People - Ancient Rome

Texts - Tacitus on the Emperor Nero

From the Annals, Book XII (48-54 CE) A stepmother's treacherous schemes. From the Annals, Book XIV (59-62 CE) A long meditated crime. Book XV (62-65 CE) A disaster followed.

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Texts - Suetonius on Nero's Suicide

Finally, when his companions unanimously insisted on his trying to escape from the miserable fate threatening him, he ordered them to dig a grave at once, and then collect any pieces of marble that they could find and fetch wood and water for the disposal of the corps. As they bustled about obediently he muttered through his tears: "Dead! And so great an artist!" A runner brought him a letter from Phaon. Nero tore it from the man's hands and read that, having been declared a public enemy by the Senate, he would be punished in 'ancient style' when arrested. He asked what 'ancient style' meant, and learned that the executioners stripped their victim naked, thrust his head into a wooden fork, and then flogged him to death with sticks. In terror he snatched up the two daggers which he brought along and tried their points; but threw them down again, protesting that the final hour had not yet come. Then he begged Sporus to weep and mourn for him, but also begged one of the other three to set him an example by committing suicide first. He kept moaning about his cowardice, and muttering: 'How ugly and vulgar my life has become!' And then in Greek: 'This certainly is no credit to Nero, no credit at all,' and: 'Come pull yourself together, man!' By this time a troop of cavalry who had orders to take him alive were coming up the road. Nero gasped: 'Hark to the sound I hear! It is hooves of galloping horses.' Then, with the help of his scribe, Epaphroditos, he stabbed himself in the throat and was already half dead when a cavalry officer entered, pretending to have rushed to his rescue, and staunched the wound with his cloak. Nero muttered: 'Too late! But, ah, what fidelity!' He died, with his eyes glazed and bulging from their sockets, a sight which horrified everybody present. He had made his companions promise, whatever happened, not to let his head be cut off, but to have him buried all in one piece. Galba's freedman Icelus, who had been imprisoned when the first news came of the revolt and was now at liberty again, granted this indulgence. They laid Nero on his pyre, dressed in gold-embroidered white robes which he had worn on 1 January. The funeral cost 2,000 gold pieces. Ecloge and Alexandria, his old nurses, helped Acte, his mistress, to carry the remains to the Pincian Hill, which can be seen form the Campus Martius. Suetonius: Nero, 49, 50 Note: Gaius Suetonius Tranquilla was a Roman historian under Hadrian (AD 76-138).

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Texts - Suetonius on the Christians

"Because the Jews at Rome caused constant disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus [Christ], he [Claudius] expelled them from the city [Rome]." Suetonius' Life of the Emperor Claudius, chapter 25 (excerpt) "During his reign many abuses were severely punished and put down, and no fewer new laws were made: a limit was set to expenditures; the public banquets were confined to a distribution of food, the sale of any kind of cooked viands in the taverns was forbidden, with the exception of pulse and vegetables, whereas before every sort of dainty was exposed for sale. Punishment was inflicted on the Christians, a class of men given to a new and mischievous superstition. He put an end to the diversions of the chariot drivers, who from immunity of long standing claimed the right of ranging at large and amusing themselves by cheating and robbing the people. The pantomimic actors and their partisans were banished from the city." - Suetonius' Life of the Emperor Nero, chapter 16 (excerpt). Note: Gaius Suetonius Tranquilla was a Roman historian under Hadrian (AD 76-138).

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Texts - Dio Cassius on Nero and the Great Fire 64 A.D.

Dio Cassius (c.155-235 CE): Roman History, 62.16-18 Nero had the wish---or rather it had always been a fixed purpose of his---to make an end of the whole city in his lifetime. Priam he deemed wonderfully happy in that he had seen Troy perish at the same moment his authority over her ended. Accordingly, Nero sent out by different ways men feigning to be drunk, or engaged in some kind of mischief, and at first had a few fires kindled quietly and in different quarters; people, naturally, were thrown into extreme confusion, not being able to find either the cause of the trouble nor to end it; and meantime met with many strange sights and sounds. They ran about as if distracted, and some rushed one way, some another. In the midst of helping their neighbors, men would learn that their own homes were blazing. Others learned, for the first time, that their property was on fire, by being told it was burned down. People would run from their houses into the lanes, with a hope of helping from the outside, or again would rush into the houses from the streets seeming to imagine they could do something from the inside. The shouting and screaming of children, women, men, and gray beards mingled together unceasingly; and betwixt the combined smoke and shouting no one could make out anything. All this time many who were carrying away their own goods, and many more who were stealing what belonged to others kept encountering one another and falling over the merchandise. It was impossible to get anywhere; equally impossible to stand still. Men thrust, and were thrust back, upset others, and were upset themselves, many were suffocated or crushed; in short, no possible calamity at such a disaster failed to befall. This state of things lasted not one day, but several days and nights running. Many houses were destroyed through lack of defenders; and many were actually fired in more places by professed rescuers. For the soldiers (including the night watch) with a keen eye for plunder, instead of quenching the conflagration, kindled it the more. While similar scenes were taking place at various points, a sudden wind caught the fire and swept it over what remained. As a result nobody troubled longer about goods or homes, but all the survivors, from a place of safety, gazed on what appeared to be many islands and cities in flames. No longer was there any grief for private loss, public lamentation swallowed up this---as men reminded each other how once before the bulk of the city had been even thus laid desolate by the Gauls. While the whole people was in this state of excitement, and many driven mad by calamity were leaping into the blaze, Nero mounted upon the roof of the palace, where almost the whole conflagration was commanded by a sweeping glance, put on the professional harpist's garb, and sang "The Taking of Troy" (so he asserted), although to common minds, it seemed to be "The Taking of Rome." The disaster which the city then underwent, had no parallel save in the Gallic invasion. The whole Palatine hill, the theater of Taurus, and nearly two thirds of the rest of the city were burned. Countless persons perished. The populace invoked curses upon Nero without intermission, not uttering his name, but simply cursing "those who set the fire"; and this all the more because they were disturbed by the recollection of the oracle recited in Tiberius's time, to this effect, "After three times three hundred rolling years In civil strife Rome's Empire disappears." And when Nero to encourage them declared these verses were nowhere to be discovered, they changed and began to repeat another oracle---alleged to be a genuine one of the Sibyl, "When the matricide reigns in Rome, Then ends the race of Aeneas." And thus it actually turned out, whether this was really revealed in advance by some divination, or whether the populace now for the first time gave it the form of a sacred utterance merely adapted to the circumstances. For Nero was indeed the last of the Julian line, descended from Aeneas. Nero now began to collect vast sums both from individuals and nations, sometimes using downright compulsion, with the conflagration as his excuse, and sometimes obtaining funds by "voluntary" offers. As for the mass of the Romans they had the fund for their food supply withdrawn.

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Coins and Images of the Emperor Nero

Nero Coin , Agrippina Coin , Nero Bust 1 , Nero Bust 2 , Nero Bust 3 , Nero Bust 4

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Conclusion on Nero

Nero goes down in history as a vicious and crazy man who murdered his mother and his wife, and many others. He had a corrupt ancestry, especially on his father's side, his mother Agrippina was an evil woman, his childhood was perverted and corrupted. He was a glutton, homosexual, murderer and considered insane by many. There's no doubt that he did have a passion for art, but this was clouded by his arrogance and self glorification. He was extremely jealous of anyone suspected of rebellion, and he retaliated in persecution, suppression and murder. For the most part, Nero, was completely despised. Tacitus said: "I began to hate you, when, after murdering mother and wife, you turned out to be a jockey, a mountebank, and an incendiary." (Tacitus annals 15:67). Nero being faced with revolt committed suicide in June of 68 A.D. Ultimately Christianity had been firmly planted throughout the Roman Empire by the apostle Paul during the reign of Nero. In fact Paul must have arrived in Italy during his Third Missionary Journey at around 60 A.D., just a few years before the great fire of Rome and the first imperial persecution of the Christian sect. There is much speculation as to what happened during these few years, but there can be little doubt that the signs and wonders that followed the teaching of Christianity, and the testimony of the Holy Spirit in other cities were also happening in Rome and had reached the ears of those in the palace of Nero. God established His purposes in ways that we cannot understand, and in the midst of circumstances and events that can only be discussed today by searching the Word of God. Every other source cannot be entirely trusted because historians and writers were persuaded in many ways politically and socially. By the time of the destruction of the Temple, or shortly thereafter, all of the Books of the Bible were completed and the early church was established.

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Trusting Under Persecution, A Heart Message

Nero, A Heart Message. TRUSTING UNDER PERSECUTION. When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice; But when a wicked man rules, the people groan. (Proverbs 29:2). Where there is no counsel, the people fall; But in the multitude of counselors there is safety. (Proverbs 11:14). From our vantage point in 21st century USA, the reign of Nero is a safe intellectual study on the consequences of a wicked and prideful ruler. But from the point of view of the average Christian living in Rome during this time period, Nero was an unpredictable despot who at any time might gather them up for a brutal punishment and savage entertainment in a Roman coliseum. It was a horrific time that required a deep faith in the Father who works all things for the good of those called according to His purpose (Romans 8:28), and who hears the cry of the helpless and brings vengeance (Isaiah 35:4). Nero’s attempts to scapegoat Christianity for his own faults caused many followers of Jesus to hold up their heads, walking forward, leaving loved ones, possessions, and life itself behind. They became a spectacle to the watching Roman cosmopolitan world. Their trust in Christ, in the face of torture and death, planted the seeds of redemption deep into the earth, and generations who reaped the good fruit of their sacrifice are indebted to them. Still today, the voices of the martyrs from Sudan to China cry out to the throne room of the Almighty. Nero himself, who had much promise in the beginning, never acquired the taste for wisdom that his original counselors tried to inculcate. When left to his own devices he regressed into a beast like state and was swallowed by his own lusts. Still, God doesn’t rejoice at the death of the wicked (Ezek 33:11). Nero would have been wise if he could have found humility like that of King Nebuchadnezzar, another empire ruler who suffered from temporary insanity, but who finally turned to God and worshipped Him before the end of his life. "And at the end of the time I, Nebuchadnezzar, lifted my eyes to heaven, and my understanding returned to me; and I blessed the Most High and praised and honored Him who lives forever: For His dominion is an everlasting dominion, And His kingdom is from generation to generation. All the inhabitants of the earth are reputed as nothing; He does according to His will in the army of heaven And among the inhabitants of the earth. No one can restrain His hand Or say to Him, "What have You done?" At the same time my reason returned to me, and for the glory of my kingdom, my honor and splendor returned to me. My counselors and nobles resorted to me, I was restored to my kingdom, and excellent majesty was added to me. Now I, Nebuchadnezzar, praise and extol and honor the King of heaven, all of whose works are truth, and His ways justice. And those who walk in pride He is able to put down." (Daniel 4:34,35)

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Augustus Images and Busts

Augustus Coins, Busts and Statues.

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Emperor Nero on Bible History Online

Introduction , Overview , His Birth and Youth , His Mother , Claudius , Senecca and Burrus , Nero Becomes Emperor , Nero's Character , The Great Fire of Rome , The Scapegoats , The Jewish Revolt , Timeline , Historical Writings , Dictionaries , Encyclopedias , Coins and Images , Conclusion

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Introduction to the Roman Emperor Nero

BKA 106 - Nero. This Bible Knowledge Accelerator program contains a very brief overview of the life and history of the Roman Emperor Nero. Nero (AD37-68), fifth emperor of Rome and the last of the Julio-Claudian line. Born Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus on December 15, 37, at Antium and originally named Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, Nero was the son of the consul Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (died about 40) and Agrippina the Younger, great-granddaughter of Emperor Augustus. In 49 Agrippina married her uncle, Emperor Claudius I, and the following year she persuaded him to adopt her son, whose name was then changed. Later, Claudius married Nero to his daughter Octavia and marked him out for succession, bypassing his own son, Britannicus. On Claudius's death (54), the Praetorian Guards, under their prefect Sextus Afranius Burrus, Agrippina's agent, declared Nero emperor at the age of 17. The initial five years of Nero's reign, guided by Burrus and the philosopher Seneca, Nero's tutor, were marked by moderation and clemency, although Nero had his rival Britannicus poisoned. In 59 he had his mother put to death for her criticism of his mistress, Poppaea Sabina. In 62 he divorced (and later executed) Octavia and married Poppaea. Burrus died, possibly poisoned, and Seneca retired. In July 64, two-thirds of Rome burned while Nero was at Antium. In ancient times he was charged with being the incendiary, but most modern scholars doubt the truth of that accusation. According to some accounts (now considered spurious), he laid the blame on the Christians-few at that time-and persecuted them. He sheltered the homeless, however, and rebuilt the city with fire precautions. The building programs, like the spectacles and free grain he provided for the populace, were financed by plundering Italy and the provinces. Viewing himself as an artist and a religious visionary, he scandalized the army and aristocracy when he appeared publicly as an actor in religious dramas. Meanwhile, the empire was in turmoil. Nero established Armenia as a buffer state against Parthia, but only after a costly, unsuccessful war. Revolts broke out in Britain (60-61) and in Judea (66-70). In 65 Gaius Calpurnius Piso led a conspiracy against the emperor; 18 of the 41 prominent Romans implicated in the plot perished, among them Seneca and his nephew, the epic poet Lucan. Poppaea was kicked to death by Nero, and he married Statilia Messalina after executing her husband. In 68 the Gallic and Spanish legions, along with the Praetorian Guards, rose against him, and he fled Rome. Declared a public enemy by the Senate, he committed suicide on June 9, 68, near Rome.

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Brief Overview of the Roman Empire and Nero

The Roman Empire beyond Italy was divided into about 40 provinces (territories), with each province having its own governor who kept order and collected taxes for Rome. He was either appointed by the emperor or named by the Senate. During the first century A.D. the Roman Empire was near its peak with a population of 50-60 million. This was more than 1/5 of the world's population at that time. Jesus lived and died during the period known in Roman history as the Pax Romana or the "Peace of Rome". It was an amazing time in history when the risen Jesus empowered His church to go into all the world to preach the good news of the gospel of Jesus Christ. In fact the apostles journeyed throughout the Mediterranean world which was part of the Roman Empire. They traveled through Roman cities on Roman roads and everywhere that they traveled they came into contact with Rome. Julius Caesar had a dream for Rome but he was assassinated before he could see it fulfilled. The big problem was who would become the next emperor after his assassination. Very few had expected the young Octavian (Augustus) to become the chief heir and new emperor after Julius Caesar, but it was Augustus who turned out to be the most important emperor in all of Roman history. Augustus was very aware of what had happened with Julius Caesar, and desired to avoid the same problems with the Roman Senate. He wanted his stepson Tiberius to be emperor after his death and to make sure that this would happen he began to share his power with Tiberius. When Augustus died in 14 A.D. Tiberius was easily accepted as emperor. In fact this became the new way that emperors would be chosen. Each emperor would choose a successor from among his family or he would adopt someone who he thought would be fit to rule after him. During the 200 years after the death of Augustus, four dynasties (family lines) ruled the Roman Empire. Some of the emperors in each dynasty were somewhat moral emperors and others were horribly cruel. Each of the four dynasties ended with a violent overthrow of an unfit emperor. Augustus’ family line ended in disgrace in 68 A.D. with the Emperor Nero, who came to power when he was a young boy at the age of 17. Nero Claudius Caesar was born in December of 37 A.D. at Antium and reigned as the fifth emperor (Princeps) of Rome, from 54-68 A.D. under the political system created by Augustus after Civil War had finally put an end to the Roman Republic. Throughout the early years of his rule Nero was directed by his tutors (including the famous writer Seneca) and there was peace throughout the Empire. The Emperor Nero loved performing in the Theatre, races and games. He was not respected by the senators or the army. He was criticized by the people of Rome for being more interested in entertaining himself than in governing the empire. However, when his main advisors had either retired, or were dead, Nero revealed his true character. It did not take long for the people to realize that Nero was a tyrant. In 59 A.D. Nero executed his mother, his wife, Claudius’s son Britannicus, and several of his advisors and anyone that opposed him was executed. In 64 A.D. a devastating fire swept through Rome destroying everything in its path. Everyone thought that Nero had started the fire so that he could rebuild a more beautiful city, including his Golden House. According to the Roman historian Suetonius, Nero sang and played the lyre while Rome burned. When Nero felt that the rumor had turned everyone against him he found some scapegoats to bare the blame for the fire, the Christians. He punished them severely and had many of them burned alive or torn apart by wild beasts. It is believed that the apostles Paul and Peter were martyred during this persecution. There were many who sought Nero’s death and in 68 A.D. his own army rebelled against him and various military commanders attempted to seize the throne. The Emperor Nero was forced to flee from Rome and soon afterward he committed suicide. He was the last emperor who was of the dynasty of Augustus (Julio-Claudian dynasty).

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Key People in Nero's Life

- Nero Himself - Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus - Agrippina - Nero's dominating mother - Claudius - The emperor before Nero - Octavia - Claudius' daughter and Nero's first wife - Britannicus - Claudius' son and rightful heir to the throne - Seneca and Burrus - Nero's trusted tutors - Poppaea - Nero's second wife - Galba - General in Spain and the next emperor of Rome

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Important Events in Nero's Life

- The Great Fire of Rome 64 A.D. - The First Imperial 'Persecution' of Christians 64 A.D. - The first Jewish Revolt Against Rome 66 A.D.

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Historical Sources of the Life of the Emperor Nero

The main historical sources about the life of Nero were: - Tacitus Tacitus Publius Cornelius (55-120 A.D. approx.) - Suetonius Svetonius Tranquillus (70-140 A.D. approx.) - Cassius Dio Dion Cassius Cocceianus (155-235 A.D. approx.) - Jewish and Christian Tradition - Archaeology

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Emperor Nero's Birth and Youth

Brief overview of the birth and childhood of the Emperor Nero. On December 15, 37 A.D. Nero was born, his original name was Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus. He was the only child of Julia Agrippina (the great-granddaughter of Augustus), and Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, whose family descended from the ancient nobility and whose father had married a niece of Augustus. Young Domitius had a rough childhood, he was taken from his mother when he was 2 years old, when his uncle Gaius Caesar (Caligula) took the throne sent the Ahenobarbus family into exile around 39 A.D. When Nero was 3 years old his father died. Caligula seized the entire Ahenobarbus family fortune, and the young boy spent many of his early years in poverty. Agrippina raised him with the help of Domitia Lepida, his aunt. His earliest tutors were apparently a dancer and a barber.

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Nero's Mother Julia

Brief overview of Julia Agrippina, the Mother of the Emperor Nero His mother was Julia Agrippina (The Younger) who bore him in her first marriage with Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. Julia Agrippina was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. When Claudius became emperor in 41 A.D. Agrippina (his niece) was recalled from exile and allowed to return to Rome, and her estate was returned to her. In 49 A.D. following the fall and execution of Empress Messallina, Claudius married Agrippina, and many things changed for the young Domitius (Nero). This was Julia Agrippina’s third marriage, she was 34 years old and Claudius was 59 years old at the time of their marriage. This marriage proved to play a big part in the diabolical planning of Agrippina. Claudius was a strong leader and a very influential man, and throughout his life he suffered from some form of cerebral palsy, and this is probably why historians mentioned Claudius as a man with many strange behaviors. Agrippina knew that she could have an influence over the affairs in Rome through Claudius, and his life expectancy played a big factor in her plotting. She convinced Claudius to adopt her son and in 50 A.D. Nero became the probable heir to the throne, even over Claudius's real son Britannicus. Seneca became Nero’s tutor, and in 53 A.D. Nero married Claudius's daughter Octavia. In 54 A.D. Agrippina murdered Claudius by giving him a plate of poison mushrooms, and Nero became ruler at the age of seventeen. By 59 A.D. Nero was fed up with her schemes and ordered her death. This had been the first time and the last time that a woman had ruled Rome.

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Nero and Claudius

Brief overview of Claudius and the Emperor Nero Tiberias Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus (10 B.C.-54 A.D.) was emperor of Rome from 41 A.D. to 54 A.D. He was born at Lyons and his parents were Drusus the Elder and Antonia. From his infancy he suffered from some sort of illness, many think that it was some form of cerebral palsy. His own family thought that it would be impossible for him to have any sort of public career, and they were humiliated by him. Yet underneath the surface was the mind of a scholar and orator. Tiberias and Caligula saw no threat in Claudius, although many others and his family were either executed or went into exile. Claudius had served as consul for Caligula. By 41 A.D. Caligula was assassinated, and the praetorian guard had a difficult time finding a replacement. They chose Claudius and persuaded all of Rome to follow him, even the legions were happy because the brother of Germanicus was on the throne. The Senate had no choice in the matter because they feared the praetorian guard who were rewarded greatly by Claudius. There was never a time in the Roman Empire when the Emperor was given so much power. There were six plots against his life, many of them being organized by the Senators. Claudius had married four times, and after his third marriage to Messalina he swore he would never marry again, and if he did the praetorian guard was to kill him. His first marriage bore him to children Drusus (died in childhood) and Claudia (illegitimate). His marriage to Messalina gave him two more children, Octavia and Britannicus. When Claudius became emperor in 41 A.D. Agrippina (his niece) was recalled from exile and allowed to return to Rome, and her estate was returned to her. In 49 A.D. following the fall and execution of Empress Messallina, Claudius married Agrippina, and many things changed for the young Domitius (Nero). This was Julia Agrippina’s third marriage, she was 34 years old and Claudius was 59 years old at the time of their marriage. This marriage proved to play a big part in the diabolical planning of Agrippina. Claudius was a strong leader and a very influential man, and throughout his life he suffered from some form of sickness, and this is probably why historians mentioned Claudius as a man with many strange behaviors. Agrippina knew that she could have an influence over the affairs in Rome through Claudius, and his life expectancy played a big factor in her plotting. She convinced Claudius to adopt her son and in 50 A.D. Nero became the probable heir to the throne, even over Claudius's real son Britannicus. Seneca became Nero’s tutor, and in 53 A.D. Nero married Claudius's daughter Octavia. In 54 A.D. Agrippina murdered Claudius by giving him a plate of poison mushrooms, and Nero became ruler at the age of seventeen.

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Nero's Tutors, Seneca and Burrus

Brief overview of Nero's tutors, Seneca and Burrus. It wasn't long before Agrippina promoted her son Nero in the imperial household. She had already arranged for him to have excellent instructors, the famous philosopher Seneca the Elder, and also the commander (Prefect) of the Praetorian Guard, Burrus.

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Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Nero's Tutor

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (5 A.D.-65 A.D.) was a poet and a writer, and one of the major literary figures and foremost Stoic philosophers of the first century A.D. He was the son of Seneca the Elder, born in Spain and taken to Rome as a youth. Caligula and the Senate saw Seneca the younger as an incredibly gifted orator and writer. When Claudius became emperor in 41 A.D. he exiled Seneca to Corsica, Spain (the place of his birth). Seneca finally saw the end of his exile when Agrippina The Younger, probably the most powerful person in Rome, called him back to Rome to become a tutor for her son, Nero.

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Sextus Afranius Burrus, Nero's Tutor

Sextus Afranius Burrus was prefect of the praetorian guard during the reigns of Claudius and Nero. According to an inscription became from Gaul, and was recognized for his military leadership. He served as a Tribune, and then as a procurator and private bodyguard for the Empress Livia, and later for Tiberius and Claudius. It was through Claudius that Burrus met Agrippina The Younger, who found him to be useful and trustworthy, and in 51 A.D. she made him the sole prefect of the guard. Burrus returned the favor by supporting Nero over Claudius’ son Britannicus, and Claudius died in 54 A.D. Burrus presented Nero to the cohorts of the praetorians. Burrus also became an advisor to Nero along with Seneca, and together they managed to preserve the Empire from Nero's eccentricities and to break the hold that Nero's mother had on him. She convinced Claudius to adopt her son and in 50 A.D. Nero became the probable heir to the throne, even over Claudius's real son Britannicus. Seneca became Nero’s tutor, and in 53 A.D. Nero married Claudius's daughter Octavia. In 54 A.D. Agrippina murdered Claudius by giving him a plate of poison mushrooms, and Nero became ruler at the age of seventeen.

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Nero Becomes Emperor of Rome

Brief history of the events around Nero becoming Emperor of Rome. Agrippina murdered Claudius in October of 54 A.D. and Nero, with the help of Burrus, was accepted by the praetorian guard and became emperor.

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Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus

Nero became betrothed to Octavia (Claudius' daughter) and he was officially adopted in 50 A.D., and became the most probable heir to the throne, even over Claudius' own son Britannicus. Britannicus was four years younger than Nero and suffered greatly because of his disgraced mother Messalina. Nero’s mother Agrippina moved very shrewdly by appointing Nero as Britannicus' guardian and from that time on the young Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus would be known as Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus. Having assured herself the title of Augusta, and her son the throne, Agrippina murdered Claudius in October of 54 A.D. and Nero, with the help of Burrus, was accepted by the praetorian guard and became emperor. Nero succeeded and gave an inaugural address, probably written by Seneca, in which he promised to bring the empire the same peace and prosperity that existed in the days of Augustus, who exercised his authority in the midst of Republican rule and the Constitution.

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Nero's Peaceful Order

During the first five years of his rule, Nero allowed Seneca and Burrus to run things within the empire. This first five years of Nero's reign were known as the "quinquennium Neronis" which became a legend within the provinces for sound administration and peaceful order. The senate and the consul's powers seemed to get back their ancient functions. They enjoyed more security and initiative than they had known for many years. The coinage from 55 to 60 contained an inscription as a gesture pleasing to the senate. Nero governed wisely in these few years and maintained peaceful order. He prevented provincial governors and certain parties from extracting large sums from the local population to view the gladiatorial shows. He also took measures to improve public order. There were new laws against forgery and many reforms in the area of taxes and provincial administration. Nero made many promises to the senate concerning his plans for judicial fairness and these reforms also marked the beginning of his reign.

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Nero's Ideas of Pleasing the People

Nero had definitely come up with some interesting ideas. For example within the circuses and theaters there would normally be a large number of soldiers (Praetorian Guard) present, but Nero did not think that this gave the people a sense of freedom and at the end of 55 A.D. he had them removed from the games. This turned out to be a bad move because of the rival gangs and fights. The following year the soldiers were reinstated. Nero was not pleased with killing unless it was deserved. In 57 A.D. he built a wood amphitheater for games, gladiator fights, and wild beast shows but he did not allow fighting to the death, even if those fighting were convicted criminals. It wasn’t long before the crowd cried for blood and Nero had to change his policy. Nero soon became very suspicious and a bit paranoid. If he even suspected that someone was hostile to him in any way, he was ready to order their death, but he would not execute someone unless they committed some sort of treason. He did not like to execute people and when he was asked to sign an execution warrant, he would sigh "How I wish I never learned to write." It is interesting that Seneca also did not like the idea of Roman executions. One situation that disturbed Seneca was in 61 A.D., when the city prefect Lucius Pedanius Secundus (a fellow Spanish citizen) was murdered by one of his slaves. According to Roman law (in case of a slave uprising) not only the murderer himself but every other slave in the house had to be killed. Lucius owned four hundred slaves including women and children. Though many protested against the slave executions Nero enforced the law.

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Nero as Emperor

By 62 A.D. Nero was the established authority in Rome. His mother Agrippina was dead, Burrus, the praetorian commander, was also dead. Seneca had retired, Octavia was divorced and murdered. Poppaea was now married to Nero and she bore him a daughter in 63 A.D. Poppaea had been Otho's wife and she had her eyes on Nero and plotted successfully to eliminate Octavia (Nero's wife), and Agrippina. Nero had his mother murdered in 59 A.D. Nero considered himself an artist, although it is doubtful that he had much talent. He devoted his time to poetry, singing on the public stage, and to sport. He desired to replace the gladiatorial games with racing and Greek athletic contests, yet his biggest desires were never achieved. Without those companions who had helped him in maintaining control of the empire, people were about to see Nero's true inward character. Ofonius Tigellinus, the new commander of the praetorian guard, was a bad influence on Nero. Nero also had many character flaws: vanity, greed, cruelty and a lust for power. He regarded the principate as tyrannical and none of his predecessors, he said "had realized what they could do" (Suetonius, Nero, 37). Just like Claudius, Nero began to surround himself with the worst sort of people. The expense wars in Britain and Armenia caused many problems. There was also a deliberate depreciation of the coinage. The hated law of treason (maiestas) was revived and used to destroy the Senate and aristocracy.

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Nero's Character

Brief overview of the character of the Emperor Nero, from his early ambitions to his insanity.

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Nero was Good Looking and Short-Sighted

Nero was described as a very handsome man. He was apparently short-sighted which made him squint often and had a lot of freckles. He had dark blond hair and grayish eyes. He maintained his good health even though he had a big belly and a large neck. note: Presumably Nero was extremely short-sighted. Apparently he had an enormous emerald which he used as a glass to view gladiatorial fights. The Romans believed that emeralds were good for the sight, but Nero's emerald may have been hollowed out to act as a lens to help him see.

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Nero and Agrippina

Agrippina Runs Things – For Awhile. Nero was a confident leader who was very interested in Roman arts and education. When he was young the control of the empire was in the hands of his mother, Agrippina. In fact on the first day that he began to rule he gave the tribune of the guard the watchword "The best of mothers" and she was authorized to handle all of the business of the empire for Nero. Burrus, the prefect of the Praetorian Guard, and his tutor, Seneca were his trusted advisors. During this time and under their direction Rome prospered, but this did not last. Nero both loved and hated his mother, who had been continually trying to dominate him. Slowly as Nero became older and more independent, his mother began to lose power. note: On Roman coins Nero and Agrippina faced each other and on the back was Agrippina's name showing she was more important. Slowly as Nero became older and more independent, his mother began to lose power. The coins showed Nero and his mother facing the same direction and his name was on the back. Relations between Nero and his mother were at their worst. Nero tried to bestow honor on her in several ways, but she scorned him, and made him feel indebted to her for everything. She finally moved out of the palace in 55 A.D. to her own mansion, which was a sure sign that she was losing power. Agrippina suddenly began to show favor toward Britannicus (Nero’s brother) and so Nero ordered his execution. By 59 A.D. Nero was fed up with her schemes and ordered her death. This had been the first time and the last time that a woman had ruled Rome. After Agrippina had left the palace Burrus and Seneca successfully ran the empire. Three years later in 62 A.D. both Burrus and Seneca vanished from the political scene. Burrus apparently died from throat cancer, and Seneca resigned and later committed suicide. Nero appointed two Praetorian Prefects (Faenius Rufus and Gaius Ofonius Tigellinus). Tigellinus was previously exiled by Caligula and Nero called him back to make use of his renowned intelligence skills. With the help of Tigellinus, Nero divorced Octavia and married Poppaea. Tigellinus framed Octavia on an immorality charge and she was exiled to an island and later executed. 62-63 A.D. marked the beginning of the degeneration of Nero's rule.

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Nero's Orgies, Gluttony and Lust

Nero lavished himself in his own power, he used golden thread for his fishing nets, he never wore the same robe twice, he had his mules shod with silver. He was heavily into parties and practiced orgies and gluttony, and his dinners sometimes lasted twelve hours, from noon to midnight. He also murdered his 19-year-old wife so that he could marry his mistress, and then later he killed that mistress. Nero was always interested in the arts, and he was a huge admirer of all things Greek, and he deliberately wore a charioteer's hair style and wore Greek clothing which upset his people continually. Nero was far more interested in writing poetry, acting, dancing, and singing than he was in being emperor. He introduced Greek games and arts contests to the Romans, wrote poetry, played the lyre, and considered himself gifted in them all, including singing (Nero employed the famous lyre player Terpnus to give him lessons). In 64 A.D. at Neapolis Nero performed in a public theater for the first time. He liked to come there and sing for large crowds of people. The first time he appeared on a Roman stage was in 65 A.D. at the second performance of the Neronian Games. Nero was an avid performer but he also suffered from severe stage fright. He was fascinated by civil engineering and architecture. But his big mistakes were that he left his empire unattended, for example he never visited the legionary camps, and he scorned the Senate. When Nero learned of a senatorial conspiracy in 65 A.D. he had the organizers either killed or banished. Seneca, his own tutor, was among them. Whenever there was a hint of treason Nero ordered their execution or forced them to commit suicide. Nero apparently slept with beautiful young women and young boys including Britannicus, his brother. He supposedly also slept with his mother Agrippina and had many physical relationships with men older than himself, and with eunuchs. Nero, according to Dio Cassius, "fastened young boys and girls to stakes, and then, after putting on the hide of a wild beast, attacked them and satisfied his brutal lust under the appearance devouring parts of their bodies". Nero wanted to marry a freedwoman, Acte, but this would have been socially unacceptable for an emperor.

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Nero and Emperor Worship

Nero became even more tyrannical, claiming that he was equal to Apollo and the other gods. He encouraged emperor worship and had a huge statue of himself erected in Rome.

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Nero and The Pisonian Conspiracy

In 65 A.D. some senators concocted the Pisonian Conspiracy to murder Nero in the Circus Maximus, while the games were going on, and then place Caius Calpurnius Piso in Nero’s position. They were found out and Nero went on a rampage to root out any opposition and there were daily executions. In fact all together there were nineteen executions and suicides. Among the ones killed were Faenius Rufus, Seneca, Lucan and Poppaea. Corbulo commited suicide. In 66 A.D. a second wave of executions took place and some of the important men who perished were Caius Petronius, Paetus Thrasea the Stoic, and Barea Soranus. Almost everyone who was suspected of treason was executed including many senators and prefects. This all took place in 66 AD, the same time when the horrible Jewish revolt broke out.

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Nero Frees Greece from Paying Taxes to Rome

Greece – Free from Taxation. In 67 A.D. Nero decided to take a trip to Greece where he participated in a variety of athletic contests and drama spectacles. He was awarded more than 1,800 prizes by the judges. During an oration in the stadium Nero declared Greece free from Roman taxation, though still part of the Roman empire. This was no doubt a huge blunder on Nero’s part and would bring many more revolts.

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Nero’s Death

Even though many revolts were breaking out throughout the empire, Nero did not seem to care. It was only a matter of time, his trusted bodyguards deserted him and he fled for his life. When he left Rome the Senate declared him a public enemy and ordered him arrested. Nero went into hiding and soon realized that there was no hope of escape and saw death as the only answer and cried out "Alas, What an Artist Is Dying in Me." He preferred suicide rather than the usual public flogging which was the standard punishments for any enemy of the state, and Nero said "how ugly and vulgar my life has become! This certainly is no credit to Nero." The Praetorian Guard came for him and he raised a knife to his throat and, according to Suetonius said these words "Hark to the sound I hear! It is hooves of galloping horses." And suddenly, with the help of his secretary Epaphroditus, he slit his own throat. He died in 68 A.D. and the empire was on the verge of Civil War. In fact the Jews in Judea had already begun a revolt.

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The Great Fire of Rome

Brief overview of the events surrounding the Great Fire of Rome. In a hot July summer of 64 A.D., a fire broke out near the Capena Gate (the marketplace near the Circus Maximus) and spread quickly across the entire Circus, and finally it was completely out of control, the fire destroyed nearly half of Rome. The Roman historian Tacitus records the event: "First, the fire swept violently over the level spaces. Then it climbed the hills-but returned to ravage the lower ground again. It outstripped every counter-measure. . . Terrified, shrieking women, helpless old and young, people intent on their own safety, people unselfishly supporting invalids or waiting for them, fugitives and lingerers alike--all heightened the confusion." As the fire blaze out of control some citizens tried every measure to put out the flames. It is told that the citizens were stopped. Also some of the mob lit torches and threw them into the flames to feed the fire. Tacitus make an interesting note about these arsonists who had claimed "they acted under orders. Perhaps they had ... or they may just have wanted to plunder unhampered." Nero heard the news from his Palace at Antium and rushed to Rome just in time to see the Palatine Palace in flames. His newly built mansion, the Domus Transitoria, was nothing but a pile of smoldering ashes. Nero immediately organized a team of firefighters and provided shelter for the panic stricken people who had been left homeless. The fire burned for nine days, leaving 10 out of its 14 regions in ruins, with the loss of many lives. Nero decided that he would place the blame on scapegoats, because there was a dangerous rumor that Nero himself had ordered the fire in order to vandalize the capital city, and to free up space for his new building plans. It is recorded that later he indeed take advantage of the situation and begin planning and building his Golden House. His scapegoats were none other than the Christians, who were already being accused in one way or another within Roman pagan society. This was officially the time that the active persecution of the Christian Church began. At some point soon after it became a crime to bear the name "Christian" and the suppression of the church became state policy. This persecution would last, off and on, for almost three centuries.

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The Christians and the Great Fire of Rome

The Christian Scapegoats and the Great Fire of Rome. It wasn't long before Nero arrived to bring order to the chaos. A rumor had gone forth which accused Nero of starting the fire himself, and had even sang a song from his Palace tower as he watched the flames engulf the city. Nero had also planned in detail for the cities reconstruction but the rumors continued. Nero had to find a way to "suppress this rumor" according to Tacitus. Nero chose the new secret religious sect of the Christians as his scapegoats and punished them severely. They were arrested throughout the empire and "their deaths were made farcical." Nero took pleasure in the Christian persecutions and even offered many of them upon stakes to be burned to death as torches for his parties. According to history many of them were hunted down and tortured, some were sewn into skins of animals and fed to starving dogs while the mob cheered. Even the historian Tacitus, who did not like Christians, objected to the way Nero had made scapegoats of them. The persecution of the Christians under Nero revealed the growing resentment the people had toward the early church. It also revealed that 20 years after the reign of Claudius, the Christians in Rome had become recognized as a distinct group, separate from the Jews.

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Why Did Nero Blame the Christians?

Why the Christians? Christianity was a new religion and did not appear to be very threatening. The Christians refused to participate in pagan rituals and therefore those who practiced them found it very offensive, according to Tacitus. He describes the Christians as "depraved" and says that this religion is "deadly superstition", "mischief", and "shameful practices." Tacitus also indicted the Christians as "not so much for incendiarism as for their anti-social tendencies," and a hidden hatred for mankind, which was a label that had been originally put on the Jews. It is interesting that Tacitus was more than a historian, he was a member of the aristocracy and a friend of several emperors. Therefore his feelings toward the Christians may have reflected also among the aristocrats. Suetonius, a writer and government official, also indicted the Christians explaining that they were proponents of "a new and mischievous religious belief." Before Nero had began persecuting Christians, they were generally non-threatening to the peace of the empire. The main hostility have been brought about by Jewish leaders who had gone to Roman officials about the Christians.

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Nero and The Jewish Revolt

The Jewish Revolt Against Roman Domination. In 66 A.D. the Jews rebelled against Rome. Nero had sent Mucianus to govern Syria, and he detached the current governor whose name was Vespasian to the south to put out this great rebellion in Israel.

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Nero’s Foolish Choices and Suicide

Nero made a foolish mistake, he departed for Greece to tour the country and compete in the games. He made another foolish mistake by ordering his competent eastern general Corbulo and two popular governors of Germany to commit suicide. This Sparked much bitterness in Rome and among the praetorian guard. In the spring of 68 A.D., one of the Gallic governors, Caius Julius Vindex, marched an army against Nero in Spain, and Clodius Macer in Africa. Vindex and his army were put down by Verginius Rufus, the loyal governor of Germany, but the praetorian guard in Rome was loyal to Galba and on June 9, 68 A.D. Nero committed suicide. His last words were "Qualis artifex Pereo" which means "what an artist dies in me"? This has been the subject of much speculation.

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The Jewish War

As previously mentioned Nero did not seem to be very concerned about all the troubles there were happening within the empire, especially within the hot region of the province of Judea. Ever since the time of Tiberias, the Jews in israel had to deal with corrupted governors and they were losing patience. By 66 A.D. the Jews had began to rebel against Rome, in particular the Roman Procurator of Judea - Gessius Florus who’s wife Cleopatra had been a friend of Poppaea, Nero’s wife. A delegation of Jews protested against a pagan sacrifice that was set deliberately in front of a synagogue in Caesarea. Gessius Florus arrested them and later extracted money from the Temple treasury. He then ordered his troops to raid the markets in Jerusalem, and 3600 men, women and children were slaughtered. The Jews around Judea took up arms against the Romans, with the Zealots leading them. For the most part, the Jews and especially their leaders had wanted to maintain peace with the Romans, but the Zealots and the Sicarii (a group of secret assassins) took control of the revolt.

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The Jewish Rebels and the 12th Legion

The Rebels. Herod Agrippa II sent 2000 riders to help out the Jewish leaders in the upper city from the rebels, the lower city was already under rebel control. When Herod's Calvary arrived they were driven out and the archives were set on fire. Apparently setting the archives on fire would encourage the common people to join in a rebellion. They also captured and set fire to the Antonia fortress. It wasn't long before all of Jerusalem was under rebel control. At the end of summer during this rebellion Cestius Gallus, the Syrian governor, dispatched the 12th Legion from Antioch to deal with the rebellion in Jerusalem. When they arrived the Jews, being outnumbered, somehow managed to overcome them and forced them to retreat. The Jews chased after them and slaughtered his entire rear guard, which consisted of about 400 men. It is interesting that at this time the Jews, feeling very triumphant, minted their own coins.

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Nero Sends Titus to Put Down the Jewish Rebellion

Nero Hears Of the Rebellion. When Nero heard about the bitter defeat of the 12th Legion, he dispatched his most able commander, General Titus Flavius Vespasian, to put down the rebellion. Titus Vespasian was a very skilled military strategist and planned his attack starting with Galilee. He arrived with three legions and wiped out the Jewish forces in Galilee. It is interesting that the fortresses had been built by Josephus, who was captured by the Romans and later, as a prisoner, wrote the history of the remainder of the war. Titus then marched his legions down the coast and then moved inward toward Jerusalem. By 68 A.D. Jerusalem was under siege. Nero had committed suicide on June 9th, 68 A.D. and Titus Vespasian was awaiting orders. At this time three emperors came to power and left the throne almost as quickly. Finally Titus Vespasian was named head of the realm. In 70 A.D. he sailed for Rome and left the final siege of Jerusalem in the hands of his son Titus. Titus arrived to the city border at the head of 80,000 soldiers, he brought so many because Jerusalem was a difficult city to capture and heavily fortified. On three sides it is nearly impossible to attack the city which leaves only the North side for the troops to attack, the North contained the heavy fortifications, with their high walls and towers. Titus strategically planned his attack and after a two-week siege, according to Josephus, his troops "became masters of the first wall." Five days later came down the second wall and the legions marched in, but "the Jews, constantly growing in numbers and greatly at an advantage through their knowledge of the streets, wounded multitudes of the enemy." The Jewish victory would not last, for Titus sealed off the city by building a five-mile wall and then killed anyone that touched it. The Jews inside quickly ran short on supplies and became ridden with disease and starvation. Dead corpses filled the city and were finally thrown over the walls. After a month the Roman soldiers had reached the Temple and Titus made an offer to the Jews, he would spare the Temple if the rebels would come out and fight, but they resisted his offer. In fact they even set fire to portions of the Temple rather than allow the enemy entrance. The Roman troops fueled the fires, desiring to see the whole Temple in ashes, this was done against Titus' orders and they could not be stopped. The Temple was destroyed and set on fire never again to be rebuilt. Josephus said: "As the flames shot up, a cry, as poignant as the tragedy, arose from the Jews, who flock to the rescue," he also added: "lost to all thought of self-preservation, all husbanding of strength, now that the object of all their past vigilance was vanishing." The entire city was leveled except for three pillars in the northwest corner. Whoever was not killed was carried off into slavery. When Titus returned to Rome he marched triumphantly through the city bearing the Golden Menorah from the Temple, with hundreds of Jewish captives following behind. Herod's two strong fortresses, Herodium and Machaerus, were also captured. Only Masada was left, the last stronghold of the Zealots, who had captured it in 66 AD. This is where they made their final stand. The new procurator of Judea was Flavius Silva, and he came up with a plan, he built a wall around the base of the mountain and then ordered his troops to build a massive ramp, slowly but surely, until it reached the top of the 300 ft. plateau where the fortress stood. The Romans brought a huge battering ram and rolled up the ramp to crush the outer wall. They then lit a fire which doomed those who were inside. All of the Jews inside committed suicide (about 960 men, women and children) except for two women and five children. The seven-year war had finally come to an end and the Jews lost the Temple, and whoever was left alive was taken into slavery.

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Timeline of the First Emperors of Rome

Timeline of Rome's Emperors from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius.

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Timeline of Events in the Life of Nero

Timeline of Events from 37 AD to 80 AD.
Dates In Nero’s Life
37 December 15 Nero is born.
39 Claudius marries fourteen year old Valeria Messalina.
39 Messalina bears Claudius a daughter (Octavia).
41 Messalina bears Claudius a son (Britannicus).
41 Claudius is Emperor.
48 Execution of Messalina.
49 Claudius marries niece Agrippina the Younger, (daughter of Claudius's brother Germanicus).
49 Seneca is appointed tutor to Nero.
50 Claudius adopts Nero (then, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) as his own son, February 25.
50 The Senate votes Agrippina the title "Augusta."
51 Claudius Consul.
51 Emperor Claudius orders the exile of the Jews from Rome.
53 Nero marries Octavia, Claudius' daughter.
54 Claudius poisoned.
54 Claudius dies (Agrippina probably had him poisoned)
54 Nero becomes emperor at age 17. Seneca and Burrus are his tutors.
55 Britannicus, the son of Emperor Claudius dies during dinner (Nero probably had him poisoned).
58 Beginning of Roman-Parthian hostilities over Armenia.
59 Agrippina the Younger is put to death for criticizing Nero’s mistress.
59 Nero begins to get out of control.
60 Paul the Apostle is in Rome
60 Revolts break out in Britain against Roman rule.
62 Burrus dies, and Seneca retires.
62 Nero divorces Octavia (banishes her and later kills her)
62 Nero marries his mistress Poppaea.
64 The Great Fire of Rome
64 First imperial 'persecution' of Christians;
65 Work begins on Nero’s 'Golden House' (Domus Aurea)
65 Nero's first public stage performance leads to scandals and plots on his life.
65 In the interest of personal security, Nero kills anyone suspected of treason. 65 Seneca is forced to commit suicide.
66 Nero continues to execute any suspected of treason.
66 Outbreak of rebellion in Judea, the first Jewish revolt against Rome.
66 Nero goes on an extended tour of Greece, many theatrical performances
67 Nero makes Judea consular imperial province
67 Nero appoints Vespasian to head campaign against Jews
68 After receiving political pressure about military matters Nero returns to Rome.
68 (March) Revolt of Vindex
68 (April) Galba's troops in Spain hail Galba emperor.
68 (June 9) Nero is forced to commit suicide (end of Julio-Claudian dynasty).
68 The emperor Nero's assassination launches a year of civil war in Rome.
69 Year of the four emperors: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.
69 Vespasian is sole emperor until 79.
70 Siege and fall of Jerusalem under military leadership of Vespasian's son, Titus.
70 Coliseum begun by Emperor Vespasian (funded by Jewish defeat).
77 Josephus publishes The War of the Jews
80 The New Testament writings were completed by this time (Bible closed).
80 The Early Church completed her work (foundation laid).
Note: Paul, James and Peter were executed between 60-68 A.D.

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The Adoption of Augustus Caesar

In 53 B.C., at the age of 12, Octavian delivered the funeral ovation (the laudatio) for his grandmother Julia, which was his first public appearance, and several years later he served in the priesthood. Caesar was to play a determinative role in shaping the rest of Octavius's life. He saw his uncle’s triumph in Rome in 46 B.C. and in 45 young Octavian journeyed to Spain to be with him on campaign. Octavian was not strong physically, he suffered from a variety of illnesses that plagued him his whole life. The trip to Spain was a very dangerous journey. He also suffered a shipwreck and was in a sorry shape when he arrived at Caesar’s camp. But his uncle recognized something unique in him, rewarding his efforts with military training and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 B.C. After a time Octavian was elected to the pontifical college and sent to Apollonia, in Epirus, to study philosophy and the arts of war. He took with him his two dearest friends, Marcus Agrippa and Marcus Rufus. His studies were cut short by the assassination of Caesar in Rome. Octavian was only 18 years old, but the will of his uncle declared him his chief heir and adopted son and not Marc Antony as was expected. Octavian’s position in Rome was now became radically different and bound by the obligation to avenge Caesar’s death. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption but Octavian traveled to Rome. Instead of rash action he found that cautious deliberation would be far more useful. His patience was a characteristic that would mark his later years.

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Brief Background of the Name Octavian

That the empire survived the civil wars that destroyed the republic was largely due to the long life (63 B.C.-14 A.D.) and political skill of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, later known as Augustus. He was the first emperor of Rome and founder of a Roman state that endured for centuries. Gaius Octavian was born on September 23, 63 B.C., to C. Octavius and atia, a niece of Julius Caesar, by his sister Julia. The family of Octavian was a good one, but its alliance to the Julians was far more important, and Octavian came under their direct influence when his father died in 59 B.C. Atia raised him and ensured his education by grammarians and philosophers, but it was Julius Caesar himself who had the most impact upon Octavian, and who had personally prepared him with the greatest opportunities. The Roman world had thought Marc Antony, Caesar’s powerful Lieutenant, would be next in line after Caesar but they were soon to find that Julius Caesar would leave a will naming Octavian, a virtually unknown, as his adopted son and chief heir to his throne.

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Julius Caesar and The First Triumvirate

Julius Caesar served in Spain as proconsul in 61 B.C., a year later he returned to Rome desiring the consulate, the supreme office of power during the Republic. The senators were opposed to him, yet he came up with a brilliant idea. He organized a coalition, known as the First Triumvirate, made up of Pompey, commander in chief of the army; Marcus Licinius Crassus, the wealthiest man in Rome, and himself. Pompey and Crassus were jealous of each other, but Caesar by force of personality kept things going. In 59 B.C. he married Calpurnia. In the same year, as consul, he was in favor of an agrarian law providing Campanian lands for 20,000 poor citizens and veterans, in spite of the opposition of his senatorial colleague, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. Caesar also won the support of the wealthy equites by getting a reduction for them in their tax contracts in Asia. This made him the guiding power in a coalition between people and plutocrats. He was assigned the rule of Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul and Illyricum with four legions for five years (58-54 B.C.). The differences between Pompey and Crassus grew, and Caesar again moved (56 B.C.) to patch up matters, arriving at an agreement that both Pompey and Crassus should be consuls in 55 B.C. and that their proconsular provinces should be Spain and Syria. From this arrangement he drew an extension of his command in Gaul to 49 B.C. In the years 58-49 B.C. he firmly established his reputation in the Gallic Wars. In 55 B.C., Caesar made explorations into Britain, and in 54 B.C. he defeated the Britons, led by Cassivellaunus. Caesar met his most serious opposition in Gaul from Vercingetorix, whom he defeated in Alesia in 52 B.C. By the end of the wars Caesar had reduced all Gaul to Roman control. These campaigns proved him one of the greatest commanders of all time. In them he revealed his consummate military genius, characterized by quick, sure judgment and determined energy. The campaigns also developed the personal devotion of the legions to Caesar. His personal interest in the men (he is reputed to have known them all by name) and his willingness to undergo every hardship made him the idol of the army-a significant element in his later career. In 54 B.C. occurred the death of Caesar's daughter Julia, Pompey's wife since 59 B.C. She had been the principal personal tie between the two men. During the years Caesar was in Gaul, Pompey had been gradually leaning more and more toward the senatorial party. The tribunate of Clodius (58 B.C.) had aggravated conditions in Rome, and Caesar's military successes had aroused Pompey's jealousy. Crassus' death (53 B.C.) in Parthia ended the First Triumvirate and set Pompey and Caesar against each other.

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The Second Triumvirate and Augustus Caesar

In 43 B.C., Octavian, Lepidus, and Mark Antony were named as the Second Triumvirate, the three rulers who shared the office of emperor. Civil war broke out after Caesar's assassination. Two of the assassins, Brutus and Cassius, led one side. Octavian and Mark Antony, one of Caesar's lieutenants, took the other. In 2 quick battles, the assassins were crushed. The victory catapulted young Octavian- or Augustus, as he was later called- into the political limelight. Besides the power of his father's name, Octavian seems to have been rather striking in appearance. One of his chroniclers describes him in this highly personal and informal way. "He was quite handsome.... Sometimes he would clip his beard; sometimes he would shave it. While his barbers were at work on him, it was not unusual for him to read or write.... His eyes were clear and radiant.... His complexion was between dark and fair. Though only five feet, six inches in height . . his shortness was not too noticeable because of the good proportions of his figure." –SEUTONIUS While Octavian was growing in political stature, so was Mark Antony. Among the Antony's political friends was Herod, Antipater's son. After Antipater's death by poisoning, Antony helped Herod eventually get the title "King of Judea." Antony failed to recognize that in Octavian he was dealing with a natural born politician. Octavian never was an imposing figure physically, and he owed his military victories largely to the skill of his able lieutenants. Yet In the political arena he was without peer, rising as a virtual unknown in 44 B.C. to become the first of the Julio-Claudian emperors by 27 B.C. Antony's days of power were numbered. When Antony had divorced Octavia (Octavian’s sister) to marry Cleopatra, Octavian declared war and a showdown took place at Actium in 31 B.C. Octavian won a decisive victory over Antony, but Antony managed a spectacular escape to Egypt. There, months later, he and his famous lover, Cleopatra, ended their lives in suicide. When Herod got wind of Antony's death, he knew his own kingship now hung by a thread. He decided to make a bold move. When he was to meet with Octavian, he took off his crown and placed it at the leader's feet. This worked according to plan. Octavian picked up the crown and returned it to Herod, saying in effect: "Serve me as faithfully as you did Antony." Herod did just that, from that moment forward. After the death of Herod in 4 B.C., his dominions were divided among his sons by Augustus, almost in exact accordance with his will. In 27 B.C. Octavian became Rome's first emperor, being surnamed Augustus Caesar "majestic." He was saluted as emperor (imperator, military commander in chief originally). Leaving the names and rights of the chief republican officers unchanged, he united them all, one by one, in himself. Although he wore platform shoes to look taller, Augustus turned out to be a giant, politically. In later years he boasted, not incorrectly, that he had found Rome in bricks and left it in marble. Augustus was emperor at the birth and during half the lifetime of our Lord, and his name occurs in the Bible (Luke 2:1) as the emperor who ordered the census, and because of this edict Joseph and Mary went to Bethlehem, the place where the Messiah was to be born. Augustus brought order and prosperity to the Roman Empire after the long period of civil war, and for his successes he was worshiped in many places. With him began the emperor cult, and Herod the Great built temples to the divine Augustus at Caesarea and Samaria; both of these have been excavated. Augustus was worshiped in Ephesus too, and a great lintel with an inscription to the divine Augustus has been excavated there and re-erected over the gate to the Greek agora. Paul would have seen it and passed under it often as he ministered in the city for most of three years on his third missionary journey.

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The Title Augustus Caesar

That the empire survived the civil wars that destroyed the republic was largely due to the long life (63 B.C.-14 A.D.) and political skill of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, later known as Augustus. In 44 B.C. Octavian, great nephew and adopted son of the murdered dictator, rallied Caesar's veterans and used them first against Marc Antony, the chief leader of the Caesarians, and then in alliance with Antony and Lepidus (the Second Triumvirate), against the republicans. Proscriptions caused the death of some 300 senators and 2000 nobles. Opponents of the triumvirate were defeated, and much property was made available with which to reward the troops. After Brutus and Cassius had been defeated at Philippi (42 B.C.), and Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium (31 B.C.), Octavian was now without opposition and master of the empire. Octavian brought peace to the Roman Empire and became a popular leader. In 27 B.C., the Senate voted to give him the title Augustus, which means "the respected one." He ruled the empire until 14 A.D. In the Bible Luke refers to him as "Caesar Augustus." With the settlement of 27 B.C. he laid the foundations of the `principate', a system of government that was to give the empire internal peace with only brief interruptions for around 250 years. In reality this monarchy was much different than in the previous era and it was much more acceptable to men familiar with free republican institutions. The ruler was not king but first citizen (princeps). Of his formal titles, Caesar proclaimed that he was a descendant of the dead dictator, and Imperator (emperor), that he was commander in chief. The Senate made aware the fact that this citizen had unique prestige and influence by giving him the title of Augustus. The princeps' power was like that of a king in that it rested on hereditary loyalty, especially of the army, to himself, his family and descendants (whether by birth or adoption). His personality was magnified and publicized through the so-called imperial cult, a complex of ceremonies making use of the forms of religion to express and instill loyalty to the ruler. At the same time Augustus voluntarily restricted his actions within the limits of various constitutional powers conferred by the Senate, for which, taken singly, republican precedent could be found. Moreover, he let his position evolve through a series of settlements, and thus avoided outrage to public and especially senatorial opinion. In 27 B.C. he was granted a proconsular command, or province including Gaul, Spain and Syria, and by far the greatest part of the Roman army. In 23 B.C. he received the power of a tribune, and his proconsular authority was made greater than that of any other provincial governor. In 19 sc he received (probably) consular powers that entitled him to introduce administrative reforms in Rome and Italy. This complex of powers remained the constitutional basis of the imperial office and continued to be granted by the Senate, which thus retained, in theory at least, a share in the appointment of the emperor. Augustus reduced the huge armies of the civil war to around 300,000 men, made up half of Roman citizens serving in legions and half of provincials in auxiliary units. The army was stationed in frontier provinces. After around 25 years service legionaries received a lump-sum pension from a military treasury fed by two special taxes. Auxiliaries, on retirement, were given Roman citizenship. Augustus was lucky to have able yet reliable generals, notably his friend Agrippa, and in later years his stepsons Tiberius and Drusus. These and others expanded the empire very considerably until in 9 A.D. the loss of three legions in the disastrous battle of the Teutoburg Forest ended a sustained attempt to conquer Germany, and reconciled Augustus to frontiers stabilized along the Rhine, Danube and Euphrates. By and large growth of the empire had come to an end. The conquest of Britain, begun under Claudius, was the only major post-Augustan addition to the empire to prove lasting. Suspicion of successful generals, and the strain on the economy of recruiting, paying and pensioning the extra troops required by expansion reconciled most emperors to a basically defensive policy. In time the army had to be enlarged nevertheless-at great social cost. Augustus reorganized the administration of the whole empire. At Rome he appointed an equestrian praefectus annonae to organize supplies for the free issue of corn that was the privilege of the inhabitants of the capital. For the first time the city received a police force, fire brigade and organization for flood control. After the death of Augustus the public assemblies lost their electoral and legislative functions to the Senate. Public opinion could still find expression in demonstrations in the theatre or circus, where emperors were expected to watch the shows in the midst of huge numbers of their subjects. Numerous colonies were founded for the settlement of veterans, especially in southern France, in Spain and North Africa. In this way the surplus population of Italy, which had contributed to the instability of the late republic, was dispersed, and the raising of revolutionary armies made much more difficult for the future. Appointment of provincial governors was shared between emperor and Senate. Imperial provinces were governed by a legatus Augusti of senatorial rank or by an equestrian official. Senatorial provinces were governed by ex-consuls or ex-quaestors, with the title of proconsul. In imperial provinces finance was in the hands of an equestrian procurator, in senatorial provinces of a quaestor. But inhabitants of both kinds of province looked upon the emperor as their head of state. Similarly resolutions of the Senate (senatus consulta) had legal force for the whole empire. Under Augustus literature flourished. The epic of Virgil (70-19 B.C.), history of Livy (59 B.C.-17 A.D.), the personal poetry of Horace (65-8 B.C.), Propertius (after 16 B.C.), Tibullus (48-19 B.C.) and Ovid (43 B.C.-17 A.D.) were soon recognized as Latin classics worthy to be mentioned with those of the Greeks. Among the themes treated most memorably were the history and traditional values of the Roman people and the emotions of personal relations, especially of love. After his death, the title "Augustus" was given to all Roman emperors. The "Augustus Caesar" mentioned in Acts 25:21, 25, for instance, is not Octavian but Nero.

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The Princeps and Augustus Caesar

The Princeps was an unofficial but important title that mean "First Citizen" or "First Statesman." During the Republican era the princeps was used to give honor to special leaders. Pompey the Great was called princeps out of recognition for his victories for the state and his position within Rome. Others received the name, including Cicero for the Catiline Affair in 63 B.C. Julius Caesar won the title from Cicero in 49 B.C. Julius Caesar had wanted to transform Roman society and Octavian wanted to re-establish it within a new order. For example Octavian forced men out of the Senate if they were not a direct descendant of the highest Roman nobility. He made a decree that no Roman citizen could marry a freeman, or anyone outside his own rank. Octavian restored the old Republican Temples with marble and the old forms of the Republican government were to be observed. When Octavian acted it was only through the Senate and Assembly. In 27 B.C. he laid down all of his powers and it was the Senate who would grant them back to him through the people. Therefore by senatorial proclamation Octavian became: Princeps – The head of the Senate and first citizen of the state Imperator Caesar Divi filius – Commander-in-chief of the armed forces and son of the divine Julius (thus he became an object of worship). Augustus – Restorer and augmenter of the state (a title bestowed on gods). The Senate therefore recognized that the old order was gone and new times had come. After nearly a century of civil war the biggest desire of all Romans was peace and order and Augustus Caesar would give it to them.

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The Death of Augustus Caesar

In his later years, Augustus withdrew more and more from the public eye, although he continued to transact public business. He was getting older and Tiberius had been installed as his successor and by 13 A.D. he was virtually emperor already. He had already received grants of both proconsular and tribunician power and Tiberius's imperium had been made co-extensive with that of Augustus. While traveling in Campania, Augustus died peacefully at Nola on August 19, 14 A.D. Tiberius, who was en route to Illyricum, hurried to the scene and, either, depending on the source, arrived too late or spent a day discussing his rule with the dying emperor. The tradition that Livia poisoned her husband is scandalous and probably not true. Whatever the case about these details, Imperator Caesar Augustus, adopted son of Julius Caesar, called "Father of his Country," the man who had ruled the Roman world alone for almost half a century, was dead. He was given a magnificent funeral, buried in the mausoleum he had built in Rome, and entered the Roman pantheon as Divus Augustus. In his will, he left 1,000 sesterces to each of the men of the Praetorian guard, 500 to the urban cohorts, and 300 to each of the legionaries. In death, as in life, Augustus acknowledged what he considered the true source of his power. The inscription entitled "The Achievements of the Divine Augustus" (Res Gestae Divi Augustae; usually abbreviated RG) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan era as it was publicly presented.

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Augustus in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

o-gus'-tus Augoustos: (1) The first Roman emperor, and noteworthy in Bible history as the emperor in whose reign the Incarnation took place (Lk 2:1). His original name was Caius Octavius Caepias and he was born in 63 BC, the year of Cicero's consulship. He was the grand-nephew of Julius Caesar, his mother Atia having been the daughter of Julia, Caesar's younger sister. He was only 19 years of age when Caesar was murdered in the Senate house (44 BC), but with a true instinct of statesmanship he steered his course through the intrigues and dangers of the closing years of the republic, and after the battle of Actium was left without a rival. Some difficulty was experienced in finding a name that would exactly define the position of the new ruler of the state. He himself declined the names of rex and dictator, and in 27 BC he was by the decree of the Senate styled Augustus. The epithet implied respect and veneration beyond what is bestowed on human things: "Sancta vocant augusta patres: augusta vocantur Templa sacerdotum rite dicata manu." --Ovid Fasti. 609; compare Dion Cass., 5316...

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Augustus in Naves Topical Bible

An important Roman emperor Lu 2:1; Ac 25:21,25; 27:1

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Augustus in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(venerable) Cae'sar the first Roman emperor. He was born A.U.C. 691, B.C. 63. His father was Caius Octavius; his mother Atia, daughter of Julia the sister of C. Julius Caesar. He was principally educated by his great-uncle Julius Caesar, and was made his heir. After his murder, the young Octavius, then Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was taken into the triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus, and, after the removal of the latter, divided the empire with Antony. The struggle for the supreme power was terminated in favor of Octavianus by the battle of Actium, B.C. 31. On this victory he was saluted imperator by the senate, who conferred on him the title Augustus, B.C. 27. The first link binding him to New Testament history is his treatment of Herod after the battle of Actium. That prince, who had espoused Antony's side, found himself pardoned, taken into favor and confirmed, nay even increased, in his power. After Herod's death, in A.D. 4, Augustus divided his dominions, almost exactly according to his dying directions, among his sons. Augustus died in Nola in Campania, Aug. 19, A.U.C. 767, A.D. 14, in his 76th year; but long before his death he had associated Tiberius with him in the empire.

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Augustus in Easton's Bible Dictionary

the cognomen of the first Roman emperor, C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, during whose reign Christ was born (Luke 2:1). His decree that "all the world should be taxed" was the divinely ordered occasion of Jesus' being born, according to prophecy (Micah 5:2), in Bethlehem. This name being simply a title meaning "majesty" or "venerable," first given to him by the senate (B.C. 27), was borne by succeeding emperors. Before his death (A.D. 14) he associated Tiberius with him in the empire (Luke 3:1), by whom he was succeeded.

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Augustus Caesar in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The first Roman emperor, reigning at Christ's birth (Luke 2:1, etc.). His decree that all the world should be taxed, each going to his own city, was the divinely ordered (Micah 5:2) occasion of Jesus' birth taking place at Bethlehem. Born 63 B.C. Also called Octavius and Octavianus from his father, who died while he was young. Educated by his great uncle Julius Caesar, triumvir with Antony and Lepidus. Dissension having arisen, Octavianus overcame Antony, and gained supreme power at the battle of Actium, 31 B.C. Saluted emperor (imperator, military commander in chief originally), and surnamed Augustus Caesar, "majestic." Leaving the names and rights of the chief republican officers unchanged, he united them all, one by one, in himself. Herod, who had been on Antony's side, he not only pardoned, but even increased in power; Herod thereby became attached to his dynasty, and built him a temple of marble near the sources of the Jordan. Augustus Caesar died at Nola in Campania, in his 76th year, A.D. 14. Some time before his death he associated Tiberius with himself in the empire (Luke 3:1).

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Augustus in Scripture

Luke 2:1-6 "And it came to pass in those days that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be registered. This census first took place while Quirinius was governing Syria. So all went to be registered, everyone to his own city. Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and lineage of David, to be registered with Mary, his betrothed wife, who was with child."

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Augustus Timeline

Dates in the Life of Augustus Caesar from his birth in 63 BC to his death in 14 AD.

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The Deeds of the Divine Augustus

Ancient text written attributed to Caesar Augustus.

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The Deified Augustus

The Lives of the Caesars - The Deified Augustus by Suetonius

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The Empire that Augustus Built

Conclusion. The awesome empire that Augustus had shaped was immense. Its boundaries were--the Atlantic on the west; the Euphrates on the east; the Black Sea, the Danube, and the British Channel on the north; and the deserts of Africa and Arabia, and the cataracts of the Nile, on the south. Only the German tribes in the far north, and the Parthians on the east, remained independent. The population of the Roman Empire during the time of Augustus was probably between 85,000 and 120,000. His standing professional army consisted of over 170,000 soldiers, besides the troops stationed in the capital, and it was they who guarded the frontiers from the many barbarous tribes. Augustus administered the whole Empire through the Provinces, who were governed by officers that received their commission from Rome. People grew up without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Augustus brought peace and prosperity throughout the empire, but it was Jesus Christ, the Prince of Peace, who would ultimately utilize this young empire and bring true peace to mankind. It is amazing to see just how much the Lord had prepared the world for the spreading of His gospel. Edward Arthur Litton well said: "The devout student of history must recognize in the political state of the world at this time a remarkable preparation for the promulgation of Christianity. The peace which the empire enjoyed; the excellent roads which the Romans constructed wherever they established themselves; the presence of the imperial legions in every important place repressing the outbreaks of religious fanaticism, and so affording protection to the infant church; the increase of commerce; and the leveling tendency of an imperial despotism--all manifestly contributed to the success of the gospel...There could not have been a more favorable moment for the heralds of the gospel to commence their mission."

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Trajan in Roman Biography

Tra'jan, (Lat. Traja'nus; It. Trajano, tRa-ya'no ; Fr. Trajan, tRi'zhoN'; Ger. Trajan, tRa-yan',1 or, more fully, Mar'cua Ul'pl-us Ner'va Tra-ja'nus, Emperor of Rome, born near Seville, in Spain, about 52 A.n., was the son of Trajan, an Iberian officer, whom he accompanied in his campaigns in Asia' Minor. He was chosen consul in 91 A.n., and was afterwards appointed to command the legions on the Lower Rhine. His eminent virtues and ability obtained for him the favour and confidence of the emperor Nerva, who adopted him and made him his successor. On the death of Nerva, in 98 A.D., Trajan was proclaimed emperor, and soon after marched against Decebalus, King of the Dacians, whom he repeatedly defeated. In 106 A.D. Dacia became a Roman province, and a column (which is still extant) was erected on the Forum Trajani, in commemoration of these victories, by Apollodorusof Damascus. In the year 115 he commanded in person an army which invaded Parthia, and defeated the Parthians in several battles. He took Ctesiphon, the capital of Parthia, and deposed the king of that country. In 116 he descended the Tigris to the Persian Gulf. He was returning to Rome, when he died, without issue, at Selinus, in Cilicia, in 117 a.d., and was succeeded by Hadrian. Trajan was one of the greatest and best emperors of Rome. He is commended for his moderation, sound judgment, and the simplicity of his mode of living. Yet he persecuted the Christians, and presided as judge at the tribunal when the martyr Ignatius was sentenced to death. Among his friends was Pliny the Younger, who wrote a " Panegyric on Trajan." SeeTn.i.KMONT, " Histoiredes Emperettrs;" Rittkr, "Trajanus in Lucent reproduces," 1768 ; H. Franckk, " Zur Geschichte Trajan's," etc., 1840: Gknf.rsich, "Trajan ; biographisches GemiiMe," 1811 ; Msrivale, "History of the Romans tinder the Empfre ;" Mokalss, " Hechos y Diclios de Trajano," 1654; "Nottvelle Biojrapliie Generate. "

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Tullus Hostilius in Roman Biography

Tul'lus Hos-til'i-us, third King of Rome, succeeded Numa Pompilius in 673 B.C. He carried on a war against the Albans, in which occurred the celebrated combat between the Horatii and Curiatii, and which ended in the conquest of Alba. He was a very warlike king. According to tradition, he was killed by lightning about 640 B.C. See Gkbauhr, "Tullus Hostilius," 1720 ; Schoemann, " Di»- ftertatio critica de Tullo Hostilio," 1847.

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Valens in Roman Biography

Valens, (Flavius,) Emperor of the East, born about 328 A.D., was a brother of Valentinian I., to whom he was indebted for the imperial power. He began to reign, in 364, over Thrace, Asia, and Egypt. In 366 he suppressed a rebellion of Procopius. He was an Arian, and persecuted the orthodox. He defeated the Goths in 369, after which he waged war against Sapor, (Shapoor,) King of Persia. His dominions were invaded by the Goths, by whom he was defeated and killed in a great battle near Adrianople in 378 A.D. See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire;" Tillemont, " Histoire des Empereurs ;" " Nouvelle Biographie Generale."

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Valentinian I in Roman Biography

Val-en-tin'i-an [Lat. Valenttnia'nus ; Fr. Vai.entinien, vi'loN'te'ne-aN'] I., (Flavius,) born in Pannonia in 321 A.D., succeeded Jovian as Emperor of Rome in 364, and, having made his brother Valens his colleague, reserved for himself the western part of the empire. He carried on wars with the Franks, Allemanni, and other German tribes, over whom he gained several important victories. The Picts and Scots were also defeated, and a rebellion in Africa was suppressed by his general Theodosius. While marching against the Quadi and SvBiaUe, who had invaded Pannonia, Valentinian died suddenly, (375 a.d.) He was a Catholic, but tolerated the Arians. See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire;" Tn.- LBHONT, "' Histoire des Empereurs;" Bakonius, "Annales;" " Nouvelle Biographie GeneVale."

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Valentinian III in Roman Biography

Valentinian (Valentinianus) III., (Placidius,) son of Constantius, born in 419, was made ruler over the Western empire by his uncle, Theodosius II., (425 A.D.,) but the government was conducted by his mother, Placidia. During this period Africa was conquered from the Romans by Genseric, in consequence of the discord between the Roman generals Aetius and Honifacius. Aetius, having previously defeated the Huns under Attila, was murdered by Valentinian, who was jealous of his superior ability, (454.) The emperor perished himself, in 455, by the hand of Petronius Maximus, whose wife he had dishonoured. See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ;" Tille- MONT, " Histoire des Empereurs."

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Valerian in Roman Biography

Va-le'ri-an [ Lat. Vai.eria'nus, (Puhlius Licinius;) Fr. Valerien, vS'la're^N'] succeeded vEmilianus as Emperor of Rome in 253 A.D., and appointed his son Gallienus his colleague. The empire was soon after invaded by the Goths and other barbarous tribes, and by Sapor, (Shapoor,) King of Persia, who defeated the Romans near Kdessa in 260 and took Valerian prisoner. He was treated in the most insulting manner by his captor, who is said to have placed his foot upon him when he mounted his horse. He died in Persia about 268 A. I)., and was succeeded by his son Gallienus. See Aurklius Victor, "De Csesaribus;" Tillbmont, "Histoire des Empereurs."

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Varro in Roman Biography

Varro, [Fr. Varron,] (Marcus Terentius,) a celebrated Latin author, styled " the most learned of the Romans," was born in 116 B.C., probably in Rome. He was a pupil of L. MYnm Stilo and of Antiochus of Ascalon, an Academic philosopher. He became an intimate friend of Cicero. About the year 67 B.C. he had a high command under Pompey in the war against the pirates. He fought for the senate against Caesar in the civil war which began in 49 B.C. Soon after the battle of Pharsalia, he retired from public life and devoted himself to literary pursuits. He was profoundly versed in nearly every department of literature, and. wrote a great number of works on various subjects. (lis capital work was " Antiquitatum Libri," consisting of twenty-five books on Human Antiquities and sixteen books on Divine Antiquities, which is not extant. Saint Augustine derived from this book materials for his work " De Civitate Dei." Nearly all of Varro's works are lost, except a part of his treatise on the Latin language, (" De Lingua Latina,") and his excellent work on agriculture, " De Re Rustica Libri tres,") which is preserved entire. In 43 B.C. he was proscribed by Mark Antony ; but he escaped death by concealment, and survived till 28 or 27 B.C. See E. Berwick, " Life of Pollio, Varro, and C. Gallus," 1815; Pafr, " De Varrone," 183s ; G. Boissiek, " Essai sur la Vie et lei Ouvrages de Varron," 1861; Orbu.i, " Ononiasticon Tullianum ;'* F'AnRicms, "Bibliotheca Latina;" " Nouvelle Biographic Generate

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Vespasian in Roman Biography

Vespasian, vis-pa'zhe-an, [Lat. Vespasia'nus; Fr. Vespasien, vJs'pi'zg-^N' ; It. Vespasiano, ves-pa-sea'no,] or, more fully, Ti'tus Fla'vius Vespasia'nus, Emperor of Rome, was born near Reate in 9 a.d. He served as military tribune in Thrace, and held the offices of quaestor of Crete and Cyrene, under Caligula. He was afterwards made praetor ; and, having distinguished himself by several important victories in Britain, he was appointed proconsul of Africa about 60 A.D. As commander of the forces against the revolted Jews in 66 A.D., he subjected nearly the whole of Judea in less than two years. In 69 A.D. Vespasian was proclaimed emperor by Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, in opposition to Vitellius, who was soon after put to death by the Roman soldiers. The principal events of the reign of Vespasian were the conquest of Jerusalem by Titus, in 70 A.D., the victories of Agricola in Britain, and of I'etilius Cerealisover the Batavi, commanded by Civilis. Under his wise and beneficent rule Rome enjoyed a high degree of prosperity ; he patronized learning and the arts, introduced important reforms into the army and courts of justice, and repaired the ravages caused by civil war. He also restored the Capitol, built the magnificent Temple of Peace, and began the erection of the amphitheatre, afterwards called the Colosseum, and also the Flavian Amphitheatre, from his name Flavius. He died in 79 A.D. See Suetonius, " Vespasianus ;" A. W. Cramer, " Flavins Vespasianus," 1785 ; Tacitus, " History of Rome :" Berneggbr, "Vita Imperatoris Vespasiani," 1625; Hhimbrod, " Flavii Vespasiani Iniperatoris Vita," 1S33; Tillemont, "Histoire des Empereurs :" Mkrivalk, " History of the Romans under the Empire;" "Nouvelle Biographie G&ierale."

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Vetranio in Roman Biography

Ve-tra'ni-o, a Roman general, who was persuaded by his troops to assume the title of emperor in 350 a.d. About the end of that year he abdicated in favour of Constantius. Died in 356.

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Bion in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A Greek bucolic poet, who flourished in the second half of the second century B.C. He lived mostly in Sicily, where he is said to have died by poison. Besides a number of minor poems from his hand, we have a long descriptive epic called The Dirge of Adonis. His style is more remarkable for grace than for power or simplicity. A native of Borysthenes, near the mouth of the Dnieper, who flourished about B.C. 250. Sold as a slave when a boy, he was freed by his master, who was a rhetorician. After studying at Athens, he lived for a considerable period at the court of Antigonus Gonatas in Macedonia. His sharp, incisive sayings were proverbial in antiquity, as in the passage of Horace (Epist. ii. 2, 60).

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Vitellius in Roman Biography

Vi-tel'li-uB, (Aulus.) Emperor of Rome, born about 15 A.D. He was distinguished by the favour of Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, and was appointed by Galba to command the German legions. He was soon after proclaimed emperor by his army, and, Galba having been put to death by the partisans of Otho, the empire was now disputed between the latter and Vitellius. Otho was defeated, and Vitellius recognized as emperor ; but, Vespasian having been meanwhile proclaimed at Alexandria his general Antonius Primus marched against Rome, subdued the adherents of Vitellius, and put him to death, (69 A.D.) See Suetonius, " Vitellius ;" Tacitus, " " History;" Tili.emont, Histoire des Empereurs :" Franz Horn, "Historische Gemaide* Galba. Otho, Vitellius," 181a.

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Poppaea Sabina in Roman Biography

Poppae'a (pop-pee'a) Sa-bi'na, a Roman empress, the wife of Nero, was more remarkable for beauty than modesty. Died in 65 A.D.

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Probus in Roman Biography

Pro'bus, (Marcus Aurei.ius,) an excellent Roman emperor, born at Sirmium about 235 A.D. He served with distinction in the armies of Valerian and succeeding emperors, in Egypt, Arabia, Persia, and Germany. He received the command of all the legions in the East from Tacitus, at whose death, in 276 A.D., Probus was proclaimed emperor by his army. The senate confirmed their choice. He defeated the Germans in Gaul, and his rivals Saturninus, Proculus, and Bonosus. He was killed by mutinous soldiers in 282 A.D., and left a very high reputation for virtue and ability. It is said that he had offended his troops by the expression of a hope that the time was near when armies would be no longer necessary. See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ;" Aurelius Victor, " De Czesaribus" and " Epitome."

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Propertius in Roman Biography

Propertius, pro-pet 'shejis, [Fr. Properce, pRo'- pSi

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Pupienus in Roman Biography

Pu-pi-e'nus Maxl-mus, (Clodius,) a Roman officer, who was elected (238 A.D.) emperor with Balbinus. He was killed in 239 by his mutinous soldiers

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Quintilian in Roman Biography

Quin-til'I-an, [Lat. Quintilia'nus or Quinctilia'. nus ; Fr. Quintilien, kiN'te'leJ.N',] (Marcus Fabius,) a celebrated Roman critic and teacher of rhetoric, was born probably between 40 and 50 A.n. Jerome states that he was a native of Calagurris, (Calanorra,) in the northern part of Spain ; but some modern writers think he was born in Rome. He obtained a high reputation as a pleader, and was the first public instructor who received from the imperial treasury a regular salary. Among his pupils was the Younger Pliny. He taught rhetoric for twenty years, and retired from that profession in the reign of Domitian, who appointed him preceptor of his grand-nephews. His chief work is a treatise on the education of an orator, " Institutio Oratoria," divided into twelve books. This is the most complete and methodical treatise on rhetoric that has come down to us from antiquity. An entire copy of it was found by Poggio at Saint Gall in 1417. His style is clear, elegant, and highly polished. His practical ideas are good, but his criticisms are rather superficial. He gives judicious precepts for students, and interesting details of the education and classic studies of the ancients. His merit consists in sound judgment, propriety, and good taste, rather than in originality or elevation of mind. He is supposed to have died about 118 a.d. He wrote a work on the corruption or decadence of eloquence, "De Causis Corruptee Eloquentiae," which is not extant. His "Institutio" has been translated into English by Guthrie (1756) and Patsall, (1774.) See ROdiger, "De Quintiliano Paedagogo," 1S50; V. Otto, "Quintilian und Rousseau," 1836; J. Janin, "Piine le Jeune et Quintilien," 183S : Hummel, "Quintiliani Vita," 1843; "Nouvelle Biographie Generale."

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Sallust in Roman Biography

Sal'lust, [Lat. Sallus'tius ; Fr. Salluste, st'liist'; It. Sali.ustio, sil-loos'te-o,] (or, more fully, Caius Sallustius Crispus,) a celebrated Roman historian, who was born of a plebeian family at Amitemum in 86 B.C. He was elected tribune of the people in 52 B.C., and was expelled from the senate by the censors in 50 for alleged immoral conduct. He was a partisan of Caesar in the civil war. In the year 47 he obtained the office of praetor, and accompanied Caesar in his African campaign. He was appointed governor of Numidia by Caesar in 46 B.C. According to Dion Cassius, he enriched himself by the oppression and plunder of the people of that province. After the death of Julius Caesar he returned to Rome, and built a sumptuous palace on the Quirinal, with large gardens, still called Horti Sallustiani. Having retired from public life, he devoted his latter years to literary pursuits. He died in 34 B.C. The scandalous charges against the character of Sallust, made by several ancient and modem writers, may have been true, but, in the opinion of some of the best critics, they are far from having been established by any decisive evidence. He was much influenced by party spirit, and probably hated the aristocratic party more than he loved the plebeians. Sallust wrote a " History of the Conspiracy of Catiline," (" Bellum Catilinarium,") and a "History of the War between the Romans and Jugurtha," (" Helium Jugurthinum.") The speeches which he ascribes to Cato, Cxsar, and others in his histories, though probably expressed in the language of Sallust, give us, there is reason to believe, the substance of what was said by those eminent men. He also wrote a history of Rome for the period included between 78 and 66 B.C., which is lost. "The ancient critics," says Macaulay, "placed Sallust in the same rank with Livy ; and unquestionably the small portion of his works which has come down to us is calculated to give a high opinion of his ta'ents. But his style is not very pleasant ; and his most powerful work, the account of the conspiracy of Catiline, has rather the air of a clever party pamphlet than that of a history." (Essay on History in the "Edinburgh Review," 1828.) See Dks Brosses, "Vie de Salluste;" D. W. Moi.i.er, "De C. Sallustio," 1684; MiJl.l.KR, "C. Sallustius, nder historische Untersuchung," etc., 1817; F. D. Geri.ach, " Ueber den Geschichtsschreiber C. Sallustins Crispus," 1831 ; E. C. de Gkri.achh, " Etudes sur Salluste." etc., 1847; Bregolini, "Vita di C. C. Sallustio," 1802; "Nouvelle Biographie Generate;" " Frascr't Marine" for February, 1846.

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Scaevola in Roman Biography

Scaevola, seVo-la, [Fr. Scevole, si'vol',] (C. Mu- Cius,) a Roman, who, according to the ancient legends, went to the camp of Porsena, then besieging Rome, and attempted to kill him with a dagger. He was seized by the guards of the king, who ordered him to be put to death. Scasvola, it is said, held his right hand in a fire, which was at hand, until it was consumed, so that Porsena, struck with admiration at his extraordinary fortitude, spared his life. From this circumstance he is said to have received the surname of Scaevola, or " lefthanded."

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Scipio Africanus in Roman Biography

Scip'io iEmilia'nus Africa'nus Mi'nor, (Publius Cornklius,) a famous Roman general, born about 185 B.C., was a son of /Emilius Paulus, and an adopted son of Publius Cornelius Scipio, whose father was the great Scipio. He was liberally educated, and was well versed in Greek literature and philosophy. In 168 B.C. he fought at the battle of Pydna, where his father commanded. He formed an intimate friendship with the historian Polybius, who became the companion of his studies and military expeditions. As military tribune, he went to Spain in 151 B.C., and signalized his courage in a single combat with a gigantic Spanish chief, whom he killed. In the third Punic war, which began about 149, he displayed great military ability in Africa. Having returned to Rome in 148, he was elected consul for 147, and obtained Africa as his province. He finished the Punic war by the capture and destruction of the city of Carthage in 146 B.C., and was granted a splendid triumph at Rome for this victory. In the year 142 he became censor with L. Mummius. He endeavoured to restrain the growing love of luxury of the Romans and to maintain the simple habits and austere virtues of their ancestors ; but in this he was not successful. Having been elected consul, 134 B.C., he obtained the chief command in Spain, and took Numantia, after a long and obstinate defence, in 133. He was an inflexible supporter of the aristocratic party, and approved the execution of Tiberius Gracchus, although his wife Sempronia was a sister of that tribune. He lost his popularity by his course in this affair. He was found dead in his bed in 129 B.C. The public suspected that he was murdered ; but no person was convicted of the crime. Scipio was eminent for his learning, and was one of the most eloquent Roman orators of his time. Cicero expresses a high opinion of him in his book " De Republica." A report prevailed among the ancients that he assisted Terence in the composition of his plays. See Polybius. books xxxii.-xxxix. : Carlo Sir onio, " De Vita et Rebus gestis P. Scipionis," 1569: F. D. Gerl .ch, "Tod des P. C. Scipio ^Kmilianus." 1839; L. Normann, " Sripio Africanus Minor," Upsala, 1688: "Nouvelle Biographie Ge^ieYale."

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Sejanus in Roman Biography

Se-ja'nus, [Fr. Sejan, sa'zho\',| (Lucius /Elius,) a celebrated Roman courtier and favourite of the emperor Tiberius, was born at Vulsinii, in Etruria. He rose through various promotions to be commander-inchief of the praetorian cohorts, and, aiming at the imperial power, soon after effected the death of Drusus, son of the emperor, by poison, in 23 A.D., having previously seduced Livia, the wife of Drusus, and made her an accomplice in his crime. With a view of obtaining the sole direction of public affairs, he induced Tiberius to retire to the island of Caprex, and subsequently caused Agrippina, the widow of Germanicus, and her sons, to be put to death. The emperor, aroused at length to suspicion, deprived Sejanus of his office, and ordered him to be arrested and executed, 31 a.d. See Tacitus, "Annales;" J. Arrhenius, " Dissertatio de Sejano," 1696; Merivale, "The Romans under the Empire."

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Seneca in Roman Biography

Sen'e-ca,[Fr. SENEQUE,*.sa'n?k'.](r.ucius Ann.eus,) an eminent Roman Stoic, philosopher, and moralist, born at Corduba, in Spain, about 5 H.c. He was educated in Rome, whither he was brought by his parents in his childhood. Having studied rhetoric, philosophy, and law, he gained distinction as a pleader. Accused by Messalina of improper intimacy with Julia, a niece of Claudius, he was banished to Corsica in4l A.n. During his exile he composed his " Consolatio ad Helviam." (Ilelvia was the name of his mother.) Through the influence of Agrippina, he obtained permission to return to Rome in 49 A.D., was raised to the prastorship, and appointed tutor to L. Domitius, (commonly known as Nero,) who became emperor in 54 a.d. According to Tacitus, Seneca endeavoured to reform or restrain the evil propensities of his pupil. Some writers, however, censure his conduct in this connection, by arguments which derive plausibility from the immense wealth which Seneca amassed. About the year 56 he wrote a treatise on clemency, addressed to Nero, " De Clementia, ad Neronem." Seneca consented to the death of Nero's mother, Agrippina, who was killed by order of her son in 60 a.d., and wrote the letter which Nero addressed to the senate in his justification. He was afterwards supplanted in the favour of Nero by Tigellinus and Rufus, who sought to ruin Seneca by exciting the suspicion of the tyrant against him. He was accused of being an accomplice of Piso, (who had conspired against the emperor,) and was ordered to put himself to death. Having opened his veins, he died in a warm bath in 65 a.d. He was an uncle of the poet Lucan. Seneca was an eloquent and popular writer. His style is aphoristic, antithetical, and somewhat inflated. Anion" his numerous works are a treatise "On Anger," (" De Ira,") "A Book on Providence," (" De Providentia Liber,") "On Tranquillity of Mind," ("De Animi Tranquillitate,") "On the Brevity of Eife,"("De Krevitate Vita?,") essays on natural science, entitled " Qutestiones Naturales," and numerous epistles, " Epistolae ad Lucilium," which are a collection of moral maxims. We have also ten tragedies in verse which are attributed to Seneca, and which, though not adapted to the stage, have considerable literary merit. There has been great diversity of opinion respecting the character and writings of Seneca. He has been quoted as an authority by councils and fathers of the Church. He was highly extolled as a writer by Montaigne. Quintilian observes that his writings "abound in charming defects," (dulcibusvitiis.) Macaulay is among those who take the least favourable view of the character and influence of the great Stoic. He says, "It is very reluctantly that Seneca can be brought to confess that anv philosopher had ever paid the smallest attention to anything that could possibly promote what vulgar people would consider as the well-being of mankind. . . . The business of a philosopher was to declaim in praise of poverty, with two millions sterling out at usury ; to meditate epigrammatic conceits about the evils of luxury, in gardens which moved the envy of sovereigns ; to rant about liberty, while fawning on the insolent and pampered freedmen of a tyrant." ("Essay on Lord Bacon.") See Rosmini, "Vita di Seneca," 1793; Justus Lipsius, "Vita L. A. Senecas," 1607; Klotzscu, "Seneca," 2 vols., 1799- 1802; Rkinhardt, "De Seneca Vita et Scriptis," 1817; Vernier, " Vie de Seneque," 1812; Am. Fi.euky, "Seneque et Saint-Paul," 2 vols., 1853; P. Ekerman, "Vita et Dogmata L. A. Senecae," 1742; Hitter, " History of Philosophy;" Hirschig, " Dood en Gedachtenis van Seneca," 1831 ; Denis Diderot, " Essai sur la Vie de Seneque," 1779; F. Salvador], "II Filosofo cortigiano, o sia il Seneca," 1674; Tacitus, "Annales;" "Nouvelle Biographie Generate?

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Septimius Severus in Roman Biography

Severus, [Fr. Severe, sa'vaiR',j(Lucius Septimius,) a Roman emperor, born at Leptis, in Africa, in 146 A.D. He was educated at Rome, and, after filling various offices, became proconsul of Africa. While commander of the Pannonian legions in Germany, he heard of the death of Commodus, upon which he hastened to Rome, and was proclaimed emperor by the army in 193 A.D. in opposition to Didius Julianus, who was soon after assassinated. He next marched against Pescennius Niger, commander of the Syrian legions, who had lately been proclaimed emperor by his troops. He defeated Niger at Issus or Cyzicus in 194, after which he waged war with success against the Parthians. In 197 he gained a decisive victory over Albinus (a rival claimant of the throne) near Lyons. He renewed the war against Parthia in 198, defeated the Parthians, and took Ctesiphon, their capital. In 208 he led an army to Britain to subdue the Caledonians, and built a rampart, called the wall of Severus, extending across the island. He died at York in 211 A.D., leaving two sons, Caracalla and Geta. See Dion Cassius, " History of Rome." books xxiv.-xxvi. : Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire;" "Nouvelle Biographie Gdne'iale."

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Severus Alexander in Roman Biography

Se-ve'rus, [Fr. Severe, sa'vaiR',] (Alexander,) a Roman emperor, born in Phoenicia about 205 A.D., was a son of Gessius Marcjanus and Julia Mammaea. In 221 he was adopted by his cousin Elagabalus, then emperor, who also gave him the title of Caesar. He was called M. Aurelius Alexander before his accession to the throne. Elagabalus soon became jealous, and made several unsuccessful efforts to destroy Alexander. He succeeded Elagabalus in March, 222 A.D , and assumed the name 0/ Severus. During the first nine years he reigned in peace, and applied himself to the reform of abuses. The King of Persia having renewed hostilities, Severus marched across the Euphrates, defeated the Persians in 232, and returned to Rome. He was preparing to repel an irruption of the Germans, when he was killed by his mutinous troops in 235 A.D. He was greatly distinguished for his wisdom, justice, clemency, and other virtues. See Gibbon, '* Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire :" Tili.emont, " Histoire des Empereurs ;" Lampridius, "Alexander Severus."

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Spartacus in Roman Biography

Spar'ta-cus, a Thracian soldier, who was taken prisoner by the Romans, reduced to slavery, and trained as a gladiator. Having escaped with a number of his associates, he became leader of a numerous band, and defeated Claudius Pulcher, who was sent against him about 73 R>c. Having proclaimed freedom to all slaves who should join him, he raised a powerful army and defeated several times the consuls sent against him. He was prudent as well as brave. His army amounted to about 100,000 men, and was invincible until dissensions arose among them. In 71 B.C. he was blockaded by M. Licinius Crassus at Rhegium, and killed in a battle which ended the great Servile war. Spartacus was an extraordinary man, and had the qualities of a hero. See Livv, " Epitome;" Merimeb, "Guerre sociaie;" " Nouvelle Biographie Generale."

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Stilicho in Roman Biography

Stili-cho, [Gr. ZtiMxoh ; Fr. Stilicon, ste'le'k6N',] (Flavius,) an eminent commander of the Roman armies, was a son of a Vandal officer. He rose rapidly in the reign of Theodosius, and was sent as ambassador to Persia in 384 a.d., at which date he was a young man. On his return he married Serena, a niece of Theodosius I., and became commander-in-chief of the army. He found a rival and dangerous enemy in Rufinus, the chief minister of Theodosius. In 394 Theodosius appointed Stilicho guardian of his young son Honoiius, to whom he gave the Western Empire. Rufinus at the same time was chief minister of Arcadius, Emperor of the East. After the death of Theodosius, (395,) Stilicho ruled with unlimited authority at Rome. He marched against the Goths, who had invaded Thrace, and who were aided by the treacherous intrigues of Rufinus. This rival was removed by assassination in 395 A.n. Stilicho drove Alaric out of the Peloponnesus in 396 A.D. ; but his victorious progress was checked by the jealousy of Arcadius, who made a treaty with Alaric and took him into his own service. The war was renewed by Alaric, who invaded Italy about 402. Stilicho gained a decisive victory over him at Pollentia (or Polentia) in 403, soon after which the Goths retired from Italy. It is stated that he formed an alliance with Alaric against Arcadius, with a design to make himself master of both the Eastern and Western Empires. In 406 he defeated a host of barbarians who invaded Northern Italy under Radagaisus. The enemies of Stilicho excited the fears and suspicion of Honorius against him, and procured an order for his death. He was massacred at Ravenna in 408 A.D. See Claudian, " De Laudibus Stilichonis:" Gibbon, "History „Jh£ Tjecll -e a"d Fall of the Roman Empire;" C. F. Schulzbl F. Stilicho em Wallenstein der Vorzeit," 1805; Ln Beau, "Histonedu Bas-Empire;" " Nouvelle Biogiaphie Gdmirale."

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Sulla in Roman Biography

Sulla or Sylla, [It. Silla, sel'la,] (Lucius Cornelius,) surnamed FelLX, (the "Fortunate,") a famous Roman general, born in 138 B.C., was of a patrician family. Though addicted to pleasure, and though his favourite companions are said to have been actors, buffoons, and mimics, he early gave indications of uncommon powers, and was particularly distinguished by the art he possessed of reading the various characters of men. He obtained the office of quaestor in 107 B.C., and served under Marius against Jngurtha, who was betrayed by Bocchus into the power of the Romans. Sulla took a prominent part in the capture of Jugnrtha, and shared with Marius the credit of that achievement. In 104 he was employed as legate of Marius in the war against the Cimbri and Teutones. He joined the army of L. Catulus in 102, and gave proof of great military talents. His personal qualities were eminently adapted to render a general popular with his soldiers. Having been elected praetor in 93 B.C., he was sent the next year to Cilicia, and restored Ariobarzanes to the throne of Cappadocia. In the year 9t began the Social war, in which, says Plutarch, " Sulla performed so many memorable things that the citizens looked upon him as a great general, his friends as the greatest in the world, and his enemies as the most fortunate." Sulla became the leader of the aristocratic party, was elected consul for 88 B.C., and obtained from the senate the command of the war against Mithridates, which command was also coveted by his rival Marius. A violent contest arose between these two leaders, which was the beginning of a great civil war. Sulla marched with an army against Rome, and Marius escaped to Africa,' leaving his enemy master of the capital. Sulla departed from Rome early in 87 H.C., and commenced the war against Mithridates by an attack on Athens, which he took, after a long siege, in March, 86 B.C. The Athenians were treated with great cruelty by the victor on this occasion. Sulla gained a decisive victory over Archelaus, a general of Mithridates, at Chaeronea, and again at Orchomenus, in 85 B.C., after which he crossed the Hellespont. In the mean time the Marian party had recovered possession of Rome, and had massacred many partisans of Sulla. He concluded a peace with Mithridates, extorted large sums of money from the Orientals, and returned, with his army of veterans, to Italy, where he arrived in the spring of 83, and renewed the civil war. The popular party had a larger army than that of Sulla, but had no able geneials. Sulla defeated Norbanus near Capua in the year 83, and young Marius at Sacriportus in 82 B.C. He then became master of Rome, massacred his opponents and prisoners by thousands, and gained a victory over the Samnites and Lucanians near Rome. He made a list of his enemies, whom he outlawed, and called this list a Proscriptio. This was the first instance of a proscription among the Romans. Sulla was appointed dictator for an unlimited time, and made important changes in the constitution, tending to increase the power of the senate and aristocracy and to destroy the authority of the tribunes of the people. He also made reforms in the criminal law, which were more enduring than the changes just mentioned. He resigned the dictatorship in 79, and died in 78 B.C. Byron apostrophizes Sulla in the following striking lines :- "O thou, whose chariot roll'd on fortune's wheel, Triumphant Syila I thou who didst subdue Thy country's foes ere thou wouldst pause to feel The wrath of thy own wrongs, or reap the due Of hoarded vengeance till thine eagles flew O'er prostrate Asia ;-thou, who with thy frown Annihilated Senates,-Roman, too, With all thy vices, for thou didst lay down, With an atoning smile, a more than earthly crown." Chihie Harold, canto iv., stanza lxxxiii. See Plutarch, " Life of Sulla ;" Dkumann, " Geschichte Roms," vol. ii. ; f. A. Hartmann\ "Dissertatio de Sulla," 1727 ; L. Sachsk, " Lebendes Dictators Sulla," 1791 ; ZACHARtas, " L. Cornelius Sulla als Ordner des Rbmischen Freistaales," 1S34: Appian, " Bellum Civile:" Pliny, "Natural History," books vii., xi., and xxvi. ; Mommskn, " Histoire Romaine :" A. Cybulski, "De Bello Civili Sullano," 1S38.

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Tacitus in Roman Biography

Tac'I-tua, [ Kr. Tacite, tS'set'; It. Tacito, ta'che-to,] (Caius Cornelius,) a celebrated Roman historian, was born about 55 A.D. The events of his early life have not been recorded. He entered the public service in the reign of Vespasian, and married a daughter of C. Julius Agricola, the famous general, in 78 A.I). He was an intimate friend of Pliny the Younger, from whose letters we derive a large part of the knowledge which we have of his life. In the year 88 he obtained the office of praetor. He was one of the most eloquent orators of his time. In the reign of Nurva he became consul, 97 A.D., and about the same date he wrote his work on Germany,-"On the Situation, Customs, etc. of Germany," (" DeSitu, Moribuset Populis Germanise.") Tacitus and Pliny conducted the prosecution against Marios Priscus, who was convicted of cruelty and other crimes in too A.D. Among his earlier works is a " Life of Agricola," which is much admired. After the death of Ncrva, he wrote "The Histories," (" Historiarum Libri XIV.,") which treat of the period from 68 to 96 a.d. This work is lost, except the first five books. His reputation is chiefly founded on his " Annals," (" Annales,") in sixteen books, which record the history of the Roman empire from the death of Augustus, 14 A.D., to the death of Nero, 68 A.D. This excellent work is extant, except the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth books, and parts of three other books. His "Annals" were completed about 116 A.D. The date of his death is not known. He was a Stoic in philosophy, and probably knew nothing of Christianity. According to Gibbon, " he was the first historian who applied the science of philosophy to the study of facts." (" History," vol. i. 225.) He displays profound insight into the motives of human conduct and the dark recesses of character. His style is eminently concise and vigorous. "Of the Latin historians," says Macaulay, "Tacitus was certainly the greatest. His style, indeed, is not only faulty in itself, but is in some respects peculiarly unfit for historical composition. . . . He tells a fine story finely, but he cannot tell a plain story plainly. He stimulates till all stimulants lose their power. ... In the delineation of character, Tacitus is unrivalled among historians, and has very few superiors among dramatists and novelists." (Essay on " History," published in the "Edinburgh Review," 1828.) "Tacitus," says F. W. Farrar, "towered like a giant above all his contemporaries, isolated and unapproachable. . . . The little we know of his private life is in perfect accordance with the noble standard of his recorded sentiments." (" Encyclopaedia Britannica.") See Botticher, " De Vita. Scriptis ac Sii!o Tacili," 1834 ; Sievers, "Tacitus und Tiberius," 1850; Di'buis-Gucuan, "Tacite et son Siecle," 2 vols., 1857; Baylk, "Historical and Critical Dictionary;" D. W. Mollhh, * Disputatio de C C. Tacito, : ' 16S6; Malvezzi, " Discorsi sopra Tacito," 1622; "Nouvelle Biographie Generale."

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Tarquin the Proud in Roman Biography

Tarquin the Proud, [Lat. Lu'cius Tarquin'ius Sii'er'bus; Fr. Tarquin le Superhe, laVkaN' leh sii'paiRb',] son of Tarquinius Priscus, and seventh King of Rome. In 534 B.C. he succeeded Servius Tullius, whom he had caused to be assassinated, and whose daughter Tullia he had married. He put to death the senators who had favoured the reforms of Servius, and, while displaying great ability, governed with despotic power. He conquered several neighbouring cities, built the Capitol and other public edifices, and established colonies at Signia and Circeii. The outrage committed by his son Sextus upon Lucretia roused the people, already exasperated by his tyranny, to throw off the yoke, and Tarquin was deposed by an armed force led by Junius Brutus. Alter several ineffectual attempts to regain his power, he formed an alliance with Lars Porsena of Clusium, in conjunction with whom he fought, the battle of Lake Regillus, (496 B.C.) They were totally defeated by the Romans, and Tarquin escaped to Cumse, where he died in 495 B.C. He was the last of the Roman kings. See Livv, " Histoid of Rome," books i. and ii. ; Niebuhr, " History of Rome;" V. Malvezzi, "Tarquinio Superbo," 1635; K. O. Muli.rr, "Etrnsker;" "Nouvelle Biographie Ge^ieVale;" Purruckrr, " Programmata II. de Taiquinii Superbi Rebus gestis," 1764-66.

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Theodosius in Roman Biography

Theodosius (the-o-do'she-us) [Fr. Theodose, ti'o'- doz'; It. Teodosio, ta-o-do'se-oj I., Flavius, a Roman emperor, sumamed the Great, was the son of the preceding, and was born in Spain in 346 A.D. He accompanied his father in his various campaigns, and acquired at an early age great proficiency in the art of war. In 379 A.D. the emperor Gratian conferred upon him the title of Augustus, with the command over the Eastern provinces. Having been received into the Christian Church, he distinguished himself by his zeal against the Arians, and in 380 appointed Gregory Nazianzen Archbishop of Constantinople. He carried on a successful war with the Goths, whom he induced to become the allies of the Romans. After the death of Gratian, Maximus, who had usurped his empire and invaded Italy, was defeated by Theodosius, with the assistance of the Huns and Goths, in 388. Theodosius reigned at Constantinople, and Valentinian II. was emperor at Rome until his death, in 392. After this event Theodosius became sole emperor of the Roman world. Before his death he divided his dominions between his two sons Arcadius and Honorius, to the former of whom he gave the Eastern empire, and to the latter the Western. Died in 395 a.d. Although he was guilty of several acts of cruelty, his character is generally eulogized by historians. See Gibbon, " History of the Decline and Fall " ;" Tii.i.emont, Histoire des Empereurs ;" Fi.schier, " Histoire de Theodose le Grand," 167Q ; Socrates, " Historia ecclesiaslica ;" Le Beau " Histoire du Bas- Empire ;" " Nouvelle Biograplue Ge'nerale."

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Battus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A Lacedaemonian who, in B.C. 631, built the town of Cyrené with a colony from the island of Thera. His proper name was Aristoteles, but he received the name of Battus from his having an impediment in his speech (βατταρίζω=to stutter), though Herodotus (iv. 155) says that βάττος is a derivative from a Libyan dialect, and means "king." He reigned over Cyrené for about thirty years, and was succeeded by his son Arcesilaüs. See Battiadae; Cyrené. A shepherd of Pylos, who promised Hermes that he would not expose his theft of the flocks of Admetus, which were in charge of Apollo. Having broken his promise, he was turned into a stone (Ovid, Met. ii. 702).

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Tiberius in Roman Biography

Ti-be'ri-us, [Fr. Tibere, te'baiR' ; It. Tiberio, teba're- o,] or, more fully, Ti-be'rI-us Clau'dl-us Ne'ro, a celebrated emperor of Rome, born in 42 B.C. He was a son of Livia Drusilla, the wife of Augustus, by her first marriage, and belonged to the patrician peps Claudia, His father was T. Claudius Nero. At an early age he acquired a high reputation in military affairs, and served with distinction in Spain, Asia Minor, and Germany. His talents were respectable, if not superior. He was well versed in Greek and Latin literature. His first wife was Vipsania Agrippina, a daughter of Agrippa. About 12 B.C. he was compelled to divorce her, and to marry Julia, a daughter of the emperor Augustus. He passed seven years at Rhodes in retirement, and returned to Rome in 2 A.D. After the death of Caius Caesar, in 4 A.D., Augustus adopted Tiberius as his son and successor. He became emperor in the year 14, and at first used his power with moderation. He had a suspicious temper, and was a most artful dissembler. He chose for his favourite minister and adviser the infamous Sejanus, to whom he soon abandoned the direction of the government. Tiberius was suspected of being accessory to the death of Germanicus, (19 A.D.) His only son, Drusus, was poisoned by Sejanusin 23. In the year 26 he left Rome, to which he never returned, and retired to the island of Capri, (Capreae.) Avoiding publicity and neglecting affairs of state, he abandoned himself to debauchery. In 31 A.D. Sejamis was put to death by the order or permission of Tiberius, and Macro became the powerful favourite. Tiberius died in 37 A.D., without appointing his successor. It is stated that he was suffocated by Macro, by whose aid Caligula then became emperor. "The historian," says Macaulay, (referring to Tacitus,) " undertook to make us intimately acquainted with a man singularly dark and inscrutable,-with a man whose real disposition long remained swathed up in intricate folds of factitious virtues, and over whose actions the hypocrisy of his youth and the seclusion of his old age threw a singular mystery. . . . He was to exhibit the old sovereign of the world sinking into a dotage which, though it rendered his appetites eccentric and his temper savage, never impaired the powers of his stern and penetrating mind, conscious of failing strength, raging with capricious sensuality, yet to the last the keenest of observers, the most artful of dissemblers, and the most terrible of masters. The task was one of extreme difficulty. The execution is almost perfect." (Essay on " History.") See Suetonius, " Tiberius ;" Tacitus, " Annales ;" Sievers, "Tacitus und Tiberius," 1850: V. Duruy, " De Tiberio Imperatore," 1853 ; Merivai.e, " History of the Romans under the Empire ;" Hose, " De Tiberio Cajsare," 1661 ; "Nouvelle Biosraphie Generale."

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Tibullus in Roman Biography

Ti-bul'lus, [Fr. Tibulle, te'bul'; Ger. Tibull, te-bdol'; It. Tibullo, te-bool'lo,] (Albius,) a distinguished Roman elegiac poet of the Augustan age, was bom in Italy about 55 B.C. He was a son of a knight, (eques,) from whom he inherited an estate between Tibur and Praeneste. This estate was confiscated in the civil war, but he recovered a part of it, and passed much of his life there, enjoying the peaceful pleasures of the country, of which he was a warm admirer. He was patronized by Valerius Messala, whom he accompanied in a campaign in Gaul in 31 B.C. He was an intimate friend of Horace, who addressed to him an epistle and an ode, (" Carmina," i. 33.) His character is said to have been amiable. He wrote amatory elegies addressed to Delia and Nemesis. His poems are models of graceful simplicity and genuine tenderness. The best editions of Tibullus are those published by Lachmann (1829) and by Dissenus, (or Dissen,) (1 835.) Died about 18 B.C. See Ayrmann, "Vita Tibulli," 1710 : Degkn, "A. Tibull," 1780: Grui*pk, " Die Rbmische Elegie," 1838; Hednkk, "Tibullus. Propertius et Ovidius," 1841 ; De Golbery, " Dissertatio de Tibulli Vita," etc., 1825; "Nouvelle Biographie Generale."

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Otho in Roman Biography

O'tho, [Fr. Othon, o't6.N',] (Marcus Salvius,) Emperor of Rome, born about 32 a.d., was descended from a patrician family. He was for a time an intimate associate of Nero, until the attachment of the latter for Poppaea, Otho's wife, caused a rupture between them. He supported Galba in his revolt against Nero, in 68 A.D., but, disappointed that the former did not appoint him his successor, he conspired with the guards, took the life of Galba, and assumed the supreme power. He soon after marched against Caecina, a general of Vitellius, who had been proclaimed emperor by the legions in Germany. His army having been totally defeated near Bebriacum, Otho destroyed himself in April, 69 A.D., and was succeeded by Vitellius. Otho was a man of profligate character. See Plutarch, "Life of Otho;" Mrrivai.e, "The Romans under the Empire :" Suetonius, "Otho;" W. E. Weber, "Kaiser M. Salvius Otho," 1815 ; " Nouvelle Biographie Gene>ale."

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Ovid in Roman Biography

Ov'id, [Lat. Ovid'iiis; It. Ovidio, o-vee'de-o ; Fr. Ovidk, o'ved',] or, more fully, Pub'lius Ovid'ius Na'so, a popular Roman poet, was born at Sulmo, (Sulmona,) about ninety miles east of Rome, in 43 B.C. He studied rhetoric in Rome under Arellius Fuscus and l'orcius Latro, and made himself master of Greek at Athens. His poetical genius was manifested in early youth, and afterwards diverted him from the practice of law, which, in compliance with his father's will, he began to study. He held, however, several civil or judicial offices at Rome, and became one of the Decemviri. He sought and obtained the acquaintance of Propertius, Horace, Macer, and other poets. He also enjoyed for a time the favour of the emperor Augustus. Among his earliest productions were three books of "Amores." Before the age of fifty he had published "The Art of Love," (" Ars Amatoria,") " Medea," a tragedy, and " Heroic Epistles," (" Ileroides.") He had also nearly finished his celebrated "Metamorphoses," ("Metamorphoseon Libri XV.,") wiiich display great poetical genius. In the year 8 A.D. he was suddenly banished by Augustus to Tomi, on the Euxine, near the mouth of the Danube. The reason assigned for this penal measure was the publication of his immodest poem "The Art of Love ;" but this is believed to have lieen a mere pretext, as that poem was published about ten years earlier. Ovid in his later writings alludes to some offence which he mysteriously conceals, and for which he admitted that he deserved to suffer. This question appears to have baffled the ingenuity and curiosity of scholars. He has been censured for the abject terms in which he petitioned Augustus for a pardon, which was inexorably refused. He died at Tomi in 18 A.D., which was also the year of Livy's death. His " Medea," which some ancient critics esteemed his most perfect work, is lost. During his exile lie wrote, besides other minor poems, "Twelve Books of Fasti," ("Fastorum Libri XII.,") six of which have come down to us. This is a poetical Roman calendar, and has historical value as well as literary merit. Ovid was thrice married, and divorced his first wife and his second. He also loved and courted a woman of high rank, whom he celebrated under the fictitious name of Corinna. Some writers suppose she was Julia the daughter, or Julia the granddaughter, of the emperor Augustus. The best English translation of Ovid is " Ovid's Metamorphoses, in Fifteen Books, translated by the Most Kminent Hands," London, 1717. Among these translators were Dryden, Addison, Congreve, and Garth. See Masson, "Vita P. Ovidii Nasonis," 1708; C. Rosmini, "Vitadi Publio Ovidio Naso," 1789; Vk.lknavk, "Vie d'Ovide," Paris, 1809; Bavle, " Historical and Critical Dictionary.**

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Paulus in Roman Biography

Paulus, (Lucius ^milius,) a son of the preceding, was born about 230 B.C., and was the most celebrated member of his family. He was a fine specimen of the old Roman aristocracy, and was a brother-in-law of Scipio Africanus, the conqueror of Hannibal. Elected praetor for the year 191 B.C., he obtained as his province Farther Spain, where he defeated the Lusitani in a great battle. In the year 189 he returned to Rome, and in 182 was elected consul, after having been defeated at several elections. With a view to finish the Macedonian war, the people elected him consul in 168 B.C. He gained in the same year a decisive victory over Perseus at Pydna, and afterwards took that king prisoner. He returned to Rome in 167, and obtained the honour of a triumph, with the surname of Mackdonicus. He died in 160 B.C., leaving a high reputation for honour and integrity. Plutarch has written his life and drawn a comparison between him and Timoleon. One of his sons was adopted by the son of the great Scipio above named, and became afterwards celebrated as Scipio Africanus the younger. See Livv, "History of " Rome," books xxxiv.-xl. ; Plutarch, Paulus jEmilius ;" Aurelius Victor, " De Viris illustribus.

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Pelagius in Roman Biography

Pe-la'gl-us, [Gr. IbAayioc ; Fr. Pelage, pl'lSzh',] the founder of the sect of Pelagians, or rather the chief advocate of a system of doctrines called Pelagianism, was born probably in Britain. He began to propagate his doctrines at Rome about 400 A.D., and formed a friendship with Celestius, who became his ardent disciple. He was an admirer of Origen, and an adversary of Saint Augustine in relation to grace and election. Pelagius rejected the dogmas of original sin and absolute predestination. He maintained that the effects of Adam's first sin were confined to himself, and that man's salvation depends on his own exertions. He was condemned by several councils, and was banished from Italy in 418. The eminent purity of his life was freely admitted by his opponents. A system called Semi-Pelagianism prevailed widely in the middle ages, and has many adherents at the present day. As the numerous works of Pelagius are nearly all lost, it is difficult to ascertain exactly what doctrines he taught. His adversaries complained of the haze of subtle dialectics with which he involved every subject of dispute. Among his extant works is a " Commentary on the Epistles of Saint Paul." See Norkis, " Historia Pelagians;" I.. Patouillet, "Vie de Pelage," 1751 ; Bayi.e, " Historical and Critical Dictionary ;" Saint Augustine, "De Gratia Christi" and "De Peccato Originali;" " Nouvelle Biographie Generale.

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Pertinax in Roman Biography

Per'ti-nax, (Helvius,) a Roman emperor, born at Alba Pompeia, on the Tanaro, in 126 a.d., was a son of a dealer in charcoal. He was a teacher of grammar before he entered the army. As prefect of a cohort, he served with distinction against the Parthians. He was admitted into the senate, and obtained command of a legion in the reign of Marcus Aurelius. In 179 A.D. he was consul. He suppressed a mutiny in Britain in the reign of Commodus, and was proclaimed emperor by the senate at the death of Commodus, in January, 193 A.p. Bv the announcement of important reforms, and his efforts to restore discipline, he made enemies among the courtiers and praetorians, who murdered him in his palace in March, 193 a.d. See Capitounus, "Pertinax;" Dion Cassius, "History of Rome :" Gibbon, " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

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Pescennius Niger in Roman Biography

Ni'ger, (Caius Pescennius.) a Roman commander, and governor of Syria. On the death of Pertinax, 193 a.d., he became a competitor for the empire, with Septimius Severus and Clodius Albinus for his rivals. Aftei his army had been several times defeated by the former in Asia Minor, he was made prisoner and put to death in 194 A.D. See Tu.lemont, " Histoire des Empereurs."

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Petronius in Roman Biography

Pe-tro'nI-us, [Fr. Petrone, pi'tRon',] or, more fully, Petro'nius Ar'biter, a licentious Latin writer, supposed to have lived in the reign of Nero. He described the vices of his time in a satire or novel, in mingled prose and verse, entitled "Satyricon," fragments of which are extant. His style is classical, and the work displays much talent, but is extremely licentious. The author of this is supposed to be identical with Petronius, a refined voluptuary who figured at the court of Nero as arbiter elegantia, (umpire of fashion and taste,) and who killed himself in 66 A.D. See Tacitus, " Annales," book xvi. : J. C. von Orei.i.i, "Lectiones Petronianae." 1836; Dunlop, " History of Fiction;" " Nouvelle Biographie Ge'ne'rale."

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Philip the Arab in Roman Biography

Philippus, (M. Julius,) a Roman emperor, was a native of Trachonitis. He obtained the imperial power by the murder of Gordlan, in 244 A.D. The senate confirmed the choice of the army. He made peace with Persia in 244. In 248 or 247 A.D. he celebrated the thousandth anniversary of the origin of Rome. He was killed at Verona in 249 A.D., in a battle against Decius, who had usurped the title of emperor. According to Eusebius and other writers, Philippus was a Christian. His son, M. Julius Philippus, who had been associated with him in the empire, (247 A.D.,) was killed by the partisans of Decius, in 249 a.d.

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Autocrates in Wikipedia

Autocrates was an Ancient Athenian poet of the old comedy. One of his plays is mentioned by Suidas and Aelian.[1] He also wrote several tragedies. [2] The Autocrates quoted by Athenaeus[3] seems to have been a different person.

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Plautus in Roman Biography

Plau'tns, [Fr. Plaute, plot ; It. Plauto, plow'to,] (Marcus Acciusor Attius,) the most celebrated of the Roman comic poets, was a native of Sarsina, in Umbria. It is supposed that he was born about 254, or, as some say, in 224 B.C. In his youth he served a baker by grinding corn with a hand-mill. Little is known of his history. According to Cicero, he died in 184 B.C. His plays were very popular in his own time, and are generally admired by modern critics. His elegance, re-' finement, and wit are commended by Cicero and other ancient critics. Horace censures his coarse jests and his versification. The titles of his extant plays are "Amphitruo," "Asinaria," "Aulularia," " Bacchides," "Captivi," "Curculio," "Casina," "Cistellaria,"' "Epidicus," "Menaschmi," "Mercator," " Miles Gloriosus," "Mostellaria," " Persa," " Poenulus," " Psettdolus," " Rudens," "Stichus," "Trinummus," and "Truculentus." There is a good English version of Plautus by Bonnel Thornton. The "Captivi" was pronounced the most perfect of comedies by Lessing, who, as a critic, had scarcely any superior. See Gronovior, " Lectiones Platitinse/' 1740; Loman. "Specimen critico-literarium in Plautum et Terentium," 1845 ; Andesrn, •' De Vita Plauti," 1843: Lessing, "Von dero Leben und den Werken des Plautus," in the third volume of his works, Berlin, 183S : " Nouvelle Biographie Ge'ne'rale ;" " Foreign Quarterly Review" for April, 1843.

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Pliny in Roman Biography

Plln'y [Fr. Punk, plen ; It. Plinio, plee'ne-o] THE Elder, (or, more fully, Ca'ius Plin'ius Secun'dus,) a celebrated Roman naturalist, was born at Verona, or, according to some authorities, Novum Comum, (the modern Como,) in 23 a.d. He served in the army in Germany, under Lucius Pomponius, and returned to Rome about the age of thirty. He studied law, and practised as a pleader for a few years. He was afterwards procurator in Spain in the reign of Nero, and became a friend and favoured officer of Vespasian. We possess but little other information of his public life, except that at the time of his death he had command of a fleet stationed at Misenum. In August, 79 a.d., occurred a great eruption of Vesuvius. Observing the immense cloud of smoke which arose in the form of a tree from the volcano, he embarked at Misenum on a vessel and approached nearer to the scene of danger. He calmly noted the variations of the portentous phenomenon, amidst the shower of cinders and pumicestones which fell around his vessel, and landed at Stabia. In the ensuing night he attempted to return to the vessel, but he perished on land, suffocated by ashes or sulphurous exhalations. This was probably the eruption which destroyed the cities of Pompeii and Herc'tilanetim. He left historical and grammatical works, which are lost. The only work of Pliny that has come down to us is his " Natural History," (" Naturae Historiarmn Libri XXXVII.,") which is thus characterized by Cuvier, (in the " Biographie Universelle :") " It is at the same time Be of the most precious monuments that antiquity has left 4 * o«e 01 ityfojj us, and the evidence of an erudition very wonderful in ~-i.% v% *arrfer and statesman. In order to appreciate justly r* ;;trii^va$A'£nd celebrated composition.it is necessary to ejr# 1 p-t; ,t oag attention to the plan, the facts, and the style. ./, ,^'?r|jjTOpla*v5s\jrtjmen.se. . . . He includes astronomy, #>6|*-al yV geography, agriculture, commerce medicine, and the arts, as well as natural history properly so called. . . . Pliny was not an observer like Aristotle; still less was he a man of genius, capable, like that great philosopher, of tracing the laws and relations in accordance with which the works of nature are formed and arranged, (co-ordonnee.) In general, he is only a compiler. ... A comparison of his extracts with the originals which are extant, especially with Aristotle, convinces us that Pliny did not prefer to take from the authors he consulted that which was most important or most exact. In general, he prefers the singular and marvellous. ... If Pliny has for us little merit as a naturalist and critic, it is far otherwise in respect to his talent as a writer, and the vast treasury of Latin terms and locutions which have made his work one of the richest depositories of the language of the Romans." He was a decided pantheist, and had no faith in the future existence of the human soul. His style is vigorous, condensed, pointed, and abounds in antithesis. Among the best editions of Pliny is that published bv Sillig, Hamburg. " His profound erudition," says Buffon, "is enhanced by elevation of ideas and nobleness of style. He not only knew all that could be known in his time, but he had that large faculty of thinking which multiplies science, he had that delicacy (finesse) of reflection on which depend elegance and taste, and he imparts to his reader a certain freedom of spirit and boldness of thought, which is the germ of philosophy." See Salmasius, " Exercitationes Plinianze," 1629; A. Jos. a Turrs Rezzonico, " Disquisitiones Plinianae," 2 vols., 1763-07; Paul Ebhr, " Dissertatio de Vita C. Plinii," 1556; A. U A. Fee, " Eloge de Pline le Naturaliste," 1S21 ; Baiir, " Gesclliclite der Rdtnischen Literatur:" "Nouvelle Biographie GeWrale."

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Autocrates in Wikipedia

Autocrates was an Ancient Athenian poet of the old comedy. One of his plays is mentioned by Suidas and Aelian.[1] He also wrote several tragedies. [2] The Autocrates quoted by Athenaeus[3] seems to have been a different person.

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Autolycus of Pitane in Wikipedia

Autolycus of Pitane (c. 360 BC – c. 290 BC) was a Greek astronomer, mathematician, and geographer. The lunar crater Autolycus was named in his honour. Life and work Autolycus was born in Pitane, a town of Aeolis within Western Anatolia. Of his personal life nothing is known, although he was a contemporary of Aristotle and his works seem to have been completed in Athens within the years 335 BC and 300 BC. Euclid references some of Autolycus' work, and Autolycus is known to have taught Arcesilaus. Autolycus' surviving works include a book on spheres entitled On the Moving Sphere and another On Risings and Settings of celestial bodies. Autolycus' works were translated by Maurolycus in the sixteenth century. On the Moving Sphere is believed to be the oldest mathematical treatise from ancient Greece that is completely preserved.[1] All Greek mathematical works prior to Autolycus' Spheres are taken from later summaries, commentaries, or descriptions of the works.[1] One reason for its survival is that it had originally been a part of a widely used collection called "Little Astronomy".[2] In his Sphere, Autolycus studied the characteristics and movement of a sphere. The work is simple and not exactly original since it consists of only elementary theorems on spheres that would be needed by astronomers, but its theorems are clearly enunciated and proved.[2] Its prime significance, therefore, is that it indicates that by his day there was a thoroughly established textbook tradition in geometry that is today regarded as typical of classical Greek geometry.[2] The theorem statement is clearly enunciated, a figure of the construction is given alongside the proof, and finally a concluding remark is made. Moreover, it gives indications of what theorems were well known in his day (around 320 BCE).[2] Two hundred years later Theodosius' wrote Sphaerics, a book that is believed to have a common origin with On the Moving Sphere in some pre-Euclidean textbook, possibly written by Eudoxus. In astronomy, Autolycus studied the relationship between the rising and the setting of the celestial bodies in his treatise in two books entitled On Risings and Settings. The second book is actually an expansion of his first book and of higher quality. He wrote that "any star which rises and sets always rises and sets at the same point in the horizon." Autolycus relied heavily on Eudoxus' astronomy and was a strong supporter of Eudoxus' theory of homocentric spheres. Footnotes # ^ a b Boyer (1991). "The age of Plato and Aristotle". p. 97. "A few years after Dinostratus and Menaechmus there flourished a mathematician who has the distinction of having written the oldest surviving Greek mathematical treatise. We have described rather fully the work of earlier Hellenic mathematicians, but it must be borne in mind that the accounts have been based no on original work but on later summaries, commentaries, or description. Occasionally a commentator appears to be copying from an original work extant at the time, as when Simplicius in the sixth century of our era is describing the quadrature of lines by Hippocrates. But not until we come to Autolycus of Pitane, a contemporary of Aristotle, do we find a Greek author one of whose works has survived." # ^ a b c d Boyer (1991). "The age of Plato and Aristotle". pp. 97–98. "One reason for the survival of little treatise, On the Moving Sphere, is that it formed a part of a collection, known as the "Little Astronomy," widely used by ancient astronomers. On the Moving Sphere is not a profound and probably not a very original work, for it includes little beyond elementary theorems on the geometry of the sphere that would be needed in astronomy. Its chief significance lies in the fact that it indicates that Greek geometry evidently had reached the form that we regard as typical of the classical age. Theorems are clearly enunciated and proved. Moreover, the author uses without proof or indication of source other theorems that he regards as well known; we conclude, therefore, that there was in Greece in his day, about 320 B.C., a thoroughly established textbook tradition in geometry."

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Pompey the Great in Roman Biography

Pompey the Great, [Lat. Pompk'uis Mag'nus ; Fr. PompEe le Grand, po.v'pl' leh gRON,] (Cneius,) a famous Roman general and triumvir, was born on the 30th of September, 106 B.C., in the same year as Cicero. He fought under his father in the Social war, (So, n.C.,) and saved his lather's life when China attempted to assassinate him in 87 B.C. He raised, without a commission, three legions to fight for Sulla against the party of Marius in 83 B.C., and began to display his great military talents in the defeat of a hostile force under Brutus. For this success Sulla saluted him with the title of imperator. He gained another victory over the legates of Carbo in 82 B.C., reduced Numidia in 81, and obtained the honour of a triumph, although he was but a simple eques. In 76 B.C. he obtained command of an army sent to Spain against Sertorius, who defeated Pompey in two battles, but was assassinated in the year 72, soon after which Spain was reduced to subjection. With a high degree of popularity, Pompey returned to Italy in 71 B.C., and was elected consul (with Crassus) for the year 70, although he had not held any of the lower civil offices and was not legally eligible for other reasons. Among the important acts of his administration was the restoration of the power of the tribunes, by which he signalized his defection from the aristocratic party. He remained at Rome inactive during 69 and 68 B.C. In the next year his friends procured the passage of a law by which he was selected to conduct a war against the pirates (who infested the Mediterranean in great numbers) and was invested with irresponsible power for three years. He performed this service with complete success in less than one year, and, it is said, took 20,000 prisoners. The next enterprise to which he was called by his own ambition and the favour of the people was the termination of the Mithridatic war, which had been protracted for years. His claims having been advocated by Cicero in a long oration, (" Pro Lege Manilla,") he superseded Lucullus in 66 B.C. He defeated Mithridatts in Lesser Armenia in the same year, and after that king had escaped to the Crimea, which was difficult of access to the Roman army, Pompey turned southward, and reduced Syria to a Roman province in 64 H.C. After a siege of three months, he captured Jerusalem in 63, and entered the sanctuary of the Temple. Having received intelligence of the death of Mithridates, and having reduced Pontus and Bithynia to subjection, he returned to Italy in 62 B.C., and was received with general enthusiasm. The triumph which he obtained on this occasion was the most brilliant which the Romans had ever witnessed. Offended by the refusal of the senate to sanction his public acts in Asia, he identified himself with the popular party, and formed with Caesar and Crassus a coalition )r triumvirate, (59 B.C.) Pompey, having divorced Mucia his third wife, married Julia, a daughter of Caesar. He made no effort to prevent the banishment of Cicero, but he supported the bill for his restoration, in 57 B.C. His popularity was now on the decline. He had lost the confidence of the senate by his coalition with Caesar, who was his successful rival in respect to the favour of the people. Pompey could only obtain the consulship in 55 B.C. by the aid of Cxsar, with whom he and Crassus had formed another secret treaty or bargain. Anticipating the open hostility of Caesar to his ambitious projects, Pompey renewed his connection with the aristocracy, who accepted him as their leader in 51 B.C. About the end of the next year the friends of Pompey obtained a decree of the senate that Caesar should disband his army. In defiance of this decree, Caesar marched to Rome with a force which Pompey was unable to resist. His self-confidence was such that he had neglected to levy troops, and he was compelled to retreat to Epirus, where he collected, an army. (See CAESAR.) Urged on by the civilians and nobles of his camp, against his own judgment he offered battle to Caesar in the plain of Pharsaliain August, 48 B.C. and was completely defeated. lie escaped by sea, with his wife Cornelia, and sought refuge in Egypt, but was murdered in the act of landing, by order of Theodotus and Achillas, the chief ministers, in September, 48 B.C. His moral character is represented as better than that of the majority of Roman generals in his time. He was deficient in political abilities, and was guided by no fixed principles as a statesman. See Plutarch, " Life of Pompey ;" G. Long, " The Decline of the Roman Republic:" Dion CassiUS, " History;" Cickro, " Oratio pro Lege Martina;" Drumann, "Gescliichte Roms ;" " Appian, Bellum Civile ;" J. Upmarck. " Dissertatio de Pompejo Magno," 1709; " Nouvelle Biographie Ge'ue'rale."

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Lucretius in Roman Biography

Lucretius, lu-kree'she^s, [Fr. Lucrece, Ki'kRjss'; It. Lucrezio, loo-kReYse-o; Sp. Lucrf.chi, loo-kRa'- theo,] or, to give his full name, Ti'tus Lucre'tius Ca'rus, one of the greatest Latin poets, was born in Italy in 95 B.C., and was contemporary with Cicero. The records of antiquity throw scarcely any light on his life, which was probably passed in studious retirement. It is not known whether he ever visited Greece ; but it is evident from his writings that he had profoundly studied the language, philosophy, and manners of that people. A doubtful tradition asserts that he was subject to insanity caused by a love-potion ; and the statement that he committed suicide in his forty-fourth year is generally credited. He left only one work,-a philosophic and didactic poem, in six books, entitled "De Return Natur3," (" On the Nature of Things,") in which lie expounds and illustrates the physical and ethical doctrines of Epicurus, of whom he was a disciple. From such abstruse speculations and intractable subjects he has produced one of the most admirable poems in the language. Although his system is erroneous and incoherent, his reasoning is remarkably clear and close. Probably no other work so amply demonstrates the power of the Latin language to utter the sublimest conceptions with a sustained majesty and harmony. "A great atheistic poet," says Villemain, "is surely a surprising phenomenon. His genius finds sublime accents to attack all the inspirations of genius. He renders even nothingness poetic; he insults glory; he enjoys death. Out of the abyss of skepticism he sometimes soars to a height of enthusiasm which is rivalled only by the sublimity of Homer." Referring to this work, Macaulay remarks, "The finest poem in the Latin language-indeed, the finest didactic poem in any language-was written in defence of the silliest and meanest of all systems of natural and moral philosophy." Ovid appears to be the only contemporary writer who fully appreciated the genius of Lucretius. See the article on Lucretius, bv Vili.emain, in the " Paographia Universelle ;" Sellar, " Roman Poets of the Republic ;" Carl F. Sciimid, "Dissertatio de T. Lucretio Cam," 1768; J. Sieiikiis, "QuaistionesLucrettanai," 1844 ; J. I.egris, Rome, ses Novateurs, M Onst-rvateurs, etc. E"tudes hisforiques surl.ucrece, Catulle," etc., 1846: Farricics, "fiibliotheca Latina :" Smith, "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography ;" " Edinburgh Review" for April, 1807.

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Lucullus in Roman Biography

Lu-cul'lus, (Lucius Licinius,) a celebrated Roman general, born of a patrician family about no B.C. In the year 87 he went to Asia as quajstor under Sulla, who gave him many proofs of his confidence. After an absence of several years, during which the civil war between Marius and Sulla raged at Rome, he returned, and was elected consul in 74 B.C. In this year he obtained the chief command in the war against Mithridates, whom he defeated at Cyzicus in 73, and, after other victories, drove him out of the kingdom of Pontus. He afterwards defeated Tigranes of Armenia, whose capital he took about 68 11.C The mutiny of his troops prevented his final triumph over Mithridates, and he was superseded by Pompey in the year 66. Cicero expressed the opinion that so great a war was never conducted with more prudence and courage. (" Pro Murama.") Lucullus then retired from public affairs, and expended part of the immense fortune he had acquired in the East in building magnificent villas, giving sumptuous entertainments, and collecting expensive paintings and statues. He was a liberal patron of learning and the arts. Sulla had dedicated to him his Commentaries. Plutarch, after comparing him with Cimon, says it is hard to say to which side the balance inclines. He was living in 59, but was not living in 56 B.C. See " Lucullus," in Plutarch's " Lives ;" Cicero, " Pro Lege Manilia;" Johan Upmahck, "Dissertatio historic* de Lucullo, 1701 Dion Cassius, " History of Rome," books xxxv. and xxxvn, ; Dkumann, "Geschiclue Roras," vol. iv. ; " Nouvelle Blugrauhie GiSiKSrale."

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Macrinus in Roman Biography

Ma-cri'nus, [Fr. Macrin, mfkitiN',] (M. Opelius or Oi'iLius,). a Roman emperor, was born of obscure parents in Mauritania in 164 A.n. He obtained the high office of prefect of the praetorians under Caracalla. In April, 217 A.D., he instigated the assassination of Caracalla, and was proclaimed emperor by the army, whose choice was confirmed by the senate. In the same year he was defeated by the Parthians at Nisibis. He was defeated near Antioch in June, 218, by the partisans of Elagabalus, and put to death. See Tillemont, " Histoire des Empereurs;" " Nouvelle Bicgraphie Generale."

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Aristeas in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

(Ἀριστέας). An epic poet of Proconnesus, of whose life we have only fabulous accounts. His date is quite uncertain. He is represented as a magician, whose soul could leave and re-enter its body according to its pleasure. He was connected with the worship of Apollo, which he was said to have introduced at Metapontum. He wrote an epic poem on the Arimaspi (q.v.), in three books, from which the pseudoLonginus quotes. See Herod. iv. 13.

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Maecenas in Roman Biography

Maecenas, me-see'nas, [It. Mecknate, ma-cha-na'tl, orMECENATO; Fr. Mecenk, ma'sjn',] (Caius Cii.nius,) a celebrated patron of literature at Rome, was born probably about 70 li.c. He was descended from an ancient and royal Etruscan family, and belonged to the equestrian order. (Horace, Carm. I. 1-20.) He was the friend of Octavius before his accession as the emperor Augustus. His fidelity and talents having been approved in many important negotiations, Octavius intrusted to him the administration of Rome during his absence in 36 B.C. when he went to war against Sextus Pompeius. After the battle of Actium (31 A.D.) had rendered Octavius master of Rome, he is said to have followed the counsel of Maecenas in founding an empire instead of restoring the republic. Agrippa and Maecenas were the favourites and chief ministers of Augustus for many years. The political career of the latter ended about 16 B.C. Ma=- cenas was versed in Greek and Roman literature, and rendered his name memorable by his liberal patronage of Horace, Virgil, and other poets, who were his intimate friends. His name had become proverbial as a patron of letters as early as the time of Martial. It is said that Virgil's " Georgics" was written at the request of Maecenas. In the councils of state he advocated mild and liberal measures and the free expression of opinions. He wrote several mediocre works, of which only small fragments are extant. Died in 8 B.C. See A. Rivisr*. " Ilisscnationes II. de Majcenate," t64g-e2; Henri Richer. "Vie de MeCenas," 1746; R. Schomberg, "Life of M-eceiias," London, i;ho; C. Capokai.1, "Vila di Mecenate," 1604; 8. Viola, "Storia di C. C. Mecenato," 18:6: Frandsen. "C, cenas," etc, 1S43; MKtiiOMirs, " De C. C. Msecenatis Vita," 1653: Bellman, " MleceiUM Literatorum Patronus," Upsal, 1705; Tacitus, "Annates," books i., iii., vi., and " xiv. ; Dion Cassius, History of Rome."

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Magnentius in Roman Biography

Magnentius, mjg-nen'she-us, [Fr. Magnence, mtn'- yONss'7] (Fi.avius,) a Roman general, born in Germany about 300 A.D. While commanding an army in Gaul, he revolted against the emperor Constans, and usurped the empire of the West in 350. Constans was killed by his orders. Magnentius made himself master of the city of Koine. A war ensued between him and Constantius, who defeated the usurper on the river Drave in 351. He retreated to Gaul, was again defeated, and killed himself in August, 353 A.D. See Gikhon^" !><< in and Fall of the Roman Empire;" Le Beau, " Hiatnin tin Bas-Empin."

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Magnus Maximus in Roman Biography

Maxi-mus, [Fr. Maxime, mik'sem'; It. Massimo, mas'se-mo, ] (Magnus Clemens,) a usurper of the Roman empire, was a native of Spaiti. Having for several years commanded the Roman army in Britain with success, he revolted against Gratian about 381 A.D., and was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers. He then invaded Gaul to offer battle to Gratian, who was defeated, or fled without fighting, and was killed in 383. Theodosius and Valentinian recognized him as Emperor of Gaul, Spain, and Britain. Attempting to obtain Italy also by conquest, he was defeated by Theodosius, taken prisoner, and executed in 388 A.D. See Le Beau, " Histoire du Bas-Empire ;" Tillemont, " Histoire des Empereurs."

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Marcellus in Roman Biography

Mar-cel'lus, (Caius Claudius,) a Roman consul, who married Octavia, the sister of Octavius Caesar. He became consul in 50 B.C., before which he had attached himself to the party of Pompey. While in this office he made a motion in the senate to deprive Caesar of his command, but did not succeed. He remained in Italy during the civil war, and shared the clemency of Caesar after the victory of the latter. Died about 40 B.C.

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Marcus Aurelius in Roman Biography

Au-re'll-us An-to-ni'nus, (Marcus,) commonly called Mar'cusAure'lius,[Fr.MARC-AuRELE,miR'korjl', 1 sometimes sumamed the Philosopher, a Roman empeior, celebrated for his wisdom, learning, and virtue, was burn at Rome in April, 121 A.D. He was a son of Annius Verus, who once held the office of praetor. His ohm original name was Marcus Annius Verus. He was educated by able teachers, among whom were Fronto, Apollonius of Chalcis, and Herodes Atticus. In philosophy he was a disciple of the Stoics, of which sect he became an illustrious ornament by his practice as well as by his writings. Having been adopted by Antoninus Pius in 138 a.d., he assumed the name of M. /Elius Aurelius Verus Caesar. In .139 Antoninus, who had just become emperor, associated him in the administration. Aurelius married Faustina, a daughter of Antoninus, about 146 A.D., and succeeded his adopted father in 161, after he had been urged by the senate to accept the throne. He associated with himself in the empire Lucius Commodus, alias Lucius Verus. They reigned harmoniously together until the death of Verus in 169 A.D. His reign was disturbed by many insurrections, and by inroads of northern barbarians, especially the German tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi. Though he preferred peace, he was almost continually involved in war, in which he acted on the defensive and was generally victorious. He is said to have shown himself a skilful general. He commanded in "erson the army that drove the Marcomanni out of Pannunia. His victory over the Quadi in 174 A.D. is attributed to a miracle by some writers, who affirm that the thirsty Romans were refreshed by a shower during the battle, while the enemy were assailed by a violent storm of hail and lightning. An ancient tradition ascribes this miracle to the prayers of a Christian legion which formed part of the army of Aurelius. In 175 A.D., Avidius Cassius, an able general, who commanded the Roman army in Syria, revolted, declared himself emperor, and made himself master of Egypt and of the part of Asia which lies east of Mount Taurus. He was killed by his own officers in the same year. Aurelius visited Syria, Egypt. Athens, etc., in 176. He was initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries at Athens, and on other occasions conformed to the established religious rites. In 177 he associated his son Commodus with himself in the empire. He was engaged in a campaign against the Marcomanni and Quadi, when he died at Siruiium, or at Vindebona, (Vienna,) in March, 180 A.D. Commodus erected to his memory the Antonine column, which stands at Rome in the Piazza Colonna. His thoughts and doctrines were recorded by himself in a Greek work, called "Meditations," which is considered an excellent manual of moral discipline. His biographers find it difficult to explain the persecution which the Christians suffered in his reign, and which is perhaps the only stain on his memory. We learn from one short passage of his writings that he was prejudiced against the Christians. No monarch was ever more beloved by his subjects. He acquired the boasted equanimity of the Stoic philosophy, without the asperity which was a characteristic of the Stoics in general. A good English version of "The Thoughts of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus," by George Long, appeared in 1862. See Cakitolinus, "Marcus Antoninus Philosophus ;" Tii.lemont. " Histoire des Empereurs;" Ripault, "Histoire (ie TEmpereur Marc-Antonin," 5 vols., 1S20; Dion Cassius, lib. Ixxi.; Fabricius "Bibliotheca Grajca ;" De Suckau, "Etude sur Marc Aurele," 1857; Aurelius Victor, " De Ca:saribus Historia." See also the notice

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Marcus Brutus in Roman Biography

Brutus, (Marcus Junius,) a noted Roman, son of the preceding, was born in So B.C. Cato Uticensis was his maternal uncle, and afterwards his father-in-law, Brutus having married his daughter Porcia. In the civil wars he sided with Pompey. After the battle of Pharsalia he was treated with great kindness by Caesar, and appears to have been sincerely attached to him for a time. He .it the instigation of Caesar's enemies, induced to the conspiracy against the life of the dictator. Subsequently he and Cassius became the leaders of the republican army against Antony and Octavius. At the battle of Philippi, Brutus, who commanded the right was at first completely successful, and drove the troops of Octavius even to their camp ; but Antony, ving the mistake his enemies had committed iii pursuing fugitives, instead of assuring the victory to their own friends, turned upon the exposed flank of Cassius and entirely changed the fortune of the day. The republican troops were totally defeated; and Brutus, after seeing many of his bravest and most attached followers ay down their lives in order to prevent his falling into the hands of his enemies, killed himself with his own sword, 36 B.C. Plutarch "Lives;" Appian, "Bellum Civile;" Quevedo rVllLEC.AS, "VidadeM. Bruto," 1648.

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Marius in Roman Biography

Ma'ri-us, (Caius,) a Roman general, distinguished for his splendid talents, indomitable energy, and unprincipled ambition, was born near Arpinum (now Arpino) in 157 B.C. His parents were poor and plebeian. He served under Scipio Africanus at the siege of Numantia, and was chosen tribune of the people in 119. He obtained the praetorship in 115, though strongly opposed by the patrician party, and about the same time married Julia, an aunt of Julius Caesar. Having accompanied Metellus as legate and second in command into Africa, (109 B.C.,) he won such popularity by his skill and bravery that he was elected consul for 107 B.C. and intrusted , with the command of the Jugurthine war. He defeated J«gurtha, who was made prisoner in 106. In 104 B.C. Marius was again chosen consul, as being the only one capable of defending the state from the threatened invasion of the Teutones and Cimbri. He defeated the barbarians at Aix, (Aquae Sextiae,) in Gaul, in 102 B.C. Having been elected consul the next year, for the fifth time, Marius, in conjunction with Catulus, gained a signal and overwhelming victory over the Cimbri in the plain of Vercellae, (Vercelli.) By the aid of the tribune Saturninus, Marius became consul for 100 B.C., in spite of the determined hostility of the patricians. Durirg this consulate an agrarian law was passed, and Metellus Nuniidicus was exiled for refusing to conform to it. On the expiration of his term of office, Marius went to Asia, under the pretext of sacrificing to Cybele, but really in order to excite Mithridates to a war with Rome, that he might again distinguish himself in his congenial element. In 90 B.C. both Marius and Sulla entered the service of the consuls Octavius and China in the Marsian or Social war ; but, jealous of the reputation of his rival, the former soon resigned. Sulla, having become consul in 88 B.C., obtained the command in the Mithridatic war, upon which Marius, assisted by his friends, caused a law to be passed transferring it to him. He was soon driven from the city by Sulla and his adherents, and forced to take refuge in Africa. When Sextilius, Governor of Libya, sent him orders to leave the country, on pain of being treated as an enemy, Marius replied to the messenger, "Go tell him that you have seen the exile Marius sitting on the ruins of Carthage." The next year, while Sulla was absent in Greece, Marius, joined by the consul Cinna, entered Rome and ordered a general massacre of the opposite party. Among the patricians who perished was M. Antonius, the orator so highly praised by Cicero. Marius and Cinna became consuls, (86 B.C.,) but the former was attacked by a fever, of which he died the same year. See Plutarch, "Life of Marius:" George Long, "Life of Marius," London, 1844; Merimbe, "Etudes sur l'Histoire Romaine," etc. : Sallust, " Jugurtha;" F. Weiland, "C. Maiii septies Consulis Vita," Berlin, 1845: P. Ekerman, " Dissertatio de C. Mario seplies Consule," 1742; Smith, "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Urography;." " Nouvelle Biographie Generate."

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Aristippus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

(Ἀρίστιππος). A Greek philosopher, a native of Cyrené and a pupil of Socrates, after whose death in B.C. 399 he travelled about the Greek cities, imparting instruction for money. He was founder of the Cyrenaic School, or the system of Hedonism (from ἡδονή, pleasure). His doctrine was that as a basis for human knowledge the only things real and true are our sensations, and not the external objects that produce them; that the aim of life is what all living things strive after, pleasure; and that virtue is only so far a good thing as it tends to the production of pleasure. The wise man shows his wisdom in governing his desires; mental training, indeed, being the only thing which can qualify us for real enjoyment. In pleasure there is no difference of kind, only of degree and duration. Aristippus's writings seem to have disappeared early; five letters, in the Doric dialect, which have come down under his name are undoubtedly spurious. See Ueberweg, Hist. of Philosophy, pp. 59-98, Eng. trans. (N. Y. 1872); his life by Diogenes Laertius; and the articles Cyrenaici; Epicurus; Philosophia.

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Martial in Roman Biography

Martial, mar'she^l, [Fr. Martial, mtR'se'tl' ; Lat. Martia'lis ; It. Marziale, maRt-se-a'la,] or, more fully, Mar'cus Vale'rius Martia'lis, a famous Latin epigrammatic poet, born at Bilbilis, in Spain, about 40 a.d., went to Rome at the age of twenty-two, and resided there thirty-five years. The events of his life are very imperfectly known ; but it appears that he devoted his atten tion chiefly to poetry. Some epigrams which he wrote on the occasion of the public spectacles given by Titus about the year 80, procured him the favour of that prince. He was also patronized by Domitian, who made him a tribune and a Roman knight. He was intimate with Juvenal, Quintilian, and Plniy the Younger. About 98 a.d. he returned to his native place, where he died a few years later. Fourteen books of his " Epigrams" are still extant, and are much admired by some eminent critics, such as Scaliger, Lipsius, and Malte-Brun. The latter thinks his writings are among the most interesting monuments of Roman literature, though many of them offend against good taste and pure morality. Probably no poet ever estimated his works more justly than he did in the following line : "Sunt bona, sunt quxdam mediocria, sunt plura mala." (" Some are good, some indifferent, and more are bad.") See Crush's, " Life of Martial," in " Lives of the Roman Poets," J726: Lrssing, "Vermischte Schriften;" A. Pbricaud. " Essai sur Mutial," 1^16; Fabricics, " Uibliotheca Latina:" " M. V. Mar- ! ; s Men-ch und Dichter," Berlin, 1S43: "Martial and his Times," in the "Westminster Review" for April, 1853.

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Maxentius in Roman Biography

Maxentius, maks-en'she - us, [Fr. Maxence, mik'- s6nss',] (Marcus AureliuSTValerius,) a Roman emperor, was the son of Maximian, who abdicated in 305 A.D. He married the daughter of the emperor Galerius. He thought himself slighted by the promotion of Constantine to the rank of Caesar in 306, and excited a revolt among the Praetorian guards, who proclaimed him emperor at Rome in the same year. Galerius, who was then in a distant province, sent against him an army under Severus, who was defeated and killed by the aid of Maximian. Maxentius and his father reigned together for a short time, and made an alliance with Constantine, who married Fausta, a sister of Maxentius. Maximian was expelled from Rome in 308, in consequence of a quarrel with his son. In 312 the army of Constantine defeated that of Maxentius, who, in the retreat, was drowned in the Tiber. See Gibbon, " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ;" Tille- MONT, " Histmre des Empereurs."

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Maximianus Herculius in Roman Biography

Max-im'i-an, [Fr. Maximien, maVse'me-i.N' ; Lat. Maximia'nus,] or, more fully, Mar'cus Vale'rius Maximia'nus, a Roman emperor, born in Pannonia, was the son of a peasant. He had obtained high rank in the army when Diocletian, in 286 A.D., adopted him as his colleague in the empire. In the division of the empire, Italy and Africa were assigned to Maximian. In 305 Diocletian and Maximian formally abdicated in favour of Galerius and Constantius Chlorns. The next year he joined his son Maxentius in an effort to recover power, and was proclaimed emperor. In the war that ensued between hiin and Constantine he was taken prisoner, and executed in 310. (See Maxentius.) See Gibbon, "Dec'ine and Fall of the Roman Empire ;" Tille- MONT, " Histoire des Empereurs."

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Aristom&#277;nes in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

(Ἀριστομένης). A Messenian, the hero of the second war with Sparta, who belongs more to legend than to history. He was a native of Andania, and was sprung from the royal line of Aepytus. Tired of the yoke of Sparta, he began the war in B.C. 685. After the defeat of the Messenians, in the third year of the war, Aristomenes retreated to the mountain fortress of Ira, and there maintained the war for eleven years, constantly ravaging the land of Laconia. In one of his incursions the Spartans overpowered him with superior numbers, and, carrying him with fifty of his comrades to Sparta, cast them into the pit where condemned criminals were thrown. The rest perished; but not so Aristomenes, the favourite of the gods; for legends tell how an eagle bore him up on its wings as he fell, and a fox guided him on the third day from the cavern. But the city of Ira, which he had so long successfully defended, fell into the hands of the Spartans, who again became masters of Messenia, B.C. 668. Aristomenes settled at Ialysus, in Rhodes, where he married his daughter to Damagetus, king of Ialysus.

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Maximinius Daza in Roman Biography

Max-i-mi'nus Da'za, an Illyrian peasant, a relative of Galerius, was raised by him to the dignity of Caesar, A.D. 305. He ruled over Syria and Egypt, and persecuted the Christians. On the death of Galerius, in 311, Maximinus took possession of all the Asiatic provinces. He afterwards made war on Licinius, but was defeated, and died by poison at Tarsus in 313 A.D.

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Nero in Roman Biography

Ne'ro, [Fr. Neron, na'r6N'; It. Nerone, nl-ro'na,] (Lucius Domitius,) the sixth of the Roman emperors, born in 37 A.D., was the son of Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus. His mother, after becoming a widow, having married her uncle the emperor Claudius, the latter adopted Nero and gave to him his daughter Octavia in marriage, adding to his name that of Claudius Drusus. On the death of Claudius, who was poisoned by Agrippina, A.D. 54, Nero was proclaimed emperor, to the exclusion of Britannicus, the son of Claudius. The counsels of Seneca and Burrus, who were placed at the head of government, had for a time a salutary effect upon Nero, and the first years of his rule were marked by kindness and justice ; but his evil passions eventually prevailed, and the remainder of his reign was signalized by a series of atrocities. Becoming jealous of Britannicus, he caused him to be poisoned, and, having soon after formed an attachment to Poppaea, murdered his mother at her instigation and made her his wife. He next caused Octavia, whom he had divorced, to be put to death. In A.D. 64 Rome was nearly destroyed by a fire which Nero was accused of having kindled. It was said that he amused himself, while viewing the conflagration, with reciting verses descriptive of the fall of Troy. In order to remove suspicion from himself, he charged the crime upon the Christians, many of whom were in consequence subjected to the most cruel tortures. A conspiracy formed against the tyrant, A.D. 65, was discovered, and many distinguished citizens were executed, among whom were Lucan and Seneca. Soon after this, Vindex and Galba revolted against the emperor, who, on hearing of their defection and that of the praetorian guards, destroyed himself, with the assistance of a servant, A.D. 68. See Tacitus, "Annales;" Suetonius, "Vita Neronis ;" Tii.lemont, " Histoire des Empereurs :" Mf.rivai.e, "History of the Romans under the Empire ;" " Nouvelle Biographie Generale ;" Denis Diderot, " Essai sur les Regnes de Claude et de Ne>on,' 2 vols., 1782.

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Nerva in Roman Biography

Ner'va, (Marcus Cocceius,) a Roman emperor, born in Umbria in 32 A.D. He was consul with Vespasian in 71, and with Domitian in 90 A.D. On the death of Domitian, in the year 96, he was proclaimed emperor by the army and the people. His administration was mild and liberal. He recalled exiles who had been banished by former emperors, and enforced penalties against informers. He made and performed a vow that he would not put any senator to death. His mutinous praetorian soldiers compelled him to permit the execution of the assassins of Domitian. He adopted Trajan as his son and successor, and died in 98 A.D. See Xillsmont, " Histoire des Empereurs;" Aurelius " Victor, De Viribus illustribus ;" F. J. de Barrett, " Histoire des deux Regnes de Nerva et de Trajan," 1790

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Numa Pompilius in Roman Biography

Nu'ma Pom-pil'i-us, the second king of Rome, celebrated in Roman legends or fables as the author of the religious ceremonies of the Romans. According to these legends, Numa was a Sabine, and was elected king as successor to Romulus. Instructed by the Camena Egeria, he prescribed the rites of public worship, and appointed pontiffs, augurs, flainens, and vestals. His reign was pacific and prosperous. There was a prevalent tradition among the ancients that Numa derived his wisdom from Pythagoras. See Plutarch, " Lives;" Nihbuhr, " Romische Geschichte ," J. Meyer, " Delineatio Vita? Numse Pompilii," 1765.

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Aristoph&#259;nes in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

The greatest writer of Greek comedy. He lived at Athens, B.C. 444-388. His father, Philippus, is said to have been not a native Athenian, but a settler from Rhodes or Egypt, who afterwards acquired citizenship. However this may be, the demagogue Cleon, whose displeasure Aristophanes had incurred, tried to call in question his right to the citizenship. His first comedy appeared in B.C. 427, but was not performed under his own name because of his youth; and several more of his plays were brought upon the stage by Callistratus and Philonides, till in 424 he brought out The Knights in his own person. Forty-four of his plays were known to antiquity, though four of them were considered doubtful. Of these we possess eleven, the only complete Greek comedies which have survived, besides the titles and numerous fragments of twenty-six others. The eleven are: * 1. The Acharnians (Ἀχαρνεῖς), which gained him the victory over Cratinus and Eupolis, B.C. 425, written during the great Peloponnesian War to induce the Athenians to make peace. * 2. The Knights (Ἱππεῖς) mentioned above, B.C. 424, also crowned with the first prize, and aimed directly against the demagogue Cleon. * 3. The Clouds (Νεφέλαι), B.C. 423, his most famous and, in his own opinion, his most successful piece, though when played it only won the third prize. We have it now in a second, and apparently unfinished, edition. It is directed against the pernicious influence of the Sophists, as the representative of whom Socrates is attacked. * 4. The Wasps (Σφῆκες), brought out in B.C. 422, and, like the two following, rewarded with the second prize; it is a satire upon the Athenian passion for lawsuits. * 5. The Peace (Εἰρήνη), of the year B.C. 421, recommending the conclusion of peace. * 6. The Birds (Ὄρνιθες), acted in B.C. 414, and exposing the romantic hopes built on the expedition to Sicily. This is unquestionably the happiest production of the poet's genius, and is marked by a careful reserve in the employment of dramatic resource. * 7. The Lysistraté (Λυσιστράτη), B.C. 411, a Women's Conspiracy to bring about peace; the last of the strictly political plays. * 8. Thesmophoriazusae (Θεσμοφοριάζουσαι), probably to be dated B.C. 410. It is written against Euripides's dislike of women, for which the women who are celebrating the Thesmophoria drag him to justice. * 9. The Frogs (Βάτραχοι), which was acted in B.C. 405, and won the first prize. It is a piece sparkling with genius, on the decay of tragic art, the blame of which is laid on Euripides, then recently deceased. * 10. Ecclesiazusae (Ἐκκλησιάζουσαι), or The National Assembly of Women, B.C. 392. It is levelled against the vain attempts to restore the Athenian state by cut-and-dried constitutions. * 11. Plutus (Πλοῦτος), or The God of Wealth. The blind god is restored to sight, and better times are brought about. This play was acted first in B.C. 408, then in 388 in a revised form suitable to the time, and dispensing with chorus and parabasis. This play marks the transition to the Middle Comedy. See Comoedia. In the opinion of the ancients, Aristophanes holds a middle place between Cratinus and Eupolis, being neither so rough as the former nor so mild as the latter, but combining the severity of the one with the grace of the other. What was thought of him in his own time is evident from Plato's Symposium, where he is numbered among the noblest of men; and an epigram attributed to that philosopher says that the Graces, looking for an enduring shrine, found it in the soul of Aristophanes. He unites understanding, feeling, and fancy in a degree possessed by few poets of antiquity. His keen glance penetrates the many evils of his time and their most hidden causes; his scorn for all that is base, and his patriotic spirit, burning to bring back the grand days of Marathon, urge him on, without respect of persons or regard for self, to drag the faults he sees into daylight, and lash them with stinging sarcasm; while his inexhaustible fancy invents ever new and original materials, which he manipulates with perfect mastery of language and technical skill. If his jokes are often coarse and actually indecent, the fact must be imputed to the character of the Old Comedy and the licentiousness of the Dionysiac festival, during which the plays were acted. No literature has anything to compare with these comedies. Ancient scholars, recognizing their great importance, bestowed infinite pains in commenting on them, and valuable relics of their writings are enshrined in the existing collections of scholia. The principal MS. of Aristophanes is that of Ravenna, which contains the eleven extant plays. Next in importance is the Codex Venetus Marcianus of nearly the same date, but which lacks the Acharnians, Thesmophoriazusae, Ecclesiazusae, and Lysistraté. Both of these are probably derived from one Alexandrian archetype. The editio princeps of Aristophanes is that of Aldus (Venice, 1498), containing nine plays, to which Junta added two more (1515). The ed. of Invernizzi-Beck contains a collation of the Ravenna MS. Other editions are those of Bekker (1829); Dindorf (5th ed. 1869); Meineke (1860); Blaydes (1886); Holden (5th ed. 1887). Eng. trans. of eight plays by Rudd (1867); of five plays by Frere (1871). There is a complete concordance by Dunbar (1883).

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Numerian in Roman Biography

Nu-me'ri-an, [Lat. Numeria'nus; Fr. Numeriex, nu'mS're4,N',| (Marcus Aurelius,) son of Cams, succeeded him as Emperor of Rome in 284 A.D., in conjunction with his brother Carinus. He was afterwards put to death in the same year, as is supposed, by his fatherin- law, Arrius, and Diocletian was chosen emperor. Numerianus was famed as an orator and a poet. His character is said to have been excellent. See Vopiscus, " Numerianus."

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Decius in Roman Biography

Decius, dee'sbe-us, [Fr. Dece, dis,] (Caius Messius Quintus TrajanusJ a Roman emperor, born in Pannonia about 200 a.d. He was Governor of Mcesia, under Philip, when his army proclaimed him emperor. A battle follower! between the two rivals, in which Philip was defeated and killed, 249 a.d. Decius persecuted the Christians with great cruelty. In a battle with the Goths, who had invaded his dominions, he was killed in 251. See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

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Didius Julianus in Roman Biography

Did'I-us, (Julianus Severus,) a Roman emperor, born at Milan in 133 A.D., was the son of Petronius Didius Severus. He served in the army with distinction, and was made consul with Pertinax. After the murder of this emperor, in 193, the Prsetorians offered the empire at public auction to the highest bidder. The chief competitors were Sulpitianus and Didius, who was immensely rich. The latter made the highest bid, (6250 drachmas for each soldier,) and was proclaimed emperor. But Septimius Severus and other generals refused to recognize him, and, after a reign of about two months, he was killed by the soldiers in his palace. Severus was his successor. See Dion Cassius, " History of Rome ;" Tillemont, "Histoire des Empereurs."

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Diocletian in Roman Biography

Diocletian, dl-o-kle'she-an, [Lat. Diocletia'nus ; Fr. Diocletien, de'o'kla'te^aV,] or, more fully, Cai'ua Vale'rius Aure'ljus Diocletia'nus, a Roman emperor, was born of obscure parents at Dioclea, in Dalmatiaabout 245 A.D. He entered the army young, served under Aurelian, and obtained a high command under Probus. He accompanied Carus in his expedition against Persia, and at the death of that prince, in 283, he became commander of the imperial guards of his successor, Niimerianus. The latter having been assassinated by Aper, the army at Chalcedon proclaimed Diocletian emperor in 284. In 286 he adopted Maximian as his colleague in the empire, and gave him the title of Augustus. They were successful in suppressing revolts in Gaul and other parts of the empire. About 292 they nominated two Csesars to divide the labours of the administration,- namely, Galerius and Constantius Chlorus. Diocletian reserved to himself Asia and Egypt, and fixed his court at Nicomedia. He assigned Italy and Africa to Maximian, Gaul and Spain to Constantius, and Thrace and lllyricum to Galerius. The supremacy of Diocletian was recognized by the other three, and general prosperity resulted from this arrangement. One design of this policy was to prevent the revolt of the armies in favour of their commanders, by which so many emperors had been ruined. After this division the Roman arms were successful in Egypt, Persia, and Britain. In 297 a peace was made with Persia, which was maintained forty years. The Christians had enjoyed the favour and protection of Diocletian ; but in 303 Galerius, by false accusations, persuaded him to issue an edict against them. This persecution, to which he unwillingly assented, is the chief error of a reign otherwise honourable and happy. In 304 he had a long attack of sickness, and in the next year he abdicated in favour of Galerius, and retired to Salona, where he turned his attention to the cultivation of a vegetable-garden, and died in 313. His political talents were superior, and entitle him to a place among the most eminent Roman emperors. See Tillemont, "Histoiredes Empereurs:" Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire;" Ai'kelius Victor, "De Cjesaribus ;" J. C. Sickel, "Dioclelianus et Maximums," 1792.

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Domitian in Roman Biography

Domitian, do-mish'e-an, [Lat. Domitia'nus; Fr. Domitien, do'me'se'aN7^ or, more fully, Ti'tua Fla'- vius Domitia'nus, a Roman emperor, the second son of Vespasian, born in 51 A.D., succeeded his brother Titus in 81. Though his character was depraved and cruel, he at first affected a zeal for public virtue and justice. He was defeated by the Dacians, and made a disgraceful treaty, by which he bound himself to pay them tribute. His armies were generally unsuccessful, except in Britain, which was conquered by Agricola. He married Domitia Longina, to whom he gave the title of Augusta. Many innocent persons fell victims to his suspicions, his cruelty, or his rapacity. He banished the philosophers and literati, among whom was Epictetus. One of his favourite pastimes was hunting and killing flies. A conspiracy was formed among his guards and courtiers, and he was killed in his palace in 96 A.D., when the senate chose Nerva as his successor. See Tacitus, " Historia ;" SuETONlus,"Domitianus ;" Niebuhr, " Rbmische Geschichte," vol. ii. ; J. Arrhenius, " Vita Imperatoris Domitiani," 1696.

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Drusus in Roman Biography

Drusus, (Claudius Nero,) a Roman general, born 38 B.C., was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia, whose second husband was the emperor Augustus. He married Antonia, the daughter of Mark Antony. In the year 13 B.C. he commanded an army on the Rhine, and defeated several German tribes. Horace composed an admired ode in honour of this victory, (lib. iv. 4.) In the ensuing campaigns he extended his conquests as far as the Elbe, after which the senate gave him the surname Germanicus. He died at the age of thirty, leaving a fair reputation for talents and virtue. The emperor Tiberius was his brother. It is said that Augustus intended to give a portion of the empire to Drusus, who was born a few months after the marriage of the former with Livia.. Drusus left two sons, Germanicus, and Claudius who became emperor. See Dion Cassius, books xlviii. and liv. ; Tacitus, "Annals;" Ersch und Gruber, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie."

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Drusus Minor in Roman Biography

Dissertatio de M. L. Drusis Patre et Filio," 1826. Dru'sus Cae'sar, (see'zar,) sometimes called Drusus Junior, a son of the emperor Tiberius, married Livia, a sister of Germanicus. His character was depraved by cruelty and other vices. Died in 23 A.D., from poison. See Tacitus, "Annals."

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Elagabalus in Roman Biography

El-a-ga-ba'lus or El-a-gab'a-lus, or He-H-o-gaba'lus, [Fr. Elagabale, a'lI'gS'bil', or Hei.iogab ale, 1'le'o'gi bSl',] (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus,) a Roman emperor, born at Antioch in 204 A.D., was supposed to be the natural son of Caracalla. His original name was Varius Avitus Bassianus ; but, having become a priest in the Temple of the Sun, (the Syrian Elagabal,) he adopted the name of that idol. In 218 he was proclaimed by the army as successor to Caracalla, and, having defeated his rival Macrinus.he assumed the name of M. A. Antoninus. His reign was short, and was disgraced by cruelty, extravagance, and infamous vices. He was assassinated by his soldiers in 222, and was succeeded by Alexander Severus. See Tii.lemont, " Histoire des Emperenrs;" Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman " Empire;" Lampridius, "Elagabalus;" Nouvelle Biographie Generate. "

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Epictetus in Roman Biography

Ep-ic-te'tus, [Gf.'EOT/cT^ros-; Fr. Epictete, i'pekW; Ger. Epiktet, a-pik-tat' ; It. Epitetto, 4-pe-tet'to,] a celebrated Stoic philosopher, was born at Hierapolis, in Phrygia, about 60 a.d. He was a freedman of Epaphroditus, a favourite servant of Nero. He retired from Rome to Nicopolis, in Epii us, in consequence of an edict by which Doniitian banished the philosophers, in 89 A.D. Few other events of his life are known. He acquired a great reputation as a teacher of philosophy, which he made subservient to practical morality. His fife was an example of temperance, moderation, and other virtues. His temper and principles were less austere, and more allied to the spirit of the gospel, than those of the early Stoics. He left no written works ; but his doctrines were recorded by his disciple Arrian in eight books, four of which have come down to us. No heathen philosopher taught a higher or purer system of morality. "The maxim suffer and abstain (from evil)," says Professor liiandis, "which he followed throughout his life, was based with him on the firm belief in a wise and benevolent government of Providence; and in this respect he approaches the Christian doctrine more than any of the earlier Stoics, though there is not a trace in the Epietetea to show that he was acquainted with Christianity." (Smith's "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.") His "Enchiridion," or "Manual," has been translated into English by Mrs. E. Carter. See Ritter, "History of Philosophy;" Fabricius, " P.ibliotheca Graca ; ' J. V. Bkver, " Ueber Epiktet imd sein Handbuch der Stoischen Moral," 1705; (;. BoiUtAU, "Vie d'Epictete et sa Philosophic 1655, and English version of the same, by I Davies 1670.

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Eugenius in Roman Biography

Eugenius, a Gaul, who was noted for his rhetorical talents, and was proclaimed emperor about 392 a.d. He was defeated by Theodosius and put to death in 394.

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Eutropius in Roman Biography

Eu-tro'pl-us, [Fr. Eutrope, uh'tRop',] sometimes called Fla'vius Eutro'pius, a Latin historian of the fourth century. He-was secretary to the emperors Constantine and Julian, the latter of whom he attended in his expedition against the Parthians. He wrote an " Epitome of Roman History" (" Breviarium Rerum Romanorum") from the foundation of the city to the time of Valens, which has been popular for many centuries and extensively used as a school-book in modern times. The language is pure, and the style clear and simple. Little is known of the author's life. See Suidas, "Eutropius;" Gennadius, "De Viris illustribus ;' Moi.ler, " Disputatio de Eutropio," 1685.

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Fabius Maximus in Roman Biography

Fa'bl-us Max'I-mus, (Quintus,) a son of the following, and grandson by adoption of Paulus ^Emilius, was chosen consul 122 B.C. Having the department of Transalpine Gaul, he carried on a successful war against the Arverni and the Allobroges. On one occasion he defeated the enemy, who lost 120,000 men, while the loss of the Romans was very small. For this victory he received the surname of Allobrogicus.

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Flaminius in Roman Biography

Fla-min'i-us, (Caius,) a Roman general, noted for his valour, became tribune of the people in 232 B.C., and procured the passage of an agrarian law which was violently opposed by the Optimates. In 225 or 223 he was elected consul, and led an army against the Gauls. Having been chosen consul a second time, he commanded at the battle of Lake Thrasymene, where, after a brave and desperate resistance, the Romans were defeated by Hannibal, and Flaminius was slain, in 217 B.C. During this battle an earthquake destroyed the greater part of several cities of Italy; but it is said the armies were entirely unconscious of its shock. The I " Via Flaminia," a great highway, was made during his censorship, and named in his honour. His son Caius was consul in 185 B.C., and defeated the Ligurians. See Niebuhr, "Lectures on Roman History;" Livy, "History of Rome," books xxi. and xxii.

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Galba in Roman Biography

highly praised by Cicero. Galba, (Servius Sulpicius,) a Roman emperor, born in 3 or 4 B.C., of a noble family. He was consul under Tiberius in 33 A.D., and in the reign of Caligula commanded the army in Germany, where he acquired reputation for military skill. Claudius, having succeeded to the throne, appointed Galba Governor of Africa, in which post he obtained successes. He commanded an army in Spain at the death of Nero, 68 a.d. He was then proclaimed emperor by his own troops and the Praetorian guards, whose choice was confirmed by the senate. But he speedily lost the popular favour by his severity, parsimony, and impolitic measures. The army declared for Otho, and Galba was slain, after a reign of seven months, in 69 a.d. According to Tacitus, he would have been universally considered worthy to reign if he had never been emperor. See Plutarch, "Life of Galba;" Suetonius, "Galba;" Tacitus, "Annates;" Niebuhr, "History of Rome;" Franz Horn, "Historische Gemalde: Galba, Cftho und Vitellius," 1812.

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Galerius in Roman Biography

Ga-le'rl-us, [Fr. Gai.ekk, gi'iaiR',] (Cai'us Vai.k'- RIUS Maximia'.ni's,) a Roman emperor, was a native of Dacia. and of humble origin. From the rank of private soldier he rose to the highest commands in the army. In the year 292 A.D. he was adopted as sou or heir, with the title of Caesar, by Diocletian, whose daughter he married ; and a few years later he commanded the army which defeated the Persian king Narses. The violent persecution of the Christians by Diocletian is ascribed to the instigation of Galerius. When Diocletian and Maximian abdicated, in 305, Galerius and Constantius Chlorus succeeded as colleagues in the empire, and the former took for his share Illyria, Thrace, Macedonia, Greece, and the Eastern provinces. His colleague having died in 306, Galerius wished to choose Severus in his place; but Constantine and Maxentius opposed him, and Severus was slain. After he had failed in an attempt to capture Rome, he retired to one of his provinces, and died in 311 a.d. See Gibbon, " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ;" TlEfcsmont, H Histoire des Lnipereurs."

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Galla Placidia in Roman Biography

Pla-cid'i-a, (Fr. Pi.acidie, pli'se'cle',1 a Roman princess, borii aliout 390 A.D., was a daughter of Theodosius the Great. She was taken captive by the Goths, ami became the wife of Ataulphus, King of the Goths, (414.) Died in 450 a.d.

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Gallienus in Roman Biography

Gal-li-e'nus, [Fr. Gallien, gfle-aN',] (Publius Li- Cinius Valerius,) a Roman emperor, born about 233 A.D., was a son of the emperor Valerian, who admitted him to a share in the empire in 253. Valerian having been defeated and taken prisoner by the Persians in 260 A.D., Gallienus succeeded to the throne. He made no effort to liberate his father from captivity, and disgraced himself by his cruelty and profligacy. His frontiers were invaded by barbarian armies, while Ingenuus, Aureolus, and other Roman generals revolted in different parts of the empire. After he had defeated Aureolus in battle, a conspiracy was formed against Gallienus by his own officers. During the siege of Milan, 26S a.d., "he received a mortal dart from an uncertain hand," says Gibbon, who thus describes him: "He was master of several curious but useless sciences, a ready orator, an elegant poet, a skilful gardener, an excellent cook, and a most contemptible prince." He was succeeded by Claudius II. See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ;" Tillemont, " Histoire des Empereurs;" Eckhel, "Doctrina Nnmmorum."

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Gallus in Roman Biography

Gallus, (Caius Cornelius,) an eminent Roman poet and courtier, was born at Forum Julii (Frejus) about 66 B.C. He served in the army under Octavius, who received him into his favour and confidence and gave him a high command in the war against Antony. After the death of Antony, about 30 B.C., Augustus appointed Gallus Governor of Egypt, which he ruled at first with success. But afterwards, being accused of oppression and peculation, he was condemned to perpetual banishment, and killed himself in 25 or 26 B.C. His Elegies, which were much admired, are all lost. Like his friend Maecenas, he patronized literary men, especially Virgil, who was his intimate friend, and who has gracefully commemorated his name and merit in his sixth and tenth eclogues. See Dion Cassius, books 1., liii. ; Quintilian, books i., x. ; Suetonius, "De illustribusGrammaticis;" Voi.ker, " Commentatio de C. C. Galli Vita et Scriptis," 1840-44; "Nouvelle Biographie G^neVale."

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Geta in Roman Biography

Ge'ta, (Septimus Antoninus,) Emperor of Rome, colleague and younger brother of Caracalla, and son of Septimus Severus, was born in Milan about 190 a.d. His disposition appears to have been as open and generous as that of his brother was treacherous and cruel. Caracalla, envious of the great popularity ot his brother, and also being determined to reign alone, made several attempts to assassinate him. He accomplished this in 212, by concealing some centurions in the apartments of Julia, the mother of the emperors. Geta was holding a conference with his mother when the assassins killed him and wounded her while she endeavoured to shield him. See Gibbon, " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ;" Tillemont, " Histoire des Empereurs Romains;" Wm. Musgrave, "Geta Britannicus, avec des Notes par Isaac Casaubon, Janus Gruter et Claude Saumaise," London, 1716.

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Gordian III in Roman Biography

Gordian, [Lat. Gordianus, (Marcus Antonius Pius,)] grandson of the elder Gordian, was born about 225, and was proclaimed Caesar by the Roman people when news arrived of the death of the two Gordians in Africa. He was made colleague of the new emperors Maximus and Balbinus, and after their death became emperor, in July, 238 a.d. Gordian, accompanied by his father-in-law, Misitheus, repelled an invasion of Sapor, King of Persia, in 242. He afterwards attacked the Persians, and defeated their army on the banks of the Chaboras. Meanwhile, Philippus, an officer in the Roman army, availing himself of his popularity, caused himself to be proclaimed a colleague of the emperor, and soon after had Gordian put to death, in 244 a.d. See Tillemont, " Histoire des Empereurs;" Montesquieu, "Grandeur et Decadence des Romains;" Gisbert Cuper, " Histnria trium Gordianorum," 1697; Capitolinus, "Gordiani tres."

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Gracchus in Roman Biography

Gracchus, (Tiberius Sempronius,) a popular and eminent Roman statesman, born about 168 B.C. His mother was the celebrated Cornelia, a daughter of the greatest Scipio. He served at the capture and destruction of Carthage under Scipio Africanus the Younger, who had married a sister of Gracchus. In 137 B.C. he was elected quaestor, and was employed in the Numantian war, in which he greatly distinguished himself by his courage and capacity. About 134 B.C. he was elected tribune of the people, and proposed an important reform in the disposition of the public lands. His first effort was to restore or enforce (with some modifications) the Licinian law, which prohibited any man from occupying more than five hundred acres of public land, and which had never been formally repealed, but was generally neglected and violated. " There never was," says Plutarch, "a milder law made against so much injustice and oppression. For they who deserved to have been punished for their infringement on the rights of the community were to have a consideration for giving up their groundless claims. ... In this just and glorious cause Tiberius exerted an eloquence which might have adorned a worse subject, and which nothing could resist." He was violently opposed by the aristocracy and the tribune M. Octavius, whose veto retarded the passage of the bill. At length Octavius was deposed, and the agrarian law was adopted. Gracchus again offered himself as a candidate for the office of tribune. During the election, which occurred in June, when many of his friends were engaged in harvesting, the partisans of the aristocracy, led by Scipio Nasica, appealed to force, and killed Gracchus, with about three hundred of his supporters, in 133 B.C. See Plutarch, " Life of Tiberius Gracchus ;" Livv, " History of Rome;" Crf.ll, " Elogium et Character T. et C. Gracchorum," 1727; Niebuhr, "Historyof Rome;" Heeren," Tiberius und Caiuj Gracchus ;" F. D. Gerlach, " Tiberius und Caius Gracchus ; historischer Vortrag," 1843.

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Gordian in Roman Biography

Gor'di-an, [Fr. Gordien, goR'de-aN' ; Lat. Gordia'- nus, (Mar'cus Anto'nius Africa'nus,)] a Roman emperor, born about 160 A.D., of an illustrious family. He was appointed proconsul of Africa in 237, and was declared emperor by the insurgents who rebelled against Maximinus. His son Gordian was associated with him in the empire, and their election was confirmed by the Roman senate. Soon after this, Capellianus, Governor of Mauritania, assembled an army in favour of Maximinus, and attacked Carthage. In the combat that ensued, the younger Gordian was slain ; and his aged father, on hearing of his fate, strangled himself, in 238 a.d. Gordian was distinguished for his love of letters, and was the author of several poems. He spent a great part of his immense wealth in procuring games and amusements for the people. His reign lasted but six weeks. See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

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Gratian in Roman Biography

Gratian, gra'she-an, [Lat. Gratia'nus ; Fr. Gratikn, gRi'sej^.N',) a Roman emperor, who in 375 A.D. succeeded his father, Valentinian I., and became joint ruler of the Western Empire with his brother, Valentinian II. His uncle, Valens, who ruled the Eastern Empire, having fallen in battle in 378, Gratian appointed Theodosius in his place. In 383 a revolt broke out in Britain, and a certain Maximus proclaimed himself emperor and invaded Gaul. Gratian advanced to meet him, but, being forsaken by the greater part of his army, was seized and put to death at Lyons. He was distinguished for his justice and clemency, and his zeal in promoting Christianity. See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," books x"xvii., xxviii.,xxix.,and xxx. ; Ammianus Marcri.linus; Socrates, Historia Ecclesiastica ;" Tiu.kmont, " Histoire des Empereurs."

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Hadrian in Roman Biography

Ha'diri an or A'drl-an, [Lat. Haokia'nus; Fr. Adrien, S (lRe-aN' ; It. Adriano, a-dRe-a'no,] or, more fully, Hadria'nus Fub'lius JE'liuB, a Roman emperor, born at Rome in January, 76 A.D., was a son of *E!ius Hadrianus Afer, and a cousin of Trajan. His favourite study was the Greek language and literature. He won the favour of Trajan, and accompanied him in his campaign against the Dacians. He was chosen tribune of the people in 105 A.D., and praetor in 107. When Trajan was forced by illness to retire from the army which he had conducted against the Parthians, he gave the chief command to Hadrian. On the death of Trajan, Hadrian was proclaimed emperor (at Antioch) by the army in August, 117 a.d. ; and their choice was confirmed by the senate. The question whether Trajan had adopted Hadrian as his heir appears to remain undetermined. The new emperor hastened to make peace with the Parthians by abandoning all the provinces which Trajan had conquered beyond the Euphrates, and rendered himself popular by the remission of taxes and other acts of liberality. The greater portion of his reign was spent in journeys through the provinces of his vast empire, in which he displayed durable evidences of his liberality, political wisdom, and love of the fine arts. He commenced these journeys in 119 A.p. He built a famous wall across the island of Britain from Solway Frith to the German Ocean, to protect the Roman province from the incursions of the Picts and Scots. He founded cities in other provinces, completed the temple of Jupiter Olympius at Athens, and erected many great architectural works, among which were a magnificent villa at Tibur, and his mausoleum at Rome, now called the Castle of Saint Angelo. In 131 A.D. he promulgated the " Edictum Perpetuum," a fixed code of laws drawn up by Sal vi us Julianus. This event forms an important epoch in the history of Roman law. His reign was peaceful, and tended to consolidate the empire as well as to civilize the people. He patronized literary men, artists, and philosophers, and composed a number of works, in prose and verse, which are not extant. He aspired to distinction as an architect and painter, and indulged a petty vanity and jealousy towards artists, which sometimes prompted him to acts of cruelty. A short time before his death, he adopted as his successor Arrius Antoninus, surnamed "the Pious," and composed the following verses addressed to his own soul : "Animula, vagula, blandula, H ospes comesque corporis, Quae nunc abibis in loca, Pallidula, rigida, nudula, Nee, ut soles, dabis jocos?"* Died in July, 138 A.D. Many statues and medals of Hadrian are extant. See Spartianus, "Vita Hadriani ;" Niepuhr, "Lectures on Roman History ;"Tili.emont, "Histoiredes Empereurs ;" Gibbon, " History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

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Honorius in Roman Biography

Ho-no'ri-us, (Fi.avius,) a Roman emperor, the second son of Theodosius the Great, was born at Constantinople in 384 A.n. At the death of his father, in 395, he inherited the Western Empire, (his elder brother Arcadius having obtained the Eastern,) under the guardianship of Stilicho, a famous general, whose daughter he married. His court was held at Milan, and afterwards at Ravenna. About 402 Alaric the Goth invaded Italy, and was defeated by Stilicho at Pollentia. In 408 Stilicho was put to death by order of Honorius, who was a man of weak and vicious character. From this event may be dated the fall of the Roman power. Rome was taken and pillaged by Alaric in 410, and the empire went rapidly to ruin. He died, without issue, in 423, and was succeeded by Valentinian III. See Girbon, " History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire;" Sozomkn, " Historia Ecclesiastica;" Jornandes, "De Rebus Geticis ;" Tiixemont, "Histoire des Empereurs.

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Horace in Roman Biography

Horace, hor'ass, [Lat. Hora'tius; Fr. Horace, o'rJUs'; Or. Horaz, bo-rits'; It. Orazio, o-rat'se-o,]or, more fully, Quin'tus Hora'tius Flac'cus, an excellent and popular Latin poet, born at Venusia, (now Venosa,) in Italy, in December, 65 B.C. His father was a freednian, who gained a competence as a coactor, (collector of indirect taxes or of the proceeds of auctions,) and purchased a farm near Venusia, on the bank of the Aufidus, (Ofanto.) At an early age he was sent to Koine, and became a pupil of the noted teacher Orbilius Pupillus, with whom he learned grammar and the Greek language About his eighteenth year, he went to prosecute his studies in the groves of the Academy at Athens,-then the principal seat of learning and philosophy,-where he remained until the death of Julius Cassar (in 44 B.C.) involved the empire in a civil war. As Brutus passed through Athens, Horace, with patriotic ardour, joined his army, was made a military tribune, took command of a legion, and witnessed the fatal defeat of the cause at Philippi, where he threw away his shield. (Carmina, ii. 7.) 1 lis estate having been confiscated, he went to Rome, where he supported himself a short time by acting as clerk in the treasury. His early poems having excited the interest of Virgil and Varius, they recommended him to Maecenas, in whom he found a liberal patron and intimate friend. Thenceforth his life was eminently prosperous, and serenely passed in congenial studies and patrician society. Preferring independence to the tempting prizes of ambition, he refused the office of private secretary to Augustus, who treated him with particular favour. He had a true relish for rural pleasures and the charms of nature, which he often enjoyed at his Sabine farm or his villa in Tibur. Died in November, 8 B.C. He was never married. He was of short stature, and had dark eyes and hair. His character, as deduced from his writings, is well balanced, and unites in a high degree good sense, good nature, urbanity, and elegant taste. His poems, consisting of odes, satires, and epistles, may all be contained in one small volume. His chief merits are a calm philosophy, a graceful diction, an admirable sense of propriety, and a keen insight into human nature, which have attracted an admiration growing from age to age, and have rendered him, next to Virgil, the most illustrious poet of ancient Rome. " It is mainly," says " Blackwood's Magazine" for April, 1868, "to this large and many-sided nature of the man himself that Horace owes his unrivalled popularity,-a popularity which has indeed both widened and deepened in its degree in proportion to the increase of modern civilization." His " Epistles" are among the few poems which represent the most perfect and original form of Latin verse. There is no very good English translation of Horace's entire works : that of Francis (4 vols., 1747) is perhaps the best. Lord Lytton's translation of the Odes (1869) is highly praised. See Suetonius, "Vita Horatii ;" Masson, "Vita Horatii," 1708; Henky H. Milman, " Life of Q. Horatius Flaccus," 1854: Van Ommkkn, "Horni als Mensch und Biirger von Rom," 1802; C. Fkancke, " Fasti Horatianl," 1839; Wai.ckenaer, "Histone de la Vie et des Poesies d'Horace," 2 vols., 1840; J. Murray. "Original Views of the Passages in the Life and Writings of Horace," 1851 ; J. (or F.) Jacob, " Horaz und seine Freunde," 1852; Ersch undGRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie ;" see, also, the excellent article on Horatius in Smith's "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography," by the late Dean H. H. Milman, (author of the "Life of Q. Horatius Flaccus;") "Horace and his Translators," in the " London Quarterly Review" for October, 185S : " Horace and Tasso," in the " Edinburgh Review" for October, 1850.

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Irenaeus in Roman Biography

Irenaeus, ir-e-nee'us, [Gr. TZiprivalog ; Fr. Irenee, e'ra'- na'; It. Ireneo, e-ra-na'o,] Saint, a Christian martyr, born about 130 or 140 A.D., was a Greek by birth, and was probably a native of Asia Minor, as he was a pupil of the eminent Bishop Polycarp of Smyrna. About 177 he became Bishop of Lyons, (Lugdunum,) in France, in place of Pothinus, who was the first that occupied that see. He ministered to his churches with wisdom and general acceptance. To counteract the errors of the Gnostics and others, he wrote a treatise against Heresies., which is still extant, (in a Latin translation.) He also wrote several Letters, and other works, which are lost, except some fragments. It is generally supposed that he suffered martyrdom under Septimus Severus ; but the learned are not agreed whether it occurred in 202 or 208. He was well versed in ancient philosophy, as well as in evangelical doctrine. His book on Heresies is highly appreciated as a historical monument and a vindication of the primitive faith. He was a believer in the Millennium, and entertained opinions on that subject which some consider extravagant. See Saint Jerome, " De Viris itlustribns ;" Eusebius, " Historia Ecclesiastica ;" Henry Dodwell, "Dissertationes in Irenauim," 16S9; Gkrvaise, " Vie de S. Irenee, second* fiveque de Lyon," 1723; J. M. Prat, " Histoire de Saint-Ire'n^e," 1843 : James Bbavkn, "Account of the Life and Writings of Saint Irenjeus."

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Isidore of Seville in Roman Biography

Isidore, Saint, an eminent Spanish scholar and bishop, born at Carthagena about 570 A.D., was a brother of Leander, Archbishop of Seville. He understood Greek, Hebrew, and Latin, and was very influential in the Spanish Church. About 600 he was appointed Bishop of Seville. The Council of Toledo, held in 650, denominated him "the glory of the Catholic Church, and the most learned man of his age." Among his most important works are, in Latin, "A Chronicle from the Origin of the World to 626 A.D.," and "Twenty Books of Etymologies," which, says Dr. Hoefer, " is one of the most precious monuments for the history of human knowledge." Died in 636 a.d. See Saint Ildefonso, "De Viris illustrious ;" Tritheim, "De Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis;" Roeslkr, " Dissertatio ; Isidori Historia Gothorum, Vandalorum," etc., 1803.

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Jovian in Roman Biography

Jo'vi-an, [Lat. Jovia'nus; Fr. Jovien, zho've-4N r ; It. Gioviano, jo-ve-4'no,] or, more fully, Jo-vl-a'nus Fla'vi'-us Clau'dl-us, Emperor of Rome, was born in Pannonia, 331 A.D. He early distinguished himself as a commander in the Roman army, and, though an avowed Christian, received many marks of distinction from Julian the Apostate, whom he accompanied on his unsuccessful expedition into Persia. At the death of that sovereign, in 363, Jovian was elected emperor by the army. The Roman troops were at that time in imminent clanger, both on account of the superior Persian forces by which they were hemmed in, and the great scarcity of provisions. Jovian, after bravely repelling several attacks of the enemy, formed a treaty, by which he agreed to give up the Roman conquests west of the Tigris. Returning, he spent some time at Antioch, where he annulled Julian's laws against the Christians and re-established the orthodox religion. He died in 364, at Dadastana, in Galatia, as he was proceeding to Constantinople. See Le Beau, "Histoire du Bas-Kmpire ;" Tillemont, " Histoire des Empereurs ;" Schenkel, " Historia Joviaui," 1617; La Bletterie, " Histoire de PEmpereur Jovien," 2 vols., 1748.

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Julius Caesar in Roman Biography

Caesar, (Julius,) [Fr. Jules Cesar, zhiil sa'ziR'; It Giulio Cesare, joo'leo cha'sa-ra ; Ger. Julius Casar, (or Caksar,) yoo'le-us tsa'zar,] or, more fully, Ca'iua Ju'lius Cae'sar.one of the greatest generals and greatest men that ever lived, was born in July, 100 B.C. He be longed to the Julian tribe or family, (Julia gens,) one of the most ancient in Rome, since it boasted its descent from Julus or lulus, the son of ^Eneas. Through the influence of Marius, who had married Cassar's aunt Julia, he was elected priest of Jupiter ( Flamen Dialis) while yet a mere boy. In 83 B.C. he married Cornelia, the daughter of ('inn.-.. This act gave great offence to Sulla, who commanded him to divorce his wife ; and, on his refusing to do so, he was proscribed. He escaped from Rome, and concealed himself for a time in the country of the Sabines. At length, at the intercession of some of Sulla's friends, he was reluctantly pardoned by the dictator, who remarked, it is said, that the young Cassar would some day be the ruin of the aristocratic party, adding, " In that boy there are many Mariuses." Soon after Cassar went to Nicomedes, King of Bithynia, and subsequently served with distinction in the Roman army in Cilicia. Having heard, while here, of the death of Sulla, he returned at once to Rome. About 76 B.C., while on his way to Rhodes for the purpose of studying oratory under Apollonius Molo, (who was also the instructor of Cicero,) he was taken prisoner by the pirates with whom the Mediterranean was at that time greatly infested. He was detained by them more than a month, until his friends could raise the sum demanded for his ransom. According to Plutarch, he treated his captors with great contempt, and, whenever he wished to sleep, used to send and order them to keep silence. He even threatened-in jest, as they supposed-to crucify them when he got his liberty. The ransom having at length been paid, he manned some Milesian vessels, pursued and took the pirates prisoners in their turn, and crucified them according to his promise. Having remained for some time in Rhodes, he returned to Rome, and became a candidate for popular favour. His patrimonial estate being insufficient to supply the means for that unbounded liberality by which he sought to ingratiate himself with the people, he borrowed for this purpose vast sums from the usurers. It was cast upon him as a reproach, by his enemies, that he was always in debt, and that his poverty ceased only when he had turned his arms against Rome and robbed the " public treasury. Then for the first time," says Lucan, " Rome was poorer than Caesar."* Caesar was elected quaestor in 68 B.C. ; and in the same year his wife Cornelia died. In 67 he married Pompeia, a relative of Pompey the Great, and granddaughter of Sulla the dictator. This was especially intended to conciliate Pompey ; and by various other means he sought to ingratiate himself with that great leader. He became aedile in 65 B.C., and purchased the favour of the populace by the exhibition of public games surpassing in magnificence anything of the kind ever before seen in Rome. In 64 B.C. he was elected pontifex maximus. Catiline's conspiracy occurred in 63, and Caesar was by many suspected of being accessory to it. When Cicero called for the opinion of the senators as to the punishment which should be inflicted on the conspirators, all the others gave judgment in favour of their death, until it came to Caesar's turn to speak. He contended that it was contrary to justice and to the usage of the Roman commonwealth to put men of their birth and dignity to death without an open trial, except in a case of extreme necessity. He recommended that they should be kept in prison in any of the cities of Italy which Cicero might fix upon, and that these cities should be bound by the severest penalties to keep them safely. Caesar's argu ments had great influence with the senate ; but Cato, following in an earnest and powerful speech, in which he accused Caesar of being connected with the conspiracy, carried most of the senators with him : the conspirators were condemned to death ; and Caesar himself narrowly escaped. As he was leaving the senate-house, his life was threatened by some of the Roman knights ; and, had it not been for the fear of the common people, it is probable that he might have been included in the accusation with Lentulus, Cethegus, and the rest. He became praetor in 62 B.C., and the next year was sent as propraetor to Spain, where he gained no little distinction both as a general and a civil magistrate, and was saluted by his army imperator. He was elected consul, with L. Calpurnius Bibulus as his colleague, in 60, and in 59 B.C. entered upon the duties of his office. One of his first measures was to propose an agrarian law, by which a rich tract of public land was to be distributed among the poorer citizens, especially those who had several children. Although this measure was strongly opposed by his colleague Bibulus, it was carried, chiefly through the influence of Pompey and Crassus. In order that he might strengthen his interest with Pompey still more, he gave him his daughter Julia in marriage, although she had previously been affianced to Servilius Caepio. Soon after Caesar himself married Calpuniia, the daughter of L. Piso, for whom he procured the consulship the ensuing year. He formed a secret alliance with Pompey and Crassus, known as the first triumvirate. Supported by such influence, Caesar had no difficulty in carrying through the senate whatever measures he pleased. The government both of Transalpine and Cisalpine Gaul, with that of Illyricum, was decreed to him for five years. The following spring, ("58 B.C.,) when L. Piso and A. Gabinius were consuls, Caesar left Rome for Transalpine Gaul, and before winter had ended triumphantly two formidable wars, the one with the Helvetii, and the other with Ariovistus, a German prince who had some time before crossed the Rhine and, being supported by a powerful army, had established himself in the eastern part of Gaul. The next year he subdued the various Belgic tribes or nations dwelling between the Rhine and the Seine. In 56 B.C., having divided his forces, assigning a part of them to his different generals (legati) respectively, he overran nearly all the rest of Gaul, besides quelling the insurrections of several nations who had been subdued the year before. In 55 he surprised and cut to pieces two powerful German tribes who had attempted to establish themselves in Gaul. In order more effectually to strike terror into the Germans, he crossed the Rhine by a bridge which he had constructed for that purpose, and, after ravaging the territories of the Sigambri, he recrossed the river and destroyed the bridge. The same year he invaded Britain, and compelled the submission of several of the tribes. The following year he made another expedition into Britain, defeated Cassivellaunus, one of their princes, who had been chosen generalissimo by the different tribes, and, having demanded hostages and fixed the tribute whicli Britain should pay to the Romans, he returned to Gaul. The ensuing autumn a most formidable revolt occurred among the Eburones, under their king Ambiorix, who succeeded, by stratagem or treachery, in surprising and cutting to pieces a considerable body of Caesar's troops under the generals Sabinus and Cotta. Fortunately, Caesar had not yet set out for Italy, as he was accustomed to do on the approach of winter. Ambiorix, whose army had become much increased in consequence of his recent victory, was soon after defeated by Caesar with great loss; but the latter deemed it most prudent to remain in Gaul through the entire winter. During the summer of 53 B.C. Caesar was chiefly occupied in repressing an extensive conspiracy which had been formed among the different Gallic nations, and in reducing to subjection such as had broken out into an open revolt. The following year a general insurrection took place among the Gauls. It was headed by Vercingetorix, a young nobleman of the Arverni, who proved himself to be a general of no mean capacity ; so that Caesar's situation was for a time extremely critical. There appeared to be the greatest unanimity among the various Gallic nations. Even the ^Edui, who, from the time when Caesar first obtained the government of Gaul, had been faithful allies to the Romans until now, made common cause with the rest, and joined the revolt. They took Noviodunum, a walled town which Caesar had made the chief depository of his stores ; and he was obliged to retreat to his lieutenant Labienus, beyond the Loire. But, having received reinforcements, he besieged Vercingetorix in Alesia, and at length compelled him to surrender. In the next year (51 B.C.) Caesar completed the pacification of Gaul. His daughter Julia, the wife of Pompey, had died in 54 B.C. Crassus, the other member of the triumvirate, had lost his life in the war against the Parthians. A coldness had gradually sprung up between him and Pompey, who appears to have become jealous of the recent brilliant successes of his colleague. From his first entrance into public life Caesar had attached himself to the popular party, and had constantly studied how he might reduce or overthrow the power of the aristocracy. Pompey, on the other hand, a favourite and connection of Sulla, had been one of the staunchest adherents of the senatorial faction, and, after the death of the dictator, was generally regarded as the chief of the aristocratic party. And although, through the arts and influence of Caesar, he had been induced for a time to take the other side, on the breaking up of their friendship he naturally fell back to his former position. There had been for some time, on the part of the aristocracy, a growing jealousy of Caesar's power and influence in the state. Some of the more violent were resolved to crush him, if possible, at all hazards. In the year 50 B.C. it was proposed to the senate, by Claudius Marcellus, that Caesar, having now finished the Gallic war, should be required to lay down his command. But the tribune Curio, whom Caesar had by large bribes gained over to his interest, interposed his veto. Caesar was, however, on different pretexts, deprived of two of his legions. Yet, desirous-or seeming to be so-of avoiding a rupture, if possible, he proposed to the senate, through Curio, to resign his command on condition that Pompey would do the same. The senate, however, refused even to consider the proposition. Afterwards, on the motion of Scipio, it was decreed that Caesar should disband his army against a certain clay, otherwise he should be held to be an enemy of the republic. This was a virtual declaration of war ; for few, if any, could suppose that Caesar would give up his army without a struggle. On being informed of the resolution of the senate, he assembled his soldiers and harangued them on the subject of his wrongs. When he found that they eagerly espoused his cause, he determined to Strike at once, while his enemies were yet unprepared. With only 5000 infantry and 300 horse-for his other forces were still beyond the Alps-he marched towards the confines of Italy, which, with its then limits, was separated on the east from Cisalpine Gaul by the small river Rubicon. When he arrived at the banks of this stream, as Plutarch informs us, he hesitated for some time, revolving in his mind the arguments for and against the momentous step which he was about to take. At last, " exclaiming, The die is cast !" he crossed the river, and, advancing with the utmost expedition, he occupied successively Ariminum, Arretium, Pisaurum, Ancona, Auximum, besides other places. Owing partly to his popularity and partly to the fear which his name inspired, all the towns of Italy seemed ready to open their gates at his approach. His triumphant progress filled Rome with consternation. In the general panic, Pompey, the two consuls, and most of the senators fled from the city in the direction of Capua. Pompey continued his flight to Brundisium, whither he was closely pursued by Caesar. He escaped, however, to Greece. Caesar, being unable to follow, for want of ships, returned to Rome, and not long after set out for Spain, where Afranius and Petreius, Pompey's lieutenants, were at the head of a formidable army. In his first engagement with them Caesar was worsted ; but, after encountering for a time great hardships from the want of provisions, he at length triumphed over every obstacle, and compelled Afranius and Petreius to sue for peace, which he granted on condition that they should disband their forces and not again take arms against him during the war. Having overcome all opposition in Spain,-the conquest of which occupied him only about forty days,-and subsequently reduced Massilia, (Marseilles,) he hastened to Rome. During his absence in Spain he had been declared dictator by the prsetor M. Lepidus. After eleven days, during which time several important laws had been passed, he abdicated the dictatorship, and immediately set out for Brundisium, where he had ordered his forces to assemble. But he found it impossible to obtain vessels sufficient for their transportation : he was therefore under the necessity of carrying over to Greece only a part of his troops at the first passage. Meanwhile, his situation was critical in the extreme ; for Pompey, on account of the multitude of his ships, had command of the sea, and a strict watch was kept upon the movements of Caesar's vessels, so that the forces of the latter were for a considerable time divided, one part having been landed in Epirus, while the other was compelled to remain in Italy. At length Bibulus, the commander of Pompey's fleet, died ; and, his place not being at once supplied, each of the officers acted according to his own judgment and independently of the others. After a time, the vigilance of the blockade having been somewhat relaxed, the remainder of Caesar's forces were carried over, under the conduct of his faithful friends Mark Antony and Fufius Calenus. In his first encounter with Pompey, near Dyrrachium, Caesar was repulsed with some loss, and compelled to retreat. He withdrew to Thessaly, whither he was pursued by Pompey. At last the two opposing armies met on the plains of Pharsalia ; and although the forces of Pompey (consisting of about 45,000 infantry and 7000 cavalry) were more than double those of his rival, who had about 22,000 foot-soldiers and 1000 horse, they sustained a disastrous defeat According to Caesar's own statement, about 15,000 of Pompey's men fell in the conflict, and more than 24,000 were taken prisoners. Pompey escaped to Egypt, where he was treacherously murdered. (See Pompey.) The result of the civil war may be said to have been decided by the battle of Pharsalia. But there still remained a formidable army of the Pompeians in Africa, under the command of Scipio and Cato. Caesar did not, however, proceed at once against these enemies. Having followed Pompey to Egypt, he became involved in a dispute respecting the claims of Ptolemy and his sister Cleopatra to the throne of that country. Captivated by the charms of Cleopatra, ht supported her cause against her elder brother, who perished during the war which ensued. Cleopatra was declared Queen of Egypt ; but her younger brother, called also Ptolemy, was associated with her on the throne. Before returning to Rome, Caesar inarched against Pharnaces, son of Mithridates the Great, King of Pontus, and totally defeated him near Zela. It was concerning this victory that he wrote to the senate the famous letter comprised in three words, "l-'erti, vidi, vici," ("I came, I saw, I conquered.") He arrived at Rome in September, 47 B.C., and before the end of that year set out for Africa. The opposing armies met at Thapsus, near the sea-coast, to the southeast of Carthage. The result was the total defeat, and ail-but extermination, of the forces under Scipio. The Caesarean soldiers, exasperated by the obstinacy with which the war had been protracted, cut to pieces all whom they overtook, killing without mercy even those who offered themselves as prisoners, in spite of the remonstrances and entreaties of Caesar. The cause of the senatorial party having become utterly desperate, Scipio, Juba, Cato, and several others of the leaders, unwilling to fall into the power of the conqueror, put an end to their lives with their own hands. Caesar returned to Rome, the undisputed master of the world. But he had scarcely completed the celebration of his recent victories, when intelligence arrived that Pompey's sons, Cneius and Sextus, had assembled a powerful army in Spain. Caesar hastened with his usual promptitude to meet the new danger. He engaged his enemies near Munda, and, after a very severe action, put them to a total rout. According to Plutarch, when Caesar saw his men hard pressed and making but a feeble resistance, he rushed into the thickest of the fight, exclaiming, " Are you not ashamed to deliver up your general into the hands of these boys ?"-alluding to me youth of Pompey's sons. After the battle he said to his friends that he had often fought for victory ; but then, for the first time, he had fought for his life. ' This was the last of Caesar's wars. Although he had thus risen to the summit of power on the ruins of the republic, in the exercise of that power he appears never to have lost sight of the true interests of his country and of the world. One of the first subjects that claimed his attention was the regulation of the Roman calendar. For this purpose, though well versed himself both in mathematics and astronomy, he availed himself of the skill of the most eminent mathematicians of that age. The improved mode of computing time introduced by him has, with some slight modifications, been adopted by all civilized nations, and his name has become inseparably associated with the new calendar, both in the name of the month July, and in the phrases "Julian year," "Julian period," etc. He procured the enactment of several important and salutary laws, and was revolving in his mind vast projects of public improvements, including the preparation of a complete digest of the Roman laws, the clearing out and enlarging of the harbour of Ostia, (at the mouth of the Tiber,) the draining of the Pontine marshes, the cutting of a canal across the Isthmus of Corinth, and the establishment of public libraries, when death put an end to his labours and undertakings. After the total overthrow of the partisans of Pompey, he had received from the senate the title of Imperator (whence comes our word "emperor") for life; he was also declared dictator, and Prafectus AJorum, (" prefect of manners," or " customs,") both offices being perpetual. As pontifcx maximus, or high-priest, he had control of the religion of the state. To all these honours he wished to add the title of king, {rex,) and thus to hand down his power and dignities to his successor. Having no legitimate children, he adopted his grand-nephew Octavius, whose mother Atia was the daughter of Julia the sister of Caesar, as his successor and the inheritor of his name. His devoted adherent Mark Antony, on the occasion of the festival called Lupercalia, perhaps with a view to sound the feelings of the people, publicly offered to Caesar a regal crown ; but he, perceiving that it displeased the multitude, refused it, though, as it was thought, with some reluctance. The name of king, from the time of the Tarquins, had always been, and still was, peculiarly odious to all classes of the Romans ; and this consideration encouraged Caesar's bitter enemies, of whom there vyere not a few concealed among the aristocracy, to believe that the taking of his life would meet with many approvers even among the people. There was at length formed against him a conspiracy, in which more than sixty persons were implicated. The principal instigator and leader of the enterprise was Cassius, who had distinguished himself as the lieutenant of Crassus in the Parthian war. M. Brutus was also prominent among the conspirators. He appears to have been actuated by a sincere though mistaken patriotism; while Cassius, there is leason to believe, was chiefly influenced by personal animosity. It is said that Caesar had many warnings of his approaching fate, and that the night before his death his wife Calpurnia dreamed that he was murdered in her arms. In the morning she entreated him with te;js not to go to the senate-house, as he had intended. When he had almost decided to stay at home, Decimui Brutus, one of the conspirators, to whom, as well as to M. Brutus, Caesar had shown many favours, and in whom he had the greatest confidence, came in, and at length prevailed on him to go with him to meet the senate. It had been arranged, as it appears, that while one of the conspirators, L. Tillius Cimber, was presenting a petition to Caesar, some of the others should crowd around, as if to urge the same request, when an attack upon him should be made by all at once. At first Caesar resolutely resisted; but, when he perceived the number of his assailants, he wrapped himself in his toga and resigned himself to his fate. According to one account, Cxsar defended himself with spirit until he saw the dagger of M. Brutus among the rest, when he exclaimed, " Et tu, Brute !" (" Thou too, Brutus !") and yielded without any further struggle. Shakspeare, in his tragedy of "Julius Caesar," appears to have followed scrupulously and minutely the popular traditions respecting the death of Caesar. After his death it was found that his body had been pierced with twenty-three wounds. He was assassinated on the Ides of March, 44 B.C., in the fifty-sixth year of his age. Caesar was tall in stature, and of a noble and commanding presence. He was naturally of a delicate constitution ; but by continual exercise and by a frequent exposure to hardships, with the aid of an indomitable will, he became so hardy that few if any could surpass him in enduring the fatigues and privations of a military life. It would seem, however, that his unremitting mental exertions and anxieties began at last to tell upon his health ; for Suetonius speaks of his suffering from ill health, assigning it as a reason why he was so reckless of the warnings given him by the soothsayers, as if his life had not been worth the trouble necessary for its preservation. He was subject to occasional attacks of epilepsy ; but they were so rare that they do not appear to have seriouslv interfered with his attention to his multitudinous affairs. Considered as a general, a statesman, and a ruler, we must admit that few, if any,-even among the most remarkable men that ever lived,-have equalled him, especially if we take into account the versatility as well as the greatness of his talents. " As a soldier," says Suetonius, "it is hard to say whether he was more cautious or mor; daring. He never marched his army where he was liable to any ambush from the enemy without taking all possible precaution by his scouts. Nor did he pass over into Britain until he had made due inquiry respecting the harbours and what convenience there was for landing his troops. Yet when information was brought him of the siege of a camp of his in Germany, he made his way to his men in a Gallic dress through the enemy's guards. He also went over from Brundisium to Dyrrachium in winter in the midst of the hostile fleets." In the fertility of his resources he appears to have been superior to every other commander of whom history makes mention. He rarely if ever repeated the same stratagem ; but he seems to have had a new expedient or invention for every new occasion, and one which was always adequate to the emergency. Speaking of those extraordinary men who have compelled "nations unaccustomed to control" to bow obedient to their will, Macaulay remarks that "in this class three men stand pre-eminent,-Caesar, Cromwell, and Bonaparte. The highest place in this remarkable triumvirate belongs undoubtedly to Caesar. He united the talents of Bonaparte to those of Cromwell ; and he possessed also what neither Cromwell nor Bonaparte possessed,-learning, taste, wit, eloquence, the sentiments and the manners of an accomplished gentleman." (See his article on Hallam's " Constitutional History," in the "Edinburgh Review," 1828.) In Caesar the intellect, the passions, and the will appear to have maintained a perfect equipoise. For, strong and fierce as were his passions, he never allowed them to rule him ; thus justifying the well-known line of Pope's "Temple of Fame,"- "Cjesar, the world's great master, and his own." He never permitted personal pique or animosity to interfere in any way with the grand purposes of his life. Although he was, it must be confessed, very far from being a virtuous man, even in the pagan acceptation of the word, he possessed some very noble and rare moral qualities. He appears to have shunned, as by " an immortal instinct," everything that was petty, narrow, or vindictive. Generosity and magnanimity seem to have been inseparable parts of his nature. Suetonius, who certainly did not err on the side of partiality, says Caesar was always obliging and kind to his friends, mentioning as an example that when he was on a journey through a wild country with C. Oppius, and the latter was suddenly taken ill, Caesar gave up to him the only sleeping-apartment, and lay himself on the ground in the open air. The same writer also observes that he never carried a quarrel so far but that he was always ready to lay it down when a reasonable occasion offered. His clemency and generosity were conspicuous in every part of his life, but especially so towards the conquered party in the civil war. He was not only a perfect master in the use of arms, and a most skilful horseman, but he was accustomed, when occasion required, to swim across rivers rather than permit the slightest delay. In oratory he was, in that age, second only to Cicero ; and it is thought that had he devoted himself more fully to the study he might have surpassed Cicero himself. He is said to have been a perfect master of all the learning and science of his time. Besides being a general, statesman, jurist, orator, and historian, he was also a poet, a mathematician, an astronomer, and an architect. As a historian he justly holds a very high rank. His style is distinguished for clearness, ease, and simplicity, and is not without elegance. His historical writings consist of the first seven books of the commentaries relating to the Gallic war and the three books concerning the civil war. Besides the above, he wrote various other works, of which only fragments remain. A few of his letters have been preserved among the letters of Cicero. See Plutarch, "Lives;" Suetonius, "Lives of the Twelve Caesars:" C«sak, "Commentaries;" Dion Cassius, "History of Rome ;" Appian, " Bellum Civile ;"Drumann, "Geschichte Roms;" Julius Celsus, "De Vita et Rebus gestis C. J. Caesaris," 169; ; Richard de Burv, " Histoire de la Vie de J. Cesar," 2 vols., 1758; At pim\-sE DK Beauchamp, "Vie de J. Cesar," 1823: Napoleon Bonaparte, "Precis des Guerres de J. Ce'sar, ecrit par M. Marchaud sous la Dieted de l'Empereur," 1836; Enrico Bindi, "Sulla Vita e sulle Opere di C. G. Cesare discorso," 1844 • P- VAN Limburg- Brouwer, "Cesar en zijne Tijdgenooten," 4 vols., 1845-46; Jacob Abbott, "Life of Julius Caesar," 1849; Napoleon III., "Histoire de Jules C^sar," 2 vols., 1867-68; Lucan, "Pharsalia;" also Byron, "Childe Harold," canto iv., 90th stanza.

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Juvenal in Roman Biography

Ju've-nal, [Lat. Jiivena'us ; Fr. Juvenal, zhii'vl'. nil'.j or, more fully, Dec'I-mus Ju'nl-U8 Ju-ve-na'- Us, one of the most celebrated of the Latin satirical pods, is believed to have been born in Aquimim, a Volscian town, about A.r>. 40. But few authentic facts have been preserved respecting his history: it is said, however, that he was the son of a wealthy frecdman, and that he devoted the early part of his life to the study of rhetoric and declamation. He afterwards became a pleader in the courts of law, where he appears to have been successful. He was an intimate friend of the poet Martial, who mentions him in two of his epigrams. None of the productions of Juvenal were given to the public until he had passed the age of sixty years. His poems, which he then recited, gained him universal admiration. One of his earliest satires had been written against an actor named Paris, who was a great favourite with the emperor Domitian. It was not published until the reign of Hadrian, who, imagining that it reflected on one of his own favourites, sent Juvenal into an honourable exile by making him the prefect of a legion in Egypt, where he is said to have died about ah. 125. Sixteen of his satires have been preserved. Several translations of them have been made into English, of which the most prominent are those of Dryden and Gifford. In these satires Juvenal severely lashes the prevailing vices cf his time ; but it may well be doubted whether his vivid pictures of the licentiousness of that age do not tend to fan those very passions which thev seem intended to restrain. He was distinguished for his force of intellect, his flow of language, and his never-failing wit. "Juvenal gives me," says Dryden, "as much pleasure as I can bear. He fully satisfies expectation ; he treats his subject home. . . . When he gives over, 'tis a sign that the subject is exhausted, and that the wit of man can carry it no further." His works, differing equally from the austere moral dialogues of Persius and the genial raillery of Horace, are rhetorical rather than poetical. They are brilliant and sonorous declamations, and master-pieces of denunciation. "Magnificent versification," says Macaulay, "and ingenious combinations rarely harmonize with the expression of deep feeling. In Juvenal and Dryden alone we have the sparkle and the heat together. Those great satirists succeeded in communicating the fervour of their feelings to materials the most incombustible, and kindled the whole mass into a blaze at once dazzling and destructive." (" Essay on Dryden.") Among the best editions of Juvenal is that of Ruperti, (Leipsic, 2 vols., 1801,) to which are prefixed all the ancient documents for the biography of the satirist. See J. V. Francke, " Examen criticum D. J. Juvenalis Vitae," 1S20, and " Programma de Vita D. J. Juvenalis Quesiio altera," 1827 ; Voi.krk, "Juvenal, Lehens- und Charakterbild," 1S51 ; Bauer, " Kritische Bemerkungen iiber einige Nacluichten aus dem Leben Juvenals," 1833 : Bahr, "Gescbichte der Rbmischen Litteratur."

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Laelius in Roman Biography

Laelius, lee'le-us, (Caius,) surnamed Nepos, an eminent Roman general. He had a high command under Scipio Africanus in the expedition against Spain in 210 B.C. In 205 he gained a victory over Syphax in Africa, for which he received a crown of gold. He was elected praetor in 197, and consul in 190. His notes furnished Polybius with materials for his history of Scipio's campaigns in Spain.

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Licinius in Roman Biography

Li-cin'i-us, (or le-sin'e-us,) (Flavius Valerius,) (called by some writers Pub'lius Fla'vius Gale'rius Valeria'nus Licinia'nus,) a Roman emperor, born in Dacia about 263 A.D., was originally a peasant. He rose to the rank of general in the army, and gained the favour of Galerius, who in 307 made him a partner in the empire, with the title of Augustus. In 313 he married Constantia, sister of Constantine the Great, and, having defeated Maximin, became master of all the Eastern provinces. A war soon ensued between him and Constantine, which ended in the complete defeat of Licinius at Chalcedon, near Byzantium, in 323. He was put to death by order of the victor in 324 a.d. He was notorious for cruelty and other vices. See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

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Livia in Roman Biography

Liv i-a, |Fr. Livie, le've',}- or, more fully, Livl-a Dru-sil'la, a Roman empress, born in 58 B.C., was first married to Tiberius Nero. After becoming the mother of Tiberius and Drusus Germanicus, she was married in 38 B.C. to the emperor Augustus, over whom she acquired an ascendency which she retained until his death. She persuaded him to adopt her son Tiberius as his successor. By his last will he appointed Livia and Tiberius his heirs, and directed her to assume the name of Julia Augusta. She was a woman of superior talents. Died in 29 a.d. See J. D. Koehler, "Dissertatio de Livia Augusta,*' 1715; Tacitus, " Annales," i. and v. ; "Nouvelle Biographic Gene>ale."

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Livy in Roman Biography

Liv'y, [Lat. Liv'ius,] (Titus,) [It. Tito Livio, tee'to lee've-o ; Fr. Tite Live, tit lev,] a celebrated Roman historian, was born at Patavium (now Padua) in 59 B.C. Ancient writers furnish us few particulars of his life, except that he was patronized by Augustus and became a person of consideration at court. He appears to have passed the greater part of his time in Rome. Niebuhr favours the opinion that he was in early life a teacher of rhetoric. His great history of Rome, from the origin of the city to the year 9 B.C., was' called by him " Annates," and was comprised in one hundred and forty-two books, of which thirty-five have come down to us entire,-viz., the first, third, and fourth decades, and five books of the fifth decade. We have also epitomes, by an unknown hand, of one hundred and forty books. The first book was probably published or written between 29 and 25 B.C. His dialogues on philosophy and politics, which, according to some writers, procured him the favour of Augustus, are not now extant. The great popularity of his history must lie ascribed to the excellence and beauty of his style and his wonderful powers of description. The numerous orations by which the history is diversified are models of eloquence. "The painting of the narrative," says Macaulay, in his essav entitled " History," in the "Edinburgh Review," "is beyond description vivid and graceful. The abundance of interesting sentiments and splendid imagery in the speeches is almost miraculous." Hut he was destitute of many qualifications essential to a historian of the first order. Incapable of broad philosophic views, and indisposed to profound research, he was more studious to exalt the national glory and produce a picturesque effect than to compose a true history. He made little use of public documents, and was not familiar with the antiquities of his country. His work is also deficient in the explanation of the original constitution of the state, the contests between the orders, the progress of civilization, and other domestic affairs. Livy was married, and had two or more children. Died at Padua in 17 A.D. See N. Machiavei.u. " Discorso sopra la prima Decada Hi Tito Livio," 1512. (translated into English by K. Dacrks 1636;) D. W. Mnu.Kk, •*' Dbpuiatio drciikuia de Tito Li.io." 1688; A. M Mbke- GMeu.i, "Vila di Titn Livio," iRm 1 G K. Tommasini, " Vita Titi Livii," 1630: J C. Hand, " De Tito Livio Oratore," 1773.

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Lucius Junius Brutus in Roman Biography

Brutus, (Lucius Junius,) a distinguished Ron patriot, son of Tarquinia, the sister of Tarquin the Pro The king having put to death the father and elder 1 ther of Brutus, the latter feigned idiocy, gave up all 1 possessions to his tyrannical uncle, and patiently accept! the reproachful surname of Brutus,(/>." stupid, brutish, which was destined to become a titleof so much gloi his family. Aruns and Titus, the sons of Tarquin, ha ing been sent to Delphi to consult the oracle, took Bruti with them to serve for their amusement. When th< were making offerings to the god, Brutus offered a sin staff, which, however, was hollow and contained a f ring,-a significant emblem of the character of the give After the outrage done to Lucretia by Sextus the sc of Tarquin, (see Lucretia,) Brutus threw aside all <" guise, put himself at the head of the people, expelled t reigning family from Rome, and effected the abolition royalty, (509 B.C.) Shortly after, Titus and Tiberius, the his of Brutus, accused of conspiring for the restoration of Tarquin, were brought before the consular tribunal for judgment. Their guilt having been proved, is, then consul, with unconquerable patriotism and inflexible justice, condemned his own sons to death, although the people were willing that he should pardon them. In the year 507 B.C., Tarquin, who had never abandoned the purpose of regaining his kingdom, led an army against Rome, and his son Aruns and Brutus met in the field of battle and slew each other. The corpse of Brutus was carried to Rome in triumph, a statue of bronze was erected to his memory, and the Roman matrons wore mourning a whole year for the avenger of the wrongs of Lucretia. See C. L. Crf.li, " Dissertatio de L. J. Bruto Reipublica; Ro- Auctorc," 1721 ; P. C. ChompriS, "Vie de Brutus premier 1 de Rome, 1730.

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Lucius Verus in Roman Biography

Ve'rus, (Lucius ./Elius), son of vElius Verus, who had been adopted and made Caesar by the emperor Hadrian. In 161 A.D. he became the colleague of Marcus Aurelius as Emperor of Rome. He was a weak and profligate prince. Died in 169 A.D. His original name was L. Commodus.

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Constantine I in Roman Biography

Con'stan-tine, [Lat. Constanti'nus ; Gr. Kuvaruvtwoc ; Fr. Constantin, k6N'st6.N'taN' ; Ger. Constantin, kon-stan-teen'; It. Constantino, kon-stan-tee'no; Dutch, Konstantijn, kon-stan-tin',] (Flavius Valerius Aurelius,) surnamed the Great, the first Christian emperor of Rome, born in 272 A.D., was the son of the emperor Constantius Chlorus and his wife Helena. Before his accession, his talents, courage, and martial services had rendered him a favourite of the army, and an object of jealousy to Galerius, one of the two emperors then reigning. He was at York when his father died there, in July, 306, and was proclaimed emperor by the legions under his command. Galerius accorded to him only the title of Caesar, and conferred the rank of Augustus on his own son, Severus. At Rome, Maxentius and his father Maximim, in the absence of Galerius, raised a successful revolt, (307,) after which six emperors and Caesars at one time ruled the provinces of Rome. About 307 Constantine married Fausta, daughter of Maximian ; but a war soon ensued between these emperors, and Maximian, having been defeated, was put to death in 309. Galerius died in 311, after which Licinius and Maximin remained masters of the provinces east of Italv. In 312, Constantine, who reigned in Gaul, marched against Maxentius, who was defeated and killed near Rome in that year. About this time, according to tradition, he was converted to Christianity by a miraculous vision, in which he saw in the heavens the sign of a cross, with this inscription, "Thou shalt conquer by *.his sign," (" In hoc signo vinces.") Having obtained undisputed supremacy over the West, including Italy and Africa, he began to favour more openly the Christians, and displayed wisdom in the promotion of order and prosperity among his subjects. In 314 he fought in Thrace an indecisive battle against Licinius, his only remaining rival, and then made a peace, which lasted nine years. During this period he was employed in political reforms, and adopted a more humane code of laws, by which Christianity was recognized as the religion of the state, but the pagan worship was still tolerated. In 323 he gained a complete victory over Licinius near Adrianople, and another opposite Byzantium, after which he was the sole emperor. He assembled at Nicaea in 325 the first general council, in which Arianism was condemned and a famous Catholic creed was adopted. In the next year he was guilty of an act which has left a deep stain on his memory, the execution of his eldest son, Crispus, falsely accused of a crime by Fausta, who was his step-mother. About 328 he transferred his court to Byzantium, which he enlarged, and the name of which he changed to Constantinople,-"City of Constantine." The duration of the Eastern Empire so many centuries after the fall of the Western seems to approve the wisdom of his policy in this affair. A few years before hi* death he favoured the Arians, and recalled some banished bishops of that party. He died at Nicomedia 111337 A.D., having divided the empire between his three sons, Constantine, Constantius, and Constans. His character is variously estimated ; but it is admitted that he had many of the qualities of a great statesman and general. He was far from being a saint, and in the opinion of Niebuhr was not even a Christian, though he permitted himself to be baptized just before his death. See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ;" Euse- BIUS, "Vita Constantini ;" Vogt, "Historia Constantini Magni," 1720; Tii.i.k.mont, "Histoire des Empereurs ;" Joseph Fletcher, "Life of Constantine the Great," 1S52 ; J. C. F. Manso, " Leben Constantin's des Grossen," 1817; Jakob Burckhardt, "Die Zeit Constantin's des Grossen," 1853.

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Constantine III in Roman Biography

Constantine (or Constantinus) III., (Flavius Heraclius,) called No'vus, Emperor of the East, born in 612 A.D., was the son of the emperor Heraclius and Eudoxia. At the death of his father, in 641, he became a partner in the empire with his half-brother Heracleonas. After a reign of three months, he died, or was poisoned by Martina, his step-mother. He left a son, Constans II. See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

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Constantius I Chlorus in Roman Biography

Con-stan'tl-us (kon-stan'shg-iis) X, commonly called Constantius -chlo'rus, [Fr. Constance Chloke, koN'stoNs' kloR.j (Flavius Valerius,) a Roman emperor, born about 250 A.D., was the son of Eutropius, and father of Constantine the Great. In 292, Diocletian and Maximian, in order to divide the labours of the administration, chose Galerius and Constantius, each of whom received the title of Caesar. Gaul, Spain, and Britain were allotted to the latter, who was required to repudiate Helena and marry Theodora, the daughter of Maximian. He became emperor in 305, on the abdication of Diocletian, and died at York in 306, leaving the reputation of a just and humane ruler. His son Constantine was his successor. See Eutropius; Aurelius Victor, "Csesares."

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Constantius II in Roman Biography

Constantius [Fr. Constance, k6N'stdNs'] H., (Flavius Julius,) the third son of Constantine I., Emperor of Rome, was born at Sirmium in 317 A.D. By his father's will he inherited the Asiatic provinces and Egypt in 337. It is said that he ordered or permitted the massacre of his father's nephews, brother, etc. at the time of his accession. During nearly all his reign he was at war with the Persians, by whom he was often defeated. In 350 the revolt of Magnentius resulted in the death of Constans, Emperor of the West. Constantius turned his arms against Magnentius, whom he defeated at Mursa, on the Drave, in 351, and in Gaul in 353, after which he was master of the whole empire. In 355 he appointed his cousin Julian, Caesar and commander in Gaul, and in 357 visited Rome for the first time. He favoured the Arians, and banished the orthodox bishops. Julian having been proclaimed emperor by his army in Gaul, Constantius was marching to attack him, when he died near Tarsus in 361, and was succeeded by Julian. His reputation is not high either for talents or for virtue. See Eusebius, " Vita Constantii :" Tiixemont, "Histoire des Empereurs ;" Gibbon, " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

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Belisarius in Roman Biography

Bel-I-sa'rI-us, [Fr. Belisaire, b4'le'zaR'; Ger. Belisar, ba'Ie-zaR',] a Byzantine general, whose talents were of the highest order, was born at Germania, in Illyria, about 505 A.D. He serveO in the guarO of Justinian before his accession to the throne, (527,) anO soon after that event was appointeO general-in-chief of the army of the East He defeated the Persians at Dara, in 530, and quelled a dangerous sedition at Constantinople in 532 A.D. In 533 and 534 he gained decisive victories over the Vandals in Africa, captureO their king, Gelimer, anO destroyed his kingdom. For this service he was honoured with a triumph, and chosen sole consul, in 535. Between 535 and 540 he was employed against the Ostrogoths, who had obtained possession of Italy. He made himself master of Rome, and had nearly reduced Italy, when he was recalled in 540 A.D. He opposed with success on the eastern frontier a Persian army under Cosroes (or Khosroo) in 542, and at the end of this campaign was degraded by the influence of the empress Theodora. He was fineO anO threatened with death, but was pardoned on conOition that he woulO be reconciled to his unfaithful and abandoned wife Antonina, who was a favourite of Theodora. In 544 he renewed the war against the Gothic king Totila in Italy, with a small army, which proved to be inadequate to the expulsion of the more numerous enemy. He returned to the capital in 548, anO passed about ten years in inaction. His last service was the repulse of the Bulgarians, who invaded the empire in 559 A.D., after which the jealousy of Justinian or the intrigues of courtiers deprived him of command. In 563 he was falsely accused of a conspiracy against the life of Justinian, for which his fortune was sequestered. According to Gibbon, his innocence was recognized before his death, which occurred in 565 A.D. There appears to be no foundation for the once current tradition or fiction that he was deprived of sight and reduced to support himself by begging. He seems to have been a Christian in outward conformity at least. As a general, he was distinguished for presence of mind and rapidity of movement. He was loyal to the emperor, humane to the vanquished, and patient towards rivals who falsely accused him. See " Life of Belisarius," by Lord Mahon, 1829 ; Gibbon, " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ;" Christian Friedrich Zbller, " Belisarius," Tubingen, 1809; C. L. Roth, " Ueber Belisars Ungnade," 1846; "Blackwood's Magazine" for May, 1847.

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Boethius in Roman Biography

Bo-e'thl-us, [It. Boecio, bo-a'cho, or Boezio, bo-at'- se-o; in French, Boece, bo'4ss',] (Anicius Manlius INI s,) a celebrated Roman philosopher and statesman, born about 475 A.D. He was liberally educated, and well instructed in Greek philosophy. When about thirty-three, he was elected consul. His administration was beneficent and favourable to the oppressed. He translated the works of Plato and other Greek writers into Latin, wrote commentaries on Aristotle, and acquired a great reputation as an author. He held several high omces under Theodoric the Goth, but, having been accused by some envious courtiers of conspiring against the government, he was unjustly condemned by that king and executed about 525 A.D. His principal work is "On the Consolation of Philosophy," ("De Consolatione Philosophise,") which was written in prison, where he was confined just before his death. It is com- Eosed of alternate portions of verse and prose. "Few ooks," says Hallam, "are more striking from the circumstances of their production. Last of the classic writers, in style not impure, ... in elevation of sentiment equal to any of the philosophers, and mingling a Christian sanctity with their lessons, he speaks from his prison in the swanlike tones ofdying eloquence. Quenched in his blood, the lamp he had trimmed with a skilful hand, gave no more light; the language of Tully and Virgil soon ceased to be spoken." (" Introduction to the Literature of Europe.") His great work was very popular in the middle ages, and was translated into various languages. It was translated into Anglo-Saxon by Alfred the Great, and imitated by Chaucer. English versions of it have been produced by W. Causton, Rev. Philip Ridpath, R. Duncan, and others. See Procopius, "History;" Barberini, " Exposizione della Vita de Boezio," z783;DoMGERVAisE,"HistoiredeBoecet "i7i5; Heyne, "Censiua ingenii Boethii," 1806; "Life of Boethius, prefixed to Ridpath's translation, 1785; Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," chap, xxxix. ; Ersch und Gruber, " Allgemeine EncykJopaedie;" Fabricius, " bibliotheca Latina;" Siro Comi, " Memoria storico-critica sopra S. Boecio."

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Caligula in Roman Biography

Ca-lig'u-la, (Caius C*sar,) a Roman emperor, bom in 12 A.D., was the son of Germanicus and Agrippina, who was a granddaughter of the emperor Augustus. His childhood and youth were passed among the soldiers, with whom he became a favourite. By deep dissimulation he escaped from being a victim to the suspicion of Tiberius, who was the uncle of Germanicus and had adopted the latter as his heir. At the age of twenty-five Caligula succeeded Tiberius, with a general expression of popular favour. The first acts of his reign gave promise of clemency and moderation, by liberating prisoners of state, recalling exiles, etc. Before many months had ejapsed, he became a monster of cruelty, and indulged his vicious passions and appetites to the greatest excess. 1 le caused a temple to be erected to himself, and claimed divine honours. It is said that he wished the Roman people had but one head, that he might decapitate them at a single blow. A conspiracy was formed against him by Cassius Chaerea, who assassinated him in the year 41, whereupon his uncle Claudius became his successor. See Suetonius, "Lives of the Twelve Caesars;" Tacitus, "Annales;" Dion Cassiuc, "History of Rome."

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Camillus in Roman Biography

Camillus, [Fr. Camille, kfrnei' or kS'me'ye,] (Marcus Furius,) acelebrated Roman dictator, whose history has been embellished with many fabulous exploits. After serving as military tribune, he was five times chosen dictator, and gained victories over the Falisci, Capenates, Volscians, and Fidenates. In his first dictatorship, which began in 396, he took Veii, after a long siege. About 390 n.c. he was condemned for peculation, and was exiled to Ardea. The Gauls under Brennus having pillaged Rome, Camillus was recalled, and, according to the popular account, gained two decisive victories over the invaders. He was chosen dictator, for the fifth time, in 367. He is said to have dissuaded the citizens from removing en masse from Rome to Veii after the former city had been ruined by the Gauls. Died in 364 B.C. Plutarch has written a life of Camillus. See Livy, " History of Rome ;" Niebuhr, " History of Rome,'' vol. i. ; Obkecht, " Dissertatio, M. F. Camillum repnesentans," 1693.

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Caracalla in Roman Biography

Car-a-cal'la, (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Bassianus,) a Roman emperor, born at Lyons in 188 a. d. He was the son of the emperor Septimius Severus, who, dying in 212, left the empire to Caracalla and his brother Geta. The latter was assassinated by order of Caracalla, who sought to confirm his power by sacrificing many friends of Geta. Papinian, the jurist, was one of the victims, who, it is said, amounted to thousands. His reign was a series of cruelties, extortions, and follies. He chose for his chief ministers persons of the vilest character. He led his army into Parthia about 216 A.D., ravaged a part of the country, and retired before he had encountered the Parthian army. A conspiracy having been formed by Macrinus, Caracalla was killed by one of his soldiers near Edessa, in Asia, in 217 a.d., and Macrinus reigned in his stead. See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire;" Mkis ter, " Dissertatio de Caracalla," 1702; Spartian, "Vita Caracallx."

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Carausius in Roman Biography

Ca-rau'si-us, (Marcus Aurei.ius Valerius,) an adventurer, born at Menapia, in Belgium, about 250 A. D. Having been promoted to the command of a Roman fleet, he made himself master of Great Britain and assumed the title of emperor. After vain efforts to conquer him, Diocletian recognized him by treaty. He was assassinated in 293 A.D.

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Carinus in Roman Biography

Ca-ri'nus, [Fr. Carin, k3'raN',] (Marcus Aurelius,) a Roman emperor, eldest son of the emperor Carus, who committed to him the government of Italy, Africa, and the West, when he set out on an expedition against Persia in 283 A.D. Carus died, or was killed, in 284, soon after which Diocletian was chosen emperoi by the army in the East. A battle was fought between Carinus and his rival near Margum, in Mcesia, in which the latter was successful, and Carinus, who was detested for his cruelty, was killed by his own soldiers in 285. See Vopircus, "Carinus;" Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

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Carus in Roman Biography

Ca'rus, (Marcus Aurelius,) a Roman emperor, born at Narbo, (now Narbonne.) Under the emperor Probus he held the high office of prefect of the praetorium. At the death of Probus in 282 A.D., Carus was elected his successor by the army. In 283 he marched against the Persians, leaving his son Carinus to govern Italy. Having taken Seleucia and Ctesiphon, he was about to pursue his conquests, when he died suddenly, (283,) or, as some report, was killed by lightning. See Gibbon, " Decline and Fall of the " Roman Empire ;" Vopiscus, Carus.

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Cassius Dio in Roman Biography

Di'on Cas'sl-us (kash'e-us) or Dio Cassius, or, more fully, Cas'sius Di'on Cocceia'nus, (kok-se-ya'nus,) an eminent historian, born at Nicasa, in Bithynia, about 155 A.D., was the son of a Roman senator, and descended by his mother from Dion Chrysostom. He lived in Rome, was a senator in the reign of Commodus, and governor of Smyrna and Pergamos under Macrimts. By the favour of Alexander Seve'rus, he was elected consul with that emperor in 229 a.d. He wrote in Greek several works, the principal of which is his " History of Rome" (" 'Pu, /uuk)/ 'Icropia") from the arrival of /Eneas in Italy to the year 229 A.D., in eighty books, of which the first thirty- five are lost except fragments, and the last twenty exist only in the abridgment of Xiphilinus. As a historian he is esteemed for elegance of style, accuracy in dates, and diligence in search of the truth, for which his official position afforded him facilities. His work is a rich collection of documents on the later years of the republic and the first ages of the empire. His knowledge of Roman institutions was more exact and extensive than that of previous historians. See Fabricius, "Bibliotheca Graca;" Reimarus, " De Vita el Scriptis Cassii Dionis," 1752; Schlosser, "Dissertation on Dim) Cassius," prefixed to Lorknz's German version of Dion, 1826; Nik* buhr, "Lectures on Roman History."

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Cato the Elder in Roman Biography

Cato, [Gr. Koruv ; Fr. Caton* kS't6N'; It. Catone, ka-to'na,] (Marcus Porcius,) often called Ca'to Censo'rius, (or Cknsori'nus,) i.e. "Cato the Censor," also sumamed THE Elder, an eminent Roman patriot and statesman, was born of a plebeian family at Tusculum in 234 B.C. At the age of seventeen he served in the army against Hannibal, and in 209 he took part in the siege of Tarcntum under Fabius. He contributed to the victory over Hasdrubal on the Metaurus in 207. In the intervals of war he worked on his Sabine farm, and accustomed himself to a hardy, simple mode of life, disciplined in austere virtues and in all branches of practical and useful knowledge. By pleading causes for the poor, he had become an oracle among his rustic neighbors, when Valerius Flaccus, a liberal patrician, recognized his merit, and persuaded him to seek in the Forum of Rome an ampler sphere of usefulness. He soon gained eminence as an orator, and became a candidate for office. He was elected quaestor (paymaster) in 204, and prxtor in 198 B.C., when he obtained Sardinia as his province. In 195 he was raised to the consulship, with his early patron, V. Flaccus, for his colleague, and commanded the army in Spain with ability and success, for which he received a triumph on his return. Elected censor in 184, he reformed many abuses, and enforced his principles of economy and sobriety with a severity which procured him many enemies. He was one of the chief advisers of the third Punic war, and author of the phrase (which he often repeated in the senate) Delenda est Carthago, ("Carthage must be destroyed.") He wrote a treatise on agriculture, (" De Re rustica,") which is extant. His son, M. Porcius Cato, became an eminent jurist. Died in 149 B.C. In Plutarch's parallels, Cato the Censor is the counterpart of Aristides. Few names occur in the Latin classics oftener than that of Cato, who was venerated as a model of pristine Roman virtue. See Plutarch, " Lives ;" Livy, " History of Rome ;" Cornelius Nepos, "Cato;" Cicero, "Cato Major, sen de Senectute ;" Drumann, " Geschichte Roms ;" E. Schop.er, "De M. P. Catone Censorino," 1825 ; Weber, " Programma de M. P. Catonis Vita et Moribus," 1831.

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Catullus in Roman Biography

Ca-tul'lus, [Fr. C atuli.e, kt'tiil',] (Catus Valerius,) an eminent Latin poet, born at or near Verona about 77 B.C., (some authorities say 87 B.C.) He went to Rome at an early age, and by bis literary merit obtained admission into the society of Cicero, Caesar, Pollio, and others. His indulgence in vicious and expensive pleasures soon reduced him to poverty, which, however, did not subdue his hilarity. His superior genius as a poet is generally admitted by ancient and modern critics. He wrote numerous poems, which are still extant, including odes and epigrams of great beauty and pathos. He also excelled in heroic verse, and was the first Roman that cultivated lyric poetry with success. His longest poem is "The Nuptials of Peleus and Thetis," in hexameter verse. Some critics estimate the "Atys" as the greatest of his works. "His ' Atys,' " says Professor William Ramsay, " is one of the most remarkable poems in the whole range of Latin literature. Rolling impetuously along in a flood of wild passion, bodied forth in the grandest imagery and the noblest diction, it breathes in every line the fiery vehemence cf the Greek ditnyramb. . . . We admire by turns, in the lighter efforts/ of his muse, his unaffected ease, playful grace, vigorous simplicity, pungent wit, and slashing invective." He imitated Greek models, and seemed like a Greek poet writing in Latin. He is supposed to have died about 45 B.C. ; though Scaliger maintains that he lived about thirty years after that date. See Sellar, "Roman Poets of the Republic," chap. xii. ; FarRicius, " Bibliotheca Latina ;" " Nouvelle Biographie Generate ;" 'Foreign Quarterly Review" for July, 1842; " Fraser's Magazine" for March, 1849.

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Celsus in Roman Biography

Cel'sus, [Fr. Cklse, sels ; It. Celso, chel'so,] an Epicurean philosopher, who lived in the second century, in the reign of the Antonines, and was probably a Roman. He was a friend of Lucian. He is supposed to be the author of the attack on Christianity called " Ao;oc ufajOr/r" (a " True Discourse,") which was ably confuted by Qrigen, and which has not come down to us. Some have regretted that the early Christians in their zeal destroyed the work of Celsus, which might now be used to refute some arguments of infidels. He is said to have been the first pagan author that wrote against the Christian religion, and to have used the weapons of sophistry and irony with formidable power. See Origen, "Adversus Celsum ;" Neander, " Geschichte der Christliche Kirche."

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Cicero in Roman Biography

Cic'e-ro, [Gr. Kwcepuv; It. Cicerone, che-cha-ro'ni ; Fr. Ciceron, se'sa'rdN'; Ger. Cicero, tsits'J-ro; Sp. Ciceron, the-thA-r6n',] (Marcus Tullius,) often called Tully by English writers, an illustrious Roman orator, philosopher, and statesman, was born at Arpinum, (now Arpino,) about seventy miles east-southeast of Rome, on the 3d of January, 106 B.C., (647 A.u.C) He was a son of Marcus Tullius Cicero, an opulent citizen of the equestrian order, who owned an estate near Arpinum and devoted much time to literary pursuits. His mother's name was Helvia. His early education was directed by Archias the Greek poet, Q. yElius the grammarian, and other teachers, at Rome. During his minority he composed a number of poems, among which was " Pontius Glaucus," which is lost. His disposition was genial and amiable. He learned to speak Greek fluently, and was profoundly versed in Greek literature and philosophy. Having assumed the manly gown (toga virilis) in his sixteenth year, (91 B.C.,) he applied himself to the study of law under Mucius Scaevola the Augur, an eminent jurist and statesman. In the year 89 B.C. he served a campaign under Cneius Pompeius Strabo in the Social war, in obedience to the law which then required every citizen to perform military service. During the six ensuing years after this campaign he passed his life in studious retirement, and took no part in the bloody civil war between Marius and Sulla. He attended the lectures of the Greek philosopher Philo, the chief of the New Academy, studied logic with Diodotus the Stoic, and was instructed in rhetoric by Apollonius Molo of Rhodes. " He had," says Plutarch, " both the capacity and inclination to learn all the arts, nor was there any branch of science that he despised : yet he was most inclined to poetry. ... In process of time he was looked upon as the best poet as well as the greatest orator in Rome. His reputation for oratory still remains; . . . but, as many ingenious poets have appeared since his time, his poetry has lost its credit and is now neglected." In his admirable oration " Pro Archia," Cicero informs us that Archias the poet exerted great influence over the formation of his taste and the development and direction of his genius. Among his early productions was a heroic poem entitled "Marius," which is not extant : also a treatise on rhetoric, entitled " De Inventione Rhetorica." Having laid a solid foundation for his fame by the severe and systematic discipline of his rare talents, and by assiduous efforts to perfect his elocution by the practice of declamation, he began, at the age of twenty-five, his career as a pleader in the Forum. An argument which he made in 81 B.C. for his client P. Quinctius, in a civil suit, is still extant. The first important criminal trial in which he was employed was that of Sextus Roscius Amerinus, who was accused of parricide by an agent of the dictator Sulla, the dread of whose power and cruelty was so great that all the other advocates declined to appear for the defence. Cicero defended him with success, denounced the malice and iniquity of the prosecutor, and gained great applause by his courage and eloquence. This event occurred in the twenty-seventh year of his age. His physical constitution in his youth was so delicate that his medical friends advised him to abandon the bar. "My body," says he, "was very weak and emaciated, my neck long and small, which is a habit thought liable to great risk of life, if engaged in any fatigue or labour of the lungs." He therefore resolved to improve his health by travel, and to finish his education by visits to the famous seats of learning and art in Greece and Asia. Having departed from Rome in 79 B.C., he spent about six months in Athens, where ne pursued his favourite studies with Antiochus of Ascalon, Zeno the Epicurean,, and Demetrius Syrus. He also enjoyed in Athens the society of Pomponius Atticus, with whom he formed a lasting and memorable friendship, lie afterwards travelled extensively in Asia Minor. "He came back again to Italy," says Middleton-, "after an excursion of two years, extremely improved, and changed, as it were, into a new man : the vehemence of his voice and action was moderated, the redundancy of his style and fancy corrected, his lungs strengthened, and his whole constitution confirmed." In 76 B.C. he was elected quaestor (paymaster) by the unanimous suffrage of all the tribes. The quaestors were sent annually into the several provinces, one with every proconsul or governor, to whom he was next in authority. The office of quaestor was the first step in the gradation of public honours, and entitled him to an admission into the senate for life. He officiated as quaestor in Sicily, and performed his duties with such integrity, moderation, and humanity that he won, it is said, the love and admiration of all the Sicilians. As he was returning to Rome (74 B.C.) somewhat elated with his success, and entertaining the idea that the great capital was resounding with his praises, he met one of his acquaintances, a person of eminence, and inquired what they said and thought of his actions in Rome. The answer was, " Why, where have you been, then, Cicero, all this time ?" He then perceived that the reports of his conduct and services had been lost in Rome, as in an immense sea, and had added little or nothing to his reputation. About 76 B.C. he married a rich heiress, named Terentia. The law prescribed that five years should elapse after his election to the quaestorship (or that he must attain the age of thirty-eight) before he could hold the office of aedile, which was the next in the ascending scale. The orations which he pronounced during this period have not been preserved. His principal rival in forensic eloquence was Hortensius, whom he soon surpassed. According to Plutarch, " it was not by slow and insensible degrees that he gained the palm of eloquence : his fame shot foi th at once, and he was distinguished above all the orators of Rome." He excelled in sarcasm and witty repartees, with which he often seasoned his forensic arguments. All the resources of his genius, his art, his learning and influence were freely devoted to the defence of those whose lives or dignity or reputations were judicially assailed. He received no pay for his services as an advocate. He deviated from his general rule and practice of pleading for the defendant, in the case of the infamous Caius Verres, who in 70 B.C. was impeached by the Sicilians for atrocious acts of cruelty and rapine, but was supported by the most powerful families of Rome, including the Metelli. At the urgent request of the Sicilians, Cicero conducted the prosecution of Verres, who employed Hortensius to defend him ; but the evidence against the accused was so overwhelming that his counsel declined to plead, or had nothing to say, the defence suddenly collapsed, and Verres himself, anticipating his sentence, went into exile. Cicero, therefore, actually spoke only two of his seven celebrated orations against Verres ; but the others were published, and remain a noble and imperishable monument of his versatile and almost universal genius. Having acquired great popularity, he was elected to the aedileship, in 70 B.C., by a majority of the voters of every tribe. As aedile, he had the care of the sacred edifices, and was required by law or usage to gratify the people with public games and shows and costly pageants, partly at his own expense. In the year 67 he offered himself as a candidate for the office of praetor, which was one grade higher than that of aedile, and next in dignity to the consulship. Although he had several eminent competitors, he was elected the first praetor urbanus by the suffrages of all the centuries. The duty of the praetors was to preside as judges in the highest courts, and their jurisdictions were assigned to them by lot, which decided that Cicero should judge in cases of extortion and rapine of which governors of provinces were accused. " As a president in the courts of justice, he acted with great integrity and honour." (Plutarch's "Life of Cicero.") While he held the office of prxtor (66 B.C.) he made an important and famous political oration for the Manilian Law, (" Pro Lege Manilia,") the design of which was to appoint Pompey commanderin- chief in the war against Mithridates the Great. This was the first occasion on which Cicero ever mounted the rostrum. The Manilian Law, although strenuously opposed by the nobles, or optimates, and many powerful senators, was adopted. In the same year he defended A. Cluentius, (who was accused of poisoning his fatherin- law,) in a plea which is still extant. At the expiration of his praetorship, Cicero would not accept the government of a foreign p'rovince, which, says Middleton, " was the usual reward of that magistracy, and the chief fruit which the generality proposed from it. . . . The glory which he pursued was to shine in the eyes of the city as the guardian of its laws, and to teach the magistrates how to execute, the citizens how to obey them. But he was now preparing to sue for the consulship, the great object of all his hopes." The most formidable obstacle to his ambition was the jealousy of the nobles or aristocrats, who regarded the highest office as their birthright, and who would oppose the election of a " new man," (novus homo,) as they called all men whose ancestors were mere private citizens. He offered himself as a candidate for the consulship in his forty-third year, 64 B.C., with six competitors, among whom were P. Sulpicius Galba, C. Antonius, and L. Sergius Catilina. The last two formed a coalition against Cicero, and were favoured by Caesar and Crassus. During the canvass Cicero uttered a severe invective on the habits and characters of Catiline and Antonius, in his oration "In Toga Candida." The election resulted in the choice of Cicero andC. Antonius, the former of whom received the votes of all the centuries, and was the only " new man" that had been chosen consul in forty years. Among the events of this year was the birth of his only son. He had also a daughter, Tullia, who was born several years earlier and was the object of his warmest affection. She was a very amiable and accomplished woman. He entered upon the office on the 1st of January, 63 B.C., and found the republic in a very critical and perilous condition, distracted by pestilent laws and seditious harangues and undermined by pervading corruption and traitorous conspiracies. The difficulty was increased by the fact that his colleague Antonius was a man of bad (though feeble) character and was opposed to the policy of Cicero. The latter, however, secured the co-operation, or at least the neutrality, of Antonius, by a bargain that he should have the best and most lucrative of the provinces which were to be assigned to the consuls at the expiration of their term. He promoted the cause of liberty and order by another capital stroke of policy when he induced the senators and the equites (knights) to form a political alliance and unite in a common party. " He was," says Middleton, "the only man in the city capable of effecting such a coalition, being now at the head of the senate, yet the darling of the knights." By an artful and powerful speech he persuaded the people to reject an agrarian law proposed by Rullus, a tribune of the people. According to Niebuhr, this was " one of the most brilliant achievements of eloquence." He defended Kabirius, (accused of the murder of L. Satuininus, who had been dead about forty years,) in an oration which is extant. The most memorable part of his administration appears in the ability, courage, and elastic energy with which he detected and baffled the nefarious designs of Catiline and his accomplices. Catiline was a candidate for the consulship in the election of 63 B.C., and hired assassins to kill Cicero in the Campus Martius when he should come to preside at the election ; but, as the consul came guarded by armed men, the plot failed, and Catiline was not elected. This second repulse rendered him furious. He conspired to seize the chief power by the burning of the city and a general massacre of the senators and the Hand* of order. His capacity and resources for such an enterprise were very great, and he was abetted by vast numbers of disaffected and desperate men, some of whom were of high rank and great influence. The leaders of this plot met on the 6th of November, and arranged the immediate execution of the same ; but their plans were revealed to Cicero by Fulvia, the mistress of one of the conspirators, and when two of then went to his house next morning to assassinate the consul they found it well guarded. On the 8th

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Cincinnatus in Roman Biography

Cin-cin-na'tus, (Lucius Quintus,) a celebrated Roman patriot, patrician, and dictator, born about 520 B.C. Having reduced himself to poverty by paying a fine for his son, he was cultivating with his own hands a small farm, when he was chosen consul in 457 B.C. He was a strenuous opponent of the plebeian party. At the end of his official term he returned to his former employment. The Romans, having been unfortunate in war with the /Equi, chose Cincinnatus dictator about the year 456 B.C. He gained a decisive victory, and then abdicated the dictatorship, which he had held only fifteen days. About the age of eighty he again reluctantly acted as dictator, on the occasion of the treason of Spurius Melius, who was promptly defeated and slain. Niebuhr is skeptical as to the cause of his poverty above assigned. See Livv, " History of Rome;" Niebuhr, "History of Rome."

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Claudius in Roman Biography

Clau'dl-us, [Kr. Claude, klod,] or, more fully, Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero, fourth Emperor of Rome, born at Lyons in 10 i:.c, was the son of Drusus Nero by Antonia Minor, (who was a daughter of Mark Antony,) and was a nephew of the emperor Tiberius, Being feeble in mind and body, he took no part in public affairs during the reign of Tiberius. Caligula, who was his nephew, gave him the office of consul in 37 A.i>. On the death of Caligula, in 41, Claudius was proclaimed emperor by the mutinous soldiers ; and the senate, though they preferred a republic, acquiesced in the choice of the army. His accession, as usual, was signalized by acts of justice and clemency. He recalled exiles, diminished taxes, and built an aqueduct in Rome. The principal military event of his reign was his successful invasion of Britain in person. His wife, the infamous Messalina, acquired an ascendency over him, and caused senators and other innocent persons to be put to death. After she became so shameless as to marry Caius Silius, she was executed, by the order or permission of Claudius. He afterwards married his niece, Agrippina the Younger, who by a former husband had a son, L. Domitius. Having persuaded him to adopt this son, she poisoned Claudius in 54 A.D., when her son, assuming the name of Nero, became emperor. See Suetonius, "Claudius;" Tacitus, "Annates;" Dion Cassius, " Hisuiry."

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Claudius Gothicus in Roman Biography

Claudius, (Marcus Aurklius,) surnamed Goth'icus, an emperor of Rome, was born in Illyricum in 214 a.d. After having a high command under Valerian, he was proclaimed emperor by the army at the death of Gallicnus, in 268. The senate confirmed this choice. The same year he defeated the rebel Aureolus in battle. In 269 he gained a decisive victory over the Goths or Scythians near Nissa, in Servia, and assumed the name of Gothicus. He died of an epidemic disease at Sirmium in 270, leaving a good reputation for virtue and talents. His brother, Quintilius, was proposed as his successor ; but the army preferred Aurelian. Seel'REBKU.ius Pollio, " Claudius." in the" Historia Augusta;" Tii.i.HMnNT, "'Histoire des Emjjereurs."

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Commodus in Roman Biography

Com'mo-dus, [Fr. Commode, ko'mod',] (Lucius /Ei.ius Aurelius,) a Roman emperor, born in 161 A.D., was the son 0/ Marcus Aurelius and Faustina. He succeeded his father in 180, and found the empire prosperous. Though he had been carefully educated, he soon exhibited a character which inspires unmixed detestation. He resigned the direction of the government to his favourites Perennis and others, and indulged his cruel temper and evil passions without restraint. He ordered his wife Crispina to be put to death, and took a concubine named Marcia. His subjects were required to offer homage to him as Hercules. Many senators and others were doomed to death by his cruelty. His officers Laetus and F.clectus having conspired with Marcia against him, he was poisoned and strangled in 192 A.D., and Pertinax then became emperor. See Tillfmont, "Histoire des Empereurs :" Dion Cassiu.% " History of Rome :" Lampridius, "Commodus."

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Constans I in Roman Biography

Portugal to the United States. Died in Paris in 1846. Con'stana [Fr. Constant, k&N'st6.N'] I., (Fi.avius Julius,) the third son of the emperor Constantine the Great and Fausta, was born about 320 A.D. At the death of his father, in 337, he inherited the sovereignty of Italy, Africa, and Western Illyricum. His brother Constantine, having invaded his dominions, was defeated and killed in battle in 340, when the victor became master of the whole Western Empire. He was indolent, weak, and depraved. He favoured Athanasius, who had been proscribed by the Arians. Magnentius having revolted in Gaul, Constans fled towards Spain, but was overtaken near the Pyrenees, and killed, in 350 A.D. See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire;" Le Beau, "Histoire du Bas- Empire."

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Agrippa in Roman Biography.

A-grip'pa, (Mar'cus Vipsa'nius,) a distinguished Roman commander and statesman, born 63 B.C. His family was obscure, but a friendship was early formed between him and Octavius, (afterwards Augustus Caesar,) and his fortunes became inseparably associated with those of the future emperor. To the skill and wisdom of Agrippa, Augustus owed much of his continued success ; especially his victory at Actium, which gave him the empire of the world. After the death of Marcellus, in 23 B.C., Agrippa married his widow, Julia, the daughter of the emperor, by whom he had three sons, two of whom were adopted by Augustus, (see Caius C/ESar,) and two daughters. He died 12 B.C., in the fifty-first year of his age. Agrippa and Maecenas were the chief ministers or advisers of Augustus, and the former was for some time regarded as his destined successor. See G C. Gebauer, "Dissertatio de M. V. Agrippa," 1717; P. Fhamiskn, "Marc. Vipsanius Agrippa: historische Untersuchung iiber dessen Leben und Wirken," 1836 ; Livy, " " Epitome ;" Tacitus, Annales"

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Agrippina the Younger in Roman Biography

Agrippina II., or Agrippina Augusta, a daughter of the preceding, and'mother of the emperor Nero by her first husband, Domitius. She was a woman of abandoned principles and remorseless cruelty. She married her father's brother, the emperor Claudius, and afterwards poisoned him. After a life of almost uninterrupted crime, she was put to death (a.d. 60) by the order of her son Nero.

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Allectus in Roman Biography

Al-lec'tus, an officer of Carausius, King of Britain. Having murdered Carausius, in 293, he usurped the throne. He was defeated and killed by the Roman army o£ Constantjud Chlorus about 296 a.d.

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Ambrose in Roman Biography

Ambrose, Saint, sent am'broz, [Lat. Sanc'tus Ambro'sius ; Fr. Saint-Ambroise, saN'tflN'bRwaz',] one of the Latin Fathers, was born in Gaul, at Treves, it is supposed, about 340 A.D. His father, a Roman noble, was then praetorian prefect of Gaul. Ambrose was Governor of Liguria (a province of which Milan was the capital) in 374, when Auxentius, the Arian archbishop of Milan, died. In the attempt to elect a successor, the contest between the Catholics and the Arians was very fierce, and the presence of the governor was necessary to appease the tumult. He addressed them with such eloquence and power that the assembled people declared, with one voice, "Ambrose shall be bishop." He accepted the office with great reluctance, but afterwards fulfilled its duties with unequalled ability, zeal, and disinterestedness, He sided with the Catholics, and used all his efforts and influence for the suppression of Arianism. In 390 the emperor Theodosius, incensed at the insolent disobedience of some of the people of Thessalonica, ordered an indiscriminate massacre of all the inhabitants. Ambrose was greatly shocked at this crime ; and when, shortly after, the emperor was about to enter the church at Milan, the archbishop sternly forbade him. Theodosius submitted, and, besides undergoing various other humiliations, was at last obliged to perform public penance. Ambrose died in 397. He left, besides other works, a treatise " De Officiis," on the duties of Christian ministers, which was highly esteemed, and expositions of Scripture. He was the author of a method of singing known as the "Ambrosian Chant." "His Letters," says Villemain, "evince a man who, amidst the turbulence and instability of the empire, never had a foible nor stain on his character, whose magnanimity was adequate to all trials, and who in a more auspicious period would have placed himself by his writings in the rank of the first orators and the most noble geniuses." See Paulwus, "Vita Ambrosii ;" Godefroi Hermant, "Vie de Saint-Ambroise," 1678; J. P. Silbert, " Leben des heiligen Am brosius," 1841 ; Bakonius, "Annales;" "Saint-Ambroise; sa Vie el extraits de ses Merits," Lille, 1852 ; " Nouvelie Biographie Genera.e ;" "Encyclopaedia Britannica ;" Villemain, "Saint-Ambroise," Paris, 8vo, 1852.

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Ancus Martius in Roman Biography

An'cus Martius or Marcius, (mar'she-us,) the fourth king of Rome, a grandson of Numa Pompilius, succeeded Tullus Hostilius about 634 B.C. He is considered the lawgiver or founder of the plebeian order, which seems to have received in his reign a distinct political existence. He waged war with success against the Latins, founded Ostia, and built the Pons Sublicius, (Bridge of Piles.) He died about 610, and was succeeded by Tatquinius Priscus. See Niebuhr, "Roman History."

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Antoninus Pius in Roman Biography

An-to-ni'nus Pi'us, or, more fully, Ti'tua Au-re'- 11-us Ful'vus Boi-o'nI-us Ar'rI-us An-to-ni'nus, [Fr. Antonin, ON'to'niN',] an excellent Roman emperor, a son of Aurelius Fulvus, was born at Lamtvium in 86 A.D. He became consul in 120 a.d., after which he governed the province of Asia, as proconsul, with wisdom and equity. He married Annia Galeria Faustina, and was adopted by Hadrian in 138, on condition that he should adopt Marcus Annius Verus. (See Aurelius, (Marcus,) and Lucius Verus.) Antoninus succeeded Hadrian in July, 138, and began under happy auspices his peaceful and prosperous reign. He appears to have treated the Christians with moderation, if not clemency. It has been stated that he issued an edict for the protection of Christians; but some writers ascribe this edict to his successor. According to Capitolinus, from whom we derive nearly all our knowledge of Antoninus, he was temperate, humane, amiable, learned, and eloquent. The name of Pater Patriae (" Father of his Country") was conferred on him by the senate. He died in 161 A.D., and was succeeded by Marcus Aurelius. His memory was so greatly venerated that five of his successors assumed the name of Antoninus. I. CapitounvS, "Vita Antonini;" Gautier de Sibert, "Vie d"Antonio.

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Appius Claudius Caecus in Roman Biography

Clau'dius Cse'cus, (see'kus,) (Appius,) a Roman patrician, who was censor from 312 to 308 B.C. During this period he constructed the Appian Way from Rome to Capua. He was afterwards consul, and interrex, (or regent,) and became blind, as his surname indicates.' He wrote a poem, and a legal work in prose.

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Arius in Roman Biography

A-ri'us or A-rei'us, popularly called A'rl-us, [Gr. "Aohoc,] the founder of Arianism, and author of the greatest schism that ever divided the Christian Church before the Reformation, was born at Cyrene, in Africa, shortly after the middle of the third century. He was ordained a deacon at Alexandria by the patriarch Peter, and promoted to the highest rank among the clergy by the patriarch Alexander. The controversy which arose between Alexander and Arius about 318 A.D. caused Constantine to summon the first general council, which met at Nicaea (or Nice) in 325 A.D., and condemned with great unanimity the doctrines of Arius, who denied that the Son is coeternal and coessential with the Father. Arius, who had attended this council, was exiled to Illyricum by Constantine, but this sentence was revoked two or three years later. Arianism spread rapidly in Syria and Asia Minor, and was approved by the Synods of Tyre and Jerusalem in 335 a.d. Soon after this date he returned to Alexandria; but his presence excited there so great a disturbance that Constantine recalled him to Constantinople, where the Arians were numerous and powerful. According to some writers, he avowed his submission to the creed adopted by the Council of Nice, and was about to be restored to communion, when he died suddenly near 336 a.d. Authorities differ respecting the place of his death and many events of his life. Arianism was patronized as the religion of the state by the emperor Constantius, and by Valens. The contest between the Arians and Athanasians (see Athanasius) raged for more than two centuries and carnal weapons were resorted to by each party to enforce its arguments. The Goths, Vandals, and Suevi of the fifth and sixth centuries were nearly all Arians. The sect became divided into two portions, called " Hetero-ousians" (who were strict or ultra-Arians) and Semi-Arians or " Homoiousians," who admitted the " similar essence" of the Son with the Father. The followers of Arius were often called Eusebians, from Eusebius, Bishop of Nicomedia. See Neandf.r," History of the Christian " Church;" Maimbourg, Histoire de 1'Arianisme , Stark, " Essay on Arianism," fin German,) 1783; G. M. Travasa, "Storia critica della Vita di Ario," 174S; Eusebius, " Vita Constantini ;" Sozombn, " Historia Ecclesiastical" Epiphanius, " Panarium :" Theodoret, " Historia Ecclesiastical" Reuterdahl, "Memorabilia Arii ejuaque Hx-reseos," 1813.

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Augustine in Roman Biography

Au'gus-tiue, [Lat Aure'lius Augusti'nus ; Fr. Augustin, o'gu» tax'; It. Augustino, 6w-goos-tee'no,] Saint, the most illustrious Latin Father of the Church, was born at' Tagasta, in Numidia, on the 13th of November, 354 a.d. He was instructed in religion by his mother Monnica (or Monica,) who was a devout Christian. He also studied Greek, rhetoric, and philosophy at Madaura and Carthage. About the age of nineteen he was captivated with the heresy of the Manichaeans, to which he adhered for nine years. Having taught grammar and rhetoric at Tagasta, Carthage, and Rome, he was appointed professor of rhetoric and philosophy at Milan in 384. Amidst a career of immorality into which strong youthful passions had impelled him, he was seriously impressed by the sermons of Saint Ambrose. He experienced a decided conversion in 386, after deep conflicts, which he has described in his "Conns," an autobiography. Soon after this event he returned to Africa. He was ordained a priest about 391 by Valerius, Bishop of Hippo, whom he succeeded in 396. He distinguished himself as the adversary of the Donatists at the Council of Carthage in 401 a.d., and had a high reputation as an eloquent preacher. About 418 he produced two works against the Pelagians, " On the Grace of Christ," ("De Gratia Christi,") and' "On Original Sin," ("De Peccato Originali.") His capital work, entitled "On the City of God," ("De Civitate Dei,") was intended to subvert the foundations of paganism and establish those of Christianity, and to refute the opinion that the capture of Rome by Alaric, and other calamities of the empire, were caused by the prevalence of the new religion. It was finished about 426. He wrote many other works, among which are those " On Faith and Works," ("De Fide et Operibus,") and "On the Soul and its Origin," (" De Anima et ejus Origine.") He died at Hippo, during the siege of that city by the Vandals, on the 28th of August, 430 A.D. His habits simple and temperate, rather than ascetic. The best edition of his works is that published by the Benedictines at Paris, (ti'vols., 1679-1700.) "Of all the Fathers of the Latin Church," says Villemain, "Saint Augustine manifested the most imagination in theology, the most eloquence, and even sensibility, in scholasticism. ... lie writes as well on music as on free will; he explains the intellectual phenomena of memory as well as he reasons on the decline of the Roman Empire. His subtile and vigorous mind has often consumed on mystical problems an amount of sagacity which would have sufficed for the most sublime conceptions." See " Confessions of Saint Augustine ;" Possidius, " Vie de Saintin;" George Moringo, "Vie de Saint-Augustin," 1533; \ ie de Saint-Augustin," 1657; Tillemont, "Me'moi'res piques." (vol. xiii..) 1702; Rivtus, "Vita Sancti Augus- 1646 ; Poutoulat, "Vie de Saint-Augustin," 2d edition, 1852; makn. " Augustines Leben," 1844; Buti er, "Lives of the Iiaur, " Christliche Romische Theologie:" Villemain, "Tableau de 1'Eloquence chre'tienne au quatricme Steele," 1849; •'Nouvelle Biographie Ge*nerale."

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Aurelian in Roman Biography

Au-re'11-an or Au-re-H-a'nus, [Fr. Aurelien, 6'ra'le'aN',] (Claudius Domitius,) a Roman emperor, who was born of obscure parents about 212 A.D., at Sirraium, in Pannonia, or, according to some, in Lower Dacia, or in Moesia. He rose by his talents and courage from the rank of private to the highest position in the army of Valerian, and was appointed consul in 25S a.d. On the death of Claudius in 270, Aurelian was proclaimed emperor by the army. About the same time the north of Italy was invaded by the Alemanni, who were defeated at Fanum, in Umbria. The principal event of his reign was an expedition against Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, who reigned over Syria, Egypt, etc., and whose army he defeated near Emesa. Palmyra and the queen were captured by him in 273 a.d. (See Zenobia.) He punished a revolt of the Palmyrenes, which occurred soon after, with a general massacre, and acted with extreme severity on other occasions. He was very successful in his military enterprises, and was called the restorer of the empire, but was more competent to command an army than to govern a nation. He was assassinated by his own officers in 275 A.D., and was succeeded by Tacitus. See Vopiscus, "Vita Aureliani;" Trebellius Pollio, "Odenatus," and "Zenobia;" Tillemont, "Histoire des Erapereurs;" Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," chap. xi.

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Diocletian in Wikipedia

Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus[notes 1] (c. 22 December 244[3] – 3 December 311),[4] commonly known as Diocletian, was a Roman Emperor from 284 to 305. Born to an Illyrian family of low status in the Roman province of Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become cavalry commander to the emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was acclaimed emperor. The title was also claimed by Carus' other surviving son, Carinus, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus. With his accession to power, Diocletian ended the Crisis of the Third Century. He appointed fellow-officer Maximian Augustus, his senior co-emperor, in 285. He delegated further on 1 March 293, appointing Galerius and Constantius as Caesars, junior co-emperors. Under this "Tetrarchy", or "rule of four", each emperor would rule over a quarter-division of the empire. Diocletian secured the empire's borders and purged it of all threats to his power. He defeated the Sarmatians and Carpi during several campaigns between 285 and 299, the Alamanni in 288, and usurpers in Egypt between 297 and 298. Galerius, aided by Diocletian, campaigned successfully against Sassanid Persia, the empire's traditional enemy. In 299 he sacked their capital Ctesiphon - Diocletian led the subsequent negotiations and achieved a lasting and favorable peace. Diocletian separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and reorganised the empire's provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire. He established new administrative centers in Nicomedia, Mediolanum, Antioch, and Trier, closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome had been. Building on third- century trends towards absolutism, he styled himself an autocrat, elevating himself above the empire's masses with imposing forms of court ceremonial and architecture. Bureaucratic and military growth, constant campaigning, and construction projects increased the state's expenditures and necessitated a comprehensive tax reform. From at least 297 on, imperial taxation was standardized, made more equitable, and levied at generally higher rates...

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Domitius Domitianus in Wikipedia

Lucius Domitius Domitianus was a Roman usurper against Diocletian, who seized power for a short time in Aegyptus. Domitianus revolted against Diocletian in, but died in December of the same year, when Diocletian went to Aegyptus to quell with the revolt. Numismatic and papyrological evidence support Domitianus' claim for the purple. It is possible that the rebellion was sparked by a new tax edict, but this uncertain. It is possible that Domitianus' corrector, Aurelius Achilleus, who was responsible for the defence of Alexandria, succeeded Domitianus' claim for the purple; in fact, only in March 298 Diocletian re-conquered the city.

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Achilleus in Wikipedia

Achilleus (fl. 3rd century AD) assumed the title of emperor under Diocletian and reigned over Egypt for some time.[1] He was possibly the Corrector of Domitius Domitianus. He seems to have succeeded the revolt started by Domitianus, after the latter died.[citation needed] Achilleus was at length taken by Diocletian after a siege of eight months in Alexandria, and put to death in 296 AD.[2][3]

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Eugenius in Wikipedia

Flavius Eugenius (died 6 September 394) was a usurper in the Western Roman Empire (392–394) against Emperor Theodosius I. Though himself a Christian, he was the last Emperor to support Roman polytheism.[1] Life - A former teacher of grammar and rhetoric, as well as magister scrinorum, Eugenius was an acquaintance of the Frank magister militum and of the de facto ruler of the Western Roman Empire, Arbogast. Rise to power - Following the death of Valentinian II, Arbogast, who had probably been the cause of Valentinian II's murder or suicide, elevated Eugenius to the purple (22 August 392). The choice of Eugenius, over proclaiming himself, offered to Arbogast two strong advantages: first, Eugenius, a Roman, was more suitable than Arbogast, a Frank, as an emperor; furthermore, the Roman Senate would have been more likely to have supported Eugenius than Arbogast. Civil, religious, and military policies - After being installed as Emperor, Eugenius changed the imperial administrators. When Theodosius had left the western half of the empire to Valentinian II, he had put his own men in the highest civil offices, to keep a strong grasp on the whole empire. Eugenius replaced these administrators with others loyal to himself, coming from the senatorial class. Virius Nicomachus Flavianus the Elder became Praetorian Prefect of Italy, his son Nicomachus Flavianus the Younger received the title of Prefect of Rome, while the new praefectus annonae was Numerius Proiectus. Eugenius was nominally a Christian, and therefore was reluctant to accept a program of imperial support to Polytheism. His men, however, convinced Eugenius to use public money to fund 'Pagan' projects, such as the rededication of the Temple of Venus and Rome and the restoration of the Altar of Victory within the Curia (removed by Emperor Gratian). This religious policy created tension with Theodosius and the powerful and influential Bishop Ambrose, who left his see in Milan when the imperial court of Eugenius arrived. Eugenius was also successful in the military field, notably in the renovation of old alliances with Alamanni and Franks. Arbogast, who was Frank and had also Alamanni and Frank soldiers in his ranks, marched to the Rhine frontier, where he impressed and pacified the Germanic tribes by parading his army in front of them. Fall - When he was elected emperor, Eugenius sent ambassadors to Theodosius's court, asking for recognition of his election. Theodosius received them, but started to gather troops to defeat Eugenius. Theodosius also promoted his eight-year-old son Honorius to the rank of "Augustus" of the West in January 393. Theodosius then moved from Constantinople with his army, and met Eugenius and Arbogast in the Battle of the Frigidus (on the modern Italy-Slovenia border) on 6 September 394. The bloody battle lasted two days, and was marked by unusual astronomical and meteorological events, but in the end Theodosius won. Arbogast immediately committed suicide after the defeat, while Eugenius was held for execution as a criminal, his head afterward being displayed in Theodosius' camp. Evaluation - The reign of Eugenius marked the end of an era and the beginning of a new one. A year later Theodosius died, dividing his empire between his two sons. This had happened many times before in the previous two centuries, but this time it was to be final - the Roman Empire never reunited even under Leo I the Thracian, and soon after his reign, the western half fell. Eugenius also represented the last opportunity for the Pagans, with the senatorial class, to oppose the Christianization of the Empire. The Battle of the Frigidus was part of a trend towards using increasing percentages of barbarian troops, especially in the west, where it led to the weakening of the empire itself.

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Eugenius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A usurper in the reign of Theodosius the Great, of Gallic extraction, A.D. 392. He was defeated, taken prisoner, and put to death, after having held power for two years (Zosim. iv. 54 foll.).

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Maximianus Herculius in Wikipedia

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus (c. 250 – c. July 310),[8] commonly known as Maximian, was Roman Emperor from 285 to 305. He was Caesar[1][2] from 285 to 286, then Augustus from 286[3] to 305.[4] He shared the latter title with his co-emperor and superior, Diocletian, whose political brain complemented Maximian's military brawn. Maximian established his residence at Trier but spent most of his time on campaign. In the late summer of 285, he suppressed rebels in Gaul known as the Bagaudae. From 285 to 288, he fought against Germanic tribes along the Rhine frontier. Together with Diocletian, he launched a scorched earth campaign deep into Alamannic territory in 288, temporarily relieving the Rhine provinces from the threat of Germanic invasion. The man he appointed to police the Channel shores, Carausius, rebelled in 286, causing the secession of Britain and northwestern Gaul. Maximian failed to oust Carausius, and his invasion fleet was destroyed by storms in 289 or 290. Maximan's subordinate, Constantius, campaigned against Carausius' successor, Allectus, while Maximian held the Rhine frontier. The rebel leader was ousted in 296, and Maximian moved south to combat piracy near Hispania and Berber incursions in Mauretania. When these campaigns concluded in 298, he departed for Italy, where he lived in comfort until 305. At Diocletian's behest, Maximian abdicated on May 1, 305, gave the Augustan office to Constantius, and retired to southern Italy...

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Maximi&#257;nus, M. Aurelius Valerius in Harpers Dictionary

A Roman emperor, who ruled A.D. 286-305, originally a Pannonian soldier. He was made by Diocletian his colleague in the Empire, but was compelled to abdicate along with the latter. (See Diocletianus.) When his son Maxentius assumed the imperial title in the following year (306 A.D.), he resided some time at Rome; but being expelled from the city by Maxentius, he took refuge in Gaul with Constantine, who had married his daughter Fausta. Here he was compelled by Constantine, against whom he is said to have conspired, to put an end to his own life in 310.

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Carausius in Wikipedia

Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Valerius Carausius (died 293) was a military commander of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century. He was a Menapian from Belgic Gaul, who usurped power in 286, declaring himself emperor in Britain and northern Gaul. He did this only 13 years after the Gallic Empire of the Batavian Postumus was ended in 273. He held power for seven years, before being assassinated by his finance minister Allectus (see Carausian Revolt). Carausius was a man of humble origin, a Menapian who distinguished himself during Maximian's campaign against the Bagaudae rebels in northern Gaul in 286. This success, and his former occupation as a pilot, led to his appointment to command the Classis Britannica, a fleet based in the English Channel, with the responsibility of eliminating Frankish and Saxon pirates who had been raiding the coasts of Armorica and Belgica. However, he was suspected of keeping captured treasure for himself, and even of allowing the pirates to carry out raids and enrich themselves before taking action against them, and Maximian ordered his execution. In late 286 or early 287 Carausius learned of this sentence and responded by declaring himself Emperor in Britain and northern Gaul.[1] His forces comprised not only his fleet, augmented by new ships he had built, and the three legions stationed in Britain, but a legion he had seized in Gaul, a number of foreign auxiliary units, a levy of Gaulish merchant ships, and barbarian mercenaries attracted by the prospect of booty...

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Carausius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A native of Gaul, born among the Menapii. His naval abilities attracted the notice of Maximian, who gave him the command of a squadron against the pirates. He proved, however, unfaithful to his trust, and too much bent upon enriching himself. Maximian thereupon gave orders to put him to death; but Carausius, apprised of this in season, retired with his fleet to Britain. Here he succeeded in gaining over, or else intimidating, the only Roman legion that remained in the island, and finally proclaimed himself emperor. He forced the emperors Maximian and Diocletian to acknowledge his authority, which he maintained for the space of seven years (286-293). He was assassinated by Allectus.

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Allectus in Wikipedia

Allectus (died 296) was a Roman usurper-emperor in Britain and northern Gaul from 293 to 296.[1] History - Allectus was treasurer to Carausius, a Menapian officer in the Roman navy who had seized power in Britain and northern Gaul in 286. In 293 Carausius was isolated when the western Caesar, Constantius Chlorus, retook some of his Gallic territories, particularly the crucial port of Bononia (modern Boulogne), and defeated his Frankish allies in Batavia. Allectus assassinated Carausius and assumed command himself. His reign has left little record, although his coin issues display a similar distribution to those of Carausius. They are found in north western Gaul, indicating that the recapture of Bononia did not spell the end of the rebel empire on that side of the English Channel.[2] Constantius launched an invasion to depose him in September 296. His forces sailed in several divisions. Constantius led one division from Bononia, but seems to have been delayed by bad weather. Another division, under the praetorian prefect Asclepiodotus, took advantage of fog to avoid Allectus's ships stationed at the Isle of Wight, and landed near Southampton Water, where they burnt their ships. Allectus's forces were forced to retreat from the coast, but were cut off by another of Constantius's divisions and defeated. Allectus himself was killed in the battle, having removed all insignia in the hope that his body would not be identified. Archaeology suggests that Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester) was the site of his defeat.[3] A group of Roman troops, who had been separated from the main body by the fog during the channel crossing, caught up with the remnants of Allectus's men, mostly Franks, at Londinium (London), and massacred them. Constantius himself, it seems, did not reach Britain until it was all over, and his panegyrist claims he was welcomed by the Britons as a liberator.[4] Carausius had deliberately used his coinage for propaganda purposes, and some of his slogans, such as a claim to have restored 'liberty', were designed to appeal to British sentiment. Constantius answered such claims in a famous medal struck on the morrow of his victory, in which he described himself as redditor lucis aeternae, 'restorer of the eternal light (viz. of Rome).' Legend - Geoffrey of Monmouth included Allectus in his legendary History of the Kings of Britain (ca. 1136). Here, Allectus is an officer sent with three legions by the Romans to depose Carausius, a native British king. He does so, but his rule proves oppressive, and he is in turn deposed by Asclepiodotus, here the duke of Cornwall. The last of Allectus's troops are besieged in London, and surrender on the condition they are granted safe passage out of Britain. Asclepiodotus agrees, but the surrendering soldiers are massacred, and their heads thrown into the river Galobroc, by his allies the Venedoti.[5]

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Constantius I Chlorus in Wikipedia

Flavius Valerius Constantius[2] (c. 31 March 250 – 25 July 306), commonly known as Constantius I or Constantius Chlorus[3], was Roman Emperor from 293 to 306. He was the father of Constantine the Great and founder of the Constantinian dynasty. Life The Historia Augusta says Constantius was the son of Eutropius, a noble from northern Dardania in modern Serbia, and Claudia, a niece of the emperors Claudius II and Quintillus.[4] Modern historians suspect this maternal connection to be a genealogical fabrication created by his son Constantine I. His father, however, might have been the brother of Eutropia, wife of Maximian. Constantius was a member of the Protectores Augusti Nostri under emperor Aurelian and fought in the east against the secessionist Palmyrene Empire. Shortly after he attained the rank of tribunus within the army, and during the reign of Carus he was raised to the position of praeses, governor, of the province of Dalmatia.[5] In 293 the emperor Diocletian created the Tetrarchy, dividing the Roman Empire into Western and Eastern portions. Each would be ruled by an Augustus, supported by a Caesar. Diocletian became Augustus of the Eastern empire, with Galerius as his Caesar. Constantius was appointed Caesar to the Western Augustus, Maximian, and married Theodora, Maximian's stepdaughter. They had six children. Constantius divorced his first wife (or concubine), Helena, by whom he already had a son, Constantine. Helena was probably from Nicomedia in Asia Minor.[6] He was given command of Gaul, Britain and possibly Hispania. In 293, Constantius defeated the forces of Carausius, who had declared himself emperor in Britain and northern Gaul in 286, near Bononia. Carausius was killed by his rationalis Allectus, who took command of Britain until 296, when Constantius sent Asclepiodotus, a prefect of the Praetorian Guard, to invade the island. Allectus was defeated and killed, and Roman rule in Britain restored.[7] Also in 296, Constantius fought a battle against the Alamanni at the city of Lingonae (Langres) in Gaul. He was shut up in the city, but was relieved by his army after six hours, and defeated the enemy.[8] He defeated them again at Vindonissa (Windisch, Switzerland),[9] thereby strengthening the defenses of the Rhine frontier. Diocletian and Maximian stepped down as co-emperors in 305, possibly due to Diocletian's poor health, and the Caesars, Constantius and Galerius, became co-emperors. Constantius ruled the western empire, Galerius the eastern. Severus and Maximinus Daia were appointed Caesars. Constantine, who had hoped to be a Caesar, joined his father's campaigns in Gaul and Britain.[10] Constantius died in Britain, at Eboracum (York), in 306, and Constantine was declared emperor by the army.[11] Legend - Christian legends - As the father of Constantine, a number of Christian legends have grown up around Constantius. Eusebius's Life of Constantine claims that Constantius was himself a Christian, although he pretended to be a pagan, and while Caesar under Diocletian, took no part in the emperor's persecutions.[12] His first wife, Helena, found the True Cross. British legends - Constantius's activities in Britain were remembered in medieval British legend. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (1136), Constantius was sent to Britain by the Senate after Asclepiodotus, here a British king, was overthrown by Coel of Colchester. Coel submitted to Constantius and agreed to pay tribute to Rome, but died only eight days later. Constantius married Coel's daughter Helena and became king of Britain. He and Helena had a son, Constantine, who succeeded to the throne of Britain when his father died at York eleven years later.[13] The identification of Helena as British had previously been made by Henry of Huntingdon,[14] but has no historical validity: Constantius had divorced Helena before he went to Britain.

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Constantius Chlorus in Harpers Dictionary

Chlorus, son of Eutropius, and father of Constantine the Great, received at Paris the title of Caesar, which he obtained by his victories in Britain and Germany. He became the colleague of Galerius on the abdication of Diocletian; and, after bearing the character of a humane and benevolent prince, he died at York, and had his son for his successor, A.D. 306.

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Severus II in Wikipedia

Flavius Valerius Severus (or rarely Severus II) (died February 307) was a Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 307. Officer in the Roman army Severus was of humble birth, born in the Illyrian provinces around the middle of the third century AD. He rose to become a senior officer in the Roman army, and as an old friend of Galerius, that emperor ordered that Severus be appointed Caesar of the Western Roman Empire, a post that he succeeded to on 1 May 305. He thus served as deputy- emperor to Constantius I (Constantius Chlorus), Augustus of the western half of empire. [edit]Augustus, 306–307 On the death of Constantius I in the summer of 306, Severus was promoted to Augustus by Galerius himself, in opposition to the acclamation of Constantine I (Constantius' son) by his own soldiers. When Maxentius, the son of the retired emperor Maximian, revolted at Rome, Galerius sent Severus to suppress the rebellion. Severus moved from his capital, Mediolanum, towards Rome, at the head of an army previously commanded by Maximian. Fearing the arrival of Severus, Maxentius offered Maximian the co-rule of the empire. Maximian accepted, and when Severus arrived under the walls of Rome and besieged it, his men deserted him and passed to Maximian, their old commander. Severus fled to Ravenna, an impregnable position: Maximian offered to spare his life and treat him humanely if the latter surrendered peaceably, which he did in March or April 307. Despite Maximian's assurance, Severus was nonetheless displayed as a captive and later imprisoned at Tres Tabernae. When Galerius himself invaded Italy to suppress Maxentius and Maximian, the former ordered Severus's death: he was executed (or forced to commit suicide) on 16 February 307.

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Sev&#275;rus, Flavius Valerius in Harper's Dictionary

A Roman emperor (A.D. 306-307). He was proclaimed Caesar by Galerius in 306, and was soon afterwards sent against Maxentius, who had assumed the imperial title at Rome. The expedition, however, was unsuccessful; and Severus, having surrendered at Ravenna, was taken as a prisoner to Rome, and compelled to put an end to his life. See Maxentius.

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Maxentius in Wikipedia

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius (c. 278 – 28 October 312) was Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. He was the son of former emperor Maximian, and the son-in-law of Galerius, also an emperor. Life Birth and early life - Maxentius' exact date of birth is unknown; it was probably around 278. He was the son of the emperor Maximian and his wife Eutropia. As his father became emperor in 285, he was regarded as crown prince who would eventually follow his father on the throne. He seems not to have served in any important military or administrative position during Diocletian's and his father's reign, though. Early (the exact date is unknown) he married Valeria Maximilla, the daughter of Galerius. He had two sons, Valerius Romulus (ca. 295 – 309) and an unknown one...

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Maxentius, M. Aurelius Valerius in Harpers Dictionary

A Roman emperor, who ruled A.D. 306-312. He was passed over in the division of the Empire which followed the abdication of his father Maximianus and Diocletian in A.D. 305; but he seized Rome, where he was proclaimed emperor in 306. He reigned till 312, when he was defeated by Constantine at Saxa Rubra, near Rome. He tried to escape over the Milvian Bridge into Rome, but perished in the river. Maxentius is represented by all historians as a monster of rapacity, cruelty, and lust. See Constantinus.

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Domitius Alexander in Wikipedia

Lucius Domitius Alexander (d. ca. 311), probably born in Phrygia, was vicarius of Africa when Emperor Maxentius ordered him to send his son as hostage to Rome. Alexander refused and proclaimed himself emperor in 308.[1] The most detailed if somewhat confusing description of the insurrection is given by Zosimos (II, 12 and 14). He reports that Maxentius sent his portrait to Africa to gain recognition as emperor there. The troops resisted because of their loyalty to Galerius. Maxentius ordered Domitius Alexander, the governor of the province, to send his son to Rome to secure his loyalty. Alexander refused and was crowned emperor by his army. The incident was probably caused by the conflict between Maxentius and his father Maximian early in 308, and Zosimos confused Galerius with Maximian in his account.[2] Apart from the province of Africa, Domitius Alexander also controlled Sardinia. At the time of his accession, he was already at an advanced age. There is evidence in an inscription (CIL viii, 22183) that Alexander and Constantine I allied themselves in opposition to Maxentius. Salama suggests that, at the latest, the pact was entered into by autumn of 310.[3] Maxentius sent his praetorian prefect Rufius Volusianus and a certain Zenas to quell the rebellion, and Alexander was taken prisoner and then executed by strangulation.[1] Apparently, his troops did not offer much resistance. Maxentius retaliated with confiscations of the property of alleged supporters of Alexander. The year of the end of Alexander's reign is subject to debate; dates ranging from 309 to 311 have been proposed.

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Licinius in Wikipedia

Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c. 263 – 325), commonly known as Licinius, was Roman Emperor from 308 to 324. Born to a Dacian[3][4] (Thracian) peasant family in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close childhood friend, the future emperor Galerius, on the Persian expedition in 297. After the death of Flavius Valerius Severus, Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308. He received as his immediate command the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia. On the death of Galerius, in May 311, Licinius shared the eastern empire with Maximinus Daia, the Hellespont and the Bosporus being the dividing line. In March 313 he married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (now Milan); they had a son, Licinius the Younger, in 315. Their marriage was the occasion for the jointly-issued "Edict of Milan" that restored confiscated properties to Christian congregations and allowed Christianity to be professed in the empire. In the following month, on April 30, Licinius inflicted a decisive defeat on Maximinus at the Battle of Tzirallum, after Maximinus had tried attacking him. Then, Licinius established himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West. In 314, a civil war erupted between Licinius and Constantine, in which Constantine prevailed at the Battle of Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8, 314) and again two years later, when Licinius named Valerius Valens co-emperor, in the plain of Mardia (also known as Campus Ardiensis) in Thrace. The emperors were reconciled after these two battles and Licinius had his co-emperor Valens killed. Licinius' fleet of 350 ships was defeated by Constantine I's fleet in 323. In 324, Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army of 170,000 men at the Battle of Adrianople (July 3, 324), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium. The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius in the Battle of the Hellespont by Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son and Caesar, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the Battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (September 18), resulted in Licinius' final submission. While Licinius' co-emperor Sextus Martinianus was killed, Licinius himself was spared due to the pleas of his wife, Constantine's sister, and interned at Thessalonica. The next year, Constantine had him killed, accusing him of conspiring to raise troops among the barbarians.

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Licinius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A Roman emperor, ruling A.D. 307-324. He was a Dacian peasant by birth, and was raised to the rank of Augustus by the emperor Galerius. He afterwards had the dominion of the East. He carried on war first with Maximinus II., whom he defeated A.D. 314, and subsequently with Constantine, by whom he was in his turn defeated, 315. A second war broke out between Licinius and Constantine in 323, in which Licinius was not only defeated, but deprived of his throne. In the following year he was put to death by Constantine, 324. See Constantinus.

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Sextus Martinianus in Wikipedia

Sextus Marcius Martinianus (usually rendered in English as Martinian; died 325) was Roman Emperor from July to September 18, 324. He had been appointed co-emperor by Licinius. Elevation - In 324 the second civil war between Licinius and Constantine I was at its height, and Licinius was losing. Because of this war he decided to replace Constantine (in name only) as western Augustus. As his replacement he named Martinian co-emperor, as he had previously appointed Valens[1] during his earlier war with Constantine. Prior to his elevation, which took place some time after the Battle of Adrianople (July 3, 324), Martinian was serving as magister officiorum at Licinius' court. Military activities - Following his defeat at Adrianople Licinius sent Martinian, with an army including Visigothic auxiliaries,[2] to Lampsacus (on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont or Dardanelles) to prevent Constantine from crossing from Thrace into Mysia and Bithynia in Asia Minor. A naval battle in the Hellespont resulted in the destruction of Licinius' navy by Constantine's eldest son Crispus. Following this defeat Licinius withdrew his forces from Byzantium, which was being besieged by Constantine, to Chalcedon on the Asiatic shore of the Bosphoros. Constantine then crossed over to Asia Minor, using a flotilla of light transports in order to evade the forces of Martinian.[3] Licinius recalled Martinian from Lampsacus to reinforce his main army.[4][5] On September 18 Licinius was defeated for the last time at the Battle of Chrysopolis. Fate - Due to the intervention of Flavia Julia Constantia, Constantine's sister and also Licinius' wife, both Licinius and Martinian were initially spared, Licinius being imprisoned in Thessalonica, Martinian in Cappadocia. However, Constantine seems to have soon regretted his leniency as both men were subsequently executed, probably in the spring of 325.[6]

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Calocaerus in Wikipedia

Calocaerus (died 334) was a Roman usurper against Emperor Constantine I. Calocaerus was Magister pecoris camelorum ("Lord of the sheeps and camels") in Cyprus. In 333-334 he revolted, proclaiming himself Emperor. Constantine sent Flavius Dalmatius to quell the rebellion, and Calocaerus was defeated, and afterwards brought to Tarsus in Cilicia, where he was tried and executed.

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Constantine II in Wikipedia

Flavius Claudius Constantinus (316 – 340), commonly known as Constantine II, was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340. The eldest son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, he was born at Arles and raised as a Christian. On March 1 317, Constantine was made Caesar, and at the age of seven in 323, took part in his father's campaign against the Sarmatians. At the age of ten he became commander of Gaul, after the death of his half-brother Crispus. An inscription dating to 330 records the title of Alamannicus, so it is probable that his generals won a victory over the Alamanni. His military career continued when Constantine I chose his son field commander during the 332 campaign against the Goths. Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. After the division of the empire, made by the three brothers in September of the same year in Pannonia, he ruled over Gaul, Britannia and Hispania. He was involved in the struggle between the different Christian streams. The Western portion of the empire leaned towards Catholicism and against Arianism, and Constantine freed Athanasius and allowed him to return to Alexandria. This action also put some burden on Constantius II, who was a supporter of Arianism. At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italia, Africa and Illyricum. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and he was killed in an ambush in Cervignano del Friuli. Constans took control of his deceased brother's realm.

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Constans in Wikipedia

Flavius Julius Constans (320–350), commonly known as Constans, was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350. Constans was the third and youngest son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, his father's second wife. On 25 December 333 Constantine elevated Constans to Caesar. In 337 he succeeded his father, jointly with his older brothers Constantine II and Constantius II, receiving Italy, Pannonia and Africa as his portion. Constantine II, who ruled over Gaul, Spain and Britain, attempted to take advantage of his youth and inexperience by invading Italy in 340, but Constans defeated Constantine at Aquileia, where the older brother died. The invasion was the effect of brotherly tensions between the two emperors. Constantine II was, at first, Constans's guardian. As Constans grew older, Constantine II never relinquished that position. In 341-2, Constans led a successful campaign against the Franks and in the early months of 343 visited Britain. The source for this visit, Julius Firmicus Maternus, does not give a reason for this but the quick movement and the danger involved in crossing the channel in the dangerous winter months, suggests it was in response to a military emergency of some kind, possibly to repel the Picts and Scots. Regarding religion, Constans was tolerant of Judaism but promulgated an edict banning pagan sacrifices in 341. He suppressed Donatism in Africa and supported Nicene orthodoxy against Arianism, which was championed by his brother Constantius. Constans called the Council of Sardica, which unsuccessfully tried to settle the conflict. In 350, the general Magnentius declared himself emperor with the support of the troops on the Rhine frontier - and later the western provinces of the empire. Constans lacked any support beyond his immediate household, and was forced to flee for his life. Magnentius' supporters cornered him in a fortification in Helena, southwestern Gaul, where he was killed by Magnentius' assassins.

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Constans in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

The youngest of the three sons of Constantine the Great and Fausta. After his father's death he received (A.D. 337) as his share of the Empire, Illyricum, Italy, and Africa. His territory was invaded by his brother Constantine, who was defeated and slain in the invasion (340 A.D.). Constans became supreme over the whole Western Empire, but the weakness and profligacy of his character made him despised and disliked so that in 350 he was slain by the troops of the usurper Magnentius (q.v.).

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Constantius II in Wikipedia

Flavius Julius Constantius (August 7, 317 – November 3, 361), commonly known as Constantius II, was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers fought over the western provinces of the empire. Constans defeated his brother and ruled the west for a decade until the usurper Magnentius rebelled in 350. Constans was promptly assassinated, leaving Constantius as the only surviving son of Constantine. After defeating Magnentius at the Battle of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus, his subsequent suicide left Constantius sole ruler of the empire. His military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354, and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In the east however, he fought the Sassanids for two decades with mixed success. Constantius elevated his cousin Julian to co-emperor in 355, but by spring 361 the two emperors were at war. However, Constantius died before the two could face each other in battle, naming Julian his successor...

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Magnentius in Wikipedia

Flavius Magnus Magnentius (303–August 11, 353) was a usurper of the Roman Empire (January 18, 350 – August 11, 353). Early life and career - Born in Samarobriva (Amiens), Gaul, Magnentius was the commander of the Herculians and Iovians, the imperial guard units[1]. When the army grew dissatisfied with the behaviour of Roman Emperor Constans, it elevated Magnentius at Autun on January 18, 350. Constans was abandoned by all except a handful of retainers, and he was slain shortly afterwards by a troop of light cavalry near the Pyrenees. Usurper - Magnentius quickly attracted the loyalty of the provinces in Britannia, Gaul, and Hispania, in part because he proved to be far more tolerant towards both Christians and Pagans. His control on Italia and Africa was applied through the election of his men to the most important offices. However, the short- lived revolt of Nepotianus, a member of the Constantinian dynasty, showed Magnentius that his status of Emperor was to be consolidated against the members of that dynasty. The self-proclaimed emperor tried to strengthen his grasp on the territories previously controlled by Constans, moving towards the Danube. Vetranio, commander of the Pannonian army, had been elected Augustus by his troops in Mursa on 1 March. This revolt had a loyalist mark, since Vetranio was supported by Constantina, and Constantius II himself recognized Vetranio, sending him the imperial diadem. Demise - The remaining emperor of the family of Constantine I, Constantius II broke off his war in Syria with Persia, and marched west. Despite Magnentius' efforts to gain Vetranio to his cause, the old general reached Constantius with his army, and resigned the crown. After electing Magnus Decentius (probably his brother) to Caesar and gathering as many troops as possible, the armies of Magnentius and Constantius met in the Battle of Mursa Major in 351; Magnentius led his troops into battle, while Constantius spent the day of battle praying in a nearby church. Despite Magnentius' heroism, his troops were defeated and forced to retreat back to Gaul. As a result of Magnentius' defeat, Italy ejected his garrisons and rejoined the loyalist cause. Magnentius made a final stand in 353 in the Battle of Mons Seleucus, after which he committed suicide by falling on his sword. Following the suppression of Magnentius' rebellion, Constantius commanded an investigation be made to find his followers. The most notorious agent in this search was the primicerius notariorum Paulus Catena. Some sources state that Magnentius' father was a Briton and his mother a Frank.[2]

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Magnentius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A German by birth who conspired against the life of the emperor Constans, whom he caused to be murdered in his bed. Subsequently, being pursued by the vengeance of Constantius, and defeated by him at the battle of Mursa (a. d. 351), he took his own life by falling on his sword. His reign lasted from A.D. 350 to 353. His full name was Flavius Popilius Magnentius. See Victor, Caes. 41 and 42.

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Nepotianus in Wikipedia

Iulius Nepotianus (died June 30, 350)[1], commonly known in English as Nepotian, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty who reigned as a short-lived usurper of the Roman Empire. He ruled the city of Rome for twenty-eight days, before being killed by his rival usurper Magnentius' general Marcellinus.[1] Background - Nepotianus was the son of Eutropia, half-sister of Emperor Constantine I,[2] and of Virius Nepotianus. On his mother's side, he was the grandson of Emperor Constantius Chlorus and Flavia Maximiana Theodora. Events - After the revolt of Magnentius, Nepotianus proclaimed himself "emperor" and entered Rome with a band of gladiators[2] on 3 June 350.[1] After attempting to resist Nepotianus with an undisciplined force of Roman citizens, the defeated Praefectus urbi Titianus (or Anicius, or Anicetus), a supporter of Magnentius, fled the city. Magnentius quickly dealt with this revolt[2] by sending his trusted magister officiorum Marcellinus to Rome. According to Eutropius, Nepotianus was killed in the resulting struggle (on 30 June), his head put on a lance and borne around the city.[2] In the following days, his mother Eutropia was also killed, during the persecution of the supporters of Nepotianus, most of whom were senators.

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Nepotianus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A son of Eutropia, the half-sister of the emperor Constantine. He proclaimed himself emperor (A.D. 350) after the death of his cousin Constans, marched to Rome with a body of gladiators and other disreputable followers, defeated Anicetus, the praetorian prefect, and pillaged the city. He enjoyed his usurped power only twenty-eight days, at the end of which period he was defeated and slain by Marcellinus, one of the lieutenants of Magnentius.

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Vetranio in Wikipedia

Vetranio (d. c. 360), born in the province of Moesia in a part of the region located in modern Serbia, is sometimes but apparently incorrectly referred to as Vetriano. He was an experienced soldier and officer when he was asked by Constantina, the sister of Roman Emperor Constantius II, to proclaim himself Caesar (March 1, 350). Her brother Constans had been killed by Magnentius earlier that year and she probably thought Vetranio could protect her family and herself against the usurper. Vetranio accepted and coins were minted in his name, showing the title of Augustus (full emperor), rather than Caesar. Constantius first seemed to accept the new Emperor and sent him money to raise an army, as well as his regalia. Constantius, who was on a campaign against the Persians when Magnentius came to power, returned to the west and met with Vetranio. Vetranio subsequently abdicated on December 25, 350. He was allowed to live the remainder of his years as a private citizen on a state pension.

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Vetranio in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A Roman who commanded the legions in Illyria and Pannonia in A.D. 350, when Constans was treacherously destroyed, and was proclaimed emperor by his troops; but at the end of ten months resigned in favour of Constantius (Amm. Marcell. xv. 1; xxi. 8).

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Jovian in Wikipedia

Flavius Jovianus (331 – 17 February 364), commonly known as Jovian, was Roman Emperor from 363 to 364. Upon the death of emperor Julian during his Sassanid campaign, Jovian was hastily declared emperor by his soldiers. Jovian sought peace with the Persians on humiliating terms, and reestablished Christianity as the favored religion of the Empire. Rise to power - Jovian was born at Singidunum (today Belgrade, Serbia) in 331, son of (Flavius?) Varronianus, the commander of Constantius II's imperial bodyguards (comes domesticorum). He also joined the guards, and by 363 had risen to the same command that his father had once held. In this capacity, Jovian accompanied the Roman Emperor Julian on the Mesopotamian campaign of the same year against Shapur II, the Sassanid king. After a small but decisive engagement the Roman army was forced to retreat from the numerically superior Persian force. Julian was mortally wounded during the retreat and died on 26 June 363. The next day, after the aged Saturninius Secundus Salutius, praetorian prefect of the Orient, declined the purple, the choice of the army fell upon Jovian. His election caused considerable surprise, and it is suggested by Ammianus Marcellinus that he was wrongly identified with another Jovianus, chief notary (primicerius notariorum), whose name also had been put forward, or that during the acclamations the soldiers mistook the name Jovianus for Julianus, and imagined that the latter had recovered from his illness. Restoration of Christianity - Jovian, a Christian, reestablished Christianity as the favoured religion of the Roman Empire ending the brief revival of paganism under his predecessor Julian. Upon arriving at Antioch, he revoked the edicts of Julian against the Christians.[1] The Labarum of Constantine the Great again became the standard of the army.[2] He issued an edict of toleration, to the effect that, while the exercise of magical rites would be punished, his subjects should enjoy full liberty of conscience[3]. However, in 363 he issued an edict ordering the Library of Antioch to be burnt down[4], and another on 11 September subjecting the worship of ancestral gods to the death penalty, which, on 23 December, he also applied to participation in any pagan ceremony (even private ones)[5]. Jovian entertained a great regard for Athanasius, whom he reinstated on the archiepiscopal throne,[1] desiring him to draw up a statement of the orthodox faith. In Syriac literature Jovian became the hero of a Christian romance. From Jovian's reign until the 15th century Christianity remained the dominant religion of both the Western and Eastern Roman Empires, until the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. Rule - Jovian continued the retreat begun by Julian and, continually harassed by the Persians, succeeded in reaching the banks of the Tigris where Jovian, deep inside Sassanid territory, was forced to sue for a peace treaty on humiliatingly unfavourable terms. In exchange for his safety, he agreed to withdraw from the five Roman provinces conquered by Galerius in 298, east of the Tigris, that Diocletian had annexed and allow the Persians to occupy the fortresses of Nisibis, Castra Maurorum and Singara. The Romans also surrendered their interests in the Kingdom of Armenia to the Persians and the Christian king of Armenia, Arshak II, was to stay neutral in future conflicts between the two empires and was forced to cede part of his kingdom to Shapur. The treaty was widely seen as a disgrace and Jovian rapidly lost popularity. After arriving at Antioch, Jovian decided to rush to Constantinople to consolidate his political position there. He died on 17 February 364 after a reign of only eight months. During his return to Constantinople, Jovian was found dead in bed in his tent at Dadastana, halfway between Ancyra and Nicaea. His death has been attributed to either a surfeit of mushrooms or the poisonous carbon monoxide fumes of a charcoal warming fire. Jovian was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople.

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Iovi&#257;nus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Ioviānus, Flavius Claudius A Roman emperor, born A.D. 331, the son of Veronianus, of an illustrious family of Moesia, who had filled important offices under Constantine. Iovianus served in the army of Julian , in his unlucky expedition against the Persians; and when that emperor was killed, A.D. 363, the soldiers proclaimed him successor. His first task was to save the army, which was surrounded by the Persians, and in great distress for provisions. After repelling repeated attacks of the enemy, he willingly listened to proposals for peace, and accepted conditions offensive to Roman pride. Iovianus gave up the city of Nisibis to the Persians, the inhabitants withdrawing to Amida. On his arrival at Antioch, Iovianus, who was of the Christian faith, revoked the edicts of Julian against the Christians. He also supported the orthodox or Nicene creed against the Arians, and showed his favour to the bishops who had previously suffered from the Arians, and especially to Athanasius, who visited him at Having been acknowledged over the whole Empire, Iovianus set off during the winter to Constantinople. At Ancyra he assumed the consular dignity; but, a few days after, being at a place called Dadastana, in Galatia, he was found dead in his bed, having been suffocated, as some say, by the vapour of charcoal burning in his room; according to others, by the steam of the plaster with which it had been newly laid; while others, again, suspected him of having been poisoned or killed by some of his guards. He died February 16, A.D. 364, after a reign of only seven months. The army proclaimed Valentinianus as his successor (Amm. Marcell. xxv. 5 foll.).

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Balbinus in Roman Biography

Bal-bi'nus, [Fr. Balbin, balbaN] (Decimus Caelius,) a Roman senator who, in conjunction with Maximus, was proclaimed emperor in opposition to Maximinus. The praetorian guards, dissatisfied with the new emperors elected by the senate, seized them in their palace, and, having put them to death, proclaimed Gordianus emperor, 238 A. D. See Julius Capitolinus, "Vita Balbini;" Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

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Aemilius Paullus in Roman Biography

AEmilius (Paulus or Paullus) I, a Roman consu, and able general, who fell bravely at the battle of Cannae, 216 B.C.

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Aetius in Roman Biography.

AEtius, a Roman general, born near the end of the fourth century. For many years he successfully defended Gaul against the encroachments of the barbarians. In 451, when Attila the Hun had besieged and was on the point of taking Orleans, the approach of the combined armies of Aetius and Theodoric obliged him to raise the siege ; and, these generals having followed the Huns in their retreat to the plains of Chalons, a great but indecisive battle was fought, in which 300,000 men are said to have been slain. Soon after, Attila retreated beyond the Rhine, But the emperor Valentinian, having become jealous of the fame and influence of Aetius, slew him with his own hand in 454. The emperor, it is said, asked a Roman if he had done well in killing Aetius. He replied, " I do not know ; but I think you have cut off your right hand with your left." See Gibbon, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire;" Jor- KANDes, " De Rebus Geticis."

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Claudius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Caesar Germanĭcus, more commonly known by his historical name of Claudius, succeeded to the Roman Empire on the death of Caligula. He was the second son of Drusus and Antonia, and consequently grand- nephew to Augustus. When the assassination of Caligula was made known, the first impulse of the court party and of the foreign guards was to massacre all who had participated in the murder. Several persons of distinction, who imprudently exposed themselves, became, in consequence, the victims of their fury. This violence subsided, however, upon their discovering Claudius, who had concealed himself in an obscure corner of the palace, and who, being dragged from his hiding-place, threw himself at their feet in the utmost terror and besought them to spare his life. The soldiers in the palace immediately saluted him emperor, and Claudius, in return, set the first example of paying the army for the imperial dignity by a largess from the public treasury. It is difficult to assign any other motive for the choice which the army made of Claudius than that which they themselves professed, "his relationship to the whole family of the Caesars." Claudius, who was now fifty years old, had never done anything to gain popularity, or to display those qualities which secure the attachment of the soldiery. He had been a rickety child, and the development of his faculties was retarded by his bodily infirmities; and although he outgrew his complaints, and became distinguished as a polite scholar and an eloquent writer, his spirits never recovered from the effects of disease and of severe treatment, and he retained much of the timidity and indolence of his childhood. During the reign of Tiberius he gave himself up to gross sensuality, and consoled himself under this degradation by the security which it brought with it. Under Caligula also he found The Emperor Claudius. (Bust in the Vatican.) his safety consist in maintaining his reputation for incapacity, and he suffered himself to become the butt of court parasites and the subject of their practical jokes. The excitement of novelty, on his first accession to the throne, produced efforts of sagacity and prudence of which none who had previously known him believed him capable; and during the whole of his reign, too, we find judicious and useful enactments occasionally made, which would seem to show that he was not in reality so foolish and incompetent as historians have generally represented him. It is most probable, therefore, that the fatuity which characterizes some parts of his conduct was the result, not of natural imbecility, but of the early and unlimited indulgence of sensuality. Coin of Claudius. Claudius embellished Rome with many magnificent works; he made Mauritania a Roman province; his armies fought successfully against the Germans; and he himself triumphed magnificently in victories over the Britons, and obtained, together with his infant son, the surname of Britannicus. But in other respects he was wholly governed by worthless favourites, and especially by his empress, the profligate and abandoned Messalina (q.v.), whose cruelty and rapacity were as unbounded as her licentiousness. At her instigation it was but too common for the emperor to put to death, on false charges of conspiracy, some of the wealthiest of the nobles, and to confiscate their estates, with the money arising from which she openly pampered her numerous paramours. When the career of this guilty woman was terminated, Claudius was governed for a time by his freedman, Narcissus, and Pallas, another manumitted slave, until he took to wife his own niece, Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus, a woman of strong natural abilities, but of insatiable avarice, extreme ambition, and remorseless cruelty. Her influence over the feeble emperor was boundless. She prevailed on him at last to set aside his own son Britannicus, and to adopt her son, Domitius Ahenobarbus, by her former husband, giving him the name by which he is best known, Nero, and constituting him heir to the imperial throne. Claudius having afterwards shown a disposition to change the succession and restore it to Britannicus, fell a victim to the ambition of Agrippina, who caused him to be poisoned. A dish of mushrooms was prepared for the purpose, a kind of food of which the emperor was known to be especially fond, and the effects of the poison were hastened by the pretended remedies administered by Xenophon, the physician of the palace. It was given out that Claudius had suffered from indigestion, which his habitual gluttony rendered so frequent that it excited no surprise; and his death was concealed till Domitius Nero had secured the guards, and had quietly taken possession of the imperial authority. Claudius died in the sixty-fourth year of his age and the fourteenth of his reign, A.D. 54. His biography is to be found in the Lives of Suetonius. See BaringGould, The Tragedy of the Caesars, vol. i. (London, 1892).

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Galba in Wikipedia

Servius Sulpicius Galba (24 December 3 BC – 15 January 69), commonly known as Galba, was Roman Emperor for seven months from 68 to 69. Galba was the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, and made a bid for the throne during the rebellion of Julius Vindex. He was the first emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors. Origins and rise to power - He was born as Servius Sulpicius Galba near Terracina, "on the left as you go towards Fundi" in the words of Suetonius. Through his paternal grandfather ("more eminent for his learning than for his rank - for he did not advance beyond the grade of praetor" and who "published a voluminous and painstaking history", according to Suetonius), who predicted his rise to power (Suetonius, 4 ), he was descended from Servius Sulpicius Galba. Galba's father attained the consulship, and although he was short, hunchbacked and only an indifferent speaker, was an industrious pleader at the bar...

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Galba in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Servius Sulpicius, born in the reign of Augustus, of a patrician family. He served with distinction in Germany, and was afterwards proconsul, first in Africa, and subsequently in Hispania Tarraconensis, in which office he gained a reputation for justice and moderation. He was still in Spain when Iulius Vindex, the proconsul of Upper Gaul, rose against Nero. Galba joined Vindex, and Otho, governor of Lusitania, followed his example. The assembled multitudes saluted Galba as emperor and Augustus; but he declared that he was acting only as the lieutenant of the Senate and people of Rome, in order to put an end to the disgraceful tyranny of Nero. The Praetorian Guards soon after, having revolted against Nero, proclaimed Galba, and the Senate acknowledged him as emperor. Galba hastened from Spain to Rome, where he began by calling to account those favourites of Nero who had enriched themselves by proscriptions and confiscations and by the extraordinary prodigality of that emperor; but it was found that most of them had already dissipated their ill-gotten wealth. Galba, or, rather, the intimates who governed him, then proceeded against the purchasers of their property, and confiscations became again the order of the day. The new emperor, at the same time, exercised great parsimony in his administration, and endeavoured to enforce strict discipline among the soldiers, who had been used to the prodigality and license of the previous reign. Being past seventy years of age, Galba, on this and other accounts, soon became the object of popular dislike and ridicule, and revolts against him broke out in various quarters, several of which were put down and punished severely. Galba thought of strengthening himself by adopting Piso Licinianus, a young patrician of considerable personal merit, as Caesar and his successor; upon which Otho, who had expected to be the object of his choice, formed a conspiracy among the Guards, who proclaimed him emperor. Galba, unable to walk, caused himself to be carried in a litter, hoping to suppress the mutiny; but, at the appearance of Otho's armed partisans, his followers left him, and even the litter-bearers threw the old man down and ran away. Some of the legionaries came up and put Galba to death, after a reign of only seven months, counting from the time of Nero's death, A.D. 68. Galba was seventy-two years old when he was taken off. He was succeeded by Otho (Galba; Hist. i. 4 foll.; Dio Cass. lxiii. 29, lxiv. 1 foll.).

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Vitellius in Wikipedia

Aulus Vitellius (7/12/15/24 September 15 – 22 December 69), later Aulus Vitellius Germanicus, commonly known as Vitellius, was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69. Vitellius was acclaimed emperor following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Vitellius was the first to add the honorific cognomen Germanicus to his name instead of Caesar upon his accession; the latter name had fallen into disrepute in many quarters because of the actions of Nero. His claim to the throne was soon challenged by legions stationed in the eastern provinces, who proclaimed their commander Vespasian emperor instead. War ensued, leading to a crushing defeat for Vitellius at the Second Battle of Bedriacum in northern Italy. Once he realised his support was wavering, Vitellius prepared to abdicate in favour of Vespasian, but was executed in Rome by Vespasian's soldiers on December 22 of 69...

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Vitellius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Aulus, Roman emperor from January 2 to December 22, A.D. 69. He was the son of No. 1. He was consul during the first six months of 48, and his brother Lucius during the following six. He had some knowledge of letters and some eloquence. His vices made him a favourite of Tiberius, Gaius Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, who loaded him with favours. It caused great surprise, however, when Galba chose such a man to command the legions in Lower Germany, for he had little military talent. Both Upper and Lower Germany had been attached to Virginius Rufus, and disliked the rule of Galba; the two legions at Moguntiacum (Mayence) had not taken the oath of allegiance to him. Accordingly, they had already been disposed to find a nominee of their own, and when the news of Galba's death arrived, the legions of both Germanies combined to acknowledge Vitellius as Imperator, and he was proclaimed at Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) on the 2d of January, 69. His generals Fabius Valens and Caecina marched into Italy, defeated Otho's troops at the decisive battle of Betriacum, or Bedriacum, and thus secured for Vitellius the undisputed command of Italy. The soldiers of Otho, after his death, took the oath of fidelity to Vitellius. (See Otho.) Vitellius reached Rome in July. He disturbed no one in the enjoyment of what had been given by Nero, Galba, and Otho, nor did he confiscate any person's property; and though some of Otho's adherents were put to death, he let the next of kin take their possessions. Yet though he showed moderation in this part of his conduct, he showed none in his expenditure. He was a glutton and an epicure, and his chief amusement was the table, on which he spent enormous sums of money. Meantime Vespasian, who had at first taken the oath of allegiance to Vitellius, was proclaimed emperor at Alexandria on the 1st of July. Vespasian was speedily recognized by all the East; and the legions of Illyricum under Antonius Primus entered the north of Italy and declared for Vespasian. Vitellius despatched Caecina with a powerful force to oppose Primus; but Caecina was not faithful to his master. Primus defeated the Vitellians in two battles, and afterwards took and pillaged the city of Cremona. Primus then marched upon Rome, and forced his way into the city, after much fighting. Vitellius was seized in the palace, led through the streets with every circumstance of ignominy, and dragged to the Gemoniae Scalae, where he was killed with repeated blows. His head was carried about Rome, and his body was thrown into the Tiber; but it was afterwards buried by his wife, Galeria Fundana. A few days before the death of Vitellius, the Capitol had been burned in the assault made by his soldiers upon this building, where Flavius Sabinus, the brother of the emperor Vespasian, had taken refuge ( Hist. ii. Hist., iii.; Vitell.; Dio Cass. lxv.).

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Vespasian in Wikipedia

Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commonly known as Vespasian (17 November 9 – 23 June 79),[1][2] was Roman Emperor from 69 to 79. Vespasian was the founder of the Flavian dynasty which ruled the empire for a quarter century. Vespasian was descended from a family of equestrians which rose into the senatorial rank under the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Although he attained the standard succession of public offices, holding the consulship in 51, Vespasian became more reputed as a successful military commander, participating in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43[3], and subjugating Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66.[4] While Vespasian was preparing to besiege the city of Jerusalem during the latter campaign, emperor Nero committed suicide, plunging the empire into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After the emperors Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. In response, the armies in Egypt and Judaea declared Vespasian emperor on July 1.[5] In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian gained control of Egypt. On 20 December, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Roman Senate. Little factual information survives about Vespasian's government during the ten years he was emperor. His reign is best known for financial reforms following the demise of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, the successful campaign against Judaea, and several ambitious construction projects such as the Colosseum. Upon his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus...

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Vespasi&#257;nus, Titus Flavius Sab&#299;nus in Harpers Dictionary

A Roman emperor from A.D. 70 to A.D. 79. He was born in the Sabine country on the 17th of November, A.D. 9. His father was a man of mean condition, of Reaté, in the country of the Sabini. His mother, Vespasia Polla, was the daughter of a praefectus castrorum, and the sister of a Roman senator. She was left a widow with two sons, Flavius Sabinus and Vespasian. Vespasian served as military tribune in Thrace, and was quaestor in Crete and Cyrené. He was afterwards aedile and praetor. About this time he married Flavia Domitilla, the daughter of a Roman eques, by whom he had two sons, both of whom succeeded him. In the reign of Claudius he was sent into Germany as legatus legionis, and in 43 he held the same command in Britain, and reduced Vectis (Isle of Wight). He was consul in 51, and proconsul of Africa under Nero. He was at this time very poor, and was accused of getting money by dishonourable means; but he had a great military reputation, and was liked by the soldiers. Nero afterwards sent him to the East (A.D. 66), to conduct the war against the Jews. His conduct of the Jewish War had raised his reputation, when the war broke out between Otho and Vitellius after the death of Galba. He was proclaimed emperor at Alexandria on the 1st of July, 69, and soon after all through the East. He reached Rome in the following year (A.D. 70), leaving his son Titus to continue the war against the Jews. Titus took Jerusalem after a siege of five months; and a formidable insurrection of the Batavi, headed by Civilis, was put down about the same period. Vespasian, on his arrival at Rome, worked with great industry to restore order in the city and in the Empire. He disbanded some of the mutinous soldiers of Vitellius, and maintained discipline among his own. He co-operated in a friendly manner with the Senate in the public administration. The simplicity and frugality of his mode of life formed a striking contrast with the profusion and luxury of some of his predecessors, and his example is said to have done more to reform the morals of Rome than all the laws which had ever been enacted. He lived more like a private person than a man who possessed supreme power: he was affable and easy of access to all persons. The personal anecdotes of such a man are some of the most instructive records of his reign. He was never ashamed of the meanness of his origin, and ridiculed all attempts to make out for him a distinguished genealogy. When Vologeses, the Parthian king, addressed to him a letter commencing in these terms, "Arsaces, king of kings, to Flavius Vespasianus," the answer began, "Flavius Vespasianus to Arsaces, king of kings." If it be true, as it is recorded, that he was not annoyed at satire or ridicule, he exhibited an elevation of character almost unparalleled in one who filled so exalted a station. He knew the evil character of his son Domitian, and as long as he lived he kept him under proper restraint. The stories that are told of his avarice and of his modes of raising money, if true, detract from the dignity of his character; and it seems that he had a taste for petty saving and coarse humour. Yet it is admitted that he was liberal in all his expenditure for purposes of public utility. In 71 Titus returned to Rome, and both father and son triumphed together on account of the conquest of the Jews. The reign of Vespasian was marked by the conquest of North Wales and the island of Anglesey by Agricola, who was sent into Britain in 78. Vespasian also busied himself in securing the German frontier: he fortified the Agri Decumates and strengthened the defences of the Limes Germanicus. (See Germania.) In Italy he reorganized the Praetorian Guard, forming one of nine cohorts composed of Italians only. His financial management was marked by great economy; but he was the author of some remarkable public works at Rome, the building of the magnificent Temple of Peace, and the rebuilding of the Temple of Iupiter Capitolinus. In the summer of 79, Vespasian, whose health was failing, went to spend some time at his paternal house in the mountains of the Sabini, but derived no benefit from treatment. He still attended to business, just as if he had been in perfect health, and, on feeling the approach of death, he said that an emperor should die standing; and in fact he did die in this attitude, on the 24th of June, 79, being sixty-nine years of age. His last words were characteristic of his somewhat cynical humour, "Methinks I am becoming a god" (Ut puto, deus fio) (Suet. Vesp. 23; Dio Cass. cxvi.). See the account of Vespasian in Merivale's History of the Romans under the Empire (1865).

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Domitian in Wikipedia

Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was Roman Emperor from 81 to 96. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty. Domitian's youth and early career were largely spent in the shadow of his brother Titus, who gained military renown during the First Jewish-Roman War. This situation continued under the rule of his father Vespasian, who became emperor in 69 following the civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. While Titus effectually reigned as co-emperor with his father, Domitian was left with honours but no responsibilities. Vespasian died in 79 and was succeeded by Titus, whose own reign came to an unexpected end when he was struck by a fatal illness in 81. The following day Domitian was declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard, commencing a reign which lasted fifteen years - longer than any man who had governed Rome since Tiberius.[1] As emperor, Domitian strengthened the economy by revaluing the Roman coinage, expanded the border defenses of the empire, and initiated a massive building program to restore the damaged city of Rome. Significant wars were fought in Britain, where his general Agricola attempted to conquer Scotland, and in Dacia, where Domitian was unable to procure a decisive victory against king Decebalus. Domitian's government exhibited totalitarian characteristics; he saw himself as the new Augustus, an enlightened despot destined to guide the Roman Empire into a new era of brilliance. Religious, military, and cultural propaganda fostered a cult of personality, and by nominating himself perpetual censor, he sought to control public and private morals. As a consequence, Domitian was popular with the people and army but considered a tyrant by members of the Roman Senate...

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Domiti&#257;nus, Titus Flavius in Harpers Dictionary

The second son of Vespasian, born at Rome A.D. 51. Vespasian, well aware of his natural disposition, reposed no confidence in him during his whole reign. Domitian, however, accompanied his father and his brother Titus in their triumph at the close of the Jewish War. Upon the death of Vespasian he endeavoured to foment troubles in the Empire and share the succession with Titus. The latter, however, forgave him, treated him with great kindness, and made him his colleague in the consulship, always declaring to him that he intended him for his successor. Domitian is accused of hastening the death of Titus by poison-a charge, however, not warranted by the circumstances of Titus's death. The beginning of his reign was marked by moderation and a display of justice bordering upon severity. His affected great zeal for the reformation of public morals, and punished with death several persons guilty of adultery as well as some vestals who had broken their vows. He completed several splendid buildings begun by Titus-among others an odeum, or theatre for musical performances. The most important event of his reign was the conquest of Britain by Agricola, but Domitian grew jealous of that great commander's reputation and recalled him to Rome. His suspicious temper and his pusillanimity made him afraid of every man who was distinguished either by birth and connections or by merit and popularity, and he mercilessly sacrificed many to his fears, while his avarice led him to put to death a number of wealthy persons for the sake of their property. The usual pretext for these murders was the charge of conspiracy or treason, and thus a numerous race of informers was created and maintained by this system of spoliation. His cruelty was united to a deep dissimulation, and in this particular he resembled Tiberius rather than Caligula or Nero. He either put to death or drove away from Rome the philosophers and men of letters; Epictetus was one of the exiled. He found, however, some flatterers among the poets, such as Martial, Silius Italicus, and Statius. The latter dedicated to him his Thebaïs and Achilleïs and commemorated the events of his reign in his Silvae. But, in reality, the reign of Domitian was other than favourable to the Roman arms, except in Britain. In Moesia and Dacia, in Germany and Pannonia, his armies were defeated and whole provinces lost (Agric.41). Domitian himself went twice into Moesia to oppose the Dacians, but, after several defeats, concluded a disgraceful peace with their king Decebalus, whom he acknowledged as sovereign, and to whom he agreed to pay tribute, which was afterwards discontinued by Trajan. Yet Domitian made a pompous report of his victories to the Senate and assumed the honours of a triumph. In the same manner he triumphed over the Cotti and the Sarmatians, which made Pliny the Younger say that the triumphs of Domitian were always evidence of some advantages gained by the enemies of Rome. In A.D. 95, Domitian assumed the consulship for the seventeenth time, together with Flavius Clemens, who had married Domitilla, a relative of the emperor. In that year a persecution of the Christians is recorded in the history of the Church, but it seems that it was not directed particularly against them, but against the Jews, with whom the Christians were often confounded by the Romans. Flavius Clemens and his wife were among the victims. In the following year, A.D. 96, a conspiracy was formed against Domitian among the officers of his guards and several of his intimate friends, and his wife, the infamous Domitilla, herself is said to have participated in it. The immediate cause of it was his increasing suspicion, which threatened the life of every one around him, and which is said to have been stimulated by the predictions of astrologers and soothsayers, whom he was very ready to consult. He was killed in his apartments by several of the conspirators, after struggling with them for some time, in his forty-fifth year and in the fifteenth of his reign. On the news of his death the Senate assembled and elected M. Cocceius Nerva emperor. The character of Domitian is represented by all ancient historians in the darkest colours, as being a compound of timidity and cruelty, of dissimulation and arrogance, of self-indulgence and stern severity towards others. He gave himself up to every excess and plunged into the most degrading vices. Conceiving at last the idea of arrogating divine honours to himself, he assumed the titles of Lord and God and claimed to be a son of Minerva. Soon after he had succeeded to the government he indulged in that love of solitude which pride and fear combined to render in a very short time the most confirmed of all his habits. In the beginning of his reign, says his biographer, he accustomed himself to spend several hours every day in the strictest privacy, employed frequently in nothing else than in catching flies and piercing them with a sharp instrument. Hence the well-known remark made by Vibius Crispus, who, when asked whether there was any one with the emperor, replied, "No, not even a fly." Domitian took a delight in inspiring others with terror, and Dio Cassius tells of a singular banquet, to which he invited the principal members of the Senate and equestrian order, where everything wore the appearance of an intended execution. He once even convened the Senate to determine in what way a large turbot should be cooked, whether whole or divided (Juv. iv.). The Senate, after his death, issued a decree that his name should be struck out of the Roman annals and obliterated from every public monument. His career is sketched in detail by Imhoff (1857).

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Trajan in Wikipedia

Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus (18 September 53 – 9 August 117), commonly known as Trajan, was Roman Emperor from 98 to 117. Born into a non-patrician family in the province of Hispania Baetica,[1] Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a general in the Roman army along the German frontier, Trajan successfully put down the revolt of Antonius Saturninus in 89. In September 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva, an old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on 27 January 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program which reshaped the city of Rome and left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's Column. Early in his reign he annexed the Nabataean kingdom, creating the province of Arabia Petraea. His conquest of Dacia enriched the empire greatly - the new province possessed many valuable gold mines. His war against the Parthian Empire ended with the sack of the capital Ctesiphon and the annexation of Armenia and Mesopotamia. His campaigns expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest territorial extent. In late 117 while sailing back to Rome, Trajan fell ill and died of a stroke in the city of Selinus. He was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan's Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son Hadrian. As an emperor, Trajan's reputation has endured - he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived nineteen centuries. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the prayer felicior Augusto, melior Traiano, meaning "may he be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan". Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan, while the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors, of which Trajan was the second...

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Trai&#257;nus, M. Ulpius in Harpers Dictionary

A Roman emperor (A.D. 98-117), born at Italica, near Seville, in Spain, September 18th, A.D. 52 or 53. He was trained to arms, and, after ten years' service as military tribune, rose through the lower offices to the rank of praetor in 85, served with distinction in the East and in Germany, to which country he was sent from Spain by Domitian on the occasion of the revolt of Antonius Saturninus, legatus, with the Spanish legion Adiutrix under his command. He was consul in 91, and at the close of 97 he was adopted by the emperor Nerva , who gave him the rank of Caesar and the names of Nerva and Germanicus, and shortly after the title of Imperator, and the tribunicia potestas. His style and title after his elevation to the imperial dignity were Imperātor Caesar Traiānus Augustus. He was the first Roman emperor who was born out of Italy. Nerva died in January, 98, and was succeeded by Trajan, who was then at Colonia (Cologne). His accession was hailed with joy, and he did not disappoint the expectations of the people. He was a great soldier both in the field and in military organization; and he was scarely less great as an administrator. His finances were prosperous, partly from his good economy, though partly also from the good fortune of certain Dacian mining operations. Personally, he was strong and healthy, of a majestic appearance, laborious, and inured to fatigue. Though not a man of letters, he had good sense, a knowledge of the world, and a sound judgment. His mode of living was very simple, and in campaigns he shared all the sufferings and privations of the soldiers, by whom he was both loved and feared. He was a friend to justice, and had a sincere desire for the happiness of the people. His career led to a proverbial expression which after this time was formulated in a wish to each new emperor that in his reign he might be even "more fortunate than Augustus, and better than Trajan" (Augusto felicior, melior Traiano). Trajan did not return to Rome for some months, being employed in settling the frontiers on the Rhine and the Danube. Especially, he completed the fortifications of the Rhine and of the Agri Decumates (q.v.), founded a new military station, Colonia Traiana, near Vetera, and constructed new roads by the Rhine and by the Danube, the latter work in preparation for the Dacian War. In 99 he proceeded to Rome, which he entered on foot, accompanied by his wife, Pompeia Plotina. In March, A.D. 101, Trajan left Rome for his campaign against the Daci. Decebalus, king of the Daci, had compelled Domitian to purchase peace by an annual payment of money; and Trajan determined on hostilities, which should settle matters so as to secure the peace of the frontier. This war employed Trajan between two and three years, but it ended with the defeat of Decebalus, who sued for peace at the feet of the Roman emperor. Trajan assumed the name of Dacius, and entered Rome in triumph (103 A.D.). In the following year (104 A.D.) Trajan commenced his second Dacian war against Decebalus, who had accepted the Roman terms merely to gain time, and now showed his intentions by building forts, collecting war material, and welcoming Roman deserters. Decebalus was completely defeated, and put an end to his life (106 A.D.). In the course of this war Trajan built (105 A.D.) a permanent bridge across the Danube at the modern Turn Severin. The piers were of stone and of an enormous size, but the arches were of wood. (See Pons.) After the death of Decebalus, Dacia was reduced to the form of a Roman province, strong forts were built in various places, and Roman colonies were planted. (See Dacia.) The Column of Trajan at Rome was erected to commemorate his Dacian victories. In its sculptured illustrations of the campaign it has an historical value which has been well compared to that of the Bayeux Tapestry. (See Columna.) On his return Trajan had a triumph, and he exhibited games to the people for 123 days. It is said that 11,000 animals were slaughtered during these amusements, and that 10,000 gladiators fought in the arena. About this time Arabia Petraea was subjected to the Empire by A. Cornelius Palma, the governor of Syria, and an Indian embassy came to Rome. (See Arabia.) The dominions of Agrippa II., who died A.D. 100, were also added to the province of Syria. In 114 Trajan left Rome to make war on the Armenians and the Parthians, the cause of the war being that the Parthian king, Chosroes, had deposed from the throne of Armenia Axidares, the Roman nominee. Trajan spent the winter of 114 at Antioch, and in the following year he invaded the Parthian dominions. The most striking and brilliant success attended his arms. In the course of two campaigns (115-116), he conquered the greater part of the Parthian Empire, and took the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. In 116 he descended the Tigris and entered the Erythraean Sea (Persian Gulf). While he was thus engaged the Parthians rose against the Romans, but were again subdued by the generals of Trajan, Erucius Clarus, who reduced Babylonia and burned Seleucia, and Lucius Quietus, who reduced Mesopotamia. On his return to Ctesiphon, Trajan determined to give the Parthians a king, and placed the diadem on the head of Parthamaspates, son of Chosroes. In 117 Trajan fell ill, and as his complaint grew worse he set out for Italy. He lived to reach Selinus in Cilicia, afterwards called Traianopolis, where he died in August, 117, after a reign of nineteen years, six months, and fifteen days (C. I. L. vi. 1884). His ashes were taken to Rome in a golden urn, carried in triumphal procession, and deposited under the column which bears his name. He left no children, and he was succeeded by Hadrian. (See Hadrianus.) Trajan constructed several great roads in the provinces and in Italy: among them was the road across the Pomptine Marshes, which he constructed with magnificent bridges over the streams. At Ostia he built a large new basin. At Rome he constructed the aqueduct called by his name, built a theatre in the Campus Martius, and, above all, made the Forum Traianum, with its basilicas and libraries, and his column in the centre. See the account of Trajan by Dierauer in vol. i. of Büdinger's Untersuchungen (1868), that by De la Berge (1877), and in Schiller's Geschichte der röm. Kaiserzeit (Gotha, 1883).

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Commodus in Wikipedia

Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (31 August 161 – 31 December 192) was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180. His name changed throughout his reign; see Changes of name for earlier and later forms. His accession as emperor was the first time a son had succeeded his father since Titus succeeded Vespasian in 79. Commodus was the first emperor "born to the purple"; i.e., born during his father's reign. Early life and rise to power (161–180) Early life - Commodus was born as Lucius Aurelius Commodus in Lanuvium, near Rome, the son of the reigning emperor, Marcus Aurelius and first cousin Faustina the Younger. He had an elder twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, who died in 165. On 12 October 166, Commodus was made Caesar together with his younger brother, Marcus Annius Verus; the latter died in 169, having failed to recover from an operation, which left Commodus as Marcus Aurelius's sole surviving son. He was looked after by his father's physician, Galen, in order to keep him healthy and alive. Galen treated many of Commodus's common illnesses...

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Comm&#335;dus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Commŏdus, L. Aurelius Antonīnus The son and successor of M. Aurelius Antoninus, who ascended the imperial throne A.D. 180. The reign of this prince is a scene of guilt and misery, which the historian is glad to dismiss with brevity. He appears, indeed, to have inherited all the vices of his mother, Faustina; and his father, in selecting him for his successor, allowed the feelings of the parent to triumph over the wisdom of the magistrate. He had accompanied his father on the expedition against the Marcomanni and the Quadi, but no sooner was Aurelius dead than his son became anxious to proceed to Rome, and soon concluded a hasty and disgraceful peace with the barbarians whom his father had been on the point of completely subjugating when he was cut off by disease. Notwithstanding the care which Aurelius had bestowed on his education, Commodus was ignorant to an extreme degree, having neither abilities nor inclination for profiting by the paternal example and instruction. On his return to Rome he speedily showed the bias of his natural disposition, giving himself up to unrestrained indulgence in the grossest vices. That he might do so without impediment, he intrusted all power to Perennis, praefect of the Praetorian Guard, a man of stern and cruel temper, who was at last slain by the soldiers for his severity. A conspiracy against the life of Commodus having failed, it was followed by a long succession of judicial murders to gratify the vengeance of the cowardly and vindictive tyrant. He was next threatened by a new danger: disaffection had spread over the legions; and an attempt of Maternus, a private soldier, who headed a band of deserters and projected the assassination of Commodus during the celebration of the festival of Cybelé, was so ably conceived that it must have been successful but for the treachery of an accomplice. But neither duty nor danger could draw Commodus from the sports of gladiators or the pleasures of debauchery. Cleander, a Phrygian slave, soon succeeded to the place and influence of Perennis, and for three years the Empire groaned beneath his cruelty and rapacity. At length a new insurrection burst forth, which nothing could allay, the praetorian cavalry being defeated in the streets by the populace, until the unworthy favourite was, by the emperor's command, delivered to the insurgents. In the meantime, Commodus was indulging his base tastes and appetites, not only by gross sensuality, but by attempting to rival the gladiators. Being a very skilful archer and of great personal strength, he delighted in killing wild beasts in the amphitheatre, and thus pretending to rival the prowess of Hercules. In the gladiatorial contests, he publicly engaged so often that he was the conqueror in 735 combats. Though luxurious in his dress, frequently resorting to the baths eight times in the day, scattering gold dust in his hair, and, from the fear of admitting the approach of a razor in the hand of another, singeing off his beard, he was especially proud of exhibitions of personal strength, and frequently, in the garb of a priest, butchered victims with his own hands. Among the flatteries of the obsequious Senate none pleased him more than the vote which styled him the "Hercules of Rome," not even that which decreed to him the titles of Pius and Felix, or which offered to abolish the name of the Eternal City and substitute for it the title Colonia Commodiana. After thirteen years of unmitigated oppression, his favourite, Marcia, ultimately became the instrument by which the Roman world was delivered from its odious master. She discovered, from some private notes of Commodus, that herself, Laetus the praetorian praefect, and Eclectus the chamberlain, were on the list devoted to death. A conspiracy was immediately formed, Marcia administered poison to the emperor, and, lest the measure should not prove effectual, the deed was completed by suffocation, in A.D. 192. The life of Commodus has come down to us, written by Lampridius, in the Historia Augusta.

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Didius Julianus in Wikipedia

Marcus Didius Severus Julianus (30 January 133 or 2 February 137 – 1 June 193) was Roman Emperor for three months during the year 193. He ascended the throne after buying it from the Praetorian Guard, who had assassinated his predecessor Pertinax. This led to the Roman Civil War of 193–197. Julianus was ousted and sentenced to death by his successor, Septimius Severus. Early life - Julianus was born to Quintus Petronius Didius Severus and Aemilia Clara.[1] Julianus's father came from a prominent family in Mediolanum (Milan) and his mother was an African woman, of Roman descent. Clara came from a family of consular rank. His brothers were Didius Proculus and Didius Nummius Albinus.[1] His date of birth is given as January 30, 133 by Cassius Dio[2] and February 2, 137 by the Historia Augusta.[3] Didius Julianus was raised by Domitia Lucilla, mother of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.[4] With Domitia's help, he was appointed at a very early age to the vigintivirate, the first step towards public distinction.[5] He married a Roman woman called Manlia Scantilla and about 153, Scantilla bore him a daughter and only child Didia Clara...

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Pescennius Niger in Wikipedia

Gaius Pescennius Niger (c. 135~140–194) was a Roman usurper from 193 to 194 during the Year of the Five Emperors. Niger was born of an old Italian equestrian family.[1] As a usurper - Niger was a governor of Syria who was proclaimed emperor by the eastern legions after the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning off of the imperial title to Didius Julianus. Among the provinces that fell under his direct control was Aegyptus, and he also enjoyed support from the government of Asia. Although these lands contained great wealth, another rebel general, Septimius Severus, succeeding in taking Rome first, and he then marched east to confront Niger. Niger was defeated at Cyzicus and Nicea (193) and then, definitively, at Issus (194); forced to retreat to Antioch, Niger was killed while attempting to flee to Parthia. The name "Niger" means "black", which incidentally, contrasts him with one of his rivals for the throne in 194 AD, Clodius Albinus, whose name means "white". As the city of Byzantium had supported Pescennius Niger, it was besieged and sacked by Septimus Severus, before he rebuilt parts of it.

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Clodius Albinus in Wikipedia

Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus (ca. 150 – February 19, 197) was a Roman usurper proclaimed emperor by the legions in Britain and Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) upon the murder of Pertinax in 193.[1] Life - Albinus was born into an aristocratic family at Hadrumetum in Africa. According to his father, he received the name of Albinus because of the extraordinary whiteness of his body.[2] Showing great disposition for a military life, he entered the army at an early age and served with great distinction, especially during the rebellion of Avidius Cassius against the emperor Marcus Aurelius in 175. His merits were acknowledged by the emperor in two letters in which he calls Albinus an African, who resembled his countrymen but little, and who was praiseworthy for his military experience and the gravity of his character.[2] The emperor likewise declared that without Albinus the legions (in Bithynia) would have gone over to Avidius Cassius, and that he intended to have him chosen consul...

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Macrinus in Wikipedia

Marcus Opellius Macrinus (ca. 165 – June 218), commonly known as Macrinus, was Roman Emperor from 217 to 218. Macrinus was of Berber descent and the first emperor to become so without membership in the senatorial class.[1] Background and career Born in Caesarea (modern Cherchell, Algeria) in the Roman province of Mauretania to an equestrian family, Macrinus received an education which allowed him to ascend to the Roman political class. Over the years he earned a reputation as a skilled lawyer. Under the emperor Septimius Severus he became an important bureaucrat. Severus' successor Caracalla appointed him prefect of the Praetorian guard. While Macrinus likely enjoyed the trust of Caracalla, this may have changed when, according to tradition, he was prophesied to depose and succeed the emperor. Rumors spread regarding Macrinus' alleged desire to take the throne for himself. Given Caracalla's tendency towards murdering political opponents, Macrinus probably feared for his own safety should the emperor become aware of this prophecy. According to Dio, Caracalla had already taken the step of re-assigning members of Macrinus' staff...

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Macr&#299;nus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A Roman emperor from April, A.D. 217, to June 218. Born of humble parentage at the Mauretanian Caesarea, he became praetorian praefect under Caracalla, whom he accompanied against the Parthians, and whose death he procured, in order that he might become his successor. As emperor he won considerable popularity by the remission of certain oppressive taxes, but suffering at Nisibis a defeat at the hands of the Parthians, and losing the love of his soldiers by his severe discipline, he was attacked by the forces who had proclaimed Elagabalus as emperor and defeated by them. Escaping in disguise, he was taken prisoner in Chalcedon and put to death. His life has come down to us written by Capitolinus.

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Alexander Severus in Wikipedia

Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander (1 October 208 – 18 March 235), commonly known as Alexander Severus, was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. He was the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. Alexander Severus succeeded his cousin Elagabalus upon the latter's assassination in 222, and was ultimately assassinated himself, marking the epoch event for the Crisis of the Third Century - nearly fifty years of civil wars, foreign invasion, and collapse of the monetary economy. Alexander Severus was the heir apparent to his cousin, the eighteen-year-old Emperor who had been murdered along with his mother by his own guards-and as a mark of contempt, had their remains cast into the Tiber river. He and his cousin were both grandsons of the influential and powerful Julia Maesa, who had arranged for Elagabalus' acclamation as emperor by the famed Third Gallic Legion. A rumor of Alexander's death circulated, triggering the assassination of Elagabalus. As emperor, Alexander's peace time reign was prosperous. In military conflict against the rising Sassanid Empire, there are mixed accounts, though the Sassanid threat was checked. However, when campaigning against Germanic tribes of Germania, Alexander Severus apparently alienated his legions by trying diplomacy and bribery, and they assassinated him...

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Sev&#275;rus, Marcus Aurelius Alexander in Harpers Dictionary

, usually called Alexander Sevērus. A Roman emperor (A.D. 222-235), the son of Gessius Marcianus and Iulia Mamaea, and first cousin of Elagabalus. He was born at Arcé, in Phœnicia, in the temple of Alexander the Great, to which his parents had repaired for the celebration of a festival, on the 1st of October, A.D. 205. His original name appears to have been Alexianus Bassiānus, the latter appellation having been derived from his maternal grandfather. Upon the elevation of Elagabalus, he accompanied his mother and the court to Rome, a report having been spread abroad that he also, as well as the emperor, was the son of Caracalla. In 221 he was adopted by Elagabalus and created Caesar. The names Alexianus and Bassianus were laid aside, and those of M. Aurelius Alexander substituted; M. Aurelius in virtue of his adoption; Alexander in consequence, as was asserted, of a direct revelation on the part of the Syrian god. On the death of Elagabalus, on the 11th of March, A.D. 222, Alexander ascended the throne, adding Severus to his other designations, in order to mark more explicitly the descent which he claimed from the father of Caracalla. After reigning in peace some years, during which he reformed many abuses in the State, he was involved in a war with Artaxerxes, king of Persia, who had lately founded the new Empire of the Sassanidae on the ruins of the Parthian monarchy. Alexander gained a great victory over Artaxerxes in 232; but he was unable to prosecute his advantage in consequence of intelligence having reached him of a great movement among the German tribes. He celebrated a triumph at Rome in 233, and in the following year (234 A.D.) set out for Gaul, which the Germans were devastating; but before he had made any progress in the campaign, he was waylaid by a small band of mutinous soldiers, instigated, it is said, by Maximinus, and slain, along with his mother, in the early part of 235, in the thirtieth year of his age and the fourteenth of his reign. Alexander Severus was distinguished by justice, wisdom, and clemency in all public transactions, and by the simplicity and purity of his private life. His life is written by Lampridius. See Porrath, Der Kaiser Alexander Severus (1876).

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Gordian II in Wikipedia

Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (c. 192 – April 12, 238), commonly known as Gordian II, was Roman Emperor for one month with his father Gordian I in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Gordian's mother may be the granddaughter of Greek Sophist, consul and tutor Herodes Atticus. His younger sister was Antonia Gordiana, who was the mother of Emperor Gordian III. The official history of the Roman emperors provides the only account of Gordian's early career. Since his memory was cherished after his death, the information is questionable and remains unproven. According to this source, Gordian served as quaestor in Elagabalus' reign and as praetor and consul suffect with Alexander Severus as emperor. In 237, Gordian went to the Africa Roman province under his father's command as a governor. Gordian II on a coin, celebrating his military prowess Early in 235, emperor Alexander Severus and his mother Julia Avita Mamaea were assassinated by mutinous troops in Germania Inferior. The leader of the rebellion, Maximinus Thrax, became emperor, despite his popular background and the disapproval of the Roman Senate. Pushed by the local politicians, Gordian's father began a revolt against Maximinus in 238 and became Augustus on March 22. Due to Gordian I's advanced age, the younger Gordian was attached to the imperial throne and acclaimed Augustus too. Father and son saw their pretensions ratified both by the senate and most of the other provinces, due to Maximinus' unpopularity. Opposition would come from the neighbouring province of Numidia. Capelianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax, renewed his alliance to the former emperor and invaded Africa province with the only legion stationing in the region, III Augusta, and other veteran units. Gordian II, at the head of a militia army of untrained soldiers, lost the Battle of Carthage and was killed, and Gordian I took his own life. This first rebellion against Maximinus Thrax was unsuccessful but, by the end of 238, Gordian II's nephew would be recognised emperor by the whole Roman world as Gordian III.

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Gordianus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

M. Antonius Africanus, son of Gordianus, was instructed by Serenus Samonicus, who left him his library, which consisted of 62,000 volumes. He was well informed, and wrote several works, but was rather too fond of pleasure, which latter circumstance seems to have recommended him to the favour of the emperor Elagabalus. Alexander Severus advanced him subsequently to the consulship. He afterwards passed into Africa as lieutenant to his father, and, when the latter was elevated to the throne, shared that dignity with him. But, after a reign of not quite two months, he fell in battle, at the age of forty-six, against Capellianus, a partisan of Maximinus. (See Gordianus, 1.)

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Balbinus in Wikipedia

Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus (c. 165 – 29 July 238) was Roman Emperor with Pupienus for three months in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Origins and career -- Not much is known about Balbinus before his elevation to emperor. It has been conjectured that he descended from Publius Coelius Balbinus Vibullius Pius, the consul ordinarius of 136 or 137, and wife Aquilia. If this were true, he was also related to the family of Q. Pompeius Falco, which supplied many politicians of consular rank throughout the 3rd century, and to the 1st-century politician, engineer and author Julius Frontinus, as well as a descendant of a first cousin of Trajan. He was a patrician from birth, and was the son (either by birth or adoption) of ... Caelius Calvinus, who was legate of Cappadocia in 184. According to Herodian he had governed provinces, but the list of seven provinces given in the Historia Augusta, as well as the statement that Balbinus had been both Proconsul of Asia and of Africa, are likely to be mere invention. He had certainly been twice consul; his first consulate is not certainly known but is believed to have been about 203 or in July 211; he was consul for the second time in 213 as colleague of Caracalla, which suggests he enjoyed that emperor's favour. Reign -- According to Edward Gibbon (drawing upon the narratives of Herodian and the Historia Augusta): Balbinus was an admired orator, a poet of distinguished fame, and a wise magistrate, who had exercised with innocence and applause the civil jurisdiction in almost all the interior provinces of the empire. His birth was noble, his fortune affluent, his manners liberal and affable. In him, the love of pleasure was corrected by a sense of dignity, nor had the habits of ease deprived him of a capacity for business. (...) The two colleagues [Pupienus and Balbinus] had both been consul (Balbinus had twice enjoyed that honourable office), both had been named among the twenty lieutenants of the senate; and, since the one was sixty and the other seventy-four years old, they had both attained the full maturity of age and experience.[1] When the Gordians were proclaimed Emperors in Africa, the Senate appointed a committee of twenty men, including Balbinus, to co-ordinate operations against Maximinus Thrax. On the news of the Gordians' defeat, the Senate met in closed session in the Temple of Jupiter and voted Pupienus and Balbinus as co-emperors, though they were soon forced to co-opt the child Gordian III as a colleague. Balbinus was probably in his early seventies: his qualifications for rule are unknown, except presumably that he was a senior senator, rich and well-connected. While Pupienus marched to Ravenna, where he oversaw the campaign against Maximinus, Balbinus remained in Rome, but failed to keep public order. The sources suggest that after Pupienus's victorious return following Maximinus' death, Balbinus suspected Pupienus of wanting to supplant him, and they were soon living in different parts of the Imperial palace, where they were later assassinated by disaffected elements of the Praetorian Guard. Sarcophagus -- The 'sarcophagus of Balbinus' has earned this Emperor a niche in the history of Roman Imperial art. When presumably holding the title of Emperor, Balbinus had a marble sarcophagus made for himself and his wife (whose name is unknown). Discovered in fragments near the Via Appia and restored, this is the only example of a Roman Imperial sarcophagus of this type to have survived. On the lid are reclining figures of Balbinus and his wife, the figure of the Emperor also being a fine portrait of him. Although in accounts of their joint reign Balbinus is emphasized as the civilian as against Pupienus the military man, on the side of the sarcophagus he is portrayed in full military dress.

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Balb&#299;nus, Dec&#301;mus Caelius in Harpers Dictionary

A Roman who was proclaimed emperor by the Senate with Pupienus, on the death of the Gordians, A.D. 237. He was murdered by the soldiery after a year's reign.

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Pupienus in Wikipedia

Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus (born c. 164/178 – 29 July 238) was Roman Emperor with Balbinus for three months in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. The sources for this period are scant, and thus knowledge of the emperor limited. In most contemporary texts Pupienus is referred to, incorrectly, as 'Maximus' rather than by his family name of Pupienus. Origins, career and family - The Historia Augusta, whose testimony is not to be trusted unreservedly, paints Pupienus as an example of ascension in the Roman hierarchical system due to military success. It claims he was the son of a blacksmith, who started his career as a Centurio primus pilus and became a Tribunus Militum, and then Praetor. In truth, he was the son of Marcus Pupienus Maximus, a Senator, and wife Clodia Pulchra.[citation needed] Probably his father wasn't yet a Senator when he started his career. It further claims he was adopted by one Pescennia Marcellina (otherwise unknown), and served as Proconsul of Bithynia et Pontus, then of Achaea, and then Gallia Narbonensis before serving as a special Legatus in Illyricum and subsequently governing one of the German provinces. It is likely most of this is fiction: only the last post – probably the troublesome Germania Inferior – is independently attested (by Herodian). It was presumably then that Pupienus gained the personal bodyguard of Germans which is mentioned by Herodian as remaining with him when he became Emperor. What is certain is that Pupienus, though he may not have been born a Patrician, was a leading member of the senatorial class during the latter half of the Severan dynasty. He may have come from the Etruscan city of Volterra, where inscriptions relating to his daughter, who carried the highly aristocratic name Pupiena Sextia Paulina Cethegilla, wife of Marcus Ulpius Eubiotus Leurus, show that Pupienus (and his father, needed not have been the blacksmith claimed by the Historia Augusta) married into the ancient Roman noble family of the Sextii, with his second cousin Sextia Cethegilla, born c. 170, daughter of Titus Sextius Africanus and wife Cornelia. He was twice Consul – the date of his first consulship is unknown, but was probably about 213, maybe as a Suffectus in July 205 or Ordinarius in 217. His second consulship was in 234 and in that year or c. 230 he was Praefectus Urbi of Rome and gained a reputation for severity, to the extent that he became unpopular with the Roman mob. In addition to his daughter, Pupienus had two sons, Tiberius Clodius Pupienus Pulcher Maximus, who was a Consul Suffectus about 224 or 226 or July 235, and Marcus Pupienus Africanus Maximus, Consul Ordinarius in 236 as colleague of the Emperor Maximinus Thrax. The second consulship, the city prefecture, and the son as consul of the year with the reigning Emperor, are all signs that the family was influential and in high favour. Evidently they owned property in Tibur outside Rome, where Pupienus Pulcher Maximus was a Patron of the town. Reign - According to Edward Gibbon (drawing on the narratives of Herodian and the Historia Augusta): The mind of Maximus [Pupienus] was formed in a rougher mould [than that of Balbinus]. By his valour and abilities he had raised himself from the meanest origin to the first employments of the state and army. His victories over the Sarmatians and the Germans, the austerity of his life, and the rigid impartiality of his justice whilst he was prefect of the city, commanded the esteem of a people whose affections were engaged in favour of the more amiable Balbinus. The two colleagues had both been consul (Balbinus had twice enjoyed that honourable office), both had been named among the twenty lieutenants of the senate; and, since the one was sixty and the other seventy-four years old, they had both attained the full maturity of age and experience.[1] When the Gordians were proclaimed Emperors in Africa, the Senate appointed a committee of twenty men, including the old Senator Pupienus, to co-ordinate operations against Maximinus. On the news of the Gordians' defeat, the Senate met in closed session in the Temple of Jupiter and voted Pupienus and Balbinus as co-emperors, though they were soon forced to co-opt Gordian III as a colleague. Pupienus marched to Ravenna, where he oversaw the campaign against Maximinus; after the latter was assassinated by his soldiers just outside Aquileia he despatched both Maximinus's troops and his own back to their provinces and returned to Rome with just the Praetorian Guard and his German bodyguard. Balbinus had failed to keep public order in the capital. The sources suggest that Balbinus suspected Pupienus of wanting to supplant him, and they were soon living in different parts of the Imperial palace, where they were later assassinated by disaffected elements in the Praetorians, who resented serving under Senate-appointed emperors. Scipio connection - Through his mother's family, Pupienus has a link to the great Roman General Publius Cornlius Scipio Africanus. As a descendant of Fulvia, through her marriage to popularis Publius Clodius Pulcher, the great granddaughter of Africanus; he could claim to be first Imperator of Rome to be a direct descendant of the Second Punic War Hero. On a side note, his grandson who was also a consul was a direct descendant of Augustus on his mother's side.

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Pupi&#275;nus Max&#301;mus, M. Clodius in Harpers Dictionary

A Roman who was elected emperor with Balbinus, in A.D. 238, when the Senate received intelligence of the death of the two Gordians in Africa; but the new emperors were slain by the soldiers at Rome in the same year. See Balbinus.

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Gordian III in Wikipedia

Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (20 January 225 – 11 February 244), commonly known as Gordian III, was Roman Emperor from 238 to 244. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of emperor Gordian I and younger sister of emperor Gordian II. Very little is known on his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238. Rise to power - Following the murder of emperor Alexander Severus in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), the capital of the Roman province Germania Inferior, Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed emperor, despite strong opposition of the Roman senate and the majority of the population. In response to what was considered in Rome as a rebellion, Gordian's grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors in the Africa Province. Their revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus' oppression. Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular men and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordian's fate, so that the Senate decided to take the teenager Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus as his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions, namely the II Parthica who assassinated Maximinus. But their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and even an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor. Rule - Due to Gordian's age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was dealt quickly. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian guard and father in law of the emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman empire. In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube, and the Sassanid kingdom across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy's territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the emperor's security, were at risk. Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab, stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefect and the campaign proceeded. In the beginning of 244, the Persians counter-attacked. Persian sources claim that a battle was fought (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III[1]. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away, upstream of the Euphrates. Although ancient sources often described Philip, who succeeded Gordian as emperor, as having murdered Gordian at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah), the cause of Gordian's death is unknown. Gordian's youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of another usurper, granted him the everlasting esteem of the Romans. Despite the opposition of the new emperor, Gordian was deified by the Senate after his death, in order to appease the population and avoid riots.

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Gordian III in Harpers Dictionary

Marcus Antonīnus Pius, grandson, on the mother's side, of the elder Gordianus, and nephew of Gordianus the younger, was twelve years of age when he was proclaimed Caesar by general acclamation of the people of Rome, after the news had arrived of the death of the two Gordiani in Africa. The Senate named him colleague of the two new emperors Maximus and Balbinus, but in the following year (A.D. 238) a mutiny of the Praetorians took place at Rome, Balbinus and Maximus were murdered, and the boy Gordianus was proclaimed emperor. His disposition was kind and amiable, but at the beginning of his reign he trusted to the insinuations of a certain Maurus and other freedmen of the palace, who abused his confidence, and committed many acts of injustice. In the second year of his reign a revolt broke out in Africa, where a certain Sabinianus was proclaimed emperor, but the insurrection was soon put down by the governor of Mauritania. In the following year Gordianus, being consul with Claudius Pompeianus, married Furia Sabina Tranquillina, daughter of Misitheus, a man of the greatest personal merit. Misitheus disclosed to Gordianus the disgraceful conduct of Maurus and his friends, who were immediately deprived of their offices and driven away from court. From that moment Gordianus placed implicit trust in his father-in-law, on whom the Senate conferred the title of "Guardian of the Republic." In the next year, news came to Rome that the Persians under Sapor had invaded Mesopotamia, had occupied Nisibis and Carrhae, entered Syria, and, according to Capitolinus, had taken Gordianus opened the temple of Ianus, according to an ancient custom which had been long disused, and, setting out from Rome at the head of a fine army, marched through Illyricum and Moesia, where he defeated the Goths and Sarmatians, and drove them beyond the Danube. Gordianus presently crossed the Hellespont, and proceeded into Syria, delivered Antioch, defeated the Persians in several battles, retook Nisibis and Carrhae, and drove Sapor back to his own dominions. The Senate voted him a triumph. In the year after, A.D. 244, Gordianus advanced into Persian territory, and defeated Sapor on the banks of the Chaboras; but while he was preparing to pursue him, Philippus, an officer in the Guards, who had contrived to spread discontent among the soldiers by attributing their privations to the inexperience of a boyish emperor, was proclaimed by the army his colleague in the Empire. Gordianus consented, but soon after was murdered by Philippus. Gordianus was about twenty years old when he died. His body, according to Eutropius, was carried to Rome, and he was numbered among the gods (Herodian, vii. 10 foll.; viii. 6 foll.; Eutrop. ix. 2).

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Cornelius Gallus in Wikipedia

Gaius Cornelius Gallus (ca. 70 BC–26 BC), Roman poet, orator and politician, was born of humble parents at Forum Livii (Forlì)[citation needed] in Italy. At an early age he moved to Rome, where he was taught by the same master as Virgil and Varius Rufus. Virgil, who dedicated one of his eclogues (X) to him, was in great measure indebted to the influence of Gallus for the restoration of his estate. In political life Gallus espoused the cause of Octavian, and as a reward for his services was made prefect of Egypt (Suetonius, Augustus, 66 ). In 29 BC, Cornelius Gallus led a campaign to subdue a revolt in Thebes. He erected a monument in Philae to glorify his accomplishments. Gallus' conduct brought him into disgrace with the emperor, and a new prefect was appointed. After his recall, Gallus put an end to his life (Cassius Dio, liii 23 ). Gallus enjoyed a high reputation among his contemporaries as a man of intellect, and Ovid (Tristia, IV) considered him the first of the elegiac poets of Rome. He wrote four books of elegies chiefly on his mistress Lycoris (a poetical name for Cytheris, a notorious actress), in which he took for his model Euphorion of Chalcis; he also translated some of this author's works into Latin. He is often thought of as a key figure in the establishment of the genre of Latin love-elegy, and an inspiration for Propertius, Tibullus, and Ovid. Almost nothing by him has survived; until recently, one pentameter ("uno tellures diuidit amne duas") was all that had been handed down. Then, in 1978 a papyrus was found at Qasr Ibrim, in Egyptian Nubia, containing nine lines by Gallus, arguably the oldest surviving MS of Latin poetry.[1] The fragments of four poems attributed to him, first published by Aldus Manutius in 1590 and printed in Alexander Riese's Anthologia Latina (1869), are generally regarded as a forgery; and Pomponius Gauricus's ascription to him of the elegiac verses of Maximianus is no longer accepted. [edit]The surviving poetry of Gallus Scholars used to believe, in the absence of any surviving poetry by Gallus and on the basis of his high reputation among his contemporaries, that his poetical gifts were little short of those of Virgil. A nineteenth-century British classicist famously asked, 'What would we not barter of all the epics of empire for ten lines of Gallus?' The discoveries at Qasr Ibrim have now given us nine lines of Gallus. Coincidentally, one of them mentions Lycoris, ('saddened, Lycoris, by your wanton behaviour'), confirming their authorship. Possibly atypical, these surviving lines are of disappointing quality. They are written in a Latin more Lucretian and Catullan than Virgilian, and a certain roughness in the composition recalls Quintilian's judgement that Gallus's style was durior (rather harsh). Their sentiments are conventional, and show little trace of originality. Four lines which probably once stood at the beginning of a poem pay homage to Julius Caesar shortly before his assassination, on the eve of his projected campaign against the Parthians: Fata mihi, Caesar, tum erunt mea dulcia, quom tu / maxima Romanae pars eris historiae / postque tuum reditum multorum templa deorum / fixa legam spolieis deivitiora tueis. 'I will count myself blessed by fortune, Caesar, when you become the greatest part of Roman history; and when, after your return, I admire the temples of many gods adorned and enriched with your spoils.' This obsequious compliment is scarcely to be taken seriously. The Augustan poets tended to distance themselves from the world of high politics, and often drew a humorous contrast between the martial ambition of their rulers and their own ignoble love affairs. The next, missing, stanza probably subverted the sense. 'As it is, while you're off winning renown by conquering Parthia, I'm stuck here in Rome, with nothing to do but make love to Lycoris.' A second, incomplete, block of four lines appears to be addressed to Lycoris. So long as she likes his verses, Gallus seems to be saying (the verb in the third line was probably placeatur, to please), he will ignore the hostile comments they are likely to attract from famously conservative critics such as Cato: . . . tandem fecerunt carmina Musae /quae possim domina deicere digna mea. / . . . atur idem tibi, non ego, Visce / . . . Kato, iudice te vereor. 'At last the Muses have made songs fit for me to lay at the feet of my mistress. So long as . . . [they are pleasing] to you, I am not afraid to be judged by you, Viscus, . . . nor by you, Cato.'

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Gallus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

C. Cornelius, was born at Forum Iulii (Fréjus) in Gaul, of poor parents, about B.C. 66. He went to Italy at an early age, and began his career as a poet when he was about twenty years of age. He had already attained considerable distinction at the time of Caesar's death, 44; and upon the arrival of Octavianus in Italy after that event, Gallus embraced his party, and soon acquired great influence with him. In 41 he was one of the triumvirs appointed by Octavianus to distribute lands in the north of Italy among his veterans, and on that occasion he afforded protection to the inhabitants of Mantua and to Vergil. He afterwards accompanied Octavianus to the battle of Actium, 31, and commanded a detachment of the army. After the battle, Gallus was sent with the army to Egypt, in pursuit of Antony; and when Egypt was made a Roman province, Octavianus appointed Gallus the first prefect of the province. He remained in Egypt for nearly four years; but he incurred at length the enmity of Octavianus, though the exact nature of his offence is uncertain. According to some accounts he spoke of the emperor in an offensive and insulting manner; he erected numerous statues of himself in Egypt, and had his own exploits inscribed on the pyramids. The Senate deprived him of his estates, and sent him into exile; whereupon he put an end to his life by falling upon his own sword, B.C. 27. The intimate friendship existing between Gallus and the most eminent men of the time, as Asinius Pollio, Vergil, Varus, and Ovid, and the high praise they bestow upon him, prove that he was a man of great intellectual powers and acquirements. Ovid (Trist. iv. 10.5) assigns to him the first place among the Roman elegiac poets; and we know that he wrote a collection of elegies in four books, the principal subject of which was his love of Lycoris. (See Vergil's Tenth Eclogue.) But all his productions have perished; for the four epigrams in the Latin Anthology attributed to Gallus could not have been written by a contemporary of Augustus. Gallus translated into Latin the poems of Euphorion of Chalcis, but this translation is also lost. Some critics attributed to him the poem Ciris, usually printed among the works of Vergil. See Völker, De C. Galli Vita et Scriptis, pt. i. (Bonn, 1840), pt. ii. (Elberfeld, 1844); NicolasA. , De la Vie et des Ouvrages de C. Gallus (Paris, 1851). His story is made the basis of the well-known work of W. Becker on Roman antiquities. See Becker.

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Claudius Gothicus in Wikipedia

Marcus Aurelius Claudius (May 10, 213 – January, 270), commonly known as Claudius II or Claudius Gothicus, was Roman Emperor from 268 to 270. During his reign he fought successfully against the Alamanni and scored a crushing victory against the Goths at the Battle of Naissus. Life Origin and rise to power - Claudius' origin is uncertain. He was either from Sirmium (Syrmia; in Pannonia Inferior) or from Naissus Dardania (in Moesia Superior); both areas are located in Serbia. Claudius was the commander of the Roman army that decisively defeated the Goths at the Battle of Naissus in September 268; in the same month, he attained the throne, amid charges, never proven, that he murdered his predecessor Gallienus. However, he soon proved to be less than bloodthirsty, as he asked the Roman Senate to spare the lives of Gallienus' family and supporters. He was less magnanimous toward Rome's enemies, however, and it was to this that he owed his popularity. Claudius, like Maximinus Thrax before him, was of barbarian birth. After an interlude of failed aristocratic Roman emperors since Maximinus's death, Claudius was the first in a series of tough soldier-emperors who would eventually restore the Empire from the Crisis of the third century. [edit]Claudius as emperor At the time of his accession, the Roman Empire was in serious danger from several incursions, both within and outside its borders. The most pressing of these was an invasion of Illyricum and Pannonia by the Goths. Not long after being named emperor (or just prior to Gallienus' death, depending on the source), he won his greatest victory, and one of the greatest in the history of Roman arms. At the Battle of Naissus, Claudius and his legions routed a huge Gothic army. Together with his cavalry commander, the future Emperor Aurelian, the Romans took thousands of prisoners, destroyed the Gothic cavalry as a force and stormed their laager (a circular alignment of wagons long favored by the Goths). The victory earned Claudius his surname of "Gothicus" (conqueror of the Goths), and that is how he is known to this day. More importantly, the Goths were soon driven back across the Danube River, and a century passed before they again posed a serious threat to the empire. While this was going on, the Germanic tribe known as the Alamanni had crossed the Alps and attacked the empire. Claudius responded quickly, routing the Alamanni at the Battle of Lake Benacus in the late fall of 268, a few months after the battle of Naissus. He then turned on the Gallic Empire, ruled by a pretender for the past fifteen years and encompassing Britain, Gaul, and the Iberian Peninsula. He won several victories and soon regained control of Spain and the Rhone river valley of Gaul. This set the stage for the ultimate destruction of the Gallic Empire under Aurelian. However, Claudius did not live long enough to fulfill his goal of reuniting all the lost territories of the empire. Late in 269 he was preparing to go to war against the Vandals, who were raiding in Pannonia. However, he fell victim to the Plague of Cyprian (possibly smallpox), and died early in January 270. Before his death, he is thought to have named Aurelian as his successor, although Claudius' brother Quintillus briefly seized power. The Senate immediately deified Claudius as "Divus Claudius Gothicus". Links to Constantinian dynasty - The Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece. Said niece Claudia reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication intended to link Constantine I's family to that of a well-respected emperor. Saint Valentine - Claudius Gothicus has been linked to Saint Valentine at least since the Middle Ages. According to the Nuremberg Chronicle of 1493 AD, the emperor martyred the Roman priest during a general persecution of Christians. The text states that St. Valentine was beaten with clubs and finally beheaded for giving aid to Christians in Rome. [1] The Golden Legend of 1260 AD recounts how St. Valentine refused to deny Christ before the "Emperor Claudius" in 280 AD and as a result was beheaded. Some 20th century historians have questioned these medieval accounts, claiming that references to St. Valentine are very scanty in old historical records and many of the accounts of the life of the saint appear to have originated with Geoffrey Chaucer. There is very little evidence that Claudius II reversed Gallienus's policy of toleration for Christians, either.

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Probus in Wikipedia

Marcus Aurelius Probus (c. 19 August 232 – September/October 282), commonly known as Probus, was Roman Emperor from 276 to 282. During his reign, the Rhine and Danube frontier was strengthened after successful wars against several Germanic tribes such as the Goths, Alamanni, Longiones, Franks, Burgundians, and Vandals. Born in 232 in Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica), Pannonia, Probus entered the army around 250 upon reaching adulthood. He distinguished himself under the emperors Valerian, Aurelian and Tacitus. He was appointed governor of the East by Tacitus, whose death in 276 prompted Probus' soldiers to proclaim him emperor. Florianus, the half-brother of Tacitus, was also proclaimed successor by his soldiers, but was killed after an indecisive campaign. Probus travelled west, defeating the Goths along the lower Danube in 277 - acquiring the title of Gothicus. His position as emperor was ratified by the Senate around this time. In 278, Probus campaigned successfully in Gaul against the Alamanni and Longiones; both tribes had advanced through the Neckar valley and across the Rhine into Roman territory. Meanwhile, his generals defeated the Franks and these operations were directed to clearing Gaul of Germanic invaders (Franks, and Burgundians), allowing Probus to adopt the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts, in order to restart the economy in these devastated lands. In 279–280, Probus was, according to Zosimus, in Raetia, Illyricum and Lycia, where he fought the Vandals. In the same years, Probus' generals defeated the Blemmyes in Egypt; Probus then ordered the reconstruction of bridges and canals along the Nile, where the production of grain for the Empire was centered. In 280–281, Probus had also put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems[1]. In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph. Probus was eager to start his eastern campaign, delayed by the revolts in the west. He left Rome in 282, travelling first towards Sirmium, his birth city, when the news that Marcus Aurelius Carus, commander of the Praetorian Guard, had been proclaimed emperor reached him. Probus sent some troops against the new usurper, but when those troops changed sides and supported Carus, Probus's remaining soldiers then assassinated him (September/October 282).

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Probus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A Roman emperor (A.D. 276-282). He was a native of Sirmium in Pannonia, and rose to distinction by his military abilities. He was appointed, by the emperor Tacitus, governor of the whole East, and, upon the death of that sovereign, the purple was forced upon his acceptance by the armies of Syria. The downfall of Florianus (q.v.) speedily removed his only rival, and he was enthusiastically hailed by the united voice of the Senate, the people, and the legions. The reign of Probus presents a series of the most brilliant achievements. He defeated the barbarians on the frontiers of Gaul and Illyricum and in other parts of the Roman Empire, and put down the rebellions of Saturninus at Alexandria, and of Proculus and Bonosus in Gaul. But, after crushing all external and internal foes, he was killed at Sirmium by his own soldiers, who had risen in mutiny against him, because he had employed them in laborious public works. Probus was as just and virtuous as he was warlike, and is deservedly regarded as one of the greatest and best of the Roman emperors. His life is given in the Historia Augusta; see also Zosim. i. 64.

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Carus in Wikipedia

Marcus Aurelius Carus (c. 230 – July or August 283) was Roman Emperor from 282 to 283. During his short reign, Carus fought the Germanic tribes and Sarmatians along the Danube frontier with success. During his campaign against the Sassanid Empire he sacked their capital Ctesiphon, but died shortly thereafter. He was succeeded by his sons Carinus and Numerian; creating a dynasty which, though shortlived, granted further stability to a resurgent empire. Biography Carus, whose name before the accession may have been Marcus Numerius Carus, was born, probably, at Narbo (modern Narbonne) in Gaul,[1] but was educated at Rome. He was a senator, and had filled various civil and military posts before he was appointed prefect of the Praetorian Guard by the emperor Probus in 282. After the murder of Probus at Sirmium, Carus was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers. Although Carus severely avenged the death of Probus, he was himself suspected of having been an accessory to the deed. He does not seem to have returned to Rome after his accession, but contented himself with an announcement of the fact to the Senate. Bestowing the title of Caesar upon his sons Carinus and Numerian, he left Carinus in charge of the western portion of the empire, and took Numerian with him on the expedition against the Persians which had been contemplated by Probus. Having defeated the Quadi and Sarmatians on the Danube, Carus proceeded through Thrace and Asia Minor, annexed Mesopotamia, pressed on to Seleucia and Ctesiphon, and marched his soldiers beyond the Tigris. The Sassanid Emperor Bahram II, limited by internal opposition, could not effectively defend his territory. For his victories, which avenged all the previous defeats suffered by the Romans against the Sassanids, Carus received the title of Persicus Maximus. Carus' hopes of further conquest were cut short by his death. One day, after a violent storm, it was announced that he was dead. His death was variously attributed to disease, the effects of lightning, or a wound received in a campaign against the Persians. The facts that he was leading a victorious campaign, and that his son Numerian succeeded him without opposition, suggest that his death may have been due to natural causes.

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Carus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A Roman emperor, who succeeded Probus. He was first appointed, by the latter, prætorian prefect, and after his death was chosen by the army to be his successor, A.D. 282. Carus created his two sons, Carinus and Numerianus, Caesars, as soon as he was elevated to the Empire, and, some time after, gave them each the title of Augustus. On the news of the death of Probus, the barbarians put themselves in motion, and Carus, sending his son Carinus into Gaul, departed with Numerianus for Illyricum, in order to oppose the Sarmatae, who threatened Thrace and Italy. He slew 16,000, and made 20,000 prisoners. Proceeding after this against the Persians, he made himself master of Mesopotamia, and of the cities of Seleucia and Ctesiphon, and took in consequence the surnames of Persicus and Parthicus. He died, however, in the midst of his successes, A.D. 283. (See Aper.) His whole reign was one of not more than sixteen or seventeen months. Carus was deified after his death. According to Vopiscus, by whom his life was written, he held a middle rank between good and bad princes.

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Sejanus in Wikipedia

Lucius Aelius Seianus (20 BC – October 18, AD 31), commonly known as Sejanus, was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. An equestrian by birth, Sejanus rose to power as prefect of the Roman imperial bodyguard, known as the Praetorian Guard, of which he was commander from AD 14 until his death in 31. While the Praetorian Guard was formally established under Emperor Augustus, Sejanus introduced a number of reforms which saw the unit evolve beyond a mere bodyguard into a powerful and influential branch of the government involved in public security, civil administration, and ultimately political intercession; changes which would have a lasting impact on the course of the Principate. During the 20s, Sejanus gradually accumulated power by consolidating his influence over Tiberius and eliminating potential political opponents, including the emperor's son, Drusus Julius Caesar. When Tiberius withdrew to Capri in 26, Sejanus was left in control of the entire state mechanism as de facto ruler of the empire. For a time the most influential and feared citizen of Rome, Sejanus suddenly fell from power in 31, the year his career culminated with the consulship. Amidst suspicions of conspiracy against Tiberius, Sejanus was arrested and executed, along with his followers...

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Sei&#257;nus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Aelius. A Roman statesman, born at Vulsinii in Etruria. He was the son of Seius Strabo, who was commander of the praetorian troops at the close of the reign of Augustus, A.D. 14 (Tac. Ann. iv. 1). In the same year Seianus was made the colleague of his father in the command of the praetorian bands; and upon his father being sent as governor to Egypt, he obtained the sole command of these troops. He ultimately gained such influence over Tiberius that this suspicious man, who was close and reserved to all mankind, opened his bosom to Seianus, and made him his confidant. For many years he governed Tiberius; but, not content with this high position, he formed the design of obtaining the imperial power. With this view he sought to make himself popular with the soldiers, and gave posts of honour and emolument to his creatures and favourites. With the same object he resolved to get rid of all the members of the imperial family. He debauched Livia, the wife of Drusus, the son of Tiberius; and by promising her marriage and a participation in the imperial power, he was enabled to poison Drusus with her connivance and assistance (A.D. 23). An accident increased the credit of Seianus, and confirmed the confidence of Tiberius. The emperor, with Seianus and others, was feasting in a natural cave, between Amyclae, which was on the seacoast, and the hills of Fundi. The entrance of the cave suddenly fell in and crushed some of the slaves; and all the guests, in alarm, tried to make their escape. Seianus, resting his knees on the couch of Tiberius, and placing his shoulders under the falling rock, protected his master, and was discovered in this posture by the soldiers who came to their relief. After Tiberius had shut himself up in the island of Capreae, Seianus had full scope for his machinations; and the death of Livia, the mother of Tiberius (A.D. 29), was followed by the banishment of Agrippina and her sons Nero and Drusus. Tiberius at last began to suspect the designs of Seianus, and felt that it was time to rid himself of a man who was almost more than a rival. To cover his schemes and remove Seianus from about him, Tiberius made him joint consul with himself in A.D. 31. He then sent Sertorius Macro to Rome with a commission to take the command of the praetorian cohorts. Macro, after assuring himself of the troops, and depriving Seianus of his usual guard, produced a letter from Tiberius to the Senate, in which the emperor expressed his apprehensions of Seianus. The consul Regulus conducted him to prison, and the people loaded him with insult and outrage. The Senate on the same day decreed his death, and he was immediately executed. His body was dragged about the streets and finally thrown into the Tiber. Many of the friends of Seianus perished at the same time, and his son and daughter shared his fate (Tac. Ann. iv. 41-59, 74; v. 6-9; Suet. Tib.; Dio Cass. lvii., lviii.; Juv.x. 65-86). The story of Seianus is the subject of a play by Ben Jonson, entitled Sejanus, produced in 1603. See Tiberius.

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Seneca the Younger in Wikipedia

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known simply as Seneca, or Seneca the Younger) (c. 3 BC – 65 AD) was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. He was tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero. He was later forced to commit suicide for complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy to assassinate this last of the Julio-Claudian emperors; however, he may have been innocent.[1][2] His father was Seneca the Elder and his older brother was Gallio...

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Seneca in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

L. Annaeus, second son of the preceding, was born at Corduba about B.C. 3. He was from infancy of a delicate constitution, and liable to serious illnesses, in one of which he owed his life to the devoted care of his maternal aunt, in whose company, he tells us, he was brought to Rome. His instructors there were the eminent philosophers Fabianus, Attalus, and Sotion , under whom he studied with unremitting ardour, carrying his zeal for their precepts so far as to cultivate a somewhat ostentatious asceticism. His prudent father, alive to the jealousy of the court, recommended less perilous forms of virtue. Caligula, who affected to be a severe critic of Seneca's style, unquestionably envied his talent, and had marked him out for destruction, but was induced to spare his feeble health, which seemed to threaten an early grave. Under Claudius, Seneca rapidly rose to eminence. As quaestor he had the promise of a political career opened to him. He was also a successful pleader, a skilful professor of eloquence, and a leader in the world of fashion. But he had made powerful enemies. An intimacy was known to exist between him and Iulia Livilla, youngest daughter of Germanicus, which was liable to an unfavourable construction; so that when Messalina by her intrigues effected the exile of the princess, she was able to involve Seneca in a similar fate (A.D. 41). He was banished to Corsica, where he spent eight years, a fretful and helpless spectator of events. With the downfall of Messalina his fortunes revived. Agrippina, wishing to use him as the instrument of her ambitious projects, and perhaps, as Dio insinuates, captivated by his engaging person, contrived to secure his appointment as tutor to her son, the young Nero, then eleven years of age, and already destined for the throne. This was a position exactly suited to Seneca's genius. There is every reason to believe that he endeavoured to imbue his pupil's mind with maxims of wisdom and clemency; and the early part of Nero's reign, the "golden quinquennium" of justice and mercy, was long remembered as due to the influence of Seneca and Durrus, who jointly administered the State. It soon became evident, however, that Nero could not be controlled. The tutor tried to retain his influence by dangerous and unworthy concessions to the vices of the pupil, but without success. It was Nero who held Seneca bound by the magnetism of fear, of a more violent will, and of imperial splendours. The minister was compelled to follow the downward course of Nero's policy, giving such colour as his practised rhetoric afforded to its odious features till Agrippina's murder-the motive of which he was called upon to embody in a state- paper-brought the climax to a long series of inconsistencies between profession and practice, and showed him at once the moral hollowness and the actual insecurity of his position. From this time Nero seems to have turned against him; and although the long-foreseen blow did not descend until A.D. 65, when Piso's conspiracy gave a decent pretext for accusing him, yet for several years Seneca had been prepared for death, and had made generous, but ineffectual, attempts to disarm the emperor's malice. Bidden to effect his own death, the philosopher, with his high-born and beautiful wife Paulina, who insisted on dying with him, opened his veins. Paulina was restored by her friends to life, though with difficulty: he, after suffering excruciating agony, which he endured with cheerfulness, discoursing to his friends on the glorious realities to which he was about to pass, was at length suffocated by the vapour of a stove. Seneca is undoubtedly the most brilliant figure of his time, and, except Tacitus, the most important So-called Bust of Seneca the Philosopher. (Naples Museum.) thinker and writer of the post-Augustan Empire. He embodied all the leading characteristics of the age, with which, unlike the majority of Roman citizens, he was in thorough harmony; and consequently he has been judged with more prejudice even by posterity than might have been expected. That he was a truly great or good man can scarcely be maintained; that he was even a great thinker is open to question; but the inconsistencies of a life passed amid such overpowering temptations must not blind us to his real earnestness of purpose, or to the merit of exercising, under constant risk, a restraining influence on perhaps the vilest character known to history. It is impossible to doubt Seneca's love for virtue. Amid exaggerations, conceits, paradoxes, follies, the moral end is always held out as the only one worthy of being consistently followed, to which every kind of speculative knowledge is subordinate. His death, though not without a conscious study of effect, was a truly noble one; and we must believe him sincere when, on comparing himself with others and reconsidering his actions and omissions, he declares that he can look back with satisfaction upon his life. His opinion, thrice expressed, to the effect that true wisdom will not seek for an impracticable standard of purity in a hopelessly corrupt age, must be referred to the lower level of moral excellence, which Stoicism considered alone compatible with public life, and not to the ideal of the unencumbered, untempted sage. Of Seneca's poetical writings, some few epigrams are preserved in the Anthologia Latina. We possess also nine tragedies correctly ascribed to him, viz.: Hercules Furens, Troades (or Hecuba), Phoenissae (not all genuine), Medea, Phaedra (or Hippolytus), Oedipus, Agamemnon, Thyestes, and Hercules Oetaeus, and one praetexta, the Octavia, incorrectly ascribed. Doubts have been thrown on the identity of the tragedian with the philosopher, but they are quite unfounded. The tragedies no doubt belong to his earlier life, and probably were written, partly during his exile, partly after his return to Rome, to assist the poetic proclivities of Nero. They are free imitations of Greek originals, which have in most cases survived so as to admit of a comparison. Both in dramatic power and loftiness of tragic feeling the Latin plays are immeasurably inferior. They abound, however, in brilliant declamation, philosophic contemplation, and witty aphorisms. They can hardly have been intended for the stage, to which they are wholly unsuited; but they are admirably fitted for declamatory reading, though even for this purpose overloaded with rhetoric. Seneca's prose works were numerous and important; a considerable portion are lost, but the larger and more valuable part remains. Among the former are his speeches, written to be delivered by Nero, a treatise De Situ Indiae, another De Situ et Sacris Aegypti, another De Motu Terrarum; several treatises on moral philosophy, viz.: Exhortationes, De Officiis, De Immatura Morte, De Superstitione, De Matrimonio, Quo Modo Amicitia Continenda Sit, De Paupertate, De Misericordia, De Remediis Fortuitorum, and De Verborum Copia; a biography of his father, a panegyric on Messalina, and several books of letters. His extant works comprise (a) the twelve so-called dialogues, viz.: Ad Lucilium de Providentia, Ad Serenum de Animi Tranquillitate, Ad S. de Otio, Ad S. de Constantia Sapientis, Ad Novatum de Ira Libri III., Consolatio ad Marciam, Consolatio ad Polybium, Consolatio ad Helviam Matrem, De Vita Beata ad Gallionem, De Brevitate Vitae ad Paulinum; (b) three books, Ad Neronem de Clementia; (c) seven books, De Beneficiis ad Aebutium Liberalem; (d) twenty books of moral letters, Ad Lucilium (but the collection is incomplete); (e) seven books, Naturales Quaestiones, addressed to Lucilius; (f) a political satire on the death and apotheosis of Claudius, called by διο ἀποκολοκύντωσις, which is of interest as the only remaining example of the Satura Menippea; (g) fourteen spurious letters of a correspondence with St. Paul, which seem to have imposed upon St. Jerome (De Vir. Illust. 12). See Epistola. From this catalogue it will be seen how wide was the field embraced by Seneca's genius. Little need be said about his scientific works, except that they show no mean acuteness of conjecture and considerable knowledge of physical theories, though these are often subordinated to an ethical purpose. His views of nature are in the main Stoic, and his examples are probably drawn from Greek sources. It is on his moral treatises that Seneca's fame rests. In the particular department that he selected, viz., the application of certain leading principles to practical life, he excels all other writers of antiquity. Nominally a Stoic, he belonged really to the Eclectic School, culling precepts from every form of doctrine with impartial appreciation. "The remedies of the soul," he says, "have been discovered long ago: it is for us to learn how to apply them." On this text his system is a comment. It requires, above all else, a thorough knowledge of the human heart, and in this Seneca is preeminent. In that dark and perilous period, when universal mistrust prevailed, the moralist must be able to dive into the secret recesses of the soul, drawing to light its hidden disquiet, and fortifying it against the blows of circumstance or the deeper thrusts of human turpitude. No writer, ancient or modern, shows a more complete mastery of the pathology of mind. Many of his letters are of the nature of sermons; others are spiritual meditations; others, brilliant attacks on the falsehood and vice of the time. In all these is the same incisiveness of style, the same fertility of illustration, the same varied experience, the same emphatic and reiterated pressing home of his point. This last feature is apt to weary the reader; and Seneca, well aware of the danger, endeavours, by every artifice of rhetorical ingenuity, to maintain the interest of his theme. "To impress the dull conscience, reiteration is a necessity: to knock once at the door when night is come is never enough: you must knock frequently and hard." This leads him to use a tone of exaggeration which, by its seeming insincerity, does injustice to the writer's heart, and has caused him to be too severely judged. His religious and moral maxims so often approximate to those of Christianity that the fathers of the church adopted the view that he had adopted their faith, to which the fictitious correspondence with St. Paul seemed to lend support. The coincidences, however, though sufficiently remarkable, are accidental only, and arise from the character of his mind, which was essentially that of a "seeker after God."

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Septimius Severus in Wikipedia

Lucius Septimius Severus (11 April 145 – 4 February 211), commonly known as Septimius Severus or Severus, was Roman Emperor from 193 to 211. Severus was born in Leptis Magna in the province of Africa. As a young man, Severus advanced through the customary succession of offices under the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Severus seized power after the death of Emperor Pertinax in 193 during the so-called Year of the Five Emperors. After deposing the incumbent emperor Didius Julianus in a bloodless coup, Severus fought his rival claimants, the generals Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus. Niger was defeated in 194 at the Battle of Issus, and Albinus three years later at the Battle of Lugdunum. After solidifying his rule, Severus waged a brief war against the Parthian Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 197. In 202 he campaigned in Africa against the Garamantes, briefly taking their capital Garama and expanding the southern frontier of the empire radically. Late in his reign he fought the Picts in Caledonia and strengthened Hadrian's Wall in Britain. Severus died in 211 at Eboracum, succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta. With the succession of his sons, Severus founded the Severan dynasty, the last dynasty of the empire before the Crisis of the Third Century...

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Sev&#275;rus, Lucius Septimius in Harpers Dictionary

A Roman emperor (A.D. 193-211), who was born 146, near Leptis in Africa. After holding various important military commands under M. Aurelius and Commodus, he was at length appointed commander-in-chief of the army in Pannonia and Illyria. By this army he was proclaimed emperor after the death of Pertinax (A.D. 193). He forthwith marched upon Rome, where Iulianus had been made emperor by the Praetorian troops. Iulianus was put to death upon his arrival before the city. (See Iulianus.) Severus then turned his arms against Pescennius Niger, who had been saluted emperor by the Eastern legions. The struggle was brought to a close by a decisive battle near Issus, in which Niger was defeated by Severus, and, having been shortly afterwards taken prisoner, was put to death by order of the latter (194 A.D.). Severus then laid siege to Byzantium, which refused to submit to him even after the death of Niger, and which was not taken till 196. The city was treated with great severity by Severus. Its walls were levelled with the earth, its soldiers and magistrates put to death, and the town itself, deprived of all its political privileges, made over to the Perinthians. During the continuance of this siege, Severus had crossed the Euphrates (195 A.D.) and subdued the Mesopotamian Arabians. He returned to Italy in 196, and in the same year proceeded to Gaul to oppose Albinus, who had been proclaimed emperor by the troops in that country. Albinus was defeated and slain in a terrible battle fought near Lyons on the 19th of February, 197. Severus returned to Rome in the same year; but after remaining a short time in the capital, he set out for the East in order to repel the invasion of the Parthians, who were ravaging Mesopotamia. He crossed the Euphrates early in 198, and commenced a series of operations which were attended with brilliant results. Seleucia and Babylon were evacuated by the enemy, and Ctesiphon was taken and plundered after a short siege. After spending three years in the East, and visiting Arabia, Palestine, and Egypt, Severus returned to Rome in 202. For the next seven years he remained tranquilly at Rome, but in 208 he went to Britain with his sons Caracalla and Geta. Here he carried on war against the Caledonians, and erected the celebrated wall, which bore his name, from the Solway to the mouth of the Tyne. After remaining two years in Britain, he died at Eboracum (York) on the 4th of February, 211, in the sixty-fifth year of his age and the eighteenth of his reign. His life is written by Spartianus. See Duruy, Septime - Sévère (Paris, 1878); and Hassebrank, Kaiser Septimius Severus, 2 pts. (1890-91).

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Spartacus in Wikipedia

Spartacus ( Greek: Σπάρτακος; Latin: Spartacus[1]) (c. 109–71 BC) was the most notable leader of the slaves in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic. Little is known about Spartacus beyond the events of the war, and surviving historical accounts are sometimes contradictory and may not always be reliable. Spartacus' struggle, often seen as oppressed people fighting for their freedom against a slave-owning aristocracy, has found new meaning for modern writers since the 19th century. The rebellion of Spartacus has proven inspirational to many modern literary and political writers, making Spartacus a folk hero among cultures both ancient and modern...

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Spart&#259;cus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A famous fighter, by birth a Thracian, and successively a shepherd, a soldier, and a chief of banditti. On one of his predatory expeditions he was taken prisoner, and sold to a trainer of gladiators. In B.C. 73 he was a member of the gladiatorial company of Lentulus, and was detained in his school at Capus, in readiness for the games at Rome. He persuaded his fellow-prisoners to make an attempt to gain their freedom. About seventy of them broke out of the trainingschool of Lentulus, and took refuge in the crater of Vesuvius. Spartacus was chosen leader, and was soon joined by a number of runaway slaves. These were blockaded by C. Claudius Pulcher at the head of three thousand men, but Spartacus attacked the besiegers and put them to flight. His numbers rapidly increased, and for two years (B.C. 73-71) he defeated one Roman army after another, and laid waste Italy, from the foot of the Alps to the southernmost corner of the peninsula. After both the consuls of the year 72 had been defeated by Spartacus, M. Licinius Crassus, the praetor, was appointed to the command of the war. Crassus carried on the contest with vigour and success; and, after gaining several advantages over the enemy, at length defeated them on the River Silarus in a decisive battle, in which Spartacus was slain. The character of Spartacus has been maligned by the Roman writers. Cicero compares the vilest of his contemporaries to him: Horace speaks of him ( Carm. iii. 14, 19) as a common robber; none recognize his greatness, but the terror of his name survived to a late period of the Empire. Accident made Spartacus a shepherd, a freebooter, and a gladiator; nature formed him a hero. The excesses of his followers he could not always repress, and his efforts to restrain them often cost him his popularity. But he was in himself not less mild and just than he was able and valiant.

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Stilicho in Wikipedia

Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (ca. 359 – August 22, 408) was a high-ranking general (magister militum), Patrician and Consul of the Western Roman Empire, notably of semi-barbarian birth. Career - Stilicho was the son of a Vandal father and a Roman mother. Despite his father's origins there is little to suggest that Stilicho considered himself anything other than a Roman, and he was probably not Arian like many of Germanic Christians and probably Nicene Orthodox because of his high rank within the empire. Most emperors, being Catholic/Orthodox, would have not trusted the Empire's security to an Arian, and Stilicho rose in rank under Theodosius I, who declared Nicene Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire...

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Stil&#301;cho in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

The son of a Vandal leader, who became one of the most distinguished generals of Theodosius I., on whose death (A.D. 395) he became the real ruler of the West under the emperor Honorius. It was he who defeated Alaric at the battle of Pollentia (403 A.D.) and thus saved the Western Empire from the Visigoths. In 405 he won a great victory over Radagaisus, who had led a host of barbarians into Italy. His importance as a soldier is seen in the fact that only three months after his death, Alaric and his hosts were thundering at the gates of Rome. He was put to death at Ravenna in 408 (Zosim. bks. iv., v.).

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Lucius Cornelius Sulla in Wikipedia

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix[1] (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman. He had the rare distinction of holding the office of consul twice as well as the dictatorship. He was one of the canonical great men of Roman history; included in the biographical collections of leading generals and politicians, originating in the biographical compendium of famous Romans, published by Marcus Terentius Varro. In Plutarch's Sulla, in the famous series - Parallel Lives, Sulla is paired with the Spartan general and strategist Lysander. Sulla's dictatorship came during a high point in the struggle between optimates and populares, the former seeking to maintain the power of the oligarchy in the form of the Senate while the latter resorted in many cases to naked populism, culminating in Caesar's dictatorship. Sulla was a highly original, gifted and skillful general, never losing a battle; he remains the only man in history to have attacked and occupied both Athens and Rome. His rival, Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, described Sulla as having the cunning of a fox and the courage of a lion - but that it was the former attribute that was by far the most dangerous. This mixture was later referred to by Machiavelli in his description of the ideal characteristics of a ruler...

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Sulla in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Lucius, surnamed Felix, the dictator, was born in B.C. 138. Although his father left him only a small property, his means were sufficient to secure for him a good education. He studied Greek and Roman literature with diligence and success, and appears early to have imbibed that love for literature and art by which he was distinguished throughout life. At the same time he prosecuted pleasure with equal ardour, and his youth as well as his manhood was disgraced by the most sensual vices. Still his love of pleasure did not absorb all his time, nor did it emasculate his mind; for no Roman during the latter days of the Republic, with the exception of Iulius Caesar, had a clearer judgment, a keener discrimination of character, or a firmer will. The slender property of Sulla was increased by the liberality of his step-mother and of a courtesan named Nicopolis, both of whom left him all their fortune. His means, though still scanty for a Roman noble, now enabled him to aspire to the honours of the State. He was quaestor in 107, when he served under Marius in Africa. Hitherto he had only been known for his profligacy; but he displayed both zeal and ability in the discharge of his duties, and soon gained the approbation of his commander and the affections of the soldiers. It was to Sulla that Iugurtha was delivered by Bocchus; and the quaestor thus shared with the consul the glory of bringing this war to a conclusion. Sulla himself was so proud of his share in the success that he had a seal ring engraved, representing the surrender of Iugurtha, which he continued to wear till the day of his death. Sulla continued to serve under Marius with great distinction in the campaigns against the Cimbri and Teutones; but Marius becoming jealous of the rising fame of his officer, Sulla left Marius in 102, and took a command under the colleague of Marius, Q. Catulus, who intrusted the chief management of the war to Sulla. Sulla now returned to Rome, where he appears to have lived quietly for some years. He was praetor in 93, and in the following year (B.C. 92) was sent as propraetor into Cilicia, with special orders from the Senate to restore Ariobarzanes to his kingdom of Cappadocia, from which he had been expelled by Mithridates. Sulla met with complete success. He defeated Gordius, the general of Mithridates, in Cappadocia, and placed Ariobarzanes on the throne. The enmity between Marius and Sulla now assumed a more deadly form. Sulla 's ability and increasing reputation had already led the aristocratic party to look up to him as one of their leaders; and thus political animosity was added to private hatred. In addition to this, Marius and Sulla were both anxious to obtain the command of the impending war against Mithridates; and the success which attended Sulla 's recent operations in the East had increased his popularity, and pointed him out as the most suitable person for this important command. About this time Bocchus erected in the Capitol gilded figures, representing the surrender of Iugurtha to Sulla , at which Marius was so enraged that he could scarcely be prevented from removing them by force. The exasperation of both parties became so violent that they nearly had recourse to arms against each other; but the breaking out of the Social War hushed all private quarrels for the time. Marius and Sulla both took an active part in the war against the common foe. But Marius was now advanced in years; and he had the deep mortification of finding that his achievements were thrown into the shade by the superior energy of his rival. Sulla gained some brilliant victories over the enemy, and took Bovianum, the chief town of the Samnites. He was elected consul for 88, and received from the Senate the command of the Mithridatic War. The events which followed--his expulsion from Rome by Marius, his return to the city at the head of his legions, and the proscription of Marius and his leading adherents--are related in the article Marius. Sulla remained at Rome till the end of the year, and set out for Greece at the beginning of 87, in order to carry on the war against Mithridates. He landed at Dyrrhachium, and forthwith marched against Athens, which had become the headquarters of the Mithridatic cause in Greece. After a long and obstinate siege, Athens was taken by storm on the first of March in 86, and was given up to rapine and plunder. Sulla then marched against Archelaüs, the general of Mithridates, whom he defeated in the neighbourhood of Chaeronea in Boeotia; and in the following year he again gained a decisive victory over the same general near Orchomenus. But while Sulla was carrying on the war with such success in Greece, his enemies had obtained the upper hand in Italy. The consul Cinna , who had been driven out of Rome by his colleague Octavius soon after Sulla 's departure from Italy, had entered it again with Marius at the close of the year. Both Cinna and Marius were appointed consuls 86, and all the regulations of Sulla were swept away. Sulla , however, would not return to Italy till he had brought the war against Mithridates to a conclusion. After driving the generals of Mithridates out of Greece, Sulla crossed the Hellespont, and early in 84 concluded a peace with the king of Pontus. He now turned his arms against Fimbria, who had been appointed by the Marian party as his successor in the command. But the troops of Fimbria deserted their general, who put an end to his own life. Sulla now prepared to return to Italy. After leaving his legate, L. Licinius Murena, in com Sulla. (Bust in the Capitoline Museum.) mand of the province of Asia, with two legions, he set sail with his own army to Athens. While preparing for his deadly struggle in Italy, he did not lose his interest in literature. He carried with him from Athens to Rome the valuablelibrary of Apellicon of Teos, which contained most of the works of Aristotle and Theophrastus. (See Apellicon.) He landed at Brundisium in the spring of 83. The Marian party far outnumbered him in troops, and had every prospect of victory. By bribery and promises, however, Sulla gained over a large number of the Marian soldiers, and he persuaded many of the Italian towns to espouse his cause. In the field his efforts were crowned with equal success; and he was ably supported by several of the Roman nobles, who espoused his cause in different parts of Italy. Of these one of the most distinguished was the young Cn. Pompey, who was at the time only twenty-three years of age. (See Pompeius, No. 10.) In the following year (B.C. 82) the struggle was brought to a close by the decisive battle gained by Sulla over the Samnites and Lucanians under Pontius Telesinus before the Colline Gate of Rome. This victory was followed by the surrender of Praenesté and the death of the younger Marius, who had taken refuge in this town. Sulla was now master of Rome and Italy; and he resolved to take the most ample vengeance upon his enemies, and to extirpate the popular party. One of his first acts was to draw up a list of his enemies who were to be put to death, called a proscriptio. It was the first instance of the kind in Roman history. All persons in this list were outlaws who might be killed by any one with impunity, even by slaves; their property was confiscated to the State, and was to be sold by public auction; their children and grandchildren lost their votes in the Comitia, and were excluded from all public offices. Further, all who killed a proscribed person received two talents as a reward, and whoever sheltered such a person was punished with death. Terror now reigned not only at Rome, but throughout Italy. Fresh lists of the proscribed constantly appeared. No one was safe; for Sulla gratified his friends by placing in the fatal lists their personal enemies, or persons whose property was coveted by his adherents. The confiscated property, it is true, belonged to the State, and had to be sold by public auction; but the friends and dependants of Sulla purchased it at a nominal price, as no one dared to bid against them. The number of persons who perished by the proscriptions is stated differently, but it appears to have amounted to many thousands. At the commencement of these horrors Sulla had been appointed dictator for as long a time as he judged it to be necessary. This was towards the close of 81. Sulla 's chief object in being invested with the dictatorship was to carry into execution, in a legal manner, the great changes which he meditated in the constitution and the administration of justice. He had no intention of abolishing the Republic; and, consequently, he caused consuls to be elected for the following year, and was elected to the office himself in 80, while he continued to hold the dictatorship. The general object of Sulla 's reforms was to restore, as far as possible, the ancient Roman constitution, and to give back to the Senate and the aristocracy the power which they had lost. Thus he deprived the tribunes of the plebs of all real power, and abolished altogether the legislative and judicial functions of the Comitia Tributa. At the beginning of 81 he celebrated a splendid triumph on account of his victory over Mithridates. In a speech which he delivered to the people at the close of the ceremony, he claimed for himself the surname of Felix, as he attributed his success in life to the favour of the gods. In order to strengthen his power, Sulla established military colonies throughout Italy. The inhabitants of the Italian towns which had fought against Sulla were deprived of the full Roman franchise, and were only allowed to retain the commercium: their land was confiscated and given to the soldiers who had fought under him. Twenty-three legions, or, according to another statement, forty-seven legions, received grants of land in various parts of Italy. A great number of these colonies was settled in Etruria, the population of which was thus almost entirely changed. These colonies had the strongest interest in upholding the institutions of Sulla , since any attempt to invalidate the latter would have endangered their newly acquired possessions. Sulla likewise created at Rome a kind of body-guard for his protection by giving the citizenship to a great number of slaves who had belonged to persons proscribed by him. The slaves thus rewarded are said to have been as many as ten thousand, and were called Cornelii after him as their patron. After holding the dictatorship till the beginning of 79, Sulla resigned this office, to the surprise of all classes. He retired to his estate at Puteoli, and there, surrounded by the beauties of nature and art, he passed the remainder of his life in those literary and sensual enjoyments in which he had always taken so much pleasure. His dissolute mode of life hastened his death, but the immediate cause was the rupture of a blood-vessel; though some time before he had been suffering from the disgusting disease which is known in modern times by the name of morbus pediculosus, or phthiriasis. He died in 78, in the sixtieth year of his age. He was honoured with a public funeral, and a monument was erected to him in the Campus Martius, the inscription on which had been composed by himself. It stated that none of his friends ever did him a kindness, and none of his enemies a wrong, without being fully repaid. Sulla was married five times: (a) To Ilia or Iulia, who bore him a daughter, married to Q. Pompeius Rufus, the son of Sulla 's colleague in the consulship in 88; (b) to Aelia; (c) to Caelia; (d) to Caecilia Metella, who bore him a son, who died before Sulla , and likewise twins, a son and a daughter; (e) to Valeria, who bore him a daughter after his death. Sulla wrote a history of his own life and times, called Memorabilia (Ὑπομνήματα). It was dedicated to L. Lucullus, and extended to twentytwo books, the last of which was finished by Sulla a few days before his death. He also wrote Fabulae Atellanae, and the Greek Anthology contains a short epigram which is ascribed to him. See Gerlach, Marius und Sulla (1856); and Beesly, The Gracchi, Marius, and Sulla (New York, 1878).

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Tacitus in Wikipedia

Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (AD 56 – AD 117) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works-the Annals and the Histories- examine the reigns of the Roman Emperors Tiberius, Claudius, Nero and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors. These two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus in AD 14 to (presumably) the death of emperor Domitian in AD 96. There are enormous lacunae in the surviving texts, including one four books long in the Annals. Other works by Tacitus discuss oratory (in dialogue format, see Dialogus de oratoribus), Germania (in De origine et situ Germanorum), and biographical notes about his father-in-law Agricola, primarily during his campaign in Britannia (see De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae). Tacitus was an author writing in the latter part of the Silver Age of Latin literature. His work is distinguished by a boldness and sharpness of wit, and a compact and sometimes unconventional use of Latin...

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Tac&#301;tus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Publius Cornelius. (The praenomen, Publius, is given in the best MS. [Med. I.]; and in an inscription.) One of the greatest of the Roman writers of history. The time and place of his birth are unknown. He was a little older than the younger Pliny , who was born A.D. 61. His father was probably Cornelius Tacitus, a Roman eques, who is mentioned as a procurator in Gallia Belgica, and who died in 79 (Pliny , Epist. vii. 76). Tacitus was first promoted by the emperor Vespasian, and he received other favours from both Titus and Domitian ( Hist. i. 1). The most probable account is that Tacitus was appointed tribunus militum laticlavius by Vespasian, quaestor by Titus, and praetor by Domitian. In 78 he married the daughter of the famous general, C. Iulius Agricola, to whom he had been betrothed in the preceding year, while Agricola was consul. In the reign of Domitian, and in 88, Tacitus was praetor, and he assisted as one of the quindecimviri at the Ludi Saeculares which were celebrated in that year ( Ann. xi. 11). Agricola died at Rome in 93, but neither Tacitus nor the daughter of Agricola was then with him. It is not known where Tacitus was during the last illness of Agricola. In the reign of Nerva, 97, Tacitus was appointed consul suffectus, in the place of T. Virginius Rufus, who had died in that year, and whose funeral oration he delivered. We know that Tacitus had attained oratorical distinction when the younger Pliny was commencing his career. He and Tacitus were appointed in the reign of Nerva (A.D. 99) to conduct the prosecution of Marius, proconsul of Africa. Tacitus and Pliny were most intimate friends. In the collection of the letters of Pliny there are eleven letters addressed to Tacitus. The time of the death of Tacitus is unknown, but he appears to have survived Trajan, who died 117. Nothing is recorded of any children of his, though the Emperor Tacitus claimed a descent from the historian, and ordered his works to be placed in all public libraries. Extant works of Tacitus 1. Vita Agricolae The life of Agricola, which was written after the death of Domitian (A.D. 96), as we may probably conclude from the introduction, which was certainly written after Trajan's accession. This life is justly admired as a specimen of biography. It is a monument to the memory of a noble man and an able commander and administrator, by an affectionate son-in-law, who has portrayed, in his peculiar manner and with many masterly touches, the virtues of one of the most illustrious of the Romans. 2. Historiae These were written after the death of Nerva (A.D. 98) and before the Annales. They comprehended the period from the second consulship of Galba (A.D. 68) to the death of Domitian (A.D. 96), and the author designed to add the reigns of Nerva and Trajan. The first four books alone are extant in a complete form, and they comprehend only the events of about one year. The fifth book is imperfect, and goes no further than the commencement of the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, and the war of Civilis in Germany. It is not known how many books of the Historiae there were, but it must have been a large work if it was all written on the same scale as the first five books. 3. Annales These commence with the death of Augustus (A.D. 14), hence ab excessu divi Augusti, and comprise the period to the death of Nero (A.D. 68)-a space of fifty-four years. The greater part of the fifth book is lost, and also the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, the beginning of the eleventh, and the end of the sixteenth, which is the last book. These lost parts comprised the whole of Caligula's reign, the first five years of Claudius, and the last two of Nero. 4. De Moribus et Populis Germaniae Usually called the Germania, a treatise describing the Germanic nations. It is of little value as a geographical description; the first few chapters contain as much of the geography of Germany as Tacitus knew. The main subject is the description of the political institutions, the religion, and the habits of the various tribes included under the name Germani. The value of the information contained in this treatise has often been discussed, and its credibility attacked; but we may estimate its true character by observing the precision of the writer as to those Germans who were best known to the Romans from being near the Rhine. That the hearsay accounts of more remote tribes must partake of the defects of all such evidence is obvious; and we cannot easily tell whether Tacitus embellished that which he had heard obscurely told. But to consider the Germany as a fiction, or as a purely political tract, is one of those absurdities which need only be recorded, not refuted. Dialogus de Oratoribus. If this dialogue is the work of Tacitus, and it probably is, it must be his earliest work, for it was written in the sixth year of Vespasian. The style is more easy than that of the Annales-more diffuse, less condensed; but there is an obvious difference between the style of the Dialogus and the Historiae-nothing so striking as to make us contend for a different authorship. Besides this, it is nothing unusual for works of the same author, which are written at different times, to vary greatly in style, especially if they treat of different matters. The oldest MSS. also attribute the Dialogus to Tacitus. (See Gudeman's introduction to his edition of the work.) The treatise is an essay, in the form of a dialogue, giving an account of the decay of oratory under the Empire. Assessment. The Annales of Tacitus, the work of a mature age, contain the chief events of the period which they embrace, arranged under their several years. There seems no peculiar propriety in giving the name of Annales to this work, simply because the events are arranged in the order of time. In the Annales of Tacitus, the Princeps or Emperor is the centre about which events are grouped. Yet the most important public events, both in Italy and the provinces, are not omitted, though everything is treated as subordinate to the exhibition of imperial power. The Historiae, which were written before the Annales, are in a more diffuse style, and the treatment of the extant part is different from that of the Annales. Tacitus wrote the Historiae as a contemporary; the Annales as not a contemporary. They are two distinct works, not parts of one, which is clearly shown by the very different proportions of the two works: the first four books of the Historiae comprise about a year, and the first four books of the Annales comprise fourteen years. The moral dignity of Tacitus is impressed upon his works; the consciousness of a love of truth, of the integrity of his purpose. His great power is in the knowledge of the human mind, his insight into the motives of human conduct; and he found materials for its exercise in the history of the emperors, and particularly Tiberius, whose strange career and enigmatical personality fascinated him. The Annales are filled with dramatic scenes and striking catastrophes. He laboured to produce effect by the exhibition of great personages on the stage; but as to the mass of the people we learn little from Tacitus. The style of Tacitns is peculiar, though it bears some resemblance to In the Annales it is concise, vigorous, and pregnant with meaning; laboured, but elaborated with art, and stripped of every superfluity. A single word sometimes gives effect to a sentence; and if the meaning of the word is missed, the sense of the writer is not reached. Such a work is probably the result of many transcriptions by the author. Tacitus is generally brief and rapid in his sketches; but he is sometimes almost too minute when he comes to work out a dramatic scene; and he displays all the conscious rhetoric of his age. The condensed style of Tacitus sometimes makes him obscure, but it is a kind of obscurity that is dispelled by careful reading. Yet a man must read carefully and often, in order to understand him; and it cannot be supposed that Tacitus was ever a popular writer. He is often intensely epigrammatic, and exhibits the qualities of style that are found in the typical writers of the Silver Age. Many of his pregnant phrases have passed into the world's anthology of quotations, such as Omne ignotum pro magnifico and Solitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant. In his view of the condition of Roman society he is thoroughly pessimistic, and by contemplating only one section of it he is led into an unconscious exaggeration which the reader should correct by the reading of the contemporary and friend of Tacitus, Pliny the Younger, whose more pleasing picture of the time is a wholesome check upon any too sweeping condemnation of the imperial period of Rome's social history. Manuscripts The manuscripts of Tacitus are few and unsatisfactory. For the first six books of the Annales only one source exists-the Codex Mediceus (I.) of the ninth century, and found about 1520. From this bks. vii.-ix. are lost, as are Historiae v.-xiv. For what remains of these, a second Codex Mediceus (II.) of the eleventh or twelfth century is the only authority. The Germania and Dialogus are found in two manuscripts-one at Leyden (Codex Leidensis [Perizonianus]), and the other in the Vatican. The Agricola is found in two transcriptions of an earlier MS. Both of these are in the Vatican. On the codices of Tacitus, see the introduction to the edition of the Dialogus by Michaelis (1868), and Gudeman (1894), and in Ritter's edition (1864). Bibliography Editions of the complete works of Tacitus are the editio princeps by Puteolanus (Milan, c. 1476); Lipsius (Antwerp, 1574); Gronovius (Amsterdam, 1672); Bekker, with variorum notes, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1831); Ritter (last ed. Bonn, 1864); Döderlein, 2 vols. (Halle, 1841-47); Orelli, 2 vols. (Zürich, 1846, variously revised and republished, 1859, 1877); and texts by Halm (1884); and Müller (Prague, 1885). Separate editions with English notes are those of the Annales by Furneaux, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1891- 92); Allen (Boston, 1890); of the Historiae by Simcox (London, 1876), Godley (London, 1887-90), and Spooner (London, 1891); of the Agricola and Germania by Frost (London, 1861), Church and Brodribb (London, 1889), by Haverfield (announced), and by Hopkins (New York and Boston, 1893); of the Dialogus by Peterson (Oxford, 1893), and especially by Gudeman (New York and Boston, 1894), a most exhaustive and elaborate work, with extremely valuable prolegomena; also a compact and convenient edition by Bennett (New York and Boston, 1894). There are English translations of Tacitus by Gordon (London, 1728-31), Murphy (London, 1793), and by Church and Brodribb (London, 1876- 77). There is a fine lexicon to Tacitus by Gerber and Greef, still appearing in parts. An older lexicon (complete) is that of Boetticher (1832). On Tacitus, see Urlichs, De Taciti Vita (Würzburg, 1879); J. Müller, Philos. und relig. Anschau- ungen des Tacitus (Feldkirch, 1874); and Schiller, Geschichte d. röm. Kaiserzeit, i. 586 (Gotha, 1883). On his diction, etc., see Dräger, Ueber Syntax und Stil des Tacitus (3d ed. Leipzig, 1882); Wolff, Die Sprache des Tacitus (Frankfurt, 1879); Gericke, De Abundanti Dicendi Genere Tacitino (Berlin, 1882), and the numerous monographs cited in Teuffel-SchwabeWarr, ii. 333, 16. See also the short studies by Donne (1873) and Church and Brodribb (1881).

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Tarquin the Elder in Wikipedia

Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, also called Tarquin the Elder or Tarquin I, was the fifth King of Rome from 616 BC to 579 BC. His wife was Tanaquil. Early life - According to Livy, Tarquinius Priscus came from the Etruscan city of Tarquinii. Livy claims that his original Etruscan name was Lucumo, but since Lucumo (Etruscan Lauchme) is the Etruscan word for "King", there is reason to believe that Priscus' name and title have been confused in the official tradition. After inheriting his father's entire fortune, Lucius attempted to gain a political office. Disgruntled with his opportunities in Etruria (because of a prejudice against foreigners), he migrated to Rome with his wife Tanaquil, at her suggestion. He had been prohibited from obtaining political office in Tarquinii because of the ethnicity of his father, Demaratus the Corinthian, who came from the Greek city of Corinth. Legend has it that on his arrival in Rome in a chariot, an eagle took his cap, flew away and then returned it back upon his head. Tanaquil, who was skilled in prophecy, interpreted this as an omen of his future greatness. In Rome he attained respect through his courtesy. King Ancus Marcius himself noticed Tarquinius and, by his will, appointed Tarquinius guardian of his own sons...

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Tarquin the Proud in Wikipedia

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (535 B.C. – 496 B.C.) was the seventh King of Rome, reigning from 535 until the Roman revolt in 509 B.C. which would lead to the establishment of the Roman Republic. He is more commonly known by his cognomen Tarquinius Superbus (literally, Tarquin the Proud[1]) and was a member of the Etruscan dynasty of Rome. The historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus may have divided one historical figure named Tarquin into two separate kings because of problems with dating their legendary events. It is said that Tarquin killed the preceding king, Servius Tullius to make himself king of Rome. Tarquin's father, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, was the fifth King of Rome reigning from 616-579 B.C. His grand- father was said to be Demaratus the Corinthian, from the Greek city of Corinth. Priscus came from the Etruscan city of Tarquinii. Disgruntled with his opportunities in Etruria, Priscus migrated to Rome with his wife Tanaquil, at her suggestion. A propitious omen is said to have led to Priscus' establishment as King of Rome...

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Tarquinius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

(Tarcho). The name of a family in early Roman tradition to which the fifth and seventh kings of Rome belonged. The legend of the Tarquins ran as follows: Demaratus, their ancestor, belonged to the noble family of the Bacchiadae at Corinth, and fled from his native city when the power of his order was overthrown by Cypselus. He settled at Tarquinii in Etruria, where he had mercantile connections. He married an Etruscan wife, by whom he had two sons, Lucumo and Aruns. The latter died in the lifetime of his father, leaving his wife pregnant; but as Demaratus was ignorant of this circumstance, he bequeathed all his property to Lucumo, and died himself shortly afterwards. But, although Lucumo was thus one of the most wealthy persons at Tarquinii, and had married Tanaquil, who belonged to a family of the highest rank, he was excluded, as a stranger, from all power and influence in the State. Discontented with this inferior position, and urged on by his wife, he resolved to leave Tarquinii and remove to Rome. He accordingly set out for Rome, riding in a chariot with his wife, and accompanied by a large train of followers. When they had reached the Ianiculum, an eagle seized his cap, and after carrying it away to a great height placed it again upon his head. Tanaquil, who was skilled in the Etruscan science of augury, bade her husband hope for the highest honour from this omen. Her predictions were soon verified. The stranger was received with welcome, and he and his followers were admitted to the rights of Roman citizens. He took the name of L. Tarquinius, to which Livy adds Priscus. His wealth, his courage, and his wisdom gained him the love both of Ancus Marcius and of the people. The former appointed him guardian of his children; and, when he died, the Senate and the people unanimously elected Tarquinius to the vacant throne. The reign of Tarquinius was distinguished by great exploits in war and by great works in peace. He defeated the Latins and Sabines; and the latter people ceded to him the town of Collatia, where he placed a garrison under the command of Egerius, the son of his deceased brother Aruns, who took the surname of Collatinus. Some traditions relate that Tarquinius defeated the Etruscans also. Among the important works which Tarquinius executed in peace, the most celebrated are the vast sewers by which the lower parts of the city were drained, and which still remain, with not a stone displaced, to bear witness to his power and wealth. He is also said in some traditions to have laid out the Circus Maximus in the valley which had been redeemed from water by the sewers, and also to have instituted the Great or Roman Games, which were henceforth performed in the Circus. The Forum, with its porticoes and rows of shops, was also his work, and he likewise began to surround the city with a stone wall, a work which was finished by his successor, Servius Tullius. The building of the Capitoline Temple is, moreover, attributed to the elder Tarquinius, though most traditions ascribe this work to his son, and only the vow to the father. Tarquinius also made some changes in the constitution of the State. He added one hundred new members to the Senate, who were called patres minorum gentium, to distinguish them from the old senators, who were now called patres maiorum gentium. He wished to add to the three centuries of equites established by Romulus three new centuries, and to call them after himself and two of his friends. His plan was opposed by the augur Attus Navius, who gave a convincing proof that the gods were opposed to his purpose. (See Navius.) Accordingly, he gave up his design of establishing new centuries, but to each of the former Tomb of the Tarquins. centuries he associated another under the same name, so that henceforth there were the first and second Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres. He increased the number of Vestal Virgins from four to six. Tarquinius was murdered, after a reign of thirty-eight years, at the instigation of the sons of Ancus Marcius. But the latter did not secure the reward of their crime, for Servius Tullius, with the assistance of Tanaquil, succeeded to the vacant throne (Livy, i. 34-41). Tarquinius left two sons and two daughters. His two sons, L. Tarquinius and Aruns, were subsequently married to the two daughters of Servius Tullius. One of his daughters was married to Servius Tullius, and the other to M. Brutus, by whom she became the mother of the celebrated L. Brutus, the first consul at Rome. Servius Tullius, whose life is given under Tullius, was murdered, after a reign of forty-four years, by his son-in-law, L. Tarquinius, who ascended the vacant throne. L. Tarquinius Superbus commenced his reign without any of the forms of election. One of the first acts of his reign was to abolish the rights which had been conferred upon the plebeians by Servius; and at the same time all the senators and patricians whom he mistrusted or whose wealth he coveted were put to death or driven into exile. He surrounded himself by a body-guard, by means of which he was enabled to do what he liked. His cruelty and tyranny obtained for him the surname of Superbus. But although a tyrant at home, he raised Rome to great influence and power among the surrounding nations. He gave his daughter in marriage to Octavius Mamilius of Tusculum, the most powerful of the Latin chiefs; and under his sway Rome became the head of the Latin Confederacy. He defeated the Volscians, and took the wealthy town of Suessa Pometia, with the spoils of which he commenced the erection of the Capitol which his father had vowed. In the vaults of this temple he deposited the Sibylline Books, which the king purchased from a Sibyl or prophetess. She had offered to sell him nine books for 300 pieces of gold. The king refused the offer with scorn. Therefore she went away and burned three, and then demanded the same price for the six. The king still refused. She again went away and burned three more, and still demanded the same price for the remaining three. The king now purchased the three books, and the Sibyl disappeared. (See Sibylla.) He next engaged in war with Gabii, one of the Latin cities, which refused to enter into the league. Unable to take the city by force of arms, Tarquinius had recourse to stratagem. His son, Sextus, pretending to be ill-treated by his father, and covered with the bloody marks of stripes, fled to Gabii. The infatuated inhabitants intrusted him with the command of their troops; whereupon he sent a messenger to his father to inquire how he should deliver the city into his hands. The king, who was walking in his garden when the messenger arrived, made no reply, but kept striking off the heads of the tallest poppies with his stick. Sextus took the hint. He put to death or banished all the leading men of the place, and then had no difficulty in compelling it to submit to his father. In the midst of his prosperity, Tarquinius fell through a shameful outrage committed by one of his sons. Tarquinius and his sons were engaged in besieging Ardea, a city of the Rutulians. Here, as the king's sons, and their cousin, Tarquinius Collatinus, the son of Egerius, were feasting together, a dispute arose about the virtue of their wives. As nothing was doing in the field, they mounted their horses to visit their homes by surprise. They first went to Rome, where they surprised the king's daughters at a splendid banquet. They then hastened to Collatia, and there, though it was late in the night, they found Lucretia, the wife of Collatinus, spinning amid her handmaids. The beauty and virtue of Lucretia had fired the evil passions of Sextus. A few days afterwards he returned to Collatia, where he was hospitably received by Lucretia as her husband's kinsman. In the dead of night he entered the chamber with a drawn sword: by threatening to lay a slave with his throat cut beside her, whom he would pretend to have killed in order to avenge her husband's honour, he forced her to yield to his wishes. As soon as Sextus had departed, Lucretia sent for her husband and father. Collatinus came, accompanied by L. Brutus; Lucretius, with P. Valerius, who afterwards gained the surname of Publicola. They found her in an agony of sorrow. She told them what had happened, enjoined them to avenge her dishonour, and then stabbed herself to death. They all swore to avenge her. Brutus threw off his assumed stupidity, and placed himself at their head. They carried the corpse to Rome. Brutus, who was tribunus celerum, summoned the people, and related the deed of shame. All classes were inflamed with the same indignation. A decree was passed deposing the king, and banishing him and his family from the city. The army, encamped before Ardea, likewise renounced their allegiance to the tyrant. Tarquinius, with his two sons, Titus and Aruns, took refuge at Caeré in Etruria. Sextus repaired to Gabii, his own principality, where he was shortly after murdered by the friends of those whom he had put to death. Tarquinius reigned twenty-four years. He was banished B.C. 510. The people of Tarquinii and Veii espoused the cause of the exiled tyrant, and marched against Rome. The two consuls advanced to meet them. A bloody battle was fought, in which Brutus and Aruns, the son of Tarquinius, slew each other. Tarquinius next repaired to Lars Porsena, the powerful king of Clusium, who marched against Rome at the head of a vast army. The history of this expedition is related under Porsena. After Porsena quitted Rome, Tarquinius took refuge with his son-in-law, Mamilius Octavius of Tusculum. Under the guidance of the latter, the Latin States espoused the cause of the exiled king, and declared war against Rome. The contest was decided by the celebrated battle of Lake Regillus, in which the Romans gained the victory by the help of Castor and Pollux. Tarquinius himself was wounded, but escaped with his life; his son Sextus is said to have fallen in this battle, though, according to another tradition, as we have already seen, he was slain by the inhabitants of Gabii. Tarquinius Superbus had now no other State to whom he could apply for assistance. He had already survived all his family; and he now fled to Aristobulus at Cumae, where he died a wretched and remorseful old man (Livy, ii. 121). Such is the story of the Tarquins according to the ancient writers; but this story must not be received as a real history. It is the attempt to assign a definite origin to certain Roman institutions, to some features in the military organization, and to some ancient public works in the city, of which the history had been obscured by lapse of time. There can be no real doubt that it indicates as the time when these things were carried out a period during which a family of Etruscan origin held the chief power at Rome; and there is at least much probability (though this is denied by some writers of great authority) that this rule was imposed upon Rome by the dominant power of the Etruscans. See Mommsen, History of Rome (Amer. ed.), i. pp. 174, 321 foll., 590; Ihne, Early Rome (New York, 1878).

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Theodosius I in Wikipedia

Flavius Theodosius (11 January 347 – 17 January 395), commonly known as Theodosius I or Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from 378 to 395. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. During his reign, the Goths secured control of Illyricum after the Gothic War - establishing their homeland south of the Danube within the empire's borders. He is known for making Nicene Christianity the official state religion of the Roman Empire, [1] issuing decrees that effectively worked towards melding the Roman state and the Christian Church into a single de facto church-state entity.[2] He is recognized by the Eastern Orthodox Church as Saint Theodosius. He defeated the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius and fostered the destruction of some prominent pagan temples: the Serapeum in Alexandria, the Temple of Apollo in Delphi, and the Vestal Virgins in Rome. After his death, Theodosius' sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the East and West halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united...

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Theodosius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Surnamed The Great, Roman emperor of the East, A.D. 378-395. He was the son of the general Theodosius who restored Britain to the Empire, and was beheaded at Carthage in the reign of Valens (A.D. 376). The future emperor was born in Spain about A.D. 346. He received a good education; and he learned the art of war under his own father, whom he accompanied in his British campaigns. During his father's lifetime he was raised to the rank of Duke (dux) of Moesia, where he defeated the Sarmatians (374 A.D.) and saved the province. On the death of his father he retired before court intrigues to his native country. He acquired a considerable military reputation in the lifetime of his father; and after the death of Valens, who fell in battle against the Goths, he was proclaimed emperor of the East by Gratian, who felt himself unable to sustain the burden of the Empire. The Roman Empire in the East was then in a critical position; for the Romans were disheartened by the bloody defeat which they had sustained, and the Goths were insolent in their victory. Theodosius, however, showed himself equal to the difficult position in which he was placed; he gained two signal victories over the Goths, and concluded a peace with the barbarians in 382. In the following year (383 A.D.) Maximus assumed the imperial purple in Britain, and invaded Gaul with a powerful army. In the war which followed Gratian was slain; and Theodosius, who did not consider it prudent to enter into a contest with Maximus, acknowledged the latter emperor of the countries of Spain, Gaul, and Britain, but he secured to Valentinian, the brother of Gratian, Italy, Africa, and western Illyricum. But when Maximus expelled Valentinian from Italy in 387, Theodosius espoused the cause of the latter, and marched into the West at the head of a powerful army. After defeating Maximus in Pannonia, Theodosius pursued him across the Alps to Aquileia. Here Maximus was surrendered by his own soldiers to Theodosius and was put to death. Theodosius spent the winter at Milan, and in the following year (389 A.D.) he entered Rome in triumph, accompanied by Valentinian and his own son Honorius. Two events in the life of Theodosius about this time may be mentioned as evidence of his uncertain character and his savage temper. In 387 a riot took place at Antioch, in which the statues of the emperor, of his father, and of his wife were thrown down; but these idle demonstrations were quickly suppressed by an armed force. When Theodosius heard of these riots, he degraded Antioch from the rank of a city, stripped it of its possessions and privileges, and reduced it to the condition of a village dependent on Laodicea. But in consequence of the intercession of Antioch and the Senate of Constantinople, he pardoned the city, and all who had taken part in the riot. The other event is an eternal brand of infamy on the name of Theodosius. In 390, while the emperor was at Milan, a serious riot broke out at Thessalonica, in which the imperial officer and several of his troops were murdered. Theodosius resolved to take the most signal vengeance upon the whole city. An army of barbarians was sent to Thessalonica; the people were invited to the games of the Circus; and as soon as the place was full, the soldiers received the signal for massacre. For three hours the spectators were indiscriminately exposed to the fury of the soldiers, and 7000 of them, or, as some accounts say, more than twice that number, paid the penalty of the insurrection. St. Ambrose, Archbishop of Milan, represented to Theodosius his crime in a letter, and told him that penitence alone could efface his guilt. Accordingly, when the emperor proceeded to perform his devotions in the usual manner in the great church of Milan, the archbishop stopped him at the door, and demanded an acknowledgment of his guilt. The conscience-struck Theodosius humbled himself before the church, which has recorded his penance as one of its greatest victories. He laid aside the insignia of imperial power; in the posture of a suppliant in the church of Milan he asked pardon for his great sin before all the congregation; and, after eight months, the emperor was restored to communion with the Church. Theodosius spent three years in Italy, during which he established Valentinian II. on the throne of the West. He returned to Constantinople towards the latter end of 391. Valentinian was slain in 392 by Arbogastes, who raised Eugenius to the Empire of the West. This involved Theodosius in a new war; but it ended in the defeat and death both of Eugenius and Arbogastes in 394. Theodosius died at Milan, four months after the defeat of Eugenius, on the 17th of January, 395. His two sons, Arcadius and Honorius, had already been elevated to the rank of Augusti, and it was arranged that the Empire should be divided between them, Arcadius having the East, and Honorius the West. Theodosius was a firm Catholic, and a fierce opponent and persecutor of the Arians and all heretics. It was in his reign also that the formal destruction of paganism took place; and we still possess a large number of the laws of Theodosius, prohibiting the exercise of the pagan religion, and forbidding the heathen worship under severe penalties, in some cases extending to death.

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Tibullus in Wikipedia

Albius Tibullus (ca. 55-19 BC) was a Latin poet and writer of elegies. Little is known about his life. His first and second books of poetry are extant; many other texts attributed to Tibullus are of questionable origins. There are only a few references to him in later writers and a short Life of doubtful authority. His praenomen is not known, nor is his birthplace and his gentile name has been questioned. His status was probably that of a Roman knight (so the Life affirms); and he had inherited a considerable estate. But, like Virgil, Horace and Propertius, he seems to have lost most of it in 41 BC amongst the confiscations of Mark Antony and Octavian...

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Tibullus, Albius in Harpers Dictionary

a Roman elegiac poet of equestrian family. The date of his birth is uncertain, but he died young, soon after Vergil. His birth is therefore placed by conjecture B.C. 54, and his death B.C. 19. Of his youth and education absolutely nothing is known. The estate belonging to the equestrian ancestors of Tibullus was at Pedum, between Tibur and Praenesté. This property, like that of the other great poets of the day, Vergil and Horace, had been either entirely or partially confiscated during the Civil Wars; yet Tibullus retained or recovered part of it, perhaps through Messalla, and spent there the better portion of his short, but peaceful and happy, life (Tib. i. 1, 19; cf. Plin. Ep. i. 4, 7). When his friend and patron, Messalla, was going to his prefecture in Asia, B.C. 30, Tibullus, after first refusing, eventually agreed to accompany him, but fell ill on the way at Corcyra and returned thence to Rome (Tib.i. 1; i. 3). Afterwards, in 28, he went to Aquitania with Messalla, who had been sent by Augustus to suppress a formidable insurrection which had broken out in this province. Part of the glory of the Aquitanian campaign, which Tibullus celebrates in language of unwonted loftiness, redounds, according to the poet, to his own fame. He was present at the battle of Atax (Aude in Languedoc), which quelled the Aquitanian rebellion (Tib. i. 7). So ceased the active life of Tibullus; his remaining history is the chronicle of his poetry and of the loves which inspired it. The first object of his attachment is celebrated under the poetic name of Delia: according to Apuleius ( Apol. 10) her real name was Plania. To Delia are addressed the first six elegies of the first book. The poet's attachment to Delia had begun before he left Rome for Aquitania. But Delia seems to have been faithless during his absence from Rome. On his return from Corcyra he found her ill, and attended her with affectionate solicitude (Eleg. i. 5), and hoped to induce her to retire with him into the country. But first a richer lover appears to have supplanted him with the inconstant Delia, and afterwards there appears a husband in his way. The second book of elegies is chiefly devoted to a new mistress named Nemesis (cf. Ovid, Am. iii. 9, 32; Mart. viii. 73, 7). It is probable, though not certain, that this Nemesis is the same as the Glycera mentioned only by Horace ( Carm. i. 33, 2), who reproves him for dwelling so long in his plaintive elegies on the "pitiless Glycera." The poetry of his contemporaries shows Tibullus to have been a gentle and singularly amiable man. To Horace especially he was an object of warm attachment. Besides the ode which alludes to his passion for Glycera (Hor. Carm. i. 33), the epistle to Tibullus gives the most full and pleasing view of his poetical retreat, and of his character; it is written by a kindred spirit. Horace does homage to that perfect purity of taste which distinguishes the poetry of Tibullus, and he takes pride in the candid but favourable judgment of his own Satires. The time of Tibullus he supposes to be shared between the finishing his exquisite small poems, which were to surpass even those of Cassius of Parma, up to that time the models of this kind of composition, and the enjoyment of the country. Tibullus possessed, according to his friend's notions, all the blessings of life-a competent fortune, favour with the great, fame, health; and he seemed to know how to enjoy all those blessings. The first two books alone of the elegies under the name of Tibullus are of undoubted authenticity. The third is the work of another, a very inferior poet, whether Lygdamus be a real or fictitions name. This poet was much younger than Tibullus, for he was born in the year of the battle of Mutina, 43. It is probable that he was a less gifted member of Messalla's literary circle: this connection with the patron of Tibullus might account for his elegies being confused with the genuine poems of Tibullus. The hexameter poem on Messalla, which opens the fourth book, is so inferior that, although a successful elegiac poet may have failed when he attempted epic verse, it cannot readily be ascribed to a writer of the exquisite taste of Tibullus. If it is his, it must be regarded as an early poem written in an imitative manner, when he was under the full influence of the Alexandrian School. The smaller elegies of the fourth book have all the inimitable grace and simplicity of Tibullus. With the exception of the thirteenth (of which some lines are hardly surpassed by Tibullus himself) these poems relate to the love of a certain Sulpicia , a woman of noble birth, for Cerinthus, the real or fictitious name of a beautiful youth. Nor is there any improbability in supposing that Tibullus may have written elegies in the name or by the desire of Sulpicia. If Sulpicia was herself the poetess, she approached nearer to Tibullus than any other writer of elegies. The first book of elegies alone seems to have been published during the author's life, probably soon after the triumph of Messalla (B.C. 27). The second book probably did not appear till after the death of Tibullus. With it may have been published the elegies of his imitator, perhaps his friend and associate in the society of Messalla, Lygdamus (if that be a real name), i. e. the third book and likewise the fourth, made up of poems belonging, as it were, to this intimate society of Messalla; the Panegyricus Messallae by some unnamed author, which, feeble as it is, seems to be of that age; the poems in the name of Sulpicia , with the concluding one, the thirteenth, a fragment of Tibullus himself. There are editions of Tibullus by Lachmann (Berlin, 1829); Dissen, 2 vols. (Göttingen, 1835); Bährens (Leipzig, 1878); Hiller, with a good index (Leipzig, 1885); selections by Ramsay. There is an English verse translation by Cranstoun, with notes (London, 1872). See Sellar's Roman Poets of the Republic for a good literary estimate of the poet.

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Titus Quinctius Flamininus in Wikipedia

Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. 228 BC – 174 BC) was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece. Member of the gens Quinctia, and brother to Lucius Quinctius Flamininus, he served as a military tribune in the Second Punic war and in 205 BC he was appointed propraetor in Tarentum. He was a curule aedile in Rome in 203 BC and a quaestor in 199 BC. He became consul in 198 BC, despite being only about thirty years old, younger than the constitutional age required to serve in that position. As Livy records, two tribunes, Marcus Fulvius and Manius Curius publicly opposed his candidacy for consulship, as he was just a quaestor, but the Senate overrode the opposition and he was elected along with Sextus Aelius Paulus. After his election to the consulship he was chosen to replace Publius Sulpicius Galba who was consul with Gaius Aurelius in 200 BC, according to Livy, as general during the Second Macedonian War. He chased Philip V of Macedon out of most of Greece, except for a few fortresses, defeating him at the Battle of the Aous, but as his term as consul was coming to an end he attempted to establish a peace with the Macedonian king. During the negotiations, Flamininus was made proconsul, giving him the authority to continue the war rather than finishing the negotiations. In 197 BC he defeated Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae in Thessaly, the Roman legions making the Macedonian phalanx obsolete in the process. Philip was forced to surrender, give up all the Greek cities he had conquered, and pay Rome 1,000 talents, but his kingdom was left intact to serve as a buffer state between Greece and Illyria. This displeased the Achaean League, Rome's allies in Greece, who wanted Macedon to be dismantled completely...

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Trajan Decius in Wikipedia

Gaius Messius Quintus Decius (ca. 201- June 251) was Roman Emperor from 249 to 251. In the last year of his reign, he co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus until both of them were killed in the Battle of Abrittus. Early life and rise to power - Decius, who was born at Budalia, now Martinci, Serbia near Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica), in Lower Pannonia was one of the first among a long succession of future Roman Emperors to originate from the province of Illyricum in the Danube.[1]. Unlike some of his immediate imperial predecessors such as Philip the Arab or Maximinus, Decius was a distinguished senator who had served as consul in 232, had been governor of Moesia and Germania Inferior soon afterwards, served as governor of Hispania Tarraconensis between 235–238, and was urban prefect of Rome during the early reign of Emperor Philip the Arab (Marcus Iulius Phillipus)...

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Tullus Hostilius in Wikipedia

Tullus Hostilius (r. 673 BC – 642 BC) was the third of the Kings of Rome. He succeeded Numa Pompilius, and was succeeded by Ancus Marcius. Unlike his predecessor, Tullus was known as a warlike king. Tullus Hostilius was the grandson of Hostus Hostilius who had fought with Romulus and died during the Sabine invasion of Rome [1]. The principal feature of Tullus' reign was his defeat of Alba Longa. After beating Alba Longa in war (by the victory of three Roman champions over three Albans) Alba Longa became Rome's vassal state. However, after the Alban dictator subsequently betrayed Rome, Tullus ordered Alba Longa to be destroyed, and forced the migration of the Alban citizenry to Rome where they were integrated and became Roman citizens [2]. Tullus also fought successful wars against Fidenae and Veii and against the Sabines [3]. According to Livy, Tullus paid little heed to religious observances during his reign, thinking them unworthy of a king's attention. However, at the close of his reign, Rome was affected by a series of prodigies including a shower of stones on the Alban Mount (in response to which a public religious festival of nine days was held - a novendialis), a loud voice was heard on the summit of the mount complaining about the Albans failed devotion to their former gods, and a pestilence struck in Rome. King Tullus became ill, and was filled with superstition. He reviewed the commentaries of Numa Pompilius and attempted to carry out sacrifices recommended by Numa to Jupiter Elicius. However Tullus did not undertake the ceremony correctly, and both he and his house were struck by lightning and reduced to ashes as a result of the anger of Jupiter...

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Valens in Wikipedia

Flavius Julius Valens (328 – 9 August 378) was Roman Emperor from 364 to 378, after he was given the Eastern part of the empire by his brother Valentinian I. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople, which marked the beginning of the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Life - Appointment to emperor - Valens and his brother Valentinian were both born in Cibalae in 328 and 321 respectively. They had grown up on estates purchased by their father Gratian the Elder in Africa and Britain. While Valentinian had enjoyed a successful military career prior to his appointment as emperor, Valens apparently had not. He had spent much of his youth on the family's estate and only joined the army in the 360s, participating with his brother in the Persian campaign of Emperor Julian...

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Valens in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

An emperor of the East A.D. 364-378, born about A.D. 328, and made emperor by his brother Valentinian. (See Valentinianus.) The greater part of Valens's reign was occupied by his wars with the Goths. At first he gained great advantages over the barbarians, and concluded a peace with them in 370, on the condition that they should not cross the Danube. In 376 the Goths were driven out of their country by the Huns, and were allowed by Valens to cross the Danube and settle in Thrace and the country on the borders of the Danube. Dissensions soon arose between the Romans and these dangerous neighbors, and in 377 the Goths took up arms under Fritigern. Valens collected a powerful army, and marched against the Goths, but he was defeated by them with immense slaughter, near Adrianople, on the 9th of August, 378. Valens was never seen after the battle: some say he died on the field; and others relate that he was burned to death in a peasant's house, to which he was carried, and which the barbarians set fire to without knowing who was in it (Amm. Marc. xxxi. 13). The reign of Valens is important in the history of the Empire on account of the admission of the Goths into the countries south of the Danube-the commencement of the decline of the Roman power. Furious contests between the rival creeds of the Catholics and the Arians also characterize this reign.

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Valentinian I in Wikipedia

Flavius Valentinianus (321 – 17 November 375), commonly known as Valentinian I or Valentinian the Great[1], was Roman Emperor from 364 to 375. He was the last emperor to have de facto control of the entire empire. Upon becoming emperor he made his brother Valens his co-emperor, giving him rule of the eastern provinces while Valentinian retained the west. During his reign, Valentinian fought successfully against the Alamanni, Quadi, and Sarmatians. Most notable was his victory over the Alamanni in 367 at the Battle of Solicinium. His brilliant general Count Theodosius defeated a revolt in Africa and the Great Conspiracy, a coordinated assault on Britain by Picts, Scots, and Saxons. Valentinian was also the last emperor to conduct campaigns across the Rhine and Danube rivers. He rebuilt and improved the fortifications along the frontiers – even building fortresses in enemy territory. Due to the successful nature of his reign and almost immediate decline of the empire after his death, he is often considered the "last great western emperor". He founded the Valentinian Dynasty, with his sons Gratian and Valentinian II succeeding him in the western half of the empire...

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Valentini&#257;nus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A Roman emperor (A.D. 364- 375), was the son of Gratianus, and was born A.D. 321, at Cibalis in Pannonia. His first wife was Valeria Severa, by whom he became the father of the emperor Gratianus. He held important military commands under Julian and Jovian; and on the death of the latter, in February, 364, Valentinian was elected emperor by the troops at Nicaea. A few weeks after his elevation Valentinian, by the desire of the soldiers, associated in the empire his brother Valens, and assigned to him the East, while he himself undertook the government of the West. Valentinian was a Catholic, though his brother Valens was an Arian; but he did not persecute either Arians or heathens. He possessed good abilities, prudence, and vigour of character. He had a capacity for military matters, and was a vigilant, impartial, and laborious administrator. The greater part of Valentinian's reign was occupied by the wars against the Alemanni and the other barbarians on the Roman frontier, in which his operations were attended with success. He not only drove the Alemanni out of Gaul, but on more than one occasion crossed the Rhine, and carried the war into the enemy's country. His usual residence was Treviri (Trèves). In 375 he went to Carnuntum on the Danube, in order to repel the Quadi and Sarmatians, who had invaded Pannonia. After an indecisive campaign he took up his winter-quarters at Bregetio. In this place, while giving an audience to the deputies of the Quadi, and speaking with great heat, he fell down in a fit and expired suddenly, on the 17th of November (Amm. Marc. xxviii.-xxx.; Zosim. iv. 17).

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Valentinian III in Wikipedia

Flavius Placidius Valentinianus (2 July 419 – 16 March 455), commonly known as Valentinian III, was Western Roman Emperor from 425 to 455. Family - Valentinian was born in the western capital of Ravenna in 419. He was the only son of Galla Placidia and Flavius Constantius. The former was the younger half-sister of the western emperor Honorius, and the latter was at the time Patrician and the power behind the throne. Through his mother, Valentinian was a descendent both of Theodosius I, who was his maternal grandfather, and of Valentinian I, who was the father of his maternal grandmother. It was also through his maternal side that he was the nephew of Honorius and first cousin to Theodosius II (the son of Honorius' brother Arcadius), who was eastern emperor throughout most of Valentianian's life. Valentinian had a full sister, Justa Grata Honoria, who was probably born in 417 or 418 (the history of Paul the Deacon mentions her first when mentioning the children of the marriage, suggesting she was the eldest[1]). His mother had previously been married to Ataulf of the Visigoths, and had borne a son, Theodosius, in Barcelona in 414; but the child had died early in the following year, thus eliminating an opportunity for a Romano-Visigothic line.[2][3] When Valentinian was less than two years old, Honorius appointed Constantius co-emperor, a dignity he would hold until his death seven months later. As a result of all these family ties, Valentinian was the son, grandson, great-grandson, cousin, and nephew (twice over) of Roman Emperors...

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Valentini&#257;nus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Roman emperor A.D. 426-455, was born 419, and was the son of Constantius III. by Placidia, the sister of Honorius and the daughter of Theodosius I. He was declared Augustus in 425 by Theodosius II., and was placed over the West, but as he was only six years of age the government was intrusted to his mother Placidia. During his long reign the Empire was repeatedly exposed to the invasions of the barbarians; and it was only the military abilities of Aetius which saved the Empire from ruin. In 429 the Vandals under Genseric crossed over into Africa, which they conquered, and of which they continued in possession till the reign of Justinian. The weakness of the Empire during this reign was shown also by the fact that the Britons (from whose country the Roman troops had been withdrawn forty years before), finding it vain to apply to Rome for aid against the incursions of the Picts, invited the Jutes under Hengest and Horsa to help them, in 449. The Goths likewise established themselves in Gaul; but Aetius finally made peace with them (439 A.D.), and with their assistance gained a great victory over Attila and the vast army of the Huns at Châlons in 451. (See Attila.) The power and influence of Aetius excited the jealousy and fears of Valentinian, who murdered his faithful general in 454. (See Aetius.) In the following year the emperor himself was slain by Petronius Maximus, whose wife he had violated.

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Valerian in Wikipedia

Publius Licinius Valerianus[1] (193/195/200 – 260 or 264), commonly known as Valerian or Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260. He was taken captive by Persian king Shapur I after the Battle of Edessa, becoming the only emperor to do so and causing wide range instability across the empire. Life - Origins and rise to power - Unlike the majority of the pretenders during the Crisis of the Third Century, Valerian was of a noble and traditional senatorial family. Details of his early life are elusive, but for his marriage to Egnatia Mariniana, who gave him two sons: later emperor Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus and Valerianus Minor.[citation needed] He was Consul for the first time either before 238 as a Suffectus or in 238 as an Ordinarius. In 238 he was princeps senatus, and Gordian I negotiated through him for Senatorial acknowledgement for his claim as emperor. In 251, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the Senate, though he declined to accept the post. Under Decius he was nominated governor of the Rhine provinces of Noricum and Raetia and retained the confidence of his successor, Trebonianus Gallus, who asked him for reinforcements to quell the rebellion of Aemilianus in 253. Valerian headed south, but was too late: Gallus' own troops had killed him and joined Aemilianus before his arrival. The Raetian soldiers then proclaimed Valerian emperor and continued their march towards Rome. At the time of his arrival in September or October, Aemilianus' legions defected, killing him and proclaiming Valerian emperor. In Rome, the Senate quickly acknowledged him, not only for fear of reprisals, but also because he was one of their own...

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Valeri&#257;nus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

P. Licinius, a Roman emperor, A.D. 253-260. He was entrapped into a conference by the Persians, taken prisoner (260 A.D.) by Sapor, and passed the remainder of his life in captivity, subjected to every insult which Oriental cruelty could devise. His skin was stuffed after his death and hung in one of the Persian temples for many years.

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Marcus Terentius Varro in Wikipedia

Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC), also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his younger contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman scholar and writer. Biography - Varro was born in or near Reate (now Rieti) to a family thought to be of equestrian rank, and always remained close to his roots in the area, owning a large farm in the Reatine plain, probably near Lago di Ripa Sottile, till his old age.[citation needed] Politically, he supported Pompey, reaching the office of praetor, after having been tribune of the people, quaestor and curule aedile. He was one of the commission of twenty that carried out the great agrarian scheme of Caesar for the resettlement of Capua and Campania (59 BC)...

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Varro, Terentius in Harpers Dictionary

M. Terentius Varro Reatīnus, a celebrated writer, whose vast and varied erudition in almost every department of literature earned for him the title of the "most learned of the Romans" (Quint.x. i. 95; Dionys. ii. 21; C. D. vi. 2). He was born at Reaté B.C. 116, and was trained under L. Aelius Stilo Praeconinus, and afterwards by Antiochus, a philosopher of the Academy. Varro held a high naval command in the wars against the pirates and Mithridates, and afterwards served as the legatus of Pompeius in Spain in the Civil War, but was compelled to surrender his forces to Caesar (Flor. ii. 13, 29; B.C. i. 38, ii. 17-20). He then passed over into Greece, and shared the fortunes of the Pompeian party till after the battle of Pharsalia, when he obtained the forgiveness of Caesar, who employed him in superintending the collection and arrangement of the great library designed for public use (Iul. 44; Orig. vi. 5). For some years after this period Varro remained in literary seclusion, passing his time chiefly at his country seats near Cumae and Tusculum, occupied with study and composition. Caesar had forced Antony to restore to Varro an estate which he had seized (Cic. Phil. ii. 40, 103), and, perhaps in consequence, upon the formation of the Second Triumvirate his name appeared upon the list of the proscribed; but he succeeded in making his escape, and, after having remained for some time concealed, he obtained the protection of Octavian. His life is said to have been saved by Fufius Calenus (B. C. iv. 47), and it is probable that he recovered a great portion of his estates; but most of his magnificent library had been destroyed (Gell. iii. 10). The remainder of his career was passed in tranquillity, and he continued to labour in his favourite studies. His death took place B.C. 28, when he was in his eighty-ninth year. Not only was Varro the most learned of Roman scholars, but he was likewise the most voluminous of Roman authors. Gellius (l. c.) states that Varro claimed to have written 490 books before he was seventy-seven: Ausonius gives in round numbers 600 as the total number of books written by Varro (Prof. Burd. xx. 10); and this agrees with a list given by St. Jerome which makes out the writings of Varro to consist of seventy-four different works, containing altogether 620 books. (Cf. also Augustin. De Civ. Dei, vi. 2; and Acad. i. 9.) Hence it would appear that 130 of the books were written in the last twelve years of his life. Of these works only two have survived: Extant works of Varro De Re Rustica Libri III, still extant, written when the author was eighty years old, and the most important of all the treatises upon ancient agriculture now extant, being far superior to the more voluminous production of Columella, with which alone it can be compared. It is edited by Keil (Halle, 1884 foll.), and in the Scriptores Rei Rusticae Veteres Latini, by Schneider (Leipzig, 1764-1797). De Lingua Latina, a grammatical treatise which extended to twenty-four books; but six only (v.-x.) have been preserved, and these in a mutilated condition. The remains of this treatise are particularly valuable, since they have been the means of preserving many terms and forms which would otherwise have been altogether lost, and much curious information is here treasured up connected with the ancient usages, both civil and religious, of the Romans. Editions by Spengel (Berlin, 1826, reedited 1885); in Didot's collection (Paris, 1875); and by O. Müller (last ed. Leipzig, 1883). The remains of Varro's other grammatical treatises are discussed by Wilmanns (1864). The work entitled Antiquitatum Libri was divided into two sections: Antiquitates Rerum Humanarum, in twenty-five books, and Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum, in sixteen books. It described the political and religious institutions of Rome, and was Varro's greatest work, upon which chiefly his reputation for profound learning was based; but unfortunately only a few fragments of it have come down to us, printed in Merkel's edition of Ovid's Fasti, pp. cvi.-ccxlvii. (1841). With the second section of the work we are, comparatively speaking, familiar, since St. Augustine drew very largely from this source in his De Civitate Dei. Varro wrote also a collection of biographies called Imagines or Hebdomades in fifteen books, which contain 700 lives or sketches of famous Greeks and Romans, arranged in groups of seven. It is said to have been illustrated with portraits and afterwards to have appeared in a cheaper edition without pictures. Another work, Disciplinae, in nine books, described the "liberal arts," viz., grammar, dialectic, rhetoric, geometry, arithmetic, astrology, music, medicine, and architecture (see Liberales Artes); and he wrote other works on philosophy (Logistorici in seventy-six books), geography, and law. Among his poetical works were the Saturae, which were composed in a variety of metres and with an admixture of prose. Varro in these pieces copied to a certain extent the productions of Menippus the Gadarene (see Menippus), and hence designated them as Saturae Menippeae s. Cynicae. They appear to have been a series of disquisitions on a vast variety of subjects, frequently, if not uniformly, couched in the shape of dialogue, the object proposed being the inculcation of moral lessons and serious truths in a familiar, playful, and even jocular style. The best editions of the fragments of these Saturae are by Riese (Leipzig, 1865), and Bücheler (with Petronius) (Berlin, 1882). The Sententiae Varronis, a collection of pithy sayings, may possibly have been gathered from the writings of Varro Reatinus, but this is wholly uncertain. They are edited by Devit (Padua, 1843). See Boissier, Études sur M. T. Varron (Paris, 1861); and Ritschl, Die Schriftstellerei des Varro in his Opuscula, iii. 419-505; id. Parerga, pp. 70 foll.

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Tiberius in Wikipedia

Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (November 16, 42 BC – March 16, AD 37), born Tiberius Claudius Nero, was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced his father and was remarried to Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian. Tiberius would later marry Augustus' daughter Julia the Elder (from his marriage to Scribonia) and even later be adopted by Augustus, by which act he officially became a Julian, bearing the name Tiberius Julius Caesar. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the next forty years; historians have named it the Julio-Claudian dynasty. In relations to the other emperors of this dynasty, Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus, great-uncle of Caligula, paternal uncle of Claudius, and great-great uncle of Nero. Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals, conquering Pannonia, Dalmatia, Raetia, and temporarily Germania; laying the foundations for the northern frontier. But he came to be remembered as a dark, reclusive, and somber ruler who never really desired to be emperor; Pliny the Elder called him tristissimus hominum, "the gloomiest of men."[1] After the death of Tiberius’ son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23, the quality of his rule declined and ended in a terror. In 26, Tiberius exiled himself from Rome and left administration largely in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian Prefects Sejanus and Macro. Caligula, Tiberius' grand-nephew and adopted grandson, succeeded the emperor upon his death...

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Tiberius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

An emperor of Rome from A.D. 14 to 37. His full name was Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar. He was the son of T. Claudius Nero and of Livia, and was born on the 16th of November, B.C. 42, before his mother married Augustus. Tiberius was tall and strongly made, and his health was good. His face was handsome, and his eyes large. He was carefully educated, and became well acquainted with Greek and Latin literature, his master in rhetoric being Theodorus of Gadara. Though not without military courage, as his life shows, he had a great timidity of character, and was of a jealous and suspicious temper; and these qualities rendered him cruel after he had acquired power. There can be little doubt that his morose reserve and his dissimulation had been increased, if not created, by his relations to Augustus. As emperor the difficulties of his position, and the influence of Livia and still more of Seianus, increased his tendency to jealousy and suspicion of all who seemed rivals or dangerous from their popularity. The system of espionage and delation (see Delatores) once begun could only increase with each act of tyranny and cruelty, till his rule became a veritable reign of terror. Yet in reading his history, especially the tales of his monstrous and incredible licentiousness, it must be recollected that Tacitus and Suetonius both wrote with a strong bias against him and his rule, and were ready to accept as true the worst scandals which were handed down. If Velleius was prejudiced in the other direction, it is at least right to adopt some part of his less unfavourable portrait and to imagine that the old age of Tiberius was not so absolutely contradictory of his youth as it is sometimes made to appear. The cruelty of his rule applied only to Rome. The testimony of Iosephus and Philo shows that his provincial government was just and lenient. In B.C. 11, Augustus compelled Tiberius, much against his will, to divorce his wife, Vipsania Agrippina, and to marry Iulia, the widow of Agrippa, and daughter of the emperor, with whom Tiberius, however, did not long live in harmony. Tiberius was thus brought into still closer contact with the imperial family; but as Gaius and Lucius Caesar, the grandsons of Augustus, were still living, the prospect of Tiberius succeeding to the imperial power seemed very remote. He was employed on various military services. In 20, he was sent by Augustus to restore Tigranes to the throne of Armenia. It was during this campaign that Horace addressed one of his epistles to Iulius Florus (i. 12), who was serving under Tiberius. In 15, Drusus and his brother Tiberius were engaged in warfare with the Raeti, and the exploits of the two brothers were sung by Horace (Carm. iv. 4, 14). In 13, Tiberius was consul with P. Quintilius Varus. In 11, while his brother Drusus was fighting against the Germans, Tiberius conducted the war against the Dalmatians and against the Pannonians. Drusus died in 9, owing to a fall from his horse. On the news of the accident, Tiberius was sent by Augustus to Drusus, whom he found just alive. Tiberius returned to the war in Germany, and crossed the Rhine. In 7 he was consul a second time. In 6 he obtained the tribunicia potestas for five years, but during this year he retired with the emperor's permission to Rhodes, where he spent the next seven years. Tacitus says that his chief reason for leaving Rome was to get away from his wife, who treated him with contempt, and whose licentious life was no secret to her husband; probably, too, he was unwilling to stay at Rome when the grandsons of Augustus were attaining years of maturity, for there was mutual jealousy between them and Tiberius. He returned to Rome A.D. 2. He was relieved from one trouble during his absence, for his wife Iulia had been banished to the island of Tiberius. (Vatican.) Pandataria (B.C. 2), and he never saw her again. (See Iulia.) After the deaths of L. Caesar (A.D. 2) and C. Caesar (A.D. 4), Augustus adopted Tiberius, with the view of leaving to him the imperial power; and at the same time he required Tiberius to adopt Germanicus, the son of his brother Drusus, though Tiberius had a son Drusus by his wife Vipsania. From the year of his adoption to the death of Augustus, Tiberius was in command of the Roman armies, though he visited Rome several times. He was sent into Germany A.D. 4. He reduced all Illyricum to subjection A.D. 9; and in A.D. 12 he had the honour of a triumph at Rome for his German and Dalmatian victories. On the death of Augustus at Nola, on the 19th of August, A.D. 14, Tiberius, who was on his way to Illyricum, was immediately summoned home by his mother, Livia. He assumed the imperial power without any opposition, affecting all the while a great reluctance. He began his reign by putting to death Postumus Agrippa, the surviving grandson of Augustus, and he alleged that it was done pursuant to the command of the late emperor. When he felt himself sure in his place, he began to strengthen the principate. He took from the popular assembly the election of the magistrates, and transferred it to the Senate. The news of the death of Augustus roused a mutiny among the legions in Pannonia, which was quelled by Drusus, the son of Tiberius. The armies on the Rhine under Germanicus showed a disposition to reject Tiberius, and if Germanicus had been inclined to try the fortune of a campaign, he might have had the assistance of the German armies against his uncle. But Germanicus restored discipline to the army by his firmness, and maintained his fidelity to the new emperor. The first year of his reign was marked by the death of Iulia, whom Augustus had removed from Pandataria to Rhegium. The death of Germanicus in the East, in A.D. 19, relieved Tiberius from all fear of a rival claimant to the throne; and it was believed by many that Germanicus had been poisoned by order of Tiberius. (See Germanicus.) From this time Tiberius began to indulge with less restraint in his love of tyranny, and many distinguished senators were soon put to death on the charge of treason against the emperor (laesa maiestas). Notwithstanding his suspicious nature, Tiberius gave his complete confidence to Seianus, who for many years possessed the real government of the State. This ambitious man aimed at the imperial power. In 23, Drusus, the son of Tiberius, was poisoned by the contrivance of Seianus. Three years afterwards (A.D. 26) Tiberius left Rome, and withdrew into Campania. He never returned to the city. He left on the pretext of dedicating temples in Campania, but the real cause was probably his dislike to Rome, where he knew that he was unpopular; and Seianus was only too anxious to encourage any feeling which would keep the emperor at a distance from the city. That Tiberius went because he wished to hide his licentiousness in this place of retirement may be set down as a silly invention, for Rome was not a place where licentiousness was hated. He took up his residence (A.D. 27) in the island of Capreae, at a short distance from the Campanian coast. The death of Livia (A.D. 29), the emperor's mother, released Tiberius from one cause of anxiety. He had long been tired of her, because she wished to exercise authority, and one object in leaving Rome was to be out of her way. Livia's death gave Seianus and Tiberius free scope, for Tiberius never entirely released himself from a kind of subjection to his mother, and Seianus did not venture to attempt the overthrow of Livia's influence. The destruction of Agrippina and her children was now the chief purpose of Seianus; but he finally got from Tiberius (A.D. 31) the reward that was his just desert, an ignominious death. (See Seianus.) The death of Seianus was followed by the execution of his friends; and for the remainder of the reign of Tiberius, Rome continued to be the scene of tragic occurrences. Tiberius died on the 16th of March, 37, at the villa of Lucullus, in Misenum. He was seventy-eight years of age, and had reigned twenty-two years. He was succeeded by Gaius (Caligula), the son of Germanicus, but, according to Tacitus, he had himself appointed no successor (Tac. Ann. vi. 46), though he had appointed Gaius the heir of his private property (Suet. Tib. 76) in conjunction with Tiberius Gemellus, whom Gaius afterwards put to death. On the other hand, Iosephus has a story of Tiberius committing the Empire to Gaius ( Ant. xviii. 6, 9). Tiberius did not die a natural death. It was known that his end was rapidly approaching, and having had a fainting-fit, he was supposed to be dead. Thereupon Gaius came forth and was saluted as emperor; but he was alarmed by the intelligence that Tiberius had recovered and called for something to eat. Gaius was so frightened that he did not know what to do; but Macro, the prefect of the Praetorians, with more presence of mind, gave orders that a quantity of clothes should be thrown on Tiberius, and that he should be left alone (Tac. Ann. v. 50; Dio Cass. lviii. 28). Suetonius mentions a suspicion that Tiberius was poisoned at the last by Gaius (Suet. Tib. 73; Suet. Cal. 12). Tiberius wrote a brief commentary of his own life, the only book that the emperor Domitian studied (Suet. Tib. 67; Suet. Dom. 20), and also Greek poems, and a lyric poem on the death of L. Caesar (Suet. Tib. 70). Tiberius, both as a ruler and as a man, has not lacked defenders in modern times, among them Dean Merivale in his Romans under the Empire (1865); Beesly, Catiline, Clodius, and Tiberius (1878); and Baring-Gould, The Tragedy of the Caesars, vol. i. (1892). For the adverse view see Boissier, L'Opposition sous les Césars (1875). For the general history of his reign see Pasch, Zur Kritik der Geschichte des Kaisers Tiberius (Altenburg, 1866); Stahr, Tiberius (Berlin, 1873); H. Schiller, Geschichte der römischen Kaiserzeit (Gotha, 1883); and Freytag, Tiberius und Tacitus (Berlin, 1870). See also the essay prefixed to Furneaux's Annales, vol. i. (1884).

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Claudius in Wikipedia

Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54), born Tiberius Claudius Drusus, then Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus until his accession, was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54 AD. A member of the Julio- Claudian dynasty, he succeeded his nephew Caligula. The son of Drusus and Antonia Minor, he was born in Lugdunum in Gaul, and was the first emperor to be born outside Italy. He was reportedly afflicted with some type of disability, and his family had virtually excluded him from public office until his consulship with his nephew Caligula in 37 AD. Claudius' infirmity may have saved him from the fate of many other nobles during the purges of Tiberius' and Caligula's reigns; potential enemies did not see him as a serious threat. His survival led to his being declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last adult male of his family. Despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an able and efficient administrator. He was also an ambitious builder, constructing many new roads, aqueducts, and canals across the empire. During his reign, the empire conquered Britain, Thrace, Noricum, Pamphylia, Lycia, and Judaea. He took a personal interest in the law, presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day. However, he was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign, particularly by the nobility. Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position; this resulted in the deaths of many senators. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion. After his death in 54, his grand-nephew and adopted son Nero succeeded him as emperor...

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Numerian in Wikipedia

Marcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus (d. November, 284), known in English as Numerian, was a Roman Emperor (December 283 – November, 284), together with his brother Carinus. They were sons of Carus, a Gaul raised to the office of praetorian prefect under Emperor Probus in 282. Reign - In 282, the legions of the upper Danube in Raetia and Noricum proclaimed Numerian's father, the praetorian prefect Marcus Aurelius Carus, emperor, beginning a rebellion against the emperor Probus.[2] Probus' army, stationed in Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia), decided they did not wish to fight Carus, and assassinated Probus instead.[3] Carus, already sixty, wished to establish a dynasty;[4] and immediately elevated Carinus and Numerian to the rank of Caesar.[5] In 283, Carus raised Carinus to the title Caesar,[6] left him in charge of the West, and moved with Numerian and his praetorian prefect Arrius Aper to the East, to wage war against the Sassanid Empire. (The Sassanids had been embroiled in a succession dispute since the death of Shapur, and were in no position to oppose Carus' advance.)[7] According to Zonaras, Eutropius, and Festus, Carus won a major victory against the Persians, taking Seleucia and the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon (near modern Al- Mada'in, Iraq), cities on opposite banks of the Tigris.[8] In celebration, Numerian, Carus, and Carinus all took the title Persici maximi.[9] Carus died in July or early August,[1] reportedly due to a strike of lightning.[10] Carus' death left Numerian and Carinus as the new Augusti. Carinus quickly made his way to Rome from Gaul, and arrived in January 284. Numerian lingered in the East.[11] The Roman retreat from Persia was orderly and unopposed, for the Persian King, Bahram II, was still struggling to establish his authority.[12] By March 284 Numerian had only reached Emesa (Homs) in Syria; by November, only Asia Minor.[13] In Emesa he was apparently still alive and in good health, as he issued the only extant rescript in his name there.[14] (Coins are issued in his name in Cyzicus at some time before the end of 284, but it is impossible to know whether he was still in the public eye by that point.)[15] After Emesa, Numerian's staff, including the prefect Aper, reported that Numerian suffered from an inflammation of the eyes, and had to travel in a closed coach.[16] When the army reached Bithynia,[11] some of Numerian's soldiers smelled an odor reminiscent of a decaying corpse emanating from the coach.[12] They opened its curtains. Inside, they found Numerian, dead.[17] Aper officially broke the news in Nicomedia (İzmit) in November.[18] Numerian's generals and tribunes called a council for the succession, and chose Diocles, commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard,[19] emperor,[20] in spite of Aper's attempts to garner support.[18] On November 20, 284, the army of the east gathered on a hill 5 km (3.1 mi) outside Nicomedia. The army unanimously saluted their new Augustus, and Diocles accepted the purple imperial vestments. He raised his sword to the light of the sun, and swore an oath denying responsibility for Numerian's death. He asserted that Aper had killed Numerian and concealed it.[21] In full view of the army, Diocles drew his blade and killed Aper.[22] According to Historia Augusta, Numerian was a man of considerable literary attainments, remarkably amiable and known as a great orator and poet. However, no other sources, apart from the unreliable Historia, report anything about his personality.

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Numeri&#257;nus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Marcus Aurelius. A Roman who succeeded to the imperial throne conjointly with his elder brother Carinus, after the death of their father Carus, at the beginning of A.D. 284. Numerianus was with the army in Mesopotamia at the death of Probus; but, instead of following up the advantage which his father had gained over the Persians, he was compelled by the army to abandon the conquests which had been already made, and to retreat to Syria. During the retreat, a weakness of the eyes obliged him to confine himself to a litter, which was guarded by the praetorians. The administration of all affairs, civil as well as military, devolved on Arrius Aper, the praetorian prefect, his father-in-law. The army was eight months on its march from the banks of the Tigris to the Thracian Bosporus, and during all that time the imperial authority was exercised in the name of the emperor, who never appeared to his soldiers. Reports at length spread among them that their emperor was no longer living; and when they had reached the city of Chalcedon they could not be prevented from breaking into the imperial tent, where they found only his corpse. Suspicion naturally fell upon Arrius; and an assembly of the army was accordingly held, for the purpose of avenging the death of Numerianus and electing a new emperor. Their choice fell upon Diocletian, who, immediately after his election, put Arrius to death with his own hands, without giving him an opportunity of justifying himself, which might, perhaps, have proved dangerous to the new emperor. The virtues of Numerianus are mentioned by most of his biographers. His manners were mild and affable; and he was celebrated among his contemporaries for eloquence and poetic talent. The Senate voted him a statue, with the inscription, "To Numerianus Caesar, the most powerful orator of his times" (Vopisc. Numerian.; Aurel. Vict. De Caes. 38; Eutrop. ix. 12).

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Otho in Wikipedia

Marcus Salvius Otho (28 April 32[1] – 16 April 69), also called Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus,[2] was Roman Emperor for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69. He was the second emperor of the Year of the four emperors. Birth and lineage Otho belonged to an ancient and noble Etruscan family, descended from the princes of Etruria and settled at Ferentinum (modern Ferento, near Viterbo) in Etruria. His paternal grandfather, Marcus Salvius Otho, whose father was a Roman knight but whose mother was of lowly origin and perhaps not even free-born, was raised in Livia's household and rose to senatorial rank through her influence, although he did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. His father was Lucius Otho...

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Otho, M. Salvius in Harpers Dictionary

A Roman emperor from Jan. 15 to April 16, A.D. 69, who was born in 32. He was one of the companions of Nero in his debaucheries; but when the emperor took possession of his wife, the beautiful but profligate Poppaea Sabina, Otho was sent as governor to Lusitania, which he administered with credit during the last ten years of Nero's life. Otho attached himself to Galba, when he revolted against Nero, in the hope of being adopted by him, and succeeding to the Empire. But when Galba adopted L. Piso, on the tenth of January, 69, Otho formed a conspiracy against Galba, and was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers at Rome, who put Galba to death. Meantime, Vitellius had been proclaimed emperor at Cologne by the German troops on the third of January. When this news reached Otho, he marched into the north of Italy to oppose the generals of Vitellius. He at first won several victories over Caecina, the general of Vitellius, but his army was defeated by Caecina and Valens in a decisive battle near Bedriacum, whereupon he put an end to his own life at Brixellum, in the thirty-seventh year of his age. His life is given by Suetonius and Plutarch.

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Ovid in Wikipedia

Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – AD 17/18), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who is best known as the author of the three major collections of erotic poetry: Heroides, Amores, and Ars Amatoria. He is also well known for the Metamorphoses, a mythological hexameter poem, the Fasti, about the Roman calendar, and the Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto, two collections of poems written in exile on the Black Sea. Ovid was also the author of several smaller pieces, the Remedia Amoris, the Medicamina Faciei Femineae, and the long curse-poem Ibis. He also authored a lost tragedy, Medea. He is considered a master of the elegiac couplet, and is traditionally ranked alongside Virgil and Horace as one of the three canonic poets of Latin literature. The scholar Quintilian considered him the last of the canonical Latin love elegists.[1] His poetry, much imitated during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, decisively influenced European art and literature and remains as one of the most important sources of classical mythology...

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Ovidius Naso, Publius in Harpers Dictionary

A very popular Roman poet, born March 21, B.C. 43, at Sulmo (now Solmona), in the country of the Paeligni, son of a wealthy Roman of an old equestrian family. He came at an early age to Rome, to be educated as a pleader, and enjoyed the tuition of the most famous rhetoricians of the time-Porcius Latro and Arellius Fuscus. It was not long before the instinct for poetry awoke in him with such power that it needed all his father's resolution to keep him to his legal studies; his oratorical exercises were simply poems in prose, as is testified by one of his fellow-students-the elder Seneca (Controv. ii. 10, 8). After he had visited Greece and Asia to complete his education, he entered into political life at his father's desire, and filled several subordinate offices. But he soon withdrew again from public business, partly from an inclination to idleness, and lived only for poetry, in the society of the poets of his day, among whom he was especially intimate with Propertius. He came into note as a poet by a tragedy called the Medea, which is now lost, but is much praised by ancient literary critics; and about the same time he produced a series of amatory, and in some parts extremely licentious, poems. When little more than a mere boy, as he says himself (Tristia, iv. 10, 69), he had a wife given him by his father; but this marriage, like a second one, ended in a divorce. He derived more satisfaction, as well as the advantage of contact with the court and with men of the highest distinction, from a third marriage, with a widow of noble family and high connections. To her influence, perhaps, should be referred the fact that he turned his attention to more important and more serious works. He had almost completed his best known work, the Metamorphoses, when suddenly, in A.D. 8, he was banished for life by Augustus to Tomi (Kustindje), on the Black Sea, near the mouths of the Danube. The cause for this severity on the part of the emperor is unknown; Ovid himself admits that there was a fault on his side, but only an error, not a crime (Tristia, i. 3, 37). At all events, the matter directly affected Augustus; and as Ovid describes his eyes as the cause of his misfortune, it is conjectured that he had been an unintentional eye-witness of some offence on the part of the frivolous granddaughter of the prince, the younger Iulia, and had neglected to inform the emperor of the matter. His indecent amatory poems, to which he also points as the source of the emperor's displeasure, can at most only have been used as a plausible excuse in the eyes of the public, as they had been published more than ten years before. See Deville, Sur l'Exil d'Ovide (Paris, 1859); Appal, Quibus de Causis Ovidius Relegatus Sit (Leipzig, 1872); Körber, De Ovidii Relegationis Causis (St. Petersburg, 1883); and Thomas in the Revue de Philologie, xiii. 47. After a perilous voyage Ovid reached the place of his exile in the winter of A.D. 10-11; and there, far from his beloved wife and his daughter Perilla, who had inherited the poetic talent of her father, far from his friends and all intercourse with men of genius, he had to pass the last years of his life in desolation among the barbarous Getae. Even in his exile his poetic talent did not fail him. It was then that he composed his poems of lamentation, entitled the Tristia, and his letters from Pontus, which afford touching proofs of his grief, though also of his failing powers. His ceaseless prayers and complaints had succeeded in softening Augustus, when the latter died. All his efforts to gain forgiveness or some alleviation of his condition met with no response from Tiberius, and he was compelled to close his life, broken-hearted and in exile, A.D. 17 or 18. His extant works are: 1. Erotic poems (Amores), published about B.C. 14, in five books, and again about B.C. 2, in three books. The latter edition is the one we possess; some of its forty-nine elegies depict, in a very sensual way, the poet's life, the centre of which is the unknown Corinna, who by later writers was identified with Iulia, the daughter of Augustus (Sid. Apoll. xxiii. 159), but with no probability. 2. Letters (Epistulae), also called Heroïdes, rhetorical declamations in the form of love-letters sent by heroines to their husbands or lovers, twentyone in number; the last six of these, however, and the fourteenth, are considered spurious. 3. Methods for beautifying the face (Medicamina Faciei), advice to women respecting the art of the toilette; this poem has come down to us in an incomplete form. 4. The Art of Love (Ars Amandi or Amatoria), in three books, published about B.C. 2, advice to men (books i. and ii.) and women (book iii.) as to the methods of contracting a love-affair and insuring its continuance-a work as licentious as it is original and elaborate. 5. Cures for Love (Remedia Amoris), the pendant to the previous work, and no less offensive in substance and tone. 6. The fifteen books of the Transformations (Metamorphoses), his most important work. It is composed in hexameter verse; the material is borrowed from Greek and (to a less extent) from Roman sources, being a collection of legends of transformations, very skilfully combining jest and earnest in rapid alternations, and extending from chaos to the apotheosis of Caesar. When it was completed and had received the last touches, the work was cast into the flames by Ovid in his first despair at banishment, but was afterwards rewritten from other copies. 7. A Calendar of Roman Festivals (Fasti), begun in the last years before his banishment, and originally in twelve books, corresponding to the number of the months. Of these only six are preserved, probably because Ovid had not quite completed them at Rome, and had not the means to do so at Tomi. It was originally intended for dedication to Augustus. After Augustus's death the poet began to revise it, with a view to its dedication to Germanicus; he did not, however, proceed with his revision beyond the first book. It contains, in elegiac metre, the most important celestial phenomena and the festivals of each month, with a description of their celebration and an account of their origin according to the Italian legends. 8. Poems of Lament (Tristia), to his family, to his friends, and to Augustus, belonging to the years A.D. 9-13, in five books; the first of these was written while he was still on his journey to Tomi. 9. Letters from Pontus (Epistulae ex Ponto), in four books, only distinguished from the previous poems by their epistolary form. 10. Ibis, an imitation of the poem of the same name by Callimachus, who had attacked, under this name, Apollonius of Rhodes, consisting of imprecations on a faithless friend at Rome, written in the learned and obscure style of the Alexandrian poets. 11. A short fragment of a didactic poem on the fish in the Black Sea (Halieutica), written in hexameters. Besides these Ovid wrote, during his exile, numerous poems which have been lost, among them a eulogy of the deceased Augustus in the Getic tongue-a sufficient proof of the strength of his irrepressible love for poetry. In fact, in this respect he is distinguished above all other Roman poets. Perhaps no one ever composed with less exertion; yet at the same time no one ever used so important a faculty for so trivial a purpose. His poetry is for the most part simply entertaining; in this kind of writing he proves his mastery by his readiness in language and metre, by his unwearied powers of invention, by his ever-ready wit, elegance, and charm, though, on the other hand, he is completely wanting in deep feeling and moral earnestness. By his talent, Ovid as well as Vergil has had great influence on the further development of Roman poetry, especially with regard to metre. Many imitated his style so closely that their poems were actually attributed to himself. Among these, besides a number of Heroïdes (see above), we have the Nux, the nut-tree's complaint of the ill-treatment it met with, a poem in elegiac verse, which was at all events written about the time of Ovid; a poem on cosmetics, De Medicamine Faciei, the Consolatio ad Liviam on the death of Drusus; and a number of jointed skits such as the De Pulice, De Vetula, various Priapeia, etc. Bibliography.-Of the MSS. of Ovid the best are the Codex Petavianus of the eighth century (Vatican); the Codex B (Arundelianus) of the ninth century (British Museum); two at Munich (D and E) and one (G) at Göttingen of the twelfth century; the Codex Puteaneus of the tenth century (Paris), which is said to be one of the best classical MSS. in existence; the Codex Marcianus of the eleventh century (Florence). For an elaborate account of the MSS. and a vast collection of variant readings, see the edition of N. Heinsius cited below. Editions of the whole of Ovid are those by D. Heinsius, 3 vols. (Leipzig, Leyden, 1629); N. Heinsius, 3 vols. (Amsterdam, 1652; revised 1661); Burmann, 4 vols. (Amsterdam, 1727); Merkel and Ehwald (Leipzig, 1888 foll.); Reise, last ed. 3 vols. (Leipzig, 1889 foll.); and by Zingerle and others (Prague, 1883 foll.). Separate editions of the different works, with notes, are as follows: of the Amores by L. Müller (Leipzig, 1867); of the Heroïdes by Palmer (London, 1874) and Shuckburgh (London, 1879); of the Ars Amatoria by Herzberg (with translation, Stuttgart, 1854) and Williams (London, 1884); of the Metamorphoses by Zingerle (Prague, 1885); of the Fasti by Merkel (Berlin, 1841), Peter (Leipzig, 1879), Keightley (London, 1848), and Paley, 3d ed. (London, 1888); of the Tristia by Owen (London, 1889); of the Epistolae ex Ponto by Korn, critical notes (Leipzig, 1868), and bk. i. by Keene (London, 1887); of the Halieutica by Haupt (Leipzig, 1838); of the Ibis by R. Ellis (Oxford, 1881); of the Nux by Lindemann (Zittau, 1844). The spurious Ovidiana were collected and printed in Goldast's Catalecta Ovidii (Frankfort, 1610), some of them being of mediæval origin. On Ovid's life see Nageotte, Ovide (Dijon, 1872), and especially Leutsch in Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopädie (1836). No authentic portraits of the poet are known to exist. On Ovid's verse see L. Müller, De Re Metrica, xci. 408; and Schmidt, De Ovidii Hexametris (Cleves, 1856).

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Paulus in Wikipedia

Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus (229 BC-160 BC) was a two-time consul of the Roman Republic and a noted general. Family - His father was Lucius Aemilius Paullus, the consul defeated and killed in the battle of Cannae. Lucius Aemilius was, in his time, the head of his branch of the Aemilii Paulli, an old and aristocratic patrician family. Their influence was immense, particularly due to their fortune and alliance with the Cornelii Scipiones. He was father to Scipio Aemilianus Africanus [edit]Early career After the fulfilment of his military service, and being elected military tribune, Paullus was elected curule aedile in 193 BC. The next step of his cursus honorum was the election as praetor in 191 BC. At the term of this office he went to the Hispania provinces, where he campaigned against the Lusitanians between 191 and 189 BC. However, he failed to be elected consul for several years. Paullus was elected consul for the first time in 182 BC, with Gnaeus Baebius Tamphilus as junior partner. His next military command, with proconsular imperium, was in the next year, against the Ingauni of Liguria. Paullus and Macedonia = The Third Macedonian War broke out in 171 BC, when king Perseus of Macedon defeated a Roman army led by the consul Publius Licinius Crassus in the battle of Callicinus. After two years of indecisive results for both sides, Paullus was elected consul again in 168 BC (with Gaius Licinius Crassus as colleague). As consul, he was appointed by the senate to deal with the Macedonian war. Shortly afterwards, on June 22, he won the decisive battle of Pydna. Perseus of Macedonia was made prisoner and the Third Macedonian War ended. To set an example, Paullus ordered the killing of 500 Macedonians known for opposition against Rome. He also exiled many more to Italy and confiscated their belongings in the name of Rome but according to Plutarch, keeping too much to himself. On the return to Rome in 167 BC, his legions were displeased with their share of the plunder. To keep them happy, Paullus decided for a stop in Epirus, a kingdom suspected of sympathizing with the Macedonian cause. The region had been already pacified, but Paullus ordered the sacking of 70 of its towns. 150,000 people were enslaved and the region was left to bankruptcy. Paullus' return to Rome was glorious. With the immense plunder collected in Macedonia and Epirus, he celebrated a spectacular triumph, featuring no less than the captured king of Macedonia himself. As a gesture of acknowledgment, the senate awarded him the surname (cognomen) Macedonicus. This was the peak of his career. In 164 BC he was elected censor. He fell ill, appeared to be recovering, but relapsed within three days and died during his term in 160 BC. Family life and descendants - His father Lucius Aemilius Paullus died in battle in 216 BC in the Battle of Cannae, when Aemilius Paullus was still a boy. The Aemilii Paulli were connected by marriage and political interests to the Scipios, but their role in his subsequent upbringing is not clear. He had been married first to Papiria Masonis (or Papiria Masonia), daughter of the consul Gaius Papirius Maso (consul in 231 BC), whom he divorced, according to Plutarch, for no particular reason. From this marriage, four children were born: two sons and two daughters, the elder Aemilia Paulla Prima apparently married[1] to the son of Marcus Porcius Cato, and the younger Aemilia Paulla Secunda to Aelius Tubero, a rich man of a plebeian family. He divorced his wife while his younger son was still a baby, according to Roman historians; thus the divorce probably took place around 183 BC-182 BC. Nevertheless, he was elected consul in 182 BC. Paullus Macedonicus then married a second time (this wife's name is unknown) and had two more sons, the elder born around 181 BC and the younger born around 176 BC. He also apparently had another daughter (Aemilia Tertia), who was a small girl when her father was chosen consul for the second time.[2] Since four boys were too many for a father to support across the cursus honorum, Paullus decided to give the oldest two boys up for adoption, probably between 175 BC and 170 BC. The elder was taken by a Quintus Fabius Maximus and became Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus, thus joining his fortunes to the house of a national hero. The younger, possibly named Lucius, was adopted by his own cousin[3] Publius Cornelius Scipio, elder son and heir of Scipio Africanus, and became Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, thus falling heir to the legacy of Rome's most influential political dynasty. With the eldest sons safely adopted by two of the most powerful patrician houses, Paullus Macedonicus counted on the two younger ones to continue his own name. This was not due to happen. Both of them died young, one shortly after the other, at the same time that Paullus celebrated his triumph. The elder of the two remaining sons was 14 and the younger 9, according to Polybius. Their names are unknown to us. The successes of his political and military career were thus not accompanied by a happy family life. At his death, his sons Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus and Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Aemilianus received his property by his will, even though they were legally no longer Aemilii Paulli; Scipio gave his share to his older brother who was less wealthy. Paullus's second wife (whose name is unknown to us) received her dowry back from the sale of some of her late husband's property. (Livy and Polybius both claim that Paullus died relatively poor, and that he had kept little for himself from the successful Macedonian campaign). His married daughters had presumably received dowries from their father; Aemilia Paulla Prima is known to have married in or around 164 BC. With the death of Macedonicus, the Aemilii Paulli became extinct, even though he had two living sons. His elder surviving son Fabius Aemilianus eventually became consul and fathered at least one son, who in turn became consul as Fabius Allobrigicus in 121 BC. This man, in turn, may have been the ancestor of later Fabii who tied their fortunes to Julius Caesar and Augustus.[4] The younger surviving son was more famous as Scipio Aemilianus but died leaving no known issue. Of the daughters, the elder was ancestor of at least two consuls of no particular distinction. The younger was mother of a consul Quintus Aelius Tubero. His first and former wife Papiria Masonia survived her ex-husband and lived to enjoy her former sister-in-law's property presented to her by her younger son (per Polybius). At her death, her property was divided between her sons, but Scipio gave it to his sisters. Paullus's immediate surviving descendants - Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus, apparently father of Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, consul 121 BC Quintus Fabius Maximus, who was allegedly deprived of his inheritance by a Roman magistrate Fabia, Chief Vestal[5] (fl. 50 BC), who married (div) Publius Cornelius Dolabella (ca.70 BC or earlier[6]-43 BC), consul in 44 BC, as his first wife, and had a son (see below). Dolabella then was adopted (illegally, without the consent of the Pontifex Maximus, i.e. Caesar) into the plebeian ranks, and then married 50 BC Tullia, only daughter of Cicero).[7][8][9]. According to some sources, Fabia was the elder half-sister of Tullia's mother Terentia.[10] Publius Cornelius Dolabella, consul in 10 AD with C. Junius Silanus.[11] Publius Cornelius Dolabella was proconsul of Africa in the reign of Tiberius, AD 23-AD 24. Smith reports: "In the course of the administration of his province he gained a complete victory over the Numidian Tacfarinas ; but although he had formerly been a very great flatterer of Tiberius, yet he did not obtain the ornaments of a triumph, in order that his predecessor in the province of Africa, Junius Blaesius, an uncle of Sejanus, might not be thrown into the shade. In A.D. 27 he joined Domitius Afer in the accusation against his own relative, Quintilius Varus, (Tac. Ann. iii. 47, 68, iv. 23, &c. 66.)"[12] another son, mentioned occasionally in sources, possibly the same as Allobrogicus, who was quaestor to his better-known blood uncle (below) in Spain. Scipio Aemilianus (died 129 BC) Aemilia Paulla Prima, mother of Gaius Porcius Cato Aemilia Paulla Secunda, mother of Quintus Aelius Tubero, consul 117 BC

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Paulus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Lucius, afterwards surnamed Macedonĭcus, son of the last, was born about 230 or 229, since at the time of his second consulship (B.C. 168) he was upwards of sixty years of age. He was one of the best specimens of the high Roman nobles. He would not condescend to flatter the people for the offices of the State, maintained with strictness severe discipline in the army, was deeply skilled in the law of the augurs, to whose college he belonged, and maintained throughout life a pure and unspotted character. He was elected curule aedile in B.C. 192; was praetor in 191, and obtained Further Spain as his province, where he carried on war with the Lusitani; and was consul in 181, when he conquered the Ingauni, a Ligurian people. For the next thirteen years he lived quietly at Rome, devoting most of his time to the education of his children. He was consul a second time in 168, and brought the war against Perseus to a conclusion by the defeat of the Macedonian monarch, near Pydna, on the 22d of June. Perseus shortly afterwards surrendered himself to Paulus. (See Perseus.) Paulus remained in Macedonia during the greater part of the following year as proconsul, and arranged the affairs of Macedonia in conjunction with ten Roman commissioners, whom the Senate had despatched for the purpose. Before leaving Greece he marched into Epirus, where, in accordance with a cruel command of the Senate, he gave to his soldiers seventy towns to be pillaged because they had been in alliance with Perseus. The triumph of Paulus, which was celebrated at the end of November, 167, was the most splendid that Rome had yet seen. It lasted three days. Before the triumphal car of Aemilius walked the captive monarch of Macedonia and his children, and behind it were his two illustrious sons, Q. Fabius Maximus and P. Scipio Africanus the younger, both of whom had been adopted into other families. But the glory of the conqueror was clouded by family misfortune. At this very time he lost his two younger sons; one, twelve years of age, died only five days before his triumph, and the other, fourteen years of age, only three days after his triumph. The loss was all the severer, since he had no son left to carry his name down to posterity. In 164 Paulus was censor with Q. Marcius Philippus, and died in 160, after a long and tedious illness. The fortune he left behind him was so small as scarcely to be sufficient to pay his wife's dowry. The Adelphi of Terence was brought out at the funeral games exhibited in his honour. Aemilius Paulus was married twice. By his first wife, Papiria, the daughter of C. Papirius Maso, consul 231, he had four children-two sons, one of whom was adopted by Fabius Maximus and the other by P. Scipio, and two daughters, one of whom was married to Q. Aelius Tubero, and the other to M. Cato, son of Cato the censor. He afterwards divorced Papiria; and by his second wife, whose name is not mentioned, he had two sons, whose death has been recorded above, and a daughter, who was a child at the time that her father was elected to his second consulship.

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Pelagius in Wikipedia

Pelagius (ca. AD 354 – ca. AD 420/440) was an ascetic who denied the doctrine of original sin as developed by Augustine of Hippo, and was declared a heretic by the Council of Carthage. His interpretation of a doctrine of free will became known as Pelagianism. He was well educated, fluent in both Greek and Latin, and learned in theology. He spent time as an ascetic, focusing on practical asceticism, which his teachings clearly reflect. He was certainly well known in Rome, both for the harsh asceticism of his public life as well as the power and persuasiveness of his speech. His reputation in Rome earned him praise early in his career even from such pillars of the Church as Augustine, who referred to him as a "saintly man." However, he was later accused of lying about his own teachings in order to avoid public condemnation. Most of his later life was spent defending his doctrine against theologians teaching the Catholic Faith. They held that Catholicism came from the apostles and that Pelagius was spreading novelties in the Faith unknown to the apostolic tradition. Due to his status as a heretic, little of his work has come down to the present day except in the quotes of his opponents. However, more recently some have defended Pelagius as a misunderstood orthodox...

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Pelagius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Probably a native of Britain, who was celebrated as the propagator of those heretical opinions which have derived their name from him, and which were opposed with great energy by his contemporaries Augustine and Jerome. He first appears in history about the beginning of the fifth century A.D., when we find him residing at Rome. In the year 409 or 410, when Alaric was threatening Rome, Pelagius, accompanied by his disciple and ardent admirer Caelestius, passed over to Sicily, from thence proceeded to Africa, and leaving Caelestius at Carthage, sailed for Palestine. The fame of his sanctity had preceded him, for upon his arrival he was received with great warmth by St. Jerome and many other distinguished fathers of the Church. Soon afterwards the opinions of Pelagius were denounced as heretical; and in A.D. 417 Pelagius and Caelestus were anathematized by Pope Innocentius. Their doctrines included a denial of the tenet of original sin; a belief in the possibility of a sinless life on earth; and a rejection of the teaching of the Church with regard to grace. Pelagius also believed in the freedom of the human will. The date and circumstances of his death are not known. A very few only of the numerous treatises of Pelagius have descended to us. They are printed with the works of St. Jerome. There are special monographs on Pelagius by Wiggers (Eng. tr. Andover, 1840); Jacobi (1842); Wörter (1866); and Klasen (1882).

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Pertinax in Wikipedia

Publius Helvius Pertinax (1 August 126 – 28 March 193), commonly known as Pertinax, was Roman Emperor for three months from 192 to 193. He is known as the first emperor of the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors. Upon his death he was succeeded by Didius Julianus, whose reign was similarly short-lived...

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Pert&#301;nax in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A Roman emperor who ruled from January 1 to March 28, A.D. 193, having been reluctantly persuaded to accept the Empire on the death of Commodus. But having attempted to check the license of the Praetorian Guards, he was slain by the latter, who then put up the Empire for sale. See Capitolin. Pertinax; and Krakauer, Commodus und Pertinax (Breslau, 1883).

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Petronius in Wikipedia

Gaius Petronius Arbiter (ca. 27–66 AD) was a Roman courtier during the reign of Nero. He is speculated to be the author of the Satyricon, a satirical novel believed to have been written during the Neronian age. Life - Tacitus, Plutarch and Pliny the Elder describe Petronius as the elegantiae arbiter, "judge of elegance" in the court of the emperor Nero. He served as consul in the year AD 62. Later, he became a member of the senatorial class who devoted themselves to a life of pleasure, whose relationship to Nero was apparently akin to that of a fashion advisor. Tacitus gives this account of Petronius in his historical work the Annals: He spent his days in sleep, his nights in attending to his official duties or in amusement, that by his dissolute life he had become as famous as other men by a life of energy, and that he was regarded as no ordinary profligate, but as an accomplished voluptuary. His reckless freedom of speech, being regarded as frankness, procured him popularity. Yet during his provincial government, and later when he held the office of consul, he had shown vigor and capacity for affairs. Afterwards returning to his life of vicious indulgence, he became one of the chosen circle of Nero’s intimates, and was looked upon as an absolute authority on questions of taste (elegantiae arbiter) in connection with the science of luxurious living. None of the ancient sources give any further detail about his life, or mention that he was a writer. However a medieval manuscript, written around 1450, of the Satyricon credited a "Titus Petronius" as the author of the original work. Traditionally this reference is linked with Petronius Arbiter, since the novel appears to have been written or at least set during his lifetime. The link, however, remains speculative and disputed. As a writer - Petronius’ development of his characters in the Satyricon, namely Trimalchio, transcends the traditional style of writing of ancient literature. In the literature written during Petronius’ life the emphasis was always on the typical considerations of plot, which had been laid down by classical rules. The character, which was hardly known in ancient literature, was secondary. Petronius goes beyond these literary limitations in his exact portrayals of detailed speech, behavior, surroundings, and appearance of the characters. Another literary device Petronius employs in his novel is a collection of specific allusions. The allusions to certain people and events are evidence that the Satyricon was written during Nero’s time. These also suggest that it was aimed at a contemporary audience in which a part consisted of Nero’s courtiers and even Nero himself. One such allusion, found in Book IX, refers to the story of the good wife Lucretia which was well-known at the time: "If you're a Lucretia," he said, "You've found a Tarquin". The message Petronius tries to convey in his work is far from moral and does not intend to produce reform, but is written above all to entertain and should be considered artistically. As the title implies the Satyricon is a satire, specifically a Menippean satire, in which Petronius satirizes nearly anything, using his impeccable taste as the only standard. It is speculated that Petronius’ depiction of Trimalchio mirrors that of Nero. Although we never know the author's own opinion, we see the opinions of the characters in the story and how Encolpius criticizes Trimalchio. Death - Petronius’ high position soon made him the object of envy for those around him. Having attracted the jealousy of Tigellinus, the commander of the emperor’s guard, he was accused of treason. He was arrested at Cumae in 66 AD but did not wait for a sentence. Instead he chose to take his own life. Tacitus again records his elegant suicide in the sixteenth book of the Annals: Yet he did not fling away life with precipitate haste, but having made an incision in his veins and then, according to his humour, bound them up, he again opened them, while he conversed with his friends, not in a serious strain or on topics that might win for him the glory of courage. And he listened to them as they repeated, not thoughts on the immortality of the soul or on the theories of philosophers, but light poetry and playful verses. To some of his slaves he gave liberal presents, a flogging to others. He dined, indulged himself in sleep, that death, though forced on him, might have a natural appearance. Even in his will he did not, as did many in their last moments, flatter Nero or Tigellinus or any other of the men in power. On the contrary, he described fully the prince's shameful excesses, with the names of his male and female companions and their novelties in debauchery, and sent the account under seal to Nero. Then he broke his signet-ring, that it might not be subsequently available for imperiling others. In fiction - Petronius, usually assumed to be the author of the Satyricon, appears or is referenced in several works of fiction: Henryk Sienkiewicz's novel Quo Vadis and its adaptations (but see below for the film), where C. Petronius is the preferred courtier of Nero, using his wit to adulate and mock him at the same time. He is horrified at Nero's burning of Rome, and eventually commits suicide to escape both Nero's antics and his anticipated execution. Mika Waltari's novel The Roman. in Robert A. Heinlein's novel The Door into Summer, in which the protagonist's cat is named "Petronius the Arbiter". in Jesse Browner's novel The Uncertain Hour, which recounts Petronius' final banquet and suicide (as told by Tacitus, Annals 16 ). in Anthony Burgess's novel The Kingdom of the Wicked, Gaius Petronius appears as a major character, an advisor to Nero. In the 1951 film of Quo Vadis, Petronius is portrayed by Leo Genn, for which he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. In the 2001 film of Quo Vadis, Petronius is portrayed by Boguslaw Linda. It was the first Polish adaptation of Sienkiewicz's novel. In the 1835 short story "A Tale of Roman Life" by Alexander Pushkin, Petronius' final days in Cumae are chronicled. George Orwell in "Bookshop Memories" (1936): "Modern books for children are rather horrible things, especially when you see them in the mass. Personally I would sooner give a child a copy of Petrenius Arbiter than PETER PAN, but even Barrie seems manly and wholesome compared with some of his later imitators." In recent times, a popular quote (reportedly by Charlton Ogburn, 1957[1]) on reorganization is often (but spuriously[2][3]) attributed to a Gaius Petronius. In one version, it reads: "We trained hard ... but it seemed that every time we were beginning to form up into teams we would be reorganized. I was to learn later in life that we tend to meet any new situation by reorganizing; and a wonderful method it can be for creating the illusion of progress while producing confusion, inefficiency, and demoralization."

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Petronius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Gaius, or (possibly) Titus. A Roman novelist probably to be identified with an accomplished voluptuary at the court of Nero. He was one of the chosen companions of Nero, and was regarded as director-in-chief of the imperial pleasures, the judge whose decision upon the merits of any proposed scheme of enjoyment was held as final (elegantiae arbiter). The influence thus acquired excited the jealous suspicions of Tigellinus. Petronius was accused of treason; and believing that destruction was inevitable, he resolved to die as he had lived, and to excite admiration by the frivolous eccentricity of his end. Having caused his veins to be opened, he from time to time checked the flow of blood by the application of bandages. During the intervals he conversed with his friends, and even showed himself in the public streets of Cumae, where these events took place; so that at last, when he collapsed from exhaustion, his death (A.D. 66), although compulsory, appeared to be the result of natural and gradnal decay. He is said to have despatched in his last moments a sealed document to the emperor, taunting him with his brutal excesses (Tac. Ann. xvi. 18, 19; Pliny , Pliny H. N. xxxvii. 20). The remarkable work which is traditionally ascribed to this person and which has come down to modern times in an incomplete form, was originally written in at least 16 books, with the title Satira or Satiricon. It is in prose, with many passages in verse scattered through it as quotations, or as compositions of characters introduced in the novel. The book is a sort of comic romance, in which the adventures of a certain Encolpius and his companions in the south of Italy, chiefly in Puteoli or its environs (on the place see H. W. Hayley in Harvard Studies in Class. Philology for 1892), are made a vehicle for exposing the false taste and vices of the age. Unfortunately the vices of the personages introduced are depicted with such fidelity that we are perpetually disgusted by the obscenity of the descriptions. The longest section is generally known as the Dinner of Trimalchio (Cena Trimalchionis), presenting us with a caricatured account of a fantastic banquet, such as the gourmands of the Empire were wont to exhibit on their tables. Next in interest is the well-known tale of the Ephesian Matron, which is really older than the time of Petronius, and is found in various forms in the literature of many peoples, even in the Chinese; and which in English is introduced into one of the sermons of Jeremy Taylor. It is probably the best if not the only remaining specimen of a Milesian Tale. (See Novels and Romances.) The novel is also remarkable for its pictures of low life, and for the specimens which it gives of the Latin of the uneducated classes (sermo plebeius), of which it is the most important literary example. The dialogue is amusing, abounding in idiomatic expressions, popular maxims, ungrammatical language, and slang. See Sermo Plebeius. A remarkable attempt at fraud by one François Nodot in the seventeenth century is associated with the history of the text of Petronius. Nodot professed to have got possession of a complete copy of Petronius with no lacunae, found, he said, at the sack of Belgrade. His text was printed at Rotterdam in 1693, but was at once seen to be a forgery; yet as it gives a continuous narrative instead of the fragmentary one of the genuine text its additions are sometimes printed (in different type) in editions of Petronius. There are twenty-one existing manuscripts of Petronius, the most important being the Codex Traguriensis in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris. It was found at Trau in Dalmatia in 1663, and contains the Cena Trimalchionis. See Beck, The Age of Petronius (Cambridge, Mass., 1856), and the account of the MSS. in Bücheler's large edition. The best editions are those of Burmann (2d ed. Amsterdam, 1743); Reiske (Leipzig, 1748); Bücheler, ed. maior (Berlin, 1862); and Bücheler, ed. minor, text only (Berlin, 1886; last ed. 1895); De Guerle, with translation into French (Paris, 1862); of the Cena, with German translation and notes (Leipzig, 1892); and Waters, with English notes (announced, 1895). On the language, see Ludwig, De Petronii Sermone Plebeio (Leipzig, 1870); von Guericke, De Lingua Vulgari apud Petronium (Königsberg, 1875); Cesareo, De Petronii Sermone (Rome, 1887); Schuchardt, Der Vokalismus des Vulgärlateins (Leipzig, 1866-68); and Cooper, Word Formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius (N. Y. and Boston, 1895). For criticism, etc., see Pétrequin, Récherches sur Pétrone (Paris, 1869); Gaston Boissier in the Revue des Deux Mondes for November, 1874; Thomas, La Société Romaine d'après Pétrone (Paris, 1892); and H. W. Hayley, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, iii. pp. 1-40 (1892).

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Philip the Arab in Wikipedia

Marcus Julius Philippus (c. 204–249), commonly known as Philip the Arab or Philippus I Arabs, was Roman Emperor from 244 to 249. He came from Syria, and rose to become a major figure in the empire. He achieved power after the death of Gordian III, quickly negotiating peace with the Persian empire. During his reign Rome celebrated its millennium. Among early Christian writers Philip had the reputation of being sympathetic to the Christian faith. It was even claimed that he converted to Christianity, becoming the first Christian emperor, but this is disputed. Philip was overthrown and killed following a rebellion led by his successor Decius...

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Philippus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

M. Iulius Philippus I., Roman emperor A.D. 244-249, was an Arabian by birth, and entered the Roman army, in which he rose to high rank. He accompanied Gordianus III. in his expedition against the Persians; and upon the death of the excellent Misitheus (see Misitheus), he was promoted to the vacant office of praetorian praefect. He availed himself of the influence of his high office to excite discontent among the soldiers, who at length assassinated Gordian, and proclaimed Philippus emperor, 244. Philippus proclaimed his son Caesar, concluded a disgraceful peace with Sapor, founded the city of Philippopolis, and then returned to Rome. In 245 he was engaged in prosecuting a successful war against the Carpi on the Danube. In 248, rebellions, headed by Iotapinus and Marinus, broke out simultaneously in the East and in Moesia. Both pretenders speedily perished, but Decius, having been dispatched to recall the legions on the Danube to their duty, was himself forcibly invested with the purple by the troops, and compelled by them to march upon Italy. Philippus, having gone forth to encounter his rival, was slain near Verona either in battle or by his own soldiers. The great domestic event of the reign of Philippus was the exhibition of the Secular Games, which were celebrated with even more than the ordinary degree of splendour, since Rome had now, according to the received tradition, attained the thousandth year of her existence (A.D. 248).

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Plautus in Wikipedia

Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254–184 BC), commonly known as Plautus, was a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period. His comedies are among the earliest surviving intact works in Latin literature. He wrote Palliata comoedia, the genre devised by the innovator of Latin literature, Livius Andronicus. The word Plautine (pronounced /ˈplɔːtaɪn/) is used to refer to Plautus's works or works similar to or influenced by his...

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Plautus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Plautus, T. Maccius The most celebrated comic poet of Rome. He was a native of Sarsina, a small village in Umbria. He used to be called M. Accius Plautus, but his real name, as Ritschl has shown, was T. Maccius Plautus. The date of his birth is uncertain, but it may be placed about B.C. 254. He probably came to Rome at an early age, since he displays so perfect a mastery of the Latin language, and an acquaintance with Greek literature which he could hardly have acquired in a provincial town. Whether he ever obtained the Roman franchise is doubtful. When he arrived at Rome he was in needy circumstances, and was first employed in the service of the actors. With the money he had saved in this inferior station he set himself up in business, but failed; he then returned to Rome, and his necessities obliged him to enter the service of a baker, who employed him in turning a hand-mill. While in this degrading occupation he wrote three plays, the sale of which to the managers of the public games enabled him to quit his drudgery and begin his literary career. He was then probably about thirty years of age (224 B.C.), and therefore commenced writing comedies a few years before the breaking out of the Second Punic War. He continued his literary occupation for about forty years, and died in 184, when he was seventy years of age. His contemporaries at first were Livius Andronicus and Naevius, afterward Ennius and Caecilius: Terence did not rise into notice till almost twenty years after his death. During the long time that he held possession of the stage, he was always a great favourite of the people; and he expressed a bold consciousness of his own powers in the epitaph which he wrote for his tomb, and which has come down to us: "Postquam est mortem aptus Plautus, comoedia luget Scena deserta, dein risus, ludus iocusque Et numeri innumeri simul omnes collacrumarunt." Plautus wrote a great number of comedies, and in the last century of the Republic there were 130 plays which bore his name. Most of these, however, were not considered genuine by the best Roman critics. There were several works written upon the subject; and of these the most celebrated was the treatise of Varro, entitled Quaestiones Plautinae. Varro limited the undoubted comedies of the poet to twenty-one, which were hence called the Fabulae Varronianae. These Varronian comedies are the same as those which have come down to our own time, with the loss of one. At present we possess only twenty comedies of Plautus; but there were originally twenty-one in the manuscripts, and the Vidularia, which was the twentyfirst, and which came last in the collection, was torn off from the manuscript in the Middle Ages. The titles of the twenty-one Varronian plays are: 1. Amphitruo 2. Asinaria 3. Aulularia 4. Captivi 5. Curculio 6. Casina 7. Cistellaria 8. Epidicus 9. Bacchides 10. Mostellaria 11. Menaechmi 12. Miles 13. Mercator 14. Pseudolus 15. Poenulus 16. Persa 17. Rudens 18. Stichus 19. Trinummus 20. Truculentus 21. Vidularia. This is the order in which they occur in the manuscripts, though probably not the one in which they were originally arranged by Varro. The present order is evidently alphabetical; the initial letter of the title of each play is alone regarded, and no attention is paid to those which follow: hence we find Captivi, Curculio, Casina, Cistellaria: Mostellaria, Menaechmi, Miles, Mercator: Pseudolus, Poenulus, Persa. The play of the Bacchides forms the only exception to the alphabetical order. It was probably placed after the Epidicus by some copyist, because he had observed that Plautus, in the Bacchides (ii. 2, 36), referred to the Epidicus as an earlier work. The names of the comedies are either taken from some leading character in the play, or from some circumstance which occurs in it: those titles ending in -aria are adjectives, giving a general description of the play: thus Asinaria is the "Ass-Comedy." The comedies of Plautus enjoyed unrivalled popularity among the Romans, and continued to be represented down to the time of Diocletian. The continued popularity of Plautus through so many centuries was owing, in a great measure, to his being a national poet. Though he founds his plays upon Greek models, the characters in them act, speak, and joke like genuine Romans, and he thereby secured the sympathy of his audience more completely than Terence could ever have done. Whether Plautus borrowed the plan of all his plays from Greek models, it is impossible to say. The Cistellaria, Bacchides, Poenulus, and Stichus were taken from Menander, the Casina and Rudens from Diphilus, and the Mercator and the Trinummus from Philemon, and many others were undoubtedly founded upon Greek originals. But in all cases Plautus allowed himself much greater liberty than Terence; and in some instances he appears to have simply taken the leading idea of the play from the Greek, and to have filled it up in his own fashion. It has been inferred from a well-known line of Horace (Epist. ii. 1.58), Plautus ad exemplar Siculi properare Epicharmi, that Plautus took great pains to imitate Epicharmus. But there is no correspondence between any of the existing plays of Plautus and the known titles of the comedies of Epicharmus; and the verb properare probably has reference only to the liveliness and energy of Plautus's style, in which he bore a resemblance to the Sicilian poet. It was, however, not only with the common people that Plautus was a favourite; educated Romans read and admired his works down to the latest times. Cicero (De Off. i. 29) places his wit on a par with that of the old Attic comedy, and St. Jerome used to console himself with the perusal of the poet after spending many nights in tears on account of his past sins. The favourable opinion which the ancients entertained of the merits of Plautus has been confirmed by the judgment of the best modern critics, and by the fact that several of his plays have been imitated by many of the best modern poets. Thus the Amphitruo has been imitated by Molière and Dryden, the Aulularia by Molière in his Avare, the Mostellaria by Regnard, Addison, and others, the Menaechmi by Shakespeare in his Comedy of Errors, the Trinummus by Lessing in his Schatz, and so with others. Horace (A. P. 270), indeed, expresses a less favourable opinion of Plautus; but it must be recollected that the taste of Horace had been formed by a different school of literature, and that he undervalued the ancient poets of his country. Moreover, it is probable that the censure of Horace does not refer to the general character of Plautus's poetry, but merely to his inharmonious verses and to some of his jests. Plautus performed an important work in the enrichment of the Latin language. His genius for coining words was very remarkable, and in after-years the majority of his new terms were taken into the literary language by Cicero, who gave them the stamp of his authority. In this respect he stands out as a unique and important figure, and one whose influence has been too little recognized. See Peck's History of the Latin Language, pt. iii.; Besta, De Verborum Compositione Plaut. (Breslau, 1876); Ulrich, Die Composita bei Plautus (Halle, 1884); Georke, Vocabula Graeca in Linguam Lat. Recepta (Königsberg, 1868); and Rassow in Jahn's Jahrbücher, Suppl. xv. 589. The MSS. of Plautus that are of especial importance are the Codex Ambrosianus (A) at Milan (a palimpsest) of the fourth or fifth century; the Codex Palatinus (B), now at Rome; the Codex Decurtatus (C) at Heidelberg; the Codex Vaticanus or Vetus (D); and the Codex Britannicus (J) in the British Museum. The last four are of about the eleventh or twelfth century, and represent a single archetype. No MS. contains all the plays. The text of Plautus has come down to us in a very corrupt state. It contains many lacunae and interpolations. Thus the Aulularia has lost its conclusion, the Bacchides its commencement, etc. Of the present complete editions the best are by Lambinus (Paris, 1576); Pareus (Frankfort, 1610); Bothe, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1834); Weise, 2 vols. (Quedlinburg, 1837-38; last ed. 1886); Ussing (Copenhagen, 1886); Leo (2 vols. Berlin, 1885-1896); Ritschl (Bonn, 1848-54; revised by Loewe, Goetz, and Schoell, 1894). There is no complete edition with English notes, but the following of separate plays are good: Wagner's Aulularia (1866); Hallidie's Captivi (1890); Ramsay's Mostellaria, incomplete (1869); Morris's Mostellaria (1880); Tyrrell's Miles Gloriosus (1885); Gray's Epidicus (1893); Sloman's Trinummus (1883); Fowler's Menaechmi (1889); Palmer's Amphitruo (1890); Morris's Pseudolus (1894); and Fennell's Stichus (1893). Foreign editions are those of the Asinaria by Richter (Nuremberg, 1833); of the Captivi, with critical apparatus, by Brix (4th ed. Leipzig, 1884); of the Curculio by Geppert (Berlin, 1845); of the Casina by Geppert (Berlin, 1866); of the Cistellaria by Benoist (Lyons, 1863); of the Epidicus by Geppert (Berlin, 1865); of the Bacchides by Ritschl (Halle, 1835); of the Menaechmi by Brix (3d ed. Leipzig, 1880) and Vahlen (Berlin, 1882); of the Poenulus by Geppert (Berlin, 1864); of the Rudens by Benoist (Paris, 1864); of the Trinummus by Brix (3d ed. Leipzig, 1879); and of the Truculentus by Spengel and Studemund (Göttingen, 1868). On the Vidularia, which was lost during the Middle Ages, see Studemund, De Vidularia Plautina (Greifswald, 1870); and Leo, De Vidularia (Berlin, 1892).

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Pliny the Elder in Wikipedia

Gaius Plinius Secundus (23 AD – August 25, 79), better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian. Spending most of his spare time studying, writing or investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field, he wrote an encyclopedic work, Naturalis Historia, which became a model for all such works written subsequently. Pliny the Younger, his nephew, wrote of him in a letter to the historian Tacitus: For my part I deem those blessed to whom, by favour of the gods, it has been granted either to do what is worth writing of, or to write what is worth reading; above measure blessed those on whom both gifts have been conferred. In the latter number will be my uncle, by virtue of his own and of your compositions.[1] Pliny is referring to the fact that Tacitus relied on his uncle's now missing work on the History of the German Wars. Pliny the Elder died on August 25, 79 AD, while attempting the rescue by ship of a friend and his family from the eruption of Mount Vesuvius that had just destroyed the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The prevailing wind would not allow his ship to leave the shore. His companions attributed his collapse and death to toxic fumes, but they were unaffected by the fumes, suggesting natural causes...

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Plinius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Gaius Plinius Secundus, called the Elder. A Roman representative of encyclopaedic learning, born A.D. 23, at Novum Comum (Como), in Upper Italy. Although throughout his life he was almost uninterruptedly occupied in the service of the State, yet at the same time he carried on the most widely extended scientific studies to which he laboriously devoted all his leisure hours, and thus gained for himself the reputation of the most learned man of his age. Under Claudius he served as commander of a troop of cavalry (praefectus alae) in Germany; under Vespasian, with whom he was in the highest favour, he held several times the office of imperial governor in the provinces, and superintended the imperial finances in Italy. Finally, under Titus, he was in command of the fleet stationed at Misenum, when in A.D. 79, at the celebrated eruption of Vesuvius, his zeal for research led him to his death. For a detailed account of this event, as well as of his literary labours, we have to thank his nephew, the Younger Pliny (Epist. iii. 5; vi. 16). Besides writings upon military, grammatical, rhetorical, and biographical subjects, he composed two greater historical works-a history of the Germanic wars in twenty books, and a history of his own time in thirty-one books. His last work was the Natural History (Historia Naturalis), in thirtyseven books, which has been preserved to us. This was dedicated to Titus, and was published in A.D. 77; but he was indefatigably engaged in amplifying it up to the time of his death. This encyclopaedia is compiled from 20,000 notices, which he had extracted from about 2000 writings by 474 authors. Book i. gives a list of contents and the names of the authors used; ii. is on astronomy and physics; iii.-vi., a general sketch of geography and ethnography, mainly a list of names; vii.-xix., natural history proper (vii., anthropology; viii.-xi., zoölogy of land and water animals, birds, and insects; xii.-xix., botany); xx.-xxxii., the pharmacology of the vegetable kingdom (xx.-xxvii.) and of the animal kingdom (xxviii.-xxxii.); xxxiii.xxxvii., mineralogy and the use of minerals in medicine and in painting, sculpture, and the engraving of gems, besides valuable notices upon the history of art. A kind of comparative geography forms the conclusion. Considering the extent and varied character of the undertaking, the haste with which the work was done, the defective technical knowledge and small critical ability of the author, it cannot be surprising that it includes a large number of mistakes and misunderstandings, and that its contents are of very unequal value, details that are strange and wonderful, rather than really important, having often unduly attracted the writer's attention. Nevertheless, the work is a mine of inestimable value in the information it gives us respecting the science and art of the ancient world; and it is also a splendid monument of human industry. Even the unevenness of the style is explained by the mosaic- like character of the work. At one time it is dry and bald in expression; at another, rhetorically coloured and impassioned, especially in the carefully elaborated introductions to the several books. On account of its bulk, the work was in early times epitomized for more convenient use. An epitome of the geographical part of Pliny 's encyclopaedia, belonging to the time of Hadrian, and enlarged by additions from Pomponius Mela and other authors, forms the foundation of the works of Solinus and Martianus Capella. Similarly the Medicina Plinii is an epitome prepared in the fourth century for the use of travellers. About two hundred manuscripts of Pliny are in existence, divided into two general classes-the vetustiores, all more or less incomplete, but truer to the original, and the recentiores, which are less fragmentary, but also less accurate. Of the former the best is the Codex Bambergensis of the tenth century, containing only bks. xxxii.-xxxvii. The recentiores are all of the same "family," going back to a single archetype now lost. See Fels, De Codicibus Plinianis (Göttingen, 1861). Editions are those with notes by Barbari (Rome, 1492); by J. F. Gronovius, 3 vols. (Leyden, 1669); by Hardouin (Paris, 1685); by Franz, 10 vols. (Leipzig, 1778-91); by Sillig, with critical notes and indices, 8 vols. (Gotha, 1853-55); by Jan, 6 vols. (Leipzig, 1854-65); 2d ed. by Mayhoff (1870 foll.); and by Detlefsen, 6 vols. (Berlin, 1866-73). There is a Chrestomathia Pliniana by Urlichs (Berlin, 1857); a good French translation by Grandsagne with notes by various scholars, 20 vols. (Paris, 1829-33); and a fair English one with good index in the Bohn Library (London, 1856). On the language and style of Pliny , see Wannowski, Pliniana (Posen, 1847); Grasberger, De Usu Pliniano (Würzburg, 1860); J. Müller, Der Stil des älten Plinius (Innsbruck, 1883); and Thüssing (Prague, 1890).

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Pompey in Wikipedia

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey /ˈpɒmpi/ or Pompey the Great[1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2]) (September 29, 106 BC – September 29, 48 BC), was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and established himself in the ranks of Roman nobility by successful leadership in several campaigns. Sulla addressed him by the cognomen Magnus (the Great) and he was awarded three triumphs. Pompey joined his rival Marcus Licinius Crassus and his ally and father-in-law Julius Caesar in the military-political alliance known as the First Triumvirate. After the deaths of Crassus and Julia, Pompey's wife and Caesar's daughter, Pompey and Caesar contended the leadership of the Roman state in a civil war. Pompey sided with the optimates, the conservative and aristocratic majority of the Roman Senate. When Caesar defeated him at the battle of Pharsalus he sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated. His career and defeat are significant in Rome's subsequent transformation from Republic to Principate and Empire...

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Pomp&#275;ius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Cn. Pompēius Magnus , the Triumvir, son of No. 9, was born on the 30th of September, B.C. 106, in the consulship of Atilius Serranus and Servilius Caepio, and was consequently a few months younger than Cicero (who was born on the 3d of January in the same year) and six years older than Caesar. He fought under his father in 89 against the Italians, when he was only seventeen years of age, and continued with him till his death two years afterwards. For the next few years the Marian party had possession of Italy; and accordingly Pompey, who adhered to the aristocratic party, was obliged to keep in the background, and was only saved from an indictment by the intervention of Carbo. But when it became known, in 84, that Sulla was on the point of returning from Greece to Italy, Pompey hastened into Picenum, where he raised an army of three legions. Although only twenty-three years of age, Pompey displayed great military abilities in opposing the Marian generals by whom he was surrounded; and when he succeeded in joining Sulla in the course of the year (B.C. 83) he was saluted by the latter with the title of Imperator. During the remainder of the war in Italy Pompey distinguished himself as one of the most successful of Sulla 's generals; and when the war in Italy was brought to a close, Sulla sent Pompey against the Marian party in Sicily and Africa. Pompey first proceeded to Sicily, of which he easily made himself master (B.C. 82): here he put Carbo to death. In 81, Pompey crossed over to Africa, where he defeated Cn. Domitius Ahenorbarbus and the Numidian king Hiarbas, after a hard-fought battle. On his return to Rome in the same year, he was received with enthusiasm by the people, and was greeted by Sulla with the surname of Magnus , a name which he bore ever afterwards, and handed down to his children. Pompey, however, not satisfied with this distinction, sued for a triumph, which Sulla at first refused, but at length, overcome by Pompey's importunity, he allowed him to have his own way. Accordingly, Pompey, who had not yet held any public office, and was still a simple eques, entered Rome in triumph in September, 81, and before he had completed his twenty-fifth year. Pompey continued faithful to the aristocracy after Sulla 's death (B.C. 78), and supported the consul Catulus in resisting the attempts of his colleague Lepidus to repeal the laws of Sulla ; and when Lepidus had recourse to arms in the following year (B.C. 77), Pompey took an active part in the war against him, and succeeded in driving him out of Italy. The aristocracy, however, now began to fear the young and successful general; but since Sertorius in Spain had for the last three years successfully opposed Metellus Pius, one of the ablest of Sulla 's generals, Coin of Pompey. and it had become necessary to send the latter some effectual assistance, the Senate, with considerable reluctance, determined to send Pompey to Spain, with the title of proconsul, and with equal powers to Metellus. Pompey remained in Spain between five and six years (76-71); but neither he nor Metellus was able to gain any decisive advantage over Sertorius. But when Sertorius was treacherously murdered by his own officer Perperna in 82, the war was speedily brought to a close. Perperna was easily defeated by Pompey in the first battle, and the whole of Spain was subdued by the early part of the following year (B.C. 71). Pompey then returned to Italy at the head of his army. In his march towards Rome he fell in with the remains of the army of Spartacus, which M. Crassus had previously defeated. Pompey cut to pieces these fugitives, and therefore claimed for himself, in addition to all his other exploits, the glory of finishing the Servile War. Pompey was now a candidate for the consulship; and although he was ineligible by law, inasmuch as he was absent from Rome, had not yet reached the legal age, and had not held any of the lower offices of the State, still his election was certain. His military glory had charmed the people; and as it was known that the aristocracy looked upon Pompey with jealousy, they ceased to regard him as belonging to this party, and hoped to obtain, through him, a restoration of the rights and privileges of which they had been deprived by Sulla. Pompey was accordingly elected consul, along with M. Crassus; and on the 31st of December, B.C. 71, he entered the city a second time in his triumphal car a simple knight. In his consulship (B.C. 70), Pompey openly broke with the aristocracy, and became the great popular hero. He proposed and carried a law, restoring to the tribunes the power of which they had been deprived by Sulla. He also afforded his all-powerful aid to the Lex Aurelia, proposed by the praetor L. Aurelius Cotta, by which the iudices were to be taken in future from the Senate, knights, and tribunes of the treasury, instead of from the senators exclusively, as Sulla had ordained. In carrying both these measures Pompey was strongly supported by Caesar, with whom he was thus brought into close connection. For the next two years (69 and 68) Pompey remained in Rome. In 67, the tribune A. Gabinius brought forward a bill, proposing to confer upon Pompey the command of the war against the pirates with extraordinary powers. This bill was opposed by the aristocracy with the utmost vehemence, but was notwithstanding carried. The pirates were at this time masters of the Mediterranean, and had not only plundered many cities on the coasts of Greece and Asia, but had even made descents upon Italy itself. As soon as Pompey received the command, he began to make his preparations for the war, and completed them by the end of the winter. His plans were formed with great skill and judgment, and were crowned with complete success. In forty days he cleared the western sea of pirates, and restored communication between Spain, Africa, and Italy. He then followed the main body of the pirates to their strongholds on the coast of Cilicia; and after defeating their fleet, he induced a great part of them, by promises of pardon, to surrender to him. Many of these he settled at Soli, which was henceforward called Pompeiopolis. The second part of the campaign occupied only forty-nine days, and the whole war was brought to a conclusion in the course of three months; so that, to adopt the panegyric of Cicero (Pro Leg. Man. 12), "Pompey made his preparations for the war at the end of the winter, entered upon it at the commencement of spring, and finished it in the middle of the summer." Pompey was employed during the remainder of this year and the beginning of the following in visiting the cities of Cilicia and Pamphylia, and providing for the government of the newly-conquered districts. During his absence from Rome, Pompey had been appointed to succeed Lucullus in the command of the war against Mithridates (B.C. 66). The bill, conferring upon him this command, was proposed by the tribune C. Manilius, and was supported by Cicero, in an oration which has come down to us (Pro Lege Manilia). Like the Gabinian law, it was opposed by the whole body of the aristocracy, but was carried triumphantly. The power of Mithridates had been broken by the previous victories of Lucullus, and it was only left to Pompey to bring the war to a conclusion. On the approach of Pompey, Mithridates retreated towards Armenia, but he was defeated by the Roman general; and as Tigranes now refused to receive him into his dominions, Mithridates resolved to plunge into the heart of Colchis, and from thence make his way to his own dominions in the Cimmerian Bosporus. Pompey now turned his arms against Tigranes; but the Armenian king submitted to him without a contest, and was allowed to conclude a peace with the Republic. In 65 Pompey set out in pursuit of Mithridates, but he met with much opposition from the Iberians and Albanians; and after advancing as far as the river Phasis (Faz), he resolved to leave these savage districts. He accordingly retraced his steps, and spent the winter at Pontus, which he reduced to the form of a Roman province. In 64 he marched into Syria, deposed the king Antiochus Asiaticus, and made that country also a Roman province. In 63 he advanced farther south, in order to establish the Roman supremacy in Phœnicia, Coele-Syria, and Palestine. The Jews refused to submit to him, and shut the gates of Jerusalem against him, and it was not till after a siege of three months that the city was taken. Pompey entered the Holy of Holies, the first time that any human being, except the high priest, had dared to penetrate into this sacred spot. It was during the war in Palestine that Pompey received intelligence of the death of Mithridates. (See Mithridates [6].) Pompey spent the next winter in Pontus; and after settling the affairs of Asia, he returned to Italy in 62. He disbanded his army almost immediately after landing at Brundisium, and thus calmed the apprehensions of many, who feared that, at the head of his victorious troops, he would seize upon the supreme power. He did not, however, return to Rome till the following year (B.C. 51), and he entered the city in triumph on the 30th of September. He had just completed his forty-fifth year, and this was the third time that he had enjoyed the honour of a triumph. With this triumph the first and most glorious part of Pompey's life may be said to have ended. Hitherto his life had been an almost uninterrupted succession of military glory. But now he was called upon to play a prominent part in the civil commotions of the commonwealth, a part for which neither his natural talents nor his previous habits had in the least fitted him. It would seem that, on his return to Rome, Pompey hardly knew what part to take in the politics of the city. He had been appointed to the command against the pirates and Mithridates in opposition to the aristocracy, and they still regarded him with jealousy and distrust. At the same time, he was not disposed to unite himself to the popular party, which had risen into importance during his absence in the East, and over which Caesar possessed unbounded influence. The object, however, which engaged the immediate attention of Pompey was to obtain from the Senate a ratification for all his acts in Asia, and an assignment of lands which he had promised to his veterans. The Senate, however, glad of an opportunity to put an affront upon a man whom they both feared and hated, resolutely refused to sanction his measures in Asia. This was the unwisest thing the Senate could have done. If they had known their real interests, they would have sought to win Pompey over to their side, as a counterpoise to the growing and more dangerous influence of Caesar. But their shortsighted policy threw Pompey into Caesar's arms, and thus sealed the downfall of their party. Caesar promised to obtain for Pompey the ratification of his acts, and Pompey, on his part, agreed to support Caesar in all his measures. That they might be more sure of carrying their plans into execution, Caesar prevailed upon Pompey to become reconciled to Crassus, with whom he was at variance, but who, by his immense wealth, had great influence at Rome. The three agreed to assist one another against their mutual enemies, and thus was formed the so-called First Triumvirate. This union of the three most powerful men at Rome crushed the aristocracy for the time. Supported by Pompey and Crassus, Caesar was able in his consulship (B.C. 59) to carry all his measures. Pompey's acts in Asia were ratified, and Caesar's agrarian law, which divided the rich Campanian land among the poorer citizens, enabled Pompey to fulfil the promises he had made to his veterans. In order to cement their union more closely, Caesar gave to Pompey his daughter Iulia in marriage. Next year (B.C. 58) Caesar went to his province in Gaul, but Pompey remained in Rome. While Caesar was gaining glory and influence in Gaul, Pompey was gradually losing the confidence of all parties at Rome. The Senate hated and feared him; the people had deserted him for their favourite Clodius, and he had no other resource left but to strengthen his connection with Caesar. Thus he came to be regarded as the second man in the State, and was obliged to abandon the proud position which he had occupied for so many years. According to an arrangement made with Caesar, Pompey and Crassus were consuls for a second time in 55. Pompey received as his provinces the two Spains, Crassus obtained Syria, while Caesar's government was prolonged for five years more-namely, from the 1st of January, 53, to the end of the year 49. At the end of his consulship Pompey did not go in person to his provinces, but sent his legates, L. Afranius and M. Petreius, to govern the Spains, while he himself remained in the neighbourhood of the city. His object now was to obtain the dictatorship, and to make himself the undisputed master of the Roman world. Caesar's increasing power and influence had at length made it clear to Pompey that a struggle must take place between them, sooner or later. The death of his wife Iulia in 54, to whom he was tenderly attached, broke the link which still connected him with Caesar, and the fall of Crassus in the following year (B.C. 53), in the Parthian expedition, removed the only person who had the least chance of contesting the supremacy with them. In order to obtain the dictatorship, Pompey secretly encouraged the civil discord with which the State was torn asunder; and such frightful scenes of anarchy followed the death of Clodius at the beginning of 52 that the Senate had now no alternative but calling in the assistance of Pompey, who was accordingly made sole consul in 52, and succeeded in restoring order to the State. Soon afterwards Pompey became reconciled to the aristocracy, and was now regarded as their acknowledged head. The history of the Civil War which followed is related in the article Caesar. It is only necessary to mention here that after the battle of Pharsalia (B.C. 48) Pompey sailed to Egypt, where he hoped to meet with a favourable reception, since he had been the means of restoring to his kingdom the father of the young Egyptian monarch. The ministers of the latter, however, dreading Caesar's anger if they received Pompey, and likewise Pompey's resentment if they forbade him to land, resolved to release themselves from their difficulties by putting him to death. They accordingly sent out a small boat, took Pompey on board, and rowed for the shore. His wife and friends watched him from the ship, anxious to see in what manner he would be received by the king, who was standing on the edge of the sea with his troops; but just as the boat reached the shore, and Pompey was in the act of rising from his seat in order to step on land, he was stabbed in the back by Septimius, who had formerly been one of his centurions, and was now in the service of the Egyptian monarch. Pompey was killed on the 29th of September, B.C. 48, and had just completed his fifty-eighth year. His head was cut off, and his body, which was thrown out naked on the shore, was buried by his freedman Philippus, who had accompanied him from the ship. The head was brought to Caesar when he arrived in Egypt soon afterwards, but he turned away from the sight, shed tears at the melancholy death of his rival, and put his murderers to death. Pompey's untimely death excites pity; but no one who has well studied the state of parties at the close of the Roman commonwealth can regret his fall. There is abundant evidence to prove that, had Pompey's party gained the mastery, a proscription far more terrible than Sulla 's would have taken place, and Italy and the provinces have been divided as booty among a few profligate and unprincipled nobles. From such horrors the victory of Caesar saved the Roman world. See Merivale, The Roman Triumvirates (London, 1887); Froude, Caesar (London, 1879); Mommsen, Hist. of Rome, vol. iv. (New York, 1877); and Baring Gould, The Tragedy of the Caesars, vol. i. (London, 1892).

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Poppaea Sabina in Wikipedia

Poppaea Sabina (after AD 63 known as Poppaea Augusta Sabina) (30-65) and sometimes referred to as Poppaea Sabina the Younger to differentiate her from her mother of the same name, was a Roman Empress as the second wife of the Emperor Nero. Prior to this she was the wife of the future Emperor Otho. The historians of antiquity describe her as a beautiful woman who used intrigues to become empress...

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Sab&#299;na, Poppaea in Harpers Dictionary

A woman of surpassing beauty, but licentious morals. She was the daughter of T. Ollius, but assumed the name of her maternal grandfather, Poppaeus Sabinus, who had been consul A.D. 9. She was first married to Rufius Crispinus, and afterwards to Otho, who was one of the boon companions of Nero. The latter soon became enamoured of her; and in order to get Otho out of the way, Nero sent him to govern the province of Lusitania (A.D. 58). Poppaea now became the acknowledged mistress of Nero, over whom she exercised absolute sway. Anxious to become the wife of the emperor, she persuaded Nero first to murder his mother Agrippina (A.D. 59), who was opposed to such a disgraceful union, and next to divorce and shortly afterwards put to death his innocent and virtuous wife Octavia (A.D. 62). She then became the wife of Nero. In 65 Poppaea, being pregnant, was killed by a kick from her brutal husband (Suet. Nero, 35).

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Propertius in Wikipedia

Sextus Aurelius Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet who was born around 50–45 BC in Assisium) and died shortly after 15 BC.[1] Propertius' surviving work comprises four books of Elegies. He was friends with the poets Gallus and Virgil, and had with them as his patron Maecenas, and through Maecenas, the emperor Augustus. Life - Very little information is known about Propertius outside of his own writing. His praenomen "Sextus" is mentioned by Aelius Donatus,[2] a few manuscripts list him as "Sextus Propertius", but the rest of his name is unknown. From numerous references in his poetry[3] it is clear he was born and raised in Umbria; modern Assisi claims for itself the honor of his birthplace. As a boy his father died and the family lost land as part of a confiscation,[4] probably the same one which reduced Virgil's estates when Octavian alloted lands to his veterans in 41 BC. Combining this with cryptic references in Ovid[5] implying he was younger than his contemporary Tibullus, a birthdate in the early 40s seems appropriate...

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Propertius, Sextus in Harpers Dictionary

A Roman elegiac poet born at Asisium (Assisi), in Umbria (Prop.i. 22, 9, 65-66121-126, and v. 1). The date of his birth is uncertain. He was somewhat older than Ovid, and was probably born about B.C. 50. He lost his parents at an early age; and, through the general confiscation of land in 42, was deprived of the greater part of his paternal estate. Still, he possessed enough to live a typical poet's life at Rome, whither he had proceeded soon after coming of age, about B.C. 34. He there associated with his patron Maecenas and with other poets, such as Vergil and Ovid. To complete his studies he afterwards went to Athens. When he was still quite young, the poet's spirit woke within him, and expanded through his attachment to the beautiful and witty Hostia. Under the name Cynthia, she henceforth was the subject of his love-poems. For five years (B.C. 28-23) this attachment lasted, though often disturbed by the jealousy of the sensitive poet and the capriciousness of his mistress. When it had come to an end, and even after Cynthia's death (probably before B.C. 18), the poet could not forget his old passion. He himself died young. He often expresses forebodings of an early death; there is no indication in his poems that any of them were written later than B.C. 16. They have come down to us in four books, but some scholars are of opinion that the poet himself had divided them into five, and that the original second and third books have been united, perhaps through the oversight of friends at the publication of the last. Propertius himself seems to have only published the first. In the first four books amatory poems preponderate. The fifth book, the confused order of which may well be referred to the poet's untimely death, deals mainly with subjects taken from Roman legends and history, in the same way as Ovid subsequently treated them in the Fasti. Propertius possesses a poetical genius with which his talent is unable to keep pace. Endowed with a nature susceptible of passion as deep as it was strong, as ardent as it was easily evoked, and possessed of a rich fancy, he strives to express the fulness of his thoughts and feelings in a manner modelled closely on that of his Greek masters; and yet in his struggle with linguistic and metrical form, he fails to attain the agreeable in every instance. His expression is often peculiarly harsh and difficult, and his meaning is frequently obscured by far-fetched allusions to unfamiliar legends, or actual transcripts of them. Herein he follows the example of his models, the Alexandrian poets, Callimachus and Philetas. Nevertheless he is a great poet, and none of his countrymen has depicted the fire of passion so truly and so vividly as he. The personality of Propertius seems not to have been altogether agreeable, but to have been characterized by a certain conceit and youthful bumptiousness; and editors have argued with some probability that he is the person whom Horace had in mind in depicting the famous bore in the ninth satire of the First Book, though there are some chronological difficulties in the way of this theory. See Palmer's notes on this satire. The principal manuscript of Propertius is the Codex Neapolitanus, now at Wolfenbüttel, which dates from the fifteenth century, though long regarded as older. See the introduction to L. Müller's critical edition (Leipzig, 1880). The editio princeps of Propertius appeared at Venice in 1472. Propertius is edited by Hertzberg, with Latin notes, 3 vols. (1845); Keil (Leipzig, 1850); Palmer, with English notes (Dublin, 1880); Paley (1872); and Postgate (London, 1881). There is an English rendering by Cranstoun (1875). See Jacob, Propertius (Lübeck, 1847); on his style, the Prolegomena in Hertzberg's edition; and on his versification, Eschenburg, Observationes Criticae in Propertium, pp. 1-28 (Bonn, 1864); also Gruppe, Die röm. Elegie, i. pp. 274 foll.

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Quintus Sertorius in Wikipedia

Quintus Sertorius (123 BC-72 BC) was a Roman statesman and general, born in Nursia, in Sabine territory, around 124 BC. His family, the gens Sertoria, was probably of Sabine origin, and was previously undistinguished.[1] Early Political Career - After acquiring some reputation in Rome as a jurist and an orator, he began a military career. His first recorded campaign was under Quintus Servilius Caepio at the Battle of Arausio, where he showed unusual courage. Serving under Gaius Marius in 102 BC, Sertorius succeeded in spying on the wandering German tribes that had defeated Caepio. After this success, he fought at the great Battle of Aquae Sextiae (now Aix-en-Provence, France) in which the Teutones were decisively defeated. In 97 BC, he served in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) as a military tribune under Titus Didius, winning the Grass Crown. In 91 he was quaestor in Cisalpine Gaul, where he was in charge of recruiting and training legions for the Social War. During this time he sustained a wound that cost him the use of one of his eyes. Upon his return to Rome he ran for tribune, but Lucius Cornelius Sulla thwarted his efforts (for reasons unknown), causing Sertorius to oppose him. After Sulla forced Marius into exile, and Sulla left Rome to fight Mithridates, violence erupted between the Optimates, led by the consul Gnaeus Octavius, and the Populares, led by the consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna. Sertorius now declared for Cinna and the Populares. Though he had a very bad opinion of Marius, he consented to Marius' return upon understanding that Marius came at Cinna's request and not of his own accord. After Octavius surrendered Rome to the forces of Marius, Cinna, and Sertorius in 87, Sertorius abstained from the proscriptions his fellow commanders engaged in. Sertorius went so far as to rebuke Marius, and move Cinna to moderation, while annihilating Marius' slave army that had partaken in his atrocities. Proconsul in Hispania - On Sulla's return from the East in 83, and following the subsequent collapse of the Populares power, Sertorius retreated to Hispania as proconsul, representing the Populares. The Roman officials in Hispania did not recognize his authority, but Sertorius assumed control as he had an army. Sertorius sought to hold Hispania by sending an army, under Julius Salinator, to fortify the pass through the Pyrenees; however, Sulla's forces, under the command of Gaius Annius, broke through after Salinator was killed by treachery. Having been obliged to withdraw to North Africa, he carried on a campaign in Mauretania, in which he defeated one of Sulla's generals and captured Tingis (Tangier). Sertorian War - The North Africa success won him the fame and admiration of the people of Hispania, particularly that of the Lusitanians in the west (in modern Portugal), whom Roman generals and proconsuls of Sulla's party had plundered and oppressed. The Lusitanians then offered Sertorius to be their general, and when arriving to their lands, bringing additional forces from Africa, he held supreme authority and started invading neighbouring territory. Brave, noble, and gifted with eloquence, Sertorius was just the man to impress them favourably, and the native warriors, whom he organized, spoke of him as the "new Hannibal." His skill as a general was extraordinary, as he repeatedly defeated forces many times his own size. Many Roman refugees and deserters joined him, and with these and his Hispanian volunteers he completely defeated several of Sulla's generals (Fufidius, Lucius Domitius and Thoranius) and drove Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, who had been specifically sent against him from Rome, out of Lusitania, or Hispania Ulterior as the Romans called it at the time. Sertorius owed some of his success to his prodigious ability as a statesman. His goal was to build a stable government in Hispania with the consent and co-operation of the people, whom he wished to civilize along the lines of the Roman model. He established a senate of 300 members, drawn from Roman emigrants (probably including some from the highest nobles of Hispania) and kept a Hispanian bodyguard. For the children of the chief native families he provided a school at Osca (Huesca), where they received a Roman education and even adopted the dress and education of Roman youths, following the Roman practice of taking hostages. Late in his campaign, a revolt of the native people arose and Sertorius killed several of the children that he had sent to school at Osca, and sold many others into slavery.[3] Although he was strict and severe with his soldiers, he was particularly considerate to the people in general, and made their burdens as light as possible. It seems clear that he had a peculiar gift for evoking the enthusiasm of the native tribes, and we can understand well how he was able to use the famous white fawn, a present from one of the natives that was supposed to communicate to him the advice of the goddess Diana, to his advantage. For six years he held sway over Hispania. In 77 he was joined by Marcus Perpenna Vento from Rome, with a following of Roman nobles and a sizeable Roman army. Also that year, Pompey was sent to help Metellus conquer Hispania and finish Sertorius off. Contemptuously calling Pompey Sulla's pupil, Sertorius proved himself more than a match for his adversaries: he razed Lauron, a city allied to Rome, after a battle in which Pompey's forces were ambushed and defeated; he nearly captured Pompey at the battle of Sucro when Pompey decided to fight Sertorius without waiting for Metellus Pius; and Sertorius utterly defeated the united forces of Metellus and Pompey on one occasion near Saguntum. Pompey wrote to Rome for reinforcements, without which, he said, he and Metellus Pius would be driven out of Hispania. Sertorius was in league with the Cilician pirates, who had bases all across the Mediterranean, was negotiating with the formidable Mithridates VI of Pontus, and was in communication with the insurgent slaves in Italy. But due to jealousies among the Roman officers who served under him and the Hispanians of higher rank who began to weaken his influence with the Lusitani tribes, and though he won victories to the last, he was assassinated at a banquet at Perpenna Vento's instigation in 72 BC. Appian notes Sulla's consistent elimination of enemy commanders by means of treachery. At the time of his death, he was on the verge of successfully establishing an independent Roman republic in Hispania, which crumbled with the renewed onslaught of Pompey and Metellus, who crushed Perpenna's army and eliminated the remaining opposition. See Plutarch's lives of Sertorius and Pompey; Appian, Bell. civ. and Hispanica; the fragments of Sallust; Dio Cassius xxxvi.

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Quintilian in Wikipedia

Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (ca. 35 – ca. 100) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing. In English translation, he is usually referred to as Quintilian, although the alternate spellings of Quintillian and Quinctilian are occasionally seen, the latter in older texts...

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Quintili&#257;nus, Marcus Fabius in Harpers Dictionary

A celebrated Roman rhetorician, born about A.D. 35 at Calagurris in Spain. After he had received his training as an orator at Rome, he returned home about A.D. 59, but again visited Rome in A.D. 68 in the suite of Galba. He there began to practise as an advocate, and also gave instruction in rhetoric. In this latter capacity he achieved such fame that he was able to open a school of rhetoric in the reign of Vespasian, and received a salary from the State. After twenty years' work he retired from his public duties in A.D. 90, and after some time devoted himself to the education of the grandchildren of Domitilla, Domitian's sister, for which he was rewarded by the emperor with the rank of consul. Though materially prosperous, his happiness was disturbed by the loss of his young wife and his two sons. He died between A.D. 97 and 100. Of his works on rhetoric, composed in his later years, we possess the one that is more important, that on the training of an orator (De Institutione Oratoria) in twelve books. This he wrote in two years; but it was not until after repeated revision that he published it, just before the death of Domitian in the year 96. He dedicated it to his friend, the orator Victorius Marcellus, that he might use it for the education of his son Geta. This work gives a complete course of instruction in rhetoric, including all that is necessary for training in practical elocution, from the preliminary education of boyhood and earliest youth to the time of appearance in public. It describes a perfect orator, who, according to Quintilian, should be not only skilful in rhetoric, but also of good moral character, and concludes with practical advice. Especially interesting is the first book, which gives the principles of training and instruction, and the tenth book, for its criticisms on the Greek and Latin prose authors and poets recommended to the orator for special study. Many of these criticisms, however, are not original. Quintilian's special model, and his main authority, is Cicero, whose classical style, as opposed to the style of his own time exemplified in Seneca, he imitates successfully in his work. A collection of school exercises (Declamationes) which bears his name is probably not by him, but by one of his pupils, though Ritter accepts many of them as genuine. The most important MS. of the Institutiones is the Codex Ambrosianus of the eleventh century. Other complete MSS. are much later-of the fifteenth century-and are full of interpolations. Early editions of Quintilian are those of Gibson (Oxford, 1693), Burmann (Leyden, 1720), and Gesner (Göttingen, 1738). A great edition is that of Spalding, 4 vols. (Leipzig, 1798-1816), to which a fifth volume was added by Zumpt (1829), and a sixth containing a lexicon and indices by Bonnell (1834). The chief edition is that of Halm (Leipzig, 1868), revised by Meister (Prague, 1886). Book X. has been separately edited by Herzog (3d ed., Leipzig, 1833), Schneidewin (Helmst., 1831); Bonnell and Meister (3d ed., Berlin, 1882); G. T. Krüger and G. Krüger (Leipzig, 1888), and J. E. B. Mayor (Pt. i., Camb., 1892). An excellent index is that in the Lemaire edition (Paris, 1821). There is a good German translation by Bossler and Baur, revised by Meister (Prague, 1886); and an English version by Watson, with notes based on Spalding, and may be found in the Bohn Classical Library. The Declamationes are edited by Ritter (1884).

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Romulus and Remus in Wikipedia

Romulus and Remus are Rome's twin founders in its traditional foundation myth. They are descendants of the Trojan prince and refugee Aeneas, and are fathered by the god Mars or the demi-god Hercules on a royal Vestal Virgin, Rhea Silvia (also known as Ilia), whose uncle exposes them to die in the wild. They are found by a she-wolf who suckles and cares for them. The twins are eventually restored to their regal birthright, acquire many followers and decide to found a new city. Romulus wishes to build the new city on the Palatine Hill; Remus prefers the Aventine Hill.[2] They agree to determine the site through augury. Romulus appears to receive the more favourable signs but each claims the results in his favour. In the disputes that follow, Remus is killed.[3] Ovid has Romulus invent the festival of Lemuria to appease Remus' resentful ghost.[4] Romulus names the new city Rome, after himself, and goes on to create the Roman Legions and the Roman Senate. He adds citizens to his new city by abducting the women of the neighboring Sabine tribes, which results in the combination of Sabines and Romans as one Roman people. Rome rapidly expands to become a dominant force, due to divine favour and the inspired administrative, military and political leadership of Romulus. In later life Romulus becomes increasingly autocratic, disappears in mysterious circumstances and is deified as the god Quirinus, the divine persona of the Roman people...

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Rom&#365;lus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

The name of the mythical founder of Rome. According to the popular Roman tradition, recorded in the first book of Livy , he was the son of Mars and Ilia or Rhea Silvia, daughter of Numitor, and was born at the same birth with Remus. Amulius, who had usurped the throne of Alba, in defiance of the right of his elder brother Numitor, ordered the infants to be thrown into the Tiber, and their mother to be buried alive, the doom of a vestal virgin who violated her vow of chastity. The river happened at that time to have overflowed its banks, so that the two infants were not carried into the middle of the stream, but drifted along the margin, till the basket which contained them became entangled in the roots of a wild vine at the foot of the Palatine Hill. At this time a she-wolf, coming down to the river to drink, suckled the infants, and carried them to her den among the thickets hard by. Here they were found by Faustulus, the king's herdsman, who took them home to his wife Laurentia, by whom they were carefully nursed, and named Romulus and Remus. The two youths grew up, employed in the labours, the sports, and the perils of the pastoral occupation of their foster- father. But their royal blood could not be quite concealed. Their superior mien, courage, and abilities soon acquired for them a decided superiority over their young compeers, and they became leaders of the youthful herdsmen in their contests with robbers or with rivals. Having quarrelled with the herdsmen of Numitor, whose flocks were accustomed to graze on the neighbouring hill Aventinus, Remus fell into an ambuscade, and was dragged before Numitor to be punished. While Numitor, struck with the noble bearing of the youth, and influenced by the secret stirrings of nature within, was hesitating what punishment to inflict, Romulus, accompanied by Faustulus, hastened to the rescue of Remus. On their arrival at Alba, the secret of their origin was discovered, and a plan was speedily organized for the expulsion of Amulius and the restoration of their grandfather Numitor to his throne. This was soon accomplished; but the twin-brothers felt little disposition to remain in a subordinate position at Alba, after the enjoyment of the rude liberty and power to which they had been accustomed among their native hills. They therefore requested from their grandfather permission to build a city on the banks of the Tiber, where their lives had been so miraculously preserved. Scarcely had this permission been granted, when a contest arose between the two brothers respecting the site, the name, and the sovereignty of the city which they were about to found. Romulus wished it to be built on the Palatine Hill, and to be called by his name; Remus preferred the Aventine, and his own name. To terminate their dispute amicably, they agreed to refer it to the decision of the gods by augury. Romulus took his station on the Palatine Hill, Remus on the Aventine. At sunrise Remus saw six vultures, and immediately after Romulus saw twelve. The superiority was adjudged to Romulus, because he had seen the greater number; against which decision Remus remonstrated indignantly, on the ground that he had first received an omen. Romulus then proceeded to mark out the boundaries for the wall of the intended city. This was done by a plough with a brazen ploughshare, drawn by a bull and a heifer, and so directed that the furrow should fall inward. The plough was lifted and carried over the spaces intended to be left for gates; and in this manner a square space was marked out, including the Palatine Hill, and a small portion of the land at its base, termed Roma Quadrata. This took place on the 21st of April, on the day of the festival of Pales, the goddess of shepherds. While the wall was beginning to rise above the surface, Remus, whose mind was still rankling with his discomfiture, leaped over it, scornfully saying, "Shall such a wall as that keep your city?" Immediately Romulus, or, as others say, Celer, who had charge of erecting that part of the wall, struck him dead to the ground with the implement which he held in his hand, exclaiming, "So perish whosoever shall hereafter overleap these ramparts." By this event Romulus was left the sole sovereign of the city; yet he felt deep remorse at his brother's fate, buried him honourably, and, when he sat to administer justice, placed an empty seat by his side, with a sceptre and crown, as if acknowledging the right of his brother to the possession of equal power. To augment as speedily as possible the number of his subjects, Romulus set apart, in his new city, a place of refuge, to which any man might flee, and be there protected from his pursuers. By this device the population increased rapidly in males, but there was a great deficiency in women; for the adjoining States, regarding the followers of Romulus as little better than a horde of brigands, refused to sanction intermarriages. But the schemes of Romulus were not to be so frustrated. In honour of the god Consus, he proclaimed games, to which he invited the neighbouring States. Great numbers came, accompanied by their families, and, at an appointed signal, the Roman youth, rushing suddenly into the midst of the spectators, snatched up the unmarried women in their arms, and carried them off by force. The outrage was immediately resented, and Romulus found himself involved in a war with all the neighbouring States. Fortunately for Rome, though those States had sustained a common injury, they did not unite their forces in the common cause. They fought singly, and were each in turn defeated; Caenina, Crustumerium, and Antemnae fell successively before the Roman arms. Romulus slew with his own hands Acron, king of Caenina, and bore off his spoils, dedicating them, as spolia opima, to Iupiter Feretrius. The third part of the lands of the conquered towns was seized by the victors, and such of the people of these towns as were willing to remove to Rome were received as free citizens. In the meantime, the Sabines, to avenge the insult which they had sustained, had collected together forces under Titus Tatius, king of the Quirites. The Romans were unable to meet so strong an army in the field, and withdrew within their walls. They had previously placed their flocks in what they thought a place of safety, on the Capitoline Hill, which, strong as it was by nature, they had still further secured by additional fortifications. Tarpeia, the daughter of the commander of that fortress, having fallen into the hands of the Sabines, agreed to betray the access to the hill for the ornaments they wore upon their arms. At their approach she opened the gate, and, as they entered, they crushed her to death beneath their shields. From her the cliff of the Capitoline Hill was called the Tarpeian Rock. The attempt of the Romans to regain this place of strength brought on a general engagement. The combat was long and doubtful. At one time the Romans were almost driven into the city, which the Sabines were on the point of entering along with them, when fresh courage was infused into the fugitives in consequence of Romulus vowing a temple to Iupiter Stator, and by a stream of water which rushed out of the Temple of Ianus and swept away the Sabines from the gate. The struggle was renewed during several successive days with various fortune and great mutual slaughter. At length the Sabine women who had been carried away, and who were now reconciled to their fate, rushed with loud outcries between the combatants, imploring their husbands and their fathers to spare on each side those who were now equally dear. Both parties paused; a conference began, a peace was concluded, and a treaty framed, by which the two nations were united into one, and Romulus and Tatius became the joint sovereigns of the united people. But, though united, each nation continued to be governed by its own king and Senate. During the double rule of Romulus and Tatius a war was undertaken against the Latin town of Cameria, which was reduced and made a Roman colony, and its people were admitted into the Roman State, as had been done with those whom Romulus previously subdued. Tatius was soon afterwards slain by the people of Laurentum, because he had refused to do them justice against his kinsmen, who had violated the laws of nations by insulting their ambassadors. The death of Tatius left Romulus sole monarch of Rome. He was soon engaged in a war with Fidenae, a Tuscan settlement on the banks of the Tiber. This people he likewise overcame, and placed in the city a Roman colony. This war, extending the Roman frontier, led to a hostile collision with Veii, in which he was also successful, and deprived Veii, at that time one of the most powerful cities of Etruria, of a large portion of its territories, though he found that the city itself was too strong to be taken. The reign of Romulus now drew near its close. One day, while holding a review of his army, on a plain near Lake Capra, the sky was suddenly overcast with gloom and a tempest of thunder and lightning arose. The people fled in dismay; and when the storm abated, Romulus, over whose head it had raged most fiercely, was nowhere to be seen. A rumour was circulated that during the tempest he had been carried to heaven by his father, the god Mars. This opinion was speedily confirmed by the report of Iulius Proculus, who declared that, as he was returning by night from Alba to Rome, Romulus appeared before him in a form of more than mortal majesty, and bade him go and tell the Romans that Rome was destined by the gods to be the chief city of the earth; that human power should never be able to withstand her people; and that he himself would be their guardian god Quirinus ( Romulus; Livy, i. 4). The traditional date of the translation of Romulus to heaven is B.C. 716. For a criticism of the legend and its relation to Roman history, see Lewis, An Inquiry into the Credibility of Ancient Roman History (1855); Ihne, Early Rome, Engl. trans. (N. Y. 1878); and Niebuhr's History of Rome, vol. i. Engl. edition (1859). In defence of the historical value of the legend, see Ampère, Histoire Romaine à Rome (Paris, 1871).

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Sallust in Wikipedia

Gaius Sallustius Crispus, generally known simply as Sallust, (86-34 BC), a Roman historian, belonged to a well-known plebeian family, and was born at Amiternum in the country of the Sabines. Throughout his career Sallust always stood by his principle as a popularis, an opposer of Pompey's party and the old aristocracy of Rome. Life and career - After an ill-spent youth, Sallust entered public life and won election as Quaestor in 55 and one of the tribunes of the people in 52, the year in which the followers of Milo killed Clodius in a street brawl. Sallust then supported the following prosecution of Milo. He also had hostilities with the famous orator Cicero. From the beginning of his public career, Sallust operated as a decided partisan of Caesar, to whom he owed such political advancement as he attained. In 50 the censor Appius Claudius Pulcher removed him from the Senate on the grounds of gross immorality (probably really because of his friendship with Caesar). In the following year, no doubt through Caesar's influence, he was reinstated. In 46 he served as a praetor and accompanied Caesar in his African campaign, which ended in the decisive defeat of the remains of the Pompeian war party at Thapsus. As a reward for his services, Sallust gained appointment as governor of the province of Africa Nova. In this capacity he committed such oppression and extortion that only the influence of Caesar enabled him to escape condemnation. On his return to Rome he purchased and began laying out in great splendour the famous gardens on the Quirinal known as the Horti Sallustiani or Gardens of Sallust. These gardens would later belong to the emperors. Sallust then retired from public life and devoted himself to historical literature, and further developing his Gardens of Sallust, upon which he spent much of his accumulated wealth. Works - Sallust's account of the Catiline conspiracy (De coniuratione Catilinae or Bellum Catilinae) and of the Jugurthine War (Bellum Iugurthinum) have come down to us complete, together with fragments of his larger and most important work (Historiae), a history of Rome from 78-67 BC, intended as a continuation of Cornelius Sisenna's work. The Conspiracy of Catiline - The Conspiracy of Catiline (Sallust's first published work) contains the history of the memorable year 63. Sallust adopts the usually accepted view of Catiline, and describes him as the deliberate foe of law, order and morality, and does not give a comprehensive explanation of his views and intentions. (Note that Catiline had supported the party of Sulla, which Sallust had opposed.) Mommsen's suggestion-that Sallust particularly wished to clear his patron (Caesar) of all complicity in the conspiracy-may have contained some truth. In writing about the conspiracy of Catiline, Sallust's tone, style, and descriptions of aristocratic behavior show him as deeply troubled by the moral decline of Rome. While he inveighs against Catiline's depraved character and vicious actions, he does not fail to state that the man had many noble traits, indeed all that a Roman man needed to succeed. In particular, Sallust shows Catiline as deeply courageous in his final battle. This subject gave Sallust the opportunity of showing off his rhetoric at the expense of the old Roman aristocracy, whose degeneracy he delighted to paint in the blackest colours. Jugurthine War - Sallust's Jugurthine War is a brief monograph recording the war in Numidia c.112 B.C. Its true value lies in the introduction of Marius and Sulla to the Roman political scene and the beginning of their rivalry. Sallust's time as governor of Africa Nova ought to have let the author develop a solid geographical and ethnographical background to the war, however, this is not evident in the monograph despite a diversion on the subject because Sallust's priority in the "Jugurthine War", as with the "Catiline Conspiracy", is to use history as a vehicle for his judgement on the slow destruction of Roman morality and politics. [edit]Other works The extant fragments of the Histories (some discovered in 1886) show sufficiently well the political partisan, who took a keen pleasure in describing the reaction against Sulla's policy and legislation after the dictator's death. Historians regret the loss of the work, as it must have thrown much light on a very eventful period, embracing the war against Sertorius (died 72 BC), the campaigns of Lucullus against Mithradates VI of Pontus (75 - 66 BC), and the victories of Pompey in the East (66 - 62 BC). Two letters (Duae epistolae de republica ordinanda), letters of political counsel and advice addressed to Caesar, and an attack upon Cicero (Invectiva or Declamatio in Ciceronem), frequently attributed to Sallust, are thought by modern scholars to have probably come from the pen of the rhetorician Marcus Porcius Latro, also the supposed author of a counter-invective attributed to Cicero.[1] Significance - On the whole, antiquity looked favourably on Sallust as an historian. Tacitus speaks highly of him (Annals, iii. 30); and Quintilian does not hesitate to put him on a level with Thucydides (x.1 ), and declares that he is a greater historian than Livy (ii.5 ). Sallust struck out for himself practically a new line in literature, his predecessors having functioned as little better than mere dry-as-dust chroniclers, whereas he endeavoured to explain the connection and meaning of events and successfully delineated character. The contrast between his early life and the high moral tone adopted by him in his writings has frequently made him a subject of reproach, but history gives no reason why he should not have reformed. In any case, his knowledge of his own former weaknesses may have led him to take a pessimistic view of the morality of his fellow- men, and to judge them severely. He took as his model Thucydides, whom he imitated in his truthfulness and impartiality, in the introduction of philosophizing reflections and speeches, and in the brevity of his style, sometimes bordering upon obscurity. Some readers have ridiculed[citation needed] his fondness for old words and phrases (in which he imitated his contemporary Cato the younger) as an affectation, but this very affectation and his rhetorical exaggerations made Sallust a favourite author in the 2nd century and later. Nietzsche, in Twilight of the Idols (Section 13.1) credits Sallust for his epigrammatic style: "My sense of style, for the epigram as a style, was awakened almost instantly when I came into contact with Sallust." and praises him for being "compact, severe, with as much substance as possible, a cold sarcasm against 'beautiful words' and 'beautiful sentiments'."

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Sallustius Crispus in Harpers Dictionary

A famous Roman historian, belonging to a plebeian family. He was born B.C. 86, at Amiternum, in the country of the Sabines. He was quaestor about 59, and tribune of the plebs in 52, the year in which Clodius was killed by Milo. In his tribunate he joined the popular party, and took an active part in opposing Milo. It is said that he had been caught by Milo in the act of adultery with his wife Fausta, the daughter of the dictator Sulla ; that he had received a beating from the husband; and that he had been only let off on payment of a sum of money. In 50 Sallust was expelled from the Senate by the censors, probably because he belonged to Caesar's party, though some give as the ground of his ejection from the Senate the act of adultery already mentioned. In the Civil War he followed Caesar's fortunes. In 47 we find him praetor elect, by obtaining which dignity he was restored to his rank. He nearly lost his life in a mutiny of some of Caesar's troops in Campania, who had been led thither to pass over into Africa. He accompanied Caesar in his African war (B.C. 46), and was left by Caesar as governor of Numidia, in which capacity he is charged with having oppressed the people, and enriched himself by unjust means. He was accused of maladministration before Caesar, but it does not appear that he was brought to trial. The charge is somewhat confirmed by the fact of his becoming immensely rich, as was shown by the expensive gardens which he formed (horti Sallustiani) on the Quirinalis. He retired into privacy after he returned from Africa, and he passed quietly through the troublesome period after Caesar's death. He died in the year 34, about four years before the battle of Actium. The story of his marrying Cicero's wife, Terentia, ought to be rejected. It was probably not till after his return from Africa that Sallust wrote his historical works. (a) The Catilina, or Bellum Catilinarium, is a history of the conspiracy of Catiline during the consulship of Cicero, 63. The introduction to this history, which some critics admire, is only a feeble and rhetorical attempt to act the philosopher and moralist. The history, however, is valuable. Sallust was a living spectator of the events which he describes, and considering that he was not a friend of Cicero, and was a partisan of Caesar, he wrote with fairness. The speeches which he has inserted Bust of Sallust. (St. Petersburg.) in his history are certainly his own composition; but we may assume that Caesar's speech was extant, and that he gave the substance of it. (b) The Iugurtha, or Bellum Iugurthinum, contains the history of the war of the Romans against Iugurtha, king of Numidia, which began in 111, and continued until 106. It is probable that Sallust was led to write this work from having resided in Africa, and that he collected some materials there. He cites the Punic Books of King Hiempsal, as authority for his general geographical description (Iug. 17). The Jugurthine War has a philosophical introduction of the same stamp as that to the Catilina. As a history of the campaign, the Jugurthine War is of no value: there is a total neglect of geographical precision, and apparently not a very strict regard to chronology. (c) Sallustius also wrote Historiarum Libri Quinque, which were dedicated to Lucullus, a son of L. Licinius Lucullus. The work is supposed to have comprised the period from the consulship of M. Aemilius Lepidus and Q. Lutatius Catulus (B.C. 78), the year of Sulla 's death, to the consulship of L. Vulcatius Tullus and M. Aemilius Lepidus (B.C. 66), the year in which Cicero was praetor. This work is lost, with the exception of fragments which have been collected and arranged. They contain, among other things, several orations and letters. Some fragments belonging to the third book, and relating to the war with Spartacus, have been published from a Vatican MS. in the present century, and a number of others were found in 1886 by Hauler in an Orleans palimpsest. (d) Duae Epistolae de Re Publica Ordinanda, which appear to be addressed to Caesar at the time when he was engaged in his Spanish campaign (B.C. 49) against Petreius and Afranius, and are attributed to Sallust; but the opinions of critics on their authenticity are divided. (e) The Declamatio in Sallustium, which is attributed to Cicero, is generally admitted to be the work of some rhetorician, the matter of which is the well-known hostility between the orator and the historian. The same opinion is generally maintained as to the Declamatio in Ciceronem, which is attributed to Some of the Roman writers considered that Sallustius imitated the style of Thucydides (Quint.x. 1), and he has himself greatly influenced the style of Tacitus. His language is generally concise and perspicuous: perhaps his love of brevity may have caused the ambiguity that is sometimes found in his sentences. He also affected archaic words. Though he has considerable merit as a writer, his art is always apparent. He had no pretensions to great research or precision about facts. His reflections have often something of the same artificial and constrained character as his expressions. One may judge that his object was to obtain distinction as a writer; that style was what he thought of more than matter. He has, however, probably the merit of being the first Roman who wrote what is usually called history. He was not above his contemporaries as a politician; he was a party man, and there are no indications of any comprehensive views, which had a whole nation for their object. He hated the nobility, and depicted their vices in a spirit of bitter exaggeration. There are many MSS. of Sallust, especially at Paris. These Codices Parisini, of the tenth and eleventh centuries (P, P1, P2), are the best, all being distinguished by a lengthy lacuna after Iug. 103, supplied from a second "family" of MSS. written later, and represented by several codices at Munich. Remains of the orations and letters of Sallust are preserved in two MSS. of the tenth century-one at Berne, and one in the Vatican. These give also annotations by an unknown grammarian. There are separate editions of the Catilina by Cook (1884); Turner (1887); Eussner (1887), and Herbermann (New York, 1890); of the Iugurtha by Herzog (Leipzig, 1840); Schmalz (Gotha, 1866), and Brook (London, 1885). The fragments of his Historiae are given in Jordan's edition of the Sallust (1887); and separately edited by Maurenbrecher (fasc. i. and ii., Leipzig, 1891-93). Complete editions of Sallust are those of Gerlach (Basel, 1832), Kritz (1828, 1856), Dietsch (1859, 1864), Jordan (Berlin, 1876, 1887), and with English notes by Merivale (1852), Long (1860, revised by Frazer, 1890), and Capes (1884). There are lexicons to Sallust by Eichert (Hanover, 1864) and Mollweide (Strassburg, 1887). A good English translation is that of Pollard (1882). On the style, see Constans, De Sermone Sallustiano (Paris, 1880); and in general the monographs by Vogel (Mainz, 1857), Jäger (Salzburg, 1884), and Rambeau (Burg, 1879).

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Scaevola in Wikipedia

Gaius Mucius Scaevola was a noble and probably mythical Roman youth, famous for his bravery. When the Etruscan king Lars Porsenna held Rome under siege, Gaius Mucius famously sneaked into the Etruscan camp and attempted to murder Porsenna. His plot failed because he misindentified Porsenna and killed the wrong man. Mucius was captured. He famously declared to Porsenna: "I am Gaius Mucius, a citizen of Rome. I came here as an enemy to kill my enemy, and I am as ready to die as I am to kill. We Romans act bravely and, when adversity strikes, we suffer bravely." He also declared that he was one of three hundred other Romans willing to give their own life to kill Porsenna.(Ab Urbe Condita, II.12) Porsenna, fearful and angry, ordered Mucius to be cast into the flames. Mucius stoically accepted this punishment, preempting Porsenna by thrusting his hand into that same fire and giving no sign of pain. Impressed by the youth's courage, Porsenna freed Mucius. Because of his maimed right hand, Mucius was forever after known as Scaevola ("lefty" or "left-handed"). (Ab Urbe Condita, II.13) See Livy, Ab Urbe Condita (II.12-13) for the full story of Scaevola.

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Scaev&#335;la in Harpers Dictionary

Gaius Mucius Scaevŏla. When King Porsena was besieging Rome, G. Mucius went out of the city with the intention of killing him, but by mistake stabbed the king's secretary instead of Porsena himself. The king in his passion and alarm ordered him to be burned alive, upon which Mucius thrust his right hand into a fire which was already lighted for a sacrifice, and held it there without flinching. The king, amazed at his firmness, ordered him to be removed from the altar, and bade him go away free and uninjured. To make some return for his generous behaviour, Mucius told him that there were three hundred of the first youths of Rome who had agreed with one another to kill the king; that the lot fell on him to make the first attempt, and that the rest would do the same when their turn came. Porsena being alarmed for his life, which he could not secure against so many desperate men, made proposals of peace to the Romans, and evacuated the territory. Mucius received the name of Scaevola, or "left-handed," from the loss of his right hand (Livy, ii. 12 and 13).

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Scipio Africanus in Wikipedia

Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (235–183 BC), also known as Scipio Africanus and Scipio the Elder, was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. He was best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of the Second Punic War at Zama, a feat that earned him the agnomen Africanus, the nickname "the Roman Hannibal", as well as recognition as one of the finest commanders in military history. An earlier great display of his tactical abilities had come already at the Battle of Ilipa...

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Scipio Africanus in Harpers Dictionary

P. Cornelius Scipio, son of No. 6, was consul, with Ti. Sempronius Longus , in 218, the first year of the Second Punic War. He sailed with an army to Gaul, in order to encounter Hannibal before crossing the Alps; but, finding that Hannibal had crossed the Rhône, and had got the start of him by a three days' march, he resolved to sail back to Italy and await Hannibal's arrival in Cisalpine Gaul. But as the Romans had an army of twenty-five thousand men in Cisalpine Gaul, under the command of two praetors, Scipio sent into Spain the army which he had brought with him, under the command of his brother, Cn. Scipio. On his return to Italy, Scipio took the command of the army in Cisalpine Gaul, and hastened to meet Hannibal. An engagement took place between the cavalry and light-armed troops of the two armies. The Romans were defeated; the consul himself received a severe wound, and was only saved from death by the courage of his young son Publius, the future conqueror of Hannibal. Scipio now retreated across the Ticinus, crossed the Po also, first took up his quarters at Placentia, and subsequently withdrew to the hills on the left bank of the Trebia, where he was joined by the other consul, Sempronius Longus. The latter resolved upon a battle, in opposition to the advice of his colleague. The result was the complete defeat of the Roman army, which was obliged to take refuge within the walls of Placentia. In the following year (217 B.C.), Scipio, whose imperium had been prolonged, crossed over into Spain. He and his brother Gneius continued in Spain until their death in 211, and did the most important service for their country by preventing reinforcements being sent to Hannibal from Spain. In 215 they transferred the war from the Ebro to the Guadalquivir and won two great victories at Illiturgis and Intibilis. They fortified an important harbour at Tarraco and regained Saguntum, and by adroit policy induced Syphax to turn against the Carthaginians in Africa; but in 212, having to confront three armies under Hasdrubal Barca, Hasdrubal Gisgo, and Mago, they enlisted 20,000 Celtiberians and divided their armies. This was a fatal step. The Spaniards were untrustworthy, and the armies of the Scipios were defeated separately and both the brothers were slain by the Carthaginians (Polyb. iii.; Livy, xii.-xxv.; Annib. 5-8; Hisp. 14-16).

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Julian the Apostate in Wikipedia

Flavius Claudius Julianus (331/332[1] – 26 June 363), commonly known as Julian, Julian the Apostate or Julian the Philosopher, was Roman Emperor from 355 to 363. He is also a noted philosopher and Greek writer.[2] A member of the Constantinian dynasty, he was made Caesar by Constantius II in 355 and took command of the western provinces. During his reign he campaigned successfully against the Alamanni and Franks. Most notable was his crushing victory over the Alamanni in 357 at the Battle of Argentoratum - despite being outnumbered. In 360 he was acclaimed Augustus by his soldiers, sparking a civil war between Julian and Constantius. However, Constantius died before the two could face each other in battle, naming Julian as his rightful successor. In 363, Julian embarked on an ambitious campaign against the Sassanid Empire. Though initially successful, Julian was mortally wounded in battle and died shortly after...

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Julius Caesar in Wikipedia

Gaius Julius Caesar[2] (13 July 100 BC[3] – 15 March 44 BC)[4] was a Roman general and statesman. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. During the late 60s and into the 50s BC, Caesar entered into a political alliance with Crassus and Pompey that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power for themselves through populist tactics were opposed within the Roman Senate by a conservative elite, among them Cato the Younger, with the sometime support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world to the North Sea, and in 55 BC he conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse Pompey's. The balance of power was further upset by the death of Crassus. Political realignments in Rome finally led to a stand-off between Caesar and Pompey, the latter having taken up the cause of the Senate. With the order that sent his legions across the Rubicon, Caesar began a civil war in 49 BC from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world. After assuming control of government, he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". A group of senators, led by Marcus Junius Brutus, assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, hoping to restore the constitutional government of the Republic. However, the result was a series of civil wars, which ultimately led to the establishment of the permanent Roman Empire by Caesar's adopted heir Octavius (later known as Augustus). Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources...

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Caesar, Iulius in Harpers Dictionary

, or, as the name is written in English, Julius Caesar, was born on the 12th of July, in B.C. 102 or 100. The latter date rests upon the statement of several ancient authorities, but Mommsen has shown that the earlier date is more probably correct. The Caesar family was of patrician stock. It belonged to the proud gens of the Iulii, who traced their ancestry back to the very beginning of Roman history. In the century between B.C. 160 and 60, several Caesars held public offices, at least four being honoured with the consulship. Of the youth and education of Iulius Caesar little is known excepting that he was under the instruction of the distinguished teacher of grammar and rhetoric, M. Antonius Gnipho , who for a time taught in his home. Though allied by descent with the aristocracy, he was brought into relation with the popular party through the marriage of his aunt Iulia with the great leader Marius. In B.C. 83, he himself married Cornelia, the daughter of Marius's most ardent supporter, Cinna. This vexed Sulla , who, regaining the ascendency at Rome the following year, ordered Caesar to divorce her. Unlike Pompey and Piso, who put away their wives at Sulla 's bidding, Caesar boldly refused. Sulla confiscated his property, and revoked the priesthood of Iupiter, which had been conferred upon him through the influence of Marius. As his life was now in danger, he went into hiding, hotly pursued from place to place by Sulla 's emissaries. After a time his friends, aided by the Vestal Virgins, succeeded in securing pardon for him from Sulla , who is said to have granted it with the remark that Caesar would some time be the ruin of the aristocracy, for in him there was many a Marius. Soon afterwards, desirous of gaining the military experience considered necessary for a young Roman of rank, he joined the staff of M. Minucius Thermus, who was besieging Mytilené. Here he saved the life of a fellow-soldier, displaying so great bravery that he was honoured with a civic crown. After Mytilené fell he entered the service of P. Servilius in Cilicia; but immediately on hearing of the death of Sulla , in 78, he returned to Rome. The following year Caesar introduced himself to public notice by bringing a charge of provincial extortion against Gnaeus Dolabella, who had been proconsul of Macedonia. Though unsuccessful, in 76 he was invited to accuse Antonius of similar misconduct in Greece. Antonius also was acquitted, but the young prosecutor gained great popularity and a considerable reputation for oratory by his pleas. He now started for Rhodes, to pursue the study of oratory under Molo. Near Miletus he was captured by pirates, and was detained on the island of Pharmacusa until he could get together a ransom of fifty talents (over $55,000). Having been set at liberty, he procured ships, captured the pirates, took them to Pergamus, and crucified them, thus carrying out a threat which he had jestingly pronounced when with them. He spent a short time at Rhodes, and then passed over to Asia, where he rendered gallant service against an army of Mithridates. In the winter of 74-73, he returned to Rome, having been chosen to fill a vacancy in the college of pontifices. He now threw himself into political life with an energy that yielded to no opposition and a reckless liberality that hesitated at no expenditure. He was affable to every one, and no applicant for aid went away empty-handed. He soon exhausted his inheritance, and became deeply involved in debt; but his popularity was unbounded. Having taken a stand in opposition to the Sullan constitution and the aristocracy, he received the offices in the gift of the people in regular succession. In 67, he was quaestor, serving under Antistius Vetus in Further Spain. In 65, he was curule aedile, with M. Bibulus as colleague. Extravagant expenditures upon games and buildings raised his popularity to the highest pitch. He increased the power and influence of the popular party in many ways, but by no single act did he kindle the enthusiasm of the populace more than by privately restoring the trophies of Marius, which had been destroyed by Sulla , and replacing them by night on the Capitol. Marius's veterans crowded around them with tears and shouting. The Senate, notwithstanding the formal denunciation of Marius as a public enemy, was obliged to yield to the popular feeling and leave them in the place of honour. Caesar was charged with complicity in both the Catilinarian conspiracies, but evidence is wanting. In 62, he was praetor, carrying himself with great firmness and discretion amid scenes of violence. The following year he governed the province of Further Spain with distinction, both as a civil administrator and as a general. He subdued several tribes and captured the city of Brigantium, in the extreme northwestern part. At the expiration of his year of office he came back to Rome with ample means to satisfy his creditors. In 60, he was chosen consul for 59, the aristocracy making every effort to secure the election of Bibulus as his colleague to offset his influence. About this time he brought about a reconciliation between Pompey and Marcus Crassus, entering with them into the coalition known as the First Triumvirate. These ties were strengthened further by the marriage of his daughter Julia to Pompey. During his consulship he was influential in promoting the interests of Pompey and Crassus; at the same time he kept his standing with the people, and was especially serviceable to the important body of equites. Instead of the usual proconsular command for one year, he easily obtained the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul, Illyricum, and Transalpine Gaul, of which only the southeastern portion had been subdued, for five years, together with the control of four legions. During the next nine years (58-50), Caesar was engaged in the conquest of Transalpine Gaul. Summers were devoted to military operations; but when possible he spent a part of the winter in Cisalpine Gaul, in close communication with his friends at Rome. In 56, he again reconciled Pompey and Crassus, who met with him at Luca; in 55, his command was continued for five years longer. The conquest of Gaul was no easy matter, both from the advancement of its civilization and the character of the country (see Gallia); but Caesar accomplished it, in a series of campaigns which, for variety and skill of tactics as well as unremitting energy of movement, are unsurpassed in the annals of warfare. He twice bridged the Rhine and invaded Germany; twice also he crossed over to Britain, reducing the tribes along the southeast coast to nominal subjection. By the year 50, Gaul was completely conquered, and well on the way towards complete organization as a Roman province. Coin of Iulius Caesar as Dictator. The death of Iulia, Pompey's wife and Caesar's daughter, in 54, and that of Crassus a year later in the East, broke the common bond between the two great military leaders and put an end to the compact of the triumvirate. Pompey, viewing with jealousy and alarm the victorious career of his younger rival, entered into an alliance with the aristocratic party, and endeavoured to check the increasing power of Caesar by means of senatorial enactments. In his interest the Senate, early in B.C. 50, passed a decree that each of the commanders should give up a legion for the Parthian War. As Pompey had lent one of his to Caesar in 53, this was now demanded back. Although the intent of the whole matter was clearly to weaken Caesar, he gave up Pompey's legion and one of his own as directed; but the troops, instead of being despatched to the East, were placed in camp at Capua. It became clearer every day that Caesar's friends were powerless to obtain for him the recognition and privileges to which he was justly entitled; that the senatorial party and Pompey would scruple at nothing to gain the advantage over him. While his commission prevented him from entering Italy, and no dispensation from it was granted, Pompey was permitted to administer an important command in Spain through lieutenants, and at the same time remained at Rome. The climax was reached early in January, B.C. 49, when the Senate, amid great uproar, decreed that Caesar should disband his army by a certain date, under penalty of being considered a public enemy if he failed to do so; and that the magistrates should take measures to provide for the security of the State. The tribunes M. Antonius and Q. Cassius, who had in vain interposed their veto, were obliged to flee, and took refuge with Caesar, calling upon him to defend the inviolable sanctity of their office. War was now inevitable. With the vigour and despatch characteristic of his previous military operations, Caesar at once crossed the river Rubicon, the southern boundary of his province. Within three months he was master of the whole of Italy, Pompey and the more zealous adherents of the aristocratic party having fled to Greece. He now set out for Spain, and soon dispersed the forces of Pompey there, meanwhile gaining possession of Sicily and Sardinia also, through his lieutenants Curio and Valerius. In Africa and Illyricum his officers were less successful; but on his way back from Spain he forced the surrender of Massilia, which in his absence had withstood a siege at the hands of Trebonius and Decimus Brutus. By this time Pompey had gathered a large army in Greece, and had also a powerful fleet at his service. Nothing daunted, Caesar crossed the Adriatic in January, 48, and with a far inferior force tried to blockade his opponent at Dyrrachium. Being unsuccessful, and also reduced to straits for supplies, he withdrew into Thessaly. Pompey followed, over-confident. The decisive battle was fought on the plain of Pharsalus, in Thessaly, August 9th, B.C. 48. Pompey had 47,000 infantry and 7000 cavalry, Caesar barely 22,000 infantry and 1000 cavalry. But superior generalship and discipline, and the courage of despair, won the day against greater numbers. Pompey fled to Egypt, where he was immediately murdered. When the news of the victory reached Rome, Caesar was appointed dictator for a year, and other offices also were conferred upon him, so that, under the forms of the old constitution, he possessed absolute authority. Having followed Pompey to Egypt, Caesar was there for a time in great danger on account of the disturbance known as the Alexandrine War, which arose from a dispute regarding the succession. He placed Cleopatra on the throne, and in the spring of 47 proceeded to Pontus, where he defeated Pharnaces, a son of Mithridates, near Zela, announcing the victory at Rome in the famous despatch, Veni, vidi, vici, "I came, I saw, I conquered." Early in 46, he crossed over to Africa, crushing the remnants of the senatorial forces there at the battle of Thapsus, April 6. Returning to Rome, where his supremacy was no longer disputed, he treated his former opponents with unlooked-for clemency, and inaugurated several salutary reforms, among which not the least important was the rearrangement of the calendar. The sons of Pompey gathered an army in Spain, which he defeated at the battle of Munda, March 17th, B.C. 45. During the ensuing months, Caesar's powers as a civil administrator had full scope. His projects, few of which were destined to be realized, were characterized by statesmanship of a high order, which has come to be the more admired the better it has been understood. But he was not beyond the reach of malice and envy. A conspiracy was formed against him; the leaders of it were Marcus Brutus and Cassius. The conspirators were actuated by different motives-some, no doubt, by personal jealousy and hatred; others by a patriotic desire to restore the old republican constitution; a few, perhaps, by ambitious designs upon the spoils of State. On the 15th of March, B.C. 44, as Caesar was entering the hall connected with Pompey's theatre to attend a meeting of the Senate, he was set upon, and fell pierced by twenty-three wounds. Caesar holds a unique place in the history not merely of Rome, but of the world. In his time the government of Rome had been found wholly inadequate to meet the administrative demands of a great empire. More and more the military became paramount to the civil power in the State, and the old-time balance of political parties gave place to violent strifes between successful generals. The perpetuation of the Roman government demanded centralization of authority. Cherishing the ambition to become the great political leader of his generation, Caesar became supreme, not by usurpation, but by the natural exercise of extraordinary executive abilities under political conditions which admitted of no alternative between anarchy and absolutism. He appears to have had a truer insight into the needs of his country than any of his contemporaries. His genius was not, as often represented, merely destructive, but was constructive as well. After his death, Rome had no peace or prosperity till political authority was again concentrated in the hands of Augustus. But this many-sided man was great not merely as a statesman. As a general he is ranked in the same class with Alexander, Hannibal, and Napoleon; as an orator he was reckoned in his day second only to Cicero; and as a writer he has long since received a place among the world's greatest masters. Tall, with fair complexion and expressive black eyes, sensitive in regard to his appearance and neat to the verge of effeminacy, gracious in address and Epicurean in both tastes and beliefs, in external characteristics he might have passed for a man of the world, at home in the gay society of a luxurious capital. But in ambition, in energy, in the ability to form plans and to bring things to pass, he belied all appearances, and has probably made a deeper impression upon humanity than any other man that has ever lived. With the exception of a few fragments, Caesar's speeches have perished. A like fate has befallen his poems, most of which were composed in early life, and his treatise on grammar, in two books. Among other writings that were published was a tract written in opposition to Cicero's panegyric on Cato , in two books (see Anticatones); a treatise on astronomy, and a collection of witticisms. Only his invaluable "Memoirs" are extant-"On the Gallic War" (De Bello Gallico), in seven books, and "On the Civil War" (De Bello Civili), in three books, the former published probably in B.C. 51. These works are written in a simple, concise, straightforward style, remarkably free from military technicalities of the sort to trouble the reader. They were no doubt designed to justify the author in the eyes of his countrymen, but their credibility on the whole is not thereby seriously impaired. An eighth book was added to the Gallic War by Aulus Hirtius; and unknown authors extended the Civil War by narratives concerning the Alexandrine, African, and Spanish wars. Bibliography.-The chief sources for the life of Caesar are his own writings and the works of Cicero (particularly the Letters), Sallust's Catiline, the biographies by Plutarch and Suetonius, and the treatises on Roman history by Velleius Paterculus, Appian, and Dio Cassius. The ancient authorities are examined with much painstaking by Drumann, in his Geschichte Roms (vol. iii.); worthy of mention, also, is the extended treatment of Caesar in Mommsen's History of Rome (vol. iv. of the English translation), in Duruy's History of Rome (vol. iii.), and in Merivale's History of the Romans under the Empire (vols. i., ii.). Special works are: Napoleon III., Histoire de Jules César (2 vols., with valuable atlas, Paris, 1865; English translation, New York, 1865); Delorme, Cäsar und seine Zeitgenossen (deutsch, bearbeitet von Doehler, Leipzig, 1873); Froude, Caesar: a Sketch (New York, 1884); and Fowler, Julius Caesar and the Organization of the Roman Empire (New York, 1892). For the history of Caesar's campaigns: Rüstow, Heerwesen und Kriegführung Cäsars (Nordhausen, 1862); F. de Saulcy, Les Campagnes de Jules-César dans les Gaules (Paris, 1865); A. von Göler, Caesars gallischer Krieg und Theile seines Bürgerkrieges (2d ed., Freiburg and Tübingen, 1880, reprinted 1884); Stoffel, Histoire de Jules César: Guerre civile (2 vols., with atlas of twenty-four plates, Paris, 1887); Judson, Caesar's Army (Boston, 1888); and Fröhlich, Das Kriegswesen Cäsars (Zürich, 1891). Useful, also, in this connection are: Rüstow, Atlas zu Caesars gallischem Kriege (Stuttgart, 1868); A. von Kampen, XV. ad Caesaris de Bello Gallico Commentarios Tabulae (Gotha, 1879); Jal, La Flotte de César (Paris, 1862); and especially Desjardins, Géographie historique et administratrive de la Gaule romaine (4 vols., Paris, 1876-93). For Caesar's writings, see Fallue, Analyse raisonnée des Commentaires de Jules César (Paris, 1862); and Trollope, The Commentaries of Caesar (Philadelphia, 1880). For the extant portraits of him, see Bernoulli, Römische Ikonographie (vol. i., pp. 145-181). The MSS. upon which the text of Caesar's Commentaries is based fall into two classes, known as α and β. The α group seems to be more faithful to the original form, but contains only the Gallic War; the best representatives are: a MS. of the ninth or tenth century at Amsterdam (A), three of the tenth century (B, C at Paris, R in the Vatican), and one of the eleventh century (M, also at Paris). The MSS. of the β class include also the Civil War with the continuations, the best being a Paris MS. of the eleventh or twelfth century (T), a Vatican MS. of the twelfth century (V), and one of the thirteenth century, at Vienna. Critical editions of Caesar's works are by Nipperdey (Leipzig, 1847) and Dübner (2 vols., Paris, 1867); convenient text- editions by Nipperdey (4th reprint, 1884); Dinter (3 parts, Leipzig, 1864-76; 2d ed. of Gallic War, 1884), and Hoffmann (2d ed., Vienna, 1888); critical editions of the Gallic War by Frigell (Upsala, 1861), Holder (with useful index, Freiburg, 1882), and Kübler (vol. i., Leipzig, 1893). Among the numerous annotated editions are those by Kraner (Berlin; de Bel. Gal., 15te verbesserte Aufl., von W. Ditten berger, 1890; de Bel. Civ., 10te umgearbeitete Aufl. von Hofmann Fr., 1890), Doberenz (Leipzig, umgearbeitet von Dinter, de Bel. Gal., 9te Aufl. 1890-92; de Bel. Civ., 5te Aufl., 1884), Rheinhard (Stuttgart; de Bel. Gal., 7te Aufl., herausg. von S. Herzog, 1892>), Moberly (Oxford; Gallic War, 2d ed., 1878; Civil War, 1880), and Peskett (Cambridge; Gallic War, 5 vols., 1878-82; Civil War, Book I. 1890), Allen and Greenough (Boston; Gallic War, 1887), and Kelsey (Boston; Gallic War, 7th ed., 1894). Of the several lexicons to Caesar, Meusel's Lexicon Caesarianum (Berlin, 1887-93) and the Lexicon Caesarianum by Menge and Preuss (Leipzig, 1890) are the best. A brief bibliography of the more recent literature dealing with Caesar's works is given in Teuffel's History of Roman Literature. 195, 196 (Eng. tr. by Warr, 1892).

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Juvenal in Wikipedia

Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, known in English as Juvenal, was a Roman poet active in the late 1st and early 2nd century AD, author of the Satires. The details of the author's life are unclear, although references within his text to known persons of the late 1st and early 2nd centuries AD fix his terminus post quem (earliest date of composition). In accord with the vitriolic manner of Lucilius – the originator of the genre of Roman satire – and within a poetic tradition that also included Horace and Persius, Juvenal wrote at least 16 poems in dactylic hexameter covering an encyclopedic range of topics across the Roman world. While the Satires are a vital source for the study of ancient Rome from a vast number of perspectives, their hyperbolic, comedic mode of expression makes the use of statements found within them as simple fact problematic, to say the least. At first glance the Satires could be read as a brutal critique of (Pagan) Rome, perhaps ensuring their survival in Christian monastic scriptoria, a bottleneck in preservation when the large majority of ancient texts were lost...

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Iuven&#257;lis, Dec&#301;mus Iunius in Harpers Dictionary

The fourth in order of time and of literary development of the great writers of Roman satire, his predecessors being Lucilius, Horace, and Persius. Of his life there are known but few particulars. His ancient biographers relate that he was either the son or foster-son of a rich freedman, and was born at Aquinum (cf. Juv.iii. 319) at a date that can not be determined, but which may be approximately given as between A.D. 57 and 67. He is said to have studied rhetoric, and began writing satire not earlier than A.D. 100, for in his first satire (i. 49) he mentions the exile of Marius Priscus, which took place in that year. He lived a simple life at his country estate near Tibur (xi. 65). He tells us himself that he visited Egypt at some period of his life; and according to an inscription dedicated by him to Ceres Helvina, found at Aquinum, he held at various times the offices of tribune of a cohort, duumvir of Aquinum, and flamen. (C. I. L. x. 5382). Tradition explains his military office and his visit to Egypt as having been in reality a form of exile for having attacked the imperial favourite, Paris, in his satires (cf. Sidon. Apoll. viii. 270). Another tradition makes Britain to have been his place of exile. Of the date and place of his death, nothing is known; but he must have died later than A.D. 127, as he mentions Aemilius Iunius (xv. 27). He was a friend of Martial, who speaks of him in friendly terms (vii. 24 and 91; xii. 18). There remain to us sixteen satires of Juvenal, the last of which is probably a fragment, and is by some regarded as spurious. All are written in dactylic hexameters. They represent the final development of satire among the Romans, and answer the modern definition of satiric composition, being passionate, scornful, and filled with the language of indignant denunciation and bitter invective. His subject is not, as with Horace, the foibles and venial follies of the age, but those darker vices whose prevalence taints the history of the times in which he wrote. His tone is, therefore, not that of the indulgent man of the world, but of the stern censor who hates the hideous sins that he looks upon, and scourges them with a whip of scorpions. Yet there is much of the rhetorician's exaggeration in his invective, and it may be questioned whether the passion is not partly simulated. Moreover, the painful minuteness with which he draws the details of abnormal vice, and the excessive crudity of his language in at least two of the satires (the Second and Sixth) seem inconsistent with the professed morality of the writer, and excite a strong suspicion of pruriency. He is at his best in the Third and Tenth, in which he touches the less loathsome faults of contemporary Rome, and where one finds here and there a noble bit of poetry. It is these two satires that Dr. Samuel Johnson paraphrased in English in his two poems, London and The Vanity of Human Riches, with a fire and force and epigrammatic terseness of language that are in no respect inferior to the original. Juvenal is very modern in his mental attitude as well as in his phrasing. An English scholar has recently declared that we are to see in him the first instances in literature of American humour-the humour that derives its effect from bringing together unexpectedly two ludicrously inappropriate ideas, or in applying to the most solemn subjects the familiar language of every-day life. In this, Juvenal has been hailed as the prototype of Hosea Biglow and Mark Twain; and his "waxing over the knees of the gods" and his offering "the sacred sausages of a little white pig" have perhaps to many obscured the other passages of great nobility and beauty that are not far to seek. Of pregnant phrases and epigrammatic sentences, he has made some striking contributions to literature. "Probitas laudatur et alget - facit indignatio versum-res angusta domi - scribendi cacoethes - stemmata quid faciunt? - Cantabit vacuus coram latrone viator - Orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpore sano - Maxima debetur puero rererentia" - are perhaps the most famous of his many famous epigrams. The best MS. of Juvenal is the Codex Pithoeanus of the ninth century, preserved at Montpellier in France. The other MSS. are enumerated by Jahn in his edition. The editio princeps of Juvenal appeared at Rome in 1470, but undated. Standard editions with notes are those of Ruperti (2d ed. Leipzig, 1819); Lemaire (Paris, 1823); Weber (Weimar, 1825); Heinrich, with scholia (Bonn, 1839); Jahn (Berlin, 1851) revised by Bücheler (Berlin, 1886); Friedländer, 2 vols. (1895); of thirteen satires with English notes, Macleane and Long (2d ed. London, 1867); Simcox (2d ed. London, 1873); Hardy (London, 1883); Pearson and Strong, with good introduction (Oxford, 1887); but especially by J. E. B. Mayor (4th ed. of vol. i. London, 1886; 3d ed. of vol. ii. 1881); of satires i. and ii. by Nash (Boston, 1893). There is a spirited verse translation by Gifford (London, 1817; reprinted in the Bohn Library); and a prose by D. Lewis, with text and notes (2d ed. London, 1882); by Strong and Lesper (London, 1882). On Juvenal, see Widal, Juvénal et ses Satires (Paris, 1869); and au article by Boissier in the Revue des Deux Mondes for June, 1870. On the coincidences between Juvenal and Martial, see a monograph in the introduction to Pearson and Strong's edition. See also the article Satira.

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Gaius Laelius in Wikipedia

Gaius Laelius, general and statesman, was a friend of Scipio Africanus, whom he accompanied on his Iberian campaign (210 BC - 206 BC; the Roman Hispania, comprising modern Spain and Portugal). His command of the Roman fleet in the attack on New Carthage and command of the Roman-Numidian cavalry at Zama contributed to Scipio's victories. Background - According to some Roman historians, including Polybius (Book 10), Laelius was a friend of Scipio from childhood; however, his family background is obscure. Livy suggested that he was not from a rich family, since he wanted command of the campaign against Antiochus the Great in 190 BC to repair his family fortunes.[citation needed] Polybius suggests that Laelius was a companion of Scipio from their earliest days in the army together, since Laelius was apparently a witness of Scipio's rescue of his father in a skirmish that was probably the Battle of Ticinus in late 218 BC.[1] Laelius certainly accompanied Scipio on various expeditions from 210 BC to 201 BC but received no official position from the Senate until about 202 BC when he was finally made quaestor. This lack of recognition may have been due to his relatively low social status and/or family's lack of wealth and political influence.[2][3] Military career: Laelius in Hispania (210 BC-206 BC) - In the Iberian campaign lasting from 210 BC to about 206 BC, Laelius was a loyal second-in-command; the only man to whom Scipio confided his plans to take Iberia. He commanded the fleet of thirty ships in the assault on Cartagena (New Carthage) in 209 BC. Laelius was in charge of some important hostages after the capture of New Carthage, and he was dispatched, along with those hostages, by Scipio to Rome in a quinquereme with the news of this important victory. The Senate gave Laelius further orders for Scipio, which Laelius conveyed back to Scipio while the troops were still in their winter quarters at Tarraco. The time was therefore around early 208 BC. According to Polybius, Laelius then commanded the left wing of the army, attacking Hasdrubal's right wing, at the Battle of Baecula (Bailen) in 208 BC, where Scipio inflicted a costly defeat on Hasdrubal who then retreated to northern Iberia and Italy. The next few years were spent fighting off Mago and the Carthaginian fleet, with the Carthaginians finally withdrawing in 206 BC. The Romans were also troubled by rebellions among the soldiers and insurrections among the local tribes from about 207 BC when Scipio fell ill.[4] Laelius's role during these insurrections is not clear as to whether he attempted to put down the rebellions and insurrections, or was absent. Livy refers to two other Roman commanders Silanus and Lucius Cornelius Scipio (younger brother of Scipio) defeating insurgents in Hispania. Nor is Laelius's role clear in the decisive Battle of Ilipa (206 BC) is not clear. Laelius in Africa (204-202 BC) - In Scipio's consulship year (205 BC), Laelius went with him to his designated province Sicily, whence he conducted an expedition or raid to Africa while Scipio was readying his troops and supplies for a full-scale invasion. The purpose of this expedition was to detach two Carthaginian allies - the Berber (or Massaesylian) prince Syphax and the Numidian prince Massinissa - from their commitments, both believed to be on the verge of revolt against their Carthaginian overlords. Both princes were apparently won over, but Syphax broke his alliance with Scipio, and joined the Carthaginians when he was offered a marriage alliance with a famous Carthaginian beauty. Subsequently, Syphax drove his bride's former fiance, Massinissa, who remained loyal to Scipio, out of his own territories. In about 204 BC, Scipio was ready to invade Africa. After several skirmishes, in which Scipio and Laelius set fire to the Carthaginian camp [5] the Romans nevertheless failed to detach Syphax from his marital and political alliance with the Carthaginians; nor, was a complete victory possible over the Carthaginian army, with Scipio fearing for his fleet. Finally, in 203 BC, Laelius defeated the Massaesylian prince Syphax, Laelius captured the city of Cirta at this time, and took Syphax alive. He then conducted to Rome the captured prince and his son Vermina and some other leading men.[6] At Zama (202), Laelius rendered considerable service in command of the cavalry, which was again placed originally on the left wing with Massinissa on the right wing;[7] without the cavalry to intervene at a crucial time and falling upon the Carthaginians from the rear, Scipio may well have been defeated.[8] Laelius was finally made quaestor only after the decisive victory in 202 BC, which was his first public office. Political career - In 197 he was plebeian aedile and in 196 BC praetor of Sicily, both times apparently with the aid of his former commander and old friend. Scipio's influence however did not serve to win Laelius the consulship in 192 BC.[9] Finally, in 190, he was elected consul along with Scipio's younger brother Scipio Asiaticus but failed to win the campaign against Antiochus III the Great which would have enrichened him. One version has Laelius himself nobly offering the Senate the choice instead of the traditional drawing of lots to decide the allocation of provinces. When his friend Scipio Africanus announced that, if his brother Lucius was chosen to lead the campaign against Antiochus, he would accompany his brother as a legate, the decision was inevitable - Lucius would be preferred. Laelius's decision, if this version is correct, was a triumph of friendship, but not for his personal finances. He was given Gaul as his province, and was employed in organizing the recently conquered territory in Cisalpine Gaul. Placentia and Cremona were repopulated. Further history - Laelius's wife is not known, but circa 188 BC, he fathered a legitimate son who would become consul in 140 BC - Gaius Laelius Sapiens. Like other superannuated Roman generals, Laelius later served on embassies to King Perseus of Macedon (174-173 BC) and to Transalpine Gaul (170 BC).[10] It was also in 160 BC, when the aged Laelius (probably then in his mid-seventies) met the author Polybius in Rome[11] during his last years, and gave him much first-hand information about Scipio Africanus.[12] Polybius was a client of Scipio's brother-in-law Aemilius Paullus (who died suddenly in the same year 160 BC), and became a friend to both his sons, notably Scipio Aemilianus (Africanus's adoptive grandson). Laelius appears to have died some years after 160 BC, but his year of death is not mentioned by Livy nor by Polybius.

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Laelius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

The friend of Scipio Africanus the elder. He fought under the latter in almost all his campaigns. He was consul B.C. 190.

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Livia in Wikipedia

Livia Drusilla, after AD 14 called Julia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, LIVIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29 ) was a Roman empress as the third wife of the Emperor Augustus and his adviser. She was the mother of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal great-grandmother of the Emperor Caligula, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Claudius, and maternal great-great grandmother of the Emperor Nero. She was deified by Claudius who acknowledged her title of Augusta...

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Livia in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Livia Drusilla, the daughter of Livius Drusus Claudianus. She was married first to Claudius Nero, and afterwards to Augustus, who compelled her husband to divorce her in B.C. 38. She had already borne her husband one son, the future emperor Tiberius, and at the time of her marriage with Augustus was six months pregnant with another, who subsequently received the name of Drusus. She never had any children by Augustus, but she retained his affection till his death. On the accession of her son Tiberius to the throne, she at first attempted to obtain an equal share in the government; but this the jealous temper of Tiberius would not brook, and he commanded her to cease meddling in public affairs. From that time he showed towards her only hatred, refusing even to visit her when she was dying. She died in A.D. 29, at the age of 82 or 86.

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Livy in Wikipedia

Titus Livius (59 BC – AD 17), known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, Ab Urbe Condita Libri, "Chapters from the Foundation of the City," covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome well before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own time. He was on familiar terms with the Julio-Claudian family, advising Augustus' grandnephew, the future emperor Claudius, as a young man not long before 14 AD in a letter to take up the writing of history.[1] Livy and Augustus' wife, Livia, were from the same clan in different locations, although not related by blood. Life - According to Jerome and numerous other sources, Livy was a native of Patavium, the modern Padua.[2] He belonged to the Livia gens, or family, but no agnomen has survived. His works show that he was educated in oratory and Greek, which is an indicator of rank, although the Livii were of plebeian origin. Patavium did not become a Roman municipium until 49 BC when Livy was ten years old. The Patavians were enrolled in the Fabii,[3] but perhaps not Romans who already had a good name, as Livy kept his and without agnomen. Whether the fact that the emperor Augustus' much loved and respected wife, Livia, was born into the Roman branch of the Livia gens, had anything to do with Augustus' tolerance of Livy's republican views is not known. Various authors testify that Livy married and had children. Quintilian gives a fragment of a letter from Livy to his son.[4] The same son became a writer considered an authority by Pliny the Elder in Books V and VI of Natural History. Seneca the Elder mentions a son-in-law, Lucius Magius.[5] Two epitaphs from Padua are considered relevant: CIL V 2975 commemorates Titus Livius, son of Gaius, his two sons: Titus Livius Priscus and Titus Livius Longus, as well as Livy's wife, Cassia;[6] and CIL V 2865, marking the resting place of a freedman of Livia Quarta, daughter of Titus Livius. Evidently the Livii of Padua continued to reside there and one must presume that after sojourns elsewhere they came home to die. At some time early in his career Livy moved to Rome, probably for his education. A few references in Book I suggest he was at Rome at or prior to 27 BC, when he began work on his History of Rome.[7][8] It would have been in Rome also that he had or overheard a conversation with Augustus, who did not acquire that title until 27 BC.[9] In that year, if born in 59 BC, Livy was 32. Works - Livy's only surviving work is the "History of Rome" (Ab Urbe Condita), which was his career from an age in middle life, probably 32, until he left Rome for Padua in old age, probably after the death of Augustus in the reign of Tiberius. When he began this work he was already past his youth; presumably, events in his life prior to that time had led to his intense activity as a historian. Seneca the Younger gives brief mention that he was also known as an orator and philosopher and had written some treatises in those fields from a historical point of view.[10] Reception - In Roman Empire - Livy's History of Rome was in demand from the publication of the first packet. Livy became so famous that a man from Cadiz travelled to Rome just to see him, and once he had seen, returned home.[11] The popularity of the work continued through the entire classical period. A number of Roman authors used Livy, including Aurelius Victor, Cassiodorus, Eutropius, Festus, Florus, Granius Licinianus and Orosius. Julius Obsequens used Livy, or a source with access to Livy, to compose his De Prodigiis, an account of supernatural events in Rome, from the consulship of Scipio and Laelius to that of Paulus Fabius and Quintus Aelius. Livy wrote during the reign of Augustus, who came to power after a civil war with generals and consuls claiming to be defending the Roman Republic, such as Pompey. Patavium had been pro-Pompey. To clarify his status, the victor of the civil war, Octavian Caesar, had wanted to take the title Romulus (the first king of Rome) but in the end accepted the senate proposal of Augustus. He did not abolish the republic de facto but adapted its institutions into the empire. Livy's enthusiasm for the republic is evident from the first pentade of his work, and yet the Julio-Claudian family (the imperial family) were as much fans of Livy as anyone. He could not have been an advocate of any sort of sedition in favor of restoring the republic; he would have been put on trial for treason and executed, as many had been and would be. He must have been viewed as a harmless and relevant advocate of the ancient morality, which was a known public stance of the citizens of Patavium. His relationship to Augustus is defined primarily by a passage from Tacitus[12] in which Cremutius Cordus is put on trial for his life for offenses no worse than Livy's and defends himself face-to-face with the frowning Tiberius as follows: "I am said to have praised Brutus and Cassius, whose careers many have described and no one mentioned without eulogy. Titus Livius, pre-eminently famous for eloquence and truthfulness, extolled Cneius Pompeius in such a panegyric that Augustus called him Pompeianus, and yet this was no obstacle to their friendship. To avoid conviction, while waiting for a verdict Cordus committed suicide by self-starvation. His worst fears were realized in absentia: his books were sentenced to be burned by the aediles, but they performed the task without zeal and many escaped. Livy's reasons for returning to Padua after the death of Augustus (if he did) are unclear, but the circumstances of Tiberius' reign certainly allow for speculation. Later - During the Middle Ages interest in Livy fell off.[13] Due to the length of the work the literate class were already reading summaries rather than the work itself, which was tedious to copy, expensive, and required a lot of storage space. It must have been during this period, if not before, that MSS began to be lost without replacement. The Renaissance was a time of intense revival; the population discovered that Livy was being lost and large amounts of money changed hands in the rush to collect Livy manuscripts. The poet Beccadelli sold a country home for the money to purchase one manuscript copied by Poggio.[14] Petrarch and Pope Nicholas V launched a search for the now missing books. Laurentius Valla published an emended text initiating the field of Livy scholarship. Dante speaks highly of him in his poetry, and Francis I of France commissioned extensive artwork treating Livian themes; Niccolò Machiavelli's work on republics, the Discourses on Livy is presented as a commentary on the History of Rome. Respect for Livy rose to lofty heights. After a few hundred years of Livy being studied by the youth of every Western population, moderns have developed their own views of Livy and his place in the ancient world, which were not current in ancient times. For example, one text on western civilization pronounces: "Livy was the prose counterpart of Vergil", as both have been standard in the study of Golden Age Latin literature.[15] Golden Age Latin was not known as such in classical times and the ancient reader could choose from a vastly larger bibliography; but in fact, private reading was a privilege of the literate few, who had the wealth to buy manuscripts or have them copied and had the time for library research. Public readings of works, however, were common and were the main way in which an author became known. Dates - The authority supplying information from which possible vital data on Livy can be deduced is Eusebius of Caesaria, an early Christian-era bishop. One of his works was a summary of world history in ancient Greek, termed the Chronikon, dating from the early 4th century. This work was lost except for fragments (mainly excerpts), but not before it had been translated in whole and in part by various authors such as St. Jerome. The entire work survives in Armenian. St. Jerome wrote in Latin. Fragments in Syriac exist.[16] Eusebius' work consists of two books, the Chronographia, a summary of history in annalist form, and the Chronikoi Kanones, tables of years and events. St. Jerome translated the tables into Latin as the Chronicon, probably adding some information of his own from unknown sources. Livy's dates appear in Jerome's Chronicon. The main problem with the information given in the MSS is that between them they often give different dates for the same events or different events, do not include the same material entirely and reformat what they do include. A date may be in AUC or in Olympiads or in some other form, such as age. These variations may have occurred through scribal error or scribal license. Some material has been inserted under the aegis of Eusebius. The topic of manuscript variants is a large and specialized one, on which authors of works on Livy seldom care to linger. As a result standard information in a standard rendition is used, which gives the impression of a standard set of dates for Livy. There are no such dates. A typical presumption is of a birth in the 2nd year of the 180th Olympiad and a death in the first year of the 199th Olympiad, which are coded 180.2 and 199.1 respectively.[2] All sources use the same first Olympiad, 776/775-773/772 BC by the modern calendar. By a complex formula (made so by the 0 reference point not falling on the border of an Olympiad) these codes correspond to 59 BC for the birth, 17 AD for the death. In another manuscript the birth is in 180.4, or 57 BC.[17] Jerome says that Livy was born the same year as Marcus Valerius Messala Corvinus and died the same year as Ovid.[2] Messala, however, was born earlier, in 64 BC, and Ovid's death, usually taken to be the same year as Livy's, is more uncertain. As an alternative view, Ronald Syme argues for 64 BC-12 AD as a range for Livy, setting the death of Ovid at 12.[18] A death date of 12, however, removes Livy from Augustus' best years and makes him depart for Padua without the good reason of the second emperor, Tiberius, being not as tolerant of his republicanism. The contradiction remains.

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Livius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Titus. One of the greatest and certainly the most popular of the Roman writers of history. He was born at Patavium (B.C. 59), of good family, and, after being carefully educated, betook himself early (before B.C. 31) to Rome, where he soon became acquainted with the most distinguished men of the day. Even Augustus entertained friendly relations towards him in spite of his openly expressed republican convictions, for which he called him a partisan of Pompey. He does not seem to have taken public office, but to have lived exclusively for literature. He was esteemed by his contemporaries so highly that a Spaniard is said to have travelled from Gades (Cadiz) to Rome merely to see him (Pliny , Epist. ii. 3). He died in his native town in A.D. 17. He must have begun his great historical work between B.C. 27 and 25; it can only have been completed shortly before his death, as he did not publish the first twenty-one books until after the death of Augustus (A.D. 14). It recounts the history of Rome in 142 books, extending from the foundation of the city (whence the title Ab Urbe Condita Libri) to the death of Drusus (A.D. 9). His own death must have prevented its continuation to the death of Augustus, as he doubtless had proposed. He published the work, called by himself Annales (xliii. 13), from time to time, in separate parts, arranging his material-at least for the first ninety books-as far as possible in decades (portions consisting of ten books), and half-decades; the division into decades was, however, first carried through in the fifth century, probably for convenience of handling so vast a series of books. There still remain only the first decade (to B.C. 293), the third, fourth, and half of the fifth decade (218- 167); and of the remainder, with the exception of a fairly large portion of the ninety-first book, only inconsiderable fragments. We also possess from an unknown pen, epitomes (periochae) of all the books except 136 and 137, and a scanty extract from the account of the portents (prodigia), which appeared in B.C. 249 and following year. This is by a certain Iulius Obsequens, and perhaps dates from the fourth century. Livy 's importance rests more on the magnitude of his patriotic undertaking and the charm of his style than on his acquisitions as a scientific historian. He is, in fact, best regarded as a remarkable story-teller, who possessed a diction almost perfect in its way, and an unusual power of graphic narrative. For writing history, however, he had no special training, and his knowledge of Roman law and of the Roman military system was but slight. In selecting his authorities, also, he showed little discrimination, basing his judgment of them on a priori assumptions. Thus he follows Valerius Antias in the first decade with no mistrust (cf. vii. 36; ix. 27, 37, 43), but later denounces him as a falsifier (xxvi. 49; xxx. 19; xxxiii. 10, etc.). He does, however, use Polybius, besides Licinius Macer , Quadrigarius, and Caelius Antipater, but often draws different portions of his narrative from conflicting accounts, so that there are frequent inconsistencies to be noticed. It is evident that he had never read the Leges Regiae or even many important laws of later times. His purpose, however, was not at all to write a critical history, but rather, by a lively and brilliant narrative, to rekindle the patriotic spirit among his countrymen and to inspire them with a desire to emulate the deeds of their heroic ancestors. From this standpoint, his history deserves the highest praise, and justly won for him the name of "the Roman Herodotus." The only criticism of any account that has come down to us is that of Asinius Pollio recorded by Quintilian (i. 5, 56 and viii. 1, 3), which charges the historian with displaying in his writings a certain Patavinity (Patavinitas, from Patavium, Padua, Livy 's birthplace). Just what this criticism was meant to imply is not clearly known. It may have been intended to characterize the style as being more florid than was consistent with the reserve of a Roman gentleman, or it may refer to the presence of provincialisms, which we are not now able to detect as such. It may, as some think, have marked the enthusiasm of the writer as opposed to the polished and self-contained urbanitas of the metropolis. On this point, see Wiedemann, De Patavinitate Livii (Görlitz, 1848-54); and Moritz Haupt, Opuscula, ii. 69. Of Livy's history, the first decade (books one to ten) is entire. It embraces the period from the foundation of the city to the year B.C. 294, when the subjugation of the Samnites may be said to have been completed. The second decade (books eleven to twenty) is altogether lost. It embraced the period from 294 to 219, comprising an account, among other matters, of the invasion of Pyrrhus and of the First Punic War. The third decade (books twenty-one to thirty) is entire. It embraces the period from 219 to 201, comprehending the whole of the Second Punic War. The fourth decade (books thirty-one to forty) is entire, and also one half of the fifth (books forty-one to forty-five). These fifteen books embrace the period from 201 to 167, and develop the progress of the Roman arms in Cisalpine Gaul, in Macedonia, Greece, and Asia, ending with the triumph of Aemilius Paulus. Of the other books nothing remains except inconsiderable fragments, the most notable being a few chapters of the ninety-first book, concerning the fortunes of Sertorius. The composition of so vast a work necessarily occupied many years; and we find indications which throw some light upon the epochs when different sections were composed. Thus, in the first book (ch. 19), it is stated that the temple of Ianus had been closed twice only since the reign of Numa-for the first time in the consulship of T. Manlius (B.C. 235), a few years after the termination of the First Punic War; for the second time by Augustus Caesar, after the battle of Actium, in 29. But we know that it was shut again by Augustus, after the conquest of the Cantabrians, in 25; and hence it is evident that the first book must have been written between the years 29 and 25. Moreover, since the last book contained an account of the death of Drusus, it is evident that the task must have been spread over seventeen years, and probably occupied a much longer time. The discovery of the lost books of Livy has been a dream of scholars for many centuries, and may yet be realized. In the sixteenth century a complete Livy was reported to be in existence in a monastery in Denmark, where two travellers independently professed to have seen it; but inquiry failed to verify the claim. Among the most famous manuscripts of Livy now in existence are a Codex Mediceus and a Co dex Parisinus, each of the eleventh century. Portions of bks. iii.-vi. are preserved in a very old palimpsest at Verona. The third decade is preserved in a MS. now in Paris (the Codex Puteaneus) of the eighth century, and in a Mediceus of the eleventh century. The fourth decade is known from a Codex Moguntinus (Mayence), now lost, and from a MS. at Bamberg. What is preserved of the fifth decade is in a sixth-century MS. at Vienna. The editio princeps of Livy appeared at Rome about 1469 (bks. xxxiii. and xli.-xlv. omitted). The first critical edition was that of F. Gronovius (Leyden, 1645). Great editions are those of Drakenborch with variorum notes and supplements (7 vols. Amsterdam, 1738-46; reprinted at Stuttgart, 1820-28, and edited by Bekker and Raschig, Berlin, 1829 foll.); Madvig, Ussing, and Luchs, not yet finished (Berlin, 1888 foll.); and Weissenborn and Müller, with German notes (Berlin, 1867- 1888). Good editions of separate portions are the following: Bk. i., by Seeley (Oxford, 1876), Purser (Dublin, 1881), Stephenson (London, 1886); bk. iv., Stephenson (London, 1890); bk. v., Whibley (London, 1890), Prendeville, 13th ed. (London, 1890); bks. v.-vii., Cluer and Matheson (London, 1881); bks. vii.-viii., Luterbacher (Leipzig, 1890); bks. xxi.-xxii., Lord (Boston, 1891); bks. i., xxi.-xxii., Westcott (Boston, 1891); bks. xxi.-xxv., Harant (Paris, 1886); bks. xxvi.-xxx., Riemann (Paris, 1889). On Livy 's language, see Riemann, Études sur la Langue et la Grammaire de Tite Live (Paris, 1884). There is a vast lexicon to Livy , preparing by Fügner, of which in 1894 six parts had appeared. On the sources of Livy 's history, see Lachmann, De Fontibus Historiarum T. Livii (Göttingen, 1821); H. Peter, Hist. Reliquiae, i. 89, 198, 225; and Kieserling, De Rerum Romanarum Scriptoribus Quibus T. Livius Usus Est (Berlin, 1858). There is a translation of the whole of Livy into Elizabethan English by Philemon Holland (London, 1600); of bks. xxi.- xxv., by Church and Brodribb (2d ed. London, 1890); and of the whole into German by Klaiber and Teuffel, in 6 vols. (2d ed. Stuttgart, 1854-56). See Historia.

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Lucius Verus in Wikipedia

Lucius Aurelius Verus (15 December 130 – 169), born as Lucius Ceionius Commodus, known simply as Lucius Verus, was Roman co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius (121–180), from 161 until his death. Early life and career Lucius Verus was the first born son to Avidia Plautia and Lucius Aelius Verus Caesar, the first adopted son and heir of Roman Emperor Hadrian (76–138). He was born and raised in Rome. Verus had another brother Gaius Avidius Ceionius Commodus and two sisters Ceionia Fabia and Ceionia Plautia. His maternal grandparents were the Roman Senator Gaius Avidius Nigrinus and the unattested noblewoman Ignota Plautia. Although his adoptive paternal grandparents were the Roman Emperor Hadrian and Roman Empress Vibia Sabina, his biological paternal grandparents were the consul Lucius Ceionius Commodus and noblewoman Aelia or Fundania Plautia. When his father died in early 138, Hadrian chose Antoninus Pius (86–161) as his successor. Antoninus was adopted by Hadrian on the condition that Verus and Hadrian’s great-nephew Marcus Aurelius was to be adopted by Antoninus as his sons and heirs. As a prince and future emperor Verus, received careful education from the famous "grammaticus" Marcus Cornelius Fronto. He was reported to have been an excellent student, fond of writing poetry and delivering speeches. Verus started his political career as a quaestor in 153, became consul in 154, and in 161 was consul again with Marcus Aurelius as his senior partner...

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Verus, L. Aurelius in Harpers Dictionary

The colleague of M. Aurelius in the Empire, A.D. 161-169. He was born in 130, and his original name was L. Ceionius Commodus, was adopted by Hadrian in 136; and on the death of his father in 138, he was, in pursuance of the command of Hadrian, adopted, along with M. Aurelius, by M. Antoninus. On the death of Antoninus in 161, Verus succeeded him as emperor in conjunction with Marcus Aurelius. As to the events of his rule see Aurelius. He died in A.D. 169.

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Lucretius in Wikipedia

Titus Lucretius Carus (ca. 99 BC – ca. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher. His only known work is the epic philosophical poem on Epicureanism De rerum natura, translated into English as On the Nature of Things or "On the Nature of the Universe". Life of Lucretius - Very little is known about Lucretius's life; the only certain fact is that he was either a friend or a client of Gaius Memmius, to whom he dedicated De Rerum Natura. Another piece of information is found in a letter Cicero wrote to his brother Quintus in February 54 BCE. Cicero writes: "The poems of Lucretius are as you write: they exhibit many flashes of genius, and yet show great mastership."[1] Apparently, by February 54 BCE both Cicero and his brother had read De Rerum Natura. However, internal evidence from the poem suggests that it was published without a final revision, possibly due to its author's untimely death. If this is true, Lucretius must have been dead by February 54 BCE...

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Lucretius Carus, Titus in Harpers Dictionary

A Roman poet and philosopher who was born probably in B.C. 98 or 96; the year is uncertain. Of his birthplace and parentage nothing is known. St. Jerome is authority for the statement that he was made insane by a love-philter, and finally committed suicide, having composed some books in the intervals of his madness. According to Donatus, he died on the same day that Vergil assumed the toga virilis- October 15, B.C. 55. Lucretius left but one work, the De Rerum Natura, a didactic poem in six books containing in all nearly 7500 hexameter lines. The purpose of the poem is to set forth the Epicurean system of philosophy, particularly those portions dealing with the origin of the world and the operations of natural forces. The poet's aim in writing was, as he tells us, to free men's minds from the baneful influence of superstition and of the belief in the hereafter, to which he attributed the greater portion of the fears and troubles of life. He endeavoured to explain how, without the direction or intervention of supernatural agencies in any degree, all natural phenomena may be accounted for. In Book I, he lays down as fundamental truths the propositions that nothing can come from nothing, and that to nothing nought returns. The universe is made up of matter and void, or space. It has no centre, for matter exists in infinite quantity, and space is without limit. Matter is composed of atoms, which are inconceivably minute, perfectly solid, and indestructible. Book II. is devoted to an elaborate discussion of the atoms, treating of their movements, shapes, and combinations. Sensation and feeling are declared to be an accident of atomic combination, a result of the coming together of atoms of certain shapes in certain ways. The subject of the third book is the mind and soul, which, according to the poet, are inseparably united and of material nature, being composed of the finest and roundest atoms. Many reasons are brought forward to prove that the soul perishes at the same time with the body. Book IV. deals with the phenomena of sense-perception. From the surface of all objects thin films of matter are continually flying off, preserving the general outline of that from which they come. These impinge upon our senses, and perception is an immediate result. Yet in the adaptation of the senses to their functions there is no evidence of design, no sign of creative intelligence. The fifth book sets forth the perishable nature of the world, its formation from a fortuitous concourse of atoms, the origin of life by spontaneous generation, the preservation of animal life in accordance with the law of the survival of the fittest, and the development of man in civilization out of a condition of brutish savagery. In Book VI. the poet attempts to explain the natural phenomena which seem most terrible and inexplicable, particularly thunder and lightning, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, the changes of the Nile, and the power of the magnet. The poem ends abruptly with a description of the plague at Athens, and was evidently given to the world before it had received the final revision of the author. In the matter of the poem Lucretius followed closely the teachings of Epicurus, whom he revered as guide and master. With a truly Roman spirit he laid more emphasis upon the reign of law in the universe than his teacher; but he made no contribution in the way of doctrine to the Epicurean system. Whether he intended to bring his work to a close with a presentation of the ethical views of Epicurus it is impossible to determine; but numerous references show that in these, also, the poet was fully in sympathy with his master. The form of the De Rerum Natura was perhaps suggested by that of the poem of Empedocles, On Nature. The thought and manner of expression reveal the influence of several Greek poets besides Empedocles (notably Homer and Euripides), and of the early Roman poets (particularly Ennius), as well as of Cicero's Aratea. Yet the poem throughout bears the stamp of a marked individuality. Believing deeply himself in the mission of Epicureanism as a cure-all for human ills, Lucretius proclaimed its teachings with an almost religious fervor. Previous to his time this system of philosophy had received only scanty treatment in Latin, that, too, in barbarous prose. From the multitude of its technical details and the absence of a supernatural element, it seemed incapable of poetic handling. Nevertheless, Lucretius succeeded not only in presenting the main features of Epicurean physics and psychology with admirable clearness, but even in clothing them with a highly poetic form. There are, indeed, passages of unequal merit, and now and then the lack of the poet's finishing touches becomes unpleasantly apparent; yet from beginning to end the poem carries the reader along with a kind of epic movement and interest. It possesses a unity and continuity inconsistent with the tradition that it was composed "in lucid intervals;" still it is not impossible that the story of the poet's insanity and selfdestruction may reflect some tragic event of his life. The legend of the madness of Lucretius was elaborated by Tennyson in a well-known poem. The De Rerum Natura ranks not only as one of the finest poems in the Latin language, but also as undoubtedly the greatest didactic poem of all literature. It is masterly in its grasp and handling of the subject-matter, elevated in tone, and finely poetic in expression and suggestion. As an earnest attempt to adapt Epicureanism to the needs of the Roman life, the De Rerum Natura- apart from its value and inspiration as literature -is of especial interest at the present time, when atomic materialism under a new form is again challenging the attention of the philosophic world. Its doctrines form a curious and instructive parallel to those of the advocates of materialistic evolution, and sometimes foreshadow in a striking manner the conclusions of modern science. The existing manuscripts of Lucretius are all derived from a single archetype, which has long since disappeared. From this at least three copies were made. One of these, a beautiful folio of the ninth century, is now at Leyden (called A by Munro). Another was the parent of a quarto MS. of the tenth century (B), also at Leyden, and of two others of which there are considerable fragments at Copenhagen and Vienna. The third copy was taken by Poggio to Italy in the fifteenth century, and became the ancestor of the numerous Italian MSS. of the De Rerum Natura. The editio princeps of the poem was published about 1473 by Ferandus of Brescia. The most important of the early editions are the first Aldus (1500), edited by Avancius, the Jiunta (1512) by Candidus , and those by Lambinus (Paris, 1563; 2d ed. 1565; 3d ed. 1570, often reprinted). Recent editions are those by Lachmann (Berlin, 1850; 4th ed. of the text, 1871; of the commentary, 1882), Bernays (text, Leipzig, 1852), Bockemüller (text with commentary, 2 vols., Stade, 1873-74), Kelsey (text of Munro, with notes to Books I., III., and V., Boston, 1884), but especially by H. A. J. Munro (text, commentary, translation; 4th ed. 3 vols., London, 1886). For the poet's philosophy, see Masson, The Atomic Theory of Lucretius contrasted with Modern Doctrines of Atoms and Evolution (London, 1884); Woltjer, Lucretii Philosophia cum Fontibus Comparata (Groningen, 1877); Bruns, Lucrez-Studien (Freiburg, 1884); Royer, Les Arguments du Matérialisme dans Lucrèce (Paris, 1883); Lange, History of Materialism, vol. i. For his language, see Holtze, Syntaxis Lucretianae Lineamenta (Leipzig, 1868); Städler, De Sermone Lucretiano (Jena, 1869); Kühn, Quaestiones Lucr. Grammaticae et Metricae (Breslau, 1869); Kraetsch, De Abundanti Dicendi Genere Lucretiano (Berlin, 1881). For his rank as a poet, see Sellar's Roman Poets of the Republic (3d ed. 1889); Martha, Le Poème de Lucrèce-Morale, Religion, Science (Paris, 4th ed. 1885).

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Lucullus in Wikipedia

Lucius Licinius Lucullus (c.118-57 B.C.), was an optimas politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Sulla Felix. In the culmination of over twenty years of almost continuous military and government service, he became the main conqueror of the eastern kingdoms in the course of the Third Mithridatic War, exhibiting extraordinary generalship abilities in diverse situations, most famously during the siege of Cyzicus, 73-2 BC, and at the battle of Tigranocerta in Armenian Arzanene, 69 BC. His command style received unusually favourable attention from ancient military experts, and his campaigns appear to have been studied as exemplary of skillful generalship.[1] Lucullus returned to Rome from the east with so much captured booty that the whole could not be fully accounted, and poured enormous sums into private building, husbandry and even aquaculture projects which shocked and amazed his contemporaries by their magnitude. He also patronized the arts and sciences lavishly, transforming his hereditary estate in the Tusculan highlands into a hotel-and-library complex for scholars and philosophers. He built the horti Lucullani on the Pincian Hill in Rome, the famous gardens of Lucullus, and in general became a cultural revolutionary in the deployment of imperial wealth. He died during the winter of 57-56 B.C.[2] and was buried at the family estate near Tusculum. The sober and witty philosopher-historian, Lucius Aelius Tubero the Stoic, labelled him "Xerxes in a toga".[3] After his great personal foe Pompey heard this, he came up with what he considered a very clever joke of his own, calling Lucullus "Xerxes in a dress"...

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Lucullus, L. Licinius in Harpers Dictionary

A Roman celebrated as the conqueror of Mithridates. He fought on the side of Sulla in the Civil Wars with the Marian party, was praetor B.C. 77, and consul in 74. In the latter year he received the conduct of the war against Mithridates, which he carried on for eight years with great success (see Mithridates), but being unable to bring the war to a conclusion in consequence of the mutinous disposition of his troops, he was superseded in the command by Acilius Glabrio, B.C. 67. Glabrio, however, never took the command; but in the following year (B.C. 66) Lucullus had to resign the command to Pompey, who had been appointed by the Manilian law to supersede both him and Glabrio. On his return to Rome, Lucullus devoted himself to a life of indolence and luxury, and lived in a style of extraordinary magnificence. He died in B.C. 57 or 56. He was the first to introduce cherries into Italy, which he had brought with him from Cerasus in Pontus. The name of Lucullus became and has continued proverbial for extravagant and studied luxury. His gardens in the suburbs of the city were extraordinary for their splendour; his villas at Tusculum and Naples were laid out with such lavish disregard of expense in constructing fishponds (piscinae), cutting through hills and rocks, and throwing out moles into the sea, that Pompey called him, in derision, "the Roman Xerxes." His domestic service was on a scale of equal magnificence. A single dinner cost him $10,000. Lucullus was not, however, a mere sensualist. He collected a fine library, which was open to the public; he enjoyed the conversation of philosophers and scholars, and himself wrote a work on the history of the Marsic War, composed in Greek. He was also the patron of the poet Archias, the friend of Cicero. His life was written by Plutarch, and in it may be found many curious anecdotes of this very remarkable and interesting man.

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Maecenas in Wikipedia

Gaius Cilnius Maecenas (13 April 70 BC – ? October 8 BC) was a confidant and political advisor to Octavian (who was to become the first Emperor of Rome as Caesar Augustus) as well as an important patron for the new generation of Augustan poets. During the reign of Augustus, Maecenas served as a quasi-culture minister to the Emperor. His name has become a byword for a wealthy, generous and enlightened patron of the arts. Biography Expressions in Propertius[1] seem to imply that Maecenas had taken some part in the campaigns of Mutina, Philippi and Perusia. He prided himself on his ancient Etruscan lineage, and claimed descent from the princely house of the Cilnii, who excited the jealousy of their townsmen by their preponderant wealth and influence at Arretium in the 4th century BC.[2] Horace makes reference to this in his address to Maecenas at the opening of his first books of Odes with the expression "atavis edite regibus" (descendant of kings). Tacitus[3] refers to him as "Cilnius Maecenas"; it is possible that "Cilnius" was his mother's nomen - or that Maecenas was in fact a cognomen...

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Maec&#275;nas, Gaius Cilnius in Harpers Dictionary

A famous statesman, courtier, and patron of literature of the Augustan Age at Rome. The date of his birth is uncertain, but is to be placed between the years B.C. 73 and 63, on the 13th of April (Hor. Carm. iv. 11). His family was of Etruscan origin-a great subject of boasting in a society where Etruscomania was as great a fad as is Anglomania in certain American communities to-day-and was even traced to Porsena, so that we find Augustus addressing him in his somewhat ironical style as berylle Porsenae (Macrob. Sat. ii. 4). He received a careful education, and was well versed in both Greek and Roman literature, to which he himself contributed in verse as well as prose. He is thought to have been with Octavius in Apollonia at the time of the assassination of Iulius Caesar, perhaps as the director of his studies; and from this time his name appears continually in conjunction with that of the future emperor. He assisted in arranging a marriage between Augustus and Scribonia, the daughter of Libo, and negotiated the peace of Brundisium by which Antony and Augustus were temporarily reconciled, and which led to the marriage of Antony with Octavia, the sister of Augustus (Dio Cass. xlviii. 16; B. C. v. 64). In B.C. 36 he accompanied Augustus to Sicily in the campaign against Sextus Pompeius, from which he was twice sent back to Rome to suppress revolts that had there broken out. So well did he discharge the task that he was soon after placed in charge first of Rome and then of the administration of all Italy. In this capacity he crushed out the dangerous conspiracy of the younger Lepidus, which contained the germs of a disastrous civil war; and in every way he so justified the confidence reposed in him as to have received from Augustus his seal and a commission to act with Agrippa as the personal representative of the young Caesar in all negotiations with the Senate. After the establishment of the Empire he continued for a long time to exercise a supreme influence in the counsels of Augustus. By his advice, against that of Agrippa, Augustus decided not to restore the Republic (Dio Cass. lii. 14); and it was Maecenas who brought about the marriage of Iulia, the daughter of Augustus, with Agrippa. The influence of Maecenas over his master continued undiminished until about the year B.C. 18, when by his own choice the former withdrew from any active participation in matters of State. This withdrawal was coincident with a coolness that arose between the two men, which rendered their personal intercourse one of much restraint, and which, though it has been often explained as due to the predominance of Agrippa in the favour of the emperor, is much more certainly to be ascribed to the seduction by Augustus of Terentia, the wife of Maecenas. This woman, beautiful and accomplished, was the object of her husband's passionate love, and to a nature such as his-sensitive, ardent, and honourable-the thought of her continued infidelity was not to be endured with the complaisant toleration that so many Roman husbands appear to have exhibited. The city was filled with the pasquinades in which the wits of the day jeered at the progress of this amour. Even Augustus, who was remarkably thick-skinned, is said by Tacitus to have made a journey to Gaul on one occasion (B.C. 16) to escape the shower of epigrams, jests, and lampoons, and it is easy to surmise what torture they must have inflicted upon the statesman who felt himself to be at once injured and made a public laughing-stock. (See Dio Cass. liv. 19; lv. 7; Suet. Aug. 68, in which last passage the Terentilla alluded to in Antony's indecent letter is undoubtedly Terentia.) Maecenas died in B.C. 8, leaving no children. Maecenas is best known as the fosterer of literature and literary men, so much so that his very name has passed into all languages as a generic term for a munificent patron of letters. His enormous fortune (Tac. Ann. xiv. 53, 55) made it possible for him to give a princely protection and support to poets, wits, and, in fact, to all the virtuosi of distinction, who were received with magnificent hospitality at his mansion on the Esquiline, with its beautiful gardens, in which he spent nearly all the year, visiting the country but seldom (Tac. Ann. xiv. 53). So lavish was his entertainment that it became open to the charge of being too indiscriminate, so that Augustus called his table mensa parasitica (Vit. Horat.). It must be recollected, however, that he drew the line very sharply between his general hospitality and his private friendship, which last was reserved for the select few, such as Vergil and Horace, who were possessed of the fine culture and delicate feeling so essential to familiar intercourse among gentlemen. Much of the personal eccentricity which Maecenas exhibited must be ascribed to the condition of his health. He suffered for many years from insomnia and nervous prostration, and resorted to many devices to secure sleep, listening to soft music and to the plash in his house of artificial waterfalls; and his luxurious indolence was perhaps only the self-indulgence of an invalid, seeking distraction from the thought of his own condition. His passionate clinging to life is best expressed in a short verse of his that has come down to us in the pages of Seneca, and whose frantic eagerness is at once pathetic and repulsive: "Debilem facito manu Debilem pede, coxa; Tuber adstrue gibberum Lubricos quate dentes: Vita dum superest, bene est. Hanc mihi vel acuta Si sedeam cruce sustine." The life of Maecenas has been many times written: in Latin by Meibom (Leyden, 1653), Lion (Göttingen, 1846); in Italian by Cenni (Rome, 1684), Dini (Venice, 1704), Santa Viola (Rome, 1816); in German by Bennemann (Leipzig, 1744), Frandsen (Altona, 1843); in French by Richer (Paris, 1746); and in English by Schomberg (London, 1766). See, also, Weber's Horaz (Jena, 1844); Friedländer, Sittengeschichte Roms (iii. 389). His poetical fragments are collected in the Fragmenta Poetarum Romanorum by Bährens (Leipzig, 1886). See also Harder, Fragmente des Mäcenas (Berlin, 1889); and the article Horatius.

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Magnus Maximus in Wikipedia

Magnus Maximus (ca. 335–August 28, 388), also known as Maximianus and Macsen Wledig in Welsh, was Western Roman Emperor of from 383 to 388. As commander of Britain, he usurped the throne from emperor Gratian in 383. However, through negotiation with Theodosius I the following year he was made emperor in Britannia and Gaul - while Gratian's brother Valentinian II retained Italy, Pannonia, Hispania, and Africa. Nevertheless Maximus' ambitions led him to invade Italy in 387, leading to his defeat by Theodosius at the Battle of the Save in 388. His defeat marked the end of real imperial activity in northern Gaul and Britain...

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Max&#301;mus, Clemens in Harpers Dictionary

A Roman emperor, A.D. 383-388, in Gaul, Britain, and Spain, was a native of Spain. He was proclaimed emperor by the legions in Britain in 383, and forthwith crossed over to Gaul to oppose Gratian, who was defeated by Maximus, and was shortly afterwards put to death. Theodosius found it expedient to recognize Maximus as emperor of Gaul, Britain, and Spain, in order to secure Valentinian in the possession of Italy. Maximus, however, aspired to the undivided empire of the West, and accordingly, in 387, he invaded Italy at the head of a formidable army. Valentinian was unable to resist him, and fled to Theodosius in the East. Theodosius forthwith prepared to avenge his colleague. In 388 he forced his way through the Noric Alps, which had been guarded by the troops of Maximus, and shortly afterwards took the city of Aquileia by storm and there put Maximus to death. Victor, the son of Maximus, was defeated and slain in Gaul by Arbogastes, the general of Theodosius.

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Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor in Wikipedia

Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor, (88 BC – May 40 BC) was a Roman senator and consul. He was a member of the distinguished Claudius family. He was a friend to Roman senator Cicero, and an early opponent of Julius Caesar. Descent and family - He was a direct descendant of consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus. His father was also named Marcus, and his mother was named Junia. Marcellus married in an arranged ceremony Octavia Minor, a great-niece of Julius Caesar and sister of Octavian. They had three children: two daughters, both named Claudia Marcella, and a son, Marcus, born in Rome. Opposition to Julius Caesar - In 54 BC, Octavia's great-uncle Julius Caesar was said to be anxious for Octavia to divorce Marcellus so that she could marry Pompey, his rival and son-in-law who had just lost his wife Julia (Caesar's daughter, and thus Octavia's cousin once removed). However, Pompey apparently declined the proposal and Octavia's husband continued to oppose Julius Caesar, culminating in the crucial year of his consulship in 50 BC when he tried to recall Julius Caesar from his ten-year governorship in Gaul two years early, without his army, in an attempt to save the Roman Republic. Failing this, he called unsuccessfully upon Caesar to resign. He also obstructed Caesar from standing for a second consulship in absentia, insisting that he should return to Rome to stand, thereby forgoing the protection of his armies in Gaul. When Caesar finally invaded Italy in 49 BC, Marcellus, unlike his brother and nephew, did not take up arms against him. Caesar subsequently pardoned him. Later years - In 47 BC he was able to intercede with Caesar for his cousin and namesake Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior, also a former consul (49 BC), then living in exile. He died in May 40 BC. Five months later, his widow married Mark Antony. The Roman general Publius Quinctilius Varus and his two sisters were grandchildren from his first marriage.

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Marcellus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

M. Claudius Marcellus, consul B.C. 51 and a bitter enemy of Caesar. In B.C. 46 he was pardoned by Caesar on the intercession of the Senate; whereupon Cicero returned thanks to Caesar in the oration Pro Marcello, which has come down to us. Marcellus, who was then living at Mitylené, set out on his return; but he was murdered at the Piraeus by one of his own attendants, P. Magius Chilo.

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Gaius Marius in Wikipedia

Gaius Marius[1] (157 BC–January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman. He was elected consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. He was also noted for his dramatic reforms of Roman armies, authorizing recruitment of landless citizens, eliminated the manipular military formations, and reorganizing the structure of the legions into separate cohorts. Life - Early career - Marius was born in 157 BC in the town of Arpinum in southern Latium. The town had been conquered by the Romans in the late fourth century BC and was given Roman citizenship without voting rights. Only in 188 BC did the town receive full citizenship. Although Plutarch claims that Marius' father was a laborer, this is almost certainly false since Marius had connections with the nobility in Rome, he ran for local office in Arpinum, and he had marriage relations with the local nobility in Arpinum, which all combine to indicate that he was born into a locally important family of equestrian status.[2] The problems he faced in his early career in Rome show the difficulties that faced a "new man" (novus homo)...

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Marius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Gaius, a distinguished Roman general and statesman, who was born near Arpinum in B.C. 157 of an obscure family in humble circumstances. His father's name was C. Marius, and his mother's Fulcinia; and his parents, as well as Marius himself, were clients of the noble plebeian house of the Herennii. So indigent, indeed, is the family represented to have been, that young Marius is said to have worked as a common peasant for wages, before he entered the ranks of the Roman army. (Cf. Juv. viii. 246.) The meanness of his origin has probably been somewhat exaggerated; but, at all events, he distinguished himself so much by his valour at the siege of Numantia in Spain (B.C. 134) as to attract the notice of Scipio Africanus, who is said to have foretold his future greatness. His name does not occur again for fifteen years; but in 119 he was elected tribune of the plebs, when he was thirty-eight years of age. In this office he came forward as a popular leader, and proposed a law to give greater freedom to the people at the elections; and when the Senate attempted to overawe him, he commanded one of his officers to carry the consul Metellus to prison. Marius now became a marked man, and the aristocracy opposed him with all their might. He lost his election to the aedileship, and with difficulty obtained the praetorship; but he acquired influence and importance by his marriage with Iulia, the sister of C. Iulius Caesar, who was the father of the future ruler of Rome. In 109 Marius crossed over into Africa as lieutenant of the consul Q. Metellus. Here, in the war against Iugurtha, the military genius of Marius had ample opportunity of displaying itself, and he was soon regarded as the most distinguished officer in the army. He also ingratiated himself with the soldiers, who praised him in the highest terms in their letters to their friends at Rome. His popularity became so great that he resolved to return to Rome, and become at once a candidate for the consulship; but it was with great difficulty that he obtained from Metellus permission to leave Africa. On his arrival at Rome he was elected consul with an enthusiasm which bore down all opposition before it; and he received from the people the province of Numidia and the conduct of the war against Iugurtha (B.C. 107). On his return to Numidia he carried on the war with great vigour; and in the following year (B.C. 106) Iugurtha was surrendered to him by the treachery of Bocchus, king of Mauretania. (See Iugurtha.) Marius sent his quaestor Sulla to receive the Numidian king from Bocchus. This circumstance sowed the seeds of the personal hatred which afterwards existed between Marius and Sulla , since the enemies of Marius claimed for Sulla the merit of bringing the war to a close by obtaining possession of the person of Iugurtha. Meantime Italy was threatened by a vast horde of barbarians, who had migrated from the north of Germany. The two leading nations of which they consisted were called Cimbri and Teutoni, the former of whom are supposed to have been Celts, and the latter Gauls. To these two great races were added the Ambrones, and some of the Swiss tribes, such as the Tigurini. The whole host is said to have contained three hundred thousand fighting men, besides a much larger number of women and children. They had defeated one Roman army after another, and it appeared that nothing could check their progress. The utmost alarm prevailed throughout Italy; all party quarrels were hushed. Every one felt that Marius was the only man capable of saving the State, and he was accordingly elected consul a second time during his absence in Africa. Marius entered Rome in triumph on the first of January, 104, the first day of his second consulship. Meanwhile, the threatened danger was for a while averted. Instead of crossing the Alps, the Cimbri marched into Spain, which they ravaged for the next two or three years. But as the return of the barbarians was constantly expected, Marius was elected consul a third time in 103, and a fourth time in 102. In the latter of these years the Cimbri returned into Gaul. The barbarians now divided their forces. The Cimbri marched round the northern foot of the Alps, in order to enter Italy by the northeast, crossing the Tyrolese Alps by the defiles of Tridentum (Trent). The Teutoni and Ambrones, on the other hand, marched against Marius, who had taken up a position in a fortified camp on the Rhône. The decisive battle was fought near Aquae Sextiae (Aix). The carnage was dreadful. The whole nation was annihilated, for those who did not fall in the battle put an end to their own lives. The Cimbri, meantime, had forced their way into Italy. Marius was elected consul a fifth time (B.C. 101), and joined the proconsul Catulus in the north of Italy. The two generals gained a great victory over the enemy on a plain called the Campi Raudii, near Vercellae (Vercelli). The Cimbri met with the same fate as the Teutoni; the whole nation was destroyed. Marius was received at Rome with unprecedented honours. He was hailed as the saviour of the State; his name was coupled with the gods in the libations and at banquets, and he received the title of third founder of Rome. Hitherto the career of Marius had been a glorious one; but the remainder of his life is full of Gaius Marius. (Duruy.) horrors, and brings out the worst features of his character. In order to secure the consulship the sixth time, he entered into close connection with two of the worst demagogues that ever appeared at Rome, Saturninus and Glaucia. He gained his object, and was consul a sixth time in 100. In this year he drove into exile his old enemy Metellus; and shortly afterwards, when Saturninus and Glaucia took up arms against the State, Marius crushed the insurrection by command of the Senate. (See Saturninus.) His conduct in this affair was greatly blamed by the people, who looked upon him as a traitor to his former friends. For the next few years Marius took little part in public affairs. He possessed none of the qualifications which were necessary to maintain influence in the State during a time of peace, being an unlettered soldier, rude in manners, and arrogant in conduct. The Social War again called him into active service (B.C. 90). He served as legate of the consul P. Rutilius Lupus; and after the latter had fallen in battle, he defeated the Marsi in two successive engagements. Marius was now sixtyseven, and his body had grown stout and unwieldy; but he was still as greedy of honour and distinction as he had ever been. He had set his heart upon obtaining the command of the war against Mithridates, which the Senate bestowed upon the consul Sulla at the end of the Social War (B.C. 88). In order to gain his object, Marius allied himself to the tribune, P. Sulpicius Rufus, who brought forward a law for distributing the Italian allies, who had just obtained the Roman franchise, among all the Roman tribes. As those new citizens greatly exceeded the old citizens in number, they would of course be able to carry whatever they pleased in the Comitia. The law was carried, notwithstanding the violent opposition of the consuls; and the tribes, in which the new citizens now had the majority, appointed Marius to the command of the war against Mithridates. Sulla fled to his army, which was stationed at Nola; and when Marius sent thither two military tribunes, to take the command of the troops, Sulla not only refused to surrender the command, but marched upon Rome at the head of his army. Marius was now obliged to take to flight. After wandering along the coast of Latium, and encountering terrible sufferings and privations, which he bore with unflinching fortitude, he was at length taken prisoner in the marshes formed by the river Liris, near Minturnae. The magistrates of this place resolved to put him to death, in accordance with a command which Sulla had sent to all the towns in Italy. A Gallic or Cimbrian soldier undertook to carry their sentence into effect, and with a drawn sword entered the apartment where Marius was confined. The part of the room in which Marius lay was in the shade; and to the frightened barbarian the eyes of Marius seemed to dart out fire, and from the darkness a terrible voice exclaimed, "Man, durst thou murder C. Marius?" The barbarian immediately threw down his sword, and rushed out of the house. Straightway there was a revulsion of feeling among the inhabitants of Minturnae. They got ready a ship, and placed Marius on board. He reached Africa in safety, and landed at Carthage; but he had scarcely put his foot on shore before the Roman governor sent an officer to bid him leave the country. This last blow almost unmanned Marius; his only reply was, "Tell the praetor that you have seen C. Marius a fugitive sitting on the ruins of Carthage." Soon afterwards Marius was joined by his son, and they took refuge in the island of Cercina. During this time a revolution had taken place at Rome, in consequence of which Marius was enabled to return to Italy. The consul Cinna (B.C. 87), who belonged to the Marian party, had been driven out of Rome by his colleague Octavius, and had subsequently been deprived by the Senate of the consulate. Cinna collected an army, and resolved to recover his honours by force of arms. As soon as Marius heard of these changes he left Africa, and joined Cinna in Italy. Marius and Cinna now laid siege to Rome. The failure of provisions compelled the Senate to yield, and Marius and Cinna entered Rome as conquerors. The most frightful scenes followed. The guards of Marius stabbed every one whom he did not salute, and the streets ran with the blood of the noblest of the Roman aristocracy. Among the victims of his vengeance were the great orator M. Antonius and his former colleague Q. Catulus. Without going through the form of an election, Marius and Cinna named themselves consuls for the following year (B.C. 86). But he did not long enjoy the honour: he was now in his seventyfirst year; his body was worn out by the fatigues and sufferings he had recently undergone; and eighteen days after his assumption of the consulate he died of an attack of pleurisy. See Plutarch's life of Marius; Beesly, The Gracchi, Marius, and Sulla (N. Y. 1878); and Mommsen, Hist. of Rome, vol. iii.

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Martial in Wikipedia

Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English as Martial) (March 1, between 38 and 41 AD - between 102 and 104 AD), was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. In these short, witty poems he cheerfully satirises city life and the scandalous activities of his acquaintances, and romanticises his provincial upbringing. He wrote a total of 1,561, of which 1,235 are in elegiac couplets. He is considered to be the creator of the modern epigram...

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Marti&#257;lis in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

M. Valerius, a writer of Latin epigrams, was born at Bilbilis in Spain, in the third year of Claudius, A.D. 43. He came to Rome in the thirteenth year of Nero, 66; and after residing in the metropolis thirty-five years, he returned to the place of his birth, in the third year of Trajan, 100. He lived there for upwards of three years at least, on the property of his wife, a lady named Marcella, whom he seems to have married after his return to Bilbilis. His death cannot have taken place before 104. His fame was extended, and his books were eagerly sought for not only in the city, but also in Gaul, Germany, and Britain; he secured the patronage of the emperors Titus and Domitian, obtained by his influence the freedom of the State for several of his friends, and received for himself, although apparently without family, the privileges accorded to those who were the fathers of three children (ius trium liberorum), together with the rank of tribune and the rights of the equestrian order. His circumstances appear to have been easy during his residence at Rome, for he had a mansion in the city, whose situation he describes, and a suburban villa near Nomentum, to which he frequently alludes with pride. The extant works of Martial consist of a collection of short poems, all included under the general appellation Epigrammata, upwards of 1500 in number, divided into fourteen books. Those which form the last two books, usually distinguished respectively as Xenia and Apophoreta, amounting to 350, consist of couplets, descriptive of a vast variety of small objects, chiefly articles of food or clothing, such as were usually sent as presents among friends during the Saturnalia and on other festive occasions. In addition to the above, nearly all the printed copies include thirty-three epigrams, forming a book apart from the rest, which has been commonly known as Liber de Spectaculis, because the contents relate to the shows exhibited by Titus and Domitian; but there is no ancient authority for the title. The different books were collected and published by the author, sometimes singly and sometimes several at one time. The Liber de Spectaculis and the first nine books of the regular series involve a great number of historical allusions, extending from the games of Titus (A.D. 80) down to the return of Domitian from the Sarmatian expedition, in January, 94. All these books were composed at Rome, except the Third, which was written during a tour in Gallia Togata. The Tenth Book was published twice: the first edition was given hastily to the world; the second, that which we now read (x. 2), celebrates the arrival of Trajan at Rome, after his accession to the throne (A.D. 99). The Eleventh Book seems to have been published at Rome, early in 100, and at the close of the year he returned to Bilbilis. After keeping silence for three years (xii. prooem.), the Twelfth Book was despatched from Bilbilis to Rome (xii. 3, 18), and must therefore be assigned to 104. Books xiii. and xiv., Xenia and Apophoreta, were written chiefly under Domitian, although the composition may have been spread over the holidays of many years. It is well known that the word epigram (ἐπίγραμμα), which originally denoted simply "an inscription," was, in process of time, applied to any brief metrical effusion, whatever the subject might be, or whatever the form under which it was presented. Martial, however, first placed the epigram upon the narrow basis which it now occupies, and from his time the term has been in a great measure restricted to denote a short poem, in which all the thoughts and expressions converge to one sharp point, which forms the termination of the piece. See Epigramma. Martial's epigrams are distinguished by singular fertility of imagination, prodigious flow of wit, and delicate felicity of language; and from no source do we derive more copious information on the national customs and social habits of the Romans during the first century of the Empire. But, however much we may admire the genius of the author, we can feel no respect for one whose fulsome servility towards the great is equalled only by the frightful obscenity of much that he has written-an obscenity scarcely conceivable in modern times. He himself seems to feel a certain shame for so pandering to the corrupt tastes of his rich and dissolute patrons, and in one epigram he tries to draw the line between his life and his writings. "My Muse is wanton, but my life is pure" (i. 4, 8); and in the prose dedication to the First Book he explains that he is only following out the traditions of this form of literature; but these are excuses which, to many minds, only heighten the enormity of his offence. The principal value of Martial's epigrams is in the insight they give us into the daily life of the times, since they abound in personal details, and are an indispensable contribution towards the Culturgeschichte of Ancient Rome. In modern literature they have been continually imitated and translated, but rarely equalled except now and then by the French. The MSS. fall into three "families," of which the typical representatives are a Paris Codex (T) of the ninth century, a Codex Palatinus (P) of the fifteenth century, and an Edinburgh Codex (E) of the tenth century. See the critical account in the editions of Schneidewin and Friedländer. The best texts are those of Schneidewin (Grimma, 1842), Friedländer, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1886), with a list of words; Gilbert (Leipzig, 1886). Friedländer's edition contains explanatory notes, but the best commentary on the subject- matter is his Sittengeschichte Roms, 3 vols (6th ed. Leipzig, 1888- 1890). Editions of selected epigrams with English notes are those of Paley and Stone (London, 1881); Sellar and Ramsay (Edinburgh, 1884); Stephenson (2d ed. London, 1888); and one (announced) by C. Knapp (N. Y. 1895). See Brandt, De Martialis Poetae Vita (Berlin, 1853); Van Stockum, De Martialis Vita et Scriptis (The Hague, 1884); and on his language, etc., Pankstadt, De Martiale Catulli Imitatore (Halle, 1876); Zingerle, Martials Ovidstudien (Innsbruck, 1877); and Stephani, De Martiale Verborum Novatore (Breslau, 1889).

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Maximinus II (Daia) in Wikipedia

Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus (c. 20 November 270 – July or August 313), commonly known as Maximinus Daia or Maximinus II, was Roman Emperor from 308 to 313. He was born of peasant stock to the half sister of the emperor Galerius near their family lands around Felix Romuliana; a rural area now in the Danubian region of Moesia. He rose to high distinction after he had joined the army, and in 305 he was adopted by his maternal uncle Galerius and raised to the rank of caesar, with the government of Syria and Egypt. In 308, after the elevation of Licinius to Augustus, Maximinus and Constantine were declared filii Augustorum ("sons of the Augusti"), but Maximinus probably started styling himself after Augustus during a campaign against the Sassanids in 310. On the death of Galerius, in 311, Maximinus divided the Eastern Empire between Licinius and himself. When Licinius and Constantine began to make common cause with one another, Maximinus entered into a secret alliance with the usurper Caesar Maxentius, who controlled Italy. He came to an open rupture with Licinius in 313, he summoned an army of 70,000 men, but still sustained a crushing defeat at the Battle of Tzirallum, in the neighbourhood of Heraclea Pontica, on the April 30, and fled, first to Nicomedia and afterwards to Tarsus, where he died the following August. His death was variously ascribed "to despair, to poison, and to the divine justice".[1] Maximinus has a bad name in Christian annals, as having renewed persecution after the publication of the toleration edict of Galerius (see Edict of Toleration by Galerius). Eusebius of Caesarea[2], for example, writes that Maximinus conceived an "insane passion" for a Christian girl of Alexandria, who was of noble birth noted for her wealth, education, and virginity – Saint Catherine of Alexandria. When the girl refused his advances, he exiled her and seized all of her wealth and assets.[3]

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Maxim&#299;nus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A Roman emperor (305-314), originally called Daza, and subsequently Galerius Valerius Maximīnus. He was the nephew of Galerius by a sister, and in early life followed the occupation of a shepherd in his native Illyria. Having entered the army, he rose to the highest rank in the service; and upon the abdication of Diocletian in 305, he was adopted by Galerius and received the title of Caesar. In 308 Galerius gave him the title of Augustus, and on the death of the latter, in 311, Maximinus and Licinius divided the East between them. In 313 Maximinus attacked the dominions of Licinius, who had gone to Milan for the purpose of receiving in marriage the sister of Constantine. He was, however, defeated by Licinius near Heraclea, and fled to Tarsus, where he soon after died. Maximinus possessed no military talents. He owed his elevation to his family connection. He surpassed all his contemporaries in the profligacy of his private life, in the general cruelty of his administration, and in the furious hatred with which he persecuted the Christians. An account of the two Maximini is given by Iulius Capitolinus in the Augusta Historia.

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Maximinus Thrax in Wikipedia

Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus (c. 173 – 238), commonly known as Maximinus Thrax[1] or Maximinus I, was Roman Emperor from 235 to 238. Maximinus is described by several ancient sources, though none are contemporary except Herodian's Roman History. Maximinus was the first emperor to never set foot in Rome. He was the first of the so-called barracks emperors of the 3rd century; his rule is often considered to mark the beginning of the Crisis of the Third Century...

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Maxim&#299;nus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Gaius Iulius Verus. A Roman emperor who reigned from A.D. 235 to 238. He was born in a village on the confines of Thrace, of barbarian parentage, his father being a Goth, and his mother a German from the tribe of the Alani. Brought up as a shepherd, he attracted the attention of Septimius Severus by his gigantic stature and marvellous feats of strength, and was permitted to enter the army. He eventually rose to the highest rank in the service; and on the murder of Alexander Severus by the mutinous troops in Gaul (235 A.D.) he was proclaimed emperor. He immediately bestowed the title of Caesar on his son Maximus. During the three years of his reign he carried on war against the Germans with success, but his government was characterized by a degree of oppression and sanguinary excess hitherto unexampled. The Roman world became at length tired of this monster. The Senate and the provinces gladly acknowledged the two Gordiani, who had been proclaimed emperors in Africa, and after their death the Senate itself proclaimed Maximus and Balbinus emperors (238 A.D.). As soon as Maximinus heard of the elevation of the Gordians, he hastened from his winter-quarters at Sirmium. Having crossed the Alps he laid siege to Aquileia, and was there slain by his own soldiers along with his son Maximus in April. The most extraordinary tales are related of the physical powers of Maximinus, which seem to have been almost incredible. His height exceeded eight feet. The circumference of his thumb was equal to that of a woman's wrist, so that the bracelet of his wife served him for a ring. It is said that he was able single-handed to drag a loaded wagon, could with his fist knock out the teeth, and with a kick break the leg of a horse; while his appetite was such that in one day he could eat forty pounds of meat and drink an amphora of wine.

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Nero in Wikipedia

Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus[1] (15 December 37 – 9 June 68),[2] born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, and commonly known as Nero, was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68. He was the last emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor. He succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death. During his reign, Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy, trade, and increasing the cultural capital of the empire. He ordered the building of theaters and promoted athletic games. His reign included a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire, the suppression of a revolt in Britain, and the beginning of the First Roman–Jewish War. In 64, most of Rome was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome. In 68, the rebellion of Vindex in Gaul and later the acclamation of Galba in Hispania drove Nero from the throne. Facing assassination, he committed suicide on 9 June 68.[3] Nero's rule is often associated with tyranny and extravagance.[4] He is known for a number of executions, including those of his mother[5] and stepbrother. He is also infamously known as the emperor who "fiddled while Rome burned",[6] and as an early persecutor of Christians. This view is based upon the main surviving sources for Nero's reign - Tacitus, Suetonius and Cassius Dio. Few surviving sources paint Nero in a favorable light.[7] Some sources, though, including some mentioned above, portray him as an emperor who was popular with the common Roman people, especially in the East.[8] The study of Nero is problematic as some modern historians question the reliability of ancient sources when reporting on Nero's tyrannical acts...

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Nero in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Claudius Caesar. The sixth of the Roman emperors, born at Antium, in Latium, A.D. 37, nine months after the death of Tiberius. He was the son of Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina, the daughter of Germanicus, and was originally named Lucius Domitius. After the death of Ahenobarbus, and a second husband, Crispus Passienus, Agrippina married her uncle, the emperor Claudius, who gave his daughter Octavia in marriage to her son Lucius, and subsequently adopted him with the formal sanction of a lex Curiata. The education of Nero was carefully attended to in his youth. He was placed under the care of the philosopher Seneca, and appears to have applied himself with considerable perseverance to study. He is said to have made great progress in Greek, of which he gave a specimen in his sixteenth year, by pleading in that tongue the rights of the Rhodians, and of the inhabitants of Ilium (Suet. Nero, 7; Tac. Ann. xii. 58). At the death of Claudius (A.D. 54), while Agrippina, by flatteries and lamentations, detained Britannicus, the son of Claudius and Messalina, within the palace, Nero, presenting himself before the gates, was lifted by the guard-in-waiting into the covered chariot used for the purpose of carrying in procession an elected emperor, and was followed by a multitude of the people, under the illusion that it was Britannicus. He entered the camp, promised a donative to the cohorts, was saluted emperor, and pronounced before the Senate, in honour of Claudius, a panegyric composed by his preceptor Seneca. Coin of Nero. Agrippina soon endeavoured to obtain the chief management of public affairs; and her vindictive and cruel temper would have hurried Nero, at the commencement of his reign, into acts of violence and bloodshed, if her influence had not been counteracted by Seneca and Burrus, to whom Nero had intrusted the government of the State. Through their counsels the first five years of Nero's reign were distinguished by justice and clemency; and an anecdote is related of him, that, having on one occasion to sign an order for the execution of a malefactor, he exclaimed, "Would that I could not write!" (Suet. Nero, 10). He discouraged public informers, refused the statues of gold and silver which were offered him by the Senate and people, and used every art to ingratiate himself with the latter. But his mother was enraged to find that her power over him became weaker every day, and that he constantly disregarded her advice and refused her requests. His neglect of his wife Octavia, and his criminal love of Acté, a woman of low birth, still farther widened the breach between him and his mother. She frequently addressed him in the most contemptuous language; reminded him that he owed his elevation solely to her, and threatened that she would inform the soldiers of the manner in which Claudius had met his end, and would call upon them to support the claims of Britannicus, the son of the late emperor. The threats of his mother only served to hasten the death of Britannicus, whose murder forms the commencement of that long catalogue of crimes which afterwards disgraced the reign of Nero. But while the management of public affairs appears, from the testimony of most historians, to have been wisely conducted by Burrus and Seneca, Nero indulged in private in dissipation and profligacy. He was accustomed, in company with other young men of his own age, to sally into the streets of Rome at night, in order to rob and maltreat passengers, and even to break into private houses and carry off the property of their owners. But these extravagances were comparatively harmless; his love for Poppaea, whom he had seduced from Otho, led him into more serious crimes. Poppaea, who was ambitious of sharing the imperial throne, perceived that she could not hope to attain her object while Agrippina was alive, and, accordingly, induced Nero to consent to the murder of his mother. The entreaties of Poppaea appear to have been supported by the advice of Burrus and Seneca; and the philosopher did not hesitate to justify the murder of a mother by her son (Tac. Ann. xiv. 11; Quint.viii. 5). In the eighth year of his reign, Nero lost his best counsellor, Burrus; and Seneca had the wisdom to withdraw from the court, where his presence had become disliked, and where his enormous wealth was calculated to excite the envy even of the emperor. About the same time Nero divorced Octavia and married Poppaea, and soon after put to death the former on a false accusation of adultery and treason. In the tenth year of his reign (A.D. 64) Rome was almost destroyed by fire. Of the fourteen districts into which the city was divided, four only remained entire. The fire originated at that part of the Circus which was contiguous to the Palatine and Coelian Hills, and raged with the greatest fury for six days and seven nights; and, after it was thought to have been extinguished, it burst forth again, and continued for two days longer. Nero appears to have acted on this occasion with the greatest liberality and kindness; the city was supplied with provisions at a very moderate price; and the imperial gardens were thrown open to the sufferers, and buildings erected for their accommodation. But these acts of humanity and benevolence were insufficient to screen him from the popular suspicion. It was generally believed that he had set fire to the city himself, and some even reported that he had ascended the top of a high tower in order to witness the conflagration, where he amused himself with singing the "Destruction of Troy." From many circumstances, however, it appears improbable that Nero was guilty of this crime. His guilt, indeed, is asserted by Suetonius ( Nero, 38) and Dio Cassius (lxii. 17), but Tacitus admits that he was not able to prove the truth of the accusation ( Ann. xv. 38). In order, however, to remove the suspicions of the people, Nero spread a report that the Christians were the authors of the fire, and numbers of them, accordingly, were seized and put to death. Their execution served as an amusement to the people. Some were covered with skins of wild beasts, and were torn to pieces by dogs; others were crucified; and several were smeared with pitch and other combustible materials, and burned in the imperial gardens in the night: "Whence," says the historian, "pity arose Nero. (Bust in the Louvre.) for the guilty (though they deserved the severest punishments), since they were put to death, not for the public good, but to gratify the cruelty of a single man" (Tac. Ann. xv. 44). In the following year (A.D. 65) a powerful conspiracy was formed for the purpose of placing Piso upon the throne, but it was discovered by Nero, and the principal conspirators were put to death. Among others who suffered on this occasion were Lucan and Seneca; but the guilt of the latter is doubtful. (See Seneca.) In the same year Poppaea died, in consequence of a kick which she received from her husband while she was in an advanced state of pregnancy. A long list of victims is to be found in the pages of the annalists. The distinguished general Domitius Corbulo, Thrasea Paetus, and Barea Soranus are among these. During the latter part of his reign, Nero was principally engaged in amateur theatricals, and in contending for the prizes at the public games. He had previously appeared as an actor on the Roman stage; and he now visited in succession the chief cities of Greece, and received no less than 1800 crowns for his victories in the public Grecian games. He also began the canal across the Isthmus of Corinth, but ordered the work to be stopped (Dio Cass. lxiii. 6 foll.), leaving its completion to our own times (1893). On his return to Italy he entered Naples and Rome as a conqueror, and was received with triumphal honours. But while he was engaged in these extravagances, Vindex, who commanded the legions in Gaul, declared against his authority; and his example was speedily followed by Galba, who commanded in Spain. The praetorian cohorts espoused the cause of Galba, and the Senate pronounced sentence of death against Nero, who had fled from Rome as soon as he heard of the revolt of the Praetorian Guards. Nero, however, anticipated the execution of the sentence which had been passed against him, by requesting one of his attendants to put him to death, after making an ineffectual attempt to do so with his own hands. He died A.D. 68, in the thirty-second year of his age, and the fourteenth of his reign. See the chapter in Baring-Gould's Tragedy of the Caesars, vol. ii. (1892).

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Nerva in Wikipedia

Marcus Cocceius Nerva (8 November 30 – 25 January 98), commonly known as Nerva, was Roman Emperor from 96 to 98. Nerva became emperor at the age of sixty-five, after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Under Nero, he was a member of the imperial entourage and played a vital part in exposing the Pisonian conspiracy of 65. Later, as a loyalist to the Flavians, he attained consulships in 71 and 90 during the reigns of Vespasian and Domitian respectively. On 18 September 96, Domitian was assassinated in a palace conspiracy involving members of the Praetorian Guard and several of his freedmen. On the same day, Nerva was declared emperor by the Roman Senate. As the new ruler of the Roman Empire, he vowed to restore liberties which had been curtailed during the autocratic government of Domitian. However, Nerva's brief reign was marred by financial difficulties and his inability to assert his authority over the Roman army. A revolt by the Praetorian Guard in October 97 essentially forced him to adopt an heir. After some deliberation Nerva adopted Trajan, a young and popular general, as his successor. After barely fifteen months in office, Nerva died of natural causes on 27 January 98. Upon his death he was succeeded and deified by Trajan. Although much of his life remains obscure, Nerva was considered a wise and moderate emperor by ancient historians. Recent historians have revised this assessment, characterizing Nerva as a well-intentioned but ultimately weak ruler, whose reign brought the Roman Empire to the brink of civil war. Nerva's greatest success was his ability to ensure a peaceful transition of power after his death, thus founding the Nerva-Antonine dynasty...

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Nerva in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Marcus Coccēius. The thirteenth Roman emperor, was born at Narnia, in Umbria, A.D. 27 according to Eutropius (viii. 1), or A.D. 32 according to Dio Cassius (lxviii. 4). His family originally came from Crete; but several of his ancestors rose to the highest honours of the Roman State. His grandfather, Cocceius Nerva, who was consul A.D. 22, and a great favourite of the emperor Tiberius, was one of the most celebrated jurists of his age. Nerva is first mentioned in history as a favourite of Nero, who bestowed upon him triumphal honours, A.D. 66, when he was praetor elect. The poetry of Nerva , which is mentioned with praise by Pliny and Martial, appears to have recommended him to Nero; and he was employed in offices of trust and honour during the reigns of Vespasian and Titus, though he incurred the suspicion of Domitian, who banished him to Tarentum. On the assassination of Domitian, A.D. 96, Nerva succeeded to the sovereign power, through the influence of Petronius Secundus, commander of the praetorian cohorts, and of Parthenius, the chamberlain of the palace. The mild and equitable administration of Nerva is acknowledged and praised by all ancient writers, and forms a striking contrast to the bloody reign of his predecessor. He discouraged informers, recalled the exiles from banishment, relieved the people from some oppressive taxes, and tolerated the Christians. Many instances of his liberality and clemency are recorded by the younger Pliny ; he allowed no senator to be put to death during his reign; and he practised the greatest economy, in order to relieve the wants of the poorer citizens. But his impartial administration of justice met with little favour from the Praetorian Guard, which had been allowed by Domitian to indulge in excesses of every kind. Enraged at the loss of their benefactor and favourite, they compelled Nerva to deliver into their hands Parthenius and their own commander Petronius, both of whom they put to death. The excesses of his guards convinced Nerva that the government of the Roman Empire required greater energy both of body and mind than he possessed, and he accordingly adopted Trajan as his successor, and associated him with himself in the sovereignty. Nerva died A.D. 98, after a reign of sixteen months and nine days. His life is sketched by Suetonius.

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Numa Pompilius in Wikipedia

Numa Pompilius (753-673 BC; king of Rome, 717-673 BC) was the second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus Life and Reign - Plutarch tells that Numa was the youngest of Pomponius' four sons, born on the day of Rome's founding (traditionally, 21 April 753 BC). He lived a severe life of discipline and banished all luxury from his home. Titus Tatius, king of the Sabines and a colleague of Romulus, married his only daughter, Tatia, to Numa. After 13 years of marriage, Tatia died, precipitating Numa's retirement to the country. According to Livy, Numa resided at Cures immediately before being elected king.[1] Livy refers to and discredits the story that Numa was instructed in philosophy by Pythagoras.[2] Plutarch reports that some authors credited him with only a single daughter, Pompilia, others also gave him five sons, Pompo (or Pomponius), Pinus, Calpus, Mamercus and Numa, from whom the noble families of the Pomponii, Pinarii, Calpurnii, Aemilii, and Pompilii respectively traced their descent. Other writers believed that this was merely a flattery invented to curry favour with those families. Pompilia, whose mother is variously identified as Numa's first wife Tatia or his second wife Lucretia, supposedly married a certain Marcius and by him gave birth to the future king, Ancus Marcius. After the death of Romulus, there was an interregnum of one year in which each of the Senators enjoyed the royal power in rotation. In 717 BC Numa was elected by the Roman Senate to be the next king. According to Plutarch, he at first refused, however his father and kinsmen persuaded him to accept. Livy recounts how Numa, after being summoned by the Senate from Cures, requested an augur to divine the opinion of the gods on the prospect of his kingship. Jupiter was consulted and the omens were favourable.[3] One of Numa's first acts was the construction of a temple of Janus as an indicator of peace and war. The temple was constructed at the foot of the Argiletum, a road in the city. After securing peace with Rome's neighbours, the doors of the temples were shut.[4] Numa was later celebrated for his natural wisdom and piety; legend says the nymph Egeria taught him to be a wise legislator. According to Livy, Numa pretended that he held nightly consultations with the goddess Egeria on the proper manner of instituting sacred rites for the city.[5] Wishing to show his favour, the god Jupiter caused a shield to fall from the sky on the Palatine Hill, which had letters of prophecy written on it, and in which the fate of Rome as a city was tied up. Recognizing the importance of this sacred shield, King Numa had eleven matching shields made. These shields were the ancilia, the sacred shields of Jupiter, which were carried each year in a procession by the Salii priests. He established the office and duties of Pontifex Maximus and instituted the flamines of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. Numa also brought the Vestal Virgins to Rome from Alba Longa.[6] By tradition, Numa promulgated a calendar reform that adjusted the solar and lunar years, introducing the months of January and February.[7] In other Roman institutions established by Numa, Plutarch thought he detected a Laconian influence, attributing the connection to the Sabine culture of Numa, for "Numa was descended of the Sabines, who declare themselves to be a colony of the Lacedaemonians." Numa was credited with dividing the immediate territory of Rome into pagi and establishing the traditional occupational guilds of Rome: "So, distinguishing the whole people by the several arts and trades, he formed the companies of musicians, goldsmiths, carpenters, dyers, shoemakers, skinners, braziers, and potters; and all other handicraftsmen he composed and reduced into a single company, appointing every one their proper courts, councils, and religious observances." (Plutarch) Plutarch, in like manner, tells of the early religion of the Romans, that it was imageless and spiritual. He says Numa "forbade the Romans to represent the deity in the form either of man or of beast. Nor was there among them formerly any image or statue of the Divine Being; during the first one hundred and seventy years they built temples, indeed, and other sacred domes, but placed in them no figure of any kind; persuaded that it is impious to represent things Divine by what is perishable, and that we can have no conception of God but by the understanding". Numa Pompilius died in 673 BC of old age. He was succeeded by Tullus Hostilius.

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Numa Pompilius in Harpers Dictionary

The second king of Rome, whose name belongs to legend rather than to history. He was a native of Cures, in the Sabine country, and was elected king one year after the death of Romulus, when the people became tired of the interregnum of the Senate. He was renowned for his wisdom and his piety; and it was generally believed that he had derived his knowledge from Pythagoras. His reign was long and peaceful, and he devoted his chief care to the establishment of religion among his rude subjects. He was instructed by the Camena Egeria, who visited him in a grove near Rome, and who honoured him with her love. He was revered by the Romans as the author of their whole religious worship. It was he who first appointed the pontiffs, the augurs, the flamens, the virgins of Vesta, and the Salii. He founded the Temple of Ianus, which remained always shut during his reign. The length of his reign is stated differently. Livy makes it forty-three years; Polybius and Cicero, thirty-nine years. The sacred books of Numa, in which he prescribed all the religious rites and ceremonies, were said to have been buried near him in a separate tomb, and to have been discovered by accident, 500 years afterwards, in B.C. 181. They were carried to the city-praetor Petilius, and were found to consist of twelve or seven books in Latin on ecclesiastical law and the same number of books in Greek on philosophy; the latter were burned by the command of the Senate, but the former were carefully preserved. The story of the discovery of these books is evidently a forgery; and the books, which were ascribed to Numa, and which were extant at a later time, were evidently nothing more than works containing an account of the ceremonial of the Roman religion. See Plutarch, Numa; Dionys. ii. 58.

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Elagabalus in Wikipedia

Varius Avitus Bassianus[1] (ca. 203 – March 11, 222), commonly known as Elagabalus or Heliogabalus, was Roman Emperor from 218 to 222. A member of the Severan Dynasty, he was Syrian on his mother's side, the son of Julia Soaemias and Sextus Varius Marcellus. Early in his early youth he served as a priest of the god El-Gabal at his hometown, Emesa. Upon becoming emperor he took the name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, and was called Elagabalus only a long time after his death. In 217, the emperor Caracalla was assassinated and replaced by his Praetorian prefect, Marcus Opellius Macrinus. Caracalla's maternal aunt, Julia Maesa, successfully instigated a revolt among the Third Legion to have her eldest grandson, Elagabalus, declared as emperor in his place. Macrinus was defeated on June 8, 218, at the Battle of Antioch, upon which Elagabalus, barely fourteen years old, ascended to the imperial power and began a reign that was marred by infamous controversies. During his rule, Elagabalus showed a disregard for Roman religious traditions and sexual taboos. He replaced the traditional head of the Roman pantheon, Jupiter, with a lesser god, Deus Sol Invictus, and forced leading members of Rome's government to participate in religious rites celebrating this deity, which he personally led. Elagabalus was married as many as five times, lavished favors on courtiers popularly assumed to have been his homosexual lovers, and was reported to have prostituted himself in the imperial palace. His reputed behaviour infuriated the Praetorian Guard, the Senate and the common people alike. Amidst growing opposition, Elagabalus, only 18 years old, was assassinated and replaced by his cousin Alexander Severus on March 11, 222, in a plot formed by his grandmother, Julia Maesa, and disgruntled members of the Praetorian Guard. Elagabalus developed a reputation among his contemporaries for extreme eccentricity, decadence, and zealotry which was likely exaggerated by his successors and political rivals.[2] This likely propaganda was passed on and, as a result, he was one of the most reviled Roman emperors to early historians. For example, Edward Gibbon wrote that Elagabalus "abandoned himself to the grossest pleasures and ungoverned fury."[3] "The name Elagabalus is branded in history above all others" because of his "unspeakably disgusting life," wrote B.G. Niebuhr...

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Elagab&#259;lus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

M. Aurelius Antonīnus, a Roman emperor. He was the grandson of Maesa, sister to the empress Iulia, the wife of Septimius Severus. Maesa had two daughters, Soaemias or Semiamira, the mother of the subject of this Elagabalus. (Bust in the Capitol, Rome.) article, and Mammaea, mother of Alexander Severus. The true name of Elagabalus was Varius Avitus Bassianus, and he was reported to have been the illegitimate son of Caracalla. He was born at Antioch, A.D. 204. Maesa took care of his infancy, and placed him, when five years of age, in the temple of the Sun at Emesa, to be educated as a priest; and through her influence he was made, while yet a boy, high- priest of the Sun. That divinity was called in Syria Elagabal, whence the young Varius assumed the name of Elagabalus. After the death of Caracalla and the elevation of Macrinus, the latter having incurred by his severity the dislike of the soldiers, Maesa availed herself of this feeling to induce the officers to rise in favour of her grandson, whom she presented to them as the son of the murdered Caracalla. Elagabalus, who was then in his fifteenth year, was proclaimed emperor by the legion stationed at Emesa. Having put himself at their head, he was attacked by Macrinus, who at first had the advantage; but he and his mother Soaemias, with great spirit, brought the soldiers again to the charge and defeated Macrinus, who was overtaken in his flight and put to death, A.D. 218. Elagabalus, having entered Antioch, wrote a letter to the Senate, professing to take for his model Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, a name revered at Rome; and he also assumed that emperor's name. The Senate acknowledged him, and he set out for Rome, but delayed for several months on his way amid festivities and amusements, and at last stopped at Nicomedia for the winter. In the following year he arrived at Rome and began a career of debauchery, extravagance, and cruelty which lasted the remaining three years of his reign, and the disgusting details of which are given by Lampridius, Herodian, and Dio Cassius. He surrounded himself with gladiators, actors, and other base favourites, who made an unworthy use of their influence. He married several wives, among others a Vestal. The imperial palace became a scene of debauch and open prostitution. Elagabalus, being attached to the superstitions of the East, raised a temple on the Palatine Hill to the Syrian god whose name he bore, and plundered the temples of the Roman gods to enrich his own. He put to death many senators, and established a senate of women, under the presidency of his mother, Soaemias, which body decided all questions relative to women's dresses, and to visits, precedence, and amusements. He wore his pontifical vest as high-priest of the Sun, with a rich tiara on his head. His grandmother Maesa, seeing his folly, thought of conciliating the Romans by associating with him, as Caesar, his younger cousin, Alexander Severus, who soon became a favourite with the people. Elagabalus, who had consented to the association, became afterwards jealous of his cousin and wished to deprive him of his honours, but he could not obtain the consent of the Senate. His next measure was to spread the report of Alexander's death, which produced an insurrection among the praetorians; and Elagabalus, having repaired to the camp to quell the mutiny, was murdered, together with his mother and his favourites, and his body was thrown into the Tiber, A.D. 222. He was succeeded by Alexander Severus. Elagabalus was eighteen years of age at the time of his death, and had reigned three years, nine months, and four days (Lamprid. Elagab.; Herodian, v. 3 foll.; Dio Cass. lxxviii. 31 foll.; lxxix. 1 foll.).

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Epictetus in Wikipedia

Epictetus (Greek: Ἐπίκτητος; AD 55–AD 135) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was born a slave at Hierapolis, Phrygia (present day Pamukkale, Turkey), and lived in Rome until banishment when he went to Nicopolis in northwestern Greece where he lived the rest of his life. His teachings were noted down and published by his pupil Arrian in his Discourses. Philosophy, he taught, is a way of life and not just a theoretical discipline. To Epictetus, all external events are determined by fate, and are thus beyond our control, but we can accept whatever happens calmly and dispassionately. Individuals, however, are responsible for their own actions, which they can examine and control through rigorous self- discipline. Suffering arises from trying to control what is uncontrollable, or from neglecting what is within our power. As part of the universal city that is the universe, human beings have a duty to care for all fellow humans. The person who followed these precepts would achieve happiness...

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Epict&#275;tus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

(Ἐπίκτητος). An eminent Stoic philosopher, born in a servile condition at Hierapolis in Phrygia, about A.D. 50. The names of his parents are unknown; neither do we know how he came to be brought to Rome. But in that city he was for some time a slave to Epaphroditus, a freedman of Nero, who had been one of his body-guard. An anecdote related by Origen, which illustrates the fortitude of Epictetus, would also show, if it were true, that Epaphroditus was a most cruel master. Epictetus, when his master was twisting his leg one day, smiled and quietly said, "You will break it"; and when he did break it, only observed, "Did I not tell you that you would do so?" It is not known how or when Epictetus managed to effect his freedom, but he could not have been still a slave when he left Rome in consequence of an edict against philosophers. This event, the only one in his life the date of which can be assigned, took place, as has been said, in the year A.D. 89, being the eighth year of Domitian's reign. Epictetus then retired to Nicopolis in Epirus, and it is a question whether he ever returned to Rome. The chief ground for believing that he did is a statement of Spartianus (Hadr. 16), that Epictetus lived on terms of intimacy with the emperor Hadrian; while it is agreed, on the other hand, that there is no good evidence of any of his discourses having been delivered at Rome, but that they contain frequent mention of Nicopolis. This argument, however, is hardly sufficient to overthrow the express testimony of Spartianus. It is not known when he died. Suidas says that he lived till the reign of Marcus Aurelius, yet the authority of Aulus Gellius is strong on the other side. He, writing during the reign of the first Antonine, speaks of Epictetus, in two places, as being dead (Noct. Att. ii. 18; xvii. 19). Epictetus led a life of exemplary contentment, simplicity, and virtue, practising in all particulars the morality which he taught. He lived for a long while in a small hut, with no other furniture than a bed and a lamp, and without an attendant; until he benevolently adopted a child whom a friend had been compelled by poverty to expose, and hired a nurse for its sake. A teacher of the Stoic philosophy, he was the chief of those who lived during the period of the Roman Empire. His lessons were principally, if not solely, directed to practical morality. His favourite maxim, and that into which he resolved all practical morality, was "bear and forbear," ἀνέχου καὶ ἀπέχου. He appears to have differed from the Stoics on the subject of suicide. We are told by Arrian, in his Preface to the Discourses, that he was a powerful and inspiring lecturer; and, according to Origen (c. Cels. 7, ad init.), his style was superior to that of Plato. It is a proof of the estimation in which Epictetus was held, that, on his death, his lamp was purchased by some aspirant after philosophy more eager than wise for 3000 drachmas, or over $500. Though it is said by Suidas that Epictetus wrote much, there is good reason to believe that he himself wrote nothing. His Διατριβαί were taken down by his pupil Arrian, and published after his death in eight books, of which four remain. The same Arrian compiled the Enchiridion or "manual," an abstract of the teaching of his master, and wrote a life of Epictetus, which is lost. Some fragments have been preserved, however, by Stobaeus. Simplicius has also left a commentary on his doctrine in the Eclectic manner. The best edition of the remains of Epictetus is still that of Schweighäuser, 5 vols. (Leipzig, 1800). The text and a Latin translation by Dübner (1840) may be recommended. The best English translations are those of Higginson, with a sketch of Epictetus (Boston, 1865); Long (London, 1877); and Rolleston (1881). See the popular work of Canon Farrar, Seekers after God (1863).

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Eutropius in Wikipedia

Flavius Eutropius was an Ancient Roman Pagan historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century. He held the office of secretary (magister memoriae) at Constantinople, accompanied the Emperor Julian (361–363) on his expedition against the Persians (363), and was alive during the reign of Valens (364–378), to whom he dedicates his Breviarium historiae Romanae and where his history ends. The Breviarium historiae Romanae is a complete compendium, in ten books, of Roman history from the foundation of the city to the accession of Valens. It was compiled with considerable care from the best accessible authorities, and is written generally with impartiality, and in a clear and simple style. Although the Latin in some instances differs from that of the purest models, the work was for a long time a favorite elementary school-book. Its independent value is small, but it sometimes fills a gap left by the more authoritative records. For the early parts of his work, Eutropius depended upon an epitome of Livy; for the later parts, he used the now lost Enmannsche Kaisergeschichte. The Breviarium was enlarged and continued down to the time of Justinian by Paulus Diaconus; the work of the latter was in turn enlarged by Landolfus Sagax (c. 1000), and taken down to the time of the emperor Leo the Armenian (813–820) in the Historia Miscella. Of the Greek translations by Paeanius (around 380) and Capito Lycius (6th century), the version of the former is extant in an almost complete state. The best edition of Eutropius is by H. Droysen (1879), containing the Greek version and the enlarged editions of Paulus Diaconus and Landolfus. There are numerous English editions and translations.

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Eutropius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A Latin historian of the fourth century. He bore arms under Julian in his expedition against the Parthians, as he himself informs us (x. 16), and is thought to have risen to senatorial rank. Suidas makes him of Italian origin, while some modern writers, on the other hand, advance the hypothesis that he was a native of Gaul, and was perhaps identical with the Eutropius to whom some of the letters of Symmachus are addressed. The manuscripts give him the title of Vir Cl., which may stand for either Vir Clarissimus or Vir Consularis, but which in either sense indicates an advancement to some of the highest offices in the State. He wrote several works, of which the only one remaining is an abridgment of Roman history (Breviarium ab Urbe Condita), in ten books. It is a brief and dry outline, without either elegance or ornament, yet containing certain facts which are nowhere else mentioned. The work commences with the foundation of the city, and is carried on to the death of Jovian, A.D. 364. At the close of this work Eutropius announces his intention of continuing the narrative in a more elevated style, inasmuch as he will have to treat of great personages still living. It does not appear that he ever carried this plan into execution. The best editions are those of Grosse (Halle, 1813), Hartel (Berlin, 1872), and of Droysen (Berlin, 1878). There is a lexicon to Eutropius by Eichert (Breslau, 1850). On his style see Sorn, Die Sprachgebrauch des Eutropius, pt. i. (Halle in Austria, 1888), pt. ii. (Laibach, 1889). The Breviarium was translated into Greek by one Paeanius, whose version is still in great part extant, and is edited in Droysen's edition of Eutropius. See Duncker, De Paeanio Eutropii Interprete (Greiffenberg, 1880).

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Fabius Maximus in Wikipedia

Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus Cunctator (ca. 280 BC–203 BC), was a Roman politician and general, born in Rome around 280 BC and died in Rome in 203 BC. He was Roman Consul five times (233 BC, 228 BC, 215 BC, 214 BC and 209 BC) and was twice Dictator in 221 and again in 217 BC. He reached the office of Roman Censor in 230 BC. His agnomen Cunctator (akin to the English noun cunctation) means "delayer" in Latin, and refers to his tactics in deploying the troops during the Second Punic War. His cognomen Verrucosus means "warty", a reference to a wart above his upper lip...

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Fabius Maximus in Harpers Dictionary

Q. Maxĭmus Verrucōsus, the celebrated opponent of Hannibal. He is said to have been called Verrucosus from a wart on his lip, verruca being the Latin name for "a wart." In his first consulship he triumphed over the Ligurians. After the victory of Hannibal at Lake Trasimenus (B.C. 217), he was named prodictator by the unanimous voice of the people, and was intrusted with the preservation of the Republic. The system which he adopted to check the advance of Hannibal is well known. By a succession of skilful movements, marches, and countermarches, always choosing good defensive positions, he harassed his antagonist, who could never draw him into places favourable for his attack, while Fabius watched every opportunity of availing himself of any error or neglect on the part of the Carthaginians. This mode of warfare, which was new to the Romans, acquired for Fabius the name of Cunctātor or "delayer," and was censured by the young, the rash, and the ignorant; but it was probably the means of saving Rome from ruin. Minucius, who shared with Fabius the command of the army, having imprudently engaged Hannibal, was saved from total destruction by the timely assistance of the dictator. In the following year, however, B.C. 216, Fabius being recalled to Rome, the command of the army was intrusted to the consul Terentius Varro, who rushed imprudently to battle, and the defeat at Cannae made manifest the wisdom of the dictator's previous caution. Fabius was chosen consul the next year, and was again employed in keeping Hannibal in check. In B.C. 210, being consul for the fifth time, he retook Tarentum by stratagem, after which he narrowly escaped being caught himself in a snare by Hannibal near Metapontum (Livy, xxvii. 15 foll.). When, some years after, the question was discussed in the Senate, of sending Scipio with an army into Africa, Fabius opposed it, saying that Italy ought first to be rid of Hannibal. Fabius died some time after at a very advanced age.

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Flaminius in Wikipedia

Gaius Flaminius Nepos was a politician and consul of the Roman Republic in the 3rd century BC. He was the greatest popular leader to challenge the authority of the Senate before the Gracchi a century later. In the aftermath of the First Punic War, Flaminius, a novus homo, was the leader of a reform movement which sought to reorganize state land in Italy. As tribune of the plebs in 232 BC, he passed a plebiscite which divided the land south of Ariminum, which had been conquered from the Gauls decades before, and gave it to poor families whose farms had fallen into ruin during the war. The Senate was opposed to this and he did not consult them, contrary to the constitution and tradition. Flaminius was governor of Sicily in 227. Meanwhile, the reorganization of the land contributed to a renewed attack on Roman territory by the Gauls, whom the Romans finally defeated at the Battle of Telamon in 224. In 223 Flaminius was elected consul for the first time, and with Publius Furius Philus he forced the Gauls to submit to Rome, creating the province of Cisalpine Gaul. In 221 Flaminius was magister equitum to Marcus Minucius Rufus, then in 220 chosen as censor along with Lucius Aemilius Papus. During his term he arranged for the Via Flaminia to be built from Rome to Ariminum, established colonies at Cremona and Placentia, reorganized the Centuriate Assembly to give the poorer classes more voting power, and built the Circus Flaminius on the Campus Martius. In 218, while serving in the Senate, he was the only senator to support the Lex Claudia, which prohibited senators from participating in overseas trade. In 217, during the invasion of Italy by Hannibal, he was re-elected consul with Gnaeus Servilius Geminus, in what was considered a rebuke of the Senate's prosecution of the war. Flaminius raised new legions and marched north to meet Hannibal, but was ambushed at Lake Trasimene. The army was destroyed and Flaminius was killed in 27 April 217 B.C. His supporters in the Senate began to lose power to the more aristocratic factions, and the Romans feared Hannibal would besiege their city. The Senate appointed as dictator Fabius Maximus.

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Flaminius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Gaius, consul for the first time in B.C. 223, when he gained a victory over the Insubrian Gauls; and censor in 220, when he executed two great works which bore his name-viz., the Circus Flaminius and the Via Flaminia. In his second consulship (217 B.C.) he was defeated and slain by Hannibal, at the battle of the Lake Trasimenus (Livy, xxi. 57; 63; id. xxii., etc.; Polyb. ii. 32, etc.).

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Galerius in Wikipedia

Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus (c. 260 - April or May 311), commonly known as Galerius, was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311. During his reign he campaigned, aided by Diocletian, against the Sassanid Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 299. Early life Galerius was born on a small farm estate, on the site where he later built his palace, Felix Romuliana.[5] His father was a Thracian and his mother Romula was a Dacian woman, who left Dacia because of the Carpians' attacks.[10] He originally followed his father's occupation, that of a herdsman, where he got his surname of Armentarius (Latin: armentum, herd). He served with distinction as a soldier under Emperors Aurelian and Probus, and in 293 at the establishment of the Tetrarchy, was designated Caesar along with Constantius Chlorus, receiving in marriage Diocletian's daughter Valeria (later known as Galeria Valeria), and at the same time being entrusted with the care of the Illyrian provinces. Soon after his appointment, Galerius would be dispatched to Egypt to fight the rebellious cities Busiris and Coptos...

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Galerius Maximi&#257;nus in Harpers Dictionary

Galerius Maximiānus, usually called Galerius, Roman emperor, A.D. 305-311. He was first made Caesar by Diocletian, whose daughter he had married; and upon the abdication of Diocletian and Maximianus (305 A.D.), he became Augustus or emperor. He died in 311, of the disgusting disease known in modern times by the name of morbus pediculosus. He was a cruel persecutor of the Christians.

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Galla Placidia in Wikipedia

Aelia Galla Placidia (392 – November 27, 450), daughter of the Roman Emperor Theodosius I, was the consort of Ataulf king of the Goths and after his death the Empress consort of Constantius III, Western Roman Emperor. Family - Placidia was the daughter of Roman Emperor Theodosius I and his second wife Galla.[1] Her older brother Gratian died young. Her mother died in childbirth in 394, giving birth to John, who died with their mother.[2] Placidia was a younger, paternal half-sister of Emperors Arcadius and Honorius. Her older half-sister Pulcheria predeceased her parents as mentioned in the writings of Gregory of Nyssa, placing the death of Pulcheria prior to the death of Aelia Flaccilla, first wife of Theodosius I, in 385.[3] Her paternal grandparents were Count Theodosius and his wife Thermantia, as mentioned in the "Historia Romana" by Paul the Deacon. Her maternal grandparents were Valentinian I and his second wife Justina, as mentioned by Jordanes...

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Gallienus in Wikipedia

Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus[1] (c. 218 – 268), commonly known as Gallienus, was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and alone from 260 to 268. He took control of the empire at a time when it was undergoing great crisis. His record in dealing with those crises is mixed, as he won a number of military victories but was unable to keep much of his realm from seceding. Life - Rise to power Based on the testimony of John Malalas and the Epitome de Caesaribus that Gallienus was about 50 years old at the time of his death, it is generally considered he was born around 218, son of Valerian and Mariniana, a woman possibly of senatorial rank and possibly a daughter of Egnatius Victor Marinianus, and brother of Valerianus Minor.[2] Inscriptions on coins connect him with Falerii in Etruria and this may well have been his birthplace; it has yielded many inscriptions relating to his mother's family, the Egnatii.[3] He married to Cornelia Salonina about ten years before his accession to the throne. She was the mother of three princes, Valerian II (who died in 258), Saloninus (who, after becoming co-emperor, died in 260 by the hand of his general Postumus), and Marinianus[4] (killed in 268, shortly after his father was assassinated). When his father Valerian was proclaimed emperor on 22 October 253, he asked the Senate to ratify Gallienus' elevation to Caesar and Augustus, in order to share the power between two persons. He was also designated Consul Ordinarius for 254. As Marcus Aurelius and his adopted brother Lucius Verus had done a hundred years before them, Gallienus and his father divided the Empire; Valerian struck for the East to stem the Persian threat and Gallienus remained in Italy to repel the Germanic tribes on the Rhine and Danube. This policy made sense not simply because the unhappy fates of several Emperors previous to this duo had made it clear that one man simply could not rule a state this size; equally, a 'barbarian' enemy suing for peace in this time tended to demand that they be allowed to apply to the 'chief' or 'king' of the victorious side. Therefore, an Emperor had to be available to negotiate if such a situation arose...

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Galla Placidia in Harpers Dictionary

Placidia, daughter of the preceding by Theodosius. When Alaric took Rome in A.D. 410, she fell into his hands, and four years later was married by Ataulphus, king of the Goths. Upon his death she was returned to her country, and in 417 married Constantius III., by whom she had the emperor Valentinian III. During the minority of her son she was regent of the Western Empire, dying about the year 450. See Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chapters xxxi., xxxiii., xxxv.

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Galli&#275;nus in Harpers Dictionary

Galliēnus, Publius Licinius Valeriānus Egnatius A son of the emperor Valerian, made Caesar and colleague to his father in A.D. 253. He defeated, in a great battle near Mediolanum (Milan), the Alemanni and other northern tribes which had made an irruption into Upper Italy, and gave evidence on that occasion of his personal bravery and abilities. He was also well-informed in literature, and was both an orator and a poet, winning some distinction by an epithalamium. When Valerian was taken prisoner by the Persians, A.D. 260, Gallienus took the reins of government, and was acknowledged as Augustus. He appears to have then given himself up to debauchery and the company of profligate persons, neglecting the interests of the Empire, and taking no pains to effect the release of his father from the hard captivity in which he died. The barbarians attacked the Empire on every side, revolts broke out in various provinces, where several commanders assumed the title of emperor, while Gallienus was loitering at Rome with his favourites. Yet now and then he seemed to awaken from his torpor at the news of the advance of the invaders; and, putting himself at the head of the legions, he defeated Ingenuus, who had usurped the imperial title in Illyricum. Gallienus disgraced his victory by horrible cruelties. Mean time Probus, Aurelianus, and other able commanders were strenuously supporting the honour of the Roman arms in the East, where Odenatus of Palmyra acted as a useful ally to the Romans against the Persians. Usurpers arose in Egypt, in the Gauls, in Thrace, in almost every province of the Empire, from which circumstance this period has been styled the Reign of the Thirty Tyrants. At last Aureolus, a man of obscure birth, some say a Dacian shepherd originally, but a brave soldier, was proclaimed emperor by the troops in Illyricum, entered Italy, took possession of Mediolanum, and even marched against Rome while Gallienus was absent. Gallienus returned quickly, repulsed Aureolus, and defeated him in a great battle, near the Addua, after which the usurper shut himself up in Mediolanum. Here he was besieged by Gallienus; but, during the siege (A.D. 268), the emperor was murdered by conspirators (Aurel. Vict. 33; Eutrop. ix. 8; Trebell. Poll. Gallien., Zonaras, xii. 24 foll.). The reign of Gallienus is memorable for the plague that swept over the Empire. During its height, it is said that there were 5000 deaths daily in the city of Rome; while the population of Alexandria was diminished nearly two thirds. The plague was followed by a general famine.

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Publius Septimius Geta in Wikipedia

Publius Septimius Geta (7 March 189 – 19 December 211), was a Roman Emperor co-ruling with his father Septimius Severus and his older brother Caracalla from 209 to his death. Early life Geta was the younger son of Septimius Severus by his second wife Julia Domna. Geta was born in Rome, at a time when his father was only a provincial governor at the service of emperor Commodus. Geta was always in a place secondary to his older brother Lucius, the heir known as Caracalla. Perhaps due to this, the relations between the two were difficult from their early years. Conflicts were constant and often required the mediation of their mother. To appease his youngest son, Septimius Severus gave Geta the title of Augustus in 209. During the campaign against the Britons of the early 3rd century, the imperial propaganda publicized a happy family that shared the responsibilities of rule. Caracalla was his father's second in command, Julia Domna the trusted counsellor and Geta had administrative and bureaucratic duties. Truth was that the rivalry and antipathy between the brothers was far from being improved. Joint Emperor When Septimius Severus died in Eboracum in the beginning of 211, Caracalla and Geta were proclaimed joint emperors and returned to Rome. Regardless, the shared throne was not a success: the brothers argued about every decision, from law to political appointments. Later sources speculate about the desire of the two of splitting the empire in two halves. By the end of the year, the situation was unbearable. Caracalla tried to murder Geta during the festival of Saturnalia without success. Later in December he arranged a meeting with his brother in his mother's apartments, and had him murdered in her arms by centurions. Following Geta's assassination, Caracalla damned his memory and ordered his name to be removed from all inscriptions. The now sole emperor also took the opportunity to get rid of his political enemies, on the grounds of conspiracy with the deceased. Cassius Dio [1] stated that around 20,000 persons of both sexes were killed and/or proscribed during this time.

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Geta, Septimius in Harpers Dictionary

The brother of Caracalla, by whom he was assassinated, A.D. 212. See Caracalla.

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Gordianus in Wikipedia

Gordian I - Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (c. 159 – 12 April 238), commonly known as Gordian I, was Roman Emperor for one month with his son Gordian II in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Early life - Little is known on the early life and family background of Gordian. There is no reliable evidence on his family origins. His family were of Equestrian rank, who were modest and very wealthy. Gordian was said to be related to prominent senators. His praenomen and nomen Marcus Antonius suggest that his paternal ancestors received Roman citizenship under the Triumvir Mark Antony, during the late Roman Republic. Gordian’s cognomen ‘Gordianus’ suggests that his family origins were from Anatolia, especially Galatia and Cappadocia. According to the Augustan History, his mother was a Roman woman called Ulpia Gordiana and his father Roman Senator Maecius Marullus. While modern historians have dismissed his father's name as false, there may be some truth behin