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Archaeology

Petercoins

A British coin enthusiast, collector and dealer, selling low cost British coins by international mail order. Site contains: Beginners guide to coin collecting, a grading guide, numismatic definitions, special offers and much more! Petercoins - Your local coin shop on the Net!

Link: http://www.btinternet.com/~petercoins/index.htm

New Egypt Historical Society, New Jersey

The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to bringing the history of Egyptian Society alive for a new generation. Our monthly meetings and quarterly seminars in conjunction with area museums are but the beginning of a wonderful journey into the past! Join us via Internet, bimonthly magazine, meeting attendance or simple write-ins and we will try to share the enthusiam of this so very vital culture.

Link: http://newegypthistoricalsociety.com/

The Romans

HTML Supplement to my BKA 40a program "The Romans" which can be downloaded from ZDnet.com

Link: https://bible-history.com/rome

A Fourree Brockage of Hadrian

General Topics [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

The Earliest Photograph of Ancient Coins?

General Topics [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Brockage or Clashed Dies? Which is which?

General Topics [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Fourrees - Plated Coins

General Topics [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Photography of Ancient Coins- How to!

General Topics [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Scanning Ancient Coins

Using a Flat Bed Scanner. General Topics [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Die Links: A Tool for the Numismatist

Ancient coins were struck from dies individually cut by artists rather than mass produced from an enlarged master as is the practice with modern coins. Despite all efforts to make dies the same as each other, differences great and small allow each individually cut die to be identified as an individual. General Topics [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III, The Great, 336-323 B.C.

General Topics [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.calgarycoin.com/ancient04.htm

Three Gordian III & Tranquillina Coins

Centration Dimples. General Topics [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Ancient Coin Books

General Topics [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Questions for the Experts

Anyone visiting this site on a regular basis must know that I do not claim to have all the answers. In fact, every question I answer generally generates at least two new questions to the end result is that I go to bed each day more aware of my ignorance than I had been the day before. General Topics [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Collecting Roman Coins

General Links [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.jaysromanhistory.com/romeweb/rcoins/contents.htm

The Celator magazine for the collector of Ancient Coins

General Links [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.celator.com/

Ancient Numinastics

FORVM ANTIQVVM: Ancient Numismatics [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~ekondrat/numismatics.html

ACM, Ancient Coin Market List

Learn about the affordable hobby of Collecting Ancient Coins. General Links [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.ancientcoinmarket.com/

Forum Romanorum - Interesting Roman History site

General Links [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.forumromanum.org/index2.html

Cleaning Coins - use at your own risk!

The Cleaning and Preservation of Metals. General Links [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.q-ten.net/polymath/metalspage.html

How to Buy Ancient Coins - Warren Esty`s page

General Links [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://esty.ancients.info/numis/buying.html

Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins

General Links [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://vcrc.austincollege.edu/

Art's Ancient Coin Page

General Links [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.deepfield.com/anoot

Ancient Oriental Coins

General Links [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/coins.html

Jim's Medieval French Coin Page

General Links [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://members.tripod.com/~Charlemagne64/medieval.html

The Mesha Stele

(The Moabite Stone. Description with text. 830 BCE.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/westsem/mesha.html

The Mesha Stele

(The Moabite Stone. Description with text. 830 BCE.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/westsem/mesha.html

The Mesha Stele

(The Moabite Stone. Description with text. 830 BCE.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/westsem/mesha.html

The Mesha Stele

(The Moabite Stone. Description with text. 830 BCE.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/westsem/mesha.html

Mesha Stele Photo

Moabite Stone
Language: Moabite (a West Semitic Language)
Medium: basalt stone stele
Size: 1.15 meters high, 60-68 centimeters wide
Length: 35 lines of writing
Honoree: Mesha, king of Moab
(late 9th century BCE)
Approximate Date: 830 BCE
Place of Discovery: Dhiban [in modern Jordan]
Date of Discovery: 1868
Current Location: Louvre Museum (Paris, France)
Inventory number: AO 5066

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/artifacts/moabite_stone.jpg

Grading & Describing Ancient Coins

Grading & Describing Ancient Coins ..popular page! See why? [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Overview for Beginning Collectors

Ancient Greek & Roman Coins: Overview for Beginners Recommended reading for those who might be interested in collecting ancient coins [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Illustrated Glossary of Terms Collectors Should Know

- Heads Laureate, radiate and other terms [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Illustrated Glossary of Terms Coins

Illustrated Glossary of Terms - other Exergue, mintmark etc. [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Abbreviations on Roman Imperial Coins

Abbreviations on Roman Imperial Coins SC TRP IMP COS etc. [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Imperial Coin Denominations

Imperial Coin Denominations A survey of silver & bronze coins [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

FAKES! A survey of `modern` ancients

Fake ancient coins are not really a serious problem and not nearly as prevalent as fakes of modern coins. Do not be afraid to collect coins; collect coins wisely. A few of the major types of obvious fakes are represented on this page.[Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Selecting a Collecting Specialty

Make your collection fit YOU! [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Imperial Coin Denominations

Imperial Coin Denominations A survey of silver & bronze coins [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Style - A frequently overlooked matter of great importance

Judging numismatic art [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Fabric Coin Structure

The Underlying Structure of a Coin. [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Greek Bronze Coins An Overview for Beginners

[Greece][Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Greek Imperial Coins An Overview for Beginners

[Greece][Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Buying Power of Ancient Coins

What were my Roman coins worth 'back then'? [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Common Constantinian Copper Coins

Ancient Coins from the `Junkbox`: Common Constantinian Copper [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Cave of the Letters Map

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/maps/cave_of_the_letters_map.jpg

Guy Clark's Ancient Coins and Antiquities

Lots of Coin Images [Coins] [Ancient]

Link: http://www.ancient-art.com/index.html

Essenes, Nazarenes and the Development of Messianism

What? Who? When? Where? Why? By Jack Kilmon, Text and Images [Dead Sea Scrolls]

Link: http://www.historian.net/dss.htm

The Coins of Jesus' Time

By Jack Kilmon [Coins]

Link: http://www.historian.net/coins.htm

Images of Greek gods

[Ancient Greece] [Images]

Link: http://victorian.fortunecity.com/palette/187/greece.html

Archeoligical Excavations in Israel

An index of archeological sites in Israel. Sites looking for volunteers, and latest news of what's happening. [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/History/Early+History+-+Archaeology/Cumulative+table+of+contents+-+Archeological+Sites.htm

Archaeology of Egypt - Minnesota State Univ

History of Egyptology The Archaeologists Technology in Ancient Egyptian Archaeology Archaeological Sites in Egypt Weird Theories [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/archaeology/index.html

Ancient Near East Resources

Links to sites for the study of the Ancient Near East [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/DEPT/RA/ABZU/YOUTH_RESOURCES.HTML

All Things Roman

Links to almost everything for Roman background. Including an index to inscriptions. [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.geocities.com/TelevisionCity/Network/7309/roman.html

LacusCurtius

Links to almost everything for Roman background. Including an index to inscriptions. [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/home.html

Electronic Resources for Classicists

Links to sites for the study of Classical texts Maria C. Pantelia, University of California, Irvine [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.tlg.uci.edu/~tlg/index/resources.html

Chicago University Oriental Institute

A huge resource of pictures and information [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/default.html

Mysteries of the Bible: Philistines

One of the greatest divides between orthodox archaeology/ancient history and followers of the Biblical account can be found in the way the history of the Philistines is described. [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblemysteries.com/lectures/philistines.htm

Archaeology of Thessalonica

The port city of Thessalonica (now called Salonica or Thessaloniki) was founded by the Macedonian General Kassander in celebration of the successful campaigns against the Persians (315 BCE). With the triumphs and expansion of their influence, new wealth poured into Macedonia and allowed new settlements to be established. This port was constructed on the Thermaic Gulf and knitted together twenty-six villages (including a village called "Thermae" by Herodotus - C5 BCE in his book Polymnia -the description of Xerxes expedition against Greece) as the main seaport and naval base of Macedonia. The original villages were Doric settlements of the period of Macedonian Kings (C5-4 BCE). The new city was named after his wife (Thessalonike, daughter of Philip II and half sister of Alexander the Great). [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.ctsp.co.il/LBS%20pages/LBS_thessalonica.htm

Archaeology of Jerusalem and the Temple

Ritmeyer is an archaeologist and a graphic designer. Ritmeyer Archaeological Design began in 1983, producing posters and booklets as a response to the demand for educational materials on the subject of Biblical Archaeology. Since then, it has not only greatly expanded its product range, but grown into a firm that offers consultancy on archaeological background and illustration to groups as diverse as Hollywood movie companies, National Geographic and the new ESV Study Bible. [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.ritmeyer.com/

AUTHENTIC The Holy Land

Answer questions re archaeology of Israel with information & photos. Tyndale House is a member. Send questions through the Librarian. [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.authentico.co.il/

Historical Archaeology E-mail Discussion Lists

These email discussion lists span a wide variety of subjects that may be of interest to historical archaeologists. Subscription information is included, as well as (where applicable), a link to the list's webpage. [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.digitalpresence.com/histarch/lists.html

Archaeology of Daily Roman Life

Architecture and Archaeology; Athletics; Food; History; Holidays; Houses and Baths; Laws; Maps; Politics; Rhetoric; Texts; Wine; Writing; Women; University of Vermont Department of Classics: Daily Roman Life [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.uvm.edu/~classics/webresources/life/

Kevin Green's

A general introduction to the whole subject of archaeology. [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/kevin.greene/wintro3/

Interactive Ancient Mediterranean

Maps illustrating the classical world of Europe and the Med, but not Israel. [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://iam.classics.unc.edu/

Ancient Synagogues

Primary sources and archaeology for ancient synagogues. [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.pohick.org/sts/newpage2.html

Post Modern Bible Dictionary

An experimental translation including archaeological background, explanations etc. Definitions and short articles with pictures of people, places and technical terms for biblical study [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

Link: http://bible.gen.nz/dictionary.htm

Library of Congress Dead Sea Scrolls Exhibit

The texts in translation, with pictures and introduction. Also archaeological finds. [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

Link: http://sunsite.unc.edu/expo/deadsea.scrolls.exhibit/overview.html

Ancient Days, Biblical Archaeology

This site is to share with others the research done by Dr. David P. Livingston, Ph.D. We will keep posting new materials on archaeology, creation vs evolution, early man, ancient texts, the Flood, Exodus & Conquest. [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.ancientdays.net/

Judaism and Jewish Resources

Links to modern Israel and Jewish studies [Bible Background] [General] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.shamash.org/trb/judaism.html

Archaeology

Until this section is finished being indexed into the main database you can click here to see a list of links including the Bible History Online general resources on this subject, although many of these links are outdated. [Archaeology]

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/ar_arch.htm

The Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins Homepage

[History of Coins] [Coins]

Link: http://vcrc.austincollege.edu/

JRA SupplementsJournal of Roman Archaeology Supplements

[History of Coins] [Coins]

Link: http://www.journalofromanarch.com/supplements.html

Jay's Roman History, Coins and Technology Site

[History of Coins] [Coins]

Link: http://jaysromanhistory.com/romeweb/rcoins/rcoins.htm

The Throne of the Caesars: The Emperors

[History of Coins] [Coins]

Link: http://www.jaysromanhistory.com/romeweb/empcont/empcont.htm

Historical Coins

[Sites for Coin Collectors] [Coins]

Link: http://www.jaysromanhistory.com/romeweb/EMPCONT/empcont.htm#imperators

Numismatic Ring

[Sites for Coin Collectors] [Coins]

Link: http://www.webring.com/t/Numismatic-Web-Ring

Ancient Coins - Edward J. Waddell, Ltd.

[Sites for Coin Collectors] [Coins]

Link: http://www.coin.com/

Harlan J. Berk, Ltd. - Classical Coins, Antiquities

[Sites for Coin Collectors] [Coins]

Link: http://www.harlanjberk.com/

Time Chart of Ancient Cartography

Index of Cartographic Images illustrating maps from the Ancient Period: 6,200 B.C. to 400 A.D. [Cartographic Images]

Link: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/AncientWebPages/TM1.htm

Epigraphical Museum - Athens

Images and descriptions of the major exhibits at the Museum. The Epigraphical Museum was founded in 1885 and it was established in the ground floor of the building of the National Archaeological Museum.

Link: http://www.culture.gr/h/1/eh151.jsp?obj_id=3348

Index of Ogham Inscriptions

Inscriptions, bibliography, and image bank.

Link: http://titus.uni-frankfurt.de/ogam/

Cornell Greek Epigraphy Project

The Epigraphical Museum is unique in Greece and the largest of its kind in the world. It safeguards 13,510, mostly Greek, inscriptions, which cover the period from early historical times to the Late Roman period, primarily in Greece. [Cornell University]

Link: http://www.culture.gr/h/1/eh151.jsp?obj_id=3348

Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Maintained by the Orion Center at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The site contains up-to-date information about Orion Center services and symposia, virtual tours of the caves at Qumran, and a selective list of Dead Sea Scroll sites.

Link: http://orion.mscc.huji.ac.il/

Library of Congress Exhibit on the Dead Sea Scrolls

Background information on the Dead Sea Scrolls, and images of those fragments and artifacts displayed at the Library of Congress exhibit.

Link: http://sunsite.unc.edu/expo/deadsea.scrolls.exhibit/intro.html

Fragment of a Dead Sea Scroll

Israel: Qumran, Cave 4; 1st century A.D. Parchment and ink. Oriental Museum. Purchased in Jordan, 1956. "This fragment from a Hebrew manuscript was once part of a library of scrolls hidden in caves near the Dead Sea. The parchment texts, wrapped in linen and stored in pottery jars, were hidden in the first century A.D. and recovered between 1947 and 1956, at which time they became known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. The biblical writings on many of these scrolls are the earliest known Hebrew copies of Old Testament texts. The text on this fragment comes from a non- biblical Essene psalter, similar to the Psalms of the Bible."

Link: https://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/HIGH/OIM_A30303.html

Archaeological Images and Photos

Please refer to the images and art sections for the particular location, ie. Ancient Near East (Art & Images), etc.

Link: https://bible-history.com

Centre for Archaeology at Monash University

in Victoria, Australia. Currently excavating in Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt; Dakhleh Oasis lies 800km south-west of Cairo and has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Situated above artesian springs, Dakhleh Oasis forms part of a chain of oases and trade routes that start in the Nile Valley in the north of the country and rejoin the river at modern Luxor, Aswan and in the northern Sudan.

Link: http://www.arts.monash.edu.au/archaeology/

Epigraphical Museum Athens

[Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.culture.gr/h/1/eh151.jsp?obj_id=3348

Inscriptiones Graecae Eystettenses

Greek Inscriptions of Asia Minor [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.gnomon.ku-eichstaett.de/LAG/IGEyst.html

Inscriptiones Graecae Eystettenses

Greek Inscriptions of Asia Minor [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.gnomon.ku-eichstaett.de/LAG/IGEyst.html

Inscriptiones Graecae Eystettenses

Greek Inscriptions of Asia Minor [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.gnomon.ku-eichstaett.de/LAG/IGEyst.html

Coins references/bibliography

Nicely done, in color. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/reference/reference1.html

General Numismatic Sites

Nicely done, in color. [Comprehensive] [Coins]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/coins.html

The Growth of Jerusalem (map)

Over time, the Judean capital city of Jerusalem grew and expanded well beyond the small boundaries of the City of David. At first, the Temple Mount was an addition to the city and was, apparently, fortified in some way (which still remains unknown). Later, the process of expansion "beyond the walls" occured after the population continued to increase. The Bible mentions the names of residential neighborhoods outside the City of David, such as Mishneh (Kings II 22;14) and Makhtesh (Zephania 1;11). The main growth in population occurred around 721 C.E., when the Northern Israelite kingdom of Israel was destroyed by Assyria and the refugees fled to the Southern Israelite kingdom of Judea; and in 701 C.E., when King Sennacherib of Assyria led a military campaign, conquering the coastal cities of the Land of Israel. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.usm.maine.edu/maps/exhibit1/theme7.html

The Jebusite Foundation

During the 1960's the British archeologist Kathleen Kenyon excavated the eastern slope of the city's hill. She succeeded in exposing, at the middle of the slope, the remains of the solid Jebusite defense wall that King David had to overcome in his conquest of Jerusalem. Only the small section pictured was exposed during the excavation. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.jstor.org/pss/544661

The Wide Wall from the Jewish Quarter

Broad wall of the Jewish Quarter. This wall, which was discovered by Professor Avigad, is an impressive archaeological testimony of the fortification effort by King Hezekiah. The length of the segment of the exposed wall is 65 meters, and its width is 7 meters. The wall is assumed to be from the period of Hezekiah, because clay fragments identified with that period were found near the wall. Underneath the wall, remnants of houses were found which also date to that same time period. This is an example of fortification in times of emergency, as Isaiah the prophet aptly describes the situation: "...and ye numbered the houses of Jerusalem, and ye broke down the houses to fortify the wall." (Isaiah 22;10). [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/Sites/BroadWall.html

The Ancient Wall inside today's Jewish Quarter

This wide wall is located in the heart of the reconstructed Jewish quarter of today's Old City. A segment of it was left exposed in the quarter so that visitors could easily see it and gain an insight into the strength of the fortification. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.jafi.org.il/education/noar/sites/jewishqu.htm

Ophel Hill (City of David)

Excavations in the Hill of Ophel. The City of David is located on the Ophel hill, a hill sloping southward from the southeastern side of the Temple Mount. Today the Ophel is an archaeological garden, open to the public for study tours. Extensive excavations in this area, carried out since 1968, cut through about 2,500 years of history and include some 25 layers. Important finds from the First (960 - 587 BCE) and Second Temple periods (515 BCE - 70 CE), Roman times (63 BCE - 324 CE), the Byzantine era (324 - 638) and the early Muslim period (7th C.) show how the city's successive rulers used the remains of their predecessors' structures for their own buildings. Four additional biblical sites are located in this area: the Gihon Spring, Warren's Shaft, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/eos/eos_title.pl?callnum=DS111.A1P28_vol4_cop1

Excavations in the City of David

The City of David is located on the Ophel hill, a hill sloping southward from the southeastern side of the Temple Mount. Today the Ophel is an archaeological garden, open to the public for study tours. Extensive excavations in this area, carried out since 1968, cut through about 2,500 years of history and include some 25 layers. Important finds from the First (960 - 587 BCE) and Second Temple periods (515 BCE - 70 CE), Roman times (63 BCE - 324 CE), the Byzantine era (324 - 638) and the early Muslim period (7th C.) show how the city's successive rulers used the remains of their predecessors' structures for their own buildings. Four additional biblical sites are located in this area: the Gihon Spring, Warren's Shaft, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.ucgstp.org/lit/gn/gn005/gn005f01.htm

The Temple of Herod

The Temple of Herod was a massive structure located in Jerusalem. It was built at the order of King Herod during the second period of King Herod's reign (25-13 BCE ). During this time, the king initiated a major building and rebuilding program, and this was by far the most famous of all projects. [Model] [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.angelfire.com/nt/theology/temple.html

The Temple Mount

The Temple Mount in Jerusalem Where were the First and Second Jewish Temples Located? Aerial photo of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem showing the Proposed Northern, Central and Southern Sites for the First and Second Temples. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.templemount.org/

Dome of the Rock

The third most important shrine in Islam, built in 683 C.E. by Ommayad Caliph Abd El-Malik Ibn Marwan. Built on Mount Moriah and named after the large rock inside the mosque where, according to tradition, Isaac was prepared for sacrifice, and from where Mohammed rose to heaven. The rock is also considered the foundation stone of the Temple. Below is found "The Cave of the Prophets." [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-dome-of-the-rock.htm

Western Wall of the Temple Mount

The Western Wall is one of the few surviving sections of the huge Temple Mount enclosure built by King Herod 2,000 years ago. After the destruction of the second temple by the Romans in 70 C.E., the Western Wall gradually became a Jewish holy place "by proxy," and symbolizes not only he mourning for the destroyed Temple , but also the eternal hope of redemption. The western wall is 20 meters high. The seven lower layers, some 7 meters in height, are constructed of huge stones, cut in the special fashion typical of Herod. Additional layers, from later periods , are found on top of those laid by Herod. Further layers from the second temple period are still buried. Extensive excavations have been carried out on this site since the six-day war. The Western Wall owes its significance to its close proximity to Judaism's holiest place, the Holy of Holies on the Temple Mount. [Archaeology]

Link: http://mosaic.lk.net/g-wall.html

Western Wall Tunnel Location Diagram)


Legend:
1. New entrance to tunnel;
2. Moslem Quarter;
3. Via Dolorosa;
4. Lions' Gate;
5. Temple Mount;
6. Christian Quarter;
7. Church of the Holy Sepulchre;
8. Path of the tunnel;
9. Jewish Quarter;
10. Western Wall Plaza;
11. Western Wall

The entire western wall of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem has been completely revealed for the first time since 70 C.E. Excavations have uncovered all 490 metres of the wall that once formed the western girder of ancient Jerusalem's great Temple and the entire stonework that formed the basis of the original Temple mount in now exposed. An ancient Hasmonean water tunnel, built about 120 B.C.E. and later blocked by Herod's builders in also visible for the first time and is one of the rare Hasmonean finds uncovered to date in Jerusalem. One of the most unexpected archaeological finds disclosed by the excavation is that Herod did not complete the entire construction of the Temple mount as historians and archaeologists believed to this day. A change in the type of masonry used at the northern end of the western wall is evidence that Herod built all but the last stages of construction of the Temple mount. Instead of the polished stones with characteristic Herodian masonry marks, part of the original stonework is roughly hewn. One of the mysteries uncovered during the excavation is the presence of massive stones that measure some 14 metres in length, 3 metres in height, and are estimated to be 2 metres thick and to weigh over 300 tons. No one can explain how these gigantic rocks were transported to the site. Walking along the tunnel, you can see the rock escarpment of the long lost Antonia fortress at the northern end of the western wall built by the Maccabees. This imposing building complex existed for only a few decades before it was demolished by he Romans followinn the fall of the Temple. The Tunnel is wide enough for one person to pass at a time, leading to a one-way route exiting at the beginning of the Via Dolorosa. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/1990_1999/1998/7/The%20Western%20Wall%20Tunnel%20-%20Update

Temple Mount

The Temple Mount compound, which occupies about a sixth of the territory of the Old City, is sacred to the two monotheistic religions: Judaism and Islam. The mountain is identified with the place where Isaac was sacrificed. It is here that the first and second temples were built. After the destruction of the second temple, the mountain remained desolate until the Moslem conquest in the year 638. The Muslims have constructed various sites on the mountain. Some of the more famous ones are: the gilded Dome of the Rock and El-Aqsa Mosque. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/templemount.htm

Dome of the Rock (article)

The third most important shrine in Islam, built in 683 C.E. by Ommayad Caliph Abd El-Malik Ibn Marwan. Built on Mount Moriah and named after the large rock inside the mosque where, according to tradition, Isaac was prepared for sacrifice, and from where Mohammed rose to heaven. The rock is also considered the foundation stone of the Temple. Below is found "The Cave of the Prophets." Mauriah Conway [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sacredsites.com/middle_east/israel/jerusalem.html

Mount of Olives--Dominus Flevit Church

Christian tradition has it that after Jesus had left Bethphage on his way to Jerusalem, he passed through this place. It is on this site that the city of Jerusalem appeared to him, following a speech bemoaning the destiny of the city. This is echoed in the name of the church, which means in Latin: "The Lord Cried." This tradition traces back to Byzantine times. On constructing the new church in 1954, a large cemetery was uncovered further to the east, which dates from the age of the second Temple. In the courtyard lie sarcophagi, some of which carry inscriptions in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, with names like Zechariyah, Jesus, Mary, and "˜Azariyah. The alter, both in the new church and in the ancient church, faced towards the west, namely the Temple mount, not towards the east as usual. The modern aspe has an arched window through which the old city and temple mount loom up. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-dominus-flevit-church.htm

Mount of Olives (article)

Through the Lion's Gate in the eastern wall of Old Jerusalem and east, across the Kidron Valley, lies the Mount of Olives. Also called Olivet (Hebrew name, Har Hamishha), the Mount of Olives is not a mountain at all, but a slope blending into other slopes. Despite this, it is the tallest of the mountains and hills around Jerusalem, rising approximately 2,900 feet above sea level. Mary Beach [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/Sites/MountOlives.html

Church of All Nations at Foot of Mount of Olives

The Church of All Nations ('The Basilica of the Agony") is situated at the foot of the Mount of Olives, the site of a Jewish cemetery in use since ancient times. The church was built in the early 1920s on the remains of a 5th century Byzantine structure and a later Crusader church. Designed by the Italian architect Antonio Barluzzi, the basilica features twelve cupolas, each representing one of the twelve sponsoring nations. The Rock of the agony where, according to Christian tradition, Jesus knelt to pray, is the central feature of the basilica. Much of the original Byzantine mosaic pavement has been preserved and foundations of the Crusader church can be seen in the garden among the ancient olive trees. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-church-of-all-nations.htm

The Garden of Gethsemane (article)

The Garden of Gethsemane is located across the Kidron valley to the east of Jerusalem and on the western slope of the Mount of Olives. The word Gethsemane means "oil press" or "olive press" which leads scholars to believe that the garden was a grove of olive trees in which was located an oil press. Susan Clayton [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/christian/blxtn_jerusalem-geth.htm

Via Dolorosa

Via Dolorosa, which means the way of suffering, was the way which those condemned to death by the Romans had to proceed along, carrying the cross on their backs, with a sign bearing the prisoner's name and his charges. Jesus' Via Dolorosa started from the place of his trial and ended with his crucifixion in Golgotha and his burial at the Holy Sepulchre. The tradition relating to Jesus' walking along the Via Dolorosa had its origin in Byzantine times and at first the procession would be held from Gethsemane to Golgotha. It was during the period of the crusades, in the 13th century, that the present Via Dolorosa tradition evolved. There are 14 stations along the Via Dolorosa, nine of which are on the road and the remaining five within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. STATION 1 - JESUS IS CONDEMNED TO DEATH; STATION 2 - JESUS RECEIVES THE CROSS; STATION 3 - JESUS FALLS FOR THE FIRST TIME; STATION 4 - JESUS MEETS HIS GRIEVING MOTHER; STATION 5 - SIMON OF CYRENE CARRIES THE CROSS; STATION 6 - VERONICA WIPES THE FACE OF JESUS; STATION 7 - JESUS FALLS FOR THE SECOND TIME; STATION 8- JESUS SPEAK TO THE WOMEN OF JERUSALEM; STATION 9 - JESUS FALLS FOR THE THIRD TIME; STATION 10 - JESUS IS STRIPPED OF HIS GARMENTS; STATION 11 - JESUS IS NAILED TO THE CROSS; STATION 12 - JESUS DIES ON THE CROSS; STATION 13 - JESUS' BODY IS TAKEN FROM THE CROSS; STATION 14-JESUS IS LAID IN THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-via-dolorosa.htm

Via Dolorosa (article)

To Christians, the city of Jerusalem holds particular significance because it was the site of Christ's condemnation, crucifixion. And burial. The Via Dolorosa is the traditional route that Jesus is thought to have taken from Pilate's hall to Golgotha. Latin for "way of sorrows," (Beers 328) the Via Dolorosa is a commemoration of Christ's arduous journey. The path is made up of fourteen different stations of the cross, each of which recounts a particular point along the way. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.atlastours.net/holyland/via_dolorosa.html

Church of the Holy Sepulchre

This is the holiest Christian site in Jerusalem. The church was first built in the 4th century by Emperor Constantine's mother Helena over the site of a Roman pagan temple to Venus. The present building is Crusader (12th century) and contains the last five stations of the cross. The church is divided among several denominations, each responsible for its own section. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/holysepulcher.htm

Church of the Holy Sepulchre (article)

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is located in the northwest quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. It is believed to be built on the site of the tomb where Jesus was buried and resurrected in 33 AD. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-church-of-holy-sepulchre.htm

Garden Tomb

The Garden Tomb is part of "Skull Hill," a rock-hewn tomb, and a tranquil garden, first identified by General Gordon in the 19th century. Some have supported it as the place of Jesus' crucifixion and burial. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.gardentomb.com/

Garden Tomb (article)

In 1883, British general Charles Gordon discovered a beautiful garden tomb. A stone outcropping jutting out nearby resembled what Gordon believed Calvary must look like. The site is located along Nablus Road, just outside the walls of the Old City, northwest of the Damascus Gate. Gordon concluded that this could be the location of the crucifixion and burial of Jesus. However, its authenticity is often doubted [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-garden-tomb.htm

Mount Zion - General View

The name "Mount Zion" now refers to the part of the western hill south of the Old City beyond Zion Gate. In the Old Testament period, the name was used for the lower eastern hill, now known as the City of David. The present Mount Zion is bordered on the west and south by the Hinnom Valley and on the east by the Tyropean Valley. Although now outside the city walls, Mt. Zion was within the city walls in the late second Temple period (2nd century B.C.E.- 70 C.E.). As the tradtional site of King David's tomb it has long been the focus of Jewish pilgrimage. The area also contains several sites sacred to Christianity: the room of the last supper (the Upper Room), the Church of St. Peter in Gallicantu, and the Dormition Abbey. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/mtzion.htm

Mount Zion - article

Geographically, the mountain known as Zion is an elongated triangular plateau that forms the ridge between the Kidron valley to the east and the Tyropoean valley to the west. Rising slightly above the surounding Judean countryside and flanked to the east by a constant water supply from the Gihon spring, this mount was most likely chosen as a habitation for its natural features as a citadel. Jared Washam [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.crystalinks.com/mountzion.html

Traditional Upper Room

According to tradition (going back only to the 10th century), this is the place where Jesus celebrated the Passover feast with his disciples before he was arrested. Also according to tradition he appeared here after his resurrection. The hall was constructed by the Crusaders. The Fransciscans who bought it in 1335 introduced some changes in it. At the beginning of the 15th century, the Jews sought to buy the site because the Tomb of David is located on the lower floor. This attempt entailed a conflict between Jews and Christians. Eventually in 1551, the Muslims took possession of the site and transformed it into a mosque with "prayer niches" which can still be seen today. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sanhotim20002000/2531018751/

Yad Vashem - Valley of Destroyed Communities

The Valley of the Destroyed Communities is the latest addition (1993) to the Yad Vashem complex, Israel's central memorial to the six million Jews killed in the Holocaust of World War II. It consists of a maze of courtyards (each representing a country or geographical region), on whose walls are inscribed the names of cities and towns where Jewish communities flourished before the advent of the Nazi regime in Germany. Viewed from the air, the structure approximates the shape of the map of Europe. The national institution for research and documentation of the Holocaust, Yad Vashem includes a museum, the Hall of the Names, and the Avenue of Righteous Gentiles. It is dedicated to perpetuating the memory of the Jews who perished in the Nazi Holocaust (1939-1945). [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.yadvashem.org/

The Gihon Spring

In a land as dry as the Land of Israel, the main consideration in determining the location of a city or village, is its proximity to the nearest water source. The only permanent water source of ancient Jerusalem was the Gihon Spring. Its name is derived from the fact that it doesn't flow steadily, but rather in random eruptions with lapses in between them (Giha in Hebrew means eruption). The Gihon Spring is located in a cave on the eastern side of the City of David. To provide access to the water during times of siege, shafts were hewn through the rocky hillside of David's City from inside the city's walls. Warren's Shaft is such a shaft. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://dqhall59.com/gihon.htm

The Gihon Spring (another view)

An early 19th century explorer, Charles Warren, discovered a tunnel leading to the Gihon Spring. Warren's Shaft seen here can be visited on a tour of the City of David, and the steps of the ancient Jerusalemites can be retraced to the well. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.jerusalem.muni.il/jer_sys/picture/atarim/site_form_atar_eng.asp?site_id=71&pic_cat=4&icon_cat=6&york_cat=9

Hezekiah's Tunnel

The most magnificent waterworks of ancient Jerusalem is Hezekiah's Tunnel. The tunnel is hewn inside the hill in order to protect the access to water from enemies. It channels the water from the Gihon fountainhead to the Shiloah pool, which was within the new walls of the city built by Hezekiah. King Hezekiah built the tunnel in preparation for the Assyrian siege: "This same Hezekiah also stopped the upper watercourse of Gihon, and brought it straight down to the west side of the city of David." (Chronicles II, 32;30) The external entrance to the Gihon spring was hidden: "... and many people gathered together, and they stopped up all of the fountains" (Chronicles II, 32; 4). Then the waters of the Gihon were channeled through the tunnel to the Shiloah Pool, also built by Hezekiah (Kings II, 20; 20). The pool was located outside the original fortifications of the City of David (Chronicles II, 32; 30), but within the wall that Hezekiah had built. This is the main reason for thereconstruction of the southern part of the wall. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/heztunnel.htm

Artist's Conception of City of David

Virtual tour to the City of David. The City of David is located on the Ophel hill, a hill sloping southward from the southeastern side of the Temple Mount. Today the Ophel is an archaeological garden, open to the public for study tours. Extensive excavations in this area, carried out since 1968, cut through about 2,500 years of history and include some 25 layers. Important finds from the First (960 - 587 BCE) and Second Temple periods (515 BCE - 70 CE), Roman times (63 BCE - 324 CE), the Byzantine era (324 - 638) and the early Muslim period (7th C.) show how the city's successive rulers used the remains of their predecessors' structures for their own buildings. Four additional biblical sites are located in this area: the Gihon Spring, Warren's Shaft, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.cityofdavid.org.il/hp_eng.asp

History of Plumbing in Jerusalem

The Siloah Waterworks; schematic drawing. See Christopher Kidwell's page on the Gihon Spring, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.plumbingsupply.com/pmjerusalem.html

The Gihon Spring, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam

Hezekiah's water tunnel in Jerusalem, the Gihon Spring, and the Pool of Siloam. The Gihon Spring was a primary water source for the ancient city of Jerusalem. When the king of Assyria (Sennacherib) was making war against Judah (Isaiah 36:1), and it was clear that Jersualem would likely be attacked as well, Hezekiah (king of Judah) fortified the city including the spring. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/pqna21.htm

Sketch of Valleys, Walls, and Gates of Jerusalem

The three valleys that almost surround the Old City are mentioned many times in the Bible. They are the Tyropean, Kidron, and Hinnom Valleys. The Tyropean Valley is located just to the west of the Ophel. It is difficult to see today because it has been filled in during construction and reconstruction in the Old City. The Kidron Valley is located between the Mount of Olives and the Temple Mount. All travelers coming to Jerusalem from the east pass through this valley. The Hinnom Valley is located just south of the Old City. This was the place where the city's garbage dump was located. Jesus made smbolic reference to the unfaithful being cast into "gehenna," thus using the Hinnom Valley as a symbol or example of a wasted or worthless life. The present walls of the Old City were built by the Ottoman ruler Suliman the Magnificent, between 1537-1542 C.E. The walls of the time of Jesus were further to the south than the walls of today. The Old City is divided into four sections: the Christian Quarter to the northwest, the Muslim Quarter to the northeast, the Armenian Quarter to the southwest, and the Jewish Quarter to the southeast. If you are interested in seeing images of all the gates of the Old City, see "Gates of the Old City." [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: https://bible-history.com/jerusalem/firstcenturyjerusalem_the_land_of_jerusalem.html

Gates of the Old City - Golden Gate

Golden Gate The Mercy (Golden) Gate (Bab el Rahmeh) appears in the legends of all three religions. An early Jewish tradition holds that it is through that gate that the Messiah will enter jerusalem. According to Christian tradition, Jesus made made his last entry to Jerusalem through the Mercy Gate. The Muslims refer to it as the Gate of Mercy and believe it to be the gate referred to in the Koran, through which the just will pass on the Day of Judgment (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/GoldGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Golden Gate

Herod's Gate The first name was given to the gate by pilgrims, who erroneously believed that it led to Herod's palace. It is also known in Arabic as the Flower Gate (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/HeroGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Lion's Gate

Lion's Gate Known in Hebrew as the Lion's Gate. Legend has it that the lions engraved on both sides of the gate were placed there by the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, because he had dreamed that he would be devoured by lions unless he built a wall around the Holy City for the defence of the citizens (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/LionGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Zion Gate

Zion Gate The western gate of the Old City, named after Mount Zion. In Arabic it is known as "the Prophet David's Gate", because one passes through King David's tomb on Mount Zion(Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/ZionGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Damascus Gate

Damascus Gate The most massive and ornate of all of Jerusalem's gates. The road running off it leads to Shechem (Nablus) and then to Damascus (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/DamaGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Jaffa Gate

Jaffa Gate this gate is the principal entrance to the Old City. Its name in Arabic is Bab-el-Khalil, the gate of Hebron, as the main road to Hebron started here. It was also called Jaffa Gate because the road to Jaffa and the coast also started from it (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/JaffGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Dung Gate

Dung Gate The Dung Gate is mentioned in the book of Nehemiah as a dispatch point for the city's refuse. It would appear that it was through this gate that the refuse was removed from the city (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/DungGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - the Valley Gate (Sha'ar HaGai )

Sha'ar HaGai Nehemiah mentions that he began his trip to the city from Sha'ar HaGai. The name refers to a site on the way to Jerusalem. The Hebrew name Sha'ar HaGai is a translation of the Arabic Bab el Wad, the Valley Gate, which leads to Jerusalem (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/ShaHagai.jpg

The Valleys around the Old City

Three valleys surround the city of Jerusalem-Hinnom, Kidron, and Tyropean. The Kidron Valley (Valley of the Brook Kedron or Jehosephant) is located on the eastern side of the city, the Hinnom Valley (Valley of Ben Hinnom or Gehenna) runs south, then east going around the western side of the city, and the Tyropean is between these two valley's on the southern end of the city. Marisa Manzi [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.returntogod.com/jerusalem/valleys.htm

The Valleys around Jerusalem

Three valleys surround the city of Jerusalem-Hinnom, Kidron, and Tyropean. The Kidron Valley (Valley of the Brook Kedron or Jehosephant) is located on the eastern side of the city, the Hinnom Valley (Valley of Ben Hinnom or Gehenna) runs south, then east going around the western side of the city, and the Tyropean is between these two valley's on the southern end of the city. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.returntogod.com/jerusalem/valleys.htm

The Valley of Hinnom

The Valley of Hinnom is located outside of Jerusalem to the southwest of the city walls. This valley, along with the Kidron Valley, was in ancient times one of the major defenses guarding the Holy city. Kendra Howard [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.palestineremembered.com/GeoPoints/Silwan_1593/Picture_10222.html

Lion's Gate Photo

Known in Hebrew as the Lion's Gate. Legend has it that the lions engraved on both sides of the gate were placed there by the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, because he had dreamed that he would be devoured by lions unless he built a wall around the Holy City for the defense of the citizens. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.ianandwendy.com/slideshow/Israel/Jerusalem/Old_City_Gates/picture9.htm

Jaffa Gate Photo

Jaffa Gate is the principal entrance to the Old City. Its name in Arabic is Bab-el-Khalil, the gate of Hebron, as the main road to Hebron started here. It was also called Jaffa Gate because the road to Jaffa and the coast also started from it [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/Sites/DavidTower.html#Jaffa gate

Dung Gate

The Dung Gate is mentioned in the book of Nehemiah as a dispatch point for the city's refuse. It would appear that it was through this gate that the refuse was removed from the city. Notice the Western Wall just above the Dung Gate and the Temple Mount in the background. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.jerusalemite.net/guides/1644/dung-gate

Western Wall Photo

The Western Wall is one of the few surviving sections of the huge Temple Mount enclosure built by King Herod 2,000 years ago. After the destruction of the second temple by the Romans in 70 C.E., the Western Wall gradually became a Jewish holy place "by proxy," and symbolizes not only he mourning for the destroyed Temple , but also the eternal hope of redemption. The western wall is 20 meters high. The seven lower layers, some 7 meters in height, are constructed of huge stones, cut in the special fashion typical of Herod. Additional layers, from later periods , are found on top of those laid by Herod. Further layers from the second temple period are still buried. Extensive excavations have been carried out on this site since the six-day war. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-western-wall-pictures/

Sennacherib`s Account

The same account as the Bible event was recorded for the library at Nineveh and the clay tablet of the record is now in the British Museum. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch11.htm

Ruins of Babylon

The same account as the Bible event was recorded for the library at Nineveh and the clay tablet of the record is now in the British Museum. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch12.htm

Great Isaiah Scroll

Probably the most valuable of these documents is the `Isaiah Scroll`. Some 23 feet long and made of leather, it is a remarkable testimony to the textual accuracy of the Bible as we know it today. Modern methods of estimating the age of the scroll and its flax, or linen cover, reveal the fact that it is a transcription of the complete text of the book of Isaiah made in about 100 B.C. The Qumran Isaiah scrolls are two. Q or Qa is the Qumran Great Isaiah Scroll and Qb is the Qumran Scroll of Isaiah that is about 75% complete. Qa, the Qumran Great Isaiah Scroll is complete from the first word on page 1 to the last word on page 54. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.ao.net/~fmoeller/qumdir.htm

The roof tops of the old city of Jerusalem.

A view over the roof tops of the Old City of Jerusalem. In the middle is the golden roof of the Dome of the Rock at the Temple Mount. [Archaeology]

Link: http://blog.lib.umn.edu/mill1974/EGAD/images/Israel05/jerumar_DotRrooftops.jpg

The Western Wall in Jerusalem.

Historical Photos [Archaeology]

Link: http://aish.com/wallcam/Historical_Photos.asp

The roof tops of the old city of Jerusalem.

A view over the roof tops of the Old City of Jerusalem. In the top left corner is the golden roof of the Dome of the Rock at the Temple Mount. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.dkimages.com/discover/Home/Geography/Asia/Israel/Unassigned/General-455.html

The Roman Aqueducts at Caesarea Maritima.

Photos. Since Ceasarea lacked a natural water source, aqueducts were built by the Romans to bring in fresh water. Most water in Israel comes from the mountains in the north. The Romans built huge aqueducts to bring in water. [Archaeology]

Link: http://tommyimages.com/Stock_Photos/Middle_East/Israel/Caesarea/slides/Israel_1334-Roman_Aqueducts.html

Aerial photograph of Caesarea Maritima

Aerial View Of Ancient Roman Port Of Caesarea [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/see_image_details.php?idi=81

SunWatch : Archaeology : Children and Archaeology

Children and Archaeology The Importance of Pottery "Ancient" Pottery Excavation Activity Why I Became an Archaeologist Insight into Ancient Egypt Archaeology Party: Mummy Wrap Activity What Does an Archaeologist do? The Unexpected (and Sometimes Unpleasant) Side of Archaeology Archaeology Party: Edible Archaeology My Favorite Archaeological Subject All Pages [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.sunwatch.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=37&Itemid=44&limitstart=2

Washing Pottery

Washing pottery: Another side of how archaeology works. Llandeilo roman Fort dig w/ digging and washing of pottery [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.cambria.org.uk/digllandeilofort.htm

Two clay tablets (Hazor)

Two clay tablets written in Cuneiform found in the vicinity of the Canaanite palace. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/tablets.htm

Map of the upper and lower city (Hazor)

A map of the Tel and the lower city showing main areas of excavation since Yadin's excavations in the 1950's. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/telmap.htm

Epigraphical Museum of Athens

The purpose of the museum, which is a Special Regional Service of the Ministry of Culture, is to safeguard, protect, conserve, display and promote the epigraphical collections that it contains.

Link: http://www.culture.gr/h/1/eh151.jsp?obj_id=3348

Index of Ogham Inscriptions

Index of Ogham inscriptions, bibliography, and image bank. [Epigraphy]

Link: http://titus.uni-frankfurt.de/ogam/

Rune Typology Project

The project is aiming to create a new transliteration system for runes in order to facilitate comparison of such texts. The site includes a searchable database of runic inscriptions. [Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.nb.no/baser/runer/RB.html

Cornell Greek Epigraphy Project

Information regarding the Cornell Project, which is encoding epigraphic texts into a CD-ROM format. [Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.culture.gr/h/1/eh151.jsp?obj_id=3348

University of Southern Florida Expedition at Sepphoris

Information from several seasons of excavation at Sepphoris, Israel, and an extensive discussion of the glass found on site. [Archaeology] [Excavations]

Link: http://www.colby.edu/rel/archaeology/Israel.htm

Tel Dor Photos and Info

Dig information and photos from excavations at Tel Dor, Israel. Eric Kondratieff's web site is devoted to Tel Dor, an important archaeological site on Israel's Mediterranean coastline. Also known as Tantura or Khirbet el-Burq (its Arabic names), Tel Dor is located fifteen miles south of Haifa, and just eight miles north of Caesarea; the temporary home for dig volunteers is in nearby Pardess Hanna (See map of Israel with locations). [Archaeology] [Excavations]

Link: http://sscl.berkeley.edu/~teldor/

The source of the Israelite water system (Hazor)

The tunnel is directed westwards towards the water level within the precincts of the Tell. Its dimensions and direction indicate the soundness of the geological knowledge possessed by the Israelite engineers. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/waterso.htm

The Israelite water system (Hazor)

The Hazor water system dates to the 9th century BC and was used until the final destruction of the Israelite city in the 8th century BC. The width of the rock-hewn steps leading down to the water suggest that water was brought up by pack animals descending and ascending simultaneously. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/watersy.htm

Plan of the water system (Hazor)

The entrance to the tunnel is situated at the western edge of the shaft bottom. The tunnel itself runs south-west for approximately 25m, sloping down gradually to the water level. The vaulted ceiling of the tunnel is some 4m high. The total depth of the shaft and the tunnel is about 40m. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/wsplan.htm

UCSD Archaeological Field Schools in the Middle East

Site information from both Nahal Tillah, Israel, and Wadi Fidan, Jordan. [Archaeology] [Excavations]

Link: http://weber.ucsd.edu/Depts/Anthro/classes/tlevy/

Combined Caesarea Expeditions

Site information regarding current excavations at Caesarea Maritima, Israel. Underwater Excavations of Sebastos: King Herod's Harbor. The ancient harbor at Caesarea, Israel is located on the Mediterranean coast midway between Tel Aviv and Haifa near the Kibbutz Sdot Yam (34 deg 53.5 min E 32 deg 30.5 min N). The harbor was commissioned and built by Herod the Great in 21 BC. Herod used a new Roman building technique which incorporated newly invented material, hydraulic concrete, to build harbor moles out from the coastline. The early history of the harbor is documented by Josephus Flavius, however, the later history is still largely unknown (the harbor is presently submerged 5-7m below mean sea level). Recent excavations have focused on reconstructing the method of harbor construction and the morphology of the harbor in order to understand how the harbor functioned and how it changed through time. [Archaeology] [Excavations]

Link: http://park.org/Canada/Museum/caesarea/CaesareaHome.html

Archaelogical Excavations at Cetamura del Chianti

Information regarding excavations at Cetamura, Italy, occupied during both the Hellentistic period and early Roman Empire. Includes some images from the site. [Archaeology] [Excavations]

Link: http://www.chiantinet.it/archeologia/cetamura/welcome.html

Classical and Mediterranean Archaeology Homepage

Lengthy list of sites as well as search tools for classical and mediterranean archaeology, and lists of other indexes. [Index Sites] [Collections]

Link: http://www.gzg.fn.bw.schule.de/faecher/links/classic.htm

Destruction of Herod's Temple and Intermediate occupation

The Temple Platform at Caesarea Maritima: Destruction of Herod's Temple and Intermediate Occupation Construction of the Temple to Roma and Augustus on the highest point of the city facing the harbor was meant to symbolize the connection between Herod and his patron, Augustus. [Articles] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.bibleinterp.com/articles/Stabler_Maritima_Herod.htm

King Herod's Temple of Roma and Augustus at Caesarea Maritim

This deluxe volume contains 40 papers from an international symposium - held on January 3-11, 1995 - on Caesarea Maritima, a celebrated Jewish, Roman, and Early Christian city. Climaxing a major excavation campaign in 1992-95 [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

Link: https://coursebible.com/books

Underwater Archaeology

Introduction to Marine Archaeology in Israel. Classification of Underwater Archaeological Sites Submerged prehistoric settlements 1. Settlement: structures, installations, burials, tools. 2. Seasonal settlement: installations, tools. 3. Concentration of ancient remnants. Coastal settlements 1. Coastal town: structures and installations on the coastline and in the sea. 2. Coastal settlement: village, fortress, structures, installations. 3. Concentration of ancient remnants. Shipwrecks 1. Remains of wooden hull and cargo. 2. Concentration of cargo and remnants of vessel lacking wooden sections of the hull. 3. Concentration of ballast stones. 4. Single find that originated from a ship. Ports and Anchorages 1. Built-up port: docks, quays and breakwaters. 2. Anchorage: natural formation improved by man. 3. Natural anchorage: temporary shelter ships in a bay or a natural feature. 4. Anchorage in open sea: concentration of anchors off shore. Rock-cut installations on the coastline 1. Quarries. 2. Pools. 3. Slipways 4. Channels. 5. Installations for producing salt. 6. Rock-cut bollards and mooring facilities [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.antiquities.org.il/article_Item_eng.asp?sec_id=27&subj_id=232

Caesarea cache of 11 gold ornaments

Gold ornaments found under a floor in Caesarea, Israel, reflect the city's wealth during the Late Roman era. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.he.net/~archaeol/9611/newsbriefs/caesarea.html

Herod the Great's Enormous Temple Base Found

Foundation stones of Herod the Great's enormous temple in Caesarea, Israel, built 2,000 years ago as a display of his loyalty to Augustus, were recently uncovered by archaeologists from the University of Maryland and Israel's Haifa University. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.he.net/~archaeol/9601/newsbriefs/caesarea.html

Caesarea Research Projects

In 21 BC, King Herod the Great, ruler of the Jewish state of Judea, commissioned and built an all-weather harbor at Caesarea. He hoped to ingratiate himself to the new ruler of Rome, Caesar Augustus, and at the same time to satisfy some of his economic needs. The construction of the harbor was difficult due to natural constraints presented by the Israeli coastline ( Israeli Coastline ). The coast is straight, with no natural topography that could be expanded upon to build a harbor. However, Herod's engineers succeeded in building an all-weather harbor by using hydraulic concrete, a new Roman building material, to construct breakwaters extending out into the sea. ( A View of Herod's Harbor ). Construction of the harbor took twelve years. Herod named the completed city Caesarea and the harbor Sebastos (Greek for Augustus) (Details on Harbor Construction ). Archaeological evidence suggests that the city of Caesarea had a bustling harbor at least up to the mid to late first century. However, findings suggest the outer harbor had some problems towards the end of the 1st century AD which affected harbor use. Currently, there is no conclusive evidence to indicate whether these problems were due to natural or human-induced causes. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

Link: http://park.org/Canada/Museum/caesarea/research.html

Caesarea Harbor Construction

Caesarea is located today half way between Tel Aviv and Haifa on Israel's Mediterranean coast. It was here that Herod the Great built the city of Caesarea Maritima with Sebastos, its huge harbour complex. Although Herod chose the then ruinous town of Straton's Tower as the nucleus for his new city and port, it had no natural features that made it suited to the formation of a large harbour, a fact vividly recorded by Flavius Josephus (Jewish War, 1930: 410-414; Jewish Antiquities 1930: 331-342)(Josephus' Description ). He noted the absence of any suitable anchorage along the coastline of the region from Dor to Jaffa, and how even in mild weather conditions the sea was always rough. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

Link: http://park.org/Canada/Museum/caesarea/Harborconst.html

The Single Mission Barges of Caesarea Maritima

Caesarea is located today half way between Tel Aviv and Haifa on Israel's Mediterranean coast. It was here that Herod the Great built the city of Caesarea Maritima with Sebastos, its huge harbour complex. Christopher Brandon [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

Link: http://park.org/Canada/Museum/caesarea/Harborconst.html

Pool of Bethesda

The Pool of Bethesda is adjacent to St. Anne's Church. It is mentioned in the Gospel of John (5:2ff.) in conjunction with Jesus' healing of a paralyzed man. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.allaboutarchaeology.org/pool-of-bethesda-faq.htm

Space Radar of Jerusalem Region

This space radar image shows the area surrounding the Dead Sea along the West Bank between Israel and Jordan. The yellow area at the top of the image is the city of Jericho. A portion of the Dead Sea is shown as the large black area at the top right side of the image. The Jordan River is the white line at the top of the image which flows into the Dead Sea. Jerusalem, which lies in the Judaean Hill Country, is the bright, yellowish area shown along the left center of the image. Just below and to the right of Jerusalem is the town of Bethlehem. The city of Hebron is the white, yellowish area near the bottom of the image. (The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 3, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour.) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.godweb.org/maps/134.htm

Recent Discoveries at Ashkelon (article)

By David Schloen, Assistant Professor of Syro-Palestinian Archaeology The Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations The Oriental Institute The University of Chicago

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/ASH/NN_Spr95/NN_Spr95.html

The Pool of Bethesda and the Church of St. Anne (article)

Further in the chapter, we read that Jesus heals the sick man found at the pool. "Bethesda", which means a spring fed pool with five porches, is Hebrew in origin, coming from the word "Chesda", meaning house of mercy. The supposed remains of the pool of Bethesda are on the east side of Jerusalem, contiguous on one side to St. Stephen's gate and on the northern side is the area of the temple mount. It is believed to be 120 paces long and 40 paces wide and about 8 feet deep but contains no water. On its west end are some old dammed up arches which are connected to the five porches mentioned in the verses. There is some discussion among scholars that there are only three or four porches instead of five. During the Roman Period, a temple dedicated to the god Serapis was located on this site. Anne Stanford [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.atlastours.net/holyland/st_anne_church_and_bethesda_pool.html

Old City Jerusalem Map

Nice illustrative map of the old city. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.planetware.com/map/old-city-jerusalem-map-isr-oldjer_n.htm

The Hazor Excavations

Some past excavation details as well as seasonal reports. a joint project of the Hebrew University, Complutense University of Madrid and the Israel Exploration Society. Currently being excavated are Israelite private and administrative buildings, a Canaanite high place and a large palace. Impressive works of art and four cuneiform tablets - part of Hazor's archives - have been unearthed in the past 6 seasons.

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/reports.htm

The Hazor Excavations (History of Hazor)

Hazor comprises of two distinct sections: The upper city (the acropolis) and the lower city (the fortified enclosure) lying close to the north. Hazor was the largest site of the Biblical period of Israel. It was approximately 10 times the size of Jerusalem in the days of David and Solomon. (Canaanite and Israelite Hazor with some photos).

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/history.htm

The Hazor Excavations (Picture Gallery)

Hazor comprises of two distinct sections: The upper city (the acropolis) and the lower city (the fortified enclosure) lying close to the north. Hazor was the largest site of the Biblical period of Israel. It was approximately 10 times the size of Jerusalem in the days of David and Solomon. (Canaanite and Israelite Hazor with some photos).

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/gallery.htm

Hazor

The biblical city of Hazor was a site of Canaanite and Israelite settlement. Known as Tell el-Qedah in Arabic, Hazor is the largest biblical era site in Israel. The name "Hazor" may mean "enclosure" or "settlement" and was, therefore, not a unique place name in ancient Canaan. The most important settlement known as Hazor, however, was the fortified site in Naphtali (Joshua 19:36) identified with Tell el-Qedah, which is located about 10 miles north of the Sea of Galilee. The site consists of a mound, or tell, of about 30 acres, the area of the acropolis or compound of administrative palaces, and to the north the lower city measuring some 175 acres. Covering roughly 200 acres, Hazor is four times the size of Lachish, Israel's second largest site.

Link: http://www.bibarch.com/ArchaeologicalSites/Hazor.htm

Tel Hazor (excavations at Hazor)

Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. This site provides information about Tel Hazor and information for prospective volunteers who may wish to participate in further excavations at Hazor. No previous experience in archaeology is required.

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/hazor.html

The "flight of stairs" (excavations at Hazor)

A flight of stairs leading westward from the podium in Area M. The stairs - like the floor and podium - are made of basalt indicating the significance of this area. Photo is taken at the end of excavations in 1995. Two more stairs leading to a pebble-paved floor were excavated in 1996. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/steps.htm

The Tel Hazor acropolis (upper city)

An aerial view of the acropolis at Hazor. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/acro.htm

A map of the acropolis (Hazor)

A map of the upper city (acropolis, Tel) showing the main areas excavated in the renewed excavations since 1990, and the significant Israelite (iron age) remains. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/acromap.htm

Canaanite palace (Hazor)

An aerial view of Area A from the West. The Canaanite palace is at the bottom of the picture. The six-chambered "Solomonic Gate" is visible at the top left of the picture. The picture was taken at the end of excavations in 1996. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/areaa.htm

Jewels of the Canaanite palace (Hazor)

Jewelry from the Canaanite palace (beads, earrings, cylinder seals, ivory plaques and gold sheet). Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/beads.htm

Canaanite Palace (Hazor)

Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. Rising dramatically beyond a bend in the road linking the Sea of Galilee with Israel's northern border, Tel Hazor stands as prominently on the landscape today as when the Canaanite city founded on the site was at the height of its prosperity and international influence some View of the main entrance to the Late Bronze Age palace 3500 years ago. [Recent Archaeological Discoveries at Hazor ]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/entran.htm

History of Hazor

Canaanite Hazor and Israelite Hazor. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/history.htm

The "ibni" tablet (Hazor)

A letter sent to Ibni (-addu?) king of Hazor (18th century BCE). Found in the vicinity of the Canaanite Palace. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/ibni.htm

Canaanite bronze figurine (Hazor)

A volunteer admiring one of the bronze figurines found in the Canaanite palace. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/jerry.htm

The "podium" (Hazor)

A Canaanite cultic (or civic) platform, made of basalt found in Area M. The top is made from a single piece of basalt estimated to weigh close to 2 tons. It may have supported a chair or throne as there are four precise circular depressions in the center of the basalt block. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/podium.htm

The restored Israelite buildings (Hazor)

The "four rooms" building on left and the "pillared" building on the right were moved and restored in a new location to enable excavations beneath them. The restoration also enabled better preservation and makes them accessible to the public. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/restore.htm

Canaanite bronze figurine (Hazor)

A Canaanite bronze figurine of a smiting god with inlaid eyes. The spear in its right hand is now missing. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/smiting.htm

The uncovering of the "flight of stairs" (Hazor)

A flight of stairs leading westward from the podium was discovered underneath this volunteer only a few minutes after this photo was taken. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/stacey.htm

Canaanite Bronze Figurine (Hazor)

A Canaanite bronze figurine probably of a nobleman found in 1996. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/statue.htm

The "flight of stairs" (Hazor)

A flight of stairs leading westward from the podium in Area M. The stairs - like the floor and podium - are made of basalt indicating the significance of this area. Photo is taken at the end of excavations in 1995. Two more stairs leading to a pebble-paved floor were excavated in 1996. Hazor was an ancient Canaanite and Israelite city located in the north of modern day Israel. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed how important this city was in antiquity. [The Hazor Excavations]

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/steps.htm

Tel Dor Harbor Archaeological Expedition

Throughout Biblical times, from the days of Solomon to the reign of Herod the Great, the harbor at Dor acted as a magnet, drawing commerce and conquerors to the Carmel coast. One of the few natural harbors on Israel`s Mediterranean coast, Dor today is one of the country`s largest archaeological sites and an important key to understanding the sequence of occupation during Biblical and later times.

Link: http://www.jca.co.za/my%20contents/DOR%202008%20WEBSITE%201.htm

Aqueduct (France)

Pont du Gard, near Nîmes (Roman Nemausus), France. This aqueduct bridge, erected in 19 B.C., carried an estimated 30,000 cubic meters of water daily across the Gardon river. The entire aqueduct stretched 50 kilometers from the water source near Uzès to the Roman city of Nemausus. After crossing the Pont du Gard (at a height of 49 meters), the water passed over an additional six aqueduct bridges before reaching Nemausus. © 1995 Craig R. Bina [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://xoanon.earth.northwestern.edu/public/craig/archaeology/figs/gard.html

Castlerigg Stone Circle

Castlerigg Stone Circle, near Keswick, England. This cromlech, or stone circle, dates from the bronze age. © Craig R. Bina [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://xoanon.earth.northwestern.edu/public/craig/archaeology/figs/keswick.html

Hypocausts (Italy)

Hypocausts, Fiesole (Roman Faesulae), near Firenze, Italy. These large brick conduits, or hypocausts, carried heated air beneath the floors of this Roman bath complex in the formerly Etruscan town of Faesulae. © 1996 Craig R. Bina [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://xoanon.earth.northwestern.edu/public/craig/archaeology/figs/caust.html

A milliarium (Roman Milestone),

Barca da Mó, near Caldas do Gerês, Portugal. This Hadrianic milestone is one of several in place along the Roman military road to Bracara Augusta (modern Braga). © 1993 Craig R. Bina [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://xoanon.earth.northwestern.edu/public/craig/archaeology/figs/miles.html

Granite obelisk, Istanbul

Granite obelisk, Istanbul (ancient Byzantium, later Constantinople), Turkey. This Egyptian obelisk of the fifteenth century B.C. pharoah Thothmes III was transported to Byzantium from Heliopolis by the emperor Theodosius in the fourth century B.C. There it was erected along the spina (the long, low wall running down the middle of a racecourse, usually decorated with monuments) of the Hippodrome of Severus (the modern Atmeidan). Later in the fourth century B.C. it was toppled by an earthquake, but Theodosius had it re-erected on the same site. Note the absence of significant weathering of the hard granite stone. © Craig R. Bina [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://xoanon.earth.northwestern.edu/public/craig/archaeology/figs/granite.html

Aqueduct (Turkey)

Ruined aqueduct, Bergama (Greek Pergamon, Roman Pergamum) Turkey. This aqueduct, part of the complex water supply network of the Roman city of Pergamum, was destroyed by an earthquake in 262 A.D. © Craig R. Bina [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://xoanon.earth.northwestern.edu/public/craig/archaeology/figs/aque.html

Calcium Deposits (France)

Calcium Deposits, Pont du Gard, near Nîmes (Roman Nemausus), France. These calcium deposits, precipitated from the locally hard water, accumulated in the main channel of the Roman aqueduct bridge Pont du Gard over the centuries during which it was in continuous use as part of the water supply of the Roman city of Nemausus. © 1995 Craig R. Bina [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://xoanon.earth.northwestern.edu/public/craig/archaeology/figs/calc.html

Cromlech (England)

Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, near Amesbury, England. Construction of this cromlech, or stone circle, extended from the early bronze age through later centuries. These trilithons of ``sarsen'' granite comprise the inner portion of the circle, with a ring of smaller ``bluestones'' surrounding it. © Craig R. Bina [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://xoanon.earth.northwestern.edu/public/craig/archaeology/figs/henge.html

Marble obelisk, Istanbul

Marble obelisk, Istanbul (ancient Byzantium, later Constantinople), Turkey. This Roman obelisk was erected in Byzantium along the spina (the long, low wall running down the middle of a racecourse, usually decorated with monuments) of the Hippodrome of Severus (the modern Atmeidan) and was originally covered in bronze plates. Note the presence of significant weathering of the soft stone. © 1992 Craig R. Bina [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://xoanon.earth.northwestern.edu/public/craig/archaeology/figs/marble.html

Port (Italy) (with Roman Road)

Excavations in Classe (Roman Classis) near Ravenna, Italy. This Roman road runs beside the harbor canal of the Roman port of Classis. The canal was constructed circa 25 B.C. to join Classis, the port of the city of Ravenna, to the estuary of the river Po in an attempt to combat the continual silting up of the harbor. Formation of mudflats by silting has proceeded to such a degree that the modern coast has receded to a distance of approximately eight kilometers from the ancient harbor. © 1996 Craig R. Bina [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://xoanon.earth.northwestern.edu/public/craig/archaeology/figs/classe.html

Harbor, Efes (ancient Ephesus), near Selçuk, Turkey

Harbor, Efes (ancient Ephesus), near Selçuk, Turkey. The harbor environs of the Roman city of Ephesus, as viewed from the slopes of Mt. Pion, illustrate the silting up of what was a major Roman port. The colonnaded avenue, the Arcadiana, ends at the edge of the harbor proper, but the modern coastline has receded into the distance. The shifting delta of the river Cayster caused regular silting problems in the harbor, and major engineering efforts to combat this were documented in 60 A.D. and 129 A.D. After a series of major earthquakes in the fourth century A.D., such attempts to maintain the harbor were finally abandoned. Further silting of the habor, accompanied by development of malarial marshlands, was documented in 431, 449, and 716 A.D., and this part of the city of Ephesus was completely abandoned by the tenth century. © 1992 Craig R. Bina [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://xoanon.earth.northwestern.edu/public/craig/archaeology/figs/harbor.html

Roman Water Pipes, Arles (Roman Arelate), France

A battery of these lead pipes transported a portion of the water supply of the Roman city of Arelate across the broad bed of the swift river Rhône. © 1995 Craig R. Bina [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://xoanon.earth.northwestern.edu/public/craig/archaeology/figs/pipes.html

Via Domitia

Via Domitia, near Lunel (Roman Ambrussum), France. The Via Domitia, the major Roman road spanning southern France from Italy to Spain constructed 125-121 B.C., crossed the Vidourle river at the Roman town of Ambrussum. © 1995 Craig R. Bina [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://xoanon.earth.northwestern.edu/public/craig/archaeology/figs/domit.html

Ephesus - A Panoramic Virtual Tour

Images focusing on ancient Ephesus. HISTORICAL SITES IN TURKEY [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.sailturkey.com/panoramas/ephesus/

Archaeology and History Attest to the Bible`s Reliability

By Richard M. Fales, Ph.D. [from the Biblical and American Archaeologist]

Link: http://www.drfalesbaa.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=23&Itemid=31

Who was the Pharoah Akhenaten

The Heretic King (1372-1354 BC) By Richard M. Fales, Ph.D. [from the Biblical and American Archaeologist]

Link: http://www.drfalesbaa.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=24&Itemid=31

Ark of the Covenant - Pharaoh Pillages the Temple

"Who is the Pharoah that Pillaged the Temple of Jerusalem and did he really steal the Ark of the Covenant?" By Richard M. Fales, Ph.D. [from the Biblical and American Archaeologist]

Link: http://www.drfalesbaa.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=25&Itemid=31

The Biblical and American Archaeologist

The Biblical and American Archaeologist (BAA) exists to help people learn about archaeology as it relates to the Old and New Testament for the purpose of gaining a deeper understanding of the Scriptures. It serves to demonstrate the incredible accuracy of the Bible as an ancient document, and to create a base of fellowship for people with these interests.

Link: http://www.drfalesbaa.com/

1st Cent. AD Shipwreck and the Lead Ingots

Josephus wrote his composition referring to Sebastosas an intact, properly operating complex, it appears that the placement and date of the wreck indicates the harbor's. The most surprising items recovered from this site are a group of lead ingots (Photo of Lead Ingots); all are of the same mold and are undoubtedly from the wrecked vessel. Two of these ingots still retain their original form and imprinted markings, including the imperial imprint on their crest, which can easily be read as: IMP.DOMIT.CAESARIS.AUG.GER. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

Link: http://park.org/Canada/Museum/caesarea/leadingo.html

Josephus' description of Sebastos

The historian Flavius Josephus, who was born around 7 or 8 CE, published a history of the Jewish War between 75 and 79 CE and a history of the Jewish people in 93-94 CE. Both these works contain a detailed description of the city of Caesarea and its harbour, Sebastos. Despite certain inevitable inaccuracies, the data contained in these descriptions has been of great value in assisting the reconstruction of the layout and appearance of the harbour in the Flavian period. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

Link: http://park.org/Canada/Museum/caesarea/Joseph.html

A tale of King Herod, concrete and a sunken harbor

Although precisely how and when portions of the ancient harbor of Caesarea Maritima sank beneath the sea is still the subject of scholarly dispute, it is clear that the underwater ruins are a boon for maritime archeologists and historians. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

Link: http://whyfiles.org/036pirates/cement.html

Caesarea Expeditions

Various areas of excavations including underwater. includes photos and maps. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.caesarea.landscape.cornell.edu/excavations.html

The Dig at Bet Shean

In this area lies the 80 metre (263 feet ) high tel of Beth-shean, one of the oldest cities in Bible Lands. The remains of twenty layers of settlement have been found going back more than three thousand years B.C. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch3.htm

Egypt At The Time Of Moses

Bricks for building were made from clay and strengthened with straw; this was a manufacturing method employed in Egypt over 1,000 years before Christ. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch4.htm

The House Of David

At Tel Dan in upper Galilee in Northern Israel a fragment of an inscription on basalt stone has been uncovered. It was part of the paving near the entrance of the outer gate of the ancient city of Dan. In 1992, in order to tidy up the site for presentation to visitors, a heap of debris was removed which dated from the time of the Assyrian destruction of the city by Tiglath-pileser lll - no doubt a legacy of his campaign against northern Israel. [2 Kings 15v29] Unexpectedly, a hitherto unknown gateway to the city was uncovered. The entrance led to a courtyard where stood a low stone platform large enough to take a throne. This possibly marked the place where the king would sit on ceremonial occasions. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch5.htm

Harbor Chronology. (Caesarea)

A brief historical chronology of the harbor from primary documents by Dr. Avner Raban. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

Link: http://hoopermuseum.earthsci.carleton.ca//caesarea/chrono.html

Ophir

`Gold from Ophir for Beth-horon 30 Shekels` is the translation of an inscription on a potsherd that was found at Tell Qasileh (near Tel Aviv). The exact location of Ophir remains a mystery, although there have been many ideas put forward by Bible students. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch6.htm

Moab

The Moabite stone was discovered in 1868. It was found in the land of Moab and was carved with an inscription. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch7.htm

Tel Mardikh

On this site of a 4,000 year old fortification, perhaps the most remarkable `find` of the century has been uncovered - 18,000 fired clay and rock tablets relating to the economy, administration and international dealings of this once great empire of Ebla. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch8.htm

Black Obelisk From Assyria

The Black Obelisk was discovered by Henry Layard in 1845 and describes the campaigns of Shalmanezer III of Assyria who reigned at about 850 B.C. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/obelisk.html

Hezakiah`s Aquaduct

A tunnel was constructed from the spring at Gihon - what is now called the Virgin`s Fountain - under the city walls and through the rock to the southern end of the city of Jerusalem, to the pool of Siloam. This would be a difficult feat in these days of sophisticated surveying and measuring equipment. It was even more remarkable for the times of Hezekiah, because the impending invasion meant there was very little time and gangs of workmen had to start from either end. When the tunnel was complete, the spring outside the city was blocked up and the water flowed into the city. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch10.htm

The Scrolls from the Dead Sea

Scrolls from the Dead Sea:The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Scholarship "The exhibition Scrolls From the Dead Sea: The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Scholarship brings before the American people a selection from the scrolls which have been the subject of intense public interest." [Rome] [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.ibiblio.org/expo/deadsea.scrolls.exhibit/intro.html

Scrolls from the Dead Sea:

The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Scholarship "The exhibition Scrolls From the Dead Sea: The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Scholarship brings before the American people a selection from the scrolls which have been the subject of intense public interest." [Rome] [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://sunsite.unc.edu/expo/deadsea.scrolls.exhibit/intro.html

ArchNet

"ArchNet serves as the World Wide Web Virtual Library for Archaeology. This server provides access to archaeological resources available on the Internet. Information is categorized by geographic region and subject." [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.lib.uconn.edu/ArchNet/

Classics and Mediterranean Archaeology Home Page

"This server collects links to known internet resources of interest to classicists and Mediterranean archaeologists." [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.gzg.fn.bw.schule.de/faecher/links/classic.htm

Pompeii Forum Project: Home Page

"The Pompeii Forum Project is a collaborative research venture that is archaeologicaly based, heavily dependent upon advanced technology, and so conceived as to address broad issues in urban history and urban design. Evidence gathered to date challenges commonly held and widely published notions about the evolution of the forum, especially during the final years of the city's life. The goals are to provide the first systematic documentation of the architecture and decoration of the forum, to interpret evidence as it pertains to Pompeii's urban history, and to make wider contributions to both the history of urbanism and contemporary problems of urban design." [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/pompeii/

CAD and the reconstruction of Pompeii

Using CAD for the reconstruction of the forum at Pompeii has allowed the project to study aspects of the forum that were not possible to explore without such technology. The project goal was to construct an accurate 3D model of the forum as it exists today, a model that presents not only walls and columns, but more importantly, describes the different construction phases of the forum based on John Dobbins' observation and analysis. [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.iath.virginia.edu/struct/pompeii/patterns/

WebAcropol

Provides viewers with a virtual tour of the Acropolis in Athens. [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.ne.jp/asahi/daikannw/network/webacropol/

Archaeology and Architecture

This page contains all kinds of archaeological information for European archaeology,especially the Mediterrenean. It also provides a lot of interesting links to archaeology and/or architecture related web-sites. [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.xs4all.nl/~mkosian/#WEB-SITES

Archaeological Fieldwork Server

"This service is designed to allow those seeking archaeological fieldwork opportunities to browse postings submitted by those who have them to offer." [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.archaeologyfieldwork.com/forums/index.php

Simon James`s ANCIENT CELTS PAGE

"This is an experimental home page, presenting "some stuff" about the peoples referred to as Ancient Celts written from the view point of an archaeologist. [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.ares.u-net.com/celthome.htm

PIB's Archaeology Page

A meta-index guide to links concerned with archaeological research in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas. [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.pibburns.com/archaeo.htm

Voice of the Shuttle: Archaeology Page

The "Voice of the Shuttle: Web Page for Humanities Research" woven by Alan Liu. A meta-index guide to archaeological resources on the web focusing on general resources, archaeological sites, projects and Musueums, historical preservation, journals, departments and programs, course syllabi and teaching resources, listservers and newsgroups, and conferences and call for papers. [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://vos.ucsb.edu/browse.asp?id=2704

The Archaeology of Early Latium

Brief descriptions of the pre-Roman settlements at Ficana, Lavinium, and Osteria dell` Osa. [Vergil`s Aeneid: Commentary] [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://vergil.classics.upenn.edu/comm2/archaeology/latium.html

Archaeological Resource Guide for Europe

Virtual Library for European Archaeology [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://odur.let.rug.nl/arge/

Spanish Excavations at Mount Testaccio

(Rome) "Mount Testaccio is an artificial hill located within the Aurelian wall of Rome.It is at the south of the modern part of the city and behind the old river port. It has a perimeter of almost one kilometer and a maximum altitude over the sea-level of 45 meters. This hill is exclusively made of the remains of millions of amphorae that arrived in Rome during the first three centuries of our era". [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.ub.es./CEIPAC/test_u.html

The University of Arizona excavations at Lugnano

, in Teverina, Italy by Professor David Soren, University of Arizona, Photography by Noelle Soren. [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://w3.coh.arizona.edu/projects/lugnano/default.html

The Second Campaign of Excavations:

Chianciano Terme, Tuscany, Italy. by Professor David Soren, University of Arizona, Photography by Noelle Soren. With the help of the community of Chianciano Terme, a team from the University of Arizona has initiated excavation of an archaeological zone in the locality of central Chianciano known as Mezzomiglio. The zone was partially excavated in 1993 by Giulio Paolucci, the well known archaeologist and author of Etruscan studies from Chianciano Terme. [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://w3.coh.arizona.edu/projects/terme/terme.html

A Guide to Underwater Archaeology Resources on the Internet

"This Web page began as a project for a class entitled "Internet Resources and Services" taught in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, at the University of Texas - Austin. We chose the term "underwater" in order to include any archaeology done underwater." [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.pophaus.com/underwater/

Texas A&M University Nautical Archaeology Program

Nautical archaeology, Biblical archaeology, Near East, Archery. Faculty; Fredrick Hocker [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://nautarch.tamu.edu/

Archaeological Excavations 1999 (Israel Foreign Ministry)

"This list of archaeological expeditions which accept volunteers is compiled by the Israel Foreign Ministry as a service to the public. The excavation details contained herein have been contributed by the individual expeditions, who bear responsibility for their contents." [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/History/Early+History+-+Archaeology/Archaeological+Excavations+1999.htm

Ancient History Resources

Archaeology WebSites, Ancient History Link Pages and more. [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.historesearch.com/ancient.html

Roman Archaeology Field Reports

By Patrick Conway. [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Rue/3086/roman.html

Horace's Villa Project

"This Web site presents Horace's Villa near Licenza, Italy and our new project jointly undertaken there in the period 1997-2000 under the institutional sponsorship of the American Academy in Rome and the Archaeological Superintendency for Lazio of the Italian Ministry of Culture." [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/horaces-villa/

Archaeological Institute of America

"The Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) has been dedicated to the encouragement and support of archaeological research and publication and to the protection of the world's cultural heritage for more than a century. A non-profit cultural and educational organization chartered by the U.S. Congress, it is the oldest and largest archaeological organization in North America, with more than 10,000 members around the world." [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.archaeological.org/

Learning Sites Inc.

"Digitally Reconstructed Ancient Worlds for Interactive Education and Research." [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.learningsites.com/

Archaeology Resources for Education.

BUBL LINK Catalogue of Internet Resources. "People that this list may be useful to include: archaeology on the Net; educators creating an archaeology unit for Individual and Society, Science in Society, and/or History; an Educational Archaeologist looking to use multimedia and computers in her program; students looking for information about archaeology and a possible career in archaeology...the list is potentially endless." [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://bubl.ac.uk/Link/a/archaeologyeducation.htm

Janiculum Mills Excavations:

Roman water-mills on the Janiculum Hill, Rome. "At the invitation of the American Academy in Rome, and with the kind permission of the Soprintendenza Archeologica di Roma, a 5-week excavation season was undertaken in June and July 1998 to investigate the Aqua Traiana and a large Roman water-mill complex in the Academy's parking lot, on the Janiculum Hill in Rom." Courtesy of Dr Andrew Wilson [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://users.ox.ac.uk/~corp0057/JaniculumMills.html

Aerial Archaeology.

"First French site exclusively devoted to aerial archaeology as well as convergent moderns techniques. Currently without equivalent in the world, it presents texts and images with a will of information and initiation for a very large audience. From Neolithic era to Medieval, the outstanding stages of discoveries in Poitou-Charentes are illustrated by photographs of the principal times of archaeological chronology." A site by Jacques Dassié. [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/3376/

The Dung File

"The Dung File consists of a list of references dealing with pollen, parasites, and plant remains in coprolites and latrine fills from archaeological and paleoenvironmental sites. Compiled and copyrighted by Alwynne B. Beaudoin. [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.scirpus.ca/dung/dung.shtml

Capitolium.org.

"Capitolium.org, an official source of live information on the archaeological site of the Imperial Forums. Day by day, on-line visitors can follow the development of the work which is being carried out by top-level scholars of Roman antiquity". [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://www.capitolium.org/

Internet Archaeology

"Internet Archaeology is the world's first fully refereed electronic journal for archaeology. We aim to become one of the world's archaeological journals of record and we have set ourselves the task of publishing papers of high academic standing which also try to utilise the potential of electronic publication. We wish to present the results of archaeologicalresearch in a readable manner and yet make it possible for readers to explore the data upon which conclusions are based." [Archaeology Resources]

Link: http://intarch.ac.uk/

Archaeology and the Bible

Biblical archaeology as an academic discipline, does not differ from any other type of archaeology, except that it narrows the focus to the remains of the people who lived in the land of the Bible during the period it covers. [Century One Foundation Bookstore]

Link: http://www.centuryone.org/arch-bible.html

Census Edict for Roman Egypt

This document shows a census ordered by Gaius Vibius Maximus, the Rmoan Prefectus of Egypt. GREEK TEXT (from Hunt & Edgar 1934:108), TRANSLATION by K. C. Hanson (Adapted from Hunt & Edgar). Language: Greek; Medium: papyrus; Length: 21 lines of writing; Genre: Official Edict; Date: 104 CE; Place of Discovery: Egypt Date of Discovery: ? Current Location: British Museum, London.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/greek/census.html

Marriage Contract From Egypt

This Greek document shows a Marriage Contract From Egypt written in 13 BC. It mentions Caesar Augustus and a Roman Drachma.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/greek/marriage.html

Divorce Agreement from Egypt

This Greek document shows a Marriage Contract From Egypt written in 13 BC. It mentions Caesar Augustus and a Roman Drachma.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/greek/divorce.html

Widow's Petition Ostracon

This pottery was discovered with 8 lines of Hebrew text. Legal Petition written around the 9th""7th centuries BCE.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/westsem/petition.html

The Pilate Inscription

The Pilate Inscription [text & interpretation] Language: Latin; Medium: limestone; Size: 82 centimeters high 65 centimeters wide; Length: 4 lines of writing; Genre: Building Dedication Dedicator: Pontius Pilate (praefect of Judea) Approximate Date: 26-37 CE; Place of Discovery: Caesarea, Israel; Date of Discovery: 1961; Current Location: Israel Museum(Jerusalem)

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/latin/pilate.html

Basic Facts Regarding the Dead Sea Scrolls

12 Basic Facts Regarding the Dead Sea Scrolls by Dr. James D. Tabor

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/dssfacts.html

The Masada "Cave of the Skeletons"

The Masada "Cave of the Skeletons" by Dr. James D. Tabor. Deals with The Discovery, The Burial Controversy, Radiocarbon Dating, The Nicu Haas Examination, Yoram Tzafrir's Recollections, and Concluding Observations.

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/masada.html

Map of Near Eastern Sites

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. Oriental Institute expeditions have worked in virtually every region of the Near East, excavating the remains of these ancient cultures and studying and recording their monuments. The scattering of red dots (each representing a site where the Institute has worked) on the map attests to the broad range of that involvement.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/

Maps of the Tel Rhov Dig

[Maps] [Israel] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/7987/maps.html

Map of Sites in Southern Syria and Palestine

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. ORIENTAL INSTITUTE MAP SERIES - LEVANT SITE MAP. This Map enlarges to 300 dpi for a great picture.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/levant.html

Ancient Near East Site Maps

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/site.html

Ancient Egypt - Nubia History

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: https://oi.uchicago.edu/museum-exhibits/history-ancient-nubia

Ancient Iran Site Map

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/iran.html

Large Ancient Iran Map

Large illustrative map. Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/iran.html

Ancient Iraq Site Map

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/iraq.html

Ancient Sudan and Nubia Site Map

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/sudan.html

Ancient Syria Site Map

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/syria.html

Ancient Turkey Site Map

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/turkey.html

Topographical Maps of Sites in Palestine

Topographical Maps of Israel. Inscriptions of the Land of Israel: Browse by Maps. This map goes into great detail with AUTOCAD renderings of the site, with links to inscriptions and pictures.

Link: http://www.palestineremembered.com/Acre/Maps/Story584.html

Map of Iron Age Sites

[Archaeology] [Israel]

Link: http://www.biblemysteries.com/images/philarch1.gif

The aquaduct outside of Ceasarea

Large Photo. [images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/Photos/caesereaaqueduct.jpg

The Habakkuk Commentary from Qumran

From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. 1QpHab: The Habakkuk Pesher (The Commentary on Habakkuk from Qumran, Cave 1).

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/1qphab.html

The main street in Ancient Corinth

[images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.shunya.net/Pictures/Greece/Corinth/Corinth1.jpg

The Pontius Pilate Inscription in Caesarea

Until recently, there was no contemporary evidence outside the Bible for Pilate's existence (although Tacitus, Josephus, and Philo all wrote about him). Then in 1961, Italian archaeologists excavating the theatre at Caesarea found this stone inscription of Pontius Pilate. Coins have also been found dating from Pilate's rule as governor. [Jesus] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.facingthechallenge.org/pilate.php

The famous “Corinth Canalâ€..

The Corinth Canal links the Gulf of Corinth in the northwest with the Saronic Gulf in the southeast. The canal is 3.9 miles (6.3 km) long and has a water depth of 26 feet (8 m). Its width varies from a minimum of 69 feet (21 m) at the bottom to 82 feet (25 m) maximum at the water's surface. Before it was built, ships sailing between the Aegean and Adriatic had to circumnavigate the Peloponnese adding about 185 nautical miles to their journey. The first to decide to dig the Corinth Canal was Periander, the tyrant of Corinth (602 BCE). Such a giant project was above the technical capabilities of ancient times so Periander carried out another great project, the diolkós, a stone road, on which the ships were transferred on wheeled platforms from one sea to the other. Dimitrios Poliorkitis, king of Macedon (c. 300 BCE), was the second who tried, but his engineers insisted that if the seas where connected, the more northerly Adriatic, mistakenly thought to be higher, would flood the more southern Aegean. At the time, it was also thought that Poseidon, god of the sea, opposed joining the Aegean and the Adriatic. The same fear also stopped Julius Caesar and emperors Hadrian and Caligula. The most serious try was that of Emperor Nero (67 CE). He had 6,000 slaves for the job. He started the work himself, digging with a golden hoe, while music was played. However, he was killed before the work could be completed. [images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.grisel.net/corinth_canal.htm

Manumission and Bridewealth Document

Manumission and Bridewealth Document (14th cent. BCE?)TRANSLATION by K. C. Hanson (Adapted from Finkelstein 1969:546). Language: Akkadian; Medium: Clay tablet; Size: 43 centimeters long 5 centimeters wide; Length: 25 lines of writing Genre: Manumission & Marriage Contract Approximate Date: 14th cent. BCE? Place of Discovery: Ugarit acropolis, Ras Shamra, Syria Date of Discovery: 1936 Current Location: Musée National d'Alep Aleppo, Syria.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/manumission.html

Mount of Olives Ossuaries

The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: הר הזיתים, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: جبل الزيتون, الطور‎, Jebel ez-Zeitun, Jebel et-Tur, "Mount of the Summit") is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. It is named from the olive trees with which its sides are clothed. At the foot of the mountain is the Gardens of Gethsemane where Jesus stayed in Jerusalem, according to tradition. The Mount of Olives is the site of many important Biblical events. [images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.jerusalemshots.com/Jerusalem_en65-4637.html

Ishtar Gate Inscription

Dedicatory Inscription on the Ishtar Gate, Babylon; TRANSLATION (Adapted from Marzahn 1995:29-30)Language: Akkadian Medium: glazed brick Size: c. 15 meters high c. 10 meters wide Length: 60 lines of writing Genre: Dedication Inscription Dedicator: Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylonia (reigned 605""562 BCE) Approximate Date: 600 BCE Place of Discovery: Babylon (near modern Baghdad, Iraq) Date of Excavation: 1899""1914 Current Location: Pergamon Museen (Berlin, Germany)

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/ishtarins.html

Archaeology Discussion Lists

Link: http://www.people.ku.edu/~jyounger/archlists.html

The AMPHORAS Project

This site contains information on plain, unglazed, ceramic storage containers used to carry wine, oil, fish, and other commodities around the ancient Mediterranean. AMPHORAS is making available part of the archive collected by Virginia R. Grace at the excavations of the Agora at Athens, as well as some additional materials. Included are: "- A bibliography of scholarly work on finding, identifying, and studying Greek and Roman amphoras and the trade they carried "- Passages in ancient Greek literature on the use of amphoras (quoted in English). "- Translations into English of works (or parts of works) published in Russian on amphoras "- Links to other Web sites with amphora information and/or images (excavations, wrecks, etc) and other sources of bibliography "- Searches of the bibliography files and the text of other files.

Link: http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/amphoras/cgi-bin/well?

The Ancient City of Athens

THE ANCIENT CITY OF ATHENS is a photographic archive of the archaeological and architectural remains of ancient Athens (Greece). It is intended primarily as a resource for students of classical art & archaeology, civilization, languages, and history at Indiana University as a supplement to their class lectures and reading assignments and as a source of images for use in term papers, projects, and presentations. We also hope that this site will be useful to all who have an interest in archaeological exploration and the recovery, interpretation, and preservation of the past.

Link: http://www.stoa.org/athens/sites/

Palace of Darius

PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Palace_Darius.html

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Palace_Darius.html

Cuneiform Tablets

PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Tablets.html

Julius Caesar - Wars against France and Germany

Roman civil war. [Ancient Historians and Generals]

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Caesar/index.html

Gaius Cornelius Tacitus - History of Rome

[Ancient Historians and Generals]

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Tacitus/index.htm

Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum of archaeology and Anthropology

Department of Western Asiatic Archaeology, research in Bahrain, Yemen, Turkmenistan, Iran, Iraq, and Syria. [Archaeological Sites] [Iraq] [University Programs]

Link: http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/research/Exp_Rese_Disc/NearEast/datesex.shtml

ARCHAEOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION - an electronic companion

A selection of Internet links to supplement Kevin Greene`s book Archaeology: an introduction. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/kevin.greene/wintro/

Sir Austen Henry Layard - Discoveries at Nineveh

Full text of Layard's visit and discoveries, in the 1840's, to Syria, Asia Minor, Babylon and Assyria [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.aina.org/books/dancontents.htm

Archaeological Sites in Israel

Archaeological Sites in Israel and Israel. About.com

Link: http://archaeology.about.com/od/14/Archaeological_Sites_in_Israel_and_Palestine.htm

Cobb Institute of Archaeology

At Mississippi State University, the Lahav Project at Tell Halif, Early Bronze through Byzantine period.

Link: http://www.cobb.msstate.edu/research.html

Colby College

Department of Religion conducts archaeology in Israel.

Link: http://www.colby.edu/rel/archaeology/

The American School of Oriental Research

Has been conducting archaeological reseach for 100 years, and has several ongoing projects in Israel.

Link: http://www.asor.org

Kenyon Institute

Supports a few graduate students and undertakes excavations. A new body, the Council for British Research in the Levant (CBRL), was therefore created out of the BIAAH and the BSAJ (British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem) with its regional headquarters in Amman but maintaining the old BSAJ building in Jerusalem which was renamed in honour of one of the major figures of our past "" as the Kenyon Institute.

Link: http://www.cbrl.org.uk/kenyon_institute.shtm

Department of Archaeology

University of Haifa; has a number of researchers working.

Link: http://archlgy.haifa.ac.il

Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Institute of Archaeology, work at several sites.

Link: http://www.huji.ac.il/huji/eng/

Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire

Conducts archaeological work in the Sudan, Turkey, Thailand, Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Mexico, and the United Arab Emirates.

Link: http://www.ifao.egnet.net/

Israeli Antiquities Authority

The Israel Antiquities Authority is in charge of the country's antiquities and antiquity sites, their excavation, preservation, conservation, study and publication thereof, as well as the country's antiquity treasures. Graphics heavy and watch out for Java, but has a nice news service. English and Hebrew.

Link: http://www.antiquities.org.il/

Israel Exploration Society

Non-profit organization, assists researchers with organizing excavations, enlisting financial support for archaeological projects, publishing results of such projects and liaison and cooperation with other institutions in the field of publication and in a collective effort to promote archaeology.

Link: http://israelexplorationsociety.huji.ac.il/

Atlas of the Hebrew World

From Richard Hooker's World Cultures, a map of the major regions and cities of ancient Israel.

Link: http://www.wsu.edu:8001/~dee/HEBREWS/ANISRMAP.HTM

History of Palestine

From ArabNET.

Link: http://www.arab.net/palestine/index.html

The Iron Age II in Palestine

An article by Larry Hess in Biblical Archaelogist, covering archaeology and ethnoarchaeology from all over the southern Levant.

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/ba60-3.html

Israel Museum of Jerusalem

A display of artifacts and brief summaries of several sites in Israel.

Link: http://www.english.imjnet.org.il/HTMLs/Home.aspx

Yarmukian Culture in Israel

One of several Pottery Neolithic groups which flourished in the Southern Levant in the 6th millennium B.C. Published in Paleorient 19/1 (1993), pp.115-134 by Yosef Garfinkel of the Hebrew University.

Link: http://archaeology.huji.ac.il/golan/articlem.htm

List of Current Researchers

Archaeological Sites; University Programs; From About.com

Link: http://archaeology.about.com/education/archaeology/library/atlas/blisrael2.htm#current researchers

Nippur

The history and current excavations of the capital of the Mesopotamian culture, first settled around 6,000 years ago, from the Oriental Institute. [Archaeological Sites] [Iraq]

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/projects/nip/

Write Like a Babylonian

see your monogram in cuneiform, the way an ancient Babylonian might have written it. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology

Link: http://www.upennmuseum.com/cuneiform.cgi

Iron II Palestine: Emerging Nations

From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/ba60-3.html

Urkesh: First Hurrian Capital

From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/ba60-2.html

Pots and People

From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/ba58-4.html

Emar on the Euphrates

From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/ba58-3.html

Anatolian Archaeology: A Tribute to Peter Neve

From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/ba58-2.html

Early Egyptian Presence in Canaan

From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/ba58-1.html

Beetles in Stone

From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/ba57-4.html

The Anchor Church at the Summit of Mt. Berenice, Tiberias

From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/asor-basep94-anchor.html

The Iron 1 Western Defense System at Tell El-`Umeiri, Jordan

From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/asor-basep94-iron1.html

Hellenistic Palestine Between Large Forces

From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/ba60-1.html

Tiglath Pileser to the Rescue:

Military Intervention Iron Age Style From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/bahp.html

Siloam Tunnel: Built by Hezekiah or the Hasmoneans?

Military Intervention Iron Age Style From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/ba59-3.html

The Goddess Anat Disappears

Military Intervention Iron Age Style From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/ba59-2.html

A Synthesis of Cultures

From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/ba59-1.html

The Oldest Datable Chambers on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem

From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/asor-basep94-chambers.html

Forty Years in the Capital of the Hittites

Jürgen Seeher In a century of excavations at the Hittite capital, Boghazköy, no one has played a more active role than Peter Neve. His retirement in 1994 coincides with his fortieth year at the site, including three decades as director. These years produced a long list of stupendous discoveries and won Neve an ever widening circle of friends. From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/seeher.html

Plants and People in Ancient Anatolia

Mark Nesbitt Archaeobotany in the Near East has scored numerous advances, and excavations in Turkey played an especially significant role in spurring recognition that agriculture and diet are integral to an understanding of the past. Though still a youngster in the field, archaeobotany offers insight into every period of the human past. From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/nesbitt.html

Hittite Pottery and Potters

Robert C. Henrickson That's the way the cooking pot crumbles! How a vessel breaks provides evidence for how it was made. A technological analysis of pottery from recently renewed excavations at Late Bronze Age Gordion demonstrates strong connections to the Hittite ceramic tradition From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/henrickson.html

A Hittite Seal from Megiddo

Itamar Singer A tiny seal unearthed by the excavators of Megiddo in the 1930s belonged to Anu-ziti. Its inscription states his profession: "charioteer." This title, borne by official diplomats of Hatti and vassal states, offers further witness to the importance of this station on the diplomatic route between the Hittite and the Egyptian royal courts. From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/singer.html

An Urartian Ozymandias

Paul Zimansky Make room on the roster of great builders of the Iron Age Near East--from Solomon to Sargon--for a forgotten potentate who ruled an Urartian kingdom in the highland region around Lakes Van and Urmia. Though he inspired no legends and left a meager impression on the written record, Rusa II, the last great king of Urartu, may have been the Iron Age's most energetic instigator of building projects. From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/zimansky.html

Swords, Armor, and Figurines

K. Aslihan Yener Metal mining and manufacture were critical high technologies in the ancient world: metal provided the standard of value, medium of exchange, and the raw material of tool and weapon industries. Analysis of the "fingerprints" of ores and artifacts has begun to display the complex tableau of ancient metal industries. Lead-isotope analysis clarifies the dynamics of provisioning metal in the Late Bronze Age Hittite empire. From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/yener.html

Oil in Hittite Texts

Harry A. Hoffner, Jr. Hittite literature urges: Give bread to the hungry, water to the thirsty, clothes to the naked, and to the desiccated, give oil. Oil was one of the minimal essentials in ancient Anatolia, as in the rest of the Near East. Sleuthing the various Hittite words for oils, lard, grease, and fat, philologist Hoffner discovers the basic Hittite word for oil, and catalogs its multifarious uses. From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/hoffner.html

Arti-Facts

Desperately Seeking Faustus (Lamps). DIGMASTER. Flood Damage at Thebes. News from Tel 'Ein Zippori and Sepphoris. Plus reviews of Anatolia and the Balkans, and Anatolia: Land, Men, and Gods in Asia Minor. From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/af_58-2.html

Canaanite Lion

A Canaanite statue of a lion, dating to the fifteenth or fourteenth century B.C., has been found at the Hazor National Park, near Rosh Pina in northern Israel.--AMÉLIE A. WALKER Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/lion.html

Curse of the Balsam Cookers

The mystery of a curse inscribed on the mosaic floor of an ancient synagogue at Ein Gedi on the shores of the Dead Sea may have been resolved.--ABRAHAM RABINOVICH Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/balsam.html

Czech Egyptologists Open Shaft Tomb

The sealed tomb of Iufaa was recently opened by Czech archaeologists excavating at Abusir, yielding a wealth of information about burial practices and religious beliefs.--LYLA PINCH BROCK AND JAROMIR KREJCI Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/egypt2.html

Egyptian Statue Found

An unusual statue was found by chance this spring during construction in a Nile Delta town northeast of Cairo.--MARK ROSE Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/egypt.html

Czech Egyptologists Open Shaft Tomb

The sealed tomb of Iufaa was recently opened by Czech archaeologists excavating at Abusir, yielding a wealth of information about burial practices and religious beliefs.--LYLA PINCH BROCK AND JAROMIR KREJCI Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/egypt2.html

From the Sands of Saqqara

A 4,500-year-old Egyptian tomb complex that once housed a mortuary chapel on display at the Louvre since 1903 has been located not far from the pyramid of the pharaoh Djoser at Saqqara.--SPENCER P.M. HARRINGTON Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/saqqara.html

Mummification in the Necropolis of Alexandria

Forensic anthropologists have recognized signs of mummification of the skeletal remains at the Gabbari necropolis in Alexandria, Egypt.--COLIN CLEMENT Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/gabbari.html

Oldest Glue Discovered

The oldest glue in the world has been found in a cave near the Dead Sea.--AMÉLIE A. WALKER Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/glue.html

Oldest Paintings of People in the Middle East

Rescue excavators working in advance of construction of the Tchrine Dam in the Euphrates Valley have discovered more than 20 painted silhouettes of women.--SPENCER P.M. HARRINGTON Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/euphrates.html

Pelusium: Gateway to Egypt

A massive waterway across Egypt's northern Sinai Desert, known as the Peace Canal, aims to bring fresh water from the Nile to the city of El Arish, 40 miles west of the Israeli border, making the region fertile. In 1991 archaeologists launched the North Sinai Salvage Project to survey the canal's path for sites, excavate sites that would be destroyed, and suggest where the canal might be rerouted to avoid important remains.--KRZYSZTOF A. GRZYMSKI Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/pelusium/index.html

Qumran Controversy

The presumption that the authors of the 2,000-year-old Dead Sea Scrolls were a small Jewish religious order known as the Essenes living in Qumran, Israel, was hotly debated at a conference on the scrolls held at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem this past July.--HAIM WATZMAN Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/qumran.html

Stolen Stones

Looting of Iraqi archaeological sites has been a major problem since the Gulf War. Includes clickable map of the throne room suite--JOHN MALCOLM RUSSELL Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/nineveh/index.html

Stone Anchor Hoard

Seventeen stone anchors and anchor fragments found off the ruined Omani port of Qalhat may shed light on ancient seafaring in the region.--SPENCER P.M. HARRINGTON Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/anchor.html

Yemeni Megaliths

A chance discovery of a group of megaliths on a coastal plain in western Yemen has sent scholars scrambling to explain why and how people were living there between ca. 2400 and 800 B.C.--SPENCER P.M. HARRINGTON Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/yemen.html

Bodies of the Bogs

Over the past centuries, remains of many hundreds of people have come to light during peat-cutting activities of northwestern Europe. Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Europe]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/bog/index.html

Before the Pyramids

Neolithic peoples in France constructed huge tombs that are today only visible from the air.--FRÉDÉRIC LONTCHO Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Europe]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/neolithic/index.html

Dig Like a Surgeon

An intact Etruscan grave, dirt and all, is excavated in the lab.--ANNA MARIA ESPOSITO Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Europe]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/surgeon/index.html

From Cyprus to Munich

A police sting leads to the recovery of Cypriot church treasures.--MARK ROSE Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Europe]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/cyprus/index.html

Imaging Rathcroghan

Geophysical surveys at Rathcroghan, Ireland, have revealed the presence of archaeological features extending well beyond the 300-foot-diameter mound at the center of the site.--ANDREW L. SLAYMAN Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Europe]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/ireland.html

Oldest Bridge in Ireland

Archaeologists have found remains of Ireland's oldest bridge, unexpected evidence of early technology.--BEN KEENE Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Europe]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/irish.html

Acropolis Update

Work continues on the restoration of the Acropolis monuments despite concern that a lack of skilled stoneworkers is slowing the project.--SPENCER P.M. HARRINGTON Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Greece and Rome]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/acropolis.html

Athens Metro Update

Greek archaeologists and scholars are worried that ancient remains in Athens could be damaged or destroyed by a new subway tunnel.--NIKOS AXARLIS Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Greece and Rome]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/metro.html

Cretan Minoan Finds

A newly discovered Minoan palace has yielded the oldest well-dated fresco fragment ever found in Crete.--SPENCER P.M. HARRINGTON AND YANNIS STAVRAKAKIS Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Greece and Rome]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/minoan.html

Egyptian Crocodile in Roman Sewer

Discovery of a crocodile-shaped limestone waterspout provides evidence of close links between Crete and Egypt.--YANNIS N. STAVRAKAKIS Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Greece and Rome]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/crocodile.html

Hadrian's Arch Restored

Hadrian's arch, a familiar landmark in downtown Athens, is getting a facelift.--YANNIS STAVRAKAKIS Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Greece and Rome]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/hadrian.html

Jews and Christians in a Roman World

Roman rule led to sweeping social transformations throughout the eastern Mediterranean.--RICHARD A. HORSLEY AND SUSAN E. ALCOCK Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Greece and Rome]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/romanworld/index.html

Looking Through Roman Glass

The peoples of the Roman Empire used more glass than any other ancient civilization.--DAVID WHITEHOUSE Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Greece and Rome]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/reviews/roman/

The Phiale of Achyris

Photographs and detailed description of the $1.2-million gold offering bowl from Sicily that is now at the center of a court case in Manhattan. Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Greece and Rome]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/phiale/index.html

Pisa Update

Two more Roman ships have been discovered at Pisa's San Rossore train station.--ANDREW L. SLAYMAN Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Greece and Rome]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/pisa.html

Plague Victims Found: Mass Burial in Athens

April 15, 1998 A unique mass grave and nearly 1,000 tombs from the fifth and fourth century B.C. were recovered during excavations prior to construction of a subway station just outside Athens' ancient Kerameikos cemetery.--NIKOS AXARLIS Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Greece and Rome]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/kerameikos.html

Preserving Jewish Heritage

An architect's effort to document and restore Greek synagogues--ELIAS V. MESSINAS Archaeological Institute of America [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Greece and Rome]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/greece/index.html

Xenophon's Retreat

British scholar Timothy Mitford believes he has found the spot from which a Greek army first sighted the Black Sea during its flight from the forces of the Persian king Artaxerxes II in 401 B.C.--NORMAN HAMMOND [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Greece and Rome]

Link: https://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/xenophon.html

The Archaeology of Moab

From Near Eastern Archaeology [Archaeology] [Discoveries] [News] [Biblical]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/back-issues/ba/ba60-4.html

CenturyOne Foundation

"its goals are to fund in whole and/or in part archaeological projects, historical and biblical research, lectures and symposiums, publications and education on subjects pertaining to the time of the first century C.E./A.D." [Biblical Archaeology] [Research Organizations]

Link: http://www.centuryone.com/foundation.html

Danish Society of Biblical Archaeology

information in both Danish and English [Biblical Archaeology] [Research Organizations]

Link: http://www.sba-dk.dk/

The Foundation for Biblical Archaeology

"an IRS-approved, Nonprofit Organization established in the State of North Carolina in 1996 to promote the science of biblical archaeology by providing funding and support for expeditions, publication, research, and education". [Biblical Archaeology] [Research Organizations]

Link: http://www.tfba.org/

Focus On Ephesus - A Panoramic Virtual Tour

Ephesus is the best preserved classical city of the Eastern Mediterranean, and among the best places in the world enabling one to genuinely `soak in` the atmosphere of Roman times. [Biblical Archaeology] [Excavations]

Link: http://www.sailturkey.com/panoramas/ephesus/

Ephesus Bibliography

Paul's Ephesus, Turkey. According to Church tradition St. John brought Mary here after Jesus' crucifixion. Brandon Wason, December 2006. NovumTestamentum.com [Biblical Archaeology] [Excavations]

Link: http://www.novumtestamentum.com/acts/Ephesus/bibliography.html

Archaeology Image of the Harbor of Ephesus

Lots of info and images of Ephesus, Turkey. According to tradition John brought Mary here after Jesus' crucifixion. Brandon Wason, December 2006. NovumTestamentum.com [Biblical Archaeology] [Excavations]

Link: http://www.novumtestamentum.com/acts/Ephesus/site-guide.html

Holy Land Expeditions

Fun things to do with your kids in Israel. This family oriented travel guide will help you get the most out of your visit. [Biblical Archaeology] [Excavations]

Link: http://www.travelforkids.com/Funtodo/Israel/israel.htm

Archaeological Dig List for Israel

Those who say you can`t travel backward through time never worked at an archaeological dig. You can do it and it doesn`t require a fancy degree to join in. Volunteers do most of the dirty work and are often the lucky ones who find the artifacts. Volunteers come from all walks of life: some are students, some are retirees, some are on a religious pilgrimage, some are motivated by the thrill of discovery. Biblical Archaeology Review. [Biblical Archaeology] [Excavations]

Link: http://www.drshirley.org/links/digs.html

Caesarea Maritima, Israel

(Combined Caesarea Expeditions) -a major seaport commissioned and built by Herod the Great between 22 and 10 B.C. Photos by David Padfield, Church of Christ [Biblical Archaeology] [Excavations]

Link: http://www.padfield.com/israel/CaesareaMaritima/index.html

Archaeological Sites in Israel

Madison Biblical Archaeology Society [Biblical Archaeology] [Excavations]

Link: http://danenet.wicip.org/mbas/country/israel.html

Madison Biblical Archaeology Society (MBAS)

at the Department of Hebrew and Semitic Studies, University of Wisconsin [Biblical Archaeology] [Research Organizations]

Link: http://danenet.wicip.org/mbas/

Near East Archaeological Society

founded in 1957; "the focus of NEAS is on research in the lands of the Bible, the modern Middle East, with a distinctly evangelical perspective." [Biblical Archaeology] [Research Organizations]

Link: http://www.neasweb.org/

Ritmeyer Archaeological Design

"The analysis of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem...where Leen Ritmeyer relates his discoveries of the 500 cubit square Temple Mount, built by King Hezekiah, the location of Solomon's Temple and where the Ark of the Covenant stood in the Holy of Holies of that first Temple" [Biblical Archaeology] [Research Organizations]

Link: http://www.ritmeyer.com/

Tel Dor Archaeological Expedition

The Voyage of the Planetâ„- Magazine in collaboration with the University of South Africa (UNISA) Department of Old Testament and Ancient Near Eastern Studies is now recruiting volunteers to join the 2008 South African Excavation Team for a season of archaeological excavation at Tel Dor in Israel. [Biblical Archaeology] [Excavations]

Link: http://www.jca.co.za/my%20contents/DOR%202008%20WEBSITE%201.htm

Tell es-Safi/Gath Archaeological Project

Tel es-Safi/Gath -believed to be the biblical city of "Gath of Philistines", home of Goliath (Bar Ilan University / York University) [Biblical Archaeology] [Excavations]

Link: http://faculty.biu.ac.il/~maeira/

Apologetics Press

a publishing organization with several products concerning biblical archaeology [Biblical Archaeology] [Publications]

Link: http://www.apologeticspress.org/

Apologetics Press

a publishing organization with several products concerning biblical archaeology [Biblical Archaeology] [Publications]

Link: http://www.apologeticspress.org/

Bible and Spade

"a non-technical quarterly publication for Associates for Biblical Research members focusing on archaeological evidence and creation/evolution issues to show the historical reliability of Scripture." [Biblical Archaeology] [Publications]

Link: http://www.biblearchaeology.org/publications/bibleandspade.aspx

Bible Believers Archaeology:

Historical Evidence That Proves the Bible an online book by John Argubright [Biblical Archaeology] [Publications]

Link: http://www.biblehistory.net/

Biblical Archaeology Review

a publication of the Biblical Archaeology Society. [Biblical Archaeology] [Publications]

Link: http://www.bib-arch.org/

Digging Up the Past

Australian publishers of two publications concerning biblical archaeology: Diggings, a 16-page news journal devoted to the latest discoveries, expert theories and archaeological news from the area covered by the empires of Parthia and Rome in the time of Christ. Archaeological Diggings, a bi-monthly, 40-page full color magazine exploring the history of archaology and discussing recent discoveries at greater depth than is possible in the journal. [Biblical Archaeology] [Publications]

Link: http://www.diggings.com.au/

Near Eastern Archaeology

formerly Biblical Archaeologist a publication of the American Schools of Oriental Research. [Biblical Archaeology] [Publications]

Link: http://www.asor.org/pubs/nea/index.html

TEL

also in Danish a publication of the Danish Society of Biblical Archaeology. [Biblical Archaeology] [Publications]

Link: http://www.bibelskarkaeologi.dk/

American Schools of Oriental Research

"ASOR's mission is to initiate, encourage, and support research into, and public understanding of, the peoples and cultures of the Near East from the earliest times". [Biblical Archaeology] [Research Organizations]

Link: http://www.asor.org/

Associates for Biblical Research

"demonstrating through field work the historical reliability of the Scriptures". [Biblical Archaeology] [Research Organizations]

Link: http://www.christiananswers.net/abr/abrhome.html

Biblical Archaeology Society

"presenting the excitement of archaeological discovery and groundbreaking Bible scholarship to a popular audience for 25 years through magazines, books, videos, slide sets, tours and seminars". [Biblical Archaeology] [Research Organizations]

Link: http://www.bib-arch.org/

Julius Caesar

Wars against France and Germany. Roman civil war. Ancient Historians and Generals. This is a detailed discription of the war campaigns of Julius Caesar, starting from the time that he was in charge of the Roman forces in France (Gaul). Caesar's writting style is that of a detailed factual report, prepared year by year, of the events. The parts not written by him attempt a similiar style, but are not as clean (See the notes of Hortius, at the start of the 8th book of the Gallic Wars). Caesar's writings present himself as a much more balanced and just leader than Suetonius or Plutarch indicate in their biographies of him. Also, the accounts of the army during the Spanish campaign show a more brutal side to his leadership.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/julius_caesar/julius_caesar_intro.html

Gaius Cornelius Tacitus

History of Rome. Ancient Historians and Generals. Tacitus grew up during a the reign of Nero, and may have been a teenager when Nero died and the Roman empire was plunged into civil war. In his later years he became interested in writing an unbiased account of those times, starting his account just before Tiberius came to the throne. We do not have a complete account of either the Annals or the Histories, but what has been preserved provides an interesting look at Roman life, written by one who lived close to those times.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/tacitus/introduction.html

Herodotus

Herodotus - History of Persian Wars . Ancient Historians and Generals (text) each chapter is approximately 130-250 kb.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/herodotus/persian_wars_intro.html

Inscription of Tiglath Pileser I

Full Text (38k) This inscription of Tiglath Pileser I is found on an octagonal prism and on some other clay fragments discovered at Kalah-Shergat and at present in the British Museum. On the whole for its extent and historical information relating to the early history of Assyria this inscription is one of the most important of the series showing the gradual advance and rise of Assyria, while as one of the first interpreted it presents considerable literary interest in respect to the details of the progress of Assyrian interpretation. It is also nearly the oldest Assyrian text of any length which has been hitherto discovered and is very interesting from its account of the construction of the temples and palaces made by the King in the early part of his reign.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/tiglath_pileser_1_inscription.html

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II

Full Text (24k) This inscription is engraved on an obelisk of black marble, five feet in height, found by Mr. Layard in the centre of the Mound at Nimroud, and now in the British Museum. Each of its four sides is divided into five compartments of sculpture representing the tribute brought to the Assyrian King by vassal princes, Jehu of Israel being among the number. Shalmaneser, whose annals and conquests are recorded upon it, was the son of Assur-natsir-pal, and died in 823 B.C., after a reign of thirty-five years. A translation of the inscription was one of the first achievements of Assyrian decipherment, and was made by Sir. H. Rawlinson; and Dr. Hincks shortly afterward (in 1851) succeeded in reading the name of Jehu in it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/black_obelisk_of_shalmaneser_2_inscription.html

Annals of Assur-Nasir-Pal

Full Text (71k) Concerning Assur-nasir-habal or Assur-nasir-pal (i.e., "Assur preserves the son") we possess fuller historical records than of any other of the Assyrian monarchs, and among these the following inscription is the most important. From it, and from the inscription upon his statue discovered by Mr. Layard in the ruins of one of the Nimroud temples, we learn that he was the son of Tuklat-Adar or Tuklat-Ninip, that he reigned over a territory extending from the "Tigris to the Lebanon, and that he brought the great sea and all countries from the sunrise to the sunset under his sway.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/assur_nasir_pal_annals.html

Inscription of Nebuchadnezzar II

Full Text (30k) Babylonian inscriptions are by no means so replete with interest as the Assyrian. The latter embrace the various expeditions in which the Assyrian monarchs were engaged, and bring us into contact with the names and locality of rivers, cities, and mountain-ranges, with contemporary princes in Judea and elsewhere, and abound in details as to domestic habits, civil usages, and the implements and modes of warfare. But the Babylonian inscriptions refer mainly to the construction of temples, palaces, and other public buildings, and at the same time present especial difficulties in their numerous architectural terms which it is often impossible to translate with any certainty. They are, however, interesting as records of the piety and religious feelings of the sovereigns of Babylon, and as affording numerous topographical notices of that famous city; while the boastful language of the inscription will often remind the reader of Nebuchadnezzar's words in Dan. iv. 30: "Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for the house of the kingdom, by the might of my power, and for the honor of my majesty?" Compare column vii, line 32.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/nebuchadnezzar_2_inscription.html

Discoveries At Nineveh by Layard

Full Text (30k) Discoveries At Nineveh by Austen Henry Layard, Esq., D.C.L. "As recent discoveries, and the contents of the inscriptions, as far as they have been satisfactorily deciphered, have confirmed nearly all the opinions expressed in the original work, no changes on any material points have been introduced into this abridgment. I am still inclined (Page iv) to believe that all the ruins explored represent the site of ancient Nineveh, and while still assigning the later monuments to the kings mentioned in Scripture, Shalmanezer, Sennacherib, and Essarhadon, I am convinced that a considerable period elapsed between their foundation and the erection of the older palaces of Nimroud. The results of the attempts to decipher the inscriptions are still too uncertain to authorize the use of any actual names for the earlier kings mentioned in them." -September, 1851.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/layard/discoveries_at_nineveh_intro.html

Discoveries At Nineveh by Layard

Full Text, chapters are approximately (30k) Discoveries At Nineveh by Austen Henry Layard, Esq., D.C.L. "As recent discoveries, and the contents of the inscriptions, as far as they have been satisfactorily deciphered, have confirmed nearly all the opinions expressed in the original work, no changes on any material points have been introduced into this abridgment. I am still inclined (Page iv) to believe that all the ruins explored represent the site of ancient Nineveh, and while still assigning the later monuments to the kings mentioned in Scripture, Shalmanezer, Sennacherib, and Essarhadon, I am convinced that a considerable period elapsed between their foundation and the erection of the older palaces of Nimroud. The results of the attempts to decipher the inscriptions are still too uncertain to authorize the use of any actual names for the earlier kings mentioned in them." -September, 1851.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/layard/discoveries_at_nineveh_intro.html