Bible Animals

Unicorn Scripture - Job 39:10

Canst thou bind the unicorn with his band in the furrow? or will he harrow the valleys after thee?

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Viper in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

vi'-per ('eph`eh (Job 20:16; Isa 30:6; 59:5); echidna (Mt 3:7 = Lk 3:7; Mt 12:34; 23:33; Acts 28:3)): Several vipers are found in Israel, but it is not certain that 'eph`eh referred definitely to any of them. See SERPENT.

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Viper in Naves Topical Bible

-A serpent Job 20:16; Isa 30:6; 59:5 -Fastens on Paul's hand Ac 28:3 -See SERPENT -FIGURATIVE Mt 3:7; 23:33; Lu 3:7

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Viper in Easton's Bible Dictionary

In Job 20:16, Isa. 30:6; 59:5, the Heb. word eph'eh is thus rendered. The Hebrew word, however, probably denotes a species of poisonous serpents known by the Arabic name of 'el ephah. Tristram has identified it with the sand viper, a species of small size common in sandy regions, and frequently found under stones by the shores of the Dead Sea. It is rapid in its movements, and highly poisonous. In the New Testament _echidne_ is used (Matt. 3:7; 12:34; 23:33) for any poisonous snake. The viper mentioned in Acts 28:3 was probably the vipera aspis, or the Mediterranean viper. (See ADDER -T0000085.)

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Viper in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(See ADDER; SERPENT.) Epheh (Isaiah 59:5); viviparous, as the derivation of viper implies. Symbol of hypocrisy and malignity (Matthew 3:7; Matthew 12:34; Matthew 23:33).

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Viper Scripture - Isaiah 30:6

The burden of the beasts of the south: into the land of trouble and anguish, from whence [come] the young and old lion, the viper and fiery flying serpent, they will carry their riches upon the shoulders of young asses, and their treasures upon the bunches of camels, to a people [that] shall not profit [them].

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Viper Scripture - Isaiah 59:5

They hatch cockatrice' eggs, and weave the spider's web: he that eateth of their eggs dieth, and that which is crushed breaketh out into a viper.

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Viper Scripture - Acts 28:3

And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid [them] on the fire, there came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand.

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Vulture in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

vul'-tur (da'ah; Septuagint gups, and iktinos; Latin Vulturidae): Any member of a family of large birds that subsist wholly or in part on carrion. The largest vulture of Israel was the Lammer-geier. This bird waited until smaller vultures, eagles and hawks stripped a carcass to the bone, then carried the skeleton aloft and dashed it on the rocks until the marrow could be secured. This was a favorite delicacy. This bird was fond of tortoise also, and is said to have dropped the one that struck the bald head of Aeschylus, which the bird mistook for a stone, so causing the death of the poet. Several smaller species, including "Pharaoh's chickens," flocked all over Israel. These were protected by a death penalty for their value as scavengers in cities. They fed on carcasses of animals that killed each other, ate putrid fish under the nests of pelican and cormorant, followed caravans across the desert, and were ready for offal thrown from animals dressed for feasting. They flocked over the altars for the entrails from sacrifice, and devoured scraps cast aside by tent-dwellers and residents of cities. They paired with affectionate courting and nested in crevices, in walls, hollow trees and on cliffs. They raised only one pair of young to the season, as the nestlings were over two months old before they took wing. The young were white at first, then black feathers enveloped them. On account of their steady diet of carrion, no one ever has been able to use their flesh for food, although some daring ornithologists have tried. For this reason the vulture was placed among the abominations and should by right have headed the lists (Lev 11:18; Dt 14:13). The other references that used to be translated "vulture" in the King James Version, the Septuagint elaphos, Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) correctly milous) are changed to "falcon" and "kite." Isa 34:15 changes "vulture" to "kite." Job 28:7 changes "vulture" to "falcon." Gene Stratton-Porter

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Vulture in Naves Topical Bible

-A carnivorous bird Le 11:14; De 14:13 -In R. V., translated "falcon," Job 28:7 -And "kite," Isa 34:15

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Vulture in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The rendering in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew daah, dayyah, and also in Job 28:7 of ayyah. There seems no doubt that the Authorized Versions translation is incorrect, and that the original words refer to some of the smaller species of raptorial birds, as kites or buzzards. [KITE] But the Hebrew word nesher, invariably rendered "eagle" in the Authorized Version, is probably the vulture. [EAGLE]

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Vulture in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(1.) Heb. da'ah (Lev. 11:14). In the parallel passage (Deut. 14:13) the Hebrew word used is _ra'ah_, rendered "glede;" LXX., "gups;" Vulg., "milvus." A species of ravenous bird, distinguished for its rapid flight. "When used without the epithet 'red,' the name is commonly confined to the black kite. The habits of the bird bear out the allusion in Isa. 34:15, for it is, excepting during the winter three months, so numerous everywhere in Israel as to be almost gregarious." (See EAGLE (2.) In Job 28:7 the Heb. 'ayyah is thus rendered. The word denotes a clamorous and a keen-sighted bird of prey. In Lev. 11:14 and Deut. 14:13 it is rendered "kite" (q.v.).

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Vulture in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

'ayah (the red kite famed for sharp sight: Job 28:7); daah (GLEDE or black kite: Leviticus 11:14; Deuteronomy 14:13 raah); dayah, the Vulturidae; the words "after his kind" mark more than one species. Vultures differ from eagles and falcons by having the head and neck borer of feathers, the eyes not so sunk, the beak longer, curved only at the end. Cowardly; preferring carrion to other food; rarely killing their prey, unless it is feeble. The griffon of the Vulturidae is noted for seeing its prey from the greatest height. Though previously scarcely known in the Crimea, during the Anglo-Russian war they remained near the camp throughout the campaign; "wheresoever the carcass is, there will the eagles be gathered together" (Matthew 24:28; Job 39:30). Besides the griffon, the lammergever and the Egyptian vulture, "Pharaoh's hens," are found in Israel.

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Vulture Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:13

And the glede, and the kite, and the vulture after his kind,

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Vulture Scripture - Leviticus 11:14

And the vulture, and the kite after his kind;

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Weasel in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

we'-z'-l (choledh; compare Arabic khuld, "mole-rat"): (1) Choledh is found only in Lev 11:29, where it stands first in the list of eight unclean "creeping things that creep upon the earth." the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American) agree in rendering choledh by "weasel," and the Septuagint has gale, "weasel" or "marten." According to Gesenius, the Vulgate, Targum, and Talmud support the same rendering. In spite of this array of authorities, it is worth while to consider the claims of the mole-rat, Spalax typhlus, Arabic khuld. This is a very common rodent, similar in appearance and habits to the mole, which does not exist in Israel. The fact that it burrows may be considered against it, in view of the words, "that creepeth upon the earth." The term "creeping thing" is, however, very applicable to it, and the objection seems like a quibble, especially in view of the fact that there is no category of subterranean animals. See MOLE. (2) The weasel, Mustela vulgaris, has a wide range in Asia, Europe, and North America. It is from 8 to 10 inches long, including the short tail. It is brown above and white below. In the northern part of its range, its whole fur, except the tail, is white in winter. It is active and fearless, and preys upon all sorts of small mammals, birds and insects. See LIZARD. Alfred Ely Day

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Weasel in Naves Topical Bible

-General scriptures concerning Le 11:29

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Weasel in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(choled) occurs only in Le 11:29 in the list of unclean animals; but the Hebrew word ought more probably to be translated "mole." Moles are common in Israel.

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Weasel in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. holedh), enumerated among unclean animals (Lev. 11:29). Some think that this Hebrew word rather denotes the mole (Spalax typhlus) common in Israel. There is no sufficient reason, however, to depart from the usual translation. The weasel tribe are common also in Israel.

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Weasel in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

So the Mishna interprets choled (Leviticus 11:29), as meaning an animal that glides or slips away. So Septuagint and Vulgate But Bochart takes it as related to the Arabic chuld, "the mole"; chephar is the more usual Hebrew for the mole (Isaiah 2:20). The choled was unclean.

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Weasel Scripture - Leviticus 11:29

These also [shall be] unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind,

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Wolf in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

woolf ((1) ze'ebh (Gen 49:27; 11:6; 65:25; Jer 5:6; Ezek 22:27; Hab 1:8; Zeph 3:3; also as proper name, Zeeb, prince of Midian, Jdg 7:25; 8:3; Ps 83:11); compare Arabic dhi'b, colloquial dhib, or dib; (2) lukos (Mt 7:15; 10:16; Lk 10:3; Jn 10:12; Acts 20:29; Ecclesiasticus 13:17; compare 2 Esdras 5:18, lupus); (3) 'iyim, the Revised Version (British and American) "wolves" (Isa 13:22; 34:14; Jer 50:39)): While the wolf is surpassed in size by some dogs, it is the fiercest member of the dog family (Canidae), which includes among others the jackal and the fox. Dogs, wolves and jackals are closely allied and will breed together. There is no doubt that the first dogs were domesticated wolves. While there are local varieties which some consider to be distinct species, it is allowable to regard all the wolves of both North America, Europe, and Northern Asia (except the American coyote) as members of one species, Canis lupus. The wolf of Syria and Israel is large, light colored, and does not seem to hunt in packs. Like other wolves it is nocturnal. In Israel it is the special enemy of the sheep and goats. This fact comes out in two of the seven passages cited from the Old Testament, in all from the New Testament, and in the two from Apocrypha. In Gen 49:27 Benjamin is likened to a ravening wolf. In Ezek 22:27, and in the similar Zeph 3:3, the eiders of Jerusalem are compared to wolves. In Jer 5:6 it is a wolf that shall destroy the people of Jerusalem, and in Hab 1:8 the horses of the Chaldeans "are swifter than leopards, and are more fierce than the evening wolves." Babylon and Edom (Isa 13:22; 34:14; Jer 50:39) are to be the haunts of 'iyim (the Revised Version (British and American) "wolves") and other wild creatures. The name of Zeeb, prince of Midian (Jdg 7:25; 8:3), has its parallel in the Arabic, Dib or Dhib, which is a common name today. Such animal names are frequently given to ward off the evil eye. See also TOTEMISM. Alfred Ely Day

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Wolf in Naves Topical Bible

-Ravenous Ge 49:27; Jer 5:6; Eze 22:27; Zep 3:3; Joh 10:12 -FIGURATIVE Of the enemies of the righteous Mt 7:15; 10:16; Joh 10:12; Ac 20:29 Of the reconciling power of the gospel Isa 11:6

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Wolf in Smiths Bible Dictionary

There can be little doubt that the wolf of Israel is the common Canis lupus, and that this is the animal so frequently mentioned in the Bible. (The wolf is a fierce animal of the same species as the dog, which it resembles. The common color is gray with a tinting of fawn, and the hair is long and black. The Syrian wolf is of lighter color than the wolf of Europe it is the dread of the shepherds of Israel. --ED.) Wolves were doubtless far more common in biblical times than they are now, though they are occasionally seen by modern travellers. The following are the scriptural allusions to the wolf: Its ferocity is mentioned in Ge 49:27, Eze 22:27; Habb 1:8; Matt 7:15 its nocturnal habits, in Jer 5:6; Zep 3:3; Habb 1:8 its attacking sheep and lambs, Mt 10:16; Lu 10:3; Joh 10:12 Isaiah Isa 11:6; 65:25 foretells the peaceful reign of the Messiah under the metaphor of a wolf dwelling with a lamb: cruel persecutors are compared with wolves. Mt 10:16; Ac 20:29

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Wolf in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Heb. zeeb, frequently referred to in Scripture as an emblem of treachery and cruelty. Jacob's prophecy, "Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf" (Gen. 49:27), represents the warlike character of that tribe (see Judg. 19-21). Isaiah represents the peace of Messiah's kingdom by the words, "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb" (Isa. 11:6). The habits of the wolf are described in Jer. 5:6; Hab. 1:8; Zeph. 3:3; Ezek. 22:27; Matt. 7:15; 10:16; Acts 20:29. Wolves are still sometimes found in Israel, and are the dread of shepherds, as of old.

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Wolf in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

zeeb. The Canis lupus. Fierce (Genesis 49:27; Ezekiel 22:27; Habakkuk 1:8; Matthew 7:15); prowling in the night (Jeremiah 5:6; Zephaniah 3:3); devouring lambs and sheep (John 10:12); typifying persecutors and heretical leaders (Matthew 10:16; Matthew 7:15; Acts 20:29); hereafter about to associate peacefully with the lamb under Messiah's reign (Isaiah 11:6; Isaiah 65:25). Tawny in color in Asia Minor.

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Wolf Scripture - Jeremiah 5:6

Wherefore a lion out of the forest shall slay them, [and] a wolf of the evenings shall spoil them, a leopard shall watch over their cities: every one that goeth out thence shall be torn in pieces: because their transgressions are many, [and] their backslidings are increased.

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Wolf Scripture - Isaiah 65:25

The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, and the lion shall eat straw like the bullock: and dust [shall be] the serpent's meat. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain, saith the LORD.

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Wolf Scripture - Isaiah 11:6

The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.

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Roebuck Scripture - Deuteronomy 12:15

Notwithstanding thou mayest kill and eat flesh in all thy gates, whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, according to the blessing of the LORD thy God which he hath given thee: the unclean and the clean may eat thereof, as of the roebuck, and as of the hart.

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Roebuck Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:5

The hart, and the roebuck, and the fallow deer, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the wild ox, and the chamois

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Roebuck Scripture - Deuteronomy 15:22

Thou shalt eat it within thy gates: the unclean and the clean [person shall eat it] alike, as the roebuck, and as the hart.

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Scorpion in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

skor'-pi-un (aqrabh; compare Arabic aqrab, "scorpion"; ma`aleh `aqrabbim, "the ascent of Akrabbim"; skorpios. Note that the Greek and Hebrew may be akin; compare, omitting the vowels, `krb and skrp): In Dt 8:15, we have, "who led thee through the great and terrible wilderness, wherein were fiery serpents (nachash saraph) and scorpions (`aqrabh)." Rehoboam (1 Ki 12:11,14; 2 Ch 10:11,14) says, "My father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions." Ezekiel is told to prophesy to the children of Israel (2:6), and "Be not afraid of them, neither be afraid of their words, though briers and thorns are with thee, and thou dost dwell among scorpions." "The ascent of Akrabbim," the north end of Wadi- ul-`Arabah, South of the Dead Sea, is mentioned as a boundary 3 times (Nu 34:4; Josh 15:3; Jdg 1:36). Jesus says to the Seventy (Lk 10:19), "Behold, I have given you authority to tread upon serpents and scorpions," and again in Lk 11:12 He says, "Or if he shall ask an egg, will he give him a scorpion?"

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Scorpion in Naves Topical Bible

-A venomous insect common in the wilderness through which the people of Israel journeyed De 8:15 -Power over, given to the seventy disciples (the best mss. have "seventy-two") Lu 10:19 -Unfit for food Lu 11:12 -Sting of, located in the tail Re 9:10 -FIGURATIVE Of enemies Eze 2:6 Of cruelty 1Ki 12:11,14 -SYMBOLICAL Re 9:3,5,10

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Scorpion in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(Heb. 'akrab), a well known venomous insect of hot climates, shaped much like a lobster. It is usually not more than two or three inches long, but in tropical climates is sometimes six inches in length. The wilderness of Sinai is especially alluded to as being inhabited by scorpions at the time of the exodus, and to this day these animals are common in the same district, as well as in some parts of Israel. Scorpions are generally found in dry and in dark places, under stones and in ruins. They are carnivorous in the habits, and move along in a threatening attitude, with the tail elevated. The sting, which is situated at the end of the tail, has at its base a gland that secretes a poisonous fluid, which is discharged into the wound by two minute orifices at its extremity. In hot climates the sting often occasions much suffering, and sometimes alarming symptoms. The "scorpions" of 1Ki 12:1,14; 2Ch 10:11,14 have clearly no allusion whatever to the animal, but to some instrument of scourging --unless indeed the expression is a mere figure.

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Scorpion in Easton's Bible Dictionary

mentioned along with serpents (Deut. 8:15). Used also figuratively to denote wicked persons (Ezek. 2:6; Luke 10:19); also a particular kind of scourge or whip (1 Kings 12:11). Scorpions were a species of spider. They abounded in the Jordan valley.

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Scorpion in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

'akrab. Of the class Arachnida and order Pulmonaria. Common in the Sinai wilderness, typifying Satan and his malicious agents against the Lord's people (Deuteronomy 8:15; Ezekiel 2:6; Luke 10:19). Rolling itself together it might be mistaken for an egg (Luke 11:12). Found in dry dark places amidst ruins, in hot climates. Carnivorous, breathing like spiders by lung- sacs, moving with uplifted tail. The sting at the tail's end has at its base a gland which discharges poison into the wound from two openings. In Revelation 9:3; Revelation 9:10, "the scorpions of the earth" stand in Contrast to the "locusts" from hell, not earth. The "five months" are thought to refer to the 150 prophetical days, i.e. years, from A.D. 612, when Mahomet opened his mission, to 762, when the caliphate was moved to Bagdad. In 1 Kings 12:11 scorpions mean "scourges armed with iron points". The sting of the common scorpion is not very severe, except that of Buthus occitanus.

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Scorpion Scripture - Revelation 9:5

And to them it was given that they should not kill them, but that they should be tormented five months: and their torment [was] as the torment of a scorpion, when he striketh a man.

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Scorpion Scripture - Luke 11:12

Or if he shall ask an egg, will he offer him a scorpion?

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Sheep in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

shep: 1. Names: The usual Hebrew word is tso'n, which is often translated "flock," e.g. "Abel .... brought of the firstlings of his flock" (Gen 4:4); "butter of the herd, and milk of the flock" (Dt 32:14). The King James Version and the English Revised Version have "milk of sheep." Compare Arabic da'n. The Greek word is probaton. For other names, see notes under CATTLE; EWE; LAMB; RAM. 2. Zoology: The origin of domestic sheep is unknown. There are 11 wild species, the majority of which are found in Asia, and it is conceivable that they may have spread from the highlands of Central Asia to the other portions of their habitat. In North America is found the "bighorn," which is very closely related to a Kamschatkan species. One species, the urial or sha, is found in India. The Barbary sheep, Ovis tragelaphus, also known as the aoudad or arui, inhabits the Atlas Mountains of Northwest Africa. It is thought by Tristram to be zemer, English Versions of the Bible "chamois" of Dt 14:5, but there is no good evidence that this animal ranges eastward into Bible lands. Geographically nearest is the Armenian wild sheep, Ovis gmelini, of Asia Minor and Persia. The Cyprian wild sheep may be only a variety of the last, and the mouflon of Corsica and Sardinia is an allied species. It is not easy to draw the line between wild sheep and wild goats. Among the more obvious distinctions are the chin beard and strong odor of male goats. The pelage of all wild sheep consists of hair, not wool, and this indeed is true of some domestic sheep as the fat-rumped short-tailed sheep of Abyssinia and Central Asia. The young lambs of this breed have short curly wool which is the astrachan of commerce. Sheep are geologically recent, their bones and teeth not being found in earlier deposits than the pleiocene or pleistocene. They were, however, among the first of domesticated animals...

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Sheep in Naves Topical Bible

-Offered in sacrifice By Abel Ge 4:4 By Noah Ge 8:20 By Abraham Ge 22:13 -See OFFERINGS -Required in the Mosaic offerings See OFFERINGS -The land of Bashan adapted to the raising of De 32:14 -Also Bozrah Mic 2:12 Kedar Eze 27:21 Nebaioth Isa 60:7 Sharon Isa 65:10 Jacob's management of Ge 30:32-40 -Milk of, used for food De 32:14 -Shearing of Ge 31:19; 38:12-17; Isa 53:7 -Feasting at the time of shearing 1Sa 25:11,36; 2Sa 13:23 -The first fleece of, belonged to the priests and the Levites De 18:4 -Tribute (taxes) paid in 2Ki 3:4; 1Ch 5:21; 2Ch 17:11 -FIGURATIVE 1Ch 21:17; Ps 74:1; Jer 13:20 Of backsliders Jer 50:6 Of lost sinners Mt 9:36; 10:6 Of the righteous Jer 50:17; Eze 34; Mt 26:31; Mr 14:27; Joh 10:1-16 Of the defenselessness of servants of God (Greek: diakonoi) Mt 10:16 Parable of the lost Mt 18:11-13; Lu 15:4-7

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Sheep in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Sheep were an important part of the possessions of the ancient Hebrews and of eastern nations generally. The first mention of sheep occurs in Ge 4:2 They were used in the sacrificial offering,as, both the adult animal, Ex 20:24 and the lamb. See Ex 29:28; Le 9:3; 12:6 Sheep and lambs formed an important article of food. 1Sa 25:18 The wool was used as clothing. Le 13:47 "Rams skins dyed red" were used as a covering for the tabernacle. Ex 25:5 Sheep and lambs were sometimes paid as tribute. 2Ki 3:4 It is very striking to notice the immense numbers of sheep that were reared in Israel in biblical times. (Chardin says he saw a clan of Turcoman shepherds whose flock consisted of 3,000,000 sheep and goats, besides 400,000 Feasts of carriage, as horses, asses and camels.) Sheep-sheering is alluded to Ge 31:19 Sheepdogs were employed in biblical times. Job 30:1 Shepherds in Israel and the East generally go before their flocks, which they induce to follow by calling to them, comp. Joh 10:4; Ps 77:20; 80:1 though they also drive them. Ge 33:13 The following quotation from Hartley's "Researches in Greece and the Levant," p. 321, is strikingly illustrative of the allusions in Joh 10:1-16 "Having had my attention directed last night to the words in Joh 10:3 I asked my man if it was usual in Greece to give names to the sheep. He informed me that it was, and that the sheep obeyed the shepherd when he called them by their names. This morning I had an opportunity of verifying the truth of this remark. Passing by a flock of sheep I asked the shepherd the same question which I had put to the servant, and he gave me the same answer. I then had him call one of his sheep. He did so, and it instantly left its pasturage and its companions and ran up to the hands of the shepherd with signs of pleasure and with a prompt obedience which I had never before observed in any other animal. It is also true in this country that a stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him. The shepherd told me that many of his sheep were still wild, that they had not yet learned their names, but that by teaching them they would all learn them." The common sheer, of Syria and Israel are the broad-tailed. As the sheep is an emblem of meekness, patience and submission, it is expressly mentioned as typifying these qualities in the person of our blessed Lord. Isa 53:7; Ac 8:32 etc. The relation that exists between Christ, "the chief Shepherd," and his members is beautifully compared to that which in the East is so strikingly exhibited by the shepherds to their flocks [SHEPHERD]

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Sheep in Easton's Bible Dictionary

are of different varieties. Probably the flocks of Abraham and Isaac were of the wild species found still in the mountain regions of Persia and Kurdistan. After the Exodus, and as a result of intercourse with surrounding nations, other species were no doubt introduced into the herds of the people of Israel. They are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The care of a shepherd over his flock is referred to as illustrating God's care over his people (Ps. 23:1, 2; 74:1; 77:20; Isa. 40:11; 53:6; John 10:1-5, 7-16). "The sheep of Israel are longer in the head than ours, and have tails from 5 inches broad at the narrowest part to 15 inches at the widest, the weight being in proportion, and ranging generally from 10 to 14 lbs., but sometimes extending to 30 lbs. The tails are indeed huge masses of fat" (Geikie's Holy Land, etc.). The tail was no doubt the "rump" so frequently referred to in the Levitical sacrifices (Ex. 29:22; Lev. 3:9; 7:3; 9:19). Sheep-shearing was generally an occasion of great festivity (Gen. 31:19; 38:12, 13; 1 Sam. 25:4-8, 36; 2 Sam. 13:23-28).

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Sheep in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Genesis 4:2. Abounded in the pastures of Israel. Shepherds go before them and call them by name to follow (John 10:4; Psalm 77:20; Psalm 80:1). The ordinary sheep are the broad tailed sheep, and the Ovis aries, like our own except that the tail is longer and thicker, and the ears larger; called bedoween. Centuries B.C. Aristotle mentions Syrian sheep with tails a cubit wide. The fat tail is referred to in Leviticus 3:9; Leviticus 7:3. The Syrian cooks use the mass of fat instead of the rancid Arab butter. The sheep symbolizes meekness, patience, gentleness, and submission (Isaiah 53:7; Acts 8:32). (See LAMB.) Tsown means sheep"; ayil, the full-grown "ram," used for the male of other ruminants also; rachel, the adult "ewe"; kebes (masculine), kibsah (feminine), the half grown lamb; seh, "sheep" or paschal "lamb"; char, "young ram"; taleh, "sucking lamb"; 'atod (Genesis 31 "ram") means "he-goat"; imrin, "lambs for sacrifice." The sheep never existed in a wild state, but was created expressly for man, and so was selected from the first for sacrifice. The image is frequent in Scripture: Jehovah the Shepherd, His people the flock (Psalm 23:1; Isaiah 40:11; Jeremiah 23:1-2; Ezekiel 34). Sinners are the straying sheep whom the Good Shepherd came to save (Psalm 119:176; Isaiah 53:6; Jeremiah 50:6; Luke 15:4-6; John 10:8; John 10:11). False teachers are thieves and wolves in sheep's clothing (Matthew 7:15). None can pluck His sheep from His hand and the Father's (John 10:27-29).

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Sheep Scripture - 1 Chronicles 5:21

And they took away their cattle; of their camels fifty thousand, and of sheep two hundred and fifty thousand, and of asses two thousand, and of men an hundred thousand.

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Sheep Scripture - Genesis 29:10

And it came to pass, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother's brother, and the sheep of Laban his mother's brother, that Jacob went near, and rolled the stone from the well's mouth, and watered the flock of Laban his mother's brother.

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Sheep Scripture - John 21:17

He saith unto him the third time, Simon, [son] of Jonas, lovest thou me? Peter was grieved because he said unto him the third time, Lovest thou me? And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee. Jesus saith unto him, Feed my sheep.

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Sparrow in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

spar'-o (tsippor; strouthion; Latin passer): A small bird of the Fringillidae family. The Hebrew tsippor seems to have been a generic name under which were placed all small birds that frequented houses and gardens. The word occurs about 40 times in the Bible, and is indiscriminately translated "bird" "fowl" or "sparrow." Our translators have used the word "sparrow" where they felt that this bird best filled the requirements of the texts. Sparrows are small brown and gray birds of friendly habit that swarm over the northern part of Israel, and West of the Sea of Galilee, where the hills, plains and fertile fields are scattered over with villages. They build in the vineyards, orchards and bushes of the walled gardens surrounding houses, on the ground or in nooks and crannies of vine-covered walls. They live on seeds, small green buds and tiny insects and worms. Some members of the family sing musically; all are great chatterers when about the business of life. Repeatedly they are mentioned by Bible writers, but most of the references lose force as applying to the bird family, because they are translated "bird" or "fowl." In a few instances the word "sparrow" is used, and in some of these, painstaking commentators feel that what is said does not apply to the sparrow. For example see Ps 102:7:...

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Sparrow in Naves Topical Bible

-Nests of Ps 84:3 -Two, sold for a farthing Mt 10:29; Lu 12:6

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Sparrow in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(Heb. tzippor, from a root signifying to "chirp" or "twitter," which appears to be a phonetic representation of the call-note of any passerine (sparrow-like) bird). This Hebrew word occurs upwards of forty times in the Old Testament. In all passages except two it is rendered by the Authorized Version indifferently "bird" or "fowl." and denotes any small bird, both of the sparrow-like species and such as the starling, chaffinch, greenfinch, linnet, goldfinch, corn-bunting, pipits, blackbird, song-thrush, etc. In Ps 84:3 and Psal 102:7 it is rendered "sparrow." The Greek stauthion (Authorized Version "sparrow") occurs twice in the New Testament, Mt 10:29; Lu 12:6,7 (The birds above mentioned are found in great numbers in Israel and are of very little value, selling for the merest trifle and are thus strikingly used by our Saviour, Mt 10:20 as an illustration of our Father's care for his children. --ED.) The blue thrush (Petrocossyphus cyaneus) is probably the bird to which the psalmist alludes in Pr 102:7 as "the sparrow that sitteth alone upon the house-top." It is a solitary bird, eschewing the society of its own species, and rarely more than a pair are seen together. The English tree-sparrow (Passer montanus, Linn.) is also very common, and may be seen in numbers on Mount Olivet and also about the sacred enclosure of the mosque of Omar. This is perhaps the exact species referred to in Ps 84:3 Dr. Thompson, in speaking of the great numbers of the house-sparrows and field-sparrows in troublesome and impertinent generation, and nestle just where you do not want them. They stop your stove-- and water-pipes with their rubbish, build in the windows and under the beams of the roof, and would stuff your hat full of stubble in half a day if they found it hanging in a place to suit them."

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Sparrow in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Mentioned among the offerings made by the very poor. Two sparrows were sold for a farthing (Matt. 10:29), and five for two farthings (Luke 12:6). The Hebrew word thus rendered is _tsippor_, which properly denotes the whole family of small birds which feed on grain (Lev. 14:4; Ps. 84:3; 102:7). The Greek word of the New Testament is _strouthion_ (Matt. 10:29-31), which is thus correctly rendered.

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Sparrow in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Related to Hebrew tsipor, imitation of the sound made by it, "tzip" (Psalm 84:3. (See BIRD.) Leviticus 14:4-7 margin.) On the meaning of the rite in cleansing leper's, one tsippor killed, the other dipped in its blood and let loose alive, Cowper writes: "Dipped in his fellow's blood, The living bird went free; The type, well understood, Expressed the sinner's plea; Described a guilty soul enlarged, And by a Saviour's death discharged." Its commonness gives point to Jesus' remark, "Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing ... one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father. ... Fear ye not therefore ye are of more value than many sparrows" (Matthew 10:29; Matthew 10:31; Luke 12:6-7). There are one hundred different species of the passerine order in Israel.

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Sparrow Scripture - Psalms 84:3

Yea, the sparrow hath found an house, and the swallow a nest for herself, where she may lay her young, [even] thine altars, O LORD of hosts, my King, and my God.

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Sparrow Scripture - Psalms 102:7

I watch, and am as a sparrow alone upon the house top.

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Swine in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

swin (chazir; compare Arabic khinzir; hus, Septuagint and New Testament; compare Greek sus, and Latin sus; adjective hueios, as a substantive, the Septuagint; choiros, Septuagint and New Testament): In both ancient and modern times domestic swine have been little kept in Israel, but wild swine are well known as inhabitants of the thickets of the Chuleh, the Jordan valley, the Dead Sea, and some of the mountains. The species is Susanna scrofa, the wild pig of Europe, North Africa and Western Asia. In the Old Testament the swine is mentioned in Lev 11:7 and Dt 14:8 as an unclean animal: "And the swine, because he parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, but cheweth not the cud, he is unclean unto you." In Isa 65:4 and 66:3,17 the eating of swine's flesh and the offering of oblations of swine's blood are referred to as abominations. Septuagint also refers to swine in three passages where these animals are not mentioned in the Hebrew and EV. In 2 Sam 17:8 where English Versions of the Bible has "as a bear robbed of her whelps in the field," Septuagint adds (translation) "and as a savage boar in the plain." In 1 Ki 21:19 Septuagint 20:19), where English Versions of the Bible has "in the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth," Septuagint has "where the swine and the dogs licked"; similarly in 1 Ki 22:38. In 1 Macc 1:47 there is reference to a decree of Antiochus ordering the sacrifice of swine. In 2 Macc 6 and 7 there are accounts of the torture and death of Eleazar, an aged scribe, and of a mother and her seven sons for refusing to taste swine's flesh. Swine, the property of Gentiles, are mentioned in the account of the Gadarene demoniac (Mt 8:30,31,32; Mk 5:11,12,13,14,16; Lk 8:32,33), and in the parable of the Prodigal Son (Lk 15:15,16). Figurative: We find the following figurative references to swine: "The boar out of the wood doth ravage it, And the wild beasts of the field feed on it" (i.e. on the "vine out of Egypt") (Ps 80:13); "As a ring of gold in a swine's snout, So is a fair woman that is without discretion" (Prov 11:22); "The Carmonians (the King James Version Carmanians, perhaps of Kirman or Carmania, in Southwestern Persia) raging in wrath shall go forth as the wild boars of the wood" (2 Esdras 15:30); "The dog turning to his own vomit again, and the sow that had washed to wallowing in the mire" (2 Pet 2:22; compare Prov 26:11). Alfred Ely Day

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Swine in Naves Topical Bible

-(Pigs) -Forbidden as food Le 11:7; De 14:8 -Used for food Isa 65:4; 66:17 -For sacrifice Isa 66:3 -Wild boar Ps 80:13 -Jewels in the nose of Pr 11:22 -Viciousness of Mt 7:6 -Jesus sends demons into the Mt 8:28-32; Mr 5:11-14; Lu 8:32,33 -Feeding of Lu 15:15,16 -Sow returns to her wallowing 2Pe 2:22

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Swine in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(Heb. chazir). The flesh of swine was forbidden as food by the Levitical law, Le 11:7; De 14:8 the abhorrence which the Jews as a nation had of it may be inferred from Isa 65:4 and 2 Macc 6:18,19. No other reason for the command to abstain from swine's flesh is given in the law of Moses beyond the general one which forbade any of the mammalia as food which did not literally fulfill the terms of the definition of a clean animal" viz,, that it was to be a cloven-footed ruminant. It is, however, probable that dietetical considerations may have influenced Moses in his prohibition of swine's flesh: it is generally believed that its use in hot countries is liable to induce cutaneous disorders; hence in a people liable to leprosy the necessity for the observance of a strict rule. Although the Jews did not breed swine during the greater period of their existence as a nation there can be little doubt that the heathen nations of Israel used the flesh as food. At the time of our Lord's ministry it would appear that the Jews occasionally violated the law of Moses with regard to swine's flesh. Whether "the herd of swine" into which the devils were allowed to enter, Mt 8:32; Mr 5:13 were the property of the Jewish or of the Gentile inhabitants of Gadara does not appear from the sacred narrative. The wild boar of the wood, Ps 80:13 is the common Sus scrofa which is frequently met with in the woody parts of Israel, especially in Mount Tabor.

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Swine in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. hazir), regarded as the most unclean and the most abhorred of all animals (Lev. 11:7; Isa. 65:4; 66:3, 17; Luke 15:15, 16). A herd of swine were drowned in the Sea of Galilee (Luke 8:32, 33). Spoken of figuratively in Matt. 7:6 (see Prov. 11:22). It is frequently mentioned as a wild animal, and is evidently the wild boar (Arab. khanzir), which is common among the marshes of the Jordan valley (Ps. 80:13).

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Swine Scripture - Mark 5:13

And forthwith Jesus gave them leave. And the unclean spirits went out, and entered into the swine: and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the sea, (they were about two thousand;) and were choked in the sea.

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Swine Scripture - Matthew 7:6

Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you.

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Swine Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:8

And the swine, because it divideth the hoof, yet cheweth not the cud, it [is] unclean unto you: ye shall not eat of their flesh, nor touch their dead carcase.

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Unicorn in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

u'-ni-korn (re'em (Nu 23:22; 24:8; Dt 33:17; Job 39:9,10; Ps 22:21; 29:6; 92:10; Isa 34:7)): "Unicorn" occurs in the King James Version in the passages cited, where the Revised Version (British and American) has "wild-ox" (which see).

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Unicorn in Naves Topical Bible

-Intractable Job 39:9-12 -Horned De 33:17; Ps 22:21; 92:10 -Great strength of Nu 24:8; Job 39:10,11 -FIGURATIVE Of the judgments of God Isa 34:7

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Unicorn in Smiths Bible Dictionary

the rendering of the Authorized Version of the Hebrew reem, a word which occurs seven times in the Old Testament as the name of some large wild animal. The reem of the Hebrew Bible, however, has nothing at all to do with the one-horned animal of the Greek and Roman writers, as is evident from De 33:17 where in the blessing of Joseph it is said; "his glory is like the firstling of his bullock, and his horns are like the horns of a unicorn;" not, as the text of the Authorized Version renders it, "the horns of unicorns." The two horns of the ram are "the ten thousands of Ephraim and the thousands of Manasseh." This text puts a one-horned animal entirely out of the question. Considering that the reem is spoken of as a two-horned animal of great strength and ferocity, that it was evidently well known and often seen by the Jews, that it is mentioned as an animal fit for sacrificial purposes, and that it is frequently associated with bulls and oxen we think there can be no doubt that, some species of wild ox is intended. The allusion in Ps 92:10 "But thou shalt lift up, as a reeym, my horn," seems to point to the mode in which the Bovidae use their horns, lowering the head and then tossing it up. But it is impossible to determine what particular species of wild ox is signified probably some gigantic urus is intended. (It is probable that it was the gigantic Bos primigeniua, or aurochs, now extinct, but of which Caesar says, "These uri are scarcely less than elephants in size, but in their nature, color and form are bulls. Great is their strength and great their speed; they spare neither man nor beast when once; they have caught sight of them" --Bell. Gall. vi. 20.- ED.)

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Unicorn in Easton's Bible Dictionary

described as an animal of great ferocity and strength (Num. 23:22, R.V., "wild ox," marg., "ox-antelope;" 24:8; Isa. 34:7, R.V., "wild oxen"), and untamable (Job 39:9). It was in reality a two-horned animal; but the exact reference of the word so rendered (reem) is doubtful. Some have supposed it to be the buffalo; others, the white antelope, called by the Arabs rim. Most probably, however, the word denotes the Bos primigenius ("primitive ox"), which is now extinct all over the world. This was the auerochs of the Germans, and the urus described by Caesar (Gal. Bel., vi.28) as inhabiting the Hercynian forest. The word thus rendered has been found in an Assyrian inscription written over the wild ox or bison, which some also suppose to be the animal intended (comp. Deut. 33:17; Ps. 22:21; 29:6; 92:10).

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Unicorn in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

reem. In Deuteronomy 33:17, "his (Joseph's) horns are like the horns of an unicorn" (so margin rightly, not "unicorns"); "the ten thousands of Ephraim and the thousands of Manasseh," two tribes sprung from the one Joseph, are the two horns from one head. Therefore the unicorn was not as is represented a one-horned animal, but some species of urns or wild ox. The rhinoceros does not "skip" as the young unicorn is represented to do (Psalm 29:6). The unicorn's characteristics are: (1) great strength, Numbers 23:22; Job 39:11; (2) two horns, Deuteronomy 33:17; (3) fierceness, Psalm 22:21; (4) untameableness, Job 39:9-11, where the unicorn, probably the wild bison, buffalo, ox, or urus (now only found in Lithuania, but then spread over northern temperate climes, Bashan, etc., and in the Hercynian forest, described by Caesar as almost the size of an elephant, fierce, sparing neither man nor beast) stands in contrast to the tame ox used in plowing, Job 39:11-12; (5) playfulness of its young, Psalm 29:6; (6) association with "bullocks and bulls" for sacrifice, Isaiah 34:6-7; (7) lifting up the horn, Psalm 92:10, as bovine animals lower the head and toss up the horn.

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Unicorn Scripture - Psalms 92:10

But my horn shalt thou exalt like [the horn of] an unicorn: I shall be anointed with fresh oil.

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Unicorn Scripture - Numbers 24:8

God brought him forth out of Egypt; he hath as it were the strength of an unicorn: he shall eat up the nations his enemies, and shall break their bones, and pierce [them] through with his arrows.

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Mule Scripture - Zechariah 14:15

And so shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, and of all the beasts that shall be in these tents, as this plague.

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Mule Scripture - 2 Samuel 13:29

And the servants of Absalom did unto Amnon as Absalom had commanded. Then all the king's sons arose, and every man gat him up upon his mule, and fled.

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Mule Scripture - 1 Kings 1:38

So Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and the Cherethites, and the Pelethites, went down, and caused Solomon to ride upon king David's mule, and brought him to Gihon.

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Owl in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

oul (bath ha-ya`anah; Latin Ulula): The name of every nocturnal bird of prey of the Natural Order Striges. These birds range from the great horned owl of 2 feet in length, through many subdivisions to the little screech-owl of 5 inches. All are characterized by very large heads, many have ear tufts, all have large eyes surrounded by a disk of tiny, stiff, radiating feathers. The remainder of the plumage has no aftershaft. So these birds make the softest flight of any creature traveling on wing. A volume could be written on the eye of the owl, perhaps its most wonderful feature being in the power of the bird to enlarge the iris if it wishes more distinct vision. There is material for another on the prominent and peculiar auditory parts. With almost all owls the feet are so arranged that two toes can be turned forward and two back, thus reinforcing the grip of the bird by an extra toe and giving it unusual strength of foot. All are night-hunters, taking prey to be found at that time, of size according to the strength...

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Owl in Naves Topical Bible

-(A carnivorous bird) -Unclean Le 11:16,17; De 14:16 -In R. V. ostrich is substituted Le 11:16; De 14:15; Job 30:29; Isa 13:21; 34:11,13; 43:20; Jer 50:39; Mic 1:8

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Owl in Smiths Bible Dictionary

A number of species of the owl are mentioned in the Bible, Le 11:17; De 14:16 Isa 14:23; 34:15; Zep 2:14 and in several other places the same Hebrew word is used where it is translated ostrich. Job 30:29; Jer 50:39 Some of these species were common in Israel, and, as is well known, were often found inhabiting ruins. Isa 34:11,13-15

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Owl in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(1.) Heb. bath-haya'anah, "daughter of greediness" or of "shouting." In the list of unclean birds (Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15); also mentioned in Job 30:29; Isa. 13:21; 34:13; 43:20; Jer. 50:39; Micah 1:8. In all these passages the Revised Version translates "ostrich" (q.v.), which is the correct rendering. (2.) Heb. yanshuph, rendered "great owl" in Lev. 11:17; Deut. 14:16, and "owl" in Isa. 34:11. This is supposed to be the Egyptian eagle-owl (Bubo ascalaphus), which takes the place of the eagle-owl (Bubo maximus) found in Southern Europe. It is found frequenting the ruins of Egypt and also of the Holy Land. "Its cry is a loud, prolonged, and very powerful hoot. I know nothing which more vividly brought to my mind the sense of desolation and loneliness than the re-echoing hoot of two or three of these great owls as I stood at midnight among the ruined temples of Baalbek" (Tristram)...

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Owl in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Ostrich, the true rendering of bath hayanah. (See OSTRICH.) Yanshowph; Leviticus 11:17, "the great owl." From a root, "twilight" (Bochart), or to puff the breath (Knobel). Deuteronomy 14:16; Isaiah 34:11. The horned owl, Bubo maximus, not as Septuagint the ibis, the sacred bird of Egypt. Maurer thinks the heron or crane, from nashaf "to blow," as it utters a sound like blowing a horn (Revelation 18:2). Chaldee and Syriac support "owl." Kos; Leviticus 11:17, "the little owl." Athene meridionalis on coins of Athens: emblem of Minerva, common in Syria; grave, but not heavy. Psalm 102:6, "I am like an owl in a ruin" (Syriac and Arabic versions), expressing his loneliness, surrounded by foes, with none to befriend. The Arabs call the owl "mother of ruins," um elcharab. The Hebrew means a "cup", perhaps alluding to its concave face, the eye at the bottom, the feathers radiating on each side of the beak outward; this appears especially in the Otus vulgaris, the "long-cared owl". Kippoz. Isaiah 34:15, "the great owl." But Gesenius "the arrow snake," or "the darting tree serpent"; related to the Arabic kipphaz. The context favors "owl"; for "gather under her shadow" applies best to a mother bird fostering her young under her wings. The Septuagint, Chaldee, Arabic, Syriac, Vulgate read kippod, "hedgehog." The great eagle owl is one of the largest birds of prey; with dark plumage, and enormous head, from which glare out two great eyes. Lilith. Isaiah 34:14, "screech owl"; from layil "the night." Irby and Mangles state as to Petra of Edom "the screaming of hawks, eagles, and owls, soaring above our heads, annoyed at anyone approaching their lonely habitation, added much to the singularity of the scene." The Strix flammea, "the barn owl"; shrieking in the quietude of the night, it appalls the startled hearer with its unearthly sounds.

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Owl Scripture - Jeremiah 50:39

Therefore the wild beasts of the desert with the wild beasts of the islands shall dwell [there], and the owls shall dwell therein: and it shall be no more inhabited for ever; neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation.

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Owl Scripture - Isaiah 43:20

The beast of the field shall honour me, the dragons and the owls: because I give waters in the wilderness, [and] rivers in the desert, to give drink to my people, my chosen.

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Owl Scripture - Isaiah 13:21

But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there; and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures; and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there.

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Palmer-Worm in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

pam'-er-wurm (gazam; Septuagint kampe (Am 4:9; Joel 1:4; 2:25)): "Palmer-worm" means "caterpillar," but the insect meant is probably a kind of locust. See INSECTS; LOCUST.

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Palmer-Worm in Naves Topical Bible

-General scriptures concerning Joe 1:4; 2:25; Am 4:9

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Palmer-Worm in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(Heb. gazam) occurs Joe 1:4; 2:25; Am 4:9 It is maintained by many that gazam denotes some species of locust. but it is more probably a caterpillar.

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Palmer-Worm in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. gazam). The English word may denote either a caterpillar (as rendered by the LXX.), which wanders like a palmer or pilgrim, or which travels like pilgrims in bands (Joel 1:4; 2:25), the wingless locusts, or the migratory locust in its larva state.

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Palmer Worm in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

gazam. (See LOCUST.) Joel 1:4; Joel 2:25; Amos 4:9

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Palmer Worm Scripture - Joel 1:4

That which the palmerworm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the cankerworm eaten; and that which the cankerworm hath left hath the caterpiller eaten.

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Palmer Worm Scripture - Amos 4:9

I have smitten you with blasting and mildew: when your gardens and your vineyards and your fig trees and your olive trees increased, the palmerworm devoured [them]: yet have ye not returned unto me, saith the LORD.

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Palmer Worm Scripture - Joel 2:25

And I will restore to you the years that the locust hath eaten, the cankerworm, and the caterpiller, and the palmerworm, my great army which I sent among you.

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Pygarg in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

pi'-garg (dishon; Septuagint pugargos; compare proper nouns, "Dishon" and "Dishan" (Gen 36:21-30; 1 Ch 1:38-42); according to BDB, Hommel, Saugethiere, derives ... from dush, Arabic das, "to tread," and compare Assyrian dashshu, "mountain-goat"): Dishon as the name of an animal occurs only in Dt 14:5 in the list of clean beasts. Both the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American) have "pygarg," which is not the recognized name of any animal whatever. The Septuagint pugargos (from puge, "rump," and argos, "white") was used by Herodotus (iv.192) as the name of an antelope. A white rump is a very common feature of deer and antelopes, and is commonly explained as enabling the fleeing herd easily to keep in sight of its leaders. It has been used as a specific name of Cervus pygargus, the Tartarian roe, and Bubalis pygargus, a small South African antelope. The Arabic Bible has ri'm, "a white gazelle," a kindred word to re'em, the King James Version "unicorn," the Revised Version (British and American) "wild-ox." Tristram, Tristram, Natural History of the Bible, considers dishon to be the addax, Antilope addax or Addax nasomaculatus. There is excellent reason, however, for believing that the range of this African antelope does not extend into Israel, Sinai or Arabia. For a discussion of the animal names in Dt 14:4,5, see ZOOLOGY. Alfred Ely Day

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Pygarg in Naves Topical Bible

-Probably a species of antelope De 14:5

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Pygarg in Smiths Bible Dictionary

occurs, De 14:5 in the list of clean animals as the rendering of the Heb. dishon, the name apparently of one species of antelope, though it is by no means easy to identify it.

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Pygarg in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Heb. dishon, "springing", (Deut. 14:5), one of the animals permitted for food. It is supposed to be the Antelope addax. It is described as "a large animal, over 3 1/2 feet high at the shoulder, and, with its gently-twisted horns, 2 1/2 feet long. Its colour is pure white, with the exception of a short black mane, and a tinge of tawny on the shoulders and back.", Tristram's Natural History.

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Pygarg in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

dishon. A clean animal (Deuteronomy 14:5). A generic name for the "white rumped (as pugarg means in Greek) antelope" of northern Africa and Syria. The Septuagint has translated the Hebrew by "pygarg"; living near the habitat of the pygarg they were likely to know. The mohr kind is best known, 2 ft. 8 in. high at the croup. The tail is long, with a long black tuft at the end; the whole part round the base of the tail is white, contrasting with the deep brown red of the flanks. Conder (Israel Exploration, July, 1876) makes it the "gazelle".

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Pygarg Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:5

The hart, and the roebuck, and the fallow deer, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the wild ox, and the chamois.

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Quail in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

kwal (selaw; ortugometra; Latin Coturnix vulgaris): A game bird of the family Coturnix, closely related to "partridges" (which see). Quail and partridges are near relatives, the partridge a little larger and of brighter color. Quail are like the gray, brown and tan of earth. Their plumage is cut and penciled by markings, and their flesh juicy and delicate food. Their habits are very similar. They nest on the ground and brood on from 12 to 20 eggs. The quail are more friendly birds and live in the open, brooding along roads and around fields. They have a longer, fuller wing than the partridge and can make stronger flight. In Israel they were migratory. They are first mentioned in Ex 16:13: "And it came to pass at even, that the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the camp." This describes a large flock in migration, so that they passed as a cloud. Nu 11:31-33: "And there went forth a wind from Yahweh, and brought quail from the sea, and let them fall by the camp, about a day's journey on this side, and a day's journey on the other side, round about the camp, and about two cubits above the face of the earth. And the people rose up all that day, and all the night, and all the next day, and gathered the quail: he that gathered least gathered ten homers: and they spread them all abroad for themselves round about the camp"; compare Ps 78:26-30:...

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Quail in Naves Topical Bible

-The miracle of, in the Wilderness of Sin Ex 16:13 -The miracle of, at Kibroth-hattaavah Nu 11:31,32; Ps 105:40

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Quails in Smiths Bible Dictionary

There can be no doubt that the Hebrew word in the Pentateuch Ex 16:13; Nu 11:31,32 and in the 105th Psalm, denotes the common quail, Coturnix dactylisonans. (The enormous quantity of quails taken by the Israelites has its parallel in modern times. Pliny states that they sometimes alight on vessels in the Mediterranean and sink them. Colenel Sykes states that 160,000 quails have been netted in one season on the island of Capri. --ED.) The expression "as it were two cubits (high) upon the face of the earth," Nu 11:31 refers probably to the height at which the quails flew above the ground, in their exhausted condition from their long flight. As to the enormous quantities which the least-successful Israelite is said to have taken viz. "ten homers" (i.e. eighty bushels) in the space of a night and two days, there is every reason for believing that the "homers here spoken of do not denote strictly the measure of that name but simply "a heap." The Israelites would have had little difficulty in capturing large quantities of these birds as they are known to arrive at places sometimes so completely exhausted by their flight as to be readily taken, not in nets only, but by the hand. They "spread the quails round about the camp;" this was for the purpose of drying them. The Egyptians similarly prepared these birds. The expression "quails from the sea," Nu 11:31 must not be restricted to denote that the birds came from the sea, as their starting-point, but it must be taken to show the direction from which they were coming. The quails were at the time of the event narrated in the sacred writings, on their spring journey of migration northward, It is interesting to note the time specified: "it was at even" that they began to arrive; and they no doubt continued to come all night. Many observers have recorded that the quail migrates by night.

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Quails in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The Israelites were twice relieved in their privation by a miraculous supply of quails, (1) in the wilderness of Sin (Ex. 16:13), and (2) again at Kibroth-hattaavah (q.v.), Num. 11:31. God "rained flesh upon them as dust, and feathered fowls like as the sand of the sea" (Ps. 78:27). The words in Num. 11:31, according to the Authorized Version, appear to denote that the quails lay one above another to the thickness of two cubits above the ground. The Revised Version, however, reads, "about two cubits above the face of the earth", i.e., the quails flew at this height, and were easily killed or caught by the hand. Being thus secured in vast numbers by the people, they "spread them all abroad" (11:32) in order to salt and dry them. These birds (the Coturnix vulgaris of naturalists) are found in countless numbers on the shores of the Mediterranean, and their annual migration is an event causing great excitement.

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Quail in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

celaw. The Arabic name is similar, which identifies the quail as meant. Twice miraculously supplied to Israel (Exodus 16:13; Numbers 11:31-32). Psalm 105:40 connects the quail with the manna, and therefore refers to Exodus 16:13, the first sending of quails, the psalm moreover referring to God's acts of grace. Psalm 78:27; Psalm 78:31, refers to the second sending of quails (Numbers 11) in chastisement (Psalm 106:14-15). The S.E. wind blew them from the Elanitic gulf of the Red Sea. Translated "threw them over the camp ... about two cubits above the face of the ground." Wearied with their long flight they flew breast high, and were easily secured by the Israelites. They habitually fly low, and with the wind. The least gatherer got ten homers' (the largest Hebrew measure of quantity) full; and "they spread them all abroad for themselves" to salt and dry (Herodotus ii. 77). "Ere the flesh was consumed" (so Hebrew) God's wrath smote them. Eating birds' flesh continually, after long abstinence from flesh, a whole month greedily, in a hot climate predisposed them by surfeit to sickness; God miraculously intensified this into a plague, and the place became Kibroth Hattaavah, "the graves of lust." (See KIBROTH HATTAAVAH The red legged crane's flesh is nauseous, and is not therefore likely to be meant. "At even" the quails began to arrive; so Tristram noticed their arrival from the S. at night in northern Algeria two successive years. Ornithologists designate the quail the Coturnix dactylisonans (from its shrill piping cry).

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Quail Scripture - Numbers 11:31

And there went forth a wind from the LORD, and brought quails from the sea, and let [them] fall by the camp, as it were a day's journey on this side, and as it were a day's journey on the other side, round about the camp, and as it were two cubits [high] upon the face of the earth.

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Quail Scripture - Numbers 11:32

And the people stood up all that day, and all [that] night, and all the next day, and they gathered the quails: he that gathered least gathered ten homers: and they spread [them] all abroad for themselves round about the camp.

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Quail Scripture - Exodus 16:13

And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the host.

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Roe in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

ro, ro'-buk: the King James Version has "roe" and "roebuck" for tsehi, tsebhiyah. the Revised Version (British and American) usually substitutes "gazelle" in the text (Dt 12:15, etc.) or margin (Prov 6:5, etc.), but retains "roe" in 2 Sam 2:18; 1 Ch 12:8; Song 3:5; 7:3. So the Revised Version (British and American) has "gazelle" for the King James Version "roe" in Sirach 27:20 (dorkas). the Revised Version (British and American) has "roe-buck" for yachmur (Dt 14:5; 1 Ki 4:23), where the King James Version has "fallow deer." In the opinion of the writer, 'ayyal English Versions of the Bible "hart," should be translated "roe-buck," yachmur "fallow deer," and tsebhi "gazelle." See DEER; GAZELLE. Alfred Ely Day

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Roe in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The Hebrew words thus translated denote some species of antelope, probably the Gazella arabica of Syria and Arabia. The gazelle was allowed as food, De 12:15,22 etc.; it is mentioned as very fleet of foot, 2Sa 2:18; 1Ch 12:8 it was hunted, Isa 13:14; Pr 6:5 it was celebrated for its loveliness. So 2:9,17; 8:14

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Roe in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. tsebi), properly the gazelle (Arab. ghazal), permitted for food (Deut. 14:5; comp. Deut. 12:15, 22; 15:22; 1 Kings 4:23), noted for its swiftness and beauty and grace of form (2 Sam. 2:18; 1 Chr. 12:8; Cant. 2:9; 7:3; 8:14). The gazelle (Gazella dorcas) is found in great numbers in Israel. "Among the gray hills of Galilee it is still 'the roe upon the mountains of Bether,' and I have seen a little troop of gazelles feeding on the Mount of Olives close to Jerusalem itself" (Tristram). The Hebrew word ('ayyalah) in Prov. 5: 19 thus rendered (R.V., "doe"), is properly the "wild she-goat," the mountain goat, the ibex. (See 1 Sam. 24:2; Ps. 104:18; Job 39:1.)

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Roe in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

ROE or ROEBUCK. Yaalah, "chamois" (Proverbs 5:19) or ibex, the female of the wild goat. Tsebi (masculine), tsebiah (feminine), from whence Tabitha (Greek Dorkas), "loving and beloved": Acts 9:36. The beautiful antelope or gazelle, the Antelope dorcas and Antelope Arabica. Slender, graceful, shy, and timid; the image of feminine loveliness (Song of Solomon 4:5; Song of Solomon 2:9; Song of Solomon 2:17; Song of Solomon 8:14). The eye is large, soft, liquid, languishing, and of deepest black; image of swift footedness (2 Samuel 1:19; 2 Samuel 2:18; 1 Chronicles 12:8). Israel ate the gazelle in the wilderness, and the flesh of flocks and herds only when offered in sacrifice; but in Canaan they might eat the flesh, "even as the gazelle" (Deuteronomy 12:15; Deuteronomy 12:22); Isaac's venison was front it (Genesis 27). The valley of Gerar and the Beersheba plains are still frequented by it. Egyptian paintings represent it hunted by hounds.

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Leviathan in Easton's Bible Dictionary

a transliterated Hebrew word (livyathan), meaning "twisted," "coiled." In Job 3:8, Revised Version, and marg. of Authorized Version, it denotes the dragon which, according to Eastern tradition, is an enemy of light; in 41:1 the crocodile is meant; in Ps. 104:26 it "denotes any large animal that moves by writhing or wriggling the body, the whale, the monsters of the deep." This word is also used figuratively for a cruel enemy, as some think "the Egyptian host, crushed by the divine power, and cast on the shores of the Red Sea" (Ps. 74:14). As used in Isa. 27:1, "leviathan the piercing [R.V. 'swift'] serpent, even leviathan that crooked [R.V. marg. 'winding'] serpent," the word may probably denote the two empires, the Assyrian and the Babylonian.

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Leviathan in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

From lewy "joined" (referring to its joined, plate armour like scales) and than a monster drawn out, i.e. long; or else Arabic lavah "to twist." So Job 41:15-17. The crocodile. The whale having a smooth skin and no scales cannot be meant. The crocodile's teeth, 30 on each side of each jaw, lock into each other. Lips are wanting, so that the teeth are seen even when the mouth is closed, illustrating Job 41:14, "who can open the doors of his face? his teeth are terrible round about." As behemoth is the hippopotamus, so leviathan is the crocodile, both found in Egypt along the Nile. The term elsewhere is used for any large monster of the "sea" or water. Psalm 104:26; Psalm 74:13-14; "Thou breakest the heads of leviathan in pieces, and gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness." The king of Egypt is symbolized by the "dragons" and "leviathan" (compare Ezekiel 32:2; Ezekiel 29:3); he and his host at their overthrow in the Red Sea became a spoil to Israel (compare "bread for us," Numbers 14:9) "in the wilderness." The context shows that it is the benefits of God to Israel that are here recounted. In Job 3:8 translated "let them curse it (my day of birth) ... who are ready to raise up a leviathan," i.e. necromancers who rouse and control wild beasts at will (compare Psalm 58:5). In Isaiah 27:1, "leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked (wriggling) serpent," "the dragon in the sea," literally refers to the crocodile in the sea or Nile, or else to the great rock snakes. Spiritually every foe of Israel and the church. Antitypically and finally Satan "the dragon, that old serpent, which is the devil" (Revelation 20:2; Revelation 20:10), whom finally "Jehovah with His sore, great, and strong sword shall punish." For" piercing" (bariach) translated "darting from side to side." Foiled on one side he tries to gain on the other side (Job 26:13; 2 Corinthians 11:14; 2 Corinthians 2:11). Typhon, the destroyer, was worshipped in Egypt under the form of a crocodile.

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Leviathan Scripture - Job 41:1

Canst thou draw out leviathan with an hook? or his tongue with a cord [which] thou lettest down?

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Leviathan Scripture - Psalms 74:14

Thou brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces, [and] gavest him [to be] meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness.

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Leviathan Scripture - Psalms 104:26

There go the ships: [there is] that leviathan, [whom] thou hast made to play therein.

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Lion in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

li'-un: (1) Occurring most often in the Old Testament is 'aryeh, plural 'ardyoth. Another form, 'ari, plural 'arayim, is found less often. 1. Names: Compare 'ari'el, "Ariel" (Ezr 8:16; Isa 29:1,2,7); char'el, "upper altar," and 'ari'el, "altar hearth" (Ezek 43:15); 'aryeh, "Arieh" (2 Ki 15:25); 'ar'eli, "Areli" and "Arelites" (Gen 46:16; Nu 26:17). (2) kephir, "young lion," often translated "lion" (Ps 35:17; Prov 19:12; 23:1, etc.). (3) shachal, translated "fierce lion" or "lion" (Job 4:10; 10:16; 28:8; Hos 5:14). (4) layish, translated "old lion" or "lion" (Job 4:11; Prov 30:30; Isa 30:6). Compare Arabic laith, "lion": layish, "Laish," or "Leshem" (Josh 19:47; Jdg 18:7,14,27,29); layish, "Laish" (1 Sam 25:44; 2 Sam 3:15). (5) lebhi, plural lebha'im, "lioness"; also labhi', and 'lebhiya' (Gen 49:9; Nu 23:24; 24:9); compare town in South of Judah, Lebaoth (Josh 15:32) or Beth-lebaoth (Josh 19:6); also Arabic labwat, "lioness "; Lebweh, a town in Coele-Syria. (6) aur, gor, "whelp," with 'aryeh or a pronoun, e.g. "Judah is a lion's whelp," gur 'aryeh (Gen 49:9); "young ones" of the jackal (Lam 4:3). Also bene labhi', "whelps (sons) of the lioness" (Job 4:11); and kephir 'arayoth, "young lion," literally, "the young of lions" (Jdg 14:5). In Job 28:8, the King James Version has "lion's whelps" for bene shachats, the Revised Version (British and American) "proud beasts." the Revised Version margin "sons of pride"; compare Job 41:34 (Hebrew 26). (7) leon, "lion" (2 Tim 4:17; Heb 11:33; 1 Pet 5:8; Rev 4:7; 5:5; The Wisdom of Solomon 11:17; Ecclesiasticus 4:30; 13:19; Bel and the Dragon 31,32,34). (8) skumnos, "whelp" (1 Macc 3:4)...

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Lion in Naves Topical Bible

-King of beasts Mic 5:8 -Fierceness of Job 4:10; 28:8; Ps 7:2; Pr 22:13; Jer 2:15; 49:19; 50:44; Ho 13:8 -The roaring of Ps 22:13; Pr 20:2 -Strength of Pr 30:30; Isa 38:13; Joe 1:6 -Instincts of, in taking prey Ps 10:9; 17:12; La 3:10; Am 3:4; Na 2:12 -Lair of, in the jungles Jer 4:7; 25:38 -The bases in the temple ornamented by mouldings of 1Ki 7:29,36 -Twelve statues of, on the stairs leading to Solomon's throne 1Ki 10:19,20 -Samson's riddle concerning Jud 14:14,18 -Proverb of Ec 9:4 -Parable of Eze 19:1-9 -Kept in captivity Da 6 -Sent as judgment upon the Samaritans 2Ki 17:25,26 -Killed by Samson Jud 14:5-9 David 1Sa 17:34,36 Benaiah 2Sa 23:20 Saints Heb 11:33 -Disobedient prophet killed by 1Ki 13:24-28 -An unnamed person killed by 1Ki 20:36 -Used for the torture of criminals Da 6:16-24; 7:12; 2Ti 4:17 -FIGURATIVE Of a ruler's anger Pr 19:12; Jer 5:6; 50:17; Ho 5:14 Of Satan 1Pe 5:8 Of divine judgments Isa 15:9 -SYMBOLICAL Ge 49:9; Isa 29:1 Margin) Eze 1:10; 10:14; Da 7:4; Re 4:7; 5:5; 9:8,17; 13:2

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Lion in Smiths Bible Dictionary

"The most powerful, daring and impressive of all carnivorous animals, the most magnificent in aspect and awful in voice." At present lions do not exist in Israel; but they must in ancient times have been numerous. The lion of Israel was in all probability the Asiatic variety, described by Aristotle and Pliny as distinguished by its short and curly mane, and by being shorter and rounder in shape, like the sculptured lion found at Arban. It was less daring than the longer named species, but when driven by hunger it not only ventured to attack the flocks in the desert in presence of the shepherd, 1Sa 17:34; Isa 31:4 but laid waste towns and villages, 2Ki 17:25,26; Pr 22:13; 26:13 and devoured men. 1Ki 13:24; 20:36 Among the Hebrews, and throughout the Old Testament, the lion was the achievement of the princely tribe of Judah, while in the closing book of the canon it received a deeper significance as the emblem of him who "prevailed to open the book and loose the seven seals thereof." Re 5:5 On the other hand its fierceness and cruelty rendered it an appropriate metaphor for a fierce and malignant enemy. Ps 7:2; 22:21; 57:4; 2Ti 4:17 and hence for the arch-fiend himself. 1Pe 5:8

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Lion in Easton's Bible Dictionary

the most powerful of all carnivorous animals. Although not now found in Israel, they must have been in ancient times very numerous there. They had their lairs in the forests (Jer. 5:6; 12:8; Amos 3:4), in the caves of the mountains (Cant. 4:8; Nah. 2:12), and in the canebrakes on the banks of the Jordan (Jer. 49:19; 50:44; Zech. 11:3). No fewer than at least six different words are used in the Old Testament for the lion. (1.) _Gor_ (i.e., a "suckling"), the lion's whelp (Gen. 49:9; Jer. 51:38, etc.). (2.) _Kephir_ (i.e., "shaggy"), the young lion (Judg. 14:5; Job 4:10; Ps. 91:13; 104:21), a term which is also used figuratively of cruel enemies (Ps. 34:10; 35:17; 58:6; Jer. 2:15). (3.) _'Ari_ (i.e., the "puller" in pieces), denoting the lion in general, without reference to age or sex (Num. 23:24; 2 Sam. 17:10, etc.). (4.) _Shahal_ (the "roarer"), the mature lion (Job 4:10; Ps. 91:13; Prov. 26:13; Hos. 5:14). (5.) _Laish_, so called from its strength and bravery (Job 4:11; Prov. 30:30; Isa. 30:6). The capital of Northern Dan received its name from this word. (6.) _Labi_, from a root meaning "to roar," a grown lion or lioness (Gen. 49:9; Num. 23:24; 24:9; Ezek. 19:2; Nah. 2:11). The lion of Israel was properly of the Asiatic variety, distinguished from the African variety, which is larger. Yet it not only attacked flocks in the presence of the shepherd, but also laid waste towns and villages (2 Kings 17:25, 26) and devoured men (1 Kings 13:24, 25). Shepherds sometimes, single-handed, encountered lions and slew them (1 Sam. 17:34, 35; Amos 3:12). Samson seized a young lion with his hands and "rent him as he would have rent a kid" (Judg. 14:5, 6). The strength (Judg. 14:18), courage (2 Sam. 17:10), and ferocity (Gen. 49:9) of the lion were proverbial.

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Lion in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

'ariy, 'arieh ("the bearer," Umbreit); guwr, "the whelp" (Genesis 49:9); kephir, "the young lion" in adolescent vigour, his "great teeth" grown (Psalm 58:6), having his own covert (Jeremiah 25:38); labiy, in adult maturity (Genesis 49:9); libyah, "lioness"; la'ish, "an old (rather strong, from an Arabic root) lion": Job 4:11, where the five different terms occur; shachal is "the roaring lion"; labiy appears in the German lowe. The variety of names shows the abundance of lions in the regions of Scripture at that time. Now there are none in Israel. But the names Lebaoth (Joshua 15:32), Arieh (2 Kings 15:25), Ariel for Jerusalem (Isaiah 29:1-2; Isaiah 29:7), Laish (Judges 18:7), incidentally, and so undesignedly, confirm the Scripture assertions as to their former existence. ..

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Lion Scripture - Psalms 10:9

He lieth in wait secretly as a lion in his den: he lieth in wait to catch the poor: he doth catch the poor, when he draweth him into his net.

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Lion Scripture - Ezekiel 41:19

So that the face of a man [was] toward the palm tree on the one side, and the face of a young lion toward the palm tree on the other side: [it was] made through all the house round about.

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Lion Scripture - Ezekiel 1:10

As for the likeness of their faces, they four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle.

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Locust in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

lo'-kust: The translation of a large number of Hebrew and Greek words: 1. Names: (1) 'arbeh from the root rabhah, "to increase" (compare Arabic raba', "to increase"). (2) sal`am, from obsolete [?] cal`am, "to swallow down," "to consume." (3) chargol (compare Arabic charjal, "to run to the right or left," charjalat, "a company of horses" or "a swarm of locusts," charjawan, a kind of locust). (4) chaghabh (compare Arabic chajab, "to hide," "to cover"). (5) gazam (compare Arabic jazum, " to cut off") (6) yeleq, from the root laqaq "to lick" (compare Arabic laqlaq, "to dart out the tongue" (used of a serpent)). (7) chacil, from the root chacal, "to devour" (compare Arabic chaucal, "crop" (of a bird)). (8) gobh, from the obsolete root gabhah (compare Arabic jabi, "locust," from the root jaba', "to come out of a hole"). (9) gebh, from same root. (10) tselatsal from [?] tsalal (onomatopoetic), "to tinkle," "to ring" (compare Arabic call, "to give a ringing sound" (used of a horse's bit); compare also Arabic Tann, used of the sound of a drum or piece of metal, also of the humming of flies). (11) akris (genitive akridos; diminutive akridion, whence Acridium, a genus of locusts)...

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Locust in Naves Topical Bible

-Authorized as food Le 11:22 -Used as food Mt 3:4; Mr 1:6 -Plague of Ex 10:1-19; Ps 105:34,35 -Devastation by De 28:38; 1Ki 8:37; 2Ch 7:13; Isa 33:4; Joe 1:4-7; Re 9:7-10 -Sun obscured by Joe 2:2,10 -Instincts of Pr 30:27 -In A. V. often inaccurately translated "grasshopper," as in Jud 6:5; 7:12; Job 39:20; Jer 46:23 -See GRASSHOPPER -FIGURATIVE Jer 46:23 -SYMBOLICAL Re 9:3-10

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Locust in Smiths Bible Dictionary

a well-known insect, of the grasshopper family, which commits terrible ravages on vegetation in the countries which it visits. "The common brown locust is about three inches in length, and the general form is that of a grasshopper." The most destructive of the locust tribe that occur in the Bible lands are the (Edipoda migratoria and the Acridium peregrinum; and as both these species occur in Syria and Arabia, etc., it is most probable that one or other is denoted in those passages which speak of the dreadful devastations committed by these insects. Locusts occur in great numbers, and sometimes obscure the sun. Ex 10:15; Jud 6:5; Jer 46:23 Their voracity is alluded to in Ex 10:12,15; Joe 1:4,7 They make a fearful noise in their flight. Joe 2:5; Re 9:9 Their irresistible progress is referred to in Joe 2:8,9 They enter dwellings, and devour even the woodwork of houses. Ex 10:6; Joe 2:9,10 They do not fly in the night. Na 3:17 The sea destroys the greater number. Ex 10:19; Joe 2:20 The flight of locusts is thus described by M. Olivier (Voyage dans l' Empire Othoman, ii. 424): "With the burning south winds (of Syria) there come from the interior of Arabia and from the most southern parts of Persia clouds of locusts (Acridium peregrinum), whose ravages to these countries are as grievous and nearly as sudden as those of the heaviest hail in Europe. We witnessed them twice. It is difficult to express the effect produced on us by the sight of the whole atmosphere filled on all sides and to a great height by an innumerable quantity of these insects, whose flight was slow and uniform, and whose noise resembled that of rain: the sky was darkened, and the light of the sun considerably weakened. In a moment the terraces of the houses, the streets, and all the fields were covered by these insects, and in two days they had nearly devoured all the leaves of the plants. Happily they lived but a short time, and seemed to have migrated only to reproduce themselves and die; in fact, nearly all those we saw the next day had paired, and the day following the fields were covered with their dead bodies." "Locusts have been used as food from the earliest times. Herodotus speaks of a Libyan nation who dried their locusts in the sun and ate them with milk. The more common method, however, was to pull off the legs and wings and roast them in an iron dish. Then they thrown into a bag, and eaten like parched corn, each one taking a handful when he chose." --Biblical Treasury. Sometimes the insects are ground and pounded, and then mixed with flour and water and made into cakes, or they are salted and then eaten; sometimes smoked; sometimes boiled or roasted; again, stewed, or fried in butter.

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Locust in Easton's Bible Dictionary

There are ten Hebrew words used in Scripture to signify locust. In the New Testament locusts are mentioned as forming part of the food of John the Baptist (Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6). By the Mosaic law they were reckoned "clean," so that he could lawfully eat them. The name also occurs in Rev. 9:3, 7, in allusion to this Oriental devastating insect. Locusts belong to the class of Orthoptera, i.e., straight-winged. They are of many species. The ordinary Syrian locust resembles the grasshopper, but is larger and more destructive. "The legs and thighs of these insects are so powerful that they can leap to a height of two hundred times the length of their bodies. When so raised they spread their wings and fly so close together as to appear like one compact moving mass." Locusts are prepared as food in various ways. Sometimes they are pounded, and then mixed with flour and water, and baked into cakes; "sometimes boiled, roasted, or stewed in butter, and then eaten." They were eaten in a preserved state by the ancient Assyrians...

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Locust Scripture - 1 Kings 8:37

If there be in the land famine, if there be pestilence, blasting, mildew, locust, [or] if there be caterpiller; if their enemy besiege them in the land of their cities; whatsoever plague, whatsoever sickness [there be];

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Locust Scripture - Deuteronomy 28:38

Thou shalt carry much seed out into the field, and shalt gather [but] little in; for the locust shall consume it.

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Locust Scripture - Exodus 10:19

And the LORD turned a mighty strong west wind, which took away the locusts, and cast them into the Red sea; there remained not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt.

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Mole in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

mol ((1) tinshemeth, the King James Version "mole," the Revised Version (British and American) "chameleon"; Septuagint aspalax = spalax, "mole," Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) talpa, "mole" (Lev 11:30); (2) choledh, English Versions of the Bible "weasel"; Septuagint gale, "weasel" or "pole-cat"; compare Arabic khuld, "mole-rat" (Lev 11:29); (3) chaphar-peroth, English Versions of the Bible "moles"; from chaphar, "to dig"; compare Arabic chafar, "to dig," and perah, "mole" or "rat," for pe'erah, from the root pa'ar, "to dig"; compare Arabic fa'rat, or farat, "rat," "mouse," from the root fa'ar, "to dig"; Septuagint tois mataiois, "vain, idle, or profane persons" (Isa 2:20)): (1) Tinshemeth is the last of 8 unclean "creeping things" in Lev 11:29,30. The word occurs also in Lev 11:18 and Dt 14:16, translated the King James Version "swan," the Revised Version (British and American) "horned owl," Septuagint porphurion, "coot" or "heron." See CHAMELEON. (2) Choledh is the first in the same list. The word occurs nowhere else, and is translated "weasel" in English Versions of the Bible, but comparison with the Arabic khuld has led to the suggestion that "mole-rat" would be a better translation. See WEASEL. (3) In Isa 2:20, "In that day men shall cast away their idols .... to the moles and to the bats," chaphar-peroth, variously written as one word or two, is translated "moles" in English Versions of the Bible, but has given rise to much conjecture. The European "mole," Talpa europea, is extensively distributed in the temperate parts of Europe and Asia, but is absent from Syria and Israel, its place being taken by the mole-rat, Spalax typhlus. The true mole belongs to the Insectivora, and feeds on earth-worms and insect larvae, but in making its tunnels and nests, it incidentally injures gardens and lawns. The mole-rat belongs to the Rodentia, and has teeth of the same general type as those of a rat or squirrel, large, chisel-shaped incisors behind which is a large vacant space, no canines, and praemolars and molars with grinding surfaces. It is larger than the mole, but of the same color, and, like the mole, is blind. It makes tunnels much like those of the mole. It is herbivorous and has been observed to seize growing plants and draw them down into its hole. In one of its burrows a central chamber has been found filled with entire plants of the chummuc or chick-pea, and two side chambers containing pods plucked from the plants in the central chamber. While the mole digs with its powerful and peculiarly shaped front feet, the mole-rat digs with its nose, its feet being normal in shape. See LIZARD. Alfred Ely Day

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Mole in Naves Topical Bible

-General scriptures concerning Le 11:30; Isa 2:20

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Mole in Smiths Bible Dictionary

1. Tinshemeth. Le 11:30 It is probable that the animals mentioned with the tinshemeth in the above passage denote different kinds of lizards; perhaps, therefore, the chameleon is the animal intended. 2. Chephor peroth is rendered "moles" in Isa 2:20 (The word means burrowers, hole-diggers, and may designate any of the small animals, as rats and weasels, which burrow among ruins. Many scholars, according to McClintock and Strong's "Cyclopedia," consider that the Greek aspalax is the animal intended by both the words translated mole. It is not the European mole, but is a kind of blind mole-rat, from 8 to 12 inches long, feeding on vegetables, and burrowing like a mole, but on a larger scale. It is very common in Russia, and Hasselquiest says it is abundant on the plains of Sharon in Israel. --ED.)

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Mole in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Heb. tinshameth (Lev. 11:30), probably signifies some species of lizard (rendered in R.V., "chameleon"). In Lev. 11:18, Deut. 14:16, it is rendered, in Authorized Version, "swan" (R.V., "horned owl"). The Heb. holed (Lev. 11:29), rendered "weasel," was probably the mole-rat. The true mole (Talpa Europoea) is not found in Israel. The mole-rat (Spalax typhlus) "is twice the size of our mole, with no external eyes, and with only faint traces within of the rudimentary organ; no apparent ears, but, like the mole, with great internal organs of hearing; a strong, bare snout, and with large gnawing teeth; its colour a pale slate; its feet short, and provided with strong nails; its tail only rudimentary." In Isa. 2:20, this word is the rendering of two words _haphar peroth_, which are rendered by Gesenius "into the digging of rats", i.e., rats' holes. But these two Hebrew words ought probably to be combined into one (lahporperoth) and translated "to the moles", i.e., the rat-moles. This animal "lives in underground communities, making large subterranean chambers for its young and for storehouses, with many runs connected with them, and is decidedly partial to the loose debris among ruins and stone-heaps, where it can form its chambers with least trouble."

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Mole in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

tinshemeth. Rather "chameleon", the inflating animal, as it inflates its body; from nasham "to breathe."(See CHAMELEON.) The lung when filled with air renders its body semi- transparent; from its power of abstinence it was fabled to live on air (Leviticus 11:30). In Leviticus 11:18 it is "the ibis," an unclean bird. Of the tree lizard, Dendrosaura, tribe. In Isaiah 2:20, chephor perot, "moles in KJV, literally, "continual diggers," mice or rats, which bore in deserted places. Mole rats in Syria and Mesopotamia frequent cultivated lands. The ruins of Babylon are perforated on all sides with holes, the abode of "doleful creatures."

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Mole Scripture - Leviticus 11:30

And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the lizard, and the snail, and the mole.

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Mouse in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

mous, mis (`akhbar; Septuagint mus, "mouse"; compare Arabic `akbar, "jerboa" not 'akbar, "greater"; compare also proper noun, `akhbor, "Achbor" (Gen 36:38 f; 1 Ch 1:49; also 2 Ki 22:12,14; Jer 26:22; 36:12)): The word occurs in the list of unclean "creeping things" (Lev 11:29), in the account of the golden mice and tumors (the King James Version and the American Revised Version margin "emerods") sent by the Philistines (1 Sam 6:4-18), and in the phrase, "eating swine's flesh, and the abomination, and the mouse" (Isa 66:17). The cosmopolitan housemouse, Mus musculus, is doubtless the species referred to. The jerboa or jumping mouse, Arabic yarbu, is eaten by the Arabs of the Syrian desert, Northeast of Damascus. Possibly allied to `akhbar is the Arabic `akbar (generally in plural, `akabir), used for the male of the jerboa. Alfred Ely Day

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Mouse in Naves Topical Bible

-Forbidden as food Le 11:29 -Used as food Isa 66:17 -Images of 1Sa 6:4,5,11,18

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Mouse in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(the corn-eater). The name of this animal occurs in Le 11:29; 1Sa 6:4,5; Isa 66:17 The Hebrew word is in all probability generic, and is not intended to denote any particular species of mouse. The original word denotes a field-ravager, and may therefore comprehend any destructive rodent. Tristram found twenty-three species of mice in Israel. It is probable that in 1Sa 6:5 the expression "the mice that mar the land" includes and more particularly refers to the short-tailed field-mice (Arvicola agrestis, Flem.), which cause great destruction to the corn-lands of Syria.

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Mouse in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Heb. 'akhbar, "swift digger"), properly the dormouse, the field-mouse (1 Sam. 6:4). In Lev. 11:29, Isa. 66:17 this word is used generically, and includes the jerboa (Mus jaculus), rat, hamster (Cricetus), which, though declared to be unclean animals, were eaten by the Arabs, and are still eaten by the Bedouins. It is said that no fewer than twenty-three species of this group ('akhbar=Arab. ferah) of animals inhabit Israel. God "laid waste" the people of Ashdod by the terrible visitation of field-mice, which are like locusts in their destructive effects (1 Sam. 6:4, 11, 18). Herodotus, the Greek historian, accounts for the destruction of the army of Sennacherib (2 Kings 19:35) by saying that in the night thousands of mice invaded the camp and gnawed through the bow-strings, quivers, and shields, and thus left the Assyrians helpless. (See SENNACHERIB

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Mouse in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

'akbar. The "jumping mouse," Dipus jaculus Egyptius (Gesenius); or as the Arabic farah, any small rodent (Tristram); the field mouse or vole, with larger head, shorter ears and tail, and stouter form, than the house mouse; and the long-tailed field mouse, Mus sylvaticus. The ravages of these rodents among grain, etc., made the Philistines propitiate with "golden mice" (five answering to their five political divisions and lords) the God whose instrument of "marring the land" they were (1 Samuel 6). The scourges on them were humiliating to their pride, the tiny mouse and hemorrhoids in the back, where for a warrior to be smitten is a shame (Psalm 78:66). So Sminthian Apollo was worshipped in Crete and the Troad; derived from smintha, Cretan for "mouse"; Apollo was represented with one foot upon a mouse. The Egyptian account of Sennacherib's discomfiture was that the gods sent mice which gnawed his archers' bowstrings, in his expedition to Egypt. The mouse was legally unclean (Isaiah 66:67).

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Mouse Scripture - Isaiah 66:17

They that sanctify themselves, and purify themselves in the gardens behind one [tree] in the midst, eating swine's flesh, and the abomination, and the mouse, shall be consumed together, saith the LORD.

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Mouse Scripture - Leviticus 11:29

These also [shall be] unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind,

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Mule in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

mul (peredh (1 Ki 10:25; 18:5; Ezr 2:66; Isa 66:20; Zec 14:15), the feminine pirdah (1 Ki 1:33,38,44), rekhesh, "swift steeds," the King James Version "mules" (Est 8:10,14), 'achashteranim, "used in the king's service," the King James Version "camels," the Revised Version margin "mules" (Est 8:10,14), yemim, "hot springs," the King James Version "mules" (Gen 36:24); hemionos, "half-ass," "mule" (1 Esdras 5:43; Judith 15:11)): Mules are mentioned as riding animals for princes (2 Sam 13:29; 18:9; 1 Ki 1:33,38,44); in the tribute brought to Solomon (2 Ch 9:24); as beasts of burden (2 Ki 5:17; 1 Ch 12:40); horses and mules are obtained from the "house of Togarmah" in the distant north (Ezek 27:14). The injunction of Ps 32:9, "Be ye not as the horse, or as the mule, which have no understanding," need not be understood as singling out the horse and mule as more in need of guidance than the rest of the brute creation, but rather as offering familiar examples to contrast with man who should use his intelligence. At the present day mules are used as pack animals and for drawing freight wagons, rarely for riding. One does not often see in Israel mules as large and fine as are common in Europe and America. This may be because most of the mares and many of the donkeys are small. Alfred Ely Day

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Mule in Naves Topical Bible

-Uses of For royal riders 2Sa 13:29; 18:9; 1Ki 1:33 Ridden by phetic vision of the kingdom of Christ Isa 66:20 As pack animals 2Ki 5:17; 1Ch 12:40 -Tribute paid in 1Ki 10:25 -Used in barter Eze 27:14 -By the captivity in returing from Babylon Ezr 2:66; Ne 7:68 -In war Zec 14:15

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Mule in Smiths Bible Dictionary

a hybrid animal, the offspring of a horse and an ass. "The mule is smaller than the horse, and is a remarkably hardy, patient, obstinate, sure-footed animal, living, ordinarily, twice as long as a horse." --McClintock and Strong's Cyclopedia. It was forbidden to the Israelites to breed mules, but sometimes they imported them. It would appear that only kings and great men rode on mules. We do not read of mules at all in the New Testament; perhaps therefore they had ceased to be imported.

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Mule in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. pered), so called from the quick step of the animal or its power of carrying loads. It is not probable that the Hebrews bred mules, as this was strictly forbidden in the law (Lev. 19:19), although their use was not forbidden. We find them in common use even by kings and nobles (2 Sam. 18:9; 1 Kings 1:33; 2 Kings 5:17; Ps. 32:9). They are not mentioned, however, till the time of David, for the word rendered "mules" (R.V. correctly, "hot springs") in Gen. 36:24 (yemim) properly denotes the warm springs of Callirhoe, on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. In David's reign they became very common (2 Sam. 13:29; 1 Kings 10:25). Mules are not mentioned in the New Testament. Perhaps they had by that time ceased to be used in Israel.

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Mule in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

1. Pered. Not mentioned until David's time, when Israel became more familiar with horses (1 Chronicles 12:40; 2 Samuel 13:29; 2 Samuel 18:9). Used for riding only by persons of rank (1 Kings 1:33). As breeding from different species was forbidden (Leviticus 19:19), mules must have been imported. An Egyptian monument from Thebes in British Museum represents them yoked to a chariot. The people of Togarmah (Armenia) brought them to Tyre for barter (Ezekiel 27:14). They were part of the "presents" from "the kings of the earth" to Solomon, "a rate year by year" (2 Chronicles 9:23-24). In these ways they came into Israel (1 Kings 18:5). In Ezra 2:66; Nehemiah 7:68. the mules on the return from Babylon amounted to 245; but the horses about three times as many, 736; so that the mule was then, as we find in the Greek classics, rarer and more precious. 2. Rechesh is translated "mules," Esther 8:10; Esther 8:14; but in 1 Kings 4:28 "DROMEDARIES" Micah 1:13, "swift beasts." (See CAMEL.) 3. Yeemim. Genesis 36:24 translated rather "Anah that found the hot springs," so the Vulgate version; the Samaritan text has "the Emim." Callirrhoe in the wady Zerka Maein is thought to be Anah's hot springs.

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Hen in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Matthew 23:37; Luke 13:34. As "the eagle stirring up her nest, fluttering over her young, spreading abroad her wings, taking, bearing them on her wings," represents the Old Testament aspect of Jehovah in relation to Israel under the law (Deuteronomy 32:11), so the "hen," Christ the lowly loving Son of God gathering God's children under His overshadowing wing, in the gospel (Rth 2:12; Psalm 17:8; Psalm 91:4). (See EAGLE.) So Jehovah "passed over", or sprang forward to overshadow Israel from the destroying angel (Exodus 12:13). (See PASSOVER; EXODUS.)

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Hoopoe in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

hoo'-po; -poo (dukhiphath; epops; Latin Upupa epops): One of the peculiar and famous birds of Israel, having a curved bill and beautiful plumage. It is about the size of a thrush. Its back is a rich cinnamon color, its head golden buff with a crest of feathers of gold, banded with white and tipped with black, that gradually lengthen as they cover the head until, when folded, they lie in lines of black and white, and, when erect, each feather shows its exquisite marking. Its wings and tail are black banded with white and buff. It nests in holes and hollow trees. All ornithologists agree that it is a "nasty, filthy bird" in its feeding and breeding habits. The nest, being paid no attention by the elders, soon becomes soiled and evil smelling. The bird is mentioned only in the lists of abomination (Lev 11:19; and Dt 14:18). One reason why Moses thought it unfit for food was on account of its habits. Quite as strong a one lay in the fact that it was one of the sacred birds of Egypt. There the belief was prevalent that it could detect water and indicate where to dig a well; that it could hear secrets and cure diseases. Its head was a part of the charms used by witches. The hoopoe was believed to have wonderful medicinal powers and was called the "Doctor Bird" by the arabs. Because it is almost the size of a hoopoe and somewhat suggestive of it in its golden plumage, the lapwing was used in the early translations of the Bible instead of hoopoe. But when it was remembered that the lapwing is a plover, its flesh and eggs especially dainty food, that it was eaten everywhere it was known, modern commentators rightly decided that the hoopoe was the bird intended by the Mosaic law. It must be put on record, however, that where no superstition attaches to the hoopoe and where its nesting habits are unknown and its feeding propensities little understood, as it passes in migration it is killed, eaten and considered delicious, especially by residents of Southern Europe. Gene Stratton-Porter

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Hornet in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

hor'-net (tsir`ah; compare tsor`ah, "Zorah" (Jdg 13:2, etc.); also compare tsara`ath, "leprosy" (Lev 13:2, etc.); from tsara`, "to smite"; Septuagint sphekia, literally, "wasp's nest"): Hornets are mentioned only in Ex 23:28; Dt 7:20; Josh 24:12. All three references are to the miraculous interposition of God in driving out before the Israelites the original inhabitants of the promised land. There has been much speculation as to whether hornets are literally meant. The following seems to throw some light on this question (Ex 23:20,27,28): "Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee by the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. .... I will send my terror before thee, and will discomfit all the people to whom thou shalt come, and I will make all thine enemies turn their backs unto thee. And I will send the hornet before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee." The "terror" of Ex 23:27 may well be considered to be typified by the "hornet" of 23:28, the care for the Israelites (23:20) being thrown into marked contrast with the confusion of their enemies. Compare Isa 7:18, where the fly and the bee symbolize the military forces of Egypt and Assyria: "And it shall come to pass in that day, that Yahweh will hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria." Hornets and wasps belong to the family Vespidae of the order Hymenoptera. Both belong to the genus Vespa, the hornets being distinguished by their large size. Both hornets and wasps are abundant in Israel (compare Zorah, which may mean "town of hornets"). a large kind is called in Arabic debbur, which recalls the Hebrew debhorah, "bee." They sting fiercely, but not unless molested. Alfred Ely Day

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Hornet in Naves Topical Bible

-Or wasp Ex 23:28; De 7:20; Jos 24:12

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Hornet in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The hornet bears a general resemblance to the common wasp, only it is larger. It is exceedingly fierce and voracious, especially in hot climates and its sting is frequently dangerous. In Scripture the hornet is referred to only by the means which Jehovah employed for the extirpation of the Canaanites. Ex 23:28; De 7:20; Jos 24:12 Wisd. 12:8. (It is said that the Phaselitae, a Phoenician people, were driven from their locality by hornets; and other examples are given in Paxton's "Illustrations of Scripture," 1:303.--ED.)

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Hornet in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Heb. tsir'ah, "stinging", (Ex. 23:28; Deut. 7:20; Josh. 24:12). The word is used in these passages as referring to some means by which the Canaanites were to be driven out from before the Israelites. Some have supposed that the word is used in a metaphorical sense as the symbol of some panic which would seize the people as a "terror of God" (Gen. 35:5), the consternation with which God would inspire the Canaanites. In Israel there are four species of hornets, differing from our hornets, being larger in size, and they are very abundant. They "attack human beings in a very furious manner." "The furious attack of a swarm of hornets drives cattle and horses to madness, and has even caused the death of the animals."

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Hornet in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

tsireah. Whence Zoreah is named (Joshua 15:38). In Exodus 23:28, "I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite," etc., is perhaps figurative for I will send terror on them (Joshua 2:11; Deuteronomy 2:25), so that they will flee as if before a swarm of hornets. So "bees" (Deuteronomy 1:44; Psalm 118:12).

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Hornet Scripture - Deuteronomy 7:20

Moreover the LORD thy God will send the hornet among them, until they that are left, and hide themselves from thee, be destroyed.

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Hornet Scripture - Joshua 24:12

And I sent the hornet before you, which drave them out from before you, [even] the two kings of the Amorites; [but] not with thy sword, nor with thy bow.

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Horse in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

hors: 1. Names: The common names are (1) cuc, and (2) hippos. (3) The word parash, "horseman," occurs often, and in several cases is translated "horse" or "warhorse" (Isa 28:28; Ezek 27:14; Joel 2:4 the Revised Version, margin); also in 2 Sam 16, where the "horsemen" of English Versions of the Bible is ba`ale ha-parashim, "owners of horses"; compare Arabic faris, "horseman," and faras, "horse". (4) The feminine form cucah, occurs in Song 1:9, and is rendered as follows: Septuagint he hippos; Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) equitatum; the King James Version "company of horses," the Revised Version (British and American) "steed." It is not clear why English Versions of the Bible does not have "mare." (5) The word 'abbirim, "strong ones," is used for horses in Jdg 5:22; Jer 8:16; 47:3; 50:11 (the King James Version "bulls"). In Ps 22:12 the same word is translated "strong bulls" (of Bashan). (6) For [~rekhesh (compare Arabic rakad, "to run"), in 1 Ki 4:28; Est 8:10,14; Mic 1:13, the Revised Version (British and American) has "swift steeds," while the King James Version gives "dromedaries" in 1 Ki and "mules" in Est. (7) For kirkaroth (Isa 66:20), the King James Version and the English Revised Version have "swift beasts"; the English Revised Version margin and the American Standard Revised Version "dromedaries"; Septuagint skiddia, perhaps "covered carriages." In Est 8:10,14 we find the doubtful words (8) 'achashteranim, and (9) bene ha- rammakim, which have been variously translated. the King James Version has respectively "camels" and "young dromedaries," the Revised Version (British and American) "used in the king's service" and "bred of the stud," the Revised Version margin "mules" and "young dromedaries."...

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Horse in Naves Topical Bible

-Description of Great strength Job 39:19-25 Swifter than eagles Jer 4:13 Snorting and neighing of Isa 5:28; Jer 8:16 A vain thing for safety Ps 33:17; Pr 21:31 -Used by the Egyptians in war Ex 14:9; 15:19 -Used by the Israelites 1Ki 22:4 -Used for cavalry 2Ki 18:23; Jer 47:3; 51:21 -Egypt famous for Isa 31:1 -Forbidden to the kings of Israel De 17:16 -Hamstrung by Joshua Jos 11:6,9 David 2Sa 8:4 -Israel reproved for keeping Isa 2:7; 31:1; Eze 17:15; Ho 14:3 -Exported From Egypt 1Ki 10:28,29; 2Ch 9:25,28 From Babylon Ezr 2:66; Ne 7:68 -Bits for Jas 3:3 -Bells for Zec 14:20 -Harness for Jer 46:4 -Color of Zec 1:8 -Commerce in Re 18:13 -See EXPORTED, above -Dedicated to religious uses 2Ki 23:11 -SYMBOLICAL Zec 1:8; Re 6:2-8; 9:17; 19:11-21

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Horse in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The most striking feature in the biblical notices of the horse is the exclusive application of it to warlike operations; in no instance is that useful animal employed for the purposes of ordinary locomotion or agriculture, if we except Isa 28:28 The animated description of the horse in Job 39:19-25 applies solely to the war-horse. The Hebrews in the patriarchal age, as a pastoral race, did not stand in need of the services Of the horse, and for a long period after their settlement in Canaan they dispensed with it, partly in consequence of the hilly nature of the country, which only admitted of the use of chariots in certain localities, Jud 1:19 and partly in consequence to the prohibition in De 17:16 which would be held to apply at all periods. David first established a force of cavalry and chariots, 2Sa 8:4 but the great supply of horses was subsequently effected by Solomon through his connection with Egypt. 1Ki 4:26 Solomon also established a very active trade in horses, which were brought by dealers out of Egypt and resold, at a profit, to the Hittites. With regard to the trappings and management of the horse we have little information. The bridle was placed over the horse's nose, Isa 30:28 and a bit or curb is also mentioned. 2Ki 19:28; Ps 32:9; Pr 26:3; Isa 37:29 In the Authorized Version it is incorrectly given "bridle," with the exception of Ps 32:1 ... Saddles were not used until a late period. The horses were not shod, and therefore hoofs are hard "as flint," Isa 5:28 were regarded as a great merit. The chariot-horses were covered with embroidered trappings Eze 27:20 Horses and chariots were used also in idolatrous processions, as noticed in regard to the sun. 2Ki 23:11

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Horse in Easton's Bible Dictionary

always referred to in the Bible in connection with warlike operations, except Isa. 28:28. The war-horse is described Job 39:19-25. For a long period after their settlement in Canaan the Israelites made no use of horses, according to the prohibition, Deut. 17:16. David was the first to form a force of cavalry (2 Sam. 8:4). But Solomon, from his connection with Egypt, greatly multiplied their number (1 Kings 4:26; 10:26, 29). After this, horses were freely used in Israel (1 Kings 22:4; 2 Kings 3:7; 9:21, 33; 11:16). The furniture of the horse consisted simply of a bridle (Isa. 30:28) and a curb (Ps. 32:9).

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Horse in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

In Scripture used for war-like purposes, not agriculture (except in treading out grain for threshing, Isaiah 28:28, where for "horsemen" translated "horses".) Job's magnificent description refers to the war horse (Isaiah 39:19-25), "hast thou clothed his neck with thunder?" i.e. with the power of inspiring terror. Rather "with majesty" (Umbreit), "with quivering mane" (Maurer). The Greek connection between mane (fobee) and terror (fobos) favors A.V. which is more poetic. "Canst thou make him afraid (rather 'make him spring') as a grasshopper?" So in Joel 2:4 war horses are compared to locusts. Their heads are so like that the Italian for "locust" is cavaletta, "little horse." "The glory of his nostrils is terrible: he paweth in the valley and rejoiceth in strength, he goeth on," etc.; "he swalloweth the ground with fierceness," i.e. draws it in fierce impatience toward him with his hoof, as if he would "swallow" it...

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Horse Scripture - Jeremiah 51:21

And with thee will I break in pieces the horse and his rider; and with thee will I break in pieces the chariot and his rider;

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Horse Scripture - Esther 6:9

And let this apparel and horse be delivered to the hand of one of the king's most noble princes, that they may array the man [withal] whom the king delighteth to honour, and bring him on horseback through the street of the city, and proclaim before him, Thus shall it be done to the man whom the king delighteth to honour.

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Horse Scripture - 2 Chronicles 1:17

And they fetched up, and brought forth out of Egypt a chariot for six hundred [shekels] of silver, and an horse for an hundred and fifty: and so brought they out [horses] for all the kings of the Hittites, and for the kings of Syria, by their means.

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Hyena in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

hi-e'-na (tsabhua` (Jer 12:9); Septuagint huaine (Jer 12:9; Ecclesiasticus 13:18); compare Arabic dab` or dabu`, "hyaena"; compare tsebho`im, Zeboim (1 Sam 13:18; Neh 11:34); also compare tsibh`on, Zibeon (Gen 36:2,14,20; 1 Ch 1:38); but not tsebhoyim, Zeboiim (Gen 10:19; 14:2, etc.)): English Versions of the Bible does not contain the word "hyena," except in Ecclesiasticus 13:18, "What peace is there between the hyena and the dog? and what; peace between the rich man and the poor?" In Jer 12:9, where the Hebrew has ha-`ayiT tsabhua` (the Revised Version (British and American) "a speckled bird of prey"), Septuagint has spelaion huaines, "a hyena's den," as if from a Hebrew original having me`arah, "cave," instead of ha-`ayiT, "bird." The root tsabha` may mean "to seize as prey" (compare Arabic seb`, "lion" or "rapacious animal"), or "to dip" or "to dye" (compare Arabic cabagh, "to dye"), hence, the two translations of tsabhua` as "hyena" and as "speckled" (Vulgate versicolor). The hyena of Israel is the striped hyena (Hyaena striata) which ranges from India to North Africa. The striped, the spotted, and the brown hyenas constitute a distinct family of the order of Carnivora, having certain peculiarities of dentition and having four toes on each foot, instead of four behind and five in front, as in most of the order. The hyena is a nocturnal animal, rarely seen though fairly abundant, powerful but cowardly, a feeder on carrion and addicted to grave-robbing. The last habit in particular has won it the abhorrence of the natives of the countries which it inhabits. In the passage cited in Ecclus, it is to be noted that it is to the hyena that the rich man is compared. The jaws and teeth of the hyena are exceedingly strong and fitted for crushing bones which have resisted the efforts of dogs and jackals. Its dens are in desolate places and are littered with fragments of skeletons. "Is my heritage unto me as a speckled bird of prey?" (Jer 12:9) becomes a more striking passage if the Septuagint is followed, "Is my heritage unto me as a hyena's den?" Shaqq-ud-Diba`, "Cleft of the hyenas," is the name of a valley north of Wadi-ul-Qelt, and Wadi-Abu-Diba` (of similar meaning) is the name of an affluent of Wadi-ul-Qelt. Either of these, or possibly Wadi-ul-Qelt itself, may be the valley of Zeboim (valley of hyenas) of 1 Sam 13:18. The name of Zibeon the Horite (Gen 36:2, etc.) is more doubtfully connected with "hyena." Alfred Ely Day

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Hyaena in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Authorities differ as to whether the term tzabu'a in Jer 12:9 means a "hyaena" or a "speckled bird." The only other instance in which it occurs is as a proper name, Zeboim, 1Sa 13:18 "the valley of hyaenas, "Aquila; Ne 11:34 The striped hyaena (Hyaena striata) is found in Africa, Asia Minor, Arabia and Persia, and is more common in Israel than any other carnivorous animals except perhaps the jackal. The hyaena is among the mammals what the vulture is among birds, --the scavenger of the wilderness, the woods and the shore. --It often attacks animals, and Sometimes digs up the dead bodies of men and beasts. From this last habit the hyaena has been regarded as a horrible and mysterious creature. Its teeth are so powerful that they can crack the bones of an ox with ease. --Appelton's Encyc. The hyaena was common in ancient as in modern Egypt, and is constantly depicted upon monuments; it must therefore have been well known to the Jews.

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Hyena in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Jeremiah 12:9, "speckled bird." But Septuagint "the hyena," in parallelism to the "lion" in Jeremiah 12:8; tsabuwa the Arabic word for hyena corresponds. Zeboim (1 Samuel 13:18) means "the valley of hyenas." But the Hebrew 'ayit joined to it always means a bird; and "speckled" symbolizes the blending of paganism with the utterly diverse, divinely-ordained law.

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Kite in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

kit ('ayyah; iktinos; Latin Milvus ictinus or regalis): A medium-sized member of the hawk tribe (see HAWK). This bird is 27 inches long, of bright reddish-brown color, has sharply pointed wings and deeply forked tail. It is supposed to have exceptionally piercing eyes. It takes moles, mice, young game birds, snakes and frogs, as well as carrion for food. Its head and facial expression are unusually eagle-like. It was common over Israel in winter, but bred in the hills of Galilee and rough mountainous places, so it was less conspicuous in summer. It is among the lists of abominations (see Lev 11:14 and Dt 14:13). It is notable that this is the real bird intended by Job to be used as that whose eye could not trace the path to the silver mine: "That path no bird of prey knoweth, Neither hath the falcon's eye seen it" (Job 28:7). The word used here in the original Hebrew is 'ayyah, which was the name for kite. Our first translators used "vulture"; our latest efforts give "falcon," a smaller bird of different markings, not having the kite's reputation for eyesight. Gene Stratton-Porter

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Kite in Naves Topical Bible

-A bird forbidden as food Le 11:14; De 14:13

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Kite in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(Heb. ayyah), a rapacious and keen-sighted bird of prey belonging to the hawk family. The Hebrew word thus rendered occurs in three passages -- Le 11:14; De 14:13; Job 28:7 In the two former it is translated "kite" in the Authorized Version, in the latter "vulture." It is enumerated among the twenty names of birds mentioned in De 14:1 ... which were considered unclean by the Mosaic law and forbidden to be used as food by the Israelites.

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Kite in Easton's Bible Dictionary

an unclean and keen-sighted bird of prey (Lev. 11:14; Deut. 14:13). The Hebrew word used, _'ayet_, is rendered "vulture" in Job 28:7 in Authorized Version, "falcon" in Revised Version. It is probably the red kite (Milvus regalis), a bird of piercing sight and of soaring habits found all over Israel.

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Kite in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

'ayyah (Leviticus 11:14). The red kite, Milvus regalis, remarkable for its sharp sight (Job 28:7, where for "vulture" translated "kite," 'ayyah even its eye fails to penetrate the miner's hidden "path"; Deuteronomy 14:13). From an Arabic root "to turn," the kite sailing in circles guided by the rudder- like tail. The phrase "after its kind" implies that a genus or class of birds, not merely one individual, is meant. The bony orbits of the eye and the eye itself are especially large in proportion to the skull, in all the Raptores. The sclerotic plates enclose the eye as in a hoop, in the form of a goblet with a trumpet rim; by this the eye becomes a self-adjusting telescope to discern near or far objects. Hence, when a beast dies in a wilderness, in a very short time kites and vultures, invisible before to man, swoop in spiral circles from all quarters toward it.

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Kite Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:13

And the glede, and the kite, and the vulture after his kind,

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Kite Scripture - Leviticus 11:14

And the vulture, and the kite after his kind;

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Leopard in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

lep'-erd ((1) namer (Song 4:8; Isa 11:6; Jer 5:6; 13:23; Hos 13:7; Hab 1:8); compare Arabic nimr, "leopard." (2) Chaldaic nemar (Dan 7:6). (3) pardalis (Rev 13:2; Ecclesiasticus 28:23); compare nimrim Nimrim (Isa 15:6; Jer 48:34), nimrah, Nimrah (Nu 32:3), and beth-nimrah, Beth-nimrah (Nu 32:36; Josh 13:27)): The leopard is found throughout Africa and ranges through Southern Asia from Asia Minor to Japan, being absent from Siberia and Central Asia. Its range is much the same as that of the lion, which latter, however, does not extend so far to the East. Like other animals of wide range, it has local varieties, but these shade into each other imperceptibly, and the one specific name, Felis pardus, includes all. Leopards live in some of the valleys East and South of the Dead Sea, and in the mountains of Sinai and Northwestern Arabia. They have but rarely been seen of recent years in Lebanon or the more settled portions of Israel. So far as can be judged from skins which are available for comparison, the leopard of Israel is rather light in color, and is not as large as. some found in Africa or India. It is not certain that the place-names, NIMRIM, NIMRAH, and BETH-NIMRAH (which see), have to do with namer, "leopard," but their location is in Moab, where leopards are well known, even at the present day. One of the valleys entering the Dead Sea from the East, South of the Arnon, is called Wadi-en-Numeir ("valley of the little leopard"; numeir, diminutive of nimr). In the Bible "leopard" occurs mainly in figurative expressions, as a large and fierce beast. The leopard is mentioned with the lion and bear in Dan 7:6; Hos 13:7; Rev 13:2; with the lion, wolf and bear in Isa 11:6; with the lion and wolf in Jer 5:6; with the lion alone in Ecclesiasticus 28:23; with the wolf alone in Hab 1:8. The leopard is smaller than the lion and the tiger, but is more active than either. Its swiftness is referred to in Hab 1:8: "Their horses also (of the Chaldeans) are swifter than leopards." The spots of the leopard are referred to in Jer 13:23: "Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots?" The Greek pardalis, and panther, were both applied to the leopard. "Panther" is sometimes used of large leopards, while in America, with its corrupt form "painter," it is one of the names applied to the cougar or puma, Felis concolor, which, as the specific name implies, is not spotted like the leopard, or striped like the tiger. Alfred Ely Day

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Leopard in Naves Topical Bible

-A carnivorous animal So 4:8 -Fierceness of Jer 5:6; 13:23; Ho 13:7; Hab 1:8 -FIGURATIVE Da 7:6 Taming of, the triumph of the gospel Isa 11:6

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Leopard in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(Heb. namer) is invariably given by the Authorized Version as the translation of the Hebrew word, which occurs in the seven following passages: So 4:8; Isa 11:6; Jer 5:6; 13:23; Da 7:6; Ho 13:7; Habb 1:8 Leopard occurs also in Ecclus. 28:23 and in Re 13:2 From So 4:8 we learn that the hilly ranges of Lebanon were in ancient times frequented by these animals. They are now not uncommonly seen in and about Lebanon and the southern maritime mountains of Syria. Under the name namer, which means "spotted," it is not improbable that another animal, namely the cheetah (Gueparda jubata), may be included; which is tamed by the Mohammedans of Syria, who employ it in hunting the gazelle.

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Leopard in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. namer, so called because spotted, Cant. 4:8), was that great spotted feline which anciently infested the mountains of Syria, more appropriately called a panther (Felis pardus). Its fierceness (Isa. 11:6), its watching for its prey (Jer. 5:6), its swiftness (Hab. 1:8), and the spots of its skin (Jer. 13:23), are noticed. This word is used symbolically (Dan. 7:6; Rev. 13:2).

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Leopard in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Famed for swiftness and agility (Habakkuk 1:8); "you would fancy it was flying" (Oppian Cyneg., iii. 76); it climbs trees, and can crawl along the ground. Hence the symbol for Greece and Alexander's rapid victories (Daniel 7:6; Revelation 13:2). The prevalence of leopards anciently in Israel is marked by the many places named from them (namer, Hebrew): Nimrah, Nimrim, Beth Nimrah. "The mountains of the leopard" (Song of Solomon 4:8), namely, Lebanon and Hermon, where still they are found; "the mountains of prey" (Psalm 76:4), symbolizing the rapacious world kingdoms. They spring with successive rapid bounds. They cunningly lie in wait in thickets and often near villages for their prey, as distinguished from the lion's bold, open attack (Jeremiah 5:6; Hosea 13:7): "as a leopard by the way, I will observe (lie in wait for) them." Its unalterable spots represent man's inability to change himself (Jeremiah 13:23); yet the leopard in the millennium shall "lie down with the kid" (Isaiah 11:6).

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Leopard Scripture - Revelation 13:2

And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as [the feet] of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.

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Leopard Scripture - Jeremiah 5:6

Wherefore a lion out of the forest shall slay them, [and] a wolf of the evenings shall spoil them, a leopard shall watch over their cities: every one that goeth out thence shall be torn in pieces: because their transgressions are many, [and] their backslidings are increased.

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Leopard Scripture - Isaiah 11:6

The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.

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Leviathan in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

le-vi'-a-than (liwyathan (Job 41:1-34), from [~lawah, "to fold"; compare Arabic name of the wry neck, Iynx torquilla, abu-luwa, from kindred lawa, "to bend"): (1) The word "leviathan" also occurs in Isa 27:1, where it is characterized as "the swift serpent .... the crooked serpent"; in Ps 104:26, where a marine monster is indicated; also in Ps 74:14 and Job 3:8. The description in Job 41 has been thought by some to refer to the whale, but while the whale suits better the expressions denoting great strength, the words apply best on the whole to the crocodile. Moreover, the whale is very seldom found in the Mediterranean, while the crocodile is abundant in the Nile, and has been known to occur in at least one river of Israel, the Zarqa, North of Jaffa. For a discussion of the behemoth and leviathan as mythical creatures, see EB, under the word "Behemoth" and "Leviathan." The points in the description which may well apply to the crocodile are the great invulnerability, the strong and close scales, the limbs and the teeth. It must be admitted that there are many expressions which a modern scientist would not use with reference to the crocodile, but the Book of Job is neither modern nor scientific, but poetical and ancient. (2) See ASTRONOMY, sec. II, 2, 5. Alfred Ely Day

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Leviathan in Naves Topical Bible

-Possibly a crocodile Job 41; Ps 104:26 -"The crooked (R. V.) serpent." Isa 27:1 -FIGURATIVE Ps 74:14

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Leviathan in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(jointed monster) occurs five times in the text of the Authorized Version, and once in the margin of Job 3:8 where the text has "mourning." In the Hebrew Bible the word livyathan, which is, with the foregoing exception, always left untranslated in the Authorized Version, is found only in the following passages: Job 3:8; 41:1; Ps 74:14; 104:26; Isa 27:1 In the margin of Job 3:8 and text of Job 41:1 the crocodile is most clearly the animal denoted by the Hebrew word. Ps 74:14 also clearly points to this same saurian. The context of Ps 104:26 seems to show that in this passage the name represents some animal of the whale tribe, which is common in the Mediterranean; but it is somewhat uncertain what animal is denoted in Isa 27:1 As the term leviathan is evidently used in no limited sense, it is not improbable that the "leviathan the piercing serpent," or "leviathan the crooked serpent," may denote some species of the great rock-snakes which are common in south and west Africa.

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Goat in Naves Topical Bible

-Designated as one of the ceremonially clean animals to be eaten De 14:4; with Le 11:1-8 -Used for food Ge 27:9; 1Sa 16:20 -For the paschal feast Ex 12:5; 2Ch 35:7 -As a sacrifice by Abraham Ge 15:9 -By Gideon Jud 6:19 -Manoah Jud 13:19 -Milk of, used for food Pr 27:27 -Hair of, used for clothing Nu 31:20 -Pillows 1Sa 19:13 -Curtains of the tabernacle Ex 26:7; 35:23; 36:14 -Used for tents See TABERNACLES -Regulations of Mosaic law required that a baby goat should not be killed for food before it was eight days old Le 22:27 -Nor seethed in its mother's milk Ex 23:19 -Numerous De 32:14; So 4:1; 6:5; 1Sa 25:2; 2Ch 17:11 -Wild, in Palestine 1Sa 24:2; Ps 104:18

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Goat in Smiths Bible Dictionary

There appear to be two or three varieties of the common goat, Hircus agagrus, at present bred in Israel and Syria, but whether they are identical with those which were reared by the ancient Hebrews it is not possible to say. The most marked varieties are the Syrian goat(Capra mammorica, Linn.) and the Angora goat (Capra angorensis, Linn.), with fine long hair. As to the "wild goats," 1Sa 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps 104:18 it is not at all improbable that some species of ibex is denoted.

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Goat in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(1.) Heb. 'ez, the she-goat (Gen. 15:9; 30:35; 31:38). This Hebrew word is also used for the he-goat (Ex. 12:5; Lev. 4:23; Num. 28:15), and to denote a kid (Gen. 38:17, 20). Hence it may be regarded as the generic name of the animal as domesticated. It literally means "strength," and points to the superior strength of the goat as compared with the sheep. (2.) Heb. 'attud, only in plural; rendered "rams" (Gen. 31:10,12); he-goats (Num. 7:17-88; Isa. 1:11); goats (Deut. 32:14; Ps. 50:13). They were used in sacrifice (Ps. 66:15). This word is used metaphorically for princes or chiefs in Isa. 14:9, and in Zech. 10:3 as leaders. (Comp. Jer. 50:8.) (3.) Heb. gedi, properly a kid. Its flesh was a delicacy among the Hebrews (Gen. 27:9, 14, 17; Judg. 6:19). (4.) Heb. sa'ir, meaning the "shaggy," a hairy goat, a he-goat (2 Chr. 29:23); "a goat" (Lev. 4:24); "satyr" (Isa. 13:21); "devils" (Lev. 17:7). It is the goat of the sin- offering (Lev. 9:3, 15; 10:16). (5.) Heb. tsaphir, a he-goat of the goats (2 Chr. 29:21). In Dan. 8:5, 8 it is used as a symbol of the Macedonian empire. (6.) Heb. tayish, a "striker" or "butter," rendered "he-goat" (Gen. 30:35; 32:14). (7.) Heb. 'azazel (q.v.), the "scapegoat" (Lev. 16:8, 10,26). (8.) There are two Hebrew words used to denote the undomesticated goat:, _Yael_, only in plural mountain goats (1 Sam. 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps.104:18). It is derived from a word meaning "to climb." It is the ibex, which abounded in the mountainous parts of Moab. And _'akko_, only in Deut. 14:5, the wild goat. Goats are mentioned in the New Testament in Matt. 25:32,33; Heb. 9:12,13, 19; 10:4. They represent oppressors and wicked men (Ezek. 34:17; 39:18; Matt. 25:33). Several varieties of the goat were familiar to the Hebrews. They had an important place in their rural economy on account of the milk they afforded and the excellency of the flesh of the kid. They formed an important part of pastoral wealth (Gen. 31:10, 12;32:14; 1 Sam. 25:2).

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Goat in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

1. Wild goat, yeliym, the ibex of ancient Moab. 2. The goat deer, or else gazelle, aqow. 3. The atuwd, "he goat", the leader of the flock; hence the chief ones of the earth, leaders in mighty wickedness; the ram represents headstrong wantonness and offensive lust (Isaiah 14:9; Zechariah 10:3; compare Matthew 25:32-33; Ezekiel 34:17). As the word "shepherds" describes what they ought to have been, so "he goats" what they were; heading the flock, they were foremost in sin, so they shall be foremost in punishment. In Song of Solomon 4:1 the hair of the bride is said to be "as a flock of goats that appear from mount Gilead," alluding to the fine silky hair of some breeds of goat, the angora and others. Amos (Amos 3:12) speaks of a shepherd "taking out of the mouth of the lion a piece of an ear," alluding to the long pendulous ears of the Syrian breed. In Proverbs 30:31 a he goat is mentioned as one of the "four things comely in going," in allusion to the stately march of the leader of the flock. 4. Sair, the goat of the sin-offering (Leviticus 9:3), "the rough hairy goat" (Daniel 8:21). Sa'ir is used of devils (Leviticus 17:7), "the evil spirits of the desert" (Isaiah 13:21; Isaiah 34:14). 5. Azazeel, "the scape-goat" (Leviticus 16:8; Leviticus 16:10; Leviticus 16:26 margin) frontATONEMENT, DAY OF.) The "he goat" represented Graeco-Macedonia; Caranus, the first king of Macedon, was in legend led by goats to Edessa, his capital, which he named "the goat city." The one-horned goat is on coins of Archclaus king of Macedon, and a pilaster of Persepolis. So Daniel 8:5.

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Goat Scripture - Numbers 18:17

But the firstling of a cow, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not redeem; they [are] holy: thou shalt sprinkle their blood upon the altar, and shalt burn their fat [for] an offering made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the LORD.

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Goat Scripture - Leviticus 16:15

Then shall he kill the goat of the sin offering, that [is] for the people, and bring his blood within the vail, and do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the mercy seat, and before the mercy seat:

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Goat Scripture - Numbers 29:22

And one goat [for] a sin offering; beside the continual burnt offering, and his meat offering, and his drink offering.

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Greyhound in Naves Topical Bible

-General scriptures concerning Pr 30:31

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Greyhound in Smiths Bible Dictionary

the translation in the text of the Authorized Version, Pr 30:31 of the Hebrew word zarzir mothnayin; i.e. "one girt about the loins." Various are the opinions as to what animal "comely in going" is here intended Some think "a leopard," others "an eagle," or "a man girt with armor," or "a zebra," or "a war-horse girt with trappings." But perhaps the word means "a wrestler," when girt about the loins for a contest.

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Greyhound in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Prov. 30:31), the rendering of the Hebrew _zarzir mothnayim_, meaning literally "girded as to the lions." Some (Gesen.; R.V. marg.) render it "war-horse." The LXX. and Vulgate versions render it "cock." It has been by some interpreters rendered also "stag" and "warrior," as being girded about or panoplied, and "wrestler." The greyhound, however, was evidently known in ancient times, as appears from Egyptian monuments.

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Greyhound in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Proverbs 30:31, margin, "girt in the loins," referring to the slenderness of its body at the loins, as if tightly girt for grace and swiftness in running, so that it is classed among the "things which go well." The ancient Egyptian paintings represent such close-girt hounds used in coursing. Gesenius understands Proverbs 30:31 "a war horse with ornamental trappings girt on its loins." Maurer, "a wrestler with loins girt for the struggle."

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Greyhound Scripture - Proverbs 30:31

A greyhound; an he goat also; and a king, against whom [there is] no rising up.

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Hare in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

har ('arnebheth (Lev 11:6; Dt 14:7); compare Arabic 'arnab, "hare"): This animal is mentioned only in the lists of unclean animals in Leviticus and Deuteronomy, Where it occurs along with the camel, the coney and the swine. The camel, the hare and the coney are unclean, `because they chew the cud but part not the hoof,' the swine, "because he parteth the hoof .... but cheweth not the cud." The hare and the coney are not ruminants, but might be supposed to be from their habit of almost continually moving their jaws. Both are freely eaten by the Arabs. Although 'arnebheth occurs only in the two places cited, there is no doubt that it is the hare. Septuagint has dasupous, "rough-footed," which, while not the commonest Greek word (lagos), refers to the remarkable fact that in hares and rabbits the soles of the feet are densely covered with hair. 'Arnab, which is the common Arabic word for "hare," is from the same root as the Hebrew 'arnebheth. Lev 11:4-7: verse 4, English Versions of the Bible "camel"; Septuagint ton kamelon; Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390- 405 A.D.) camelus; Hebrew ha-gamal. Lev 11:5, English Versions of the Bible "coney"; Septuagint ton dasupoda; Vulgate, choerogryllus; Hebrew ha-shapan. Lev 11:6, English Versions of the Bible "hare"; Septuagint ton choirogruillion Vulgate, lepus; Hebrew ha-arnebeth. Lev 11:7, English Versions of the Bible "swine"; Septuagint ton hun; Vulgate, sus; Hebrew ha-chazir. Dt 14:7: English Versions of the Bible "camel"; Septuagint ton kamelon Vulgate, camelum; Hebrew hagamal; English Versions of the Bible "hare"; Septuagint dasupoda; Vulgate, leporem; Hebrew ha'arnebeth; English Versions of the Bible "coney"; Septuagint choirogrullion; Vulgate, choerogryllum; Hebrew hashaphan. Dt 14:8: English Versions of the Bible "swine"; Septuagint ton hun Vulgate, sus; Hebrew hacheziyr. It is evident from the above and from the meanings of dasupous and chorogrullios as given in Liddell and Scott, that the order of Septuagint in Lev 11:5,6 does not follow the Hebrew, but has apparently assimilated the order of that of Dt 14:7,8. In Ps 104:18, Septuagint has chorogrullios for shaphan; also in Prov 30:26. Since the word "coney," which properly means "rabbit," has been applied to the hyrax, so, in America at least, the word "rabbit" is widely used for various species of hare, e.g. the gray rabbit and the jack-rabbit, both of which are hares. Hares have longer legs and ears and are swifter than rabbits. Their young are hairy and have their eyes open, while rabbits are born naked and blind. Hares are widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, and there is one species in South America. Rabbits are apparently native to the Western Mediterranean countries, although they have been distributed by man all over the world. Lepus syriacus, the common hare of Syria and Israel, differs somewhat from the European hare. Lepus judeae is cited by Tristram from Northeastern Israel, and he also notes three other species from the extreme south. Alfred Ely Day

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Hare in Naves Topical Bible

-Forbidden as food Le 11:6; De 14:7

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Hare in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(Heb. arnebeth) occurs only in Le 11:6 and Deut 14:7 amongst the animals disallowed as food by the Mosaic law. The hare is at this day called arnel by the Arabs in Israel and Syria. It was erroneously thought by the ancient Jews to have chewed the cud. They were no doubt misled as in the case of the shaphfan (hyrax), by the habit these animals have of moving the jaw about.

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Hare in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. 'arnebeth) was prohibited as food according to the Mosaic law (Lev. 11:6; Deut. 14:7), "because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof." The habit of this animal is to grind its teeth and move its jaw as if it actually chewed the cud. But, like the cony (q.v.), it is not a ruminant with four stomachs, but a rodent like the squirrel, rat, etc. Moses speaks of it according to appearance. It is interdicted because, though apparently chewing the cud, it did not divide the hoof. There are two species in Syria, (1) the Lepus Syriacus or Syrian hare, which is like the English hare; and (2) the Lepus Sinaiticus, or hare of the desert. No rabbits are found in Syria.

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Hare in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

arnebeth Reckoned unclean on the ground that it "chews the cud, but divideth not the hoof" (Leviticus 11:6; Deuteronomy 14:7). It brings up from the (esophagus and chews again its food; but there is no genuine rumination, neither it nor the hyrax ("coney") or shaaphan have the special stomach of the ruminants. Rodent animals, as the hare and the hyrax, keep down the undue growth of their teeth, which grow during life, by grinding with their jaws. The sacred legislator did not design the classification of a scientific naturalist or a comparative anatomist, but to furnish a popular mode of recognizing animals the flesh of which was not to be eaten. The rule in Deuteronomy 17:27, "whatsoever goeth upon his paws" (as the dog, cat, and beasts of prey), sufficiently excludes from the clean the hyrax and the hare. The Parsees still abominate the hare. The hare, though having a divided foot, has not a cloven hoof, which was a requisite for legal cleanness. True ruminants have four stomachs, molar teeth, and a jawbone suited for the circular movement of chewing the cud. The hare has none of these marks, and has in the upper jaw incisor teeth, which ruminants have not. But hares retain the cropped food within the hollows of their cheeks and masticate it at leisure, which in phenomenal language is "chewing the cud," and is so described by even so close an observer of nature as the poet Cowper. The ancient Britons rejected it as food. The Palestinian hare, Lepus Syriacus, was of a fur buff or yellowish-grey color, the hare of the desert (Lepus Sinaiticus) darker and smaller. The rabbit (Lepus cuniculus) seems to be unknown in Syria and Israel.

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Hare Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:7

Nevertheless these ye shall not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the cloven hoof; [as] the camel, and the hare, and the coney: for they chew the cud, but divide not the hoof; [therefore] they [are] unclean unto you.

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Hare Scripture - Leviticus 11:6

And the hare, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he [is] unclean unto you.

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Hart in Smiths Bible Dictionary

the male stag. The word denotes some member of the deer tribe either the fallow deer or the Barbary deer. The hart is reckoned among the clean animals, De 12:15; 14:5; 15:22 and seems from the passages quoted, as well as from 1Ki 4:23 to have been commonly killed for food.

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Hart in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. 'ayal), a stag or male deer. It is ranked among the clean animals (Deut. 12:15; 14:5; 15:22), and was commonly killed for food (1 Kings 4:23). The hart is frequently alluded to in the poetical and prophetical books (Isa. 35:6; Cant. 2:8, 9; Lam. 1:6; Ps. 42:1).

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Hart in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

ayal. The male of the stag, Cervus Duma. Resorting to the mountains (Song of Solomon 8:14); sure-footed there (2 Samuel 22:34; Habakkuk 3:19). Monogamous and constant in affection (Proverbs 5:19). In Psalm 42:1 the verb is feminine; the hind therefore, not the hart, is meant; her weakness intensifies her thirst. The emblem of activity (Isaiah 35:6). So Naphtali is described by Jacob prophetically (Genesis 49:21), "a hind let loose." His active energy was shown against Jabin the Canaanite oppressor (Judges 4:6-9; Judges 5:18). The Targums say he first told Jacob that Joseph was yet alive; "he giveth goodly words." The Hebrew sheluchim, "the apostles," answers to shelucha "let loose." So the prophecy hints at what Isaiah (Isaiah 52:7) more clearly unfolds, "how beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings." Easily agitated (Song of Solomon 2:7; Song of Solomon 3:5), so that the hunter must advance on them with breathless caution if he would take them; an emblem of the resting (Zephaniah 3:17) but easily grieved Holy Spirit (Ezekiel 16:43; Matthew 18:7; Ephesians 4:30). The thunder so terrifies them that they prematurely bring forth (Psalm 29:9). The case of their parturition, through the instinct given them by God's care, stands in contrast to the shepherd's anxiety in numbering the months of the flock's pregnancy, and is an argument to convince Job (Job 39:1-3) of God's consummate wisdom; why then should he harbour for a moment the thought that God, who cares so providentially for the humblest creature, could be capable of harshness and injustice toward His noblest creature, man? The masculine ayal, Septuagint elafos, is the fallow deer (Dama commonis) or the Barbary deer (Cervus Barbarus) according to Appendix, Smith's Bible Dictionary Timid and fleet especially when seeking and not able to find pasture (Lamentations 1:6); emblem of Zion's captive princes at Babylon. Septuagint and Vulgate read eylim, "rams." Ajalon abounded in the ayal, whence it took its name. Aijeleth, "the hind," in the title Psalm 22 symbolizes one shot at by the archers and persecuted to death, namely, Messiah; as the persecutors are symbolized by "bulls," "lions," "dogs." The addition "of the morning" (shahar) implies prosperity dawning after suffering. The hind is emblematic of the grace, innocence, and loveliness (Song of Solomon 2:9) of the Antitype to Joseph (Genesis 49:23-24). The hind's sure footing in the rocks typifies the believer's preservation in high places and difficulties. The Arabs call a deer by a like name to the Hebrew, (iyal). The deer is represented on the slabs at Nineveh, and seems to have abounded anciently in Syria, though not there now.

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Hart Scripture - Deuteronomy 12:15

Notwithstanding thou mayest kill and eat flesh in all thy gates, whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, according to the blessing of the LORD thy God which he hath given thee: the unclean and the clean may eat thereof, as of the roebuck, and as of the hart.

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Hart Scripture - Psalms 42:1

As the hart panteth after the water brooks, so panteth my soul after thee, O God.

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Hart Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:5

The hart, and the roebuck, and the fallow deer, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the wild ox, and the chamois.

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Hedgehog in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

hej'-hog Septuagint echinos, "hedgehog," for qippodh, in Isa 14:23; 34:11; Zeph 2:14, and for qippoz, in Isa 34:15). See PORCUPINE; BITTERN; OWL; SERPENT.

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Hen in Naves Topical Bible

-FIGURATIVE Mt 23:37; Lu 13:34

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Hen in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The hen is nowhere noticed in the Bible except in Mt 23:37; Lu 13:34 That a bird so common in Israel should receive such slight notice is certainly peculiar.

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Hen in Easton's Bible Dictionary

common in later times among the Jews in Israel (Matt. 23:37; Luke 13:34). It is noticeable that this familiar bird is only mentioned in these passages in connection with our Lord's lamentation over the impenitence of Jerusalem.

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Fowl Scripture - Genesis 8:17

Bring forth with thee every living thing that [is] with thee, of all flesh, [both] of fowl, and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth.

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Fowl Scripture - Leviticus 20:25

Ye shall therefore put difference between clean beasts and unclean, and between unclean fowls and clean: and ye shall not make your souls abominable by beast, or by fowl, or by any manner of living thing that creepeth on the ground, which I have separated from you as unclean.

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Fowl Scripture - Genesis 9:10

And with every living creature that [is] with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you; from all that go out of the ark, to every beast of the earth.

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Fox in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

(shu`al; compare Arabic tha`lab (Jdg 15:4; Neh 4:3; Ps 63:10; Song 2:15; Lam 5:18; Ezek 13:4); alopex (Mt 8:20; Lk 9:58; 13:32)): The foxes of different parts of Europe and Western Asia differ more or less from each other, and some authors have given the local tyes distinct specific names. Tristram, for instance, distinguishes the Egyptian fox, Vulpes nilotica, of Southern Israel, and the tawny fox, Vulpes flavescens, of the North and East It is possible that the range of the desert fox, Vulpes leucopus, of Southwestern Asia may also reach Syria. We have, however, the authority of the Royal Natural History for considering all these as merely local races of one species, the common fox, Vulpes alopex or Canis vulpes. The natives of Syria and Israel do not always distinguish the fox and jackal although the two animals are markedly different. The jackal and wolf also are frequently confounded...

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Fox in Naves Topical Bible

-Dens of Mt 8:20; Lu 9:58 -Samson uses, to burn the field of the Philistines Jud 15:4 -Depredations of Ps 63:10; So 2:15 -Held in contempt Ne 4:3 -FIGURATIVE Of unfaithful prophets Eze 13:4 Of craftiness Lu 13:32 Of heretics So 2:15

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Fox in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(Heb. shu'al). Probably the jackal is the animal signified in almost all the passages in the Old Testament where the Hebrew term occurs. Though both foxes and jackals abound in Israel, the shu'alim (foxes) of Jud 15:4 are evidently jackals and not foxes, for the former animal is gregarious, whereas the latter is solitary in its habits; and Samson could not, for that reason, have easily caught three hundred foxes, but it was easy to catch that number of jackals, which are concealed by hundreds in caves and ruins of Syria. It is not probable, however, that Samson sent out the whole three hundred at once. With respect to the jackals and foxes of Israel, there is no doubt that the common jackal of the country is the Canis aureus, which may be heard every night in the villages. It is like a medium-sized dog, with a head like a wolf, and is of a bright-yellow color. These beasts devour the bodies of the dead, and even dig them up from their graves.

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Fox in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. shu'al, a name derived from its digging or burrowing under ground), the Vulpes thaleb, or Syrian fox, the only species of this animal indigenous to Israel. It burrows, is silent and solitary in its habits, is destructive to vineyards, being a plunderer of ripe grapes (Cant. 2:15). The Vulpes Niloticus, or Egyptian dog-fox, and the Vulpes vulgaris, or common fox, are also found in Israel. The proverbial cunning of the fox is alluded to in Ezek. 13:4, and in Luke 13:32, where our Lord calls Herod "that fox." In Judg. 15:4, 5, the reference is in all probability to the jackal. The Hebrew word _shu'al_ through the Persian _schagal_ becomes our jackal (Canis aureus), so that the word may bear that signification here. The reasons for preferring the rendering "jackal" are (1) that it is more easily caught than the fox; (2) that the fox is shy and suspicious, and flies mankind, while the jackal does not; and (3) that foxes are difficult, jackals comparatively easy, to treat in the way here described. Jackals hunt in large numbers, and are still very numerous in Southern Israel.

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Fox in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

shuw'al, from sha'al "to burrow" (Nehemiah 4:3; Lamentations 5:18; Matthew 8:20). In Hebrew including also the jackal which preys on unburied carcasses; "they shall be a portion for jackals" (Psalm 63:9-10), fulfilled on "the seekers after David's soul" (2 Samuel 18:7-17). So Samson's 300 jackals (Judges 15); for jackals are gregarious, the fox is solitary. The Arab shikal, "jackal", is related to the Hebrew shu'al. That jackals were common in Israel appears from the names of places compounded with shual, as Hagar- shual, Shaalbim; (compare Foxhayes, etc., in our own land;) being gregarious they would naturally run in couples, tied together by a cord of two or three yards length; Samson probably had men to help him, and caught and let them loose from different places to consume the greater quantity of the Philistines' grain. Fond of grapes; (Song of Solomon 2:15) "take us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vines." The bride after awaking from her past unwatchfulness is the more jealous of subtle (fox-like) sins (Psalm 139:23). In spiritual winter evil weeds as well as good plants are frozen up; in the spring of revivals these start up unperceived, crafty false teachers spiritual pride, uncharitableness (Psalm 19:12; Matthew 13:26; Hebrews 12:15). Little sins beget the greatest (Ecclesiastes 10:1; 1 Corinthians 5:6). Ezekiel 13:4; "thy prophets are like the foxes in the deserts," where the foxes from having nothing to eat become doubly ravenous and crafty to get food. So, in Israel, once a vineyard now a moral desert, the prophets whose duty was to guard the church from being spoiled themselves spoil it, through crafty greed of gain. So, Jesus calls Herod "that fox." The Lord had withdrawn from His plotting foes in Judea to the retired region beyond Jordan, Peraea. The Pharisees came to expedite His departure by pretending "Herod was seeking to kill Him." Herod was wishing Him to depart, feeling embarrassed how to treat Him whether to honor or persecute Him (Luke 9:7-9; Luke 13:32). It was the Pharisees themselves who wished to kill Him. But Herod lent himself to their design and so played the "fox." Tell that fox that "today and tomorrow" I remain doing works of mercy in the borders of his province, "on the third day" I begin that journey which ends in My about to be consummated sacrifice. The common jackal of Israel is the Canis aureus which may be heard nightly; also the Vulpes vulgaris.

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Foxes Scripture - Judges 15:4

And Samson went and caught three hundred foxes, and took firebrands, and turned tail to tail, and put a firebrand in the midst between two tails.

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Foxes Scripture - Matthew 8:20

And Jesus saith unto him, The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air [have] nests; but the Son of man hath not where to lay [his] head.

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Foxes Scripture - Luke 9:58

And Jesus said unto him, Foxes have holes, and birds of the air [have] nests; but the Son of man hath not where to lay [his] head.

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Frog in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

(tsephardea`; compare Arabic dafda` (Ex 8:2 ff; Ps 78:45; 105:30); batrachos (Rev 16:13)): The references in Psalms, as well as in Exodus, are to the plague of flogs. In Rev 16:13 we have, "And I saw coming out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits, as it were frogs." The word tsephardea` probably referred both to frogs and to toads, as does the Arabic dafda`. In Israel and Syria Rana esculenta, Bufo viridis and Hyla arborea are common. According to Mr. Michael J. Nicoll, assistant director of the Zoological Gardens at Gizah, near Cairo, the commonest Egyptian species are Rana mascariensis and Bufo regularis. Rana esculenta, Bufo viridis and Bufo vittatus are also found, but are much less common. Alfred Ely Day

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Frogs in Naves Topical Bible

-Plague of Ex 8:2-14; Ps 45; 105:30 -SYMBOLICAL Re 16:13

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Frog in Smiths Bible Dictionary

a well-known amphibious animal of the genus Rana. The mention of this reptile in the Old Testament is confined to the passage in Ex 8:2-7 etc., in which the plague of frogs is described, and to Ps 78:45; 105:30 In the New Testament the word occurs once only, in Re 16:13 There is no question as to the animal meant. The only known species of frog which occurs at present in Egypt is the Rana esculenta, the edible frog of the continent.

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Frog in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. tsepharde'a, meaning a "marsh-leaper"). This reptile is mentioned in the Old Testament only in connection with one of the plagues which fell on the land of Egypt (Ex. 8:2- 14; Ps. 78:45; 105:30). In the New Testament this word occurs only in Rev. 16:13, where it is referred to as a symbol of uncleanness. The only species of frog existing in Israel is the green frog (Rana esculenta), the well-known edible frog of the Continent.

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Frogs Scripture - Exodus 8:12

And Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh: and Moses cried unto the LORD because of the frogs which he had brought against Pharaoh.

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Frogs Scripture - Exodus 8:8

Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, Intreat the LORD, that he may take away the frogs from me, and from my people; and I will let the people go, that they may do sacrifice unto the LORD.

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Frogs Scripture - Exodus 8:3

And the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly, which shall go up and come into thine house, and into thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed, and into the house of thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thine ovens, and into thy kneadingtroughs:

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Goat in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

got: 1. Names: The common generic word for "goat" is `ez (compare Arabic `anz, "she-goat"; aix), used often for "she-goat" (Gen 15:9; Nu 15:27), also with gedhi, "kid," as gedhi `izzim, "kid of the goats" (Gen 38:17), also with sa`ir, "he-goat," as se`ir `izzim, "kid of the goats" or "he-goat," or translated simply "kids," as in 1 Ki 20:27, "The children of Israel encamped before them like two little flocks of kids." Next, frequently used is sa`ir, literally, "hairy" (compare Arabic sha`r, "hair"; cher, "hedgehog"; Latin hircus, "goat"; hirtus, "hairy"; also German Haar; English "hair"), like `ez and `attudh used of goats for offerings. The goat which is sent into the wilderness bearing the sins of the people is sa`ir (Lev 16:7-22). The same name is used of devils (Lev 17:7; 2 Ch 11:15, the Revised Version (British and American) "he-goats") and of satyrs (Isa 13:21; 34:14, the Revised Version, margin "he-goats," the American Standard Revised Version "wild goats"). Compare also se`irath `izzim, "a female from the flock" (Lev 4:28; 5:6). The male or leader of the flock is `attudh; Arabic `atud, "yearling he-goat"; figuratively "chief ones" (Isa 14:9; compare Jer 50:8). A later word for "he-goat," used also figuratively, is tsaphir (2 Ch 29:21; Ezr 8:35; Dan 8:5,8,21). In Prov 30:31, one of the four things "which are stately in going" is the he-goat, tayish (Arabic tais, "he-goat"), also mentioned in Gen 30:35; 32:14 among the possessions of Laban and Jacob, and in 2 Ch 17:11 among the animals given as tribute by the Arabians to Jehoshaphat. In Heb 9:12,13,19; 10:4, we have tragos, the ordinary Greek word for "goat"; in Mt 25:32,33, eriphos, and its diminutive eriphion; in Heb 11:37 derma aigeion, "goatskin," from aix (see supra). "Kid" is gedhi (compare En-gedi (1 Sam 23:29), etc.), feminine gedhiyah (Song 1:8), but also `ez, gedhi `izzim, se'-ir `izzim, se`ir `izzim, se`irath `izzim, bene `izzim, and eriphos. There remain ya`el (1 Sam 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps 104:18), English Versions of the Bible "wild goat"; ya`alah (Prov 5:19), the King James Version "roe," the Revised Version (British and American) "doe"; 'aqqo (Dt 14:5), English Versions of the Bible "wild goat"; and zemer (Dt 14:5), English Versions of the Bible "chamois."...

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Gazelle in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

ga-zel' (tsebhi, and feminine tsebhiyah; compare Tabeitha (Acts 9:36), and Arabic zabi; also Arabic ghazal; Dorkas (Acts 9:36); modern Greek zarkadi): The word "gazelle" does not occur in the King James Version, where tsebhi and tsebhiyah, in the 16 passages where they occur, are uniformly translated "roe" or "roebuck." In the Revised Version (British and American) the treatment is not uniform. We find "gazelle" without comment in Dt 12:15,22; 14:5; 15:22; 1 Ki 4:23. We find "roe," with marginal note "or gazelle," in Prov 6:5; Song 2:7,9,17; 4:5; 8:14; Isa 13:14. We find "roe" without comment in 2 Sam 2:18; 1 Ch 12:8; Song 3:5; 7:3. In the last passage cited, Song 7:3, while the American Standard Revised Version has no note, the English Revised Version refers to Song 4:5, where "gazelle" is graven in the margin. In the opinion of the writer, the rendering should be "gazelle" in all of these passages. It must be acknowledged, however, that the gazelle and the roe- deer are of about the same size, and are sometimes confused with each other. The Greek dorkas may refer to either, and in Syria the roe-deer is sometimes called ghazal or even wa`l, which is the proper name of the Persian wild goat...

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Deer in Naves Topical Bible

-Also called, FALLOW DEER, HART, HIND, ROEBUCK -Designated among the ceremonially clean animals, to be eaten De 12:15; 14:5 -Provided for Solomon's household 1Ki 4:23 -Fleetness of 2Sa 2:18; 1Ch 12:8; Pr 6:5; So 8:14; Isa 35:6 -Surefootedness of 2Sa 22:34 -Gentleness of Pr 5:19 -Coloring of Jer 14:5

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Fallow Deer in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(called fallow from its reddish-brown color) (Heb. yachmur). The Hebrew word, which is mentioned only in De 14:5 and 1Kin 4:23 probably denotes the Alcelaphus bubalis (the bubale or wild cow) of Barbary and North Africa. It is about the size of a stag, and lives in herds. It is almost exactly like the European roebuck, and is valued for its venison.

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Roebuck in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The Hebrew words thus translated denote some species of antelope, probably the Gazella arabica of Syria and Arabia. The gazelle was allowed as food, De 12:15,22 etc.; it is mentioned as very fleet of foot, 2Sa 2:18; 1Ch 12:8 it was hunted, Isa 13:14; Pr 6:5 it was celebrated for its loveliness. So 2:9,17; 8:14

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Fallow-Deer in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Deut. 14:5 (R.V., "Wild goat"); 1 Kings 4:23 (R.V., "roebucks"). This animal, called in Hebrew _yahmur_, from a word meaning "to be red," is regarded by some as the common fallow- deer, the Cervus dama, which is said to be found very generally over Western and Southern Asia. It is called "fallow" from its pale-red or yellow colour. Some interpreters, however, regard the name as designating the bubale, Antelope bubale, the "wild cow" of North Africa, which is about the size of a stag, like the hartebeest of South Africa. A species of deer has been found at Mount Carmel which is called _yahmur_ by the Arabs. It is said to be similar to the European roebuck.

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Roebuck in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

ROE or ROEBUCK. Yaalah, "chamois" (Proverbs 5:19) or ibex, the female of the wild goat. Tsebi (masculine), tsebiah (feminine), from whence Tabitha (Greek Dorkas), "loving and beloved": Acts 9:36. The beautiful antelope or gazelle, the Antelope dorcas and Antelope Arabica. Slender, graceful, shy, and timid; the image of feminine loveliness (Song of Solomon 4:5; Song of Solomon 2:9; Song of Solomon 2:17; Song of Solomon 8:14). The eye is large, soft, liquid, languishing, and of deepest black; image of swift footedness (2 Samuel 1:19; 2 Samuel 2:18; 1 Chronicles 12:8). Israel ate the gazelle in the wilderness, and the flesh of flocks and herds only when offered in sacrifice; but in Canaan they might eat the flesh, "even as the gazelle" (Deuteronomy 12:15; Deuteronomy 12:22); Isaac's venison was front it (Genesis 27). The valley of Gerar and the Beersheba plains are still frequented by it. Egyptian paintings represent it hunted by hounds.

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Fallow Deer Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:5

The hart, and the roebuck, and the fallow deer, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the wild ox, and the chamois.

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Ferret in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

fer'-et ('anaqah, the Revised Version (British and American) GECKO): Occurs only in Lev 11:30 the King James Version, in the list of animals which are unclean "among the creeping things that creep upon the earth." the Revised Version (British and American) has "gecko" with the marginal note, "Words of uncertain meaning, but probably denoting four kinds of lizards." The list of animals in Lev 11:29,30 includes (1) choledh, English Versions of the Bible "weasel"; (2) `akhbar, English Versions of the Bible "mouse"; (3) tsabh, the King James Version "tortoise," the Revised Version (British and American) "great lizard"; (4) 'anaqkah, the King James Version "ferret," the Revised Version (British and American) "gecko"; (5) koach the King James Version "chameleon," the Revised Version (British and American) "land crocodile"; (6) leTa'ah, English Versions of the Bible "lizard"; (7) chomeT, the King James Version "snail," the Revised Version (British and American) "sand lizard"; (8) tinshemeth, the King James Version "mole," the Revised Version (British and American) "chameleon." It will be noted that while Revised Version makes the first two mammals and the remaining six reptiles, the King James Version makes not only (1) and (2) but also (4) and (8) mammals, and (7) a mollusk. So far as this general classification is concerned the King James Version follows the Septuagint, except in the case of (7). It must be borne in mind that all these words except (2) and (8) occur only in this passage, while (2) and (8) occur each in only a few passages where the context throws but uncertain light upon the meaning. Under these circumstances we ought to be content with the rendering of the Septuagint, unless from philology or tradition we can show good reason for differing. For 'anaqah, Septuagint has mugale, which occurs in Herodotus and Aristotle and may be a shrew mouse or a field mouse. Just as the next word, koach, is found in other passages (see CHAMELEON) with the meaning of "strength," so 'anaqah occurs in several places signifying "moaning" or "sighing" (Ps 12:5; 79:11; 102:20; Mal 2:13). It seems to be from the root, 'anaq, "to choke," "to be in anguish" (compare `anaq, "a collar"; chanaq, "to choke"; Arabic `unq, "neck"; Arabic khanaq, "to strangle"; Greek anagke; Latin angustus; German enge, Nacken; English "anxious," "neck"). Some creature seems to be meant which utters a low cry or squeak, and neither "ferret" (the King James Version) nor "gecko" (Revised Version (British and American)) seems to have a better claim than the older Septuagint rendering of mugale = "shrew mouse" or "field mouse." Alfred Ely Day

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Ferret in Naves Topical Bible

-General scriptures concerning Le 11:30

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Ferret in Smiths Bible Dictionary

one of the unclean creeping things mentioned in Le 11:30 The animal referred to was probably a reptile of the lizard tribe (the gecko). The rabbinical writers seen to have identified this animal with the hedgehog.

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Ferret in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Lev. 11:30 (R.V., "gecko"), one of the unclean creeping things. It was perhaps the Lacerta gecko which was intended by the Hebrew word (anakah, a cry, "mourning," the creature which groans) here used, i.e., the "fan-footed" lizard, the gecko which makes a mournful wail. The LXX. translate it by a word meaning "shrew-mouse," of which there are three species in Israel. The Rabbinical writers regard it as the hedgehog. The translation of the Revised Version is to be preferred.

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Ferret in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

White European polecat mentioned by KJV in Leviticus 11:30. Other translations read, "gecko." See Animals.

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Ferret Scripture - Leviticus 11:30

And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the lizard, and the snail, and the mole.

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Gecko in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

gek'-o (the Revised Version (British and American) for 'anaqah, only in Lev 11:30; Septuagint mugale, "shrew mouse" or "field mouse"; the King James Version ferret): Probably a shrew or a field mouse.

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Lizard in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(that which clings to the ground) (Heb. letaah. Le 11:30 Lizards of various kinds abound in Egypt, Israel and Arabia. The lizard denoted by the Hebrew word is probably the fan-foot lizard (Ptyodactylus gecko) which is common in Egypt and in parts of Arabia, and perhaps is found also in Israel. It is reddish brown spotted with white. The gecko lives on insects and worms, which it swallows whole. It derives its name from the peculiar sound which some of the species utter.

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Lizard in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Only in Lev. 11:30, as rendering of Hebrew _letaah_, so called from its "hiding." Supposed to be the Lacerta gecko or fan-foot lizard, from the toes of which poison exudes. (See CHAMELEON)

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Lizard in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

letaah. Leviticus 11:30. One of the monitors, the Lacerta Nilotica, Speaker's Commentary, (See CHAMELEON.) Smith's Bible Dictionary makes it the fan-foot lizard, gecko.

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Fowl in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

foul (`oph; peteinon): The word is now generally restricted to the larger, especially the edible birds, but formerly it denoted all flying creatures; in Lev 11:20 the King James Version we have even, "all fowls that creep, going upon all four," 11:21, "every flying creeping thing that goeth upon all four." 1. Old Testament Terms and References: The word most frequently translated "fowl" is `oph from `uph, "to cover," hence, wing; it is used collectively for birds and fowl in general (Gen 1:20, etc.; 2:19,20, etc.); `ayit (from `ut, "to rush") means a ravenous beasts; or bird of prey, used collectively of ravenous birds (Gen 15:11 the King James Version; Isa 18:6 the King James Version "fowls"; Job 28:7, "a path which no fowl knoweth," the Revised Version (British and American) "no bird of prey"); in Isa 46:11 it is used as a symbol of a conqueror (compare Jer 12:9, "bird," "birds of prey"; Ezek 39:4, "ravenous birds"); tsippor, Aramaic tsippar (from tsaphar, "to twitter or chirp"), "a chirper," denotes a small bird or sparrow (Dt 4:17 the King James Version; Neh 5:18; Dan 4:14); to give the carcasses of men to the fowls (birds) of the air was an image of destruction (Dt 28:26 the King James Version; 1 Sam 17:44,46; Ps 79:2; Jer 7:33, etc.); barburim, rendered (1 Ki 4:23) "fatted fowl" (among the provisions for Solomon's table for one day), is probably a mimetic word, like Greek barbaros, Latin murmuro, English babble, perhaps denoting geese from their cackle (Gesenius, from barar, "to cleanse," referring to their white plumage; but other derivations and renderings are given). They might have been ducks or swans. They could have been guineas or pigeons. The young of the ostrich was delicious food, and no doubt when Solomon's ships brought peafowl they also brought word that they were a delicacy for a king's table. The domestic fowl was not common so early in Israel,but it may have been brought by Solomon with other imports from the East; in New Testament times chickens were common; ba`al kanaph, "owner of a wing," is used for a bird of any kind in Prov 1:17. "In vain is the net spread in the sight of any bird," the King James Version margin Hebrew, "in the eyes of everything that hath a wing."...

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Fowl in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Several distinct Hebrew and Greek words are thus rendered in the English Bible. Of these the most common is 'oph, which is usually a collective term for all kinds of birds. In 1Ki 4:23 among the daily provisions for Solomon's table "fatted fowl" are included. In the New Testament the word translated "fowls" is most frequently that which comprehends all kinds of birds (including ravens, Lu 12:24 [SPARROW]

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Elephant in Naves Topical Bible

-(Margin A. V.) Job 40:15 -See IVORY

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Ivory in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The word translated "ivory" literally signifies the "tooth" of any animal, and hence more especially denotes the substance of the projecting tusks of elephants. The skilled work-men of Hiram, king of Tyre, fashioned the great ivory throne of Solomon, and overlaid it with pure gold. 1Ki 10:18; 2Ch 9:17 The ivory thus employed was supplied by the caravans of Dedan, Isa 21:13; Eze 27:15 or was brought, with apes and peacocks, by the navy of Tarshish. 1Ki 10:22 The "ivory house" of Ahab, 1Ki 22:39 was probably a palace, the walls of which were panelled with ivory, like the palace of Menelaus described by Homer. Odys. iv. 73. Beds inlaid or veneered with ivory were in use among the Hebrews. Am 6:4

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Elephant in Easton's Bible Dictionary

not found in Scripture except indirectly in the original Greek word (elephantinos) translated "of ivory" in Rev. 18:12, and in the Hebrew word (shenhabim, meaning "elephant's tooth") rendered "ivory" in 1 Kings 10:22 and 2 Chr. 9:21.

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Ivory in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. pl. shenhabbim, the "tusks of elephants") was early used in decorations by the Egyptians, and a great trade in it was carried on by the Assyrians (Ezek. 27:6; Rev. 18:12). It was used by the Phoenicians to ornament the box-wood rowing-benches of their galleys, and Hiram's skilled workmen made Solomon's throne of ivory (1 Kings 10:18). It was brought by the caravans of Dedan (Isa. 21:13), and from the East Indies by the navy of Tarshish (1 Kings 10:22). Many specimens of ancient Egyptian and Assyrian ivory-work have been preserved. The word _habbim_ is derived from the Sanscrit _ibhas_, meaning "elephant," preceded by the Hebrew article (ha); and hence it is argued that Ophir, from which it and the other articles mentioned in 1 Kings 10:22 were brought, was in India.

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Ivory in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

sheen, "tooth" or "tusk", namely, of the elephant. There is no Hebrew word in Scripture for the elephant, for the Israelites knew of the elephant first only by its ivory, which was imported from Africa and India. The African elephant exceeds the Indian in the size of the ear and of the tusks, the latter of which are often eight or ten feet long and weigh from 100 to 120 lbs. From the resemblance of its tusks to horns Ezekiel 27:15 has "horns of ivory." "Palaces of ivory" mean ornamented with ivory (Psalm 45:8). So Ahab's palace (1 Kings 22:39). Amos (Amos 3:15) foretells the destruction of the luxurious "houses of ivory" having their walls, doors, and ceilings inlaid with it; also "beds of ivory" (Amos 6:4), i.e. veneered with it. In 1 Kings 10:22 and 2 Chronicles 9:21 sheen habbim is the term "the teeth of elephants"; Sanskrit ibhas, Coptic eboy, Assyrian habba in the inscriptions. Gesenius would read sheen habenim, "ivory (and) ebony." On the Assyrian obelisk in the British Museum tribute bearers are seen carrying tusks; specimens of carvings in ivory were found in Nimrud, and tablets inlaid with blue and opaque glass. "All manner vessels of ivory" are in mystic Babylon (Revelation 18:12). Solomon made a great throne of ivory overlaid with gold (1 Kings 10:18-20); the ivory was brought in the navy of Tarshish, probably from the S. coasts of Arabia, which maintained from ancient times commercial intercourse with both India and Ethiopia. In Ezekiel 27:6 we read "the Ashurites have made thy (Tyre's) benches of ivory, brought out of the isles of Chittim"; rather, as the Hebrew orthography requires, "they have made thy (rowing) benches of ivory, inlaid in the daughter of cedars" or "the best boxwood" (bath ashurim), from Cyprus and Macedonia, from whence the best boxwood came (Pliny).

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Ivory Scripture - Revelation 18:12

The merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all manner vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble,

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Ivory Scripture - 1 Kings 10:22

For the king had at sea a navy of Tharshish with the navy of Hiram: once in three years came the navy of Tharshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

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Ivory Scripture - Amos 3:15

And I will smite the winter house with the summer house; and the houses of ivory shall perish, and the great houses shall have an end, saith the LORD.

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Falcon in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

fo'-k'-n, fol'-k'-n, fal'-kun: The Hebrews did not know the word. Their bird corresponding to our falcon, in all probability, was one of the smaller kestrels covered by the word nets, which seemed to cover all lesser birds of prey that we include in the hawk family. That some of our many divisions of species were known to them is indicated by the phrase "after its kind." The word occurs in the Revised Version (British and American) in Job 28:7, to translation 'ayyah, Greek gups (compare Lev 11:14; Dt 14:13): "That path no bird of prey knoweth, Neither hath the falcon's eye seen it." This substitutes "falcon" for "vulture" in the King James Version. The change weakens the force of the lines. All ornithologists know that eagles, vultures and the large hawks have such range of vision that they at once descend from heights at which we cannot see them to take prey on earth or food placed to tempt them. The falcons and sparrow hawks are small members of the family, some of which feed on little birds, some on insects. They are not celebrated for greater range of vision than other birds of the same location and feeding habits. The strength of these lines lay in the fact that if the path to the mine were so well concealed that the piercing eye of the vulture failed to find it, then it was perfectly hidden indeed. Gene Stratton-Porter

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Falcon in Naves Topical Bible

-A carnivorous bird (R. V.) Le 11:14; De 14:13

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Hawk in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Le 11:16; De 14:15; Job 39:26 The hawk includes various species of the Falconidae. With respect to the passage in Job (l.c.) which appears to allude to the migratory habits of hawks, it is curious to observe that of the ten or twelve lesser raptors (hawk tribe) of Israel, nearly all are summer migrants. The kestrel remains all the year, but the others are all migrants from the south.

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Hawk in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. netz, a word expressive of strong and rapid flight, and hence appropriate to the hawk). It is an unclean bird (Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15). It is common in Syria and surrounding countries. The Hebrew word includes various species of Falconidae, with special reference perhaps to the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), the hobby (Hypotriorchis subbuteo), and the lesser kestrel (Tin, Cenchris). The kestrel remains all the year in Israel, but some ten or twelve other species are all migrants from the south. Of those summer visitors to Israel special mention may be made of the Falco sacer and the Falco lanarius. (See NIGHT-HAWK -T0002729.)

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Hawk in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

neets; implying "strong and rapid flight". Migratory in S. Europe and parts of Asia; so Job 39:26, "doth the hawk fly by thy wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the S.?" Of the dozen lesser raptores, birds, in Israel nearly all are summer migrants; the Falco saker and Falco lanarius, besides the smaller Falco melanopterus, Hypotriorchis subbuteo or the hobby, etc. The sacred monuments show that one kind was sacred in Egypt. The Greek name implies "sacredness", hierax.

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Hawk Scripture - Job 39:26

Doth the hawk fly by thy wisdom, [and] stretch her wings toward the south?

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Hawk Scripture - Leviticus 11:16

And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind,

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Hawk Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:15

And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind,

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Deer in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

der ('ayyal, feminine 'ayyalah, and 'ayyeleth (compare Arabic, 'ayyal and 'iyal, "deer" and 'ayil, "ram," and Latin caper and capra, "goat," caprea, capreolus, "wild goat," "chamois," or "roe deer"); yachmur (compare Arabic, yachmur, "deer"); ya`alah, feminine of ya`el (compare Arabic, wa`l, "Pers wild goat"); tsebhi, and feminine tsebhiyah (compare Arabic, zabi and feminine zabiyah, "gazelle"]; `opher (compare Arabic, ghafr and ghufr, "young of the mountain goat")): Of the words in the preceding list, the writer believes that only the first two, i.e. 'ayyal (with its feminine forms) and yachmur should be translated "deer," 'ayyal for the roe deer and yachmur for the fallow deer. Further, he believes that ya`el (including ya`alah) should be translated "ibex," and tsebhi, "gazelle." `Opher is the young of a roe deer or of a gazelle...

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Roebuck in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

ro, ro'-buk: the King James Version has "roe" and "roebuck" for tsehi, tsebhiyah. the Revised Version (British and American) usually substitutes "gazelle" in the text (Dt 12:15, etc.) or margin (Prov 6:5, etc.), but retains "roe" in 2 Sam 2:18; 1 Ch 12:8; Song 3:5; 7:3. So the Revised Version (British and American) has "gazelle" for the King James Version "roe" in Sirach 27:20 (dorkas). the Revised Version (British and American) has "roe-buck" for yachmur (Dt 14:5; 1 Ki 4:23), where the King James Version has "fallow deer." In the opinion of the writer, 'ayyal English Versions of the Bible "hart," should be translated "roe-buck," yachmur "fallow deer," and tsebhi "gazelle." See DEER; GAZELLE. Alfred Ely Day

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Dragon in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(1.) Heb. tannim, plural of tan. The name of some unknown creature inhabiting desert places and ruins (Job 30:29; Ps. 44:19; Isa. 13:22; 34:13; 43:20; Jer. 10:22; Micah 1:8; Mal. 1:3); probably, as translated in the Revised Version, the jackal (q.v.). (2.) Heb. tannin. Some great sea monster (Jer. 51:34). In Isa. 51:9 it may denote the crocodile. In Gen. 1:21 (Heb. plural tanninim) the Authorized Version renders "whales," and the Revised Version "sea monsters." It is rendered "serpent" in Ex. 7:9. It is used figuratively in Ps. 74:13; Ezek. 29:3. In the New Testament the word "dragon" is found only in Rev. 12:3, 4, 7, 9, 16, 17, etc., and is there used metaphorically of "Satan." (See WHALE -T0003805.)

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Dragon in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Tannin, tan. Tan in Jeremiah 14:6, "dragons" "snuffing up the wind" is translated by Henderson jackals; rather the great boas and python serpents are meant, which raise their body vertically ten or twelve feet high, surveying the neighborhood above the bushes, while with open jaws they drink in the air. They were made types of the deluge and all destructive agencies; hence the dragon temples are placed near water in Asia, Africa, and Britain, e.g. that of Abury in Wiltshire. The ark is often associated with it, as the preserver from the waters. The dragon temples are serpentine in form; dragon standards were used in Egypt and Babylon, and among the widely-scattered Celts. Apollo's slaying Python is the Greek legend implying the triumph of light over darkness and evil. The tannin are any great monsters, whether of land or sea, trans. Genesis 1:21 "great sea monsters." So (Lamentations 4:3) "even sea monsters (tannin) draw out the breast," alluding to the mammalia which sometimes visit the Mediterranean, or the halichore cow whale of the Red Sea. Large whales do not often frequent the Mediterranean, which was the sea that the Israelites knew; they apply "sea" to the Nile and Euphrates, and so apply "tannin" to the crocodile, their horror in Egypt, as also to the large serpents which they saw in the desert. "The dragon in the sea," which Jehovah shall punish in the day of Israel's deliverance, is Antichrist, the antitype to Babylon on the Euphrates' waters (Isaiah 27:1). In Psalm 74:13, "Thou brokest the heads of the dragons in the waters," Egypt's princes and Pharaoh are poetically represented hereby, just as crocodiles are the monarchs of the Nile waters. So (Isaiah 51:9-10) the crocodile is the emblem of Egypt and its king on coins of Augustus struck after the conquest of Egypt. "A habitation of dragons" expresses utter desolation, as venomous snakes abound in ruins of ancient cities (Deuteronomy 32:33; Jeremiah 49:33; Isaiah 34:13). In the New Testament it symbolizes Satan the old serpent (Genesis 3), combining gigantic strength with craft, malignity, and venom (Revelation 12:3). The dragon's color, "red," fiery red, implies that he was a murderer from the beginning.

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Dragon Scripture - Revelation 13:4

And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who [is] like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him?

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Dragon Scripture - Psalms 91:13

Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder: the young lion and the dragon shalt thou trample under feet.

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Dragon Scripture - Jeremiah 51:34

Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon hath devoured me, he hath crushed me, he hath made me an empty vessel, he hath swallowed me up like a dragon, he hath filled his belly with my delicates, he hath cast me out.

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Dromedary in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

drum'-e-da-ri, drom'-e-da-ri. See CAMEL.

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Dromedary in Naves Topical Bible

-General scriptures concerning 1Ki 4:28; Es 8:10 -R. V., swift steeds) Isa 60:6

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Dromedary in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Isa. 60:6), an African or Arabian species of camel having only one hump, while the Bactrian camel has two. It is distinguished from the camel only as a trained saddle-horse is distinguished from a cart-horse. It is remarkable for its speed (Jer. 2:23). Camels are frequently spoken of in partriarchal times (Gen. 12:16; 24:10; 30:43; 31:17, etc.). They were used for carrying burdens (Gen. 37:25; Judg. 6:5), and for riding (Gen. 24:64). The hair of the camel falls off of itself in spring, and is woven into coarse cloths and garments (Matt. 3:4). (See CAMEL)

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Dromedary Scripture - Jeremiah 2:23

How canst thou say, I am not polluted, I have not gone after Baalim? see thy way in the valley, know what thou hast done: [thou art] a swift dromedary traversing her ways;

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Eagle in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

e'-g'-l (nesher; aetos; Latin aquila): A bird of the genus aquila of the family falconidae. The Hebrew nesher, meaning "to tear with the beak," is almost invariably translated "eagle," throughout the Bible; yet many of the most important references compel the admission that the bird to which they applied was a vulture. There were many large birds and carrion eaters flocking over Israel, attracted by the offal from animals slaughtered for tribal feasts and continuous sacrifice. The eagle family could not be separated from the vultures by their habit of feeding, for they ate the offal from slaughter as well as the vultures. One distinction always holds good. Eagles never flock. They select the tallest trees of the forest, the topmost crag of the mountain, and pairs live in solitude, hunting and feeding singly, whenever possible carrying their prey to the nest so that the young may gain strength and experience by tearing at it and feeding themselves. The vultures are friendly, and collect and feed in flocks. So wherever it is recorded that a "flock came down on a carcass," there may have been an eagle or two in it, but the body of it were vultures. Because they came in such close contact with birds of prey, the natives came nearer dividing them into families than any birds. Of perhaps a half-dozen, they recognized three eagles, they knew three vultures, four or five falcons, and several kites; but almost every Biblical reference is translated "eagle," no matter how evident the text makes it that the bird was a vulture. For example, Mic 1:16: "Make thee bald, and cut off thy hair for the children of thy delight: enlarge thy baldness as the eagle (m "vulture"); for they are gone into captivity from thee." This is a reference to the custom of shaving the head when in mourning, but as Israel knew no bald eagle, the text could refer only to the bare head and neck of the griffon vulture. The eagles were, when hunger-driven, birds of prey; the vultures, carrion feeders only. There was a golden eagle (the osprey of the King James Version), not very common, distinguished by its tan-colored head; the imperial eagle, more numerous and easily identified by a dark head and white shoulders; a spotted eagle; a tawny eagle, much more common and readily distinguished by its plumage; and the short-toed eagle, most common of all...

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Eagle in Naves Topical Bible

-Forbidden as food Le 11:13; De 14:12 -The swift flight of De 28:49; Job 9:26; Pr 30:19; Jer 4:13; 49:22; La 4:19 -The nest of De 32:11; Job 39:27-30; Jer 49:16 -Carries her young upon her wings Ex 19:4; De 32:11 -The long life of Ps 103:5 -The molting of Mic 1:16 -Gier-eagle Le 11:18 -FIGURATIVE Ex 19:4; De 32:11; Jer 48:40; Ho 8:1 -SYMBOLICAL Eze 1:10; 10:14; 17:3; Da 7:4; Re 4:7; 12:14

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Eagle in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(Heb. nesher, i.e. a tearer with the beak). At least four distinct kinds of eagles have been observed in Israel, viz., the golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos, the spotted eagle, Aquila naevia, the imperial eagle, Aquila heliaca, and the very common Circaetos gallicus. The Hebrew nesher may stand for any of these different species, though perhaps more particular reference to the golden and imperial eagles and the griffon vulture may be intended. The passage in Micah, Mic 1:16 "enlarge thy baldness as the eagle," may refer to the griffon vulture, Vultur fulvus, in which case the simile is peculiarly appropriate, for the whole head and neck of this bird are destitute of true feathers. The "eagles" of Mt 24:28; Lu 17:37 may include the Vultur fulvus and Neophron percnopterus; though, as eagles frequently prey upon dead bodies, there is no necessity to restrict the Greek word to the Vulturidae. The figure of an eagle is now and has long been a favorite military ensign. The Persians so employed it; a fact which illustrates the passage in Isa 46:11 The same bird was similarly employed by the Assyrians and the Romans.

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Eagle in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Herb. nesher; properly the griffon vulture or great vulture, so called from its tearing its prey with its beak), referred to for its swiftness of flight (Deut. 28:49; 2 Sam. 1:23), its mounting high in the air (Job 39:27), its strength (Ps. 103:5), its setting its nest in high places (Jer. 49:16), and its power of vision (Job 39:27-30). This "ravenous bird" is a symbol of those nations whom God employs and sends forth to do a work of destruction, sweeping away whatever is decaying and putrescent (Matt. 24:28; Isa. 46:11; Ezek. 39:4; Deut. 28:49; Jer. 4:13; 48:40). It is said that the eagle sheds his feathers in the beginning of spring, and with fresh plumage assumes the appearance of youth. To this, allusion is made in Ps. 103:5 and Isa. 40:31. God's care over his people is likened to that of the eagle in training its young to fly (Ex. 19:4; Deut. 32:11, 12). An interesting illustration is thus recorded by Sir Humphry Davy:, "I once saw a very interesting sight above the crags of Ben Nevis. Two parent eagles were teaching their offspring, two young birds, the maneuvers of flight. They began by rising from the top of the mountain in the eye of the sun. It was about mid- day, and bright for the climate. They at first made small circles, and the young birds imitated them. They paused on their wings, waiting till they had made their flight, and then took a second and larger gyration, always rising toward the sun, and enlarging their circle of flight so as to make a gradually ascending spiral. The young ones still and slowly followed, apparently flying better as they mounted; and they continued this sublime exercise, always rising till they became mere points in the air, and the young ones were lost, and afterwards their parents, to our aching sight." (See Isa. 40:31.)...

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Eagle in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Nesher. Leviticus 11:13. The golden eagle (W. Drake). The griffon vulture; the Arab nisr is plainly the Hebrew nesher. In Micah 1:16, "make thee bald (shaving the head betokening mourning) ... enlarge thy baldness as the nesher," the griffon vulture must be meant; for it is "bald," which the eagle is not. "A majestic and royal bird, the largest and most powerful seen in Israel, far surpassing the eagle in size and power" (Tristram). The Egyptians ranked it as first among birds. The da'ah (Leviticus 11:14) is not "the vulture" but the black kite. The Hebrew qaarach is to make bald the back of the head, very applicable to the griffon vulture's head and neck, which are destitute of true feathers. The golden eagle; the spotted, common in the rocky regions; the imperial; and the Circaeros gallicus (short-toed eagle), living on reptiles only: Israel Exploration Quarterly Statement, October, 1876), are all found in Israel...

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Eagle Scripture - Ezekiel 1:10

As for the likeness of their faces, they four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle.

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Eagle Scripture - Ezekiel 10:14

And every one had four faces: the first face [was] the face of a cherub, and the second face [was] the face of a man, and the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle.

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Eagle Scripture - Jeremiah 49:16

Thy terribleness hath deceived thee, [and] the pride of thine heart, O thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, that holdest the height of the hill: though thou shouldest make thy nest as high as the eagle, I will bring thee down from thence, saith the LORD.

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Elephant in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

el'-e-fant (Job 40:15 the King James Version margin, the American Revised Version, margin "hippopotamus," the Revised Version (British and American) "ivory"); 1 Ki 10:22 the King James Version margin; 2 Ch 9:21 the King James Version; 1 Macc 3:34; 6:28 ff; 8:6): Possibly in Job it is the extinct mammoth. See BEHEMOTH; IVORY.

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Dog in Smiths Bible Dictionary

an animal frequently mentioned in Scripture. It was used by the hebrews as a watch for their houses, Isa 56:10 and for guarding their flocks. Job 30:1 Then also, as now troops of hungry and semi-wild dogs used to wander about the fields and the streets of the cities, devouring dead bodies and other offal, 1Ki 14:11; 21:19,23; 22:38; Ps 59:6 and thus became so savage and fierce and such objects of dislike that fierce and cruel enemies are poetically styled dogs in Ps 22:16,20 moreover the dog being an unclean animal, Isa 66:3 the epithets dog, dead dog, dog's head, were used as terms of reproach or of humility in speaking of one's self. 1Sa 24:14; 2Sa 3:8; 9:8; 16:9; 2Ki 8:13

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Dog in Easton's Bible Dictionary

frequently mentioned both in the Old and New Testaments. Dogs were used by the Hebrews as a watch for their houses (Isa. 56:10), and for guarding their flocks (Job 30:1). There were also then as now troops of semi-wild dogs that wandered about devouring dead bodies and the offal of the streets (1 Kings 14:11; 16:4; 21:19, 23; 22:38; Ps. 59:6, 14). As the dog was an unclean animal, the terms "dog," "dog's head," "dead dog," were used as terms of reproach or of humiliation (1 Sam. 24:14; 2 Sam. 3:8; 9:8; 16:9). Paul calls false apostles "dogs" (Phil. 3:2). Those who are shut out of the kingdom of heaven are also so designated (Rev. 22:15). Persecutors are called "dogs" (Ps. 22:16). Hazael's words, "Thy servant which is but a dog" (2 Kings 8:13), are spoken in mock humility=impossible that one so contemptible as he should attain to such power.

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Dog in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The watch of the house, and of the flock (Isaiah 56:10-11; Job 30:1). Sometimes domesticated, as the Syrophoenician woman's comparison and argument imply, "the household (kunaria, 'little' or 'pet') dogs eat of the crumbs (Matthew 15:26-27; Mark 7:27-28) which fall from their master's table." More commonly ownerless, and banded in troops which divide cities into so many quarters; each half-starved, ravenous troop keeps to its own quarter, and drives off any intruder; feeding on blood, dead bodies, and offal; therefore regarded as "unclean" (1 Kings 14:11; 1 Kings 16:4; 1 Kings 21:19; 1 Kings 21:23; 1 Kings 22:38; 2 Kings 9:10; 2 Kings 9:35-36). Their dismal howlings at night are alluded to in Psalm 59:6; Psalm 59:14-15; "they return at evening, they make a noise like a dog, and go round about the city"; perhaps in allusion to Saul's agents thirsting for David's blood coming to Michal's house at evening, and to the retribution on Saul in kind, when he who had made David a wanderer himself wandered about seeking vainly for help against the Philistines, and went at last by night to the witch of Endor. As unclean (Isaiah 66:3), dog, dead dog, dog's head, are terms of scorn or else self-abasement (1 Samuel 24:14; 2 Samuel 3:8; 2 Samuel 9:8; 2 Samuel 16:9; 2 Kings 8:13). A wanton, self-prostituting man is called a "dog" (Deuteronomy 23:18). One Egyptian god had a dog form. "Beware of the (Greek) dogs," those impure persons of whom I told you often" (Philemon 3:2; Philemon 3:18-19); "the abominable" (Revelation 21:8; compare Revelation 22:15; Matthew 7:6); pagan in spirit (Titus 1:15-16); dogs in filthiness, snarling, and ferocity against the Lord and His people (Psalm 22:16; Psalm 22:20); backsliding into former carnality, as the dog "is turned to his own vomit again" (2 Peter 2:22). The Jews regarded the Gentiles as "dogs," but by unbelief they ceased to be the true Israel and themselves became dogs (Isaiah 56:10-11). "Deliver my darling from the power of the dog," i.e. my soul (literally, my unique one, unique in its preciousness) from the Jewish rabble; as "deliver My soul from the sword" is Messiah's cry for deliverance from the Roman soldiery and governor. The Assyrian hunting dog as vividly depicted on Assyrian sculptures resembled exactly our harrier or foxhound.

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Dogs Scripture - Philippians 3:2

Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware of the concision.

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Dogs Scripture - 1 Kings 22:38

And [one] washed the chariot in the pool of Samaria; and the dogs licked up his blood; and they washed his armour; according unto the word of the LORD which he spake.

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Dogs Scripture - 1 Kings 16:4

Him that dieth of Baasha in the city shall the dogs eat; and him that dieth of his in the fields shall the fowls of the air eat.

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Dove in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

duv (tor, yonah; peristera; Latin Zenaedura carolinensis): A bird of the family Columbidae. Doves and pigeons are so closely related as to be spoken and written of as synonymous, yet there is a distinction recognized from the beginning of time. It was especially marked in Israel, because doves migrated, but pigeons remained in their chosen haunts all the year. Yet doves were the wild birds and were only confined singly or in pairs as caged pets, or in order to be available for sacrifice. Pigeons, without question, were the first domesticated birds, the record of their conquest by man extending if anything further back than ducks, geese and swans. These two were the best known and the most loved of all the myriads of birds of Israel. Doves were given preference because they remained wild and were more elusive. The thing that escapes us is usually a little more attractive than the thing we have. Their loving natures had been noted, their sleek beautiful plumage, their plump bodies. They were the most precious of anything offered for sacrifice. Their use is always specified in preference to pigeons if only one bird was used; if both, the dove is frequently mentioned first. Because of their docility when caged, their use in sacrifice, and the religious superstition concerning them, they were allowed to nest unmolested and, according to species, flocked all over Israel. The turtle-dove nested in gardens and vineyards, and was almost as tame as the pigeons. The palm turtle-dove took its name from its love of homing in palm trees, and sought these afield, and in cities, even building near the temple in Jerusalem. It also selected thorn and other trees. It has a small body, about ten inches in length, covered with bright chestnut-colored feathers, the neck dappled with dark, lustrous feathers. The rock dove swarmed over, through, and among the cliffs of mountains and the fissures of caves and ravines. The collared turtle-dove was the largest of the species. It remained permanently and homed in the forests of Tabor and Gilead, around the Dead Sea, and along the Jordan valley. This bird was darker than the others and took its name from a clearly outlined collar of dark feathers encircling the neck, and was especially sought for caged pets on account of its size and beauty...

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Turtle Dove in Naves Topical Bible

-Sent out from the ark by Noah Ge 8:8-11 -Domesticated Isa 60:8 -Nests of Jer 48:28 -Harmlessness of, typical of Christ's gentleness Mt 10:16 -Sacrificial uses of Ge 15:9 -Prescribed for purification Of women Le 12:6,8; Lu 2:24 Of Nazarites Nu 6:10 Of lepers Le 14:22 -Burnt offering of Le 1:14-17 -Trespass offering of, for the impecunious Le 5:7-10; 12:8 -Sin offering, for those who touched any dead body Nu 6:10 -Market for, in the temple Mt 21:12; Joh 2:14 -SYMBOLICAL Of the Holy Spirit Mt 3:16; Lu 3:22; Joh 1:32 See PIGEON

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Dove in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The first menton of this bird occurs in Gen. 8. The dove's rapidity of flight is alluded to in Ps 55:6 the beauty of its plumage in Ps 68:13 its dwelling int he rocks and valleys in Jer 48:28 and Ezek 7:16 its mournful voice in Isa 38:14; 59:11; Na 2:7 its harmlessness in Mt 10:16 its simplicity in Ho 7:11 and its amativeness in So 1:15; 2:14 Doves are kept in a domesticated state in many parts of the East. In Persia pigeon-houses are erected at a distance from the dwellings, for the purpose of collecting the dung as manure. There is probably an allusion to such a custom in Isa 60:8

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Dove in Easton's Bible Dictionary

In their wild state doves generally build their nests in the clefts of rocks, but when domesticated "dove-cots" are prepared for them (Cant. 2:14; Jer. 48:28; Isa. 60:8). The dove was placed on the standards of the Assyrians and Babylonians in honour, it is supposed, of Semiramis (Jer. 25:38; Vulg., "fierceness of the dove;" comp. Jer. 46:16; 50:16). Doves and turtle-doves were the only birds that could be offered in sacrifice, as they were clean according to the Mosaic law (Ge. 15:9; Lev. 5:7; 12:6; Luke 2:24). The dove was the harbinger of peace to Noah (Gen. 8:8, 10). It is often mentioned as the emblem of purity (Ps. 68:13). It is a symbol of the Holy Spirit (Gen. 1:2; Matt. 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:22; John 1:32); also of tender and devoted affection (Cant. 1:15; 2:14). David in his distress wished that he had the wings of a dove, that he might fly away and be at rest (Ps. 55:6-8). There is a species of dove found at Damascus "whose feathers, all except the wings, are literally as yellow as gold" (68:13).

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Turtle Dove in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Its peculiar peaceful and gentle habit its often referred to in Scripture. A pair was offered in sacrifice by Mary at her purification (Luke 2:24). The pigeon and the turtle- dove were the only birds permitted to be offered in sacrifice (Lev. 1:14; 5:7; 14:22; 15:14, 29, etc.). The Latin name of this bird, _turtur_, is derived from its note, and is a repetition of the Hebrew name _tor_. Three species are found in Israel, (1) the turtle-dove (Turtur auritus), (2) the collared turtle (T. risorius), and (3) the palm turtle (T. Senegalensis). But it is to the first of these species which the various passages of Scripture refer. It is a migratory bird (Jer. 8:7; Cant. 2:11, 12). "Search the glades and valleys, even by sultry Jordan, at the end of March, and not a turtle-dove is to be seen. Return in the second week of April, and clouds of doves are feeding on the clovers of the plain. They overspread the whole face of the land." "Immediately on its arrival it pours forth from every garden, grove, and wooded hill its melancholy yet soothing ditty unceasingly from early dawn till sunset. It is from its plaintive and continuous note, doubtless, that David, pouring forth his heart's sorrow to God, compares himself to a turtle-dove" (Ps. 74:19).

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Dove in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Emblem of peace (Genesis 8:7-12). After God's wrath for sin had been executed upon the earth, the dove was thrice sent forth; at the first sending she found no rest for the sole of her foot until she put herself in Noah's (or "comforter") hand, and was drawn into the ark; on the second trip, she brought back the olive leaf, the earnest of the restored earth; on the third trip, she was able to roam at large, no longer needing the ark's shelter. As the raven messenger "going forth to and fro," alighting on but never entering into the ark, symbolizes the unbelieving that have "no peace," "like the troubled sea, when it cannot rest" (Isaiah 57:20-21): so the dove, in its threefold embassy, represents respectively the first return of the soul to its rest, the loving hand of Jesus; its subsequent reception of the dovelike spirit, the earnest of the final inheritance (Ephesians 1:13-14); and its actual entrance finally on the new heaven and new earth (Revelation 21), where there will be no need of the arklike church to separate between the world and God's people, between the saved and unsaved, where all shall be safe and blessed forever and the church shall be co-extensive with the world...

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Turtle Dove in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

tor; Latin, tur-tur, from imitation of its cooing note. Abraham's offering (Genesis 15:9) with a young pigeon (gozal). A pair was the poor man's substitute for the lamb or kid, as trespass, sin, or burnt offering (Leviticus 12:6); so the Virgin mother for her purification, through poverty (Luke 2:24; 2 Corinthians 8:9). Also in the case of a Nazarite accidentally defiled by a dead body (Numbers 6:10). Owing to its being migratory and timid, the turtle was never domesticated as the pigeon; but being numerous, and building its nest in gardens, it afforded its young as an easy prey to those who did not own even pigeons. The palm dove, Turtur Aegyptiacus, probably supplied the sacrifices in Israel's desert journey, for its nests abound in palms on oases. Its habit of pairing for life, and its love to its mate, made it a symbol of purity and so a suitable offering...

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Dove Scripture - Song of Solomon 2:14

O my dove, [that art] in the clefts of the rock, in the secret [places] of the stairs, let me see thy countenance, let me hear thy voice; for sweet [is] thy voice, and thy countenance [is] comely.

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Dove Scripture - Jeremiah 48:28

O ye that dwell in Moab, leave the cities, and dwell in the rock, and be like the dove [that] maketh her nest in the sides of the hole's mouth.

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Dove Scripture - Song of Solomon 5:2

I sleep, but my heart waketh: [it is] the voice of my beloved that knocketh, [saying], Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled: for my head is filled with dew, [and] my locks with the drops of the night.

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Dragon in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

drag'-un (tannin, plural tannim, tannoth; drakon): Tannin and the plural tanninim occur 14 t, and in English Versions of the Bible are variously rendered "dragon," "whale," "serpent" or "sea-monster"; but Lam 4:3, the King James Version "sea-monster," the King James Version margin"sea calves," the Revised Version (British and American) "jackals." Tannim occurs 12 times, and is rendered "dragons," the Revised Version (British and American) "jackals," except in Ezek 29:3, where the King James Version has "dragon" (the American Standard Revised Version "monster"), and in Ezek 32:2, where the King James Version has "whale" and the English Revised Version and the King James Version margin"dragon" (the American Standard Revised Version "monster"). Tannoth occurs once, in Mal 1:3, where it is rendered "dragons," the Revised Version (British and American) "jackals." Drakon occurs 12 times in Rev 12; 13; 16; and 20, where it is uniformly rendered "dragon." (Compare Arabic tinnin, the constellation, Draco.) Tannoth Septuagint domata, "dwellings") is a feminine plural form as if from tannah, but it suits the context to give it the same meaning as tannim...

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Dragon in Naves Topical Bible

-A poisonous serpent De 32:33 -A serpent or the desert Ps 91:13; Isa 34:13; Jer 9:11; 51:37; Mal 1:3 -Of the sea Ps 74:13; Isa 27:1 -A wolf Mic 1:8 -Interpreted as whale, in Ge 1:21; Job 7:12 -Serpent Ex 7:9 -A term applied To Pharaoh Isa 51:9 To Satan Re 20:2 -Symbolical Eze 29:3; 32:2; Re 12; 13; 16:13

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Dragon in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The translators of the Authorized Version, apparently following the Vulgate, have rendered by the same word "dragon" the two Hebrew words tan and tannin, which appear to be quite distinct in meaning. 1. The former is used, always in the plural, in Job 30:29; Ps 44:19; Isa 34:13; 43:20; Jer 9:11 It is always applied to some creatures inhabiting the desert, and we should conclude from this that it refers rather to some wild beast than to a serpent. The syriac renders it by a word which, according to Pococke, means a "jackal." 2. The word tannin seems to refer to any great monster, whether of the land or the sea, being indeed more usually applied to some kind of serpent or reptile, but not exclusively restricted to that sense. Ex 7:9,10,12; De 32:33; Ps 91:13 In the New Testament it is found only in the Apocalypse, Re 12:3,4,7,9,16,17 etc., as applied metaphorically to "the old serpent, called the devil, and Satan."

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Chamois Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:5

The hart, and the roebuck, and the fallow deer, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the wild ox, and the chamois.

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Coney in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

ko'-ni (shaphan (Lev 11:5; Dt 14:7; Ps 104:18; Prov 30:26)): The word "coney" (formerly pronounced cooney) means "rabbit" (from Latin cuniculus). Shaphan is rendered in all four passages in the Septuagint choirogrullios, or "hedge-hog," but is now universally considered to refer to the Syrian hyrax, Procavia (or Hyrax) Syriaca, which in southern Israel and Sinai is called in Arabic wabar, in northern Israel and Syria Tabsun, and in southern Arabia shufun, which is etymologically closely akin to shaphan. The word "hyrax" (hurax) itself means "mouse" or "shrew-mouse" (compare Latin sorex), so that it seems to have been hard to find a name peculiar to this animal. In Lev 11:5 the Revised Version, margin, we find "rock badger," which is a translation of klip das, the rather inappropriate name given by the Boers to the Cape hyrax. The Syrian hyrax lives in Syria, Israel and Arabia. A number of other species, including several that are arboreal, live in Africa. They are not found in other parts of the world. In size, teeth and habits the Syrian hyrax somewhat resembles the rabbit, though it is different in color, being reddish brown, and lacks the long hind legs of the rabbit. The similarity in dentition is confined to the large size of the front teeth and the presence of a large space between them and the back teeth. But whereas hares have a pair of front teeth on each jaw, the hyrax has one pair above and two below...

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Coney in Naves Topical Bible

-General scriptures concerning Le 11:5; De 14:7; Ps 18; Pr 30:26

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Coney in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(shaphan), a gregarious animal of the class Pachydermata, which is found in Israel, living in the caves and clefts of the rocks, and has been erroneously identified with the rabbit or coney. Its scientific name as Hyrax syriacus. The hyrax satisfies exactly the expressions in Ps 104:18; Pr 30:26 Its color is gray or brown on the back, white on the belly; it is like the alpine marmot, scarcely of the size of the domestic cat, having long hair, a very short tail and round ears. It is found on Lebanon and in the Jordan and Dead Sea valleys.

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Coney in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. shaphan; i.e., "the hider"), an animal which inhabits the mountain gorges and the rocky districts of Arabia Petraea and the Holy Land. "The conies are but a feeble folk, yet make they their houses in the rocks" (Prov. 30:26; Ps. 104:18). They are gregarious, and "exceeding wise" (Prov. 30:24), and are described as chewing the cud (Lev. 11:5; Deut. 14:7). The animal intended by this name is known among naturalists as the Hyrax Syriacus. It is neither a ruminant nor a rodent, but is regarded as akin to the rhinoceros. When it is said to "chew the cud," the Hebrew word so used does not necessarily imply the possession of a ruminant stomach. "The lawgiver speaks according to appearances; and no one can watch the constant motion of the little creature's jaws, as it sits continually working its teeth, without recognizing the naturalness of the expression" (Tristram, Natural History of the Bible). It is about the size and color of a rabbit, though clumsier in structure, and without a tail. Its feet are not formed for digging, and therefore it has its home not in burrows but in the clefts of the rocks. "Coney" is an obsolete English word for "rabbit."

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Coney in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

shaphan, from the root "to hide"; the S. Arab, thofun; the Syrian Arab, weber. A pachydermatous animal, gregarious, greybacked, white on the belly, with long hair, short tail, and round ears; common on the ridges of Lebanon; living in caves and clefts; the Hyrax Syriacus, not the rabbit or coney. Proverbs 30:26; "the coneys are but a feeble folk, yet make they their houses in the rocks:" exactly true of the hyrax; with weak teeth, short incisors, and nails instead, it seems defenseless, but its security is in rocky hiding places, such as Ain Feshkah on the Dead Sea shore. "No animal" (says Tristram). "gave us so much trouble to secure." It is described as "chewing the cud" (Leviticus 11:5; Deuteronomy 14:7), in phenomenal language, because the motion of its jaws is like that of ruminating animals; so also the hare. Though in some respects like the rodentia, it is really akin to the rhinoceros; its molar teeth differ only in the size; its body is as large as the rabbit. The "exceeding wisdom" of the coneys is illustrated in their setting an old male sentry near their holes to warn his companions when danger approaches, by a whistling sound.

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Coney Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:7

Nevertheless these ye shall not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the cloven hoof; [as] the camel, and the hare, and the coney: for they chew the cud, but divide not the hoof; [therefore] they [are] unclean unto you.

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Coney Scripture - Leviticus 11:5

And the coney, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he [is] unclean unto you.

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Cuckoo in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

kook'-oo, kuk'-oo (shachaph; laros; Latin Cuculus canorus): The Hebrew root from which the word shachaph is derived means "to be lean" and "slender," and in older versions of the Bible was translated cuckow (cuckoo). It was mentioned twice in the Bible (Lev 11:16, and practically the same in Dt 14:15 the King James Version "cuckoo"), in the list of unclean birds. The Latin term by which we designate the bird is very similar to the Arabic, and all names for it in different countries are so nearly the same that they prove themselves based on its double cry, "cuck-oo," or the single note "kowk" or "gouk." The bird is as old as history, and interesting because the European species placed its eggs in the nests of other birds, which gave rise to much fiction concerning its habits. The European bird is a brownish gray with white bars underneath, and larger than ours, which are a beautiful olive gray, with tail feathers of irregular length touched with white, knee tufts, black or yellow bill, according to species, and beautiful sleek head and shining eyes. Our birds build their own nests, attend their young with care and are much loved for their beauty. Their food is not repulsive in any species; there never was any reason why they should have been classed among the abominations, and for these reasons scientists in search of a "lean, slender" bird of offensive diet and habit have selected the "sea-mew" (which see) which is substituted for cuckoo in the Revised Version (British and American) with good natural-history reason to sustain the change. Gene Stratton-Porter

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Cuckoo in Naves Topical Bible

-(A bird) -Forbidden as food Le 11:16; De 14:15

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Cuckoo in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Le 11:16; De 14:15 the name of some of the larger petrels which abound in the east of the Mediterranean.

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Cuckoo in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. shahaph), from a root meaning "to be lean; slender." This bird is mentioned only in Lev. 11:16 and Deut. 14:15 (R.V., "seamew"). Some have interpreted the Hebrew word by "petrel" or "shearwater" (Puffinus cinereus), which is found on the coast of Syria; others think it denotes the "sea-gull" or "seamew." The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) feeds on reptiles and large insects. It is found in Asia and Africa as well as in Europe. It only passes the winter in Israel. The Arabs suppose it to utter the cry _Yakub_, and hence they call it _tir el- Yakub_; i.e., "Jacob's bird."

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Cuckoo in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

shachaph; Leviticus 11:16; Deuteronomy 14:15; unclean. Rather the Greek cepphus of Aristotle, a large petrel, as the Puffinus cinereus. From a root "to be slender", "light of body" like a gull, whose body is small compared with its apparent size and outspread wings; it skims the waves, seeking its food in the agitated water. Andouini's gull, abounding on the shores of Syria (Tristram), a more likely bird than the storm petrel, which is seldom seen on land.

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Deer in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

der ('ayyal, feminine 'ayyalah, and 'ayyeleth (compare Arabic, 'ayyal and 'iyal, "deer" and 'ayil, "ram," and Latin caper and capra, "goat," caprea, capreolus, "wild goat," "chamois," or "roe deer"); yachmur (compare Arabic, yachmur, "deer"); ya`alah, feminine of ya`el (compare Arabic, wa`l, "Pers wild goat"); tsebhi, and feminine tsebhiyah (compare Arabic, zabi and feminine zabiyah, "gazelle"]; `opher (compare Arabic, ghafr and ghufr, "young of the mountain goat")): Of the words in the preceding list, the writer believes that only the first two, i.e. 'ayyal (with its feminine forms) and yachmur should be translated "deer," 'ayyal for the roe deer and yachmur for the fallow deer. Further, he believes that ya`el (including ya`alah) should be translated "ibex," and tsebhi, "gazelle." `Opher is the young of a roe deer or of a gazelle...

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Deer in Naves Topical Bible

-Also called, FALLOW DEER, HART, HIND, ROEBUCK -Designated among the ceremonially clean animals, to be eaten De 12:15; 14:5 -Provided for Solomon's household 1Ki 4:23 -Fleetness of 2Sa 2:18; 1Ch 12:8; Pr 6:5; So 8:14; Isa 35:6 -Surefootedness of 2Sa 22:34 -Gentleness of Pr 5:19 -Coloring of Jer 14:5

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Fallow-deer in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(called fallow from its reddish-brown color) (Heb. yachmur). The Hebrew word, which is mentioned only in De 14:5 and 1Kin 4:23 probably denotes the Alcelaphus bubalis (the bubale or wild cow) of Barbary and North Africa. It is about the size of a stag, and lives in herds. It is almost exactly like the European roebuck, and is valued for its venison.

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Fallow-deer in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Deut. 14:5 (R.V., "Wild goat"); 1 Kings 4:23 (R.V., "roebucks"). This animal, called in Hebrew _yahmur_, from a word meaning "to be red," is regarded by some as the common fallow- deer, the Cervus dama, which is said to be found very generally over Western and Southern Asia. It is called "fallow" from its pale-red or yellow colour. Some interpreters, however, regard the name as designating the bubale, Antelope bubale, the "wild cow" of North Africa, which is about the size of a stag, like the hartebeest of South Africa. A species of deer has been found at Mount Carmel which is called _yahmur_ by the Arabs. It is said to be similar to the European roebuck.

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Deer Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:5

The hart, and the roebuck, and the fallow deer, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the wild ox, and the chamois.

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Dog in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

kelebh; (compare Arabic kelb, "dog"); kuon; and diminutive kunarion): References to the dog, both in the Old Testament and in the New Testament, are usually of a contemptuous character. A dog, and especially a dead dog, is used as a figure of insignificance. Goliath says to David (1 Sam 17:43 ): "Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves?" David says to Saul (1 Sam 24:14): "After whom dost thou pursue? after a dead dog, after a flea." Mephibosheth says to David (2 Sam 9:8): "What is th servant, that thou shouldest look upon such a dead dog as I am?" The same figure is found in the words of Hazael to Elisha (2 Ki 8:13). The meaning, which is obscure in the King James Version, is brought out well in the Revised Version: "But what is thy servant, who is but a dog, that he should do this great thing?" The characteristically oriental interrogative form of these expressions should be noted...

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Dog in Naves Topical Bible

-Price of, not to be brought into the sanctuary De 23:18 -Shepherd dogs Job 30:1 -Habits of Licking blood 1Ki 21:19; 22:38 Licking sores Lu 16:21 Returns to eat his own vomit Pr 26:11; 2Pe 2:22 Lapping of Jud 7:5 -Dumb and sleeping Isa 56:10,11 -Greyhound Pr 30:31 -Epithet of contempt 1Sa 17:43; 24:14; 2Sa 3:8; 9:8; 16:9; 2Ki 8:13; Isa 56:10,11; Mt 15:26 -FIGURATIVE Php 3:2; Re 22:15

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Bull Scripture - Job 21:10

Their bull gendereth, and faileth not; their cow calveth, and casteth not her calf.

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Camel in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

kam'-el (gamal; kamelos; bekher, and bikhrah (Isa 60:6; Jer 2:23 "dromedary," the American Revised Version, margin "young camel"), rekhesh (1 Ki 4:28; see HORSE), kirkaroth (Isa 66:20, "swift beasts," the American Standard Revised ersion. "dromedaries"); bene ha-rammakhim (Est 8:10, "young dromedaries," the American Standard Revised Version "bred of the stud"); achashteranim (Est 8:10,14, the King James Version "camels," the American Standard Revised Version "that were used in the king's service")): There are two species of camel, the Arabian or one-humped camel or dromedary, Camelus dromedarius, and the Bactrian or two- humped camel, Camelus bactrianus. The latter inhabits the temperate and cold parts of central Asia and is not likely to have been known to Biblical writers. The Arabian camel inhabits southwestern Asia and northern Africa and has recently been introduced into parts of America and Australia. Its hoofs are not typical of ungulates but are rather like great claws. The toes are not completely separated and the main part of the foot which is applied to the ground is a large pad which underlies the proximal joints of the digits. It may be that this incomplete separation of the two toes is a sufficient explanation of the words "parteth not the hoof," in Lev 11:4 and Dt 14:7. Otherwise these words present a difficulty, because the hoofs are completely separated though the toes are not. The camel is a ruminant and chews the cud like a sheep or ox, but the stomach possesses only three compartments instead of four, as in other ruminants. The first two compartments contain in their walls small pouches, each of which can be closed by a sphincter muscle. The fluid retained in these pouches may account in part for the power of the camel to go for a relatively long time without drinking...

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Camel in Naves Topical Bible

-Herds of Ge 12:16; 24:35; 30:43; 1Sa 30:17; 1Ch 27:30; Job 1:3,17; Isa 60:6 -Docility of Ge 24:11 -Uses of For riding Ge 24:10,61,64; 31:17 Posts Es 8:10,14; Jer 2:23 Drawing chariots Isa 21:7 For carrying burdens Ge 24:10; 37:25; 1Ki 10:2; 2Ki 8:9; 1Ch 12:40; Isa 30:6 For cavalry 1Sa 30:17 For milk Ge 32:15 -Forbidden as food Le 11:4 -Hair of, made into cloth Mt 3:4; Mr 1:6 -Ornaments of Jud 8:21,26 -Stables for Eze 25:5

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Camel in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The species of camel which was in common use among the Jews and the heathen nations of Israel was the Arabian or one- humped camel, Camelus arabicus. The dromedary is a swifter animal than the baggage-camel, and is used chiefly for riding purposes; it is merely a finer breed than the other. The Arabs call it the heirie. The speed, of the dromedary has been greatly exaggerated, the Arabs asserting that it is swifter than the horse. Eight or nine miles an hour is the utmost it is able to perform; this pace, however, it is able to keep up for hours together. The Arabian camel carries about 500 pounds. "The hump on the camel's back is chiefly a store of fat, from which the animal draws as the wants of his system require; and the Arab is careful to see that the hump is in good condition before a long journey. Another interesting adaptation is the thick sole which protects the foot of the camel from the burning sand. The nostrils may be closed by valves against blasts of sand. Most interesting is the provision for drought made by providing the second stomach with great cells in which water is long retained. Sight and smell is exceedingly acute in the camel." -- Johnson's Encyc. It is clear from Ge 12:16 that camels were early known to the Egyptians. The importance of the camel is shown by Ge 24:64; 37:25; Jud 7:12; 1Sa 27:9; 1Ki 19:2; 2Ch 14:15; Job 1:3; Jer 49:29,32 and many other texts. John the Baptist wore a garment made of camel hair, Mt 3:4; Mr 1:6 the coarser hairs of the camel; and some have supposed that Elijah was clad in a dress of the same stuff.

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Camel in Easton's Bible Dictionary

from the Hebrew _gamal_, "to repay" or "requite," as the camel does the care of its master. There are two distinct species of camels, having, however, the common characteristics of being "ruminants without horns, without muzzle, with nostrils forming oblique slits, the upper lip divided and separately movable and extensile, the soles of the feet horny, with two toes covered by claws, the limbs long, the abdomen drawn up, while the neck, long and slender, is bent up and down, the reverse of that of a horse, which is arched." (1.) The Bactrian camel is distinguished by two humps. It is a native of the high table-lands of Central Asia. (2.) The Arabian camel or dromedary, from the Greek _dromos_, "a runner" (Isa. 60:6; Jer. 2:23), has but one hump, and is a native of Western Asia or Africa...

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Camel in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

gamal. A ruminant animal, the chief means of communication between places separated by sandy deserts in Asia, owing to its amazing powers of endurance. The "ship of the desert," able to go without food, and water for days, the cellular stomach containing a reservoir for water, and its fatty hump a supply of nourishment; and content with such coarse, prickly shrubs as the desert yields and its incisor teeth enable it to divide. Their natural posture of rest is lying down on the breast; on which, as well as on the joints of the legs, are callosities. Thus, Providence by their formation adapts them for carriers; and their broad, cushioned, elastic feet enable them to tread sure-footedly upon the sinking sands and gravel. They can close their nostrils against the drifting sand of the parching simoom. Their habitat is Arabia, Syria, Asia Minor, S. Tartary, and part of India; in Africa from the Mediterranean to Senegal, and from Egypt and Abyssinia to Algiers and Morocco. The dromedary (beeker) is from a better breed, and swifter; from the Greek dromas, a runner; going often at a pace of nine miles an hour (Esther 8:10; Esther 8:14). The Bactrian two-humped camel is a variety. Used in Abraham's time for riding and burdens (Genesis 24:64; Genesis 37:25); also in war (1 Samuel 30:17; Isaiah 21:7). Camel's hair was woven into coarse cloth, such as what John the Baptist wore (Matthew 3:4). The Hebrew gamal is from a root "to revenge," because of its remembrance of injuries and vindictiveness, or else "to carry." In Isaiah 60:6 and Jeremiah 2:23 beeker should be translated not "dromedary," but "young camel." In Isaiah 66:20 kirkaroth, from karar to bound, "swift beasts," i.e. dromedaries. Its milk is used for drink as that of the goats and sheep for butter.

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Camel Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:7

Nevertheless these ye shall not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the cloven hoof; [as] the camel, and the hare, and the coney: for they chew the cud, but divide not the hoof; [therefore] they [are] unclean unto you.

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Camel Scripture - Zechariah 14:15

And so shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, and of all the beasts that shall be in these tents, as this plague.

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Camel Scripture - Leviticus 11:4

Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: [as] the camel, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he [is] unclean unto you.

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Cattle in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

kat'-'-l (behemah, "a dumb beast"; miqneh, "a possession" from qanah, "to acquire" (compare Arabic qana', "to acquire," and Greek kienos, "beast," and plural ktenea, "flocks," from ktaomai, "to acquire," flocks being both with the Homeric peoples and with the patriarchs an important form of property; compare English "fee"); tso'n "small cattle," "sheep" or goats (compare Arabic da'n, "sheep"); seh, a single sheep or goat (compare Arabic shah); mela'khah, "property," from la'akh, "to minister" (compare Arabic malakah and mulk, "property," from malak, "to possess"); meri' "fatling" (1 Ki 19); thremma (Jn 4:12), "cattle," i.e. "that which is nourished," from trepho, "to nourish"; baqar, "kine," "oxen" (compare Arabic baqar, "cattle"); shor, tor (Dan 4:25), tauros (Mt 22:4), "ox" or "bull"; bous, "ox" (Lk 13:15); 'eleph, only in the plural, 'alaphim, "oxen" (Ps 8:7)): From the foregoing and by examination of the many references to "cattle," "kine" or "oxen" it is apparent that there are important points of contact in derivation and usage in the Hebrew, Greek and English terms. It is evident that neat cattle were possessed in abundance by the patriarchs and later Israelites, which is fax from being the case in Israel at the present day. The Bedouin usually have no cattle. The fellachin in most parts of the country keep them in small numbers, mostly for plowing, and but little for milk or for slaughtering. Travelers in the Holy Land realize that goat's milk is in most places easier to obtain than cow's milk. The commonest cattle of the fellachin are a small black breed. In the vicinity of Damascus are many large, fine milch cattle which furnish the delicious milk and cream of the Damascus bazaars. For some reason, probably because they are not confined and highly fed, the bulls of Israel are meek creatures as compared with their European or American fellows...

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Cattle in Naves Topical Bible

-(Of the bovine species) -Used for sacrifice 1Ki 8:63 -See HEIFER -See OFFERINGS -Sheltered Ge 33:17 -Stall-fed Pr 15:17 -Gilead adapted to the raising of Nu 32:1-4 -Bashan suitable to the raising of Ps 22:12; Eze 39:18; Am 4:1

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Ox in Smiths Bible Dictionary

There was no animal in the rural economy of the Israelites, or indeed in that of the ancient Orientals generally, that was held in higher esteem than the ox and deservedly so, for the ox was the animal upon whose patient labors depended all the ordinary operations of farming. Oxen were used for ploughing, De 22:10; 1Sa 14:14 etc.; for treading out corn, De 25:4; Ho 10:11 etc.; for draught purposes, when they were generally yoked in pairs, Nu 7:3; 1Sa 6:7 etc.; as beasts of burden, 1Ch 12:40 their flesh was eaten, De 14:4; 1Ki 1:9 etc.; they were used in the sacrifices; cows supplied milk, butter, etc. De 32:14; 2Sa 17:29; Isa 7:22 Connected with the importance of oxen in the rural economy of the Jews is the strict code of laws which was mercifully enacted by God for their protection and preservation. The ox that threshed the corn was by no means to be muzzled; he was to enjoy rest on the Sabbath as well as his master. Ex 23:12; De 5:14 The ox was seldom slaughtered. Le 17:1-6 It seems clear from Pr 15:17 and 1Kin 4:23 that cattle were sometimes stall-fed though as a general rule it is probable that they fed in the plains or on the hills of Israel. The cattle that grazed at large in the open country would no doubt often become fierce and wild, for it is to be remembered that in primitive times the lion and other wild beasts of prey roamed about Israel. Hence the force of the Psalmist's complaint of his enemies. Ps 22:13

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Cattle Scripture - 1 Chronicles 5:21

And they took away their cattle; of their camels fifty thousand, and of sheep two hundred and fifty thousand, and of asses two thousand, and of men an hundred thousand.

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Cattle Scripture - Deuteronomy 5:14

But the seventh day [is] the sabbath of the LORD thy God: [in it] thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that [is] within thy gates; that thy manservant and thy maidservant may rest as well as thou.

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Cattle Scripture - Deuteronomy 30:9

And the LORD thy God will make thee plenteous in every work of thine hand, in the fruit of thy body, and in the fruit of thy cattle, and in the fruit of thy land, for good: for the LORD will again rejoice over thee for good, as he rejoiced over thy fathers:

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Chamois in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

sham'-i, sha-mwa', sha-moi' (zemer; kamelopdrdalis): Occurs only once in the Bible, i.e. in the list of clean animals in Dt 14:5. Gesenius refers to the verb zamar, "to sing," and suggests the association of dancing or leaping, indicating thereby an active animal. M'Lean in Encyclopedia Biblica cites the rendering of the Targums dica', or "wild goat." Now there are two wild goats in Israel. The better known is the ibex of the South, which may well be the ya`el (English Versions, "wild goat"; Job 39:1; Ps 104:18; 1 Sam 24:2), as well as the 'aqqo (English Version, "wild goat," Dt 14:5). The other is the pasang or Persian wild goat which ranges from the Northeast of Israel and the Syrian desert to Persia, and which may be the zemer (English Versions "chamois"). The accompanying illustration, which is taken from the Royal Natural History, shows the male and female and young. The male is distinguished by its larger horns and goatee. The horns are in size and curvature very similar to those of the ibex (see GOAT, section 2) , but the front edge is like a nicked blade instead of being thick and knotty as in the ibex. Like the ibex it is at home among the rocks, and climbs apparently impossible cliffs with marvelous ease. Tristram (NHB) who is followed by Post (HDB) suggests that zemer may be the Barbary sheep (Ovis tragelaphus), though the latter is only known to inhabit the Atlas Mountains, from the Atlantic to Tunis. Tristram supports his view by reference to a kebsh ("ram") which the Arabs say lives in the mountains of Sinai, though they have apparently neither horns nor skins to show as trophies, and it is admitted that no European has seen it. The true chamois (Rupicapra tragus) inhabits the high mountains from t he Pyrenees to the Caucasus, and there is no reason to suppose that it was ever found in Syria or Israel. Alfred Ely Day

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Chamois in Naves Topical Bible

-A species of antelope De 14:5

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Chamois in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(pronounced often shame), the translation of the Hebrew zemer in De 14:5 But the translation is incorrect; for there is no evidence that the chamois have ever been seen in Israel or the Lebanon. It is probable that some mountain sheep is intended.

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Chamois in Easton's Bible Dictionary

only in Deut. 14:5 (Heb. zemer), an animal of the deer or gazelle species. It bears this Hebrew name from its leaping or springing. The animal intended is probably the wild sheep (Ovis tragelephus), which is still found in Sinai and in the broken ridges of Stony Arabia. The LXX. and Vulgate render the word by camelopardus, i.e., the giraffe; but this is an animal of Central Africa, and is not at all known in Syria.

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Chamois in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Zemer, from zaamar to leap. Allowed as clean food (Deuteronomy 14:5). The giraffe according to Gosse, (from the Arabic version and the Septuagint). The objection is, the giraffe is not a native of Israel; but it is of Nubia, and may have been of the Arabian peninsula at the Exodus. Clearly it is not the chamois found only on high peaks of the Alps, auras, and Caucasus. It may be some other species of antelope. Colossians Smith suggests the aoudad mountain sheep. The Syriac has "the mountain goat."

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Bittern in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The word occurs in Isa 14:23; 34:11; Zep 2:14 and we are inclined to believe that the Authorized Version is correct. The bittern (Botaurus stellaris) belongs to the Ardeidae, the heron family of birds, and is famous for the peculiar nocturnal booming sound which it emits.

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Bittern in Easton's Bible Dictionary

is found three times in connection with the desolations to come upon Babylon, Idumea, and Nineveh (Isa. 14:23; 34:11; Zeph. 2:14). This bird belongs to the class of cranes. Its scientific name is Botaurus stellaris. It is a solitary bird, frequenting marshy ground. The Hebrew word (kippod) thus rendered in the Authorized Version is rendered "porcupine" in the Revised Version. But in the passages noted the kippod is associated with birds, with pools of water, and with solitude and desolation. This favours the idea that not the "porcupine" but the "bittern" is really intended by the word.

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Bittern in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(qippod. The accompaniment of the desolation reigning in Babylon (Isaiah 14:23), Idumea (Isaiah 34:11), Nineveh (Zephaniah 2:14). An aquatic solitary bird, frequenting marshy pools, such as the plain of Babylonia abounded in: the Al- houbara of the Arabic version, the size of a large fowl. The Botaurus stellaris, of the heron kind. Gesenius translates "the hedgehog" (from its rolling itself together; qaapad, "to contract oneself"), and Strabo says that enormous hedgehogs were found in the islands of the Euphrates. The Arabic kunfud resembles qippod somewhat. But the hedgehog or porcupine would never "lodge" or perch on the chapiters of columns," as margin Zephaniah 2:14 says of the qippod. Still the columns might be fallen on the ground within reach of the hedgehog, and Idumea is not a marshy region suited to an aquatic bird such as the bittern.

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Bittern Scripture - Zephaniah 2:14

And flocks shall lie down in the midst of her, all the beasts of the nations: both the cormorant and the bittern shall lodge in the upper lintels of it; [their] voice shall sing in the windows; desolation [shall be] in the thresholds: for he shall uncover the cedar work.

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Bittern Scripture - Isaiah 14:23

I will also make it a possession for the bittern, and pools of water: and I will sweep it with the besom of destruction, saith the LORD of hosts.

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Bittern Scripture - Isaiah 34:11

But the cormorant and the bittern shall possess it; the owl also and the raven shall dwell in it: and he shall stretch out upon it the line of confusion, and the stones of emptiness.

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Boar in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

bor (chazir): In lamenting the troubled state of the Jewish nation the Psalmist (Ps 80:13) says: "The boar out of the wood doth ravage it, and the wild beasts of the field feed on it," with evident reference to Israel's enemies, the Assyrians, etc. The wild boar is abundant in certain parts of Israel and Syria, especially in the thickets which border the lakes and rivers, as about the Chuleh, the sea of Galilee, the Jordan, and in the deltas of streams flowing into the Dead Sea, as Ghaur-us-Cafiyeh. Several fountains in Lebanon bear the name, `Ain-ul-Chazir, though chazir is not an Arabic word, khanzir being the Arabic for "swine." See SWINE. Alfred Ely Day

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Boar in Naves Topical Bible

-General scriptures concerning Ps 80:13 -See SWINE

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Swine in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(Heb. chazir). The flesh of swine was forbidden as food by the Levitical law, Le 11:7; De 14:8 the abhorrence which the Jews as a nation had of it may be inferred from Isa 65:4 and 2 Macc 6:18,19. No other reason for the command to abstain from swine's flesh is given in the law of Moses beyond the general one which forbade any of the mammalia as food which did not literally fulfill the terms of the definition of a clean animal" viz,, that it was to be a cloven-footed ruminant. It is, however, probable that dietetical considerations may have influenced Moses in his prohibition of swine's flesh: it is generally believed that its use in hot countries is liable to induce cutaneous disorders; hence in a people liable to leprosy the necessity for the observance of a strict rule. Although the Jews did not breed swine during the greater period of their existence as a nation there can be little doubt that the heathen nations of Israel used the flesh as food. At the time of our Lord's ministry it would appear that the Jews occasionally violated the law of Moses with regard to swine's flesh. Whether "the herd of swine" into which the devils were allowed to enter, Mt 8:32; Mr 5:13 were the property of the Jewish or of the Gentile inhabitants of Gadara does not appear from the sacred narrative. The wild boar of the wood, Ps 80:13 is the common Sus scrofa which is frequently met with in the woody parts of Israel, especially in Mount Tabor.

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Boar in Easton's Bible Dictionary

occurs only in Ps. 80:13. The same Hebrew word is elsewhere rendered "swine" (Lev. 11:7; Deut. 14:8; Prov. 11:22; Isa. 65:4; 66:3, 17). The Hebrews abhorred swine's flesh, and accordingly none of these animals were reared, except in the district beyond the Sea of Galilee. In the psalm quoted above the powers that destroyed the Jewish nation are compared to wild boars and wild beasts of the field.

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Boar in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The flesh of "swine" (domestic) was forbidden food to Israel. Eating it was the token of apostasy under Antiochus Epiphanes' persecution, and is mentioned among Judah's provocations of Jehovah (Isaiah 65:4; Isaiah 66:17). E. of the sea of Galilee, some Gadarenes are mentioned as having a herd of 2,000. Probably they refrained themselves from the flesh, and compromised between conscience and covetousness by selling them to their neighbors the Gentiles. But they gained nothing by the compromise, for the whole herd perished in the wafters, in judicial retribution. The Lord of the land, peculiarly set apart as the Holy Land, finds it defiled with demons and unclean beasts. The demons beg leave not to be sent to the abyss of torment, but into the swine. With His leave they do so, and the swine rush down the steep and perish in the waters. Instead of gratitude for the deliverance, the Gadarenes prefer their swine, though at the cost of the demons' presence, to the Savior at the cost of sacrificing their swine; so they entreat Him to "depart out of their coasts," forgetting His word, "Woe to them when I depart from them" (Hosea 9:12); a striking contrast to him who was delivered from the demons and who "prayed that he might be with Jesus (Mark 5:15-18). The lowest point of the prodigal's degradation was when he was sent into the fields to feed swine (Luke 15:15). The sensual professor's backsliding into "the pollutions of the world," after he has "escaped them through the knowledge of the Lord and Savior," is fitly compared to "the sow that was washed returning to her wallowing in the mire" (2 Peter 2:20-22). "As a jewel of gold (worn often by women as 'nose jewels,' Isaiah 3:21) in a swine's snout, so is a fair woman which is without discretion" (Hebrew: taste, i.e. without moral perception of what is pure and impure) (Proverbs 11:22). The brutish stolidity of those who appreciate only what gratifies their own foul appetites disqualifies them for appreciating heavenly mysteries; to present these holy truths to them would be as unwise as to east pearls before swine, which would only trample them under foot (Matthew 7:6). The wild boar is mentioned once only (Psalm 80:13). Its destroying a vineyard partly by eating the grapes, partly by trampling the vines under foot, is the image of the pagan world power's ravaging of Israel, Jehovah's choice vine, transplanted from Egypt into the Holy Land. Pococke saw large herds among the reeds of Jordan, where it flows into the sea of Galilee; and so it is sculptured on Assyrian monuments as among reeds. Its Hebrew name, chazir, is from a root to roll in the mud.

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Boar Scripture - Psalms 80:13

The boar out of the wood doth waste it, and the wild beast of the field doth devour it.

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Antelope in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

an'-te-lop (RV; the King James Version "wild ox," te'o (Dt 14:5), and "wild bull," to (Isa 51:20); orux (The Septuagint in Codex Vaticanus has hos seutlion hemiephthon, literally, "like a half-cooked beet-root"): The dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas) is widely distributed in Syria, Israel and Arabia. The recently discovered Merrill's gazelle (Gazella Merrilli) inhabits the hilly country near Jerusalem and is not commonly distinguished from the dorcas gazelle. Probably the only other antelope within this range is the Arabian oryx (Oryx beatrix). Tristram cites two African species (the bubaline antelope, Bubalis mauretanica, and the addax, Addax nasomaculatus) as existing in the Sinaitic peninsula, southern Israel and Arabia, but he did not collect specimens of either and was probably misled by statements of the Arabs which in both cases really referred to the oryx. The only naturalist who has ever penetrated into Northwest Arabia is Mr. Douglas Carruthers, who went in 1909 on a collecting expedition for the Syrian Protestant College at Beirut, his object being to obtain the oryx and any other large antelopes which might be found there. Through observation and repeated inquiry he became convinced that neither the addax nor the bubaline antelope is found in Arabia. Tristram says the addax is called maha' and the bubaline antelope baqar-ul-wachsh, both of which names are in fact used by the Arabs for the oryx, which is also according to Doughty called wadichah. Tsebhi in the list of clean animals in Dt 14:5 (the King James Version "roebuck"; the Revised Version (British and American) "gazelle") is quite certainly gazelle, Arabic zabi (which see), so it is quite possible that te'o may be the oryx. It is noteworthy that it is rendered oryx (orux) in the Septuagint. It must be borne in mind that re'm or re'em, rendered "unicorn" (which see) in the King James Version and "wild ox" in the Revised Version (British and American), may perhaps also be the oryx. That the oryx should be called by two names in the Bible need not be considered strange, in view of the indefiniteness of Semitic ideas of natural history, which is directly evidenced by the three names now used for this animal by the Arabs. The slightly different form [to'] (the King James Version "wild bull"; the Revised Version (British and American) "antelope") found in Isa 51:20 ("Thy sons have fainted, they lie at the head of all the streets, as an antelope in a net") may quite as well refer to the oryx as to any other animal. According to Gesenius the word is derived from the verb ta'ah, "to outrun," which would be appropriate for this or any antelope. The accompanying illustration is from a photograph of a well-grown female oryx in the zoological gardens at Cairo, which is 35 inches high at the shoulder and whose horns are 21 inches long. An adult male measures 40 inches at the shoulders, 59 inches from tip of nose to root of tail, and the longest horns known measure 27 1/4 inches. The color is pure white with dark brown or black markings. It is a powerful animal and its horns may inflict dangerous wounds. It inhabits the deserts of Arabia and its remarkably large hoofs seem well adapted to traversing the sands. It feeds upon grasses and upon certain succulent roots, and the Bedouin declare that never drinks. Under its name of maha' it is celebrated in Arabic poetry for the beauty of its eyes. Compare the Homeric "ox-eyed goddess Hera" (Boopis potnia Ere). Baqar-ul-wachsh, the name most commonly used by the Bedouin, means "wild cow" or "wild ox," which is identical with the translation of te'o in the King James Version. Alfred Ely Day

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Bull in Naves Topical Bible

-Wild, caught in nets Isa 51:20 -Blood of, in sacrifice Heb 9:13; 10:4

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Bull in Smiths Bible Dictionary

terms used synonymously with ox, oxen, and properly a generic name for horned cattle when a full age and fit for the plough. It is variously rendered "bullock," Isa 65:25 "cow," Eze 4:15 "oxen," Ge 12:16 Kine is used in the Bible as the plural of cow. In Isa 51:20 the "wild bull" ("wild ox" in De 14:5 ) was possibly one of the larger species of antelope, and took its name from its swiftness. Dr. Robinson mentions larger herds of black and almost harmless buffaloes as still existing in Israel, and these may be the animal indicated.

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Bullock in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(1.) The translation of a word which is a generic name for horned cattle (Isa. 65:25). It is also rendered "cow" (Ezek. 4:15), "ox" (Gen. 12:16). (2.) The translation of a word always meaning an animal of the ox kind, without distinction of age or sex (Hos. 12:11). It is rendered "cow" (Num. 18:17) and "ox" (Lev. 17:3). (3.) Another word is rendered in the same way (Jer. 31:18). It is also translated "calf" (Lev. 9:3; Micah 6:6). It is the same word used of the "molten calf" (Ex. 32:4, 8) and "the golden calf" (1 Kings 12:28). (4.) In Judg. 6:25; Isa. 34:7, the Hebrew word is different. It is the customary word for bulls offered in sacrifice. In Hos. 14:2, the Authorized Version has "calves," the Revised Version "bullocks."

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Bull in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Used as synonymous with ox in the KJV. Baaqaar is the Hebrew for horned cattle fit for the plow. Tor is one head of horned cattle, akin to our steer. Egel, a calf, properly of the first year; specially one offered in sacrifice. Hosea 14:2; "so shall we render the calves of our lips;" instead of sacrifices of calves, which we cannot offer to Thee in exile, we present the praises of our lips. The exile, by its enforced cessation of sacrifices during Israel's separation from the temple, the only lawful place of offering them, prepared the people for the superseding of all sacrifices by the one great antitypical sacrifice; henceforth "the sacrifice of praise continually, the fruit of our lips," is what God requires (Hebrews 13:15). The abriym express "strong bulls" (Psalm 22:12; Psalm 50:13; Psalm 68:30). Caesar describes wild bulls of the Hercynian forest, strong and swift, almost as large as elephants, and savage. The Assyrian remains depict similarly the wild urns. The ancient forest round London was infested with them. The wild bull (toh) in Isaiah 51:20, "thy sons lie at the head of all the streets as a wild bull in a net," seems to be of the antelope kind, Antilope bubalis, the "wild ox" of the Arabs; often depicted in Egyptian remains as chased not for slaughter, but for capture, it being easily domesticated.

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Bull Scripture - Isaiah 51:20

Thy sons have fainted, they lie at the head of all the streets, as a wild bull in a net: they are full of the fury of the LORD, the rebuke of thy God.

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Badger Scripture - Exodus 39:34

And the covering of rams' skins dyed red, and the covering of badgers' skins, and the vail of the covering,

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Badger Scripture - Exodus 36:19

And he made a covering for the tent [of] rams' skins dyed red, and a covering [of] badgers' skins above [that].

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Bat in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

(`aTaleph; Lev 11:19; Dt 14:18; Isa 2:20): Bats are the most widely distributed of mammals, reaching even the oceanic islands, and modern science has revealed the existence of an astonishing number of species, nearly twenty being recorded from Israel. These include both fruit-eating and insect- eating bats, the latter being the smaller. It has not always been realized that they are mammals, and so it is not surprising that they should be mentioned at the end of the list of unclean birds in Lev 11:19 and Dt 14:18. It may, however, be significant that they are at the end of the list and not in the middle of it. The fruit bats are a pest to horticulturists and often strip apricot and other trees before the fruit has ripened enough to be picked. On this account the fruit is often enclosed in bags, or the whole tree may be surrounded with a great sheet or net. They commonly pick the fruit and eat it on some distant perch beneath which the seeds and the ordure of these animals are scattered. The insect bats, as in other countries, flit about at dusk and through the night catching mosquitoes and larger insects, and so are distinctly beneficial. The reference in Isa 2:20, "cast .... idols .... to the moles and to the bats" refers of course to these animals as inhabitants of dark and deserted places. As in the case of many animal names the etymology of `aTaleph is doubtful. Various derivations have been proposed but none can be regarded as satisfactory. The Arabic name, waTwaT, throws no light on the question. Alfred Ely Day

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Bat in Naves Topical Bible

-General scriptures concerning Le 11:19; De 14:18; Isa 2:20

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Bat in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Le 11:19; De 14:18 Many travellers have noticed the immense numbers of bats that are found in caverns in the East, and Mr. Layard said that on the occasion of a visit to a cavern these noisome beasts compelled him to retreat.

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Bat in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The Hebrew word (atalleph') so rendered (Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18) implies "flying in the dark." The bat is reckoned among the birds in the list of unclean animals. To cast idols to the "moles and to the bats" means to carry them into dark caverns or desolate places to which these animals resort (Isa. 2:20), i.e., to consign them to desolation or ruin.

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Bat in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(hatalleph; "the darkness bird".) Delighting in dark holes and caverns. This is the point of Isaiah 2:20, "a man shall cast his idols to the bats," while the idolaters themselves shall vainly hide in the rock from the wrath of the Lamb (Revelation 6:16). Unclean in the eye of the law (Deuteronomy 14:18-19; Leviticus 11:19-20). Ranked among "all fowls that creep, going upon all four;" it has claws on its pinions, by which it attaches itself to a surface, and creeps along it. It is connected with quadrupeds: the bones of the arm (answering to a bird's wing) and fingers being elongated, and a membrane extended over them to the hind limbs.

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Bats Scripture - Isaiah 2:20

In that day a man shall cast his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which they made [each one] for himself to worship, to the moles and to the bats;

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Bear in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

bar (dobh; compare Arabic dubb): In 1 Sam 17:34-37, David tells Saul how as a shepherd boy he had overcome a lion and a bear. In 2 Ki 2:24 it is related that two she bears came out of the wood and tore forty-two of the children who had been mocking Elisha. All the other references to bears are figurative; compare 2 Sam 17:8; Prov 17:12; 28:15; Isa 11:7; 59:11; Lam 3:10; Dan 7:5; Hos 13:8; Am 5:19; Rev 13:2. The Syrian bear, sometimes named as a distinct species, Ursus Syriacus, is better to be regarded as merely a local variety of the European and Asiatic brown bear, Ursus arctos. It still exists in small numbers in Lebanon and is fairly common in Anti-Lebanon and Hermon. It does not seem to occur now in Israel proper, but may well have done so in Bible times. It inhabits caves in the high and rugged mountains and issues mainly at night to feed on roots and vegetables. It is fond of the chummuc or chick-pea which is sometimes planted in the upland meadows, and the fields have to be well guarded. The figurative re ferences to the bear take account of its ferocious nature, especially in the case of the she bear robbed of her whelps (2 Sam 17:8; Prov 17:12; Hos 13:8). It is with this character of the bear in mind that Isaiah says (11:7), "And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together." Alfred Y. Day

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Bear in Naves Topical Bible

-Ferocity of 2Sa 17:8; Pr 17:12; 28:15; Isa 11:7; 59:11; La 3:10; Ho 3:3 -Two destroy the young men of Beth-el who mocked Elisha 2Ki 2:24 -FIGURATIVE

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Bear Scripture - Isaiah 59:11

We roar all like bears, and mourn sore like doves: we look for judgment, but [there is] none; for salvation, [but] it is far off from us.

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Behemoth in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

be'-he-moth, be-he'-moth (behemoth: Job 40:15): Apparently the plural of behemah, "a beast," used of domestic or wild animals. The same form, behemoth, occurs in other passages, e.g. Dt 28:26; 32:24; Isa 18:6; Hab 2:17, where it is not rendered "behemoth" but "beasts." According to some, the word behemoth, occurring in Job 40:15, is not a Hebrew word, the plural of behemah, but a word of Egyptian origin signifying "water ox." This etymology is denied by Cheyne and others. The word has by various writers been understood to mean rhinoceros and elephant, but the description (Job 40:15-24) applies on the whole very well to the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus arnphibius) which inhabits the Nile and other rivers of Africa. Especially applicable are the references to its great size, its eating grass, the difficulty with which weapons penetrate its hide, and its frequenting of streams. "He lieth under the lotus-trees, In the covert of the reed, and the fen. The lotus-trees cover him with their shade; The willows of the brook compass him about." The remains of a fossil hippopotamus of apparently the same species are found over most of Europe, so that it may have inhabited Israel in early historical times, although we have no record of it. There is a smaller living species in west Africa, and there are several other fossil species in Europe and India. The remains of Hippopotamus minutus have been found in enormous quantities in caves in Malta and Sicily. For an elaborate explanation of behemoth and leviathan (which see) as mythical creatures, see Cheyne, EB, under the word Alfred Ely Day

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Behemoth in Naves Topical Bible

-An amphibious animal Job 40:15

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Behemoth in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(great beasts). There can be little or no doubt that by this word, Job 40:15-24 the hippopotamus is intended since all the details descriptive of the behemoth accord entirely with the ascertained habits of that animal. The hippopotamus is an immense creature having a thick and square head, a large mouth often two feet broad, small eyes and ears, thick and heavy body, short legs terminated by four toes, a short tail, skin without hair except at the extremity of the tail. It inhabits nearly the whole of Africa, and has been found of the length of 17 feet. It delights in the water, but feeds on herbage on land. It is not found in Israel, but may at one time have been a native of western Asia.

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Behemoth in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Job 40:15-24). Some have supposed this to be an Egyptian word meaning a "water-ox." The Revised Version has here in the margin "hippopotamus," which is probably the correct rendering of the word. The word occurs frequently in Scripture, but, except here, always as a common name, and translated "beast" or "cattle."

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Behemoth in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(Job 40:15-24.) The Egyptian, Coptic, pehemout, "the water ox," Hebraized; our "river horse", hippopotamus. "Behold I made him with thee." Yet how great the difference! "He eateth grass as an ox;" a marvel in an animal so much in the water, and that such a monster is not carnivorous. "His force is in the navel (rather muscles) of his belly"; the elephant's skin there is thin, but the hippopotamus' skin thick. "He moveth his tail like a cedar," short indeed, but straight and rigid as the cedar. "The sinews of his thighs are twisted together," like a thick rope. "His bones are as strong tubes of copper .... his spine like bars of iron." He that made him hath furnished him with his sword" (his sickle-like teeth). Though so armed, he lets "all the beasts of the field play" near him, for he is herbivorous. "He lieth under the lotus bushes," in the covert of the reed and fens (being amphibious). "The lotus bushes cover him with their shadow." "Behold (though) a river be overwhelming, he is not in hasty panic (for he can live in water as well as land); he is secure, though a Jordan swell up to his mouth." Job cannot have been a Hebrew, or he would not adduce Jordan, where there were no river horses. He alludes to it as a name known only by hearsay, and representing any river. "Before his eyes (i.e. openly) will any take him, or pierce his nose with cords?" Nay, he can only be taken by guile. Jehovah's first discourse (Job 38- 39) was limited to land animals and birds; this second discourse requires therefore the animal classed with the crocodile to be amphibious, as the river horse.

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Behemoth Scripture - Job 40:15

Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an ox.

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Bittern in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

bit'-ern (qippodh; Latin Botaurus stellaris; Greek echinos): A nocturnal member of the heron family, frequenting swamps and marshy places. Its Hebrew name means a creature of waste and desert places. The bittern is the most individual branch of the heron (ardeidae) family on account of being partially a bird of night. There are observable differences from the heron in proportion, and it differs widely in coloration. It is one of the birds of most ancient history, and as far back as records extend is known to have inhabited Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and America. The African bird that Bible historians were familiar with was 2 1/2 ft. in length. It had a 4-inch bill, bright eyes and plumage of buff and chestnut, mottled with black. It lived around swamps and marshes, hunting mostly at night, and its food was much the same as that of all members of the heron family, frogs being its staple article of diet. Its meat has not the fishy taste of most members of the heron family, and in former times wa s considered a great delicacy of food. In the days of falconry it was protected in England because of the sport afforded in hunting it. Aristotle mentions that previous to his time the bittern was called oknos, which name indicates "an idle disposition." It was probably bestowed by people who found the bird hiding in swamps during the daytime, and saw that it would almost allow itself to be stepped upon before it would fly. They did not understand that it fed and mated at night. Pliny wrote of it as a bird that "bellowed like oxen," for which reason it was called Taurus. Other medieval writers called it botaurus, from which our term "bittern" is derived. There seems to be much confusion as to the early form of the name; but all authorities agree that it was bestowed on the bird on account of its voice...

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Bittern in Naves Topical Bible

-A species of heron Isa 14:23; 34:11; Zep 2:14

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Adder Scripture - Genesis 49:17

Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward.

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Ass in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

as (chamowr or chamor, compare Arabic chamar, apparently connected with Arabic root 'achmar, "red," but referred by some to root hamal, "to carry"; also, but less commonly, both in Hebrew and in Arabic, 'athon, Arabic 'atan, used in Arabic only of the females; pereh, or pere', and `aradh, or `arodh, Arabic 'ard, "wild ass," and also `ayir, Arabic `air, "a young" or "wild ass"). 1. Names: The name `arodh (Job 39:5) is rare; onos (Mt 21:2). 2. Meaning: (1) Chamor is derived from the root which means, in all probability, "to carry a burden" (see Furst, Handworterbuch, ch-m-r ii), or "heap up." While no analogies are contained in the Old Testament this root occurs in New Hebrew. The Aramaic chamer, means "to make a ruin-heap" (from which the noun chamor, "a heap," used in Jdg 15:16 in a play of words: "With the jawbone of an ass, heaps upon heaps, with the jawbone of an ass have I smitten a thousand men"). The root may also mean "to be red." In this case the nominal form chamor may have been derived from the reddish-brown skin of a certain type of the ass. (2) 'Athon, Assyrian 'atanu and Aramaic 'atana', is derived from 'atha' "to come," "go," etc. (Furst suggests that it may be derived from 'athan, Aramaic `adhan, "to be slender," "docile," etc.); 'athonoth tsechoroth, "red-white asses" (Jdg 5:10) designates a better breed...

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Ass in Naves Topical Bible

-DOMESTICATED Herds of Ge 12:16; 24:35; 32:5; 34:28; Nu 31:34,45; 1Ch 5:21; Ezr 2:67; Ne 7:69 Used for riding Ge 22:3; Nu 22:21-33; Jos 15:18; Jud 1:14; 5:10; 1Sa 25:23; 2Ch 28:15; Zec 9:9 By Jesus Mt 21:2,5; Lu 13:15; Joh 12:14,15; Zec 9:9 Carrying burdens Ge 42:26; 2Sa 16:1; Isa 30:6 Drawing chariots Isa 21:7 For food 2Ki 6:25 Not to be yoked with an ox De 22:10 Rest on the Sabbath Ex 23:12 Bridles for Pr 26:3 Jawbone of, used by Samson with which to kill Philistines Jud 15:15-17 FIRSTLINGS OF redeemed Ex 13:13; 34:20 -WILD Job 6:5; 24:5; 39:5; Ps 104:11; Isa 32:14; Jer 2:24; 14:6; Ho 8:9

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Ass in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Hebrew athon; from athan, 'short in step". 1. The domestic she ass, named so from its slowness. 2. The chamor, the he ass, whether domesticated or not, distinguished from the athon; Genesis 45:23. From chamar, "red," as the Spaniards call the donkey "burro," from its red color. Used in riding and plowing. Not held in contempt for stupidity, as with us. Issachar is compared to an "ass, strong boned, crouching down between the hurdles (Genesis 49:14): he saw that rest was a good and the land pleasant; so he bowed his shoulder to bear, and became servant unto tribute;" ease at the cost of liberty would be his characteristic. Robust, and with a prime agricultural inheritance, his people would strive after material good, rather than political rule. The prohibition of horses rendered the donkey the more esteemed in Israel. In the E. it is a far superior animal to ours...

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Ass in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Five Hebrew names of the genus Asinus occur in the Old Testament. 1. Chamor denotes the male domestic ass. 2. Athon, the common domestic she-ass. 3. Air, the name of a wild ass, which occurs Ge 32:15; 49:11 4. Pere, a species of wild ass mentioned Ge 12:16 5. Arod occurs only in Job 39:5 but in what respect it differs from the Pere is uncertain. The ass in eastern countries is a very different animal from what he is in western Europe. The most noble and honorable amongst the Jews were wont to be mounted on asses. (With us the ass is a symbol of stubbornness and stupidity, while in the East it is especially remarkable for its patience, gentleness, intelligence, meek submission and great power of endurance."--L. Abbott. The color is usually a reddish brown, but there are white asses, which are much prized. The ass was the animal of peace as the horse was the animal of war; hence the appropriateness of Christ in his triumphal entry riding on an ass. The wild ass is a beautiful animal.- -ED.) Mr. Lavard remarks that in fleetness the wild ass (Asinus hemippus) equals the gazelle and to overtake it is a feat which only one or two of the most celebrated mares have been known to accomplish.

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Ass in Easton's Bible Dictionary

frequently mentioned throughout Scripture. Of the domesticated species we read of, (1.) The she ass (Heb. 'athon), so named from its slowness (Gen. 12:16; 45:23; Num. 22:23; 1 Sam. 9:3). (2.) The male ass (Heb. hamor), the common working ass of Western Asia, so called from its red colour. Issachar is compared to a strong ass (Gen. 49:14). It was forbidden to yoke together an ass and an ox in the plough (Deut. 22:10). (3.) The ass's colt (Heb. 'air), mentioned Judg. 10:4; 12:14. It is rendered "foal" in Gen. 32:15; 49:11. (Comp. Job 11:12; Isa. 30:6.) The ass is an unclean animal, because it does not chew the cud (Lev. 11:26. Comp. 2 Kings 6:25). Asses constituted a considerable portion of wealth in ancient times (Gen. 12:16; 30:43; 1 Chr. 27:30; Job 1:3; 42:12). They were noted for their spirit and their attachment to their master (Isa. 1:3). They are frequently spoken of as having been ridden upon, as by Abraham (Gen. 22:3), Balaam (Num. 22:21), the disobedient prophet (1 Kings 13:23), the family of Abdon the judge, seventy in number (Judg. 12:14), Zipporah (Ex. 4:20), the Shunammite (1 Sam. 25:30), etc. Zechariah (9:9) predicted our Lord's triumphal entrance into Jerusalem, "riding upon an ass, and upon a colt," etc. (Matt. 21:5, R.V.). Of wild asses two species are noticed, (1) that called in Hebrew _'arod_, mentioned Job 39:5 and Dan. 5:21, noted for its swiftness; and (2) that called _pe're_, the wild ass of Asia (Job 39:6-8; 6:5; 11:12; Isa. 32:14; Jer. 2:24; 14:6, etc.). The wild ass was distinguished for its fleetness and its extreme shyness. In allusion to his mode of life, Ishmael is likened to a wild ass (Gen. 16:12. Here the word is simply rendered "wild" in the Authorized Version, but in the Revised Version, "wild-ass among men").

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Ass Scripture - 1 Chronicles 5:21

And they took away their cattle; of their camels fifty thousand, and of sheep two hundred and fifty thousand, and of asses two thousand, and of men an hundred thousand.

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Ass Scripture - Genesis 47:17

And they brought their cattle unto Joseph: and Joseph gave them bread [in exchange] for horses, and for the flocks, and for the cattle of the herds, and for the asses: and he fed them with bread for all their cattle for that year.

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Ass Scripture - Ezekiel 23:20

For she doted upon their paramours, whose flesh [is as] the flesh of asses, and whose issue [is like] the issue of horses.

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Apes in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(Heb. kophim) are mentioned in 1Ki 10:22 and 2Chr 9:21 There can be little doubt that the apes were brought from the same country which supplied ivory and peacocks, both of which are common in Ceylon; and Sir E. Tennent has drawn attention to the fact that the Tamil names for apes, ivory and peacocks are identical with the Hebrew.

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Ape in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Imported once every three years in Solomon's and Hiram's Tarshish fleets (1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chronicles 9:21). Hebrew; quoph. The ape in Sanskrit is called kapi, "ramble;" Greek kepos, akin to English ape. Solomon, as a naturalist, collected specimens from various lands. Tarshish is identified by Sir Emerson Tennent with some Ceylon seaport; so the apes (quophim) brought to Solomon probably came from Ceylon, which abounds also in "ivory and peacocks." The Tamil names moreover, for "apes," "ivory," and "peacocks," are identical with the Hebrew. Others think Ophir was on the E. African coast; then the apes would be of Ethiopia.

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Apes Scripture - 1 Kings 10:22

For the king had at sea a navy of Tharshish with the navy of Hiram: once in three years came the navy of Tharshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

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Apes Scripture - 2 Chronicles 9:21

For the king's ships went to Tarshish with the servants of Huram: every three years once came the ships of Tarshish bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

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Badger in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

baj'er: tachash: The word tachash occurs in the descriptions of the tabernacle in Ex 25; 26; 35; 36 and 39, in the directions for moving the tabernacle as given in Nu 4, and in only one other passage, Ezek 16:10, where Jerusalem is spoken of as a maiden clothed and adorned by her Lord. In nearly all these passages the word tachash occurs with `or, "skin," rendered: the King James Version "badgers' skins," the Revised Version (British and American) "sealskin," the Revised Version, margin "porpoise-skin," Septuagint dermata huakinthina. In all the passages cited in Ex and Nu these skins are mentioned as being used for coverings of the tabernacle; in Ezek 16:10, for shoes or sandals. The Septuagint rendering would mean purple or blue skins, which however is not favored by Talmudic writers or by modern grammarians, who incline to believe that tachash is the name of an animal. The rendering, "badger," is favored by the Talmudic writers and by the possible etymological connection of the word with the Latin taxus and the German Dachs. The main objection seems to be that badgers' skins would probably not have been easily available to the Israelites. The badger, Meles taxus, while fairly abundant in Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, does not seem to occur in Sinai or Egypt. A seal, Monachus albiventer (Arabic fukmeh), the porpoise, Phocoena comrnunis, and the common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, are all found in the Mediterranean. The dugong, Halicore dugong, inhabits the Indian Ocean and adjoining waters from the Red Sea to Australia. The Arabic tukhas or dukhas is near to tachash and is applied to the dolphin, which is also called delfin. It may be used also for the porpoise or even the seal, and is said by Tristram and others to be applied to the dugong. The statement of Gesenius (Boston, 1850, under the word "tachash") that the Arabs of Sinai wear sandals of dugong skin is confirmed by recent travelers, and is of interest with reference to Ezek 16:10, ".... shod thee with badgers' skin" (King James Version). The dugong is a marine animal from 5 to 9 ft. in length, frequenting the shore and feeding upon seaweed. It belongs to the order Sirenia. While outwardly resembling Cetacea (whales and porpoises), the Sirenia are really more allied to the Ungulata, or hoofed animals. The dugong of the Indian Ocean and the manatee of the Atlantic and of certain rivers of Africa and South America, are the only living representatives of the Sirenia. A third species, the sea-cow of Behring Sea, became extinct in the 18th century. The seal and porpoise of the Revised Version (British and American), the dolphin, and the dugong are all of about the same size and all inhabit the seas bordering on Egypt and Sinai, so that all are possible candidates for identification with the tachash. Of the four, recent opinion seems most to favor the dugong. Mr. S. M. Perlmann has suggested (Zoologist, set. 4, XII, 256, 1908) that the okapi is the animal indicated by tachash. Gesenius (Leipzig, 1905) cites Bondi (Aegyptiaca, i. ff) who adduces the Egyptian root t-ch-s and makes the expression `or tachash mean "soft-dressed skin." This suits the context in every passage and is very promising explanation. Alfred Ely-Day

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Badger in Naves Topical Bible

-(R. V., SEAL or PORPOISE.) -Skins of, used for covering of the tabernacle Ex 25:5; 26:14; 35:7,23; 36:19; 39:34; Nu 4:6,8,10,11,12,14,25 -For shoes Eze 16:10 -(R. V., SEALSKIN.)

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Badger Skins in Smiths Bible Dictionary

There is much obscurity as to the meaning of the word tachash, rendered "badger" in the Authorized Version, Ex 25:5; 35:7 etc. The ancient versions seem nearly all agreed that it denotes not an animal but a color, either black or sky-blue. The badger is not found in the Bible lands. The Arab duchash or tufchash denotes a dolphin, including seals and cetaceans. The skins referred to are probably those of these marine animals, some of which are found in the Red Sea. The skin of the Halicore, one of these, from its hardness would be well suited for making soles for shoes. Eze 16:10

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Badger in Easton's Bible Dictionary

this word is found in Ex. 25:5; 26:14; 35:7, 23; 36:19; 39:34; Num. 4:6, etc. The tabernacle was covered with badgers' skins; the shoes of women were also made of them (Ezek. 16:10). Our translators seem to have been misled by the similarity in sound of the Hebrew _tachash_ and the Latin _taxus_, "a badger." The revisers have correctly substituted "seal skins." The Arabs of the Sinaitic peninsula apply the name _tucash_ to the seals and dugongs which are common in the Red Sea, and the skins of which are largely used as leather and for sandals. Though the badger is common in Israel, and might occur in the wilderness, its small hide would have been useless as a tent covering. The dugong, very plentiful in the shallow waters on the shores of the Red Sea, is a marine animal from 12 to 30 feet long, something between a whale and a seal, never leaving the water, but very easily caught. It grazes on seaweed, and is known by naturalists as Halicore tabernaculi.

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Badger in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(Exodus 26:14). Badger skins were the outer covering of the tabernacle, in the wilderness; and of the ark, the table, the candlestick, the golden altar, and altar of burnt offering (Numbers 4:6-14). In Ezekiel 16:10 Jehovah alludes to this, under the image of the shoes made of badger skins for delicate and beautiful women; "I shod thee with badger skin." This was the material of the shoes worn by Hebrew on festival days. Weighty authorities render Hebrew tachash a "seal," not a "badger"; seals were numerous on the shores of the Sinaitic peninsula. Others say it is the halicore, a Red Sea fish, which still is used by the Arabs to make soles for shoes and like purposes; called dahash, like tachash. Others think it is the stag goat, of the antelope kind, called thacasse, related perhaps to tachash, to be seen on Egyptian monuments. A great objection to the badger is, it is not found in Bible lands, Syria, Arabia, or Egypt, and certainly not in sufficient quantities for the Israelites' purpose. The objection to the halicore is Leviticus 11:10; "all that have not fins and scales in the seas." But that prohibition refers only to using them as food; moreover, the tachash probably includes marine animals in general, their skins made into "leather" were well fitted to protect against the weather. Josephus makes the color sky blue (Ant. 3:6, section 4).

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Badger Scripture - Numbers 4:25

And they shall bear the curtains of the tabernacle, and the tabernacle of the congregation, his covering, and the covering of the badgers' skins that [is] above upon it, and the hanging for the door of the tabernacle of the congregation,

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Deer in Naves Topical Bible

-Also called, FALLOW DEER, HART, HIND, ROEBUCK -Designated among the ceremonially clean animals, to be eaten De 12:15; 14:5 -Provided for Solomon's household 1Ki 4:23 -Fleetness of 2Sa 2:18; 1Ch 12:8; Pr 6:5; So 8:14; Isa 35:6 -Surefootedness of 2Sa 22:34 -Gentleness of Pr 5:19 -Coloring of Jer 14:5

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Bull in Smiths Bible Dictionary

terms used synonymously with ox, oxen, and properly a generic name for horned cattle when a full age and fit for the plough. It is variously rendered "bullock," Isa 65:25 "cow," Eze 4:15 "oxen," Ge 12:16 Kine is used in the Bible as the plural of cow. In Isa 51:20 the "wild bull" ("wild ox" in De 14:5 ) was possibly one of the larger species of antelope, and took its name from its swiftness. Dr. Robinson mentions larger herds of black and almost harmless buffaloes as still existing in Israel, and these may be the animal indicated.

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Fallow-deer in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Deut. 14:5 (R.V., "Wild goat"); 1 Kings 4:23 (R.V., "roebucks"). This animal, called in Hebrew _yahmur_, from a word meaning "to be red," is regarded by some as the common fallow- deer, the Cervus dama, which is said to be found very generally over Western and Southern Asia. It is called "fallow" from its pale-red or yellow colour. Some interpreters, however, regard the name as designating the bubale, Antelope bubale, the "wild cow" of North Africa, which is about the size of a stag, like the hartebeest of South Africa. A species of deer has been found at Mount Carmel which is called _yahmur_ by the Arabs. It is said to be similar to the European roebuck.

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Pygarg in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

dishon. A clean animal (Deuteronomy 14:5). A generic name for the "white rumped (as pugarg means in Greek) antelope" of northern Africa and Syria. The Septuagint has translated the Hebrew by "pygarg"; living near the habitat of the pygarg they were likely to know. The mohr kind is best known, 2 ft. 8 in. high at the croup. The tail is long, with a long black tuft at the end; the whole part round the base of the tail is white, contrasting with the deep brown red of the flanks. Conder (Israel Exploration, July, 1876) makes it the "gazelle".

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Roe in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

ROE or ROEBUCK. Yaalah, "chamois" (Proverbs 5:19) or ibex, the female of the wild goat. Tsebi (masculine), tsebiah (feminine), from whence Tabitha (Greek Dorkas), "loving and beloved": Acts 9:36. The beautiful antelope or gazelle, the Antelope dorcas and Antelope Arabica. Slender, graceful, shy, and timid; the image of feminine loveliness (Song of Solomon 4:5; Song of Solomon 2:9; Song of Solomon 2:17; Song of Solomon 8:14). The eye is large, soft, liquid, languishing, and of deepest black; image of swift footedness (2 Samuel 1:19; 2 Samuel 2:18; 1 Chronicles 12:8). Israel ate the gazelle in the wilderness, and the flesh of flocks and herds only when offered in sacrifice; but in Canaan they might eat the flesh, "even as the gazelle" (Deuteronomy 12:15; Deuteronomy 12:22); Isaac's venison was front it (Genesis 27). The valley of Gerar and the Beersheba plains are still frequented by it. Egyptian paintings represent it hunted by hounds.

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Pygarg Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:5

The hart, and the roebuck, and the fallow deer, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the wild ox, and the chamois.

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Ape in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

ap (qoph): The word occurs only in the two parallel passages (1 Ki 10:22; 2 Ch 9:21) in which the magnificence of Solomon is illustrated by the things which are brought to him from foreign countries. Apes are mentioned with gold, silver, ivory and peacocks. Peacocks are natives of India and Ceylon. Apes and ivory may have been brought from India or Africa. Gold and silver may have come from these or other quarters. An Indian origin may be inferred from the fact that the Hebrew qoph, the Greek kebos and the English "ape" are akin to the Sanskrit "kapi", which is referred to the root kap, kamp, "to tremble"; but the question of the source of these imports depends upon what is understood by TARSHISH and OPHIR (which see). Canon Cheyne in Encyclopedia Biblica (s.v. "Peacock") proposes a reading which would give "gold, silver, ivory and precious stones" instead of "gold, silver, ivory, apes and peacocks." Assuming, however, that animals are here referred to, the word ape should be understood to mean some kind of monkey. The word "ape" is sometimes used for the tail-less apes or anthropoids such as the gorilla, the chimpanzee and the orangutang, as opposed to the tailed kinds, but this distinction is not strictly held to, and the usage seems formerly to have been freer than now. Alfred Ely Day

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Ape in Naves Topical Bible

-In Solomon's zoological collections 1Ki 10:22; 2Ch 9:21

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Asp in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

(pethen (Dt 32:33; Job 20:14,16; Isa 11:8); aspis (Rom 3:13)); Any poisonous snake, or even poisonous snakes in general, would satisfy the context in all the passages cited. Pethen is also translated ADDER (which see) in Ps 58:4; 91:13. Most authors have supposed the Egyptian cobra (Naia haje, L.) to be the snake meant, but while this is widely distributed throughout Africa, its occurrence in Southern Israel seems to rest solely on the authority of Canon Tristram, who did not collect it. There are Other poisonous snakes in Israel, any one of which would satisfy the requirements of these passages. See SERPENT. While the aspis of classical Greek literature may well have been the Egyptian cobra, it is to be noted that Vipera aspis, L., is confined to central and western Europe. Alfred Ely Day

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Adder in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

ad'-er (`akhshubh (Ps 140:3); pethen (Ps 58:4); tsiph`oni (Prov 23:32); shephiphon (Gen 49:17); tsepha` (King James Version margin; Isa 14:29)): This word is used for several Hebrew originals. In each case a poisonous serpent is clearly indicated by the context. It is impossible to tell in any case just what species is meant, but it must be remembered that the English word adder is used very ambiguously. It is from the Anglo-Saxon noedre, a snake or serpent, and is the common English name for Vipera berus, L, the common viper, which is found throughout Europe and northern Asia, though not in Bible lands; but the word "adder" is also used for various snakes, both poisonous and non-poisonous, found in different parts of the world. In America, for instance, both the poisonous moccasin (Ancistrodon) and the harmless hog-nosed snakes (Heterodon) are called adders. See SERPENT. Alfred Ely Day

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Asp in Naves Topical Bible

-A venomous serpent De 32:33; Job 20:14,16; Isa 11:8; Ro 3:13 -Venom of, illustrates the speech of the wicked Ps 140:3; Ro 3:13 -Injurious effects of wine De 32:33; Pr 23:32 -Deprived of venom, illustrates conversion Isa 11:8,9

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Adder in Naves Topical Bible

-A venomous serpent Ge 49:17; Ps 91:13; 58:4; 140:3; Pr 23:32

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Asp in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(Heb. pethen), translated (adder in) Ps 58:4; 91:13 Probably the Egyptian cobra, a small and very poisonous serpent, a dweller in the holes of walls, Isa 11:8 and a snake upon which the serpent-charmers practiced their art.

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Adder in Smiths Bible Dictionary

This word is used for any poisonous snake, and is applied in this general sense by the translators of the Authorized Version. The word adder occurs five times in the text of the Authorized Version (see below), and three times int he margin as synonymous with cockatrice, viz., Isa 11:8; 14:29; 59:5 It represents four Hebrew words: 1. Acshub is found only in Ps 140:3 and may be represented by the Toxicoa of Egypt and North Africa. 2. Pethen. [ASP] 3. Tsepha, or Tsiphoni, occurs five times in the Hebrew Bible. In Pr 23:32 it is it is translated adder, and in Isa 11:8; 14:29; 59:5; Jer 8:17 it is rendered cockatrice. From Jeremiah we learn that it was of a hostile nature, and from the parallelism of Isa 11:8 it appears that the Tsiphoni was considered even more dreadful than the Pethen. 4. Shephipon occurs only in Ge 49:17 where it is used to characterize the tribe of Dan. The habit of lurking int he sand and biting at the horse's heels here alluded to suits the character of a well-known species of venomous snake, and helps to identify it with the celebrated horned viper, the asp of Cleopatra (Cerastes), which is found abundantly in the dry sandy deserts of Egypt, Syria and Arabia. The cerastes is extremely venomous. Bruce compelled a specimen to scratch eighteen pigeons upon the thigh as quickly as possible, and they all died in nearly the same interval of time.

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Asp in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. pethen), Deut. 32:33; Job 20:14, 16; Isa. 11:8. It was probably the Egyptian cobra (Naja haje), which was very poisonous (Rom. 3:13; Gr. aspis). The Egyptians worshipped it as the _uraeus_, and it was found in the desert and in the fields. The peace and security of Messiah's reign is represented by the figure of a child playing on the hole of the asp. (See ADDER)

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Adder in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Ps. 140:3; Rom. 3:13, "asp") is the rendering of, (1.) Akshub ("coiling" or "lying in wait"), properly an asp or viper, found only in this passage. (2.) Pethen ("twisting"), a viper or venomous serpent identified with the cobra (Naja haje) (Ps. 58:4; 91:13); elsewhere "asp." (3.) Tziphoni ("hissing") (Prov. 23:32); elsewhere rendered "cockatrice," Isa. 11:8; 14:29; 59:5; Jer. 8:17, as it is here in the margin of the Authorized Version. The Revised Version has "basilisk." This may have been the yellow viper, the Daboia xanthina, the largest and most dangerous of the vipers of Israel. (4.) Shephiphon ("creeping"), occurring only in Gen. 49:17, the small speckled venomous snake, the "horned snake," or cerastes. Dan is compared to this serpent, which springs from its hiding-place on the passer-by.

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Adder in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Five times in the Old Testament KJV, and thrice in margin for "cockatrice" (Isaiah 11:8; Isaiah 14:29; Isaiah 59:5 ). Four Hebrew terms stand for it. (1) Akshub, (2) Pethen, (3) Tziphoni, and (4) Shephiphon. (1) Akshub, ("one that lies in ambush"), swells its skin, and rears its head back for a strike. Psalm 140:3 quoted in Romans 3:13, "the poison of asps." (2) Pethen, Psalm 58:4; Psalm 91:13, "adder" (compare margin), but elsewhere translated "asp"; from a Hebrew root "to expand the neck." The deadly haje naja, or cobra of Egypt, fond of concealing itself in walls and holes. Serpents are without tympanic cavity and external openings to the ear. The deaf adder is not some particular species; but whereas a serpent's comparative deafness made it more amenable to those sounds it could hear, in some instances it was deaf because it would not hear (Jeremiah 8:17; Ecclesiastes 10:11). So David's unrighteous adversaries, though having some little moral sense yet left to which he appeals, yet stifled it, and were unwilling to hearken to the voice of God...

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Adder Scripture - Psalms 91:13

Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder: the young lion and the dragon shalt thou trample under feet.

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Adder Scripture - Psalms 58:4

Their poison [is] like the poison of a serpent: [they are] like the deaf adder [that] stoppeth her ear;

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Antelope in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

an'-te-lop (RV; the King James Version "wild ox," te'o (Dt 14:5), and "wild bull," to (Isa 51:20); orux (The Septuagint in Codex Vaticanus has hos seutlion hemiephthon, literally, "like a half-cooked beet-root"): The dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas) is widely distributed in Syria, Israel and Arabia. The recently discovered Merrill's gazelle (Gazella Merrilli) inhabits the hilly country near Jerusalem and is not commonly distinguished from the dorcas gazelle. Probably the only other antelope within this range is the Arabian oryx (Oryx beatrix). Tristram cites two African species (the bubaline antelope, Bubalis mauretanica, and the addax, Addax nasomaculatus) as existing in the Sinaitic peninsula, southern Israel and Arabia, but he did not collect specimens of either and was probably misled by statements of the Arabs which in both cases really referred to the oryx. The only naturalist who has ever penetrated into Northwest Arabia is Mr. Douglas Carruthers, who went in 1909 on a collecting expedition for the Syrian Protestant College at Beirut, his object being to obtain the oryx and any other large antelopes which might be found there. Through observation and repeated inquiry he became convinced that neither the addax nor the bubaline antelope is found in Arabia. Tristram says the addax is called maha' and the bubaline antelope baqar-ul-wachsh, both of which names are in fact used by the Arabs for the oryx, which is also according to Doughty called wadichah...

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Horse in Wikipedia

Horse. - The horse is never mentioned in Scripture in connection with the patriarchs; the first time the Bible speaks of it, it is in reference to the Egyptian army pursuing the Hebrews, During the epoch of the conquest and of Judges, we hear of horses only with the Chanaanean troops, and later on with the Philistines, The hilly country inhabited by the Israelites was not favourable to the use of the horse; this is the reason why the Bible speaks of horses only in connection with war. David and Solomon established a cavalry and chariot force; but even this, used exclusively for wars of conquest, seems to have been looked upon as a dangerous temptation to kings, for the Deuteronomy legislation forbids them to multiply horses for themselves. The grand description of the war horse in Job is classical; it will be noticed, however, that its praises are more for the strength than for the swiftness of the horse. The prophet Zacharias depicts (ix, 10) the Messianic age as one in which no hostilities will be heard of; then all warlike apparel being done away with, the horse will serve only for peaceful use.

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Hyena in Wikipedia

Hyena. - This word is not to be found in any of the English translations of the Bible; it occurs twice in the Septuagint, Jer., xii, 9, and Ecclus., xiii, 22, being in both places the rendering for the Hebrew name çãbhûá. The hyenas are very numerous in the Holy Land, where they are most active scavengers; they feed upon dead bodies, and sometimes dig the tombs open to get at the corpses therein buried. Two Hebrew names are supposed to designate the hyena: (1) çãbhûá'. This word, which has been interpreted "speckled bird", Jer., xii, 9, by modern translators following the Vulgate, has been rendered by "holy man", Ecclus., xiii, 22. Despite the authorities that favour the above mentioned translation of Jer., xii, 9, the consistency of the Septuagint on the one hand, and on the other the parallelism in the latter passage, in addition to the analogy with the Arabic and rabbinical Hebrew names for the hyena, fairly support the identification of the çãbhûá' with this animal. (2) çíyyím, rendered in divers manners in different places: wild beasts, Is., xiii, 21; demons, Is., xxxiv, 14; dragons, Ps. lxxiii (hebr., lxxiv), 14; Jer., 1, 39.

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Kite in Wikipedia

Kite. - As suggested by the analogy with the Arabic, the black kite (milvus nigrans) is probably meant by Hebr. dã'ah or dáyyah (Leviticus 11:14; Deuteronomy 14:13; Isaiah 34:15), interpreted kite in the D.V.; it is one of the most common of the scavenger birds of prey of the country, and for this reason, is carefully protected by the villagers. Other kinds of kites, in particular the milvus regalis, are common in Israel.

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Lamb in Wikipedia

Lamb. - The Paschal Lamb was both a commemoration of the deliverance from the bondage in Egypt, and a prophetic figure of the Son of God sacrificed to free His people from their slavery to sin and death. See EWE. (sup.).

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Leopard in Wikipedia

Leopard. - Under this name come a certain number of carnivorous animals more or less resembling the real leopard (felis leopardus), namely felis jubata, felis lynx, felis uncia, etc., all formerly numerous throughout Israel, and even now occasionally found, especially in the woody districts. The leopard is taken by the Biblical writers as a type of cunning (Jeremiah 5:6; Hosea 13:7), of fierceness, of a conqueror's sudden swoop (Dan., vii, 6; Hab., i, 8). Its habit of lying in wait by a well or a village is repeatedly alluded to.

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Leviathan in Wikipedia

Leviathan. - The word Leviathan (Hebrew, líweyãthãn), which occurs six times in the Hebrew Bible, seems to have puzzled not a little all ancient translators. The D.V. has kept this name, Job, iii, 8; xl, 20; Is., xxvii, 1; it is rendered by dragon Ps. lxxiii (Hebr., lxxiv), 14, and ciii (Hebr., civ), 26; The word leviathan means: (1) crocodile (Job 40:20 and Psalm 73:14); (2) a sea-monster (Psalm 103:26, Isaiah 27:1); (3) possibly the Draco constellation (Job 3:8). (4) a Dinosaur, possibly the Kronosaurus.

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Lion in Wikipedia

Lion. - Now extinct in Israel and in the surrounding countries, the lion was common there during the Old Testament times; hence the great number of words in the Hebrew language to signify it; under one or another of these names it is mentioned 130 times in the Scriptures, as the classical symbol of strength, power, courage, dignity, ferocity. Very likely as the type of power, it became the ensign of the tribe of Juda; so was it employed by Solomon in the decoration of the temple and of the king's house. For the same reason, Apoc., v, 5, represents Jesus Christ as the lion of the tribe of Juda. The craft and ferocity of the lion, on the other hand, caused it to be taken as an emblem of Satan (1 Peter 5:8) and of the enemies of the truth (2 Timothy 4:17).

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Lizard in Wikipedia

Lizard. - Immense is the number of these reptiles in Israel; no less than 44 species are found there, Among those mentioned in the Bible we may cite: (1) The Letã'ah, general name of the lizard, applied especially to the common lizard, the green lizard, the blind worm, etc.; (2) the chõmét, or sand lizard; (3) the çãb, or dább of the Arabs (uromastix spinipes); (4) the kõâh, the divers kinds of monitor (psammosaurus scincus, hydrosaurus niloticus, etc.); (5) the 'anãqah or gecko; (6) the semãmîth or stellio.

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Locust in Wikipedia

Locust. - One of the worst scourges of the East, very often referred to in Bible. As many as nine Hebrew words signify either the locust in general or some species: (1) 'árbéh, probably the locusta migratoria; (2) gãzãm, possibly the locust in its larva state, the palmerworm; (3) Gôbh, the locust in general; (4) chagab, most likely the grasshopper; (5) hãsîl, "the destroyer", perhaps the locust in its hopper state, in which it is most destructive; (6) hárgõl, translated in the D.V. ophiomachus; (7) yéléq, the stinging locust; (8) çelãçâl possibly the cricket; and (9) sôl'ãm, rendered by attacus, or bald locust (probably the truxalis). Unlike other insects, locusts are most voracious in every stage of their existence.

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Mole in Wikipedia

Mole. - Two Hebrew words are thus rendered, The first, tînshéméth (Leviticus 11:30), would, according to good authorities, rather signify the chameleon; with the second, haphárperôth (Isaiah 2:20), some burrowing animal is undoubtedly intended, The mole of Syria is not the common mole of Europe, Talpa europaea, but a Blind mole rat (Spalax typhlus), a blind burrowing rodent.

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Mouse in Wikipedia

Mouse. - This word seems to be a general one, including the various rats, dormice, jerboas, and hamsters, about twenty-five species of which exist in the country.

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Mule in Wikipedia

Mule. - In spite of the enactment of the Law (Leviticus 19:19), the Israelites early in the course of their history possessed mules; these animals, in a hilly region such as the Holy Land, were for many purposes preferable to horses and stronger than asses; they were employed both for domestic and warlike use.

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Owl in Wikipedia

Owl. - A generic name under which many species of nocturnal birds are designated, some having a proper name in the Hebrew, some others possessing none. Among the former we may mention the little owl (athene persica), the Egyptian eagle-owl (bubo ascalephus), the great owl of some authors, called ibis in the D.V., the screech or hooting owl, probably the lîlîth of Is., xxxiv, and the lamia of St. Jerome and the D.V.; the barn owl (stryx flammea), possibly corresponding to the táhmãs of the Hebrews and rendered by night-hawk in the A.V.; and the qîppôz of Is., xxxiv, 15, as yet unidentified.

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Palmerworm in Wikipedia

Palmerworm (Hebr., gãzãm) A general word for the locust, very likely in its larva state.

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Pygarg in Wikipedia

Pygarg (Deuteronomy 14:5). - This word, a mere adaptation from the Greek, means "white-rumped", a character common to many species, though the antilope addax is possibly signified by the Hebrew word dîshõn.

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Quail in Wikipedia

Quail. - The description given Ex., xvi, 11-13; Num., xi, 31, 32; Ps., lxxvii (Hebr., lxxviii) 27-35, and civ (Hebr., cv), 40, the references to their countless flocks, their low flying, their habit of alighting on land in the morning, together with the analogy of the Hebrew and Arabic names, make it certain that the common quail (coturnix vulgaris) is intended.

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Gazelle in Wikipedia

Gazelle (Hebr., çebî, i. e. beauty) has been known at all times as one of the most graceful of all animals. Several species still exist in Israel. Its different characteristics, its beauty of form, its swiftness, its timidity, the splendour and meekness of its eye, are in the present time, as well as during the age of the Old Testament writers, the subjects of many comparisons. However, the name of the gazelle is scarcely, if at all, to be found in the Bible; in its stead we read roe, hart, or deer. Like a few other names of graceful and timid animals, the word gazelle has always been in the East a term of endearment in love. It was also a woman's favourite name (1 Chronicles 8:9; 2 Kings 12:1; 2 Chronicles 24:1; Acts 9:36).

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Scorpion in Wikipedia

Scorpion. - Very common in all hot, dry, stony places; is taken as an emblem of the wicked.

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Sparrow in Wikipedia

Sparrow. - The Hebrew word çíppôr, found over 40 times, is a general name for all small passerine birds, of which there exist about 150 species in the Holy Land.

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Swine in Wikipedia

Swine. - The most abhorred of all animals among the Jews; hence the swineherd's was the most degrading employment (Luke 15:15; cf. Matthew 8:32). Swine are very seldom kept in Israel.

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Aurochs in Wikipedia

Aurochs, or wild ox (urus, bos primigenius), is undoubtedly the rimu of the Assyrian inscriptions, and consequently corresponds to the re'em or rêm of the Hebrews. The latter word is translated sometimes in our D.V. by rhinoceros (Numbers 23:22; 24:8; Deuteronomy 33:17; Job 39:9, 10), sometimes by unicorn (Psalm 22:21; 29:6; 92:10; Isaiah 34:7). That the re'em, far from being unicorn, was a two-horned animal, is suggested by Ps., xxii, 21, and forcibly evidenced by Deut., xxxiii, 17, where its horns represent the two tribes of Ephraim and Manasses. That, moreover, it was akin to the domestic ox is shown from such parallelisms as we find in Ps., xxiv, 6, where we read, according to the critical editions of the Hebrew text: "The voice of Yahweh makes Lebanon skip like a bullock, and Sirion like a young re'em"; or Is., xxxiv, 7: "And the re'em shall go down with them, and the bulls with the mighty"; and still more convincingly by such implicit descriptions as that of Job, xxxix, 9, 10: "Shall the rêm be willing to serve thee, or will he stay at thy crib? Canst thou bind the rêm with thy thong to plough, or will he break the clods of the valleys after thee?" These references will be very clear, the last especially, once we admit the re'em is an almost untamable wild ox, which one would try in vain to submit to the same work as its domestic kin. Hence there is very little doubt that in all the above-mentioned places the word aurochs should be substituted for rhinoceros and unicorn. The aurochs is for the sacred poets a familiar emblem of untamed strength and ferocity. It no longer exists in western Asia.

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Asp in Wikipedia

Asp. - This word, which occurs eleven times in D.V., stands for four Hebrew names: (1) Péthén [Deut., xxxii, 33; Job, xx, 14, 16; Psalms., lvii (Hebr., lviii), 5; Isaiah, xi, 8]. From several allusions both to its deadly venom (Deuteronomy 32:33), and to its use by serpent-charmers [Ps., lvii (Hebr., lviii), 5, 6], it appears that the cobra (naja aspis) is most probably signified. Safely to step upon its body, or even linger by the hole where it coils itself, is manifestly a sign of God's particular protection [Ps., xc (Hebr., xci), 13; Is., xi, 8]. Sophar, one of Job's friends, speaks of the wicked as sucking the venom of péthén, in punishment whereof the food he takes shall be turned within him into the gall of this poisonous reptile (Job 20:16, 14). (2) 'Akhshûbh, mentioned only once in the Hebrew Bible, namely Ps., cxl (Vulg., cxxxix), 4, but manifestly alluded to in Ps., xiii, 3, and Rom., iii, 13, seems to have been one of the most highly poisonous kinds of viper, perhaps the toxicoa, also called echis arenicola or scytale of the Pyramids, very common in Syria and North Africa. (3) Sháhál is also found only once to signify a snake, Ps., xci (Vulg., xc), 13; but what particular kind of snake we are unable to determine. The word Sháhál might possibly, owing to some copyist's mistake, have crept into the place of another name now impossible to restore. (4) çphônî (Isaiah 59:5), "the hisser", generally rendered by basilisk in ID.V. and in ancient translations, the latter sometimes calling it regulus. This snake was deemed so deadly that, according to the common saying, its hissing alone, even its look, was fatal. It was probably a small viper, perhaps a cerastes, possibly the daboia zanthina, according to Cheyne.

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Weasel in Wikipedia

Weasel, Lev., xi, 29, must be regarded as a general name, probably designating, besides the weasel proper, the polecat and ichneumon, all very common in the Holy Land.

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Wolf in Wikipedia

Wolf. - Frequently mentioned in the Scriptures as a special foe to flocks (Sirach 13:21; Matthew 7:15), and an emblem of treachery, ferocity, and bloodthirstiness. Wolves usually prowl at night around the sheepfolds, and, though fewer in numbers than jackals, are much more harmful. The tribe of Benjamin, owing to its warlike character, was compared to a wolf.

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Vulture in Wikipedia

Vulture. - So does D.V. render the Hebrew, 'áyyah, Lev., xi, 14; Deut., xiv, 13; Job, xxviii, 7. As has been suggested above, the text of Job at least, seems to allude to the kite rather than to the vulture. Several kinds of vultures are nevertheless referred to in the Bible; so, for instance, the bearded vulture(gypœtus barbatus), called griffon in the D.V.; the griffon vulture (gyps fulvus), the Egyptian vulture (neophron percnopterus), etc. In the biblical parlance vultures are often termed eagles.

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Antelope in Wikipedia

The word, first applied as a qualification to the gazelle, on account of the lustre and soft expression of its eye, has become the name of a genus of ruminant quadrupeds intermediate between the deer and the goat. Four species are mentioned in the Bible: (1) the dîshon (D.V. pygarg; Deuteronomy 14:5), commonly identified with the antilope addax; (2) the çebhî (Deuteronomy 12:15, etc.; D.V. roe) or gazelle, antilope dorcas; (3) the'ô (Deuteronomy 14:5; D.V. wild goat; Isaiah 51:20, D.V. wild ox), which seems to be the bubale (antilope bubalis); and (4) the yáhmûr (Deuteronomy 14:5), the name of which is given by the Arabs to the roebuck of Northern Syria and to the oryx (the white antelope, antilope oryx) of the desert.

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Ape in Wikipedia

Nowhere in the Bible is the ape supposed to be indigenous to Israel. Apes are mentioned with gold, silver, ivory, and peacocks among the precious things imported by Solomon from Tharsis (1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chronicles 9:21).

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Adder in Wikipedia

A poisonous snake of the genus Vipera. The word, unused in the D.V., stands in the A.V. for four different Hebrew names of serpents.

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Asp in Wikipedia

Asp. - This word, which occurs eleven times in D.V., stands for four Hebrew names: (1) Péthén [Deut., xxxii, 33; Job, xx, 14, 16; Psalms., lvii (Hebr., lviii), 5; Isaiah, xi, 8]. From several allusions both to its deadly venom (Deuteronomy 32:33), and to its use by serpent-charmers [Ps., lvii (Hebr., lviii), 5, 6], it appears that the cobra (naja aspis) is most probably signified. Safely to step upon its body, or even linger by the hole where it coils itself, is manifestly a sign of God's particular protection [Ps., xc (Hebr., xci), 13; Is., xi, 8]. Sophar, one of Job's friends, speaks of the wicked as sucking the venom of péthén, in punishment whereof the food he takes shall be turned within him into the gall of this poisonous reptile (Job 20:16, 14). (2) 'Akhshûbh, mentioned only once in the Hebrew Bible, namely Ps., cxl (Vulg., cxxxix), 4, but manifestly alluded to in Ps., xiii, 3, and Rom., iii, 13, seems to have been one of the most highly poisonous kinds of viper, perhaps the toxicoa, also called echis arenicola or scytale of the Pyramids, very common in Syria and North Africa. (3) Sháhál is also found only once to signify a snake, Ps., xci (Vulg., xc), 13; but what particular kind of snake we are unable to determine. The word Sháhál might possibly, owing to some copyist's mistake, have crept into the place of another name now impossible to restore. (4) çphônî (Isaiah 59:5), "the hisser", generally rendered by basilisk in ID.V. and in ancient translations, the latter sometimes calling it regulus. This snake was deemed so deadly that, according to the common saying, its hissing alone, even its look, was fatal. It was probably a small viper, perhaps a cerastes, possibly the daboia zanthina, according to Cheyne.

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Ass in Wikipedia

The ass has always enjoyed a marked favour above all other beasts of burden in the bible. This is evidenced by two very simple remarks. While, on the one hand, mention of this animal occurs over a hundred and thirty times in Bible. On the other hand, the Hebrew vocabulary possesses, to designate the ass, according to its colour, sex, age, etc., a supply of words in striking contrast with the ordinary penury of the sacred language. Of these various names the most common is hamôr, "reddish", the hair of the Eastern ass being generally of that colour. White asses, more rare, were also more appreciated and reserved for the use of the nobles (Judges 5:10). The custom was introduced very early, as it seems, and still prevails, to paint the most shapely and valuable donkeys in stripes of different colours. In the East the ass is much larger and finer than in other countries, and in several places the pedigrees of the best breeds are carefully preserved. Asses have always been an important item in the resources of the Eastern peoples, and we are repeatedly told in the Bible about the herds of these animals owned by the patriarchs (Genesis 12:16; 30:43; 36:24, etc.), and wealthy Israelites (1 Samuel 9:3; 1 Chronicles 27:30, etc.). Hence the several regulations brought forth by Israel's lawgiver on this subject: the neighbour's ass should not be coveted (Exodus 20:17); moreover, should the neighbour's stray ass be found, it should be taken care of, and its owner assisted in tending this part of his herd (Deuteronomy 22:3, 4). The ass serves in the East for many purposes. Its even gait and surefootedness, so well suited to the rough paths of the Holy Land, made it at all times the most popular of all the animals for riding in those hilly regions (Genesis 22:3; Luke 19:30). Neither was it ridden only by the common people, but also by persons of the highest rank (Judges 5:10; 10:4; 2 Samuel 17:23; 19:26, etc.). No wonder therefore that Jesus, about to come triumphantly to Jerusalem, commanded His disciples to bring Him an ass and her colt; no lesson of humility, as is sometimes asserted, but the affirmation of the peaceful character of His kingdom should be sought there. Although the Scripture speaks of "saddling" the ass, usually no saddle was used by the rider. A cloth was spread upon the back of the ass and fastened by a strap was all the equipment. Upon this cloth the rider sat with a servant usually walking alongside. Should a family journey, the women and children would ride the asses, attended by the father (Exodus 4:20). This mode of travelling has been popularized by Christian painters, who copied the eastern customs in their representations of the Holy Family's flight to Egypt. Scores of passages in the Bible allude to asses carrying burdens. The Gospels, at least in the Greek text, speak of millstones run by asses (Matthew 18:6, Mark 9:41; Luke 17:2); Josephus and the Egyptian monuments teach us that this animal was used for threshing wheat. Finally, we repeatedly read in the Old Testament of asses hitched to a plough (Deuteronomy 22:10; Isaiah 30:24, etc.), and in reference to this custom, the Law forbade ploughing with an ox and an ass together (Deuteronomy 22:10). From Is., xxi, 7, confirmed by the statements of Greek writers, we learn that part of the cavalry force in the Persian army rode donkeys. We should perhaps understand from IV K., vii, 7, that the Syrian armies followed the same practice; but no such custom seems to have ever prevailed among the Hebrews. With them the ass was essentially for peaceful use, the emblem of peace, as the horse was the symbol of war. The flesh of the donkey was unclean and forbidden by the Law. In some particular circumstances, however, no law could prevail over necessity, and we read that during Joram's reign, when Benadad besieged Samaria, the famine was so extreme in this city, that the head of an ass was sold for 120 pieces of silver (IV K., vi, 25).

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Wild Ass in Wikipedia

Corresponds in the Old Testament to two words, péré' and 'arôdh. Whether these two names refer to different species, or are, the one, the genuine Hebrew name, the other, the Aramaic equivalent for the same animal, is uncertain. Both signify one of the wildest and most untamable animals. The wild ass is larger and more shapely than the domestic one, and outruns the fleetest horse. Its untamableness joined to its nimbleness made it a fit symbol for the wild and plunder-loving Ismael (Genesis 16:12). The wild ass, extinct in western Asia, still exists in central Asia and the deserts of Africa.

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Ass's Colt in Wikipedia

This is more specially the symbol of peace and meek obedience (John 12:15).

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Badger in Wikipedia

No mention of the badger (Meles (genus)|meles]] taxus) is found in the D.V., whereas the A.V. regularly gives it as the English equivalent for táhásh. The skin of the táhásh is repeatedly spoken of as used for the outer cover of the tabernacle and the several pieces of its furniture. The old translations, and the D.V. after them, understood the word táhásh to mean a color (violet; Exodus 25:5; 26:14; 35:7, 23; 36:19; Numbers 4:10, 25; Ezekiel 16:10); but this is a misrepresentation; so also is the rendering of the A.V.; for though the badger is common in Israel, yet the Hebrew name most probably indicates the dugong (halicore hemprichii or halicore tabernaculi), a very large species of the seal family living in the Red Sea, the skin of which is used to the present day for such purposes as those alluded to in the Bible.

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Bat in Wikipedia

The bat, fourteen species of which still exist in Israel is reckoned among unclean "winged things" (Leviticus 11:19; Deuteronomy 14:18). Its abode is generally in dark and desolate places such as ruins and caverns.

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Bear in Wikipedia

The bear spoken of in the Bible is the ursus syriacus, scarcely different from the brown bear of Europe. Since the destruction of the forests, it is now rarely seen south of Lebanon and Hermon, where it is common. Not unfrequently met in the Holy Land during the Old Testament times, it was much dreaded on account of its ferocious and destructive instincts; to dare it was accordingly a mark of uncommon courage (1 Samuel 17:34-36). Its terror-striking roars and its fierceness, especially when robbed of its cubs, are repeatedly alluded to.

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Behemoth in Wikipedia

Behemoth, is generally translated by "great beasts"; in its wider signification it includes all mammals living on earth, but in the stricter sense is applied to domesticated quadrupeds at large. However in Job, xl, 10, where it is left untranslated and considered as a proper name, it indicates a particular animal. The description of this animal has long puzzled the commentators. Many of them now admit that it represents the hippopotamus, some Young Earth Creationists think it's a dinosaur like the Apatosaurus or the Brachiosaurus, so well known to the ancient Egyptians; it might possibly correspond as well to the rhinoceros.

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Birds in Wikipedia

Bird. - No other classification of birds than into clean and unclean is given. The Jews, before the Babylonian captivity, had no domestic fowls except pigeons . Although many birds are mentioned, there occur few allusions to their habits. Their instinct of migration, the snaring or netting them, and the caging of song birds are referred to. Bird, Dyed. - So does the English version, Jer., xii, 9, wrongly interpret the Hebrew 'áyit. which means beast of prey, sometimes also bird of prey. Bird, Singing. - This singing bird of Soph., ii, 14, according to the D.V., owes its origin to a mistranslation of the original, which most probably should be read: "And their voice shall sing at the window"; unless by a mistake of some scribe, the word qôl, voice, has been substituted for the name of some particular bird. Birds, Speckled, Hebrew çãbhûá' (Jeremiah 12:9). A much discussed translation. The interpretation of the English versions, however meaningless it may seem to some, is supported by the Targum, the Syriac, and St. Jerome. In spite of these authorities many modern scholars prefer to use the word hyena, given by the Septuagint and confirmed by Ecclesiasticus, xiii, 22 as well as by the Arabic (dábúh) and rabbinical Hebrew (çebhôá'), names of the hyena.

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Bittern in Wikipedia

Bittern (botháurus vulgaris), a shy, solitary, wading bird related to the heron and inhabiting the recesses of swamps, where its startling, booming cry at night gives a frightening impression of desolation. In the D.V., bittern stands for Hebr. qã'ãth (Leviticus 11:18; Isaiah 34:11; Zephaniah 2:14), although by some inconsistency the same Hebrew word is rendered Deut., xiv, 17, by cormorant, and Ps. ci (Hebr., cii), 7, by pelican. The pelican meets all the requirements of all the passages where qã'ãth is mentioned, and would perhaps be a better translation than bittern.

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Boar in Wikipedia

Boar, Wild. - The only allusion to this animal is found Ps. lxxix (Hebr., lxxx), 14; however, the wild boar was undoubtedly always, as it is now, common in Israel, having its lair in the woods, and most destructive to vineyards.

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Bull in Wikipedia

Bull. - A symbol of fierce and relentless adversaries [Ps. xxi (Hebr., xxii), 13].

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Camel in Wikipedia

Camel, a prominent domestic animal of the East without the existence of which life in the Arabian deserts would be impossible. It was perhaps the first beast of burden applied to the service of man. It is mentioned as such in the Biblical records as early as the time of Abraham. It constituted a great element in the riches of the early patriarchs. There are two species of camel: the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius), and the two-humped camel (camelus bactrianus). The camel is used for riding as well as for carrying loads; its furniture is a large frame placed on the humps, to which cradles or packs are attached. In this manner was all the merchandise of Assyria and Egypt transported. But the camel is appreciated for other reasons: it may be hitched to a wagon or to a plough, and in fact is not unfrequently yoked together with the ass or the ox; the female supplies abundantly her master with a good milk; camel's hair is woven into a rough cloth wherewith tents and cloaks are made; finally its flesh, albeit coarse and dry, may be eaten. With the Jews, however, the camel was reckoned among the unclean animals.

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Cattle in Wikipedia

Cattle. - Very early in the history of mankind, animals were tamed and domesticated, to be used in agriculture, for milk, for their flesh, and especially for sacrifices. Many words in Hebrew expressed the different ages and sexes of cattle, West of the Jordan River the cattle were generally stall-fed; in the plains and hills south and east they roamed in a half-wild state; such were the most famous "bulls of Basan".

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Chamois in Wikipedia

Chamois (antilope rupicapra) is now totally unknown in western Asia, where it very probably never existed. The opinion of those who see it in the Hebrew zémér (Deuteronomy 14:5) should consequently be entirely discarded (see Camelopardalis).

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Coney in Wikipedia

Cherogrillus (Leviticus 11:5; Deuteronomy 14:7), a mere transliteration of the Greek name of the porcupine, corresponds to the Hebrew shãphãn, translated, Ps. ciii (Hebr., civ), 18, by irchin, and Prov., xxx, 26, by rabbit. As St. Jerome noticed it, the shãphãn is not the porcupine, but a very peculiar animal of about the same size, dwelling among the rocks, and in holes, and called in Israel "bear-rat", on account of some resemblance with these two quadrupeds. We call it coney, or daman (hyrax syriacus). Its habit of lingering among the rocks is alluded to, Ps. ciii, 18; its wisdom and defencelessness, Prov., xxx, 24-26. "It cannot burrow, for it has no claws, only nails half developed ; but it lies in holes in the rocks, and feeds only at dawn and dusk, always having sentries posted, at the slightest squeak from which the whole party instantly disappears. The coney is not a ruminant (cf. Leviticus 11:5), but it sits working its jaws as if re-chewing. It is found sparingly in most of the rocky districts, and is common about Sinai" (Tristram).

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Cuckoo in Wikipedia

Cuckoo, according to some, would be the bird called in Hebrew shâhâph (Leviticus 11:16; Deuteronomy 14:15), and there reckoned among the unclean birds. Two species, the cuculus canorus, and the oxylophus glandarius live in the Holy Land; however there is little probability that the cuckoo is intended in the mentioned passages, where we should perhaps see the shear-water and the various species of sea-gulls.

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Deer in Wikipedia

Deer. - (Hebr., 'áyyãl). Its name is frequently read in the Scriptures, and its habits have afforded many allusions or comparisons, which fact supposes that the deer was not rare in Israel. Its handsome form, its swiftness, its shyness, the love of the roe for her fawns, are alluded to; it seems from Prov., v, 19 and some other indirect indications that the words 'áyyãl and 'áyyãlah (deer and hind) were terms of endearment most familiar between lovers.

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Deer in Wikipedia

Deer. - (Hebr., 'áyyãl). Its name is frequently read in the Scriptures, and its habits have afforded many allusions or comparisons, which fact supposes that the deer was not rare in Israel. Its handsome form, its swiftness, its shyness, the love of the roe for her fawns, are alluded to; it seems from Prov., v, 19 and some other indirect indications that the words 'áyyãl and 'áyyãlah (deer and hind) were terms of endearment most familiar between lovers.

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Dog in Wikipedia

Dog. - The dog in the East does not enjoy the companionship and friendship of man as in the western countries. Its instinct has been cultivated only insofar as the protecting of the flocks and camps against wild animals is concerned. In the towns and villages it roams in the streets and places, of which it is the ordinary scavenger; packs of dogs in a half-wild state are met with in the cities and are not unfrequently dangerous for men. For this reason the dog has always been, and is still looked upon with loathing and aversion, as filthy and unclean. With a very few exceptions, whenever the dog is spoken of in the Bible (where it is mentioned over 40 times), it is with contempt, to remark either its voracious instincts, or its fierceness, or its loathsomeness; it was regarded as the emblem of lust, and of uncleanness in general. As some Muslims, to the present day, term Christians "dogs", so did the Jews of old apply that infamous name to Gentiles.

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Dove in Wikipedia

Dove (Hebr., yônah). - Though distinguishing it from tôr, the turtle-dove, the Jews were perfectly aware of their natural affinity and speak of them together. The dove is mentioned in the Bible oftener than any other bird (over 50 times); this comes both from the great number of doves flocking in Israel, and of the favour they enjoy among the people. The dove is first spoken of in the record of the flood (Genesis 8:8-12); later on we see that Abraham offered up some in sacrifice, which would indicate that the dove was very early domesticated. In fact several allusions are made to dove-cotes, with their "windows" or latticed openings. But in olden times as well as now, besides the legions of pigeons that swarm around the villages, there were many more rock-doves, "doves of the valleys", as they are occasionally termed (Ezekiel 7:16; Song of Songs 2:14; Jeremiah 48:28), that filled the echoes of the mountain gorges with the rustling of their wings. The metallic lustre of their plumage, the swiftness of their flight, their habit of sweeping around in flocks, their plaintive coo, are often alluded to by the different sacred writers. The dark eye of the dove, encircled by a line of bright red skin, is also mentioned; its gentleness and innocence made it the type of trust and love, and, most naturally, its name was one of the most familiar terms of endearment. Jesus spoke of the dove as a symbol of simplicity; the sum of its perfections made it a fitting emblem for the Holy Spirit.

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Dragon in Wikipedia

Dragon, a word frequently found in the translations of the Bible as substitute, so it seems, for other names of animals that the translators were unable to identify. It stands indeed for several Hebrew names: (1) thán (Job 30:29; Isaiah 34:13; 35:7; 43:20; Jeremiah 9:11; 10:22; 14:6; 49:33; 51:37; Micah 1:8; Malachi 1:3), unquestionably meaning a denizen of desolate places, and generally identified with the jackal; (2) tánnîm, in a few passages with the sense of serpent [Deut., xxxii, 33; Ps., xc (Hebr., xci), 13; Dan., xiv, 22-27), in others most likely signifying the crocodile [Ps., lxxiii (Hebr., lxxiv), 13; Is., li, 9; Ezech., xxix, 3], or even a sea-monster (Ezekiel 32:2), such as a whale, porpoise, or dugong, as rightly translated Lam., iv, 3, and as probably intended Ps., cxlviii, 7; (3) líweyãthãn (leviathan), meaning both the crocodile [Ps., lxxiii (Hebr., lxxiv), 14] and sea-monster [Ps. ciii (Hebr., civ), 26]; (4) çiyyim (Psalm 73:14; Jeremiah 1:39), which possibly means the hyena. Other places, such as Esth., x, 7; xi, 6; Ecclus., xxv, 23, can be neither traced back to a Hebrew original, nor identified with sufficient probability. The author of the Apocalypse repeatedly makes mention of the dragon, by which he means "the old serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan, who seduceth the whole world" (Revelation 12:9, etc.). Of the fabulous dragon fancied by the ancients, represented as a monstrous winged serpent, with a crested head and enormous claws, and regarded as very powerful and ferocious, no mention whatever is to be found in the Bible. The word dragon, consequently, should really be removed from Bibles, except perhaps Is., xiv, 29 and xxx, 6, where the draco fimbriatus is possibly spoken of. See BASILISK, 4 (sup.).

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Dromedary in Wikipedia

Dromedary. - The word so rendered, Is., lx, 6, signifies rather a swift and finely bred camel.

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Eagle in Wikipedia

Eagle. - So is generally rendered the Hebrew, néshér, but there is a doubt as to whether the eagle or some kind of vulture is intended. It seems even probable that the Hebrews did not distinguish very carefully these different large birds of prey, and that all are spoken of as though they were of one kind. Anyway, four species of eagles are known to live in Israel: aquila chrysœtos, aquila nœvia, aquila heliaca, and circœtos gallicus. Many allusions are made to the eagle in the Bible: its inhabiting the dizziest cliffs for nesting, its keen sight, its habit of congregating to feed on the slain, its swiftness, its longevity, its remarkable care in training its young, are often referred to (see in particular Job 39:27-30). When the relations of Israel with their neighbours became more frequent, the eagle became, under the pen of the Jewish prophets and poets, an emblem first of the Assyrian, then of the Babylonian, and finally of the Persian kings.

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Elephant in Wikipedia

Elephant. - We learn from Assyrian inscriptions that before the Hebrews settled in Syria, there existed elephants in that country, and Tiglath-Pileser I tells us about his exploits in elephant hunting. We do not read, however, of elephants in the Bible until the Machabean times. True, III Kings speaks of ivory, or "elephants' teeth", as the Hebrew text puts it, yet not as indigenous, but as imported from Ophir. In the post-exilian times, especially in the books of the Machabees, elephants are frequently mentioned; they were an important element in the armies of the Seleucides. These animals were imported either from India or from Africa.

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Ewe in Wikipedia

Ewe. - In Hebrew, six names at least, with their feminines, express the different stages of development of the sheep. Its domestication goes back to the night of time, so that the early traditions enshrined in the Bible speak of the first men as shepherds. Whatever may be thought of this point, it is out of question that from the dawn of historical times down to our own, flocks have constituted the staple of the riches of the land. The ewe of Israel is generally the ovis laticaudata, the habits of which, resembling those of all other species of sheep, are too well known to be here dwelt upon. Let it suffice to notice that scores of allusions are made in the Holy Books to these habits as well as to the different details of the pastoral life.

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Hawk in Wikipedia

Hawk (Hebr., neç) is, in the Scriptures, a general denomination including, with the falcon, all the smaller birds of prey, the kestrel, merlin, sparrowhawk , hobby, and others, most common in Israel.

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Fallow-deer in Wikipedia

Fallow-deer (Cervus dama or Dama vulgaris) believed by some to be signified by Hebrew yáhmûr.[citation needed] The fallow-deer is scarce in the Holy Land and found only north of Mount Thabor. If it is mentioned at all in the Bible, it is probably ranked among the deer.

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Fawn in Wikipedia

Fawn (Proverbs 5:19), for Hebrew, yá'alah, feminine of yã'el which should be regularly, as it is in several passages, rendered by wild goat (ibex syriacus). See GOAT, WILD (inf.).

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Gecko in Wikipedia

Gecko. - Probable translation of the 'anãqah of the Hebrews, generally rendered in our versions by shrew-mouse, for which it seems it should be substituted. The gecko, ptyodactylus gecko of the naturalists, is common in Israel.

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Fowl in Wikipedia

Fowl. - This word which, in its most general sense, applies to anything that flies in the air (Genesis 1:20, 21), and which frequently occurs in the Bible with this meaning, is also sometimes used in a narrower sense, as, for instance, III K., iv, 23, where it stands for all fatted birds that may be reckoned among the delicacies of a king's table; so likewise Gen., xv, 11 and Is., xviii, 6, where it means birds of prey in general. In this latter signification allusions are made to their habit of perching on bare or dead trees, or of flocking together in great numbers.

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Flock in Wikipedia

Flock. - The flocks of Israel include generally both sheep and goats: "The sheep eat only the fine herbage, whereas the goats browse on what the sheep refuse. They pasture and travel together in parallel columns, but seldom intermingle more closely, and at night they always classify themselves. The goats are for the most part black, the sheep white, dappled or piebald, forming a very marked contrast..." (Tristram). The shepherd usually leads the flock, calling the sheep by their names from time to time; in his footsteps follows an old he-goat, whose stately bearing affords to the natives matter for several comparisons; the Arabs, indeed to this day, call a man of stately mien a "he-goat". The shepherd at sunset waters his flock, folds them ordinarily in some of the many caves found on every hillside, and with trained dogs guards them at night.

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Fox in Wikipedia

Fox. - Thus is usually rendered the Hebrew, shû'ãl, which signifies both fox and jackal, even the latter more often than the former. The fox, however, was well known by the ancient Hebrews, and its cunning was as proverbial among them as among us (Ezekiel 13:4; Luke 13:32).

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Frog in Wikipedia

Frog. - Though not rare in Israel, this word is only mentioned in the Old Testament in connection with the second plague of Egypt. Two species of frogs are known to live in the Holy Land: the rana esculenta, or common edible frog, and the hyla arborea, or green tree-frog. The former throngs wherever there is water. In Apoc., xvi, 13, the frog is the emblem of unclean spirits.

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Goat in Wikipedia

Goat. - Though the sacred writers spoke of the ewe more frequently than of the goat, yet with the latter they were very well acquainted. It was indeed, especially in the hilly regions east of the Jordan, an important item in the wealth of the Israelites. The goat of Israel, particularly the capra membrica, affords numerous illustrations and allusions, Its remarkably long ears are referred to by Amos, iii, 12; its glossy dark hair furnishes a graphic comparison to the author of Cant., iv, 1; vi, 4; this hair was woven into a strong cloth; the skin tanned with the hair on served to make bottles for milk, wine, oil, water, etc. The kid was an almost essential part of a feast. The goat is mentioned in Dan., viii, 5, as the symbol of the Macedonian empire. The grand Gospel scene of the separation of the just and the wicked on the last day is borrowed from the customs of the shepherds in the East.

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Wild Goat in Wikipedia

Goat, Wild, Job, xxxix, 1; I K., xxiv, 3, where it is an equivalent for yã' él, translated, Ps., ciii (Hebr., Civ), 18, by hart, Prov., v, 19, by fawn, is most probably the ibex syriacus, a denizen of the rocky summits [Ps. ciii (Hebr., civ), 18]. It was regarded as a model of grace (Proverbs 5:19), and its name, Jahel, Jahala, was frequently given to persons (Judges 5:6; Ezra 2:56, etc.).

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Grasshopper in Wikipedia

Grasshopper, is probably the best rendering for the Hebrew, hãgãb [Lev., xi, 22; Num., xiii, 34 (Hebrews 13:33); Is., xl, 22; Eccles., xii, 5, etc.], as in the A.V., if the Hebrew word be interpreted "hopper" as Credner suggests; the D.V. uses the word locust. The grasshopper is one of the smaller species of the locust tribe.

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Hare in Wikipedia

Hare. - Mentioned Lev., xi, 6; Deut., xiv, 7, in the list of the unclean quadrupeds. Several subspecies of the European Hare and the Cape Hare live in Israel: Lepus europaeus syriacus in the north; Lepus europaeus judeae in the south and the Jordan valley, together with Lepus capensis sinaiticus, Lepus capensis aegyptius and Lepus capensis isabellinus, The statement of the Bible that the hare "cheweth the cud" is a classical difficulty. It should be noticed that this is not the reason why the hare is reckoned among the unclean animals; but the cause thereof should be sought for in the fact that though it chews the cud, which certainly it appears to do, it does not divide the hoof.

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Hart in Wikipedia

Hart and Hind. - Either the fallow-deer, still occasionally found in the Holy Land, or the red deer, now extinct, or the deer generally. It has afforded many illustrations to time Biblical writers and poets, especially by its fleetness (Song of Songs 2:9; Isaiah 35:6), its surefootedness [Ps. xvii (Hebr., xviii), 34; Hab., iii, 19], its affection (Proverbs 5:19), and its habit of hiding its young (Job 39:1).

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Sparrow Hawk in Wikipedia

Sparrow Hawk (falco nisus), one of the hawks of Israel, so common that it might be regarded, in reference to the Bible, as the hawk par excellence.

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Hedgehog in Wikipedia

Ericus, a Latin name of the hedgehog, preserved in the D.V. as a translation of the Hebrew word qíppôdh (Isaiah 14:23; 34:11; Zephaniah 2:14, the word urchin has been used) and qîppôz (Isaiah 34:15). The above identification of the qíppôdh is based both on the Greek rendering and the analogy between this Hebrew word and the Talmudic (qúppádh), Syriac (qufdô'), Arabic (qúnfúd) and Ethiopian (qinfz) names of the hedgehog. Several scholars, however, discard this identification, because the hedgehog, contrary to the qíppôdh, lives neither in marshes nor ruins, and has no voice. The bittern meets all the requirements of the texts where the qíppôdh is mentioned. It should be noticed nevertheless that hedgehogs are far from rare in Israel. As to the qîppôz of Is., xxxiv, 15, read qíppôdh by some Hebrew Manuscripts, and interpreted accordingly by the Septuagint, Vulgate and the versions derived therefrom, its identity is a much discussed question. Some, arguing from the authorities just referred to, confound it with the qíppôdh, whereas others deem it to be the arrow-snake; but besides that no such animal as arrow-snake is known to naturalists, the context seems to call for a bird.

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Hen in Wikipedia

Cock, Hen. - Domestic poultry are not mentioned till after the Babylonian captivity. In Jesus' time domestic poultry, introduced from India through Persia, had become common, and their well-known habits gave rise to familiar expressions, and afforded good and easy illustrations (Mark 13:35; 14:30, etc.). Jesus Christ compared His care for Jerusalem to that of a hen for her brood. The three times the word 'cock' appears in the D.V. it is owing to a misinterpretation of the primitive text.

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Houp in Wikipedia

Houp (Leviticus 11:19; Deuteronomy 14:18). - The analogy of the Hebrew with the Syriac and Coptic for the name of this bird makes the identification doubtless, although some, after the example of the A.V., see in the Hebrew dûkhîpháth, the lapwing. The Egyptians worshipped the houp and made it the emblem of Horus.

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Hornet in Wikipedia

Hornet (Hebr., çíre'ah; vespa crabro). - One of the largest and most pugnacious wasps; when disturbed they attack cattle and horses; their sting is very severe, capable not only of driving men and cattle to madness, but even of killing them (Exodus 23:28; Deuteronomy 7:20; Joshua 24:12).

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