.

Link: http://www.holylandnetwork.com/temple/model.htm

Ein Gedi

Desert oasis located along the shores of the Dead Sea - ancient village built around a synagogue. Site of a Jewish village from the Roman-Byzantine period that subsisted primarily from the production of the expensive, aromatic balsam oil. One of the aims of our excavations is to uncover the village's houses, alleys, and shops and to unravel the secret of its oil production. We shall also explore further evidence for the existence of Essene habitation on a cliff above this village.

Prof. Yizhar Hirschfeld, Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: http://planetnana.co.il/ghadas/

Gamla

Early Roman period town and battlesite on the Golan Heights; excavation of buildings.

Director: Danny Syon, Israel Antiquities Authority [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: http://home.sandiego.edu/~pgeyer/gamla.html/

Sepphoris 2000 season excavation

Founded in remote antiquity, Sepphoris is a major Roman and Byzantine city four air miles from Nazareth. It was the leading city and capital of Galilee and a center of Jewish life and learning into the Byzantine period. Two sessions are planned for 1999.

Director: Dr. James F. Strange, Department of Religious Studies, University of South Florida [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: http://www.colby.edu/rel/archaeology/SEP2000.pdf

Caesarea Maritima

Large Roman city and harbor founded by King Herod, that survived through the Islamic and Crusader Middle Ages. The Combined Caesarea Expeditions is also an amphibious project in the exploration of King Herod's temple to Roma and Augustus which was discovered. Still others will work on a dwelling quarter thought to date from King Herod's time, perhaps the home of Caesarea's earliest Jewish and Christian communities.

Directors: Prof. Kenneth G. Holum, University of Maryland; Profs. Avner Raban and Joseph Patrich, Haifa University. [Archaeology] [Recent Excavations]

Link: https://coursebible.com/books

Map of Iron Age Sites

[Archaeology] [Israel]

Link: http://www.biblemysteries.com/images/philarch1.gif

Time-Line for the History of Judaism

Adopted from the University of Pennsylvania course Religious Studies 014 (R. Kraft, revised Jan 1993)

Link: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/timeline.html

Glossary of terms related to Judaism

This Glossary is based on the GLOSSARY for the Study of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam version 9301 (1993 January), uncopyrightable factual information.

Link: http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/glossary.htm

Branches or Subdivisions of Judaism

In broad historical perspective

Link: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rs/rak/courses/helps/ReligionSubGroups

The Laws Of The Basic Principles Of The Torah

THE TEXT USED FOR THIS TRANSLATION WAS THE RAMBAM LE'AM, PUBLISHED BY MOSSAD HA'RAV KOOK, JERUSALEM.

Link: http://philo.ucdavis.edu/~bruce/RST23/yesodei-hatorah.html

613 Mitzvos

according to Sefer Hamitzvos of Rambam. 248 Positive Mitzvos and 365 Negative Mitzvos.

Link: http://www.spiritrestoration.org/Church/613_Mitzvos.htm

Internet Jewish History Sourcebook

From Paul Halsall/Fordham University. A companion sourcebook to the Ancient History Sourcebook, it covers Jewish history from its origins until the state of Israel. The Internet History Sourcebooks are collections of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts for educational use.

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/jewish/jewishsbook.html

Ba'al Ugaritic god of Storms & War

From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Ba'al Ugaritic God of Storms & War (14th century BC) Louvre Museum, Paris

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/baal.html

Ugaritic god Ba'al

From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Ba'al Ugaritic god of Storms & War; 14th century BC. Bronze & gold statue. Note: The adjective "Ugaritic" is characteristic of the ancient city of Ugarit.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/baal2.html

Aramean Queen (?) with servant

From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Aramean Queen(?)and servant; funerary stele; 8th century BCE (Berlin VA 2995) Pergamon Museum, Berlin. Note: Aramaean is in Latin Aramaeus, from Greek Aramaios, from Hebrew `ArAm Aramaic, ancient name for Syria, a Semitic people of the second millennium B.C. in Syria and Upper Mesopotamia.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/queen.html

The Habakkuk Commentary from Qumran

From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. 1QpHab: The Habakkuk Pesher (The Commentary on Habakkuk from Qumran, Cave 1).

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/1qphab.html

Model of Herod's Temple

From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Model of Herod's Temple; Holyland Hotel, Jerusalem. Note: The model shows Jerusalem as it must have looked in 63 AD., the end of the Second Temple era, just before the Romans destroyed the Temple in 70 AD. The models construction was supervised by Prof. Michael Avi Yonah and was based on descriptions of the city given by Flavius Josephus, the Talmuds, the Mishna, the Tosephtha, recent archaeological discoveries, and contemporary sources. Jesus called this "My Father's House."

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/temple.html

The Hammurabi Stele

THE HAMMURABI STELE. Partially Retold in English, by Stan Rummel, Director of The Humanities Program, Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas. "In the following selections, I have frequently changed the grammar and sequence of words from that of the original text, and I have omitted sections of material, so that what is given will read comprehensibly in English. I have grouped regulations by topical categories for discussion, rather than simply following their numerical sequence." Also includes an image: Detail of the top of the Hammurabi Stele, picturing King Hammurabi coming before the god Shamash.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/hammurabi.html

Megiddo

[images] [Israel]

Link: http://www.tau.ac.il/~archpubs/megiddo/index.html

Megiddo

[images] [Israel]

Link: http://www.tau.ac.il/~archpubs/megiddo/index.html

Ishtar Gate Inscription

Dedicatory Inscription on the Ishtar Gate, Babylon; TRANSLATION (Adapted from Marzahn 1995:29-30)Language: Akkadian Medium: glazed brick Size: c. 15 meters high c. 10 meters wide Length: 60 lines of writing Genre: Dedication Inscription Dedicator: Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylonia (reigned 605""562 BCE) Approximate Date: 600 BCE Place of Discovery: Babylon (near modern Baghdad, Iraq) Date of Excavation: 1899""1914 Current Location: Pergamon Museen (Berlin, Germany)

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/ishtarins.html

The headwaters of the Jordan at Banias.

Banias the source of Jordan River [images] [Israel]

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=835

Gilgamesh Epic

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Gilgamesh Epic Tablet 11: The Flood Narrative ? century BC

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/gilgtab.html

View of the Roman Siege Camp at the foot of Masada.

Very terrifying scene. [images] [Israel]

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=8244

Gilgamesh Epic

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. A scene from the Gilgamesh Epic Tablet 11: The Flood Narrative ? century BC. Gilgamesh (cylinder seal impression).

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/gilgtab.html

A Scene from the Gilgamesh Epic

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. A scene from the Gilgamesh Epic Tablet 11: The Flood Narrative ? century BC. Gilgamesh (cylinder seal impression).

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/gilgtab.html

Ashkelon

From David Schloen at Harvard, and ABZU and the Oriental Institute, discussion of the recent discoveries at this Canaanite, Philistine, and Phoenician occupation.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/pubs/nn/spr95_ash.html

ASHKELON EXCAVATIONS

Professor Lawrence E. Stager Harvard University Ashkelon Excavations The Semitic Museum

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/ASH/Ashkelon.html

Atlit-Yam

Underwater archaeology of a pre-pottery neolithic occupation site, an abstract from the Journal of Field Archaeology.

Link: http://www.antiquities.org.il/article_Item_eng.asp?sec_id=14&subj_id=139

Caesarea Maritima

A joint project of the University of Maryland and the University of Haifa, excavations at a city built by Herod the Great between 22 and 10 B.C. to honor the emperor Caesar Augustus.

Link: http://www.usd.edu/~clehmann/caesarea.html

Caesarea

Caesarea update from Israel Museum, Jerusalem. 3D Heritage Recording of Archaeological Sites & Features at Caesarea

Link: http://iit-iti.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/vit-tiv/israel_e.html

Dor Maritime Archaeology Proj. 2000

Underwater archaeology off the coast of Israel includes investigation of a 17th Century Ottoman ship wrecksite, a joint project by the Nautical Archaeological Society, Dor Maritime Archaeological Project, and the Center for Maritime Studies.

Link: http://nasportsmouth.org.uk/projects/dor2000.php

Ein Gedi Excavation

Institute of Archaeology - Hebrew University

Link: http://archaeology.huji.ac.il/eingedi/

En Haseva

An Iron Age fortress, discussed in a Biblical Archaeologist 58(4) 1995 article by Rudolph Cohen and Yigal Yisrael

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/cohen.html

Giv'ot Reved

A Roman period pastoral camp, in the Negev Desert, an abstract from the Journal of Field Archaeology.

Link: http://www.bu.edu/jfa/Abstracts/R/RosenS_20_4.html

Grar

Chalcolithic site, among the earliest versions of pastoralist villages of the Near Eastern fellahin, or peasants; an abstract from the Journal of Field Archaeology.

Link: http://www.bu.edu/jfa/Abstracts/G/GileadI_16_4.html

Khirbet Shema

A reanalysis of the synagogue structures, by Jodi Magness, an abstract from the Journal of Field Archaeology.

Link: http://www.bu.edu/jfa/Abstracts/M/MagnessJ_24_2.html

Megiddo

The city of Armaggedon in the bible

Link: http://www.tau.ac.il/%7Earchpubs/megiddo/index.html

Nahal Hemar Cave

Excavations have identified the earliest glue, dated to 8,310-8,110 BP, an abstract from Archaeology Magazine.

Link: http://www.he.net/%7Earchaeol/online/news/glue.html

Nahal Tillah Archaeological Project

From the University of California at Davis, research on the protodynastic Egyptian presence in Canaan.

Link: http://weber.ucsd.edu/Depts/Anthro/classes/tlevy/Tillah/recent.html

Netiv Hagdud

Early Neolithic village site in the Lower Jordan Valley, article abstract from the Journal of Field Archaeology.

Link: http://www.bu.edu/jfa/Abstracts/B/Bar-YosefO_18_4.html

Rekhes Nafha

Excavations from the Peabody Museum at Harvard, on this late prehistoric pastoral occupation.

Link: http://www.jstor.org/pss/1357713

Sepphoris

Excavation report run by the University of Florida

Link: http://www.colby.edu/rel/archaeology/Glass.html

Zippori

Information on the 1998 field season run by Hebrew University.

Link: http://archaeology.huji.ac.il/zippori/

Tell `Ein Zippori The USF Excavations at Sepphoris

Sepphoris Regional Project, sponsored by Duke University, Wake Forest University and the University of Connecticut

Link: http://www.centuryone.org/sepphoris-site.html

Tell Ein Zippori 1999 Sepphoris Excavation

Sepphoris Regional Project, sponsored by Duke University, Wake Forest University and the University of Connecticut

Link: http://archaeology.huji.ac.il/zippori/1999.htm

Sha'ar Hagolan

Neolithic (supposedly 8000-7500 years ago) village with clay and pebble figurines and incised pebbles, making it the largest prehistoric art center in Israel. Excavations by the Hebrew University.

Link: http://archaeology.huji.ac.il/golan/

Shikhin (Asochis)

Also by James Strange at the University of Florida and others, investigations at this biblical site.

Link: http://www.colby.edu/rel/archaeology/Shikhin.html

Shiqmim

From Israel Museum, Jerusalem, a brief description about this Chalcolithic site.

Link: http://www.anthro.ucsd.edu/~tlevy/shiqmim/publications/Shiqmim2005.pdf

Tell Bethsaida

From the University of Nebraska at Omaha, a report of field school investigations at what was probably a fortified city known as Zer in the Hebrew Bible.

Link: http://www.unomaha.edu/~betsaida/

Bethsaida

Recent investigations description from the Israel Museum, Jerusalem.

Link: http://www.unomaha.edu/bethsaida/

Tel Dan

At a site in northern Israel, several stone fragments were found with highly controversial Aramaic inscriptions. Extensive archeological digs in the area have uncovered much of this ancient city along with the mizbayach that once stood here. Many of the finds can be seen in a museum nearby.

Link: http://www.campsci.com/iguide/tel_dan.htm

Tel Dor Excavations

Excavations at this Canaanite-Medieval occupation site

Link: http://www.artsci.washington.edu/news/WinterSpring04/TelDor...htm

Tel Dor Excavation Proj. Hebrew Univ

Link: http://dor.huji.ac.il/Goldhirsh_fellowship.html

Tell Dothan

Excavated in the 1960s, this project concerns the report publication, partly here on the web. Dr. Robert Cooley of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary.

Link: http://www.gcts.edu/dothan/

testing link

this is a test

Link: http://test.com

Tell el Ifshar

Dynamics of Cereal Production during the Middle Bronze Age, an article by Miriam C. Chernoff and Samuel M. Paley in the Journal of Field Archaeology.

Link: http://www.jstor.org/pss/530636

Tel en-Nasbeh

From Jeffrey Zorn at Cornell, excavations at a site occupied beginning in the Late Chalcolithic, and with substantial occupations in Iron Age and Babylonian/Persian periods.

Link: http://www.arts.cornell.edu/jrz3/frames2.htm

Tel es Safi

From Bar Ilan University, excavations at the historic site of Gath, with archaeological evidence dated to the 9th century BC site

Link: http://faculty.biu.ac.il/~maeira/About%20us/Introduction/Introduction.html

Tel Miqne-Ekron

Recent discoveries a brief description from Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Pottery at Tel-Miqne Ekron

Link: https://www.courses.psu.edu/cams/cams400w_aek11/pottery/Technology/tel_miqne_ware_groups.htm

Tel Tanninim

A field school run by Rutgers University on this site, occupied during the Persian, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine and Crusader eras.

Link: http://www.bibleinterp.com/excavations/Tanninim_032901.htm

Tel Yaqush

An early Bronze Age village, occupied continuously for nearly 1,000 years, excavated by the Oriental Institute.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/projects/yaq/

The Temple Mount

In Jerusalem, Leen Ritmeyer relates his discoveries of the 500 cubit square Temple Mount, built by King Hezekiah, the location of Solomon's Temple.

Link: http://www.ritmeyer.com/2007/10/23/first-temple-remains-found-on-the-temple-mount/

Sacred Geometry

Unlocking the Secret of the Temple Mount. An article in Biblical Archaeology Review by David Jacobson, comparing Ritmeyer and Kaufman`s ideas about the location of the Temple Mount to his own.

Link: http://members.bib-arch.org/publication.asp?PubID=BSBA&Volume=25&Issue=4&ArticleID=4

Yiftahel

Pre-Pottery Neolithic B village, Lower Gallilee, an abstract from the Journal of Field Archaeology.

Link: http://www.bu.edu/jfa/Abstracts/G/GarfinkelY_14_2.html

Tel Halif

The Lahav Research Project, a joint project of the University of Nebraska-Omaha and the Cobb Institute at Missisippi State, occupied from Chalcolithic times through the Israelite period.

Link: http://www.cobb.msstate.edu/dig/LRP-1999-01/

Tel Hazor

The largest biblical-era site in Israel, ongoing excavations directed by Amnon Ben-Tor, Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University.

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/hazor.html

Tel Hazor

The largest biblical-era site in Israel. Tel Hazor a brief description from Israel Museum, Jerusalem.

Link: http://www.imj.org.il/newant/telhazor.html

Valley of Jezreel

A Slide Show. The Jezreel Valley stands between two mountain ranges, those of Galilee in the north and Samaria in the south. Today, several cities stand in this strategic area.

Link: http://www.followtherabbi.com/Brix?pageID=2502

Tel Miqne-Ekron

A joint project of the W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research and others, excavations at one of the Philistine Pentapolis, during Iron Age I and II periods.

Link: http://www.aiar.org/miqneekron.html

Israel

A simple political map, comprehensive data, and flag from the CIA World Factbook. [maps]

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/israel

National Geographic All Kinds of Maps

A great overview map from the National Geographic Society. The World 2000 map is special edition two-sided folded map that shows world as we know it today on one side and the world as it was known over 1,000 years ago. [maps]

Link: http://maps.nationalgeographic.com/maps

Shaded Relief Map of Israel

A large (374.5 K) map of Israel from the PCL Map Collection.[maps]

Link: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/israel_rel01.jpg

Geography and Data

Some Geography facts about Israel from About.com

Thanks: Publix weekly ad, Kroger weekly ad, aldi ad, Walgreens weekly ad

Link: https://coursebible.com/geography/israel

Banias Tomb Temple of the Dancing Goats

Banias. Banias, general view of the Pan sanctuary and the spring area.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-276430.html

Banias Cave of Pan

Banias. Banias, general view of the spring and Pan's sanctuary.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-276356.html

Banias Quarter of Philippe and Agrippa

Banias. Banias - Herodian walls above the springs, built in the Roman technique of `OPUS RETICULATUM'.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-276414.html

Banias (Palace-Underground passage)

Banias. Banias - underground passage from Agrippa's palace.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-276440.html

Banias (Palace-Underground passage)

Banias. Banias - underground passage from Agrippa's palace. Crusader Gate

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-276406.html

Banias (Palace-One) Palace of Agrippa video

Banias. Banias - one of the entrances to Agrippa's palace.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-276358.html

Banias (Palace-The Synagogue)

Banias. Banias - the Synagogue-Mosque building, general view.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-276421.html

Banias (Palace-General) Temple of Pan video

Banias. Banias - general view of Agrippa's II palace.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/videostore/actions-show/id-276368.html

Banias (Banias-Reconstruction) Sanctuary Video

Banias. Banias, reconstruction of the mosque, the Mamluk period.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-276361.html

Banias (Banias-Isometric)

Banias. Banias, isometric reconstruction of Agrippa's II palace.

Link: http://home.att.net/~d.q.hall/caesareaphilippiII.htm

Banias (Banias-Plan) Nahal Hermon Reserve

Banias. Banias, plan of the area of the Byzantine cardo.

Link: http://www.jafi.org.il/education/noar/SITES/banias.htm

Banias (Banias-General plan)

Banias. Banias, general plan.

Link: http://dcl.umn.edu/dcl/show_details?page=3&search=per_page%3D12%26q%3Dv_Site_of_Banias%2Bo_LIKE%2Bf_search_cache_title%26s%3Dr_DESC%2Bf_sear

The Crucified Man from Jerusalem

Among the collected bones in a stone ossuary in a Jerusalem burial cave dated to the late Second Temple period (first century BCE - first century CE), a unique find was made - a small piece of wood with an attached heelbone fragment. The bones in the ossuary were identified as those of a young man aged 24-28, whose name was scratched on the ossuary: Yehohanan ben Hagkol. This heelbone, the only known archaeological evidence of crucifixion in the Roman world, is of particular significance, as it dates to the same time span as the most famous cruxifixion of all - that of Jesus of Nazareth by the Roman authorities. (Israel Antiquities Authority)

Link: http://www.antiquities.org.il/eng//

The Crucified Man from Jerusalem

Among the collected bones in a stone ossuary in a Jerusalem burial cave dated to the late Second Temple period (first century BC - first century AD), a unique find was made - a small piece of wood with an attached heelbone fragment. The bones in the ossuary were identified as those of a young man aged 24-28, whose name was scratched on the ossuary: Yehohanan ben Hagkol. This heelbone, the only known archaeological evidence of crucifixion in the Roman world, is of particular significance, as it dates to the same time span as the most famous cruxifixion of all - that of Jesus of Nazareth by the Roman authorities.

Link: http://www.windmillministries.org/frames/CH14-3A.htm

The Crucified Man from Jerusalem (Heel Bone)

Among the collected bones in a stone ossuary in a Jerusalem burial cave dated to the late Second Temple period (first century BCE - first century CE), a unique find was made - a small piece of wood with an attached heelbone fragment. The bones in the ossuary were identified as those of a young man aged 24-28, whose name was scratched on the ossuary: Yehohanan ben Hagkol. This heelbone, the only known archaeological evidence of crucifixion in the Roman world, is of particular significance, as it dates to the same time span as the most famous cruxifixion of all - that of Jesus of Nazareth by the Roman authorities.

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/photo/img0053.gif

The Crucified Man from Jerusalem (Close View)

Among the collected bones in a stone ossuary in a Jerusalem burial cave dated to the late Second Temple period (first century BC - first century AD), a unique find was made - a small piece of wood with an attached heelbone fragment. The bones in the ossuary were identified as those of a young man aged 24-28, whose name was scratched on the ossuary: Yehohanan ben Hagkol. This heelbone, the only known archaeological evidence of crucifixion in the Roman world, is of particular significance, as it dates to the same time span as the most famous cruxifixion of all - that of Jesus of Nazareth by the Roman authorities.

Link: http://www.civilization.ca/civil/israel/isrel591ae.html

Ancient Roman Nail or Spike

"Crucifixion spikes" are believed to be the type of nails used during the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. This specimens is in great condition, and comes from the well-known David Pierson Collection.

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/courses/NTIntro/LifeJ/crucifheel.jpg

The Crucified Man from Jerusalem (Reconstruction)

Among the collected bones in a stone ossuary in a Jerusalem burial cave dated to the late Second Temple period (first century BCE - first century CE), a unique find was made - a small piece of wood with an attached heelbone fragment. The bones in the ossuary were identified as those of a young man aged 24-28, whose name was scratched on the ossuary: Yehohanan ben Hagkol. This heelbone, the only known archaeological evidence of crucifixion in the Roman world, is of particular significance, as it dates to the same time span as the most famous cruxifixion of all - that of Jesus of Nazareth by the Roman authorities.

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/courses/NTIntro/LifeJ/crucifheel.jpg

18th c. Citadel of Acre

Acre - Eighteenth century Ottoman palace built over the Hospitaller Center (Crusader Fort)

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/Photos12/acrecitadel1.jpg

Akko (Acre) (Acre-Communal)

Hospitaller Center. Acre - Communal Hall. Hospitaller Center Conservation of the Halls

Link: http://www.iaa-conservation.org.il/Projects_Item_eng.asp?subject_id=10&site_id=5&id=14

Preservation Project at Acre Fortress

Hospitaller Center. Acre - Reconstruction of an arch in the Hospitaller Center. (Israel Antiquities Authority)

Link: http://www.akko.org.il/English/AboutFirm/SavingSites.asp

Akko (Acre) (Acre - Reconstr)

Hospitaller Center. Acre - Reconstruction of an arch in the Hospitaller Center.

Link: http://www.akko.org.il/English/AboutFirm/SavingSites.asp

Archaeology Pictures - Media and Image Bank - Sites & Photos

Sites & Photos is a stock media company that specializes in Archaeology and Ancient Art. It has offices in Haifa, Herzliya and Rishon LeZion, Israel. Sites & Photos was founded in 2007 as a joint venture between two Israeli companies - Albatross Aerial Photography Ltd and Reut Sites and Photos Ltd. Albatross is a leading company in the field of artistic and outdoor photography. With a worldwide reputation that has spanned almost 20 years and a rich record of published books, travel, adventure as well as documentary films and photographic exhibitions, it has acquired a wide international customer base spanning many sectors, including the private sector, academic institutions and government ministries. Reut Sites and Photos is an innovative enterprise of stock media pertaining to Archaeology and Ancient Art. It was founded in 2005, after a decade of building its archaeological archive. The joint venture Sites & Photos enjoys the incredible experience and expertise of Albatross in aerial and non-aerial photography, book publishing and film production, and the scientific knowledge, elaborate cataloging system and internet platform of Reut Sites and Photos.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/

Growth of Jerusalem in the 19th century

Over time, the Judean capital city of Jerusalem grew and expanded well beyond the small boundaries of the City of David. At first, the Temple Mount was an addition to the city and was, apparently, fortified in some way (which still remains unknown). Later, the process of expansion "beyond the walls" occured after the population continued to increase. The Bible mentions the names of residential neighborhoods outside the City of David, such as Mishneh (Kings II 22;14) and Makhtesh (Zephania 1;11). The main growth in population occurred around 721 C.E., when the Northern Israelite kingdom of Israel was destroyed by Assyria and the refugees fled to the Southern Israelite kingdom of Judea; and in 701 C.E., when King Sennacherib of Assyria led a military campaign, conquering the coastal cities of the Land of Israel.

Link: http://www.jstor.org/pss/2562086

The Jebusite Foundation

During the 1960's the British archeologist Kathleen Kenyon excavated the eastern slope of the city's hill. She succeeded in exposing, at the middle of the slope, the remains of the solid Jebusite defense wall that King David had to overcome in his conquest of Jerusalem. Only the small section pictured was exposed during the excavation.

Link: http://www.furman.edu/~mcknight/jer2.jpg

Beth She'an Aerial View of Beth shean archaeological site

Beth She'an. Civic center - Distorted vessel from the Ummayad pottery workshop.

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=7859

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Pottery Workshop)

Beth Shean Excavations of Hellenistic Roman And Byzantine Period. Beth She'an. Civic center - Cavalryman, a toy product of the pottery workshop.

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=40

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Eastern Thermae)

Beth She'an. Civic center - Eastern Thermae column facade (in the background. - Propylon

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-198920.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-West Bath house)

Beth She'an. Civic center - The eastern Thermae frigidarium.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-202824.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Eastern Thermae)

Beth She'an. Civic center - Corridor and latrine, at the eastern Thermae. Eastern Bath House

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28371.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Byzantine agora

Beth She'an. Civic center - View into the eastern Thermae.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28371.html

Beth She'an The Agora Temples

Beth She'an. Civic center - The theater temples, view of the western foundations.

Link: http://antiquities.org.il/article_Item_eng.asp?sec_id=17&subj_id=321&id=648&module_id=#as

Beth She'an Roman Theater

Beth She'an. Civic center - The theater temples, the eastern temple complex.

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=13776

Beth She'an Nymphaeum

Beth She'an. Civic center - The theater temples, a lion head waterspout at the nymphaeum.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28398.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Theater temples)

Beth She'an. Civic center - The theater temples, the subterranean vault. Roman Period Temple

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-81227.html

Beth She'an Roman Temple

Beth She'an. Civic center - The theater temples, figurine of a goddess.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-81237.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Theater)

Beth She'an. Civic center - The theater. Roman Theater

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28512.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Theater)

Beth She'an. Civic center - The theater entrances (vomitoria).

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28508.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Theater)

Beth She'an. Civic center - Artist rendering of the theater facade during the Byzantine period (T. Milzen). Roman Theater Excavation Site

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=3272

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Theater)

Beth She'an. Civic center - Artist rendering of the theater facade during the Byzantine period (T. Milzen).

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28510.html

Beth She'an Byzantine Agora

Beth She'an. Civic center - The theater frieze decorated with peopled schrolls.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28328.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Columns)

Beth She'an. Civic center - A ststue which decorated the theater scanea frons.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-198337.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Theater)

Beth She'an. Civic center - A statue which decorated the theater scanea frons. Columns

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-198341.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Theater)

Beth She'an. Civic center - A concert in the Roman theater.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-199019.html

Caesarea Maritima

Caesarea Maritima. Caesarea was the main Roman town of ancient Israel. It was founded by King Herod on the Mediterranean coast, where he created a large harbor. Much of the Roman, Byzantine and Medieval city has been excavated in the last decade. The tourist can now visit the Roman theater and amphitheater, the aqueducts that fed the city with spring waters and also the fortifications of the Crusader fortress.

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/caesarea.htm

Caesarea Maritima (Caesarea - Aerial view)

Caesarea Maritima. Caesarea - aerial view of `King Herod's amphitheater', looking east.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-389108.html

Caesarea Maritima (Caesarea - Puzzle)

Caesarea Maritima. Caesarea - puzzle of colored stone inlays as excavated at the OPUS SECTILE workshop. Caesarea Obelisk

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-446272.html

Caesarea Maritima (Caesarea - Marble statue)

Caesarea Maritima. Caesarea - a marble statue of an anonymous magistrate. Late Roman or early Byzantine period. - Roman Statue

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=13828

Caesarea Maritima (Caesarea - Marble statue)

Caesarea Maritima. Caesarea - a marble statue of an anonymous Roman lady. Herodian theater

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=7110

Caesarea Maritima (Caesarea - Marble statue)

Caesarea Maritima. Caesarea - a marble statue of a Greek philosopher, copy of the Roman period. Roman Statue

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=13829

Caesarea Maritima (Caesarea - Marble votive)

Caesarea Maritima. Caesarea - a marble votive foot from the amphitheater's shrine, the Roman period.

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=7117

Caesarea Maritima (Caesarea - Marble votive)

Caesarea Maritima. Caesarea - wall painting of a deer on the amphitheater's podium wall, the Roman period.

Link: http://www.jewishmag.com/25MAG/CESARIA/cesaria.htm

Caesarea Maritima (Caesarea - Wall painting)

Caesarea Maritima. Caesarea - wall painting of a deer on the amphitheater's podium wall, the Roman period. Medieval City

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-81643.html

Caesarea Maritima (Caesarea - Aerial view)

Caesarea Maritima. Caesarea - aerial view.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-389115.html

Caesarea Maritima (Caesarea - General plan)

Caesarea Maritima. Caesarea - general plan of excavation areas.

Link: http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/pqna18.htm

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Harod stream) Theater

Beth She'an. City Gate - Harod stream running through the city.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-199024.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Roman bridge)

Beth She'an. City Gate - The Roman bridge above the Harod stream.

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=13788

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Martyr Church)

Beth She'an. Churches - The Martyr Church at Tel Iztaba. Northern Street

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28380.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Animal frieze)

Beth She'an. Churches - Animal frieze in the church mosaic floor. Beth Shean Mosaic

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/Photos6/bethshean1.jpg

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-A deer)

Beth She'an. Churches - A deer in the church mosaic floor.

Link: http://www.archaeology-classic.com/Israel_E/Beth_She'an.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Church chancel)

Beth She'an. Churches - The church chancel. Cultic Area

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-198083.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Zodiac mosaic)

Beth She'an. Churches - The zodiac mosaic floor in the Kyrie Maria Monastery. (Israel Antiquities Authority)

Link: http://www.antiquities.org.il/eng//

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Zodiac mosaic)

Beth She'an. Churches - The zodiac mosaic floor in the Kyrie Maria Monastery. Mosaic at beth alpha national park

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=11738

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Athena head)

Beth She'an. Tel Naharon - Athena head, found at Tel Naharon.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-81261.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Aphrodite head)

Beth Shean Theater. Beth She'an. Tel Naharon - Aphrodite head, found at Tel Naharon.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-199050.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Scene from Odyssey)

Beth She'an. Leontis House - A scene from the Odyssey in the mosaic floor of a Byzantine villa belonging to Leontis, a Jewish resident of the city. PILLARS

Link: http://greatcommission.com/israel/BethSheanPillars1.jpg

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Scene from Odyssey)

Beth She'an. Leontis House - A scene from the Odyssey in the Leontis villa mosaics. A synagogue was found in another part of the house. Amphitheater Pillars

Link: http://greatcommission.com/israel/BethSheanAmpitheatrePillars.jpg

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Ariel view)

Beth She'an. Amphitheater - An aerial view of the amphitheater.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-202592.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Valley street)

Beth She'an. Civic center - Fallen columns in Valley Street, result of the earthquake in 749 C.E.

Link: http://www.pbase.com/krakrjaks/image/693498

Beth She'an The Propyleum and Monumental Basilica

Beth She'an. Civic center - Monumental stairs leading to the Temple at the northern colonnaded street and Palladius street junction.

Link: http://antiquities.org.il/article_Item_eng.asp?sec_id=17&subj_id=321&id=644&module_id=#as

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Roman Temple

Beth She'an. Civic center - Fallen columns in northern street, results of the 749 C.E. earthquake.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-81221.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Palladius street)

Beth She'an. Civic center - Palladius Street, view from the mound to the theater.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos...com/catalog/actions-show/id-28407.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Palladius street)

Beth She'an. Civic center - Artist rendering of Palladius Street (L. Belkin).

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28408.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Palladius street)

Beth She'an. Civic center - Mosaic floor inscription commemorating Governor Palladius.

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=13785

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Palladius street)

Beth She'an. Civic center - Artist rendering of the Cigma at the center of Palladius Street west Stoa (T. Milzen).

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-81264...html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Palladius street)

Beth She'an. Civic center - Artist rendering of the Cigma at the center of Palladius Street west Stoa (T. Milzen).

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-198933.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Palladius street)

Beth She'an. Civic center - The Propylaeum at the south end of Palladius Street leading to the western Thermae .

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-202733.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Palladius street)

Beth She'an. Civic center - Artist rendering of Palladius street Propylaeum (T. Mazzula).

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-198121.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Buildings near Northern Street

Beth She'an. Civic center - A Corinthian capital from the Propylaeum with young Dionysos Protoma.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-202620.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Western Thermae)

Beth She'an. Civic center - Aerial view of western Thermae. Ancient Columns

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=14964

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Western Thermae)

Beth She'an. Civic center - Western Thermae plan. Palladius Street And Tell El-Husn At The Archaeological Site In Beth Shean

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=7101

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Civic Center-Western Thermae)

Beth She'an. Civic center - Hypocaust at central Caldarium. Roman Theater

Link: http://photo.net/photodb/photo?photo_id=7114344

Beth She'an Amphitheater Excavations

Beth She'an. Civic center - The Byzantine Agora with the Ummayad workshop on the south.

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=36

Beth She'an Examination of Pottery from Israel

Beth She'an. Civic center - Jars on a shop counter.

Link: http://www.tau.ac.il/humanities/archaeology/projects/proj_lhiiic.html

Beth She'an Nysa-Scythopolis

Beth She'an. Civic center - Coin hoard found in a jar at one of the Agora shops.

Link: http://antiquities.org.il/article_Item_eng.asp?sec_id=17&subj_id=321&id=638&module_id=#as

Beth She'an Remains at Tel Bet Shean

Beth She'an. Civic center - Animals in a mosaic floor at the Agora western Stoa.

Link: http://antiquities.org.il/article_Item_eng.asp?sec_id=17&subj_id=321&id=658&module_id=#as

Beth She'an Church at the top of acropolis

Beth She'an. Civic center - Flasks from the Ummayad pottery workshop.

Link: http://antiquities.org.il/article_Item_eng.asp?sec_id=17&subj_id=321&id=654&module_id=#as

Banias (Banias-Aerial view)

Banias. Banias - aerial view, looking south.

Link: http://dcl.umn.edu/dcl/show_details?page=6&search=per_page%3D12%26q%3Dv_Site_of_Banias%2Bo_LIKE%2Bf_search_cache_title%26s%3Dr_DESC%2Bf_sear

Bet Guvrin (Banias-The amphitheater)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - the amphitheater's arena, looking north.

Link: http://holyland-pictures.com/category/shephela-judea/bet-guvrin/

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-One of)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - one of the audience entrances (vomitoria), looking west.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28030.html

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-An altar)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - an altar, found in the amphitheater's shrine, bearing a dedicatory inscription. Crusader Church

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28087.html

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-the Roman amphitheater )

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - the Roman amphitheater at the foot of the Crusader citadel, looking east.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28036.html

Banias (Banias-Aerial view)

Banias. Banias - aerial view of the civic center of Paneas and the excavation areas.

Link: http://dcl.umn.edu/dcl/show_details?page=7&search=per_page%3D12%26q%3Dv_Site_of_Banias%2Bo_LIKE%2Bf_search_cache_title%26s%3Dr_DESC%2Bf_sear

Bet Guvrin (Banias-The amphitheater) Caves

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin, the amphitheater. Looking southeast.

Link: http://www.pbase.com/costi/beit_govrin

Bet Guvrin (Banias-General view)

Bet Guvrin. General view of Bet Guvrin area, looking east.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-389627.html

Bet Guvrin (Banias-The amphitheater)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - the amphitheater's main southern entrance, looking north.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-389630.html

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-the Roman)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - the Roman amphitheater at the foot of the Crusader citadel, looking east.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28033.html

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-the Crusader)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - the Crusader city wall and one of the watchtowers.

Link: http://sitesandphotos.hadgama.co.il/catalog/actions-show/id-167417.html

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-A vault) Crusader Church

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - a vault, dated to the Crusader period, beneath the citadel.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28063.html

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-A Roman) Crusader Church

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - a Roman vault forming part of the Roman podium.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28061.html

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-A vault)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - A vault forming part of the Roman Podium. Crusader Church

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28069.html

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-remains)

Bet Guvrin. Wine press at Bet Guvrin

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=1398

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-the north)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - the north aisle of the Crusader church, looking east.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28096.html

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-the north)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - the north apse of the Crusader church, looking east.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28095.html

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-general view)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - general view of the remains of the Crusader church, looking east.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-389636.html

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-several Caves)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - several bell shaped caves.

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=4324

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-several bell shaped caves)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - several bell shaped caves.

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=1370

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-one of)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - one of the bell shaped caves. (Israel Antiquities Authority)

Link: http://www.antiquities.org.il/eng//

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-caves)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - one of the bell shaped caves.

Link: http://www.bgu.ac.il/geol/rockmech/betgubrin/gallery.html

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-the Horse)

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - the `Horse Cave'. Columbarium Cave

Link: http://www.travelmania.com/gallery/albums/11/74.aspx

Bet Guvrin (Bet Gruvin-the Horse) Bell Cave

Bet Guvrin. Bet Guvrin - the `Horse Cave', a subterranean cultic site from the Roman period.

Link: http://www.travelmania.com/gallery/albums/11/78.aspx

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Aerial view)

Beth She'an. Tel El Husn - Aerial view of Bet Shean.

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/bethshean.htm

Tel Beth Shean aerial View

Beth She'an. Tel Iztaba - Aerial view of Tel Iztaba.

Link: http://www.rehov.org/project/pic/Beth_Shean_aerial_to_NW.jpg

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Hellenistic quarter)

Beth She'an. Tel Iztaba - The burnt Hellenistic quarter. Sigma mosaic floor

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-198939.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Rhodian Amphorae)

Beth She'an. Tel Iztaba - Rhodian Amphorae standing in a corner. Ancient temple/Egyptian Governor's residence sketch

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-237290.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Northeast gate)

Beth She'an. City Gate - Central Monument. The city's northeast gate, one of six gates built around Roman-Byzantine Nysa Scythopolis

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28338.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Northeast gate)

Beth She'an. City Gate - The city's northeast gate, one of six gates built around Roman-Byzantine Nysa Scythopolis. Structures on the Fortress

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-28475.html

Beth She'an (Scythopolis-Glass workshop)

Beth She'an. City Gate - A glass workshop near the gate. Portal And Column Etc At The Foot Of Tell El-Husn (opposite The Nymphaeum)

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=7102

Akko (Acre) (Acre - The Hospitaller)

Hospitaller Center. Acre - The Hospitaller central courtyard (Israel Antiquities Authority)

Link: http://www.greatmirror.com/index.cfm?countryid=197&chapterid=198&picid=4&picturesize=medium

Akko (Acre) (Acre - Excavation) Crusaders Window

Hospitaller Center. Acre - Excavation of the Hospitaller courtyard.

Link: http://travel.webshots.com/photo/1040932757029182859uztTwN

Akko (Acre) (Acre - Private)

Hospitaller Center. Acre - Private chapel in the Hospitaller compound. Trial excavations and antiquities inspections at the citadel in ʽAkko

Link: http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/report_detail_eng.asp?id=648&mag_id=112

Akko (Acre) Knights Halls

Hospitaller Center. Acre - A window in the Hospitaller chapel. The Crusaders main fortress (castrum) and headquarters, halls and structures are located on the North-West side of the city. Excavations in recent years reconstructed many of the large structures which are located under and south to the Ottoman/British citadel. In this place was the Crusaders' Royal palace and main headquarters after retreating from Jerusalem.

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/sites/KnightsHalls.html

Akko (Acre) (Acre - Hospitaller) Turkish Bath

Hospitaller Center. Acre - Hospitaller refectory.

Link: http://travel.webshots.com/photo/1040932772029182859WZuWmu

Akko (Acre) Citadel of Acre

Hospitaller Center. Acre - Architectural section of the refectory. The Citadel of Acre (Akko) was built on the ruins of the Crusaders fortress on the North-West side of the city. The citadel was the palace of the Governor during the 18th-20th C and later became a large British prison.

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/sites/AcreCitadel.html

Conservation of The Hospitaller Center, Akko

Hospitaller Center. Acre - Architectural details of the refectory. The fortress is located in the northern part of the Old City, next to the city wall. It was the center of the Hospitaller Quarter in Crusader Akko and its construction as a fortified compound was carried out in stages. The conservation measures in the fortress include accompanying the archaeological excavation and overseeing the development in the compound, documenting the condition of the remains and restoration activities, providing solutions to engineering problems in the structure, conservation of existing architectural elements and the restoration of architectural elements utilizing original techniques and materials.

Link: http://www.iaa-conservation.org.il/Projects_Item_eng.asp?subject_id=10&site_id=5&id=17

Akko (Acre) (Acre - Isometric)

Hospitaller Center. Acre - Isometric reconstruction of the Hospitaller assembly hall.

Link: http://www.archaeology-classic.com/Israel_E/Acer.html

Illustration of Akko (Acre)

Old Acre map

Link: http://www.akko.org.il/English/Map/default.asp

Akko (Acre) (Acre - The Hospitaller)

Underground drainage. Acre - The Hospitaller main drainage. One of the row of halls in the fortress

Link: http://www.greatmirror.com/index.cfm?countryid=197&chapterid=198&picid=6&picturesize=medium

Akko Crusader Sewer

Underground drainage. Acre - A segment of the municipal drainage channel.

Link: http://travel.webshots.com/photo/1040932815029182859SxdUBz

Akko (Acre) (Acre - A Segment)

Underground drainage. Acre - A segment of a municipal drainage channel.

Link: http://travel.webshots.com/photo/1040932800029182859gwgecR

Akko (Acre) (Acre - Communal) St. John Church

Domestic quarter. Acre - Communal courtyard.

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/sites/AcreStJohn.html

Templars Tunnel, Acre

Domestic quarter. Acre - A street in the domestic quarter. The Crusaders of the Templars order settled in Acre in the 12th C Ad after the fall of Jerusalem, and built a fortress on the south-west corner of the old city of Acre. They also cut a 350M tunnel into the rock in order to connect the fortress to the port, located on the south-eastern side. The secret tunnel was recently discovered, cleaned and opened to the public.

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/sites/TemplarsTunnel.html

Akko (Acre) (Acre - Two Dwellings)

Domestic quarter. Acre - Two dwellings in the domestic quarter. - Turkish bath

Link: http://www.greatmirror.com/index.cfm?countryid=197&chapterid=198&picid=8&picturesize=medium

Akko (Acre) (Acre - Remains)

Crusader fortifications. Acre - Remains of a Crusader tower.

Link: http://www.jewishmag.com/30MAG/acco/acco.htm

Images around Acre, Israel

Crusader fortifications. Acre - Remains of a Crusader tower. (Israel Antiquities Authority)

Link: http://www.galenfrysinger.com/acre.htm

Akko (Acre) (Acre - A row)

Genoese street. Acre - A row of shops along the street. The Old city of Acre is one of the fascinating old cities in Israel. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Rich in history, spanning from the Greek periods, this ancient city has fascinating points of interest as well as a charming location along the Sea. Acre is well known as one of the main Crusaders cities. (Israel Antiquities Authority)

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/sites/Acre.html

Akko (Acre) Dormitory in Knights Hospitaller

Genoese street. Acre - Sculptured head. (Israel Antiquities Authority)

Link: http://www.greatmirror.com/index.cfm?countryid=197&chapterid=198&picid=3&picturesize=medium

Akko (Acre) (Acre - Colonnaded)

Genoese street. Acre - Colonnaded street.

Link: http://travel.webshots.com/photo/1040924483029182859cUaTZu

Akko (Acre) (Acre - Underground passage)

Underground passage. Acre - Underground passage in the Templar quarter. Mosque w/portico lined with columns from Caesarea

Link: http://www.greatmirror.com/index.cfm?countryid=197&chapterid=198&picid=9&picturesize=medium

Akko (Acre) (Acre - Central chamber)

Underground passage. Acre - Central chamber in the underground passage.

Link: http://travel.webshots.com/photo/1040924167029182859JKgcUV

Akko Khan Al Umdan

Underground water system. Acre - A spring-house.

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/sites/KhanAlUmdan.html

Acre (Akko) Aqueduct

Underground water system. Acre - A conduit. The old city of Acre (Akko) required a steady flow of running water. In the earlier stage of the city, the adjacent Naaman (Belus) river supplied this flow, and was the symbol of the city as minted on the Greek coins. However, when the population grew and the city moved to its present location, a design of an aqueduct was required. This water line was built on an aqueduct, bringing in the water in a straight line from the springs of Cabri, about 12KM away from the city. The aqueduct supplied the water in several lines in the city, and one of them reached to vast underground cisterns the El-Jazar Mosque in the center of the old city. (Israel Antiquities Authority)

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/sites/AcreAqueduct.html

Banias

Banias is the Arabic name for Hellenistic city of Paneas whose name derives from Pan, the Greek god of herds and shepherds. His cult was observed in a large cave at the foot of Mt. Hermon, where a source of the River Jordan emerges. Paneas, was chosen by Philip (King Herod's son) as the capital of his territory, and named Caesarea Philippi (Israel Antiquities Authority)

Link: http://www.ctsp.co.il/LBS%20pages/LBS_banias.htm

Banias

Banias is the Arabic name for Hellenistic city of Paneas whose name derives from Pan, the Greek god of herds and shepherds. His cult was observed in a large cave at the foot of Mt. Hermon, where a source of the River Jordan emerges. Paneas, was chosen by Philip (King Herod's son) as the capital of his territory, and named Caesarea Philippi.

Link: http://www.jafi.org.il/education/noar/SITES/banias.htm

Israel, The Center of the World. Little did

Little did the descendants of Abraham, also known as the Hebrews, realize what was in store for them as they entered into the land of Canaan. Their relatively small territory was right in the heart of the ancient world and on the borders of three gigantic land masses, Asia, Africa and Europe. Every great kingdom around them, from the north, south, east and west, along with their conquering monarchs would be confronted with Israel and learn about their people, their laws and the holy Oracles of the One whose kingdom will never pass away.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/israel_the_center_of_the_world.html

EIKON Image Database for Biblical Studies

The EIKON Image Database for Biblical Studies is a faculty-library initiative at Yale Divinity School that provides digital resources for teaching and research in the field of Biblical studies.

Link: http://research.yale.edu:8084/divdl/eikon/index.jsp

Caesarea Maritima (Caesarea - Marble votive)

Caesarea Maritima. Caesarea - marble votive feet from the amphitheater's shrine, the Roman period.

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=13379

Caesarea Maritima (Caesarea - Roman Theater)

Caesarea Maritima. Caesarea - isometric reconstruction of the Roman Temple Platform.

Link: http://www.sitesandphotos.com/catalog/actions-show/id-446267.html

Caesarea Maritima (Caesarea - Marble statue)

Caesarea Maritima. Caesarea - a marble statue of an anonymous Roman lady. Sarcophagi

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=3685