Ancient Documents

Ancient History Sourcebook - Mesopotamian Laws

A Collection of Mesopotamian Laws, c. 2250 - 550 BC. (Assyrian and Babylonian Literature)

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Quotes about the Bible and History

From Bible History Online, many of the quotes are from historical sources.

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Antony By Plutarch

(died 30 B.C.E.) Written 75 A.C.E. Translated by John Dryden [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

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Caesar By Plutarch

Plutarch's Life of Caesar is one of the most important ancient sources on the life and career of Julius Caesar. It was written in the early 2nd century AD, and it is based on a variety of sources, including Caesar's own writings, the works of other historians, and personal accounts from people who knew Caesar.

Plutarch's biography is not simply a chronological account of Caesar's life. It is also a character study, and Plutarch explores Caesar's strengths and weaknesses in great detail. Plutarch praises Caesar for his military genius, his political acumen, and his literary talents. However, he also criticizes Caesar for his ambition, his ruthlessness, and his role in the downfall of the Roman Republic.

Plutarch's Life of Caesar is a valuable source of information on a wide range of topics, including:

  • Caesar's military campaigns in Gaul and Britain
  • Caesar's political career in Rome
  • Caesar's relationship with his contemporaries, such as Pompey the Great and Marcus Brutus
  • Caesar's personal life and habits
  • The political and social climate of the Roman Republic in the late 1st century BC

Plutarch's Life of Caesar has been translated into many languages and is read by scholars and general readers alike. It is a classic work of biography that continues to offer insights into the life and legacy of one of the most important figures in Roman history.

In addition to its historical value, Plutarch's Life of Caesar has also had a significant impact on popular culture. It has been adapted into numerous plays, films, and television shows, including William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar and HBO's Rome.

Plutarch's Life of Caesar is a fascinating and thought-provoking read that offers a unique perspective on one of the most important figures in Roman history. It is a must-read for anyone interested in ancient Rome, leadership, or the human condition.

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Philo of Alexandria

Resource Pages for Philo of Alexandria. Lots of Resources.

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On-line primary literature for Biblical Studies

Texts of ANE contracts, Joesphus, Pseudepigrapha, Rabbinic, Early Church Fathers, Magical papyri etc. [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

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Extra-biblical references to Jesus and Christianity

The following are early extra-biblical references to Jesus and/or Christians by non-Christian writers (in some cases, Christian writers are quoting non-Christian writers' references to Jesus). Quotes are copied from the accompanying links, unless otherwise noted. Within the text of the article, authors' names are links to encyclopedia articles about them. [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

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The Electronic New Testament Manuscripts Project

NT manuscripts and transcriptions. The Electronic New Testament Manuscripts Project is an international, scholarly, volunteer effort to make images and transcriptions of New Testament manuscripts available freely on the Internet. University of Western Australia [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

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Apostolic Fathers

Epistle of Barnabas Lightfoot 1 Clement Lightfoot 2 Clement Lightfoot Didache [Hoole] or, alternatively, the Lightfoot translation Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus Lightfoot another translation The Shepherd of Hermas Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Philadelphians Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians Lightfoot Fragments of Papias Epistle of Polycarp (to the Philippians) Lightfoot Martyrdom of Polycarp Lightfoot[Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

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Duke Papyrus Archive

Collection of 1373 Egyptian Papyri, with background articles [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

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On-Line Texts Related to Biblical Study

Related to ancient Near Eastern religions, Hellenistic Mediterranian religions and Biblical Study. [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

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Extra Biblical Writings

Extra-Biblical writings refer to texts that exist outside the canon of the Bible, the sacred scripture of Judaism and Christianity. These writings encompass a wide range of historical, religious, philosophical, and literary texts from various cultures and time periods that provide valuable insights into the context and beliefs of the ancient world.

Key features of Extra-Biblical writings include:

  1. Diversity of Content: Extra-Biblical writings encompass a diverse array of genres, including historical accounts, religious texts, poetry, legal codes, philosophical treatises, and personal letters.
  2. Cultural Context: These writings offer valuable context for understanding the beliefs, practices, and social norms of the civilizations that produced them. They provide glimpses into daily life, religious rituals, and moral codes.
  3. Religious Significance: Some Extra-Biblical texts are considered sacred or highly respected by certain religious groups, even though they are not part of the biblical canon. Examples include the Apocrypha and Deuterocanonical books, which are included in some versions of the Bible but not in others.
  4. Ancient Wisdom: Philosophical and moral texts from ancient cultures provide insights into the ethical considerations, philosophical debates, and intellectual pursuits of the time.
  5. Historical Accounts: Historical writings shed light on events, figures, and conflicts that might not be extensively covered in the biblical narrative. These texts contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of historical contexts.
  6. Textual Variations: Different versions and translations of Extra-Biblical writings exist due to the diversity of cultures, languages, and historical circumstances. Scholars study these variations to gain deeper insights into the texts' original meanings.
  7. Influence on Literature: Extra-Biblical writings have influenced subsequent literature, art, and cultural expressions. They are often referenced or adapted in later works.

Examples of Extra-Biblical writings include the Dead Sea Scrolls, the writings of ancient Greek philosophers like Plato and Aristotle, ancient Egyptian texts such as the Pyramid Texts, and Mesopotamian clay tablets containing legal codes and myths.

Overall, Extra-Biblical writings provide a window into the richness of human thought, culture, and spirituality across different civilizations, contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of the historical and philosophical foundations that have shaped our world.

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Writings and Classics Pages

Until this section is finished being indexed into the main database you can click here to see a list of links including the Bible History Online general resources on this subject, although many of these links are outdated. [Ancient Documents]

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Pliny-Trajan Correspondence Regarding the Christians

[Pliny the Younger][Greco-Roman writings]

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Pliny and Trajan Correspondence Regarding the Christians

[Pliny the Younger][Greco-Roman writings]

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Letters 10.25ff

[Pliny the Younger][Greco-Roman writings]

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The Grandeur of Rome

[Pliny the Elder][Greco-Roman writings]

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Description of Greece - Book 1

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 2

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 3

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 4

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 5

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 6

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 7

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 8

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 9

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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Description of Greece - Book 10

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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The Destruction of Corinth

[Polybius ][Greco-Roman writings]

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Life of Pyrrhus

Pyrrhus of Epirus, commonly known as Pyrrhus, was a renowned ancient Greek general and statesman who lived during the Hellenistic period in the 3rd century BCE. His life was characterized by military exploits, particularly in his efforts to expand his kingdom and defend Greek city-states. Here's a concise overview of the life of Pyrrhus:

Early Life and Background:

Pyrrhus was born in 319 BCE in the region of Epirus, which is now part of modern-day Albania and Greece. He hailed from the royal Aeacid dynasty.

Military Career:

Pyrrhus became a prominent military leader and embarked on various campaigns in the Hellenistic world. He is best known for his involvement in the Pyrrhic Wars, a series of conflicts against Rome. Pyrrhus is credited with introducing the term "Pyrrhic victory" due to his costly wins, where the price of victory seemed to outweigh the benefits.

Campaigns in Italy:

Pyrrhus was invited to Italy to aid the city of Tarentum against the expansionist Roman Republic. He achieved notable victories, such as the Battle of Heraclea and the Battle of Asculum, against the Romans. However, these victories were achieved at a great cost to his own forces.

Campaigns in Greece:

Pyrrhus later turned his attention to Greece, where he sought to aid various Greek city-states against external threats. He was involved in the wars against Antigonus Gonatas, the ruler of Macedon, and later the conflicts of the Hellenistic world.

Death and Legacy:

Pyrrhus died in 272 BCE during a battle in Argos. He left a mixed legacy: while he gained a reputation for his tactical brilliance, his costly victories and the toll on his soldiers' lives became synonymous with the term "Pyrrhic victory."

Pyrrhus's life is often remembered for his valiant military campaigns and his role in the early history of Rome's rise to power. He is considered one of the notable figures of the Hellenistic era, known for his complex and ambitious attempts to reshape the political landscape of his time.

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Life of Tiberius Gracchus

The life of Tiberius Gracchus, commonly known as Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, was marked by his passionate advocacy for agrarian reform and the rights of the common people during the late Roman Republic in the 2nd century BCE. Here's a concise overview of the life of Tiberius Gracchus:

Background:

Tiberius Gracchus was born into the influential and politically active Gracchi family in 168 BCE. His family had a history of supporting agrarian and land reform policies, which greatly influenced his own political views and career.

Military Career:

Before entering politics, Tiberius Gracchus served in the Roman military and displayed courage and valor, particularly during the Third Punic War.

Political Career:

Tiberius Gracchus entered the political arena as a tribune of the plebs, a position that allowed him to champion the interests of the common citizens. He served as tribune in 133 BCE.

Reforms:

Tiberius Gracchus's political agenda was centered on agrarian reform. He proposed land redistribution to provide landless citizens with small plots of public land, with the goal of addressing social and economic inequalities. His proposals were aimed at curbing the concentration of land ownership among the wealthy elite.

Popularity and Opposition:

Tiberius's reforms gained him a strong following among the plebeians, who were struggling with landlessness and poverty. However, they faced vehement opposition from the conservative senatorial class, who viewed his reforms as a threat to their privileges and the traditional Roman order.

Conflict and Tragedy:

The political conflict escalated, leading to violent confrontations in Rome. In 133 BCE, Tiberius and his supporters were declared enemies of the state, and he was killed in a violent clash with the senatorial forces.

Legacy:

Tiberius Gracchus is remembered as a champion of social justice and an early advocate for agrarian reform in Rome. His efforts to address land distribution and wealth inequality laid the groundwork for later political movements and contributed to the evolving dynamics of the late Roman Republic.

Tiberius Gracchus's life and reformist ideals remain a significant part of Roman history, representing the early stirrings of social and political change in a republic grappling with increasing economic disparities and political tensions between the aristocracy and the common people.

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Life of Tiberius Gracchus

Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (c. 163 – 133 BC) was a Roman politician best known for his agrarian reform law entailing the transfer of land from the Roman state and wealthy landowners to poorer citizens. He had also served in the Roman army, fighting in Africa during the Third Punic War and in Spain during the Numantine War.

Gracchus was born into an aristocratic Roman family. His father was a consul and his mother was the daughter of Scipio Africanus, a famous Roman general. Gracchus was a well-educated man and was influenced by the ideas of Greek philosophy.

In 133 BC, Gracchus was elected tribune of the plebs. In this position, he proposed a law that would have redistributed public land to poorer citizens. The law would have limited the amount of land that any one person could own and would have distributed the excess land to poor citizens in small plots.

Gracchus's law was opposed by the wealthy landowners, who would have lost a significant amount of land if the law had been passed. The landowners used their influence to try to block the law, but Gracchus was able to get it passed with the support of the plebs.

The implementation of Gracchus's law was met with resistance from the landowners. Gracchus's enemies accused him of being a tyrant and of trying to overthrow the government. In 133 BC, Gracchus was killed by a mob of his enemies.

Despite his short life and tragic death, Gracchus had a profound impact on Roman history. His agrarian reform law helped to reduce poverty and inequality in Rome. Gracchus's ideas also inspired other reformers, such as his brother Gaius Gracchus and Julius Caesar.

Gracchus is remembered as a courageous and idealistic reformer who fought for the rights of the poor. He is also seen as a symbol of the struggle for social justice.

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Life of Caius Gracchus

The life of Gaius Gracchus, commonly known as Caius Gracchus, was marked by his passionate advocacy for the rights of the common people and his tireless efforts to enact social and political reforms during the late Roman Republic in the 2nd century BCE. Here's a concise overview of the life of Gaius Gracchus:

Background:

Gaius Gracchus was born into the influential and politically active Gracchi family in 154 BCE. His family had a history of supporting agrarian and land reform policies, which greatly influenced his own political views and career.

Political Career:

Gaius entered the political arena as a tribune of the plebs, a position that allowed him to champion the interests of the common citizens. He served as tribune in 123 and 122 BCE.

Reforms:

Gaius Gracchus's political agenda was centered on a series of reforms aimed at addressing social and economic inequalities. He proposed land redistribution to provide landless citizens with small plots of public land, grain subsidies to ensure food security, and the extension of Roman citizenship to its Italian allies.

Popularity and Opposition:

Gaius's proposals gained him a strong following among the plebeians and the Italian allies, but they faced vehement opposition from the conservative senatorial class, who viewed his reforms as a threat to their privileges and the traditional Roman order.

Conflict and Tragedy:

The political conflict intensified, leading to violent confrontations in Rome. Gaius and his followers were ultimately declared enemies of the state, and in 121 BCE, he and his supporters were killed in a violent clash with the senatorial forces.

Legacy:

Gaius Gracchus is remembered as an early advocate for social justice in Rome, as he strove to address issues of land distribution, food security, and citizenship rights for the marginalized. His efforts laid the groundwork for later political movements and contributed to the evolving dynamics of the late Roman Republic.

Gaius Gracchus's life exemplifies the early stirrings of social and political change in the Roman Republic as it grappled with growing economic disparities and political tensions between the aristocracy and the common people. His legacy continues to be studied as a pivotal moment in Roman history and the ongoing struggle for social and political justice.

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Life of Sulla

Lucius Cornelius Sulla, commonly known as Sulla, was a prominent Roman general and statesman who lived during the late Roman Republic in the 1st century BCE. His life was marked by military campaigns, political maneuvering, and his pivotal role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into an autocracy. Here's a concise overview of the life of Sulla:

Early Life and Background:

Sulla was born in 138 BCE into a patrician family in Rome. Little is known about his early life, but he received a proper Roman education and entered the political and military arenas.

Military Career:

Sulla's military career was marked by his participation in various campaigns, including the Jugurthine War and the Social War. However, he is best known for his leadership in the First Mithridatic War, where he fought against King Mithridates VI of Pontus.

Political Role:

Sulla's involvement in politics was significant. He served as consul twice, first in 88 BCE and again in 80 BCE. His pursuit of power and his confrontations with political rivals, including Gaius Marius, led to a series of civil conflicts and political turmoil known as the Sullan Reforms.

Sullan Reforms:

Sulla's tenure as dictator in 82 BCE marked a turning point in Roman history. He enacted a series of reforms aimed at strengthening the power of the Senate and diminishing the authority of the popular assemblies. These reforms represented a significant shift away from the traditional republican system.

Retirement and Death:

Sulla resigned from his dictatorship in 79 BCE and retired from political life. He died in 78 BCE, leaving a legacy of political transformation and the erosion of traditional republican values.

Sulla's life exemplifies the political turbulence and power struggles of the late Roman Republic. His role in establishing autocratic rule and diminishing the influence of popular assemblies had far-reaching consequences for the future of Rome, paving the way for the eventual rise of the Roman Empire.

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Life of Marius

The life of Gaius Marius was a remarkable and influential journey that unfolded during the late Roman Republic, marked by his military prowess, political career, and pivotal role in the transformation of the Roman army. Here's a concise overview of the life of Marius:

Early Life and Background:

Gaius Marius was born in 157 BCE in Arpinum, Italy, into a family of relatively humble origins. He lacked the traditional aristocratic background of many Roman political figures of his time.

Military Career:

Marius began his career as a military officer, and his skills on the battlefield soon became apparent. He distinguished himself in various military campaigns, particularly during the Jugurthine War and the wars against the invading Germanic Cimbri and Teutones.

Military Reforms:

One of Marius's most significant contributions was his overhaul of the Roman military. He introduced several reforms, including allowing landless citizens to enlist, providing for a more professional and disciplined army. These changes had a profound and lasting impact on the Roman military structure.

Consulships and Political Career:

Marius rose to the highest political office in Rome, the consulship, seven times between 107 BCE and 86 BCE. His success was partly attributed to his popularity among the soldiers and the backing of the Populares, a political faction that aimed to empower the common people.

Conflict with Sulla:

Marius's career was marked by intense political rivalry, particularly with Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Their struggle for control of the Roman state escalated into a series of civil conflicts known as the Social War and the First Mithridatic War.

Death and Legacy:

Marius's life came to a tumultuous end, with his death in 86 BCE. His legacy included military reforms that shaped the Roman army for generations and his role as a significant figure during a period of political upheaval.

Gaius Marius's life exemplified the rise of an individual from modest beginnings to the pinnacle of Roman power. His military reforms and political influence contributed to the transformation of the late Roman Republic and set the stage for the political and military dynamics that would ultimately lead to its downfall and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Life of Pompey

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey the Great (106–48 BC), was a Roman general, statesman, and author, and one of the most influential figures in the late Roman Republic. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

Pompey was born into a patrician family in Picenum, Italy. He began his military career at a young age, and he quickly gained a reputation as a brilliant military leader. In 76 BC, he was elected consul and given command of the Roman provinces in Spain. He defeated the Sertorian rebellion in Spain and then returned to Rome in triumph.

In 70 BC, Pompey was elected consul for the second time. He was given command of the Roman war against the pirates in the Mediterranean Sea. He quickly defeated the pirates and restored Roman control of the sea.

In 66 BC, Pompey was given command of the Roman war against Mithridates VI Eupator, the king of Pontus. Pompey defeated Mithridates and expanded the Roman Empire to the east.

In 61 BC, Pompey formed the First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Marcus Licinius Crassus. This informal political alliance allowed the three men to dominate Roman politics for several years.

In 59 BC, Pompey was elected consul for the third time. He was given command of the Roman provinces in Gaul and Cisalpine Gaul. He conquered all of Gaul and expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest extent up to that point.

In 52 BC, Pompey was appointed sole consul of Rome. He was also given command of the Roman army and navy.

In 49 BC, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River with his army, sparking a civil war against Pompey and the Senate. Pompey defeated Caesar at the Battle of Dyrrhachium, but he was then defeated by Caesar at the Battle of Pharsalus. Pompey fled to Egypt, where he was assassinated.

Pompey was a complex and controversial figure during his lifetime, and he has remained so ever since. He has been praised for his military genius, his political acumen, and his literary talents. However, he has also been criticized for his ambition, his ruthlessness, and his role in the downfall of the Roman Republic.

Despite the controversy surrounding him, Pompey is widely regarded as one of the most important figures in Roman history. His legacy continues to be felt today, and his writings are still studied by scholars and political leaders around the world.

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Life of Crassus

The life of Marcus Licinius Crassus, also known simply as Crassus, was a fascinating and multifaceted journey that unfolded during the late Roman Republic, marked by his military exploits, political career, and participation in the First Triumvirate. Here's a concise overview of the life of Crassus:

Early Life and Wealth:

Crassus was born in 115 BCE into a wealthy and influential Roman family. He inherited a significant fortune, making him one of the richest men in Rome. His wealth was largely amassed through real estate investments and slave trafficking.

Military Career:

Crassus sought to build a military reputation to match his wealth. He served in several campaigns, including the Social War and the slave revolt led by Spartacus. His most notable achievement was suppressing the Spartacus rebellion in 71 BCE, which solidified his status as a capable military commander.

Political Ambitions:

Crassus was politically ambitious and sought to match the military and political success of his contemporaries, notably Pompey and Caesar. He served as consul and supported various political factions to advance his own interests.

First Triumvirate:

Crassus formed a political alliance with Pompey and Julius Caesar, known as the First Triumvirate, in 60 BCE. This secretive partnership allowed them to exert substantial influence over Roman politics, but it was marked by tension and power struggles.

Parthian Campaign:

Crassus's ill-fated campaign against the Parthian Empire in 53 BCE ended in disaster at the Battle of Carrhae. His military blunders and the loss of his army in the harsh desert contributed to his downfall and eventual death.

Legacy:

Crassus's life was marked by his pursuit of power, which often led to ruthless and opportunistic behavior. He is remembered for his wealth, role in the First Triumvirate, and his ignominious defeat in Parthia. His career also underscores the political and social complexities of the late Roman Republic.

Crassus's life was emblematic of the ambitions and challenges faced by Roman aristocrats during a tumultuous period in Roman history. His wealth, military exploits, and political maneuvering left an indelible mark on the political landscape of the late Roman Republic.

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Life of Cicero

The "Life of Cicero" refers to the biography of Marcus Tullius Cicero, one of ancient Rome's most renowned orators, statesmen, and philosophers. Cicero's life and career spanned the late Roman Republic, and his influence on Roman politics, law, and literature has left an indelible mark on history. Here's a short description of the life of Cicero:

Early Life and Education:

Cicero was born in 106 BCE in Arpinum, a Roman town in Italy. He received an excellent education, studying under some of the finest orators and philosophers of the time. His training in rhetoric and philosophy laid the foundation for his illustrious career.

Oratory and Legal Career:

Cicero became one of Rome's greatest orators, known for his eloquence, persuasive speeches, and legal acumen. He built a successful career as an advocate and lawyer, handling numerous high-profile cases.

Political Ascent:

Cicero's political career began in the Roman Senate, where he was elected quaestor, a junior magistrate. He rose through the ranks, serving as consul in 63 BCE, one of the highest offices in the Roman Republic. His consulship marked a pivotal point in his career, as he uncovered the Catilinarian Conspiracy, a plot to overthrow the republic.

Conflict with Cataline and the Populares:

Cicero's prosecution of the Catilinarian conspirators pitted him against the populist movement led by figures like Julius Caesar and Pompey. Cicero's dedication to upholding the republic's laws and traditions put him at odds with those who sought to expand their political power.

Philosophical Works:

In addition to his political and legal career, Cicero was a prolific writer. He composed philosophical treatises, including "On the Commonwealth" and "On Duties," which explored ethical and political philosophy. His writings were influential during the Renaissance and continue to be studied today.

Exile and Return:

Cicero's political stances led to his exile in 58 BCE, but he was eventually allowed to return to Rome in 57 BCE. His exile, however, marked a significant turning point in his life and was a source of personal turmoil.

End of the Republic:

As the Roman Republic descended into civil strife and conflict, Cicero continued to advocate for a return to traditional republican values. However, the rise of figures like Julius Caesar and the eventual transition to the Roman Empire marked the end of the republic.

Legacy:

Cicero's writings and speeches are foundational to the study of classical rhetoric and are regarded as literary and philosophical classics. His commitment to the principles of republican government, eloquence, and ethics has earned him enduring respect.

The life of Cicero embodies the intellectual, political, and moral complexities of the late Roman Republic. His writings and ideals continue to influence the fields of law, rhetoric, and philosophy, making him one of the most significant figures in the history of ancient Rome.

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Life of Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar was born into a patrician family in Rome in 100 BC. He received a classical education and began his political career in the late 70s BC. In the 60s BC, he formed the First Triumvirate with Pompey the Great and Marcus Licinius Crassus. This informal political alliance allowed the three men to dominate Roman politics for several years.

In 58 BC, Caesar was elected consul and given command of the Roman provinces in Gaul. Over the next eight years, he conquered all of Gaul, expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent up to that point. Caesar's victories in Gaul made him a popular figure in Rome, and they also gave him a large and powerful army.

In 49 BC, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River with his army, sparking a civil war against Pompey and the Senate. Caesar defeated Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, and he became the sole ruler of Rome.

Caesar was assassinated on March 15, 44 BC, by a group of senators led by Brutus and Cassius. Caesar's assassination led to a new civil war, which eventually ended with the rise of his adopted son, Octavian, as the first Roman emperor, Augustus.

Caesar was a complex and controversial figure during his lifetime, and he has remained so ever since. He has been praised for his military genius, his political acumen, and his literary talents. However, he has also been criticized for his ambition, his ruthlessness, and his role in the downfall of the Roman Republic.

Despite the controversy surrounding him, Caesar is widely regarded as one of the most important figures in Roman history. His legacy continues to be felt today, and his writings are still studied by scholars and political leaders around the world.

Here is a brief timeline of Caesar's life:

  • 100 BC: Born in Rome
  • 84 BC: Becomes a priest of Jupiter
  • 78 BC: Fights in the Roman civil war
  • 73 BC: Studies rhetoric in Rhodes
  • 68 BC: Returns to Rome and begins political career
  • 65 BC: Elected aedile
  • 63 BC: Elected praetor
  • 61 BC: Governor of Further Spain
  • 60 BC: Forms the First Triumvirate
  • 59 BC: Consul of Rome
  • 58-50 BC: Conquers Gaul
  • 49 BC: Crosses the Rubicon River, sparking a civil war
  • 48 BC: Defeats Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus
  • 46 BC: Dictator of Rome
  • 44 BC: Assassinated on March 15

Caesar was a remarkable man who achieved great things in his lifetime. He was a brilliant military leader, a skilled politician, and a talented writer. His legacy continues to inspire and fascinate people today.

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The Assassination of Julius Caesar

[Plutarch ][Greco-Roman writings]

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Life of Anthony

The "Life of Anthony" typically refers to the biography of Saint Anthony of Egypt, also known as Saint Anthony the Great or Anthony of the Desert. He is renowned as one of the earliest and most prominent Christian monks and hermits in the history of Christianity. His life story has had a profound influence on Christian monasticism and spirituality. Here's a short description of the life of Saint Anthony:

Early Life:

Saint Anthony was born in Egypt around 251 CE. His early years were marked by the death of his parents, after which he dedicated himself to a life of asceticism and solitude, influenced by the Christian faith.

Monastic Life:

Anthony is often referred to as the "Father of Monasticism" because of his pioneering role in establishing Christian monasticism. He retreated to the Egyptian desert and lived a life of extreme self-discipline, prayer, and isolation.

Temptations and Triumphs:

According to Christian tradition, during his time in the desert, Anthony faced severe temptations, including visions of demons and challenges to his faith. He is famous for his spiritual resilience and steadfast devotion to God, overcoming these temptations through prayer and asceticism.

Founding Monastic Communities:

Saint Anthony's austere lifestyle and devotion to God inspired many followers. He is credited with founding or advising numerous monastic communities in the Egyptian desert, where monks sought lives of prayer, simplicity, and self-denial.

Wisdom and Teachings:

Anthony's wisdom and spiritual insights were highly sought after. He shared his experiences and guidance with those who came to him for advice, leaving a legacy of teachings that continue to inspire Christians and monastics.

Death and Legacy:

Saint Anthony passed away in 356 CE, leaving behind a legacy of monasticism that extended far beyond his time. His life and teachings were documented by early Christian writers, particularly by Saint Athanasius in his biography of Anthony.

Veneration and Feast Day:

Saint Anthony is venerated as a saint in various Christian denominations, including the Eastern Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, and Roman Catholic Churches. His feast day, known as the "Feast of Saint Anthony," is celebrated on different dates in various Christian liturgical calendars.

The "Life of Anthony" serves as a testament to the transformative power of faith, asceticism, and a life of devotion to God. Saint Anthony's pioneering role in Christian monasticism and his spiritual wisdom have had a profound and enduring impact on the development of Christian spirituality and the monastic tradition.

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Gallic Wars - Book 1

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Gallic Wars - Book 2

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Gallic Wars - Book 3

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Gallic Wars - Book 4

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Gallic Wars - Book 5

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Gallic Wars - Book 6

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Gallic Wars - Book 7

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Gallic Wars - Book 8

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Civil Wars - Book 1

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Civil Wars - Book 2

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Civil Wars - Book 3

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

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Acts of the Divine Augustus

[Augustus][Greco-Roman writings]

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History of Rome (Books 1-5)

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 1: The Earliest Legends;
Book 2: The Early Years of the Republic;
Book 3: The Decemvirate;
Book 4: The Growing Power of the Plebs;
Book 5: The Veii and the Destruction of Rome by the Gauls

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History of Rome (Books 6-10)

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 6: The Reconciliation of the Orders - (389 - 366 B.C.);
Book 7: Frontier Wars - (366 - 341 B.C.);
Book 8: The First Samnite War and Settlement of Latium - (341 -321 B.C.);
Book 9: The Second Samnite War - (321 - 304 B.C.);
Book 10: The Third Samnite War - (303 - 293 B.C.)

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History of Rome (Books 21-25) Vol. III

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 21: From Saguntum to the Trebia;
Book 22: The Disaster of Cannae;
23: Hannibal at Capua;
Book 24: The Revolution in Syracuse;
Book 25: The Fall of Syracuse

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History of Rome (Books 26-30) Vol. IV

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 26: The Fate of Capua;
Book 27: Scipio in Spain ;
Book 28: The Final Conquest of Spain;
Book 29: Scipio in Africa;
Book 30: Close of the Hannibalic War

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History of Rome (Books 26-32) Vol. IV

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 26: The Fate of Capua;
Book 27: Scipio in Spain ;
Book 28: The Final Conquest of Spain;
Book 29: Scipio in Africa;
Book 30: Close of the Hannibalic War;
Book 31: Rome and Macedon;
Book 32: The Second Macedonian War

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History of Rome (Books 33-39) Vol. V

Books 33-39 of Livy's History of Rome cover a period of about 60 years, from the Third Punic War to the Conspiracy of Catiline. This was a time of great upheaval and change for the Roman Republic.

Book 33 describes the Third Punic War, which was fought between Rome and Carthage from 149 to 146 BC. The war ended with the destruction of Carthage and the enslavement of its population.

Book 34 describes the aftermath of the Third Punic War and the rise of the Roman general Scipio Africanus Minor. Scipio was a brilliant military commander, but he was also a controversial figure. He was accused of corruption and of trying to establish himself as a tyrant.

Book 35 describes the Numantine War, which was fought between Rome and the Numantians, a Celtic people in Spain, from 143 to 133 BC. The war was a difficult one for the Romans, but they eventually emerged victorious.

Book 36 describes the Social War, which was fought between Rome and its Italian allies from 91 to 88 BC. The war was caused by the allies' demands for Roman citizenship. The war ended with the Romans granting citizenship to all Italians, but it left a legacy of bitterness and resentment.

Book 37 describes the civil war between Marius and Sulla, which was fought from 88 to 82 BC. The war was caused by a power struggle between the two men. Marius was a popular general who supported the rights of the common people. Sulla was a wealthy aristocrat who supported the rights of the Senate. The war ended with Sulla's victory, but it caused a great deal of damage to the Roman Republic.

Book 38 describes the Mithridatic Wars, which were fought between Rome and the Pontic Kingdom from 88 to 63 BC. The wars were caused by the expansionist ambitions of Mithridates VI, the king of Pontus. Rome eventually emerged victorious, but the wars were long and costly.

Book 39 describes the Conspiracy of Catiline, which was a plot to overthrow the Roman government in 63 BC. The conspiracy was led by Catiline, a Roman aristocrat who was deeply in debt. Catiline's plot was uncovered and crushed by the Roman consul Cicero.

Books 33-39 of Livy's History of Rome are a valuable source of information about a turbulent period in Roman history. Livy's writing is vivid and engaging, and he provides a fascinating account of the people and events of this time.

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History of Rome (Books 40-45) Vol. VI

Books 40-45 of Livy's History of Rome cover the period from the Gallic Wars to the death of Cleopatra. This was a time of great change for the Roman Republic, as it expanded its territory and power.

Book 40 describes the Gallic Wars, which were fought between Rome and the Gauls from 58 to 50 BC. The wars were led by Julius Caesar, who was a brilliant military commander. Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars made him a popular figure in Rome and helped him to rise to power.

Book 41 describes the civil war between Caesar and Pompey. Pompey was another brilliant military commander, and he had been Caesar's ally in the Gallic Wars. However, the two men eventually fell out, and they went to war against each other. Caesar defeated Pompey in the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, and he became the sole ruler of Rome.

Book 42 describes the death of Caesar. Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators in 44 BC. The assassination was the result of a conspiracy by those who feared Caesar's growing power.

Book 43 describes the Second Triumvirate, which was a political alliance between Mark Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian. The triumvirate was formed after Caesar's assassination, and it ruled Rome for a period of ten years.

Book 44 describes the Battle of Actium, which was fought between Octavian and Mark Antony in 31 BC. Octavian defeated Antony, and he became the sole ruler of Rome.

Book 45 describes the death of Cleopatra. Cleopatra was the queen of Egypt, and she was an ally of Mark Antony. After Antony's defeat at the Battle of Actium, Cleopatra committed suicide.

Books 40-45 of Livy's History of Rome are a valuable source of information about a critical period in Roman history. Livy's writing is vivid and engaging, and he provides a fascinating account of the people and events of this time.

This period saw the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire. Octavian, who would later become known as Augustus, became the first Roman emperor. Under Augustus' rule, the Roman Empire entered a golden age of peace and prosperity.

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The Divine Augustus

"The Divine Augustus" is a title and honorific used to refer to Gaius Octavius Thurinus, more commonly known as Augustus, who was the first Emperor of Rome and a pivotal figure in Roman history. This honorific title reflects the profound impact he had on the Roman Republic and the subsequent transformation of Rome into an Empire. Here is a description of "The Divine Augustus":

Augustus, whose original name was Octavian, was born in 63 BCE and went on to become one of the most influential and revered figures in Roman history. His rule marked the end of the Roman Republic and the establishment of the Roman Empire. The title "The Divine Augustus" underscores his exalted status in Roman society and the reverence with which he was regarded by the Roman people.

Augustus rose to power in the aftermath of the Roman Civil Wars, which had left the Roman Republic in a state of turmoil. With his victory at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, he emerged as the sole ruler of the Roman world. He wisely combined political shrewdness with military prowess and embarked on a series of far-reaching reforms and initiatives that transformed the Roman state. Key elements of his legacy include:

  1. Pax Romana: Augustus is celebrated for bringing about a period of relative peace and stability within the Roman Empire known as the "Pax Romana." His military victories and diplomatic efforts helped to quell internal strife and secure Rome's frontiers, allowing for an extended period of prosperity and cultural flourishing.
  2. Res Gestae: Augustus famously chronicled his achievements in the "Res Gestae Divi Augusti" (The Deeds of the Divine Augustus), a detailed inscription that documented his accomplishments and contributions to the Roman state. This text provides invaluable historical insights into his rule.
  3. Architectural Projects: Augustus sponsored numerous building projects and renovations, including the construction of temples, public buildings, and the famous Ara Pacis, an altar dedicated to peace and prosperity. These edifices reflected his vision of a renewed Roman state.
  4. Administrative Reforms: He implemented administrative reforms that laid the groundwork for the efficient governance of the Roman Empire, including the establishment of the principate, a form of government where the emperor held supreme power but still maintained the appearance of republican institutions.
  5. Cultural Patronage: Augustus was a patron of the arts and played a crucial role in promoting Roman literature, poetry, and architecture. His reign witnessed the flourishing of writers like Virgil, Horace, and Livy.

The title "The Divine Augustus" was not merely a reflection of his political achievements but also a product of the imperial cult that emerged during his reign, where he was officially deified, and worshiped as a god. This served to legitimize his rule and reinforce the unity of the Roman state.

Augustus' legacy endures as a seminal figure in Roman history, a brilliant statesman, and a transformative leader who shaped the course of the Roman Empire. His enduring impact can be felt in the lasting institutions, structures, and cultural achievements that continue to define the legacy of ancient Rome.

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The Divine Augustus

The Divine Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD) was the first Roman emperor. He was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, but he was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar and took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, Octavian emerged as one of the most powerful men in Rome. He defeated his rivals in a series of civil wars, and he became the sole ruler of Rome in 27 BC.

Augustus was a brilliant politician and administrator. He reformed the Roman government and military, and he established a period of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. Augustus also promoted the arts and sciences, and he oversaw the construction of many public works projects, including roads, temples, and bridges.

Augustus was a popular and respected ruler. He was careful to maintain the outward forms of the Roman Republic, but he was in fact an absolute monarch. He was given the title of Augustus, which means "revered," and he was also given the title of Pater Patriae, which means "father of the fatherland."

Augustus died in 14 AD and was succeeded by his stepson Tiberius. Augustus was a complex and contradictory figure. He was a ruthless politician who waged civil wars to achieve his goals, but he was also a wise and benevolent ruler who brought peace and prosperity to the Roman Empire.

Here are some of Augustus's most important accomplishments:

  • He ended the civil wars that had plagued Rome for decades.
  • He established the Pax Romana, a period of peace and prosperity that lasted for over 200 years.
  • He reformed the Roman government and military.
  • He promoted the arts and sciences.
  • He oversaw the construction of many public works projects.

Augustus is considered to be one of the greatest Roman emperors. He was a brilliant politician and administrator, and he laid the foundation for the Roman Empire to become the dominant power in the Mediterranean world.

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Life of Vitellius

The life of Aulus Vitellius, often simply referred to as Vitellius, was marked by political intrigue, rapid rise to power, and a tumultuous reign as the Roman Emperor. Vitellius held the title of Roman Emperor for a very brief period in the year 69 CE, during the Year of the Four Emperors, a chaotic time in Roman history.

Here is an overview of the life of Vitellius:

  1. Early Life and Military Career: Aulus Vitellius was born in 15 CE in Rome, into a family of equestrian rank. He initially pursued a career in law but soon transitioned into military service. He held various military positions and earned a reputation as a capable and well-liked commander.
  2. Year of the Four Emperors: In 69 CE, a year of political upheaval in the Roman Empire, several contenders vied for the title of Emperor. Vitellius emerged as one of these contenders. He gained support from the legions stationed in the German provinces and marched on Rome.
  3. Reign as Emperor: Vitellius was declared Emperor by his supporters in Rome in April 69 CE, leading to a tumultuous and chaotic reign. His short time in power was marked by excess and extravagance. He indulged in lavish banquets and allowed his supporters to engage in acts of brutality against his rivals.
  4. Conflict with Vespasian: During his reign, Vitellius faced a significant challenge from Vespasian, a rival claimant to the throne who had support in the Eastern provinces. The two forces clashed in a series of battles, with Vespasian ultimately emerging victorious.
  5. End of Reign: As Vespasian's forces closed in on Rome, Vitellius's support waned, and his rule quickly unraveled. In December 69 CE, he was captured by Vespasian's troops. His reign had lasted for less than a year.
  6. Execution: Vitellius was captured and humiliated by his captors. He was paraded through the streets of Rome, subjected to insults and abuse from the populace, and ultimately executed. His death marked the end of his short-lived rule.

Vitellius's reign as Emperor is often remembered for its brief and tumultuous nature, during which the Roman Empire experienced a rapid succession of rulers. His rule was characterized by excessive indulgence and brutality, contrasting sharply with the more measured and capable leadership exhibited by some of his predecessors and successors. Vitellius's reign is a poignant illustration of the political instability and chaos that gripped the Roman Empire during the Year of the Four Emperors, a period marked by a series of short-lived and contested rulerships.

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Life of Domitian

Domitian (51-96 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Flavian dynasty. He was the son of Vespasian and the younger brother of Titus. Domitian was a controversial emperor, but he was also a complex and fascinating figure.

Domitian was born in Rome in 51 AD. He received a good education and was trained in the military. After his father became emperor in 69 AD, Domitian was given a number of important positions in the government. He served as consul several times and was also commander of the Praetorian Guard.

When Titus died in 81 AD, Domitian was declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard. However, his claim to the throne was disputed by some members of the Senate. Domitian eventually prevailed, and he was officially recognized as emperor by the Senate in 82 AD.

Domitian's reign was marked by both successes and failures. On the one hand, he was a successful military commander. He expanded the Roman Empire's borders and defeated the Dacians and the Chatti in two major wars. On the other hand, Domitian was also a paranoid and suspicious ruler. He executed many of his political enemies, and he was accused of being a tyrant.

Domitian was also a patron of the arts and sciences. He built a new library in Rome and supported poets and philosophers. He also oversaw the construction of a number of public works projects, including the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and the Domitian Stadium.

Domitian was assassinated in 96 AD by a group of conspirators that included members of the Senate and the Praetorian Guard. His assassination marked the end of the Flavian dynasty.

Domitian is a complex and controversial figure. He was a successful military commander, but he was also a paranoid and suspicious ruler. He was also a patron of the arts and sciences, and he oversaw the construction of a number of public works projects. Domitian's reign was marked by both successes and failures, and he remains a controversial figure to this day.

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Life of Augustus

[Nicolaus of Damascus][Greco-Roman writings]

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The Annals - Book 1 - (A.D. 14-15)

The Annals - Book 1 - (A.D. 14-15) is the first book of the Roman historian Tacitus's historical work, The Annals. It covers the events of the years 14-15 AD, the first two years of the reign of the Roman emperor Tiberius.

The book begins with a brief overview of the history of Rome, from its founding to the death of Augustus. Tacitus then turns to the reign of Tiberius, which he describes in a critical light. He portrays Tiberius as a paranoid and suspicious ruler who was obsessed with power.

Tacitus describes a number of important events that took place during Tiberius's first two years in power, including:

  • The death of Augustus and the succession of Tiberius
  • The mutiny of the legions in Pannonia and Germany
  • The trial and execution of Sejanus, Tiberius's powerful praetorian prefect
  • The death of Germanicus, Tiberius's nephew and adopted son
  • The rise of Agrippina the Elder, Germanicus's wife

Tacitus's Annals is one of the most important sources of information about the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD. He was a skilled writer and a keen observer of human nature. His work is full of vivid descriptions and insightful analyses.

Here are some of the key themes of The Annals - Book 1 - (A.D. 14-15):

  • The dangers of power and the corrupting influence of ambition
  • The importance of personal liberty and the dangers of tyranny
  • The complex relationship between the emperor and the Senate
  • The role of the military in Roman politics
  • The challenges of maintaining order and stability in a vast empire

Tacitus's Annals is a complex and challenging work, but it is also a rewarding one. It is a must-read for anyone interested in the history of the Roman Empire.

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The Annals - Book 2 - (A.D. 16-19)

The Annals - Book 2 - (A.D. 16-19) is the second book of the Roman historian Tacitus's historical work, The Annals. It covers the events of the years 16-19 AD, the third to sixth years of the reign of the Roman emperor Tiberius.

The book begins with a description of a series of natural disasters that struck the Roman Empire in 16 AD, including floods, earthquakes, and a famine. Tacitus then turns to the political events of the time, which were dominated by the growing conflict between Tiberius and the Senate.

Tacitus describes a number of important events that took place during Tiberius's third to sixth years in power, including:

  • The trial and execution of Cremutius Cordus, a historian who was accused of criticizing the emperor and his family
  • The death of Drusus Caesar, Tiberius's son
  • The exile of Agrippina the Elder and her two sons, Nero and Drusus
  • The appointment of Sejanus as Tiberius's praetorian prefect
  • The growing power and influence of Sejanus

Tacitus's Annals is one of the most important sources of information about the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD. He was a skilled writer and a keen observer of human nature. His work is full of vivid descriptions and insightful analyses.

Here are some of the key themes of The Annals - Book 2 - (A.D. 16-19):

  • The dangers of free speech and the importance of historical truth
  • The relationship between the emperor and the Senate
  • The rise and fall of Sejanus
  • The growing power of the praetorian guard
  • The importance of family and loyalty in Roman politics

Tacitus's Annals is a complex and challenging work, but it is also a rewarding one. It is a must-read for anyone interested in the history of the Roman Empire.

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The Annals - Books 1-16 (A.D. 14-66)

The Annals - Books 1-16 (A.D. 14-66) is a work by the Roman historian Tacitus that chronicles the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus in 14 AD to the death of Nero in 66 AD. It is one of the most important sources of information about this period of Roman history.

Tacitus was a skilled writer and a keen observer of human nature. His work is full of vivid descriptions and insightful analyses. He was also a critical observer of the Roman Empire, and his work is often characterized by its cynicism and pessimism.

The Annals is divided into 16 books, each of which covers a period of one or two years. Tacitus begins by describing the death of Augustus and the succession of Tiberius. He then goes on to describe the reigns of Tiberius, Gaius, Claudius, and Nero.

Tacitus's Annals is a complex and challenging work, but it is also a rewarding one. It is a must-read for anyone interested in the history of the Roman Empire.

Here are some of the key themes of The Annals - Books 1-16 (A.D. 14-66):

  • The dangers of power and the corrupting influence of ambition
  • The importance of personal liberty and the dangers of tyranny
  • The complex relationship between the emperor and the Senate
  • The role of the military in Roman politics
  • The challenges of maintaining order and stability in a vast empire

Tacitus's Annals is a valuable source of information about the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD. It is also a work of great literary merit. Tacitus was a skilled writer and a keen observer of human nature. His work is full of vivid descriptions and insightful analyses.

The Annals is a must-read for anyone interested in the history of the Roman Empire. It is also a rewarding read for anyone interested in great literature.

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The Histories - Books 1-5 (A.D. 69-70)

The Histories - Books 1-5 (A.D. 69-70) is a work by the Roman historian Tacitus that covers the events of the year of the four emperors, 69 AD. This year was a time of great turmoil and civil war in the Roman Empire, and Tacitus's work provides a valuable account of the events that took place.

Tacitus begins by describing the death of the emperor Nero in 68 AD. He then goes on to describe the civil war that ensued between four different claimants to the throne: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.

Tacitus's work is full of vivid descriptions and insightful analyses. He portrays the events of the year of the four emperors as a time of great chaos and barbarity. He also provides a critical analysis of the characters involved, including the four emperors themselves and their supporters.

The Histories - Books 1-5 (A.D. 69-70) is a valuable source of information about the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD. It is also a work of great literary merit. Tacitus was a skilled writer and a keen observer of human nature. His work is full of vivid descriptions and insightful analyses.

Here are some of the key themes of The Histories - Books 1-5 (A.D. 69-70):

  • The dangers of civil war and the importance of political stability
  • The role of the military in Roman politics
  • The importance of personal loyalty and loyalty to the state
  • The dangers of ambition and the corrupting influence of power
  • The importance of historical truth

The Histories - Books 1-5 (A.D. 69-70) is a must-read for anyone interested in the history of the Roman Empire. It is also a rewarding read for anyone interested in great literature.

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Nero and the Great Fire of Rome

Nero and the Great Fire of Rome represent a pivotal chapter in Roman history, marked by both tragedy and controversy. Nero, the fifth Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, is particularly associated with this devastating event that occurred in 64 CE. Here is a description of Nero and the Great Fire of Rome:

Nero, the Emperor:

Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, commonly known as Nero, ascended to the Roman throne in 54 CE at the age of 16, succeeding his stepfather Claudius. Initially, his reign held promise, as he was guided by the sage counsel of the philosopher Seneca and the praetorian prefect Burrus. During the early years of his rule, Nero was regarded as a popular and youthful ruler.

The Great Fire of Rome:

The Great Fire of Rome, which broke out in 64 CE, is one of the most infamous events of Nero's reign. It raged for six days, consuming large parts of the city, and it caused widespread devastation. The exact cause of the fire remains a subject of historical debate. Nero's role in the fire has been a subject of controversy, with some ancient accounts suggesting that he may have been responsible for it or at least allowed it to happen.

Nero's Response:

Nero's handling of the fire and its aftermath was highly criticized. While he initiated relief efforts and opened his own gardens for shelter, there were allegations that he fiddled a lyre and sang a poem about the fall of Troy while Rome burned. This perception of Nero's indifference to the suffering of the citizens has been immortalized in popular culture.

Blaming Christians:

In the aftermath of the fire, Nero faced public anger and accusations of arson. In response, he sought to shift blame onto a relatively small and misunderstood religious minority, the Christians. This led to a brutal persecution of Christians, marking one of the earliest persecutions of the Christian faith in Roman history.

The Domus Aurea and Reconstruction:

Following the fire, Nero initiated the construction of a grand palace called the Domus Aurea, meaning "Golden House," which was built on the land cleared by the fire. The palace was known for its extravagance and opulence, reflecting Nero's grandiose tastes.

Downfall and Death:

Nero's reign eventually descended into tyranny and cruelty, marked by his ruthless suppression of perceived threats and political opponents. His rule came to an end in 68 CE, as a revolt against his leadership erupted. Facing the threat of execution, Nero committed suicide by stabbing himself in the throat, becoming the first Roman Emperor to end his own life.

Nero and the Great Fire of Rome remain a symbol of a turbulent period in Roman history. The fire's destruction, the perceived callousness of Nero, and his subsequent persecution of Christians have left a lasting legacy of intrigue and controversy. The Great Fire of Rome is a stark reminder of the often complex and morally ambiguous nature of historical events and the individuals who shape them.

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Geography

[Strabo][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

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The Grandeur of Rome

The Grandeur of Rome, also known as The Grandeur That Was Rome, is a phrase used to describe the power, wealth, and cultural achievements of the Roman Empire at its height. The phrase is often attributed to the English poet Edward Gibbon, who used it in the title of his monumental work The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

Gibbon was not the first to use the phrase, but he helped to popularize it. In his book, Gibbon argues that the Roman Empire was the greatest civilization in history. He describes the empire's vast size and power, its wealth and prosperity, and its cultural achievements in architecture, literature, and law.

The Grandeur of Rome was on full display at the height of the empire, during the 2nd century AD. The empire stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the Persian Gulf and from England to North Africa. It was home to over 100 million people, and its economy was the largest in the world. The Romans built roads, bridges, and aqueducts that connected the empire and made trade and travel possible. They also built wspaniałe temples, palaces, and amphitheaters.

The Roman Empire was also a center of culture and learning. Roman poets, historians, and philosophers produced some of the most important works of Western literature. Roman lawyers developed a sophisticated legal system that is still used today in many countries.

The Grandeur of Rome came to an end in the 5th century AD, when the Western Roman Empire collapsed. However, the legacy of the Roman Empire continues to this day. Roman culture, law, and architecture have had a profound influence on the development of Western civilization.

The phrase "The Grandeur of Rome" is often used to evoke the image of a powerful, wealthy, and cultured empire. It is a reminder of the greatness that humanity can achieve and the importance of preserving and celebrating our cultural heritage.

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The Geography

[Claudius Ptolemy][Greco-Roman writings]

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Satire 3

[Juvenal][Greco-Roman writings]

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Immigrants in Rome

[Martial][Greco-Roman writings]

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Perseus Catalogue of Greek Texts

[Collections][Greco-Roman writings]

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Perseus Catalogue of Latin Texts

[Collections][Greco-Roman writings]

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MIT's Catalogue of Classics

[Collections][Greco-Roman writings]

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P52 Fragment of the Gospel of John

[Papyri] [Manuscripts] [Images of New Testament Texts] a.k.a. John Rylands P457

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P52: A Fragment of the Gospel of John

[Papyri] [Manuscripts] [Images of New Testament Texts]
a.k.a. John Rylands P457;
This is the oldest known manuscript fragment of the New Testament.
DESCRIPTION
Language: Greek
Medium: papyrus
Size: 3.5 inches long; 2.5 inches wide; Length: 7 lines on each side
Approximate Date: c. 125""150 CE
Place of Discovery: Egypt
Date of Discovery/Acquisition: 1920
Acquirer: Bernard P. Grenfell
Current Location: John Rylands Library,Manchester, England
Inventory Number: Rylands Greek Papyrus 457
Manuscript Number: P52
Manuscript Family: Alexandrian

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The Damascus Document (CD)

Brit Damesek [The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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The Temple Scroll (11QT)

An Introduction to the Qumran Temple Scroll (11QT). REL 365: The Dead Sea Scrolls course webpage, including materials and links relating to Khirbet Qumran, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the Bible. [The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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The War Rule 1QM, 4Q49l-496

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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The War Rule (4Q285 (SM))

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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4QMMT (4Q394-399)

Some of the Fragments of 4QMMT [The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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Hosea Commentary (4QpHosea)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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Habakkuk Commentary (1QpHab)

An Introduction to the Commentary on Habakkuk Scroll (1QpHab) by Lisa Bots [The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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Some Torah Precepts (4Q396)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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The Great Isaiah Scroll

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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Enoch (4Q201)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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Songs for the Sabbath Sacrifice (4Q403)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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A Baptismal Liturgy (4Q414)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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The Parable of the Bountiful Tree (4Q302a)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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Prayer For King Jonathan (4Q448)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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Plea for Deliverance (11QPs)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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Prayer of King Nabonindus (4Q242)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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The Thanksgiving Psalms (Pss. 4, 5, 8, 23)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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The Coming of Melchizedek (11Q13)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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The Book of Secrets (1Q27, 4Q299-301)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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The Book of Secrets (1Q27, 4Q299-301)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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The Divine Throne Chariot

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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Redemption and Resurrection (4Q521)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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Calendrical Document (4Q321)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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Tongues of Fire (1Q29, 4Q376)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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The Copper Scroll (3Q15)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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A Phylactery (Mur 4 Phyl)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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The Creation of the World

[Philo][Ancient Documents]

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On Ascetics

[Philo][Ancient Documents]

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On Eating the Passover Meal

[Philo][Ancient Documents]

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Against Apion - Book 1

[Josephus][Ancient Documents]

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Against Apion - Book 2

[Josephus][Ancient Documents]

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The Damascus Document

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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The Damascus Document

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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The Community Rule (1QS)

An Online Transcription of Dead Sea Scroll 1QS (The "Manual of Discipline") [The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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Transcription of the Community Rule

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents] (Requires SPTiberian Font)

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Community Rule (4QSd)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

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Center for the Study of Ancient Documents

Introduction to the services of the Center and an experimental digital archive of epigraphical images, available for downloading.

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Duke Papyri Collection with APIS

Duke Papyri Collection with APIS (Advanced Papyrological Information System). Searchable online catalogue and proposal for APIS, an papyrological information system based on the Web.

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University of Michigan Papyrus Collection

Contains an introduction to the University's papyrus collection, a list of papyrological tools, a selective bibliography, and a list of exhibitions and events.

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The Perseus Project

Large site containing search tools, Greek texts with English translation, searchable lexicons, and over 13,000 images of art and artifacts along with descriptions of the image and its context.

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Institut für Papyrologie (University of Heidelberg)

German language site. Includes a staff directory and current research projects.

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Centro di Studi Papirologici (University of Lecce)

Centro di Studi Papirologici (University of Lecce) Maintained by the University Papyrological Center. Includes images of Demotic papyri. Italian language site.

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Saskatoon Repository

Saskatoon Repository of the International Papyrological Photographic Archive (University of Saskatchewan) A comprehensive list of the holdings in the Archive, which contains photographic copies of the most-published papyri of the Cairo Museum and several universities. This site does not contain any of the photographs themselves.

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Papyrus Collection of the University of Copenhagen

Contains an inventory and photographic archive of the published papyri in the Carlsberg collection.

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Noncanonical Webpage

Contains Old and New Testament apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, as well as documents of the Church Fathers and the Nag Hammadi collection.

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Internet Classics Archive

Searchable archive of translated Greek and Roman texts.

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Early Church Documents

Translated documents of the early and medieval Christian church, as well as contemporary Jewish, Islamic, non-heterodox, and Hellenistic sources. Includes an annotated table of contents.

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Epigraphical Museum Athens

The Epigraphical Museum was founded in 1885 and it was established in the ground floor of the building of the National Archaeological Museum, which was constructed between 1866 and 1889, according to architectural plans by L.Lange and E.Ziller. It was renovated and extended in six new rooms, during the years 1953-1960, according to plans of the architect P.Karantinos. It comprises a collection of Attic inscriptions and also a collection of inscriptions from other districts of Greece. [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

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Duke Papyrus Archive

The Duke Papyrus Archive, also known as the Duke University Papyrus Archive or simply the Duke Papyrus Archive, is a renowned collection of ancient papyrus documents and fragments housed at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, United States. This archive is one of the most significant collections of its kind in North America and plays a crucial role in the study of ancient history, language, and culture. Here is an overview of the Duke Papyrus Archive:

1. Collection Origins:

  • The Duke Papyrus Archive was established in the 1930s when the university acquired a collection of ancient papyrus fragments from Egypt. Over the years, the collection has grown significantly through acquisitions, donations, and expeditions to Egypt.

2. Scope and Content:

  • The archive contains a diverse array of papyrus documents and fragments, dating from various periods of ancient history. These documents cover a wide range of topics, including legal texts, letters, contracts, religious texts, literary works, and administrative records.
  • One of the most famous and significant documents in the collection is the "Papyrus Hanson" (also known as the "Hanson Papyrus"), a fragmentary Greek manuscript of the New Testament that includes passages from the Gospel of John.

3. Research and Scholarship:

  • The Duke Papyrus Archive serves as a valuable resource for scholars, researchers, and students interested in the study of ancient languages, literature, and history. It provides opportunities for deciphering and translating ancient texts, shedding light on the daily life, culture, and beliefs of people in antiquity.
  • Scholars and experts from various disciplines, including classics, Egyptology, papyrology, and biblical studies, utilize the archive to advance their research and contribute to the broader understanding of the ancient world.

4. Digitization and Accessibility:

  • In recent years, the Duke Papyrus Archive has embarked on digitization initiatives to make its collection more accessible to a global audience. Digitized images and catalog information are available online, allowing researchers and enthusiasts to explore the archive's contents remotely.
  • This digital accessibility has expanded the impact of the Duke Papyrus Archive beyond the academic community, making it a valuable educational resource for anyone interested in ancient history and culture.

5. Educational Initiatives:

  • Duke University actively engages in educational outreach and public programming related to the archive. The collection is used to teach courses on papyrology, ancient history, and archaeology, providing students with hands-on experience in working with ancient documents.
  • The archive also hosts workshops, lectures, and exhibitions to promote awareness and appreciation of ancient papyrus documents and their significance.

The Duke Papyrus Archive stands as a testament to the enduring value of ancient texts and the critical role that institutions like Duke University play in preserving and sharing this cultural heritage. It continues to be a hub of scholarship and research, contributing to our understanding of the ancient world through the study of its written artifacts.

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Hellenistic Greek Linguistics

Hellenistic Greek linguistics refers to the study of the Greek language during the Hellenistic period, which followed the conquests of Alexander the Great and lasted from approximately 323 BC to 31 BC. This period saw the spread of Greek culture and language across a vast portion of the ancient world, influencing linguistic developments in various regions. Here's an overview of Hellenistic Greek linguistics:

1. Language Diffusion:

  • The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Greek culture, including the Greek language, to a wide range of territories, from Egypt to India. As a result, Hellenistic Greek became a lingua franca, a common language of communication, in these regions alongside local languages.

2. Koine Greek:

  • The dominant form of Greek during the Hellenistic period is known as Koine Greek, which means "common" or "shared" Greek. It emerged as a simplified, standardized form of the language, blending elements from various Greek dialects.
  • Koine Greek was characterized by a simplified grammar and vocabulary compared to Classical Greek, making it more accessible to speakers of other languages. It was used for administrative, trade, and everyday communication.

3. Influence on Local Languages:

  • The spread of Hellenistic Greek had a profound influence on the development of local languages and dialects in regions under Greek influence. Loanwords, grammar, and phonological features of Greek often found their way into these languages.
  • For example, the Greek language influenced the development of Coptic in Egypt and Bactrian in Central Asia. Hellenistic Greek was also a significant influence on the later development of Byzantine Greek.

4. Literature and Philosophy:

  • Hellenistic Greek linguistics also played a crucial role in the fields of literature and philosophy during this period. Greek scholars continued to produce important works in philosophy, science, and literature, often in Koine Greek.
  • Prominent figures like Epicurus, Zeno of Citium, and the Stoic philosophers composed their philosophical treatises in Koine Greek, making their ideas more accessible to a wider audience.

5. Written and Oral Traditions:

  • While Hellenistic Greek was primarily a written language, it also had a role in oral traditions, including public speeches, theater, and religious ceremonies. The works of playwrights like Menander and poets like Theocritus were composed in this form of Greek.

6. Transition to Roman Period:

  • The Hellenistic period eventually gave way to the Roman era, which brought further linguistic changes. Latin became increasingly influential, and the Greek language continued to evolve, leading to Byzantine Greek.

Hellenistic Greek linguistics is a fascinating field of study that provides insights into the linguistic, cultural, and historical transformations of the ancient Mediterranean world. It illustrates how the Greek language, in its various forms, served as a unifying and influential force in a diverse and interconnected ancient world, leaving a lasting legacy in the development of many regional languages and cultures.

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Inscriptiones Graecae Eystettenses

Greek Inscriptions of Asia Minor [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

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Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts

Interpreting ancient manuscripts is a complex and specialized skill that involves deciphering and understanding handwritten texts or inscriptions from bygone eras. These documents are invaluable sources of historical, cultural, and linguistic information, shedding light on the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of ancient civilizations. Here's an overview of the process of interpreting ancient manuscripts:

1. Deciphering the Script:

  • The first and often most challenging step in interpreting ancient manuscripts is deciphering the script in which the text is written. Ancient scripts can vary widely, including cuneiform (used in Mesopotamia), hieroglyphics (used in ancient Egypt), Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, and many others.
  • Epigraphists and paleographers are experts in deciphering and reading ancient scripts. They study the characters, symbols, and writing conventions of a particular script to understand how it represents sounds, words, and phrases.

2. Transcribing the Text:

  • Once the script is deciphered, the next step is transcribing the text into a more legible and accessible form. This involves creating a written or typed version of the original manuscript, taking care to accurately represent the characters and symbols.
  • Transcription also includes the use of diacritical marks, punctuation, and spacing to make the text more understandable and readable for modern scholars.

3. Translating the Text:

  • Translating the text from its original language into a modern language is a critical step. Many ancient manuscripts are written in languages that may be no longer spoken or have evolved significantly over time.
  • Expert linguists or philologists familiar with the ancient language undertake this task. They consider the context, grammar, and vocabulary to produce an accurate translation.

4. Contextual Analysis:

  • Understanding the historical, cultural, and social context in which the manuscript was created is essential. This involves examining the time period, geographical location, and cultural milieu to provide insights into the significance and purpose of the text.
  • Knowledge of the historical events, religious beliefs, and societal norms of the era is crucial for accurately interpreting the manuscript.

5. Comparative Analysis:

  • Comparative analysis involves comparing the manuscript with other known texts, inscriptions, or artifacts from the same time and place. This can help clarify meanings, idioms, or references that may be obscure in isolation.
  • Scholars often consult dictionaries, lexicons, and reference materials to cross-reference words, phrases, or symbols in the manuscript.

6. Palaeographic Analysis:

  • Palaeography is the study of the physical characteristics of the manuscript, including the handwriting style, ink, and parchment or paper used. Palaeographers can identify the period and region in which a manuscript was created based on these characteristics.

7. Archaeological and Scientific Methods:

  • In some cases, scientific techniques such as carbon dating, ink analysis, or multispectral imaging may be employed to date the manuscript, determine its authenticity, or reveal hidden or faded text.

Interpreting ancient manuscripts is a meticulous and interdisciplinary endeavor that requires a combination of linguistic expertise, historical knowledge, and careful analysis of physical artifacts. The insights gained from interpreting these documents contribute significantly to our understanding of the past and the cultures that produced them, enriching our knowledge of human history and heritage.

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Papyrology: The Study of Ancient Texts on Papyrus

Papyrology is the study of ancient texts written on papyrus. Papyrus is a writing material made from the papyrus plant, which was widely used in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Papyrologists study a wide range of texts, including literary works, religious texts, legal documents, and business records.

Papyrology is an important field of study because it provides us with a direct window into the lives and cultures of the ancient world. Papyrological texts can teach us about everything from the beliefs and practices of ancient religions to the ways in which ancient governments and societies functioned.

Papyrology is a relatively new field of study, dating back to the late 19th century. However, it has quickly become one of the most important fields of study for ancient historians and scholars. Papyrologists have made many important discoveries in recent years, including the discovery of new literary works and the confirmation of historical events that were previously only known from secondary sources.

Papyrology is a fascinating and important field of study that can teach us a great deal about the ancient world. If you are interested in learning more about papyrology, there are a number of resources available online and in libraries. You can also visit a papyrological museum or research center to see papyrus texts firsthand.

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POxy Oxyrhynchus Papyri Project

Updated. (Oxford) [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

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Papyrological Photographic Archive

The Papyrological Photographic Archive is an invaluable and extensive collection of images and photographs that documents the ancient world through the lens of papyrology, a discipline that focuses on the study of ancient papyrus texts and documents. This archive serves as an essential resource for scholars, historians, and researchers interested in unraveling the mysteries of the past. Here is a description of the Papyrological Photographic Archive:

A Window into the Ancient World: The Papyrological Photographic Archive offers a captivating glimpse into the ancient world, primarily through the preservation and digitization of papyrus manuscripts and related artifacts. Papyri, which are ancient documents written on papyrus, have provided invaluable insights into various aspects of ancient civilizations, including Egypt, Greece, and Rome.

Extensive Collection: The archive houses a vast and diverse collection of photographs, reproductions, and scans of papyri, ostraca (inscriptions on pottery or stone), inscribed tablets, and other materials that bear ancient writings. These artifacts cover a wide range of subjects, including literature, legal documents, administrative records, letters, religious texts, and more.

Historical and Linguistic Riches: The Papyrological Photographic Archive is a treasure trove for historians and linguists alike. It contains texts in multiple ancient languages, including Greek, Latin, Demotic, Coptic, and various other ancient scripts. These documents shed light on everything from daily life in antiquity to the intellectual and literary achievements of ancient cultures.

Scholarly Accessibility: This archive is an indispensable resource for scholars and researchers in papyrology, classical studies, archaeology, and related fields. It provides high-resolution images and detailed cataloging information, allowing for in-depth examination and analysis of the papyri.

Global Collaboration: The Papyrological Photographic Archive represents a collaborative effort involving institutions and scholars from around the world. It brings together photographs and scans from various sources, enhancing the accessibility and availability of these important artifacts for scholarly research.

Digital Preservation: In addition to preserving physical photographs and scans, the archive emphasizes digital preservation and accessibility. By making these materials available online, it ensures that scholars and enthusiasts worldwide can explore, study, and contribute to the field of papyrology.

Interdisciplinary Insights: The archive's contents provide interdisciplinary insights into ancient societies, offering a wealth of historical, cultural, and linguistic data. Researchers can delve into topics such as legal systems, religious practices, trade, education, and more through the lens of these ancient texts.

Continual Expansion: The Papyrological Photographic Archive continues to grow as new discoveries are made and as existing materials are digitized and cataloged. This ongoing effort ensures that the archive remains a dynamic and evolving resource for future generations of scholars and history enthusiasts.

In summary, the Papyrological Photographic Archive stands as a digital repository that bridges the gap between modern scholars and the ancient world. It preserves and shares the written records of antiquity, enabling us to connect with and learn from the civilizations of the past while advancing our understanding of history, language, and culture.

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Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit

The Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit (TSGRU) is a research department at the Cambridge University Library that is responsible for the care and study of the Taylor-Schechter Genizah Collection. The Genizah Collection is a vast repository of over 190,000 medieval Jewish manuscripts, including fragments of the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, and other religious texts, as well as legal documents, letters, and other personal items.

The Genizah Collection was discovered in the late 19th century by Solomon Schechter, a Cambridge scholar who was visiting Cairo, Egypt. Schechter was granted permission to remove the manuscripts from the genizah, a storage room in the Ben Ezra Synagogue where worn-out and discarded texts were placed. Schechter brought the manuscripts back to Cambridge, where they have been housed ever since.

The TSGRU is a world-renowned center for the study of medieval Jewish civilization. The unit's scholars work to conserve, catalog, and study the Genizah Collection. They also publish research on the manuscripts and host visiting scholars from around the world.

The TSGRU's work has made a significant contribution to our understanding of medieval Jewish life and culture. The Genizah Collection has provided scholars with insights into a wide range of topics, including Jewish law, theology, literature, and everyday life.

Here are some examples of the types of research that have been done using the Taylor-Schechter Genizah Collection:

  • Scholars have used the manuscripts to study the history of Jewish education.
  • Scholars have used the manuscripts to study the development of Jewish law.
  • Scholars have used the manuscripts to study the social and economic life of Jewish communities.
  • Scholars have used the manuscripts to study the literary and poetic traditions of Jewish culture.

The Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit is an important resource for scholars of medieval Jewish civilization. The Genizah Collection provides insights into a wide range of topics, and the TSGRU's work helps to make the manuscripts accessible to a wide audience.

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Tebtunis Papyrus Project

The Tebtunis Papyrus Project (TPP) is a research and teaching project based at the University of California, Berkeley. The TPP's mission is to enhance understanding of, provide context for, and give access to the Tebtunis Papyrus collection. The Tebtunis Papyri are the largest collection of papyrus texts in the Americas, with over 26,000 fragments. The papyri date from the 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD and come from the town of Tebtunis in Egypt.

The TPP supports research on the Tebtunis Papyri by providing scholars with access to the papyri, digital images of the papyri, and scholarly resources. The TPP also offers a variety of educational programs, such as workshops and online courses, on papyrology and the Tebtunis Papyri.

The TPP is a valuable resource for scholars and students of the ancient world. The Tebtunis Papyri provide insights into a wide range of topics, including ancient history, literature, religion, and law. The TPP's research and educational programs help to make the Tebtunis Papyri accessible to a wide audience.

Here are some examples of the types of research that have been done using the Tebtunis Papyri:

  • Scholars have used the papyri to study the social and economic life of Tebtunis.
  • Scholars have used the papyri to study the religious beliefs and practices of the people of Tebtunis.
  • Scholars have used the papyri to study the legal system of Tebtunis.
  • Scholars have used the papyri to study the literary works that were read and enjoyed by the people of Tebtunis.

The Tebtunis Papyrus Project is an important resource for scholars and students of the ancient world. The Tebtunis Papyri provide insights into a wide range of topics, and the TPP's research and educational programs help to make the Tebtunis Papyri accessible to a wide audience.

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Thesaurus Lingua Graecae Home Page

The Thesaurus Lingua Graecae Home Page is a digital gateway to a rich and comprehensive resource dedicated to the study and exploration of ancient Greek language and literature. Developed by the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae project (TLG), this website serves as an indispensable tool for scholars, researchers, and enthusiasts interested in delving into the vast corpus of ancient Greek texts. Here's a description of the Thesaurus Lingua Graecae Home Page:

A Treasure Trove of Ancient Greek Texts: The Thesaurus Lingua Graecae Home Page is a portal to a vast and meticulously curated collection of ancient Greek texts. It houses an extensive library of literary, historical, philosophical, and religious works, spanning from Homer's epics to Byzantine writings. This remarkable compilation covers more than a millennium of Greek literature, offering a comprehensive view of the language and culture of ancient Greece.

Powerful Search and Research Tools: At the heart of the TLG Home Page is a suite of powerful search and research tools. Users can perform precise searches by keywords, authors, works, or specific passages. The advanced search options allow for detailed exploration, making it an invaluable resource for linguistic analysis, literary studies, and historical research.

Ancient Authors and Works: The TLG database includes works from a wide range of ancient Greek authors, including the likes of Plato, Aristotle, Herodotus, and many others. The website provides detailed information about each author and their writings, allowing users to navigate the vast literary landscape of antiquity with ease.

Digital Accessibility: The Thesaurus Lingua Graecae Home Page has been a pioneer in the digitization of ancient Greek texts. It offers digital access to primary source materials, making it an indispensable resource for scholars and students worldwide. The website is designed to be user-friendly, ensuring that researchers can efficiently locate and utilize the texts they need.

Scholarly Support: For scholars and researchers, the TLG project provides valuable support through academic partnerships and resources. The website offers guidance on using the database effectively, and it promotes collaboration within the academic community.

Interdisciplinary Relevance: The TLG Home Page transcends the boundaries of linguistics and classical studies, offering insights into various fields such as history, philosophy, theology, and literature. It encourages interdisciplinary exploration, making it a valuable resource for scholars from diverse academic backgrounds.

Continual Expansion: The TLG project is committed to expanding its collection of Greek texts and enhancing its digital infrastructure. This ongoing effort ensures that the Thesaurus Lingua Graecae Home Page remains a dynamic and evolving resource for years to come.

In summary, the Thesaurus Lingua Graecae Home Page is a digital haven for anyone interested in the Greek language, ancient Greek literature, and the culture of antiquity. It empowers scholars and enthusiasts to explore the linguistic and literary heritage of ancient Greece, bridging the gap between the past and the present through the digital preservation and accessibility of these timeless texts.

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University of Michigan Papyrus Collection

The University of Michigan Papyrus Collection (UMPC) is one of the largest and most important collections of ancient papyri in the world. It contains over 100,000 papyri, dating from the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD. The papyri come from a variety of sites in Egypt, Greece, and the Middle East.

The UMPC was founded in 1927 by Herbert C. Youtie, a professor of Greek and Latin at the University of Michigan. Youtie was passionate about papyrology and believed that papyri could provide valuable insights into the ancient world. He spent many years traveling to Egypt and other countries to collect papyri for the UMPC.

The UMPC contains papyri in a variety of languages, including Greek, Latin, Coptic, Arabic, and Hebrew. The papyri include a wide range of texts, including literary works, religious texts, legal documents, and business records. The UMPC is also home to a number of unique papyri, such as the oldest known copy of the Gospel of Matthew and the only known extant copy of the play The Bacchae by Euripides.

The UMPC is a valuable resource for scholars of the ancient world. It provides scholars with access to a wide range of papyri that can be used to study a variety of topics, including ancient history, literature, religion, and law. The UMPC also offers a variety of programs and resources for students and the general public, such as lectures, workshops, and exhibits.

Here are some examples of the types of papyri found in the UMPC:

  • Literary works: The UMPC contains papyri with fragments of works by many famous Greek and Latin authors, such as Homer, Plato, Aristotle, Virgil, and Horace.
  • Religious texts: The UMPC contains papyri with fragments of the Bible, the Quran, and other religious texts.
  • Legal documents: The UMPC contains papyri with legal documents, such as contracts, wills, and court records.
  • Business records: The UMPC contains papyri with business records, such as receipts, invoices, and shipping manifests.

The UMPC is a valuable resource for scholars of the ancient world. It provides scholars with access to a wide range of papyri that can be used to study a variety of topics. The UMPC also offers a variety of programs and resources for students and the general public.

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Yale Papyrus Collection

The Yale Papyrus Collection is a distinguished and invaluable archive of ancient texts and documents that offers a captivating window into the history, culture, and intellectual pursuits of various ancient civilizations. Housed at Yale University, this collection is renowned for its significance in the fields of Egyptology, papyrology, and classical studies. Here is a description of the Yale Papyrus Collection:

Historical Significance: The Yale Papyrus Collection comprises a diverse array of papyrus fragments and manuscripts, primarily dating from the 2nd millennium BCE to the medieval period. These documents span a wide range of topics, from literature and religious texts to legal documents, letters, and administrative records. This remarkable assortment provides scholars and enthusiasts alike with a comprehensive view of the daily life, intellectual achievements, and societal structures of ancient cultures.

Ancient Egypt: A significant portion of the collection is dedicated to ancient Egypt, offering a treasure trove of insights into the civilization of the Nile Valley. It includes hieroglyphic inscriptions, religious texts, magical spells, and literary works, shedding light on the religious beliefs, writing systems, and customs of the ancient Egyptians. Notable examples include excerpts from the Book of the Dead and fragments of medical and mathematical texts.

Greek and Roman Manuscripts: The Yale Papyrus Collection also features a substantial number of Greek and Latin texts, reflecting the Hellenistic and Roman influence on Egypt during different historical periods. These texts include works of classical literature, philosophical treatises, and documentary evidence of everyday life in Greco-Roman Egypt.

Scholarly Research: The collection has been a vital resource for scholars and researchers in a variety of disciplines, including Egyptology, classical studies, history, and linguistics. Its documents have led to groundbreaking discoveries and have significantly contributed to our understanding of ancient civilizations.

Preservation and Accessibility: Yale University has made substantial efforts to preserve and digitize the papyrus fragments, making them accessible to a global audience. The digitization of these ancient texts has not only aided academic research but also allowed interested individuals from around the world to explore and study these remarkable artifacts online.

Interdisciplinary Insights: The Yale Papyrus Collection serves as a testament to the interplay of cultures throughout history and the enduring relevance of ancient texts in modern scholarship. It highlights the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration in deciphering, translating, and interpreting these fragile and ancient documents.

In sum, the Yale Papyrus Collection stands as a remarkable testament to human history and the enduring power of the written word. It provides a unique opportunity to delve into the thoughts, beliefs, and daily lives of ancient civilizations and continues to be a source of inspiration and discovery for scholars and enthusiasts alike.

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Abbildungen Heidelberger Papyri

(University of Heidelberg) [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

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Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents

The Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents (CSAD) is a prestigious research institution located at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the scholarly examination and promotion of ancient documents and inscriptions from various civilizations and historical periods. Here's a short description of the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents:

Research Focus: The primary mission of CSAD is to facilitate research into ancient documents and epigraphic materials. These documents encompass a wide range of media, including papyri, inscriptions, manuscripts, and other written artifacts. The center focuses on texts from ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, and neighboring regions.

Interdisciplinary Approach: CSAD adopts an interdisciplinary approach to the study of ancient documents. Scholars from various fields, such as Classics, History, Archaeology, Linguistics, and Epigraphy, collaborate to explore and decipher the content and context of these texts.

Epigraphic Expertise: The center is known for its expertise in epigraphy, the study of inscriptions on various surfaces like stone, metal, and ceramics. Researchers at CSAD specialize in deciphering and interpreting these inscriptions, shedding light on ancient languages, customs, and historical events.

Archival Holdings: CSAD manages a significant collection of photographs, squeezes (paper impressions of inscriptions), and archival materials related to ancient documents. These resources support the research activities of scholars and students worldwide.

Publications: The center produces scholarly publications, including books, articles, and digital resources, to disseminate research findings and advance the understanding of ancient texts and inscriptions.

Collaborative Projects: CSAD collaborates with other academic institutions, museums, and research organizations to conduct fieldwork, conservation efforts, and joint research projects related to ancient documents and epigraphy.

Education and Outreach: CSAD is actively engaged in educational outreach, offering seminars, lectures, and workshops to promote the study of ancient documents and epigraphy. These programs benefit both students and the wider community interested in the ancient world.

Digital Initiatives: The center embraces digital technologies to enhance the accessibility of ancient documents and inscriptions. Online databases and resources allow researchers and the public to explore and study these artifacts remotely.

The Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents at the University of Oxford plays a vital role in advancing our understanding of the ancient world through the analysis and interpretation of written materials. It serves as a hub for collaboration and scholarly research, contributing to the preservation and dissemination of valuable insights into the past.

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Duke Papyrus Archive

The Duke Papyrus Archive is a renowned collection of ancient papyrus documents and fragments housed at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, USA. This archive is a valuable resource for scholars and researchers interested in the study of ancient history, culture, and languages, particularly those of the Greco-Roman world. Here's a short description of the Duke Papyrus Archive:

Collection and Significance: The Duke Papyrus Archive is one of the most extensive and diverse collections of papyrus documents outside of Egypt. It contains over 1,800 individual papyrus items, spanning a wide range of subjects, including legal documents, letters, religious texts, contracts, literary fragments, and administrative records.

Origin: The majority of the papyrus documents in the archive come from Egypt and date from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, roughly from the 4th century BCE to the 7th century CE. They were discovered in various archaeological excavations in Egypt and acquired through legal means.

Research and Study: The Duke Papyrus Archive is a valuable resource for scholars, historians, linguists, and archaeologists interested in studying various aspects of ancient life. Researchers use these papyrus texts to gain insights into topics such as daily life, religious practices, legal systems, economic activities, and language evolution.

Digitization: To enhance accessibility and preservation, many of the papyrus documents in the collection have been digitized. This digital archive allows researchers from around the world to access and study the texts online, expanding the reach of the collection's valuable resources.

Interdisciplinary Study: The Duke Papyrus Archive supports interdisciplinary research, facilitating collaborations among scholars from diverse fields such as Classics, History, Egyptology, and Linguistics. It contributes to a deeper understanding of the cultural and historical context of the Greco-Roman world.

Educational Outreach: Duke University utilizes the archive for educational purposes, offering courses and workshops that allow students and the public to engage with the papyrus documents. This educational outreach helps promote the study of the ancient world and the preservation of its heritage.

Preservation: Proper preservation and conservation techniques are essential for the long-term care of fragile papyrus documents. The archive employs experts to ensure the physical integrity of the materials.

The Duke Papyrus Archive stands as a testament to the enduring significance of ancient texts and artifacts. It provides a valuable window into the lives and customs of individuals who lived in the Greco-Roman world and contributes to ongoing scholarly research and our understanding of this ancient period.

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 10

From the captivity of the ten tribes to the first year of Cyrus. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 11

From the first of Cyrus to the death of Alexander the great. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 13

From the death of Judas Maccabeus to the death of queen Alexandra. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 14

From the death of queen Alexandra to the death of Antigonus. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 15

From the death of Antigonus to the finishing of the temple by Herod. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 16

From the finishing of the temple by Herod to the death of Alexander and Aristobulus. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 17

From the death of Alexander and Aristobulus to the banishment of Archelaus. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 18

From the banishment of Archelus to the departure from Babylon. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 19

From the departure out of Babylon to Fadus, the roman procurator. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 20

From Fadus the procurator to Florus. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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War of the Jews - Preface

Preface to War of the Jews. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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War of the Jews - Book 1

From the taking of Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes to the death of Herod the great. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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War of the Jews - Book 2

From the death of Herod till Vespasian was sent to subdue the Jews by Nero. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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War of the Jews - Book 3

From Vespasian's coming to subdue the Jews to the taking of Gamala. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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War of the Jews - Book 4

From the siege of Gamala to the coming of Titus to besiege Jerusalem. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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War of the Jews - Book 5

From the coming of Titus to besiege Jerusalem, to the great extremity to which the Jews were reduced. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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War of the Jews - Book 6

From the great extremity to which the Jews were reduced to the taking of Jerusalem by Titus. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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War of the Jews - Book 7

From the taking of Jerusalem by Titus to the sedition at Cyrene. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Against Apion - Book 1

[The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Against Apion - Book 2

[The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Josephus's Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades

Book 1 [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Tobit

The Book of Tobit, named after its principal hero, combines specifically Jewish piety and morality with oriental folklore in a fascinating story that has enjoyed wide popularity in both Jewish...[Apocryphal Book Listing]

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Judith

The Book of Judith is a vivid story relating how, in a grave crisis, God delivered the Jewish people through the instrumentality of a woman. The unknown author composed this edifying narrative ...[Apocryphal Book Listing]

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Additions to Esther

The Book of Esther is named after its Jewish heroine. It tells the story of the plot of Haman the Agagite, the jealous and powerful vizier of King Xerxes (Ahasuerus) of Persia (485-464 B.C.), to destroy ...[Apocryphal Book Listing]

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Wisdom of Solomon

The Book of Wisdom was written about a hundred years before the coming of Christ. Its author, whose name is not known to us, was a member of the Jewish community at Alexandria, in ...[Apocryphal Book Listing]

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Sirach

The Book of Sirach derives its name from the author, Jesus, son of Eleazar, son of Sirach (Sir 50:27). Its earliest title seems to have been "Wisdom of the Son of Sirach." ...[Apocryphal Book Listing]

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Baruch

The opening verses of this book ascribe it, or at least its first part, to Baruch, the well-known secretary of the prophet Jeremiah. It contains five very different compositions, the first and the last ...[Apocryphal Book Listing]

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Letter of Jeremiah

Usually placed at the end of Baruch as the sixth chaptter, it is patterned after the earlier letter of Jeremiah (29), in the spirit of the warnings against idolatry contained in Jeremiah 10 and Isaiah 44. Its earnestness is impressive, but in restating previous inspired teachings at a later day, it does so with no special literary grace ...[Apocryphal Book Listing]

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Additions to Daniel - Prayer of Azariah

The first addition consists of a prayer in which Azarias, standing in the midst of the furnace, asks that God may deliver him and his companions, Ananias and Misael, and put their enemies to shamea brief notice of the fact that the Angel of the Lord saved the Three Children from all harm, whereas the flame consumed the Chaldeans above the furnace ; and a doxology leading on to the hymn familiarly known as the "Benedicite". [Apocryphal Book Listing] [Additions to Daniel]

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Additions to Daniel - Susanna

The second addition tells the history of Susanna, a faithful wife of a wealthy Jew named Joakim, and resident in Babylon. Accused falsely of adultery by two unworthy elders whose criminal advances she had repelled, she was sentenced to death by the tribunal before which she had been arraigned. As Susanna was led forth to execution, Daniel, moved by God, accuses the people of condeming a daughter of Israel to death without sufficient inquiry. He then examines the two pretended witnesses separately and proves that their testimony is self-contradictory. In fulfilment of the Law of Moses, the two elders were put to death, "and Daniel became great in the sight of the people from that day, and thenceforward." [Apocryphal Book Listing] [Additions to Daniel]

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Additions to Daniel - Bell and the Dragon

The last addition contains the narrative of the destruction of Bel and the dragon. The first narrative recounts the clever manner in which Daniel shows the king that the offerings to the Babylonian idol, Bel, were really consumed at night by the pagan priests and their families: in consequence, these impostors were put to death, and Bel and its temple destroyed. The second recounts how Daniel caused to die a great dragon that the Babylonians worshipped. Enraged at this, the people forced the king to cast the Prophet into a lions' den. Daniel remained there unharmed for six days, and fed by the prophet Habakkuk who was miraculously transported from Judea to Babylon. On the seventh day, the king having found Daniel alive in the midst of the lions, praised aloud the God of Daniel and delivered the Prophet's accusers to the fate which Daniel had miraculously escaped. [Apocryphal Book Listing] [Additions to Daniel]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Preface

Preface to Antiquities of the Jews. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 1

From the Creation to the death of Isaac. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 2

From the death of Isaac to the exodus out of Egypt. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 3

From the exodus out of Egypt, to the rejection of that generation. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 4

From the rejection of that generation to the death of Moses. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 5

From the death of Moses to the death of Eli. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 6

From the death of Eli to the death of Saul. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 7

From the death of Saul to the death of David. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 8

From the death of David to the death of Ahab. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Antiquities of the Jews - Book 9

From the death of Ahab to the captivity of the ten tribes. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

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Center for the Study of Ancient Documents

Introduction to the services of the Center and an experimental digital archive of epigraphical images, available for downloading. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

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University of Michigan Papyrus Collection

Contains an introduction to the University's papyrus collection, a list of papyrological tools, a selective bibliography, and a list of exhibitions and events. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

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The Perseus Project

Large site containing search tools, Greek texts with English translation, searchable lexicons, and over 13,000 images of art and artifacts along with descriptions of the image and its context. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

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Institut für Papyrologie (University of Heidelberg)

German language site. Includes a staff directory and current research projects. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

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Centro di Studi Papirologici (University of Lecce)

Maintained by the University Papyrological Center. Includes images of Demotic papyri. Italian language site. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

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Saskatoon Repository

Saskatoon Repository of the International Papyrological Photographic Archive (University of Saskatchewan) A comprehensive list of the holdings in the Archive, which contains photographic copies of the most-published papyri of the Cairo Museum and several universities. This site does not contain any of the photographs themselves. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

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Papyrus Collection of the University of Copenhagen

Contains an inventory and photographic archive of the published papyri in the Carlsberg collection. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

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Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Maintained by the Orion Center at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The site contains up-to-date information about Orion Center services and symposia, virtual tours of the caves at Qumran, and a selective list of Dead Sea Scroll sites. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

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Library of Congress Exhibit on the Dead Sea Scrolls

Background information on the Dead Sea Scrolls, and images of those fragments and artifacts displayed at the Library of Congress exhibit. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

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Noncanonical Webpage

Contains Old and New Testament apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, as well as documents of the Church Fathers and the Nag Hammadi collection. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

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Internet Classics Archive

Searchable archive of translated Greek and Roman texts. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

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Early Church Documents

Translated documents of the early and medieval Christian church, as well as contemporary Jewish, Islamic, non-heterodox, and Hellenistic sources. Includes an annotated table of contents. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

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Classical and Mediterranean Archaeology Homepage

Lengthy list of sites as well as search tools for classical and mediterranean archaeology, and lists of other indexes. [Index Sites] [Collections]

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1 Maccabbes

1 Maccabees was written about 100 B.C., in Hebrew, but the original has not come down to us. Instead, we have an early, pre-Christian, Greek translation full of Hebrew idioms ... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

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2 Maccabbes

Although this book, like the preceding one, receives its title from its protagonist, Judas Maccabee (or Maccabeus), it is not a sequel to 1 Maccabees. The two differ in many respects ... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

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1 Esdras

Although not belonging to the Canon of the Sacred Scriptures, this book is usually found in an appendix to the editions of the Vulgate. It is made up almost entirely from ... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

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Prayer of Manasseh

The Prayer of Manasses is an apocryphal writing which purports to give the prayer referred to in 2 Chronicles 33:13, 18-19. Its original is Greek... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

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3 Maccabees

The third does not hold a place in the Apocrypha, but is read in the Greek Church. Its design is to comfort the Alexandrian Jews in their persecution. Its writer was evidently an Alexandrian Jew... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

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2 Esdras

Known as 4 Esdras in most Latin manuscripts; the (Protestant) English apocrypha, however, give it as II Esdras, from the opening words: "The second book of the prophet Esdras"... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

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4 Maccabees

The fourth contains a history of the Jews from B.C. 184 to B.C. 86. It is a compilation made by a Jew after the destruction of Jerusalem, from ancient memoirs, to which he had access... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

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Apocrypha Translation List

Of the various translations we display on our site, only seven of them inlcude any of the Apocryphal (Deuterocanonical) books. Below is a table showing the seven translations and the books they include... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

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Josephus' Lineage

This graph of Josephus' lineage [right column] is a historical reconstruction based on information in the opening paragraph of his autobiography & other works. He claims to have recorded his genealogy "as I have found it described in the public records" [Life 1]. But when coordinated with historical information about the Hasmonean dynasty that he himself reports in his other works [left four columns] there are some obvious major generational discrepancies in his family tree. Josephus' count of his ancestors' generations would make him a fourth cousin of Herod's 2nd wife, Mariamne, who died sixty-eight years before he was born! Josephus' reports of his own experiences make it more probable that he was at most a sixth or, more likely, a seventh cousin of his near contemporary Herod Agrippa II, who was king of Iturea [southern Lebanon] in the decades surrounding the Jewish-Roman war of 66-70 CE.

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Census Edict for Roman Egypt

This document shows a census ordered by Gaius Vibius Maximus, the Rmoan Prefectus of Egypt. GREEK TEXT (from Hunt & Edgar 1934:108), TRANSLATION by K. C. Hanson (Adapted from Hunt & Edgar). Language: Greek; Medium: papyrus; Length: 21 lines of writing; Genre: Official Edict; Date: 104 CE; Place of Discovery: Egypt Date of Discovery: ? Current Location: British Museum, London.

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Marriage Contract From Egypt

This Greek document shows a Marriage Contract From Egypt written in 13 BC. It mentions Caesar Augustus and a Roman Drachma.

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Divorce Agreement from Egypt

This Greek document shows a Marriage Contract From Egypt written in 13 BC. It mentions Caesar Augustus and a Roman Drachma.

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Widow's Petition Ostracon

This pottery was discovered with 8 lines of Hebrew text. Legal Petition written around the 9th""7th centuries BCE.

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The Pilate Inscription

The Pilate Inscription [text & interpretation] Language: Latin; Medium: limestone; Size: 82 centimeters high 65 centimeters wide; Length: 4 lines of writing; Genre: Building Dedication Dedicator: Pontius Pilate (praefect of Judea) Approximate Date: 26-37 CE; Place of Discovery: Caesarea, Israel; Date of Discovery: 1961; Current Location: Israel Museum(Jerusalem)

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Josephus' References to Crucifixion

"Josephus (b. 37 C.E.) is our best literary source for the practice of crucifixion in Israel during the Greco-Roman period. As a general in command of the Jewish forces of Galilee in the Great Revolt against Rome (66-73 C.E.), he reports his attempts to save the lives of three crucified captives by appealing directly to the Roman general Titus. One survived the cross under a physician's care, the other two could not be saved." by Dr. James D. Tabor

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Life of Christ: Gospels in Harmony

Ken Palmer organizes events from the life of Christ. The events are in approximate chronological order. When an event appears in more than one gospel, the parallel accounts are grouped together. Understand that this is a general guide. Since many passages omit clear time references, some of the sequencing is speculative.

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Quotations from Ancient Documents

Ancient documents (including the books in the Apocrypha). From Dr. K. C. Hanson's website. Israel in the Time of Jesus. The translator is indicated at the end of each passage; those marked "KCH" indicate K. C. Hanson's translations, and those marked "DEO" indicated Douglas E. Oakman's translations.

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The Complete King James Version

Old and New Testaments and Apocrypha.


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The Complete Revised Standard Version

Old and New Testaments and Apocrypha.

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Die Bibel, Martin Luther Translation

Full texts of the Old and New Testaments.

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The Flood Narrative From the Gilgamesh Epic

Translation by E.A. Speiser, in Ancient Near Eastern Texts (Princeton, 1950)

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The Gilgamesh Epic

The Epic of Gilgamesh is, perhaps, the oldest written story on Earth. It comes to us from Ancient Sumeria, and was originally written on 12 clay tablets in cunieform script. It is about the adventures of the historical King of Uruk (somewhere between 2750 and 2500 BC).

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The Hammurabi Stele

THE HAMMURABI STELE. Partially Retold in English, by Stan Rummel, Director of The Humanities Program, Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas. "In the following selections, I have frequently changed the grammar and sequence of words from that of the original text, and I have omitted sections of material, so that what is given will read comprehensibly in English. I have grouped regulations by topical categories for discussion, rather than simply following their numerical sequence." Also includes an image: Detail of the top of the Hammurabi Stele, picturing King Hammurabi coming before the god Shamash.

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Manumission and Bridewealth Document

Manumission and Bridewealth Document (14th cent. BCE?)TRANSLATION by K. C. Hanson (Adapted from Finkelstein 1969:546). Language: Akkadian; Medium: Clay tablet; Size: 43 centimeters long 5 centimeters wide; Length: 25 lines of writing Genre: Manumission & Marriage Contract Approximate Date: 14th cent. BCE? Place of Discovery: Ugarit acropolis, Ras Shamra, Syria Date of Discovery: 1936 Current Location: Musée National d'Alep Aleppo, Syria.

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Ishtar Gate Inscription

Dedicatory Inscription on the Ishtar Gate, Babylon; TRANSLATION (Adapted from Marzahn 1995:29-30)Language: Akkadian Medium: glazed brick Size: c. 15 meters high c. 10 meters wide Length: 60 lines of writing Genre: Dedication Inscription Dedicator: Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylonia (reigned 605""562 BCE) Approximate Date: 600 BCE Place of Discovery: Babylon (near modern Baghdad, Iraq) Date of Excavation: 1899""1914 Current Location: Pergamon Museen (Berlin, Germany)

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Gaius Cornelius Tacitus - History of Rome

[Ancient Historians and Generals] The electronic edition, originally translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb, did not include any internal text divisions other than the primary book divisions. To make the text more usable for students to search and quote, the paragraph indexing used in The Modern Library edition of Church and Brodribb's text, published under the title of The Complete Works of Tacitus, 1942, was added along with HTML links, and then the text was converted to HTML.

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Herodotus - History of Persian Wars

[Ancient Historians and Generals] Book 1 - CLIO Book 2 - EUTERPE Book 3 - THALIA Book 4 - MELPOMENE Book 5 - TERPSICHORE Book 6 - ERATO Book 7 - POLYMNIA Book 8 - URANIA Book 9 - CALLIOPE Brief history of Persia - tiny index to Herodotus

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Assyrian and Babylonian texts

Assyrian and Babylonian texts. Ancient History, Archaeology and Biblical Studies. The primary purpose of this site is to provide on-line text documents from archaeologists and ancient writers, and some tools for Bible study. Everything is provided in an HTML format which has internal reference markers. These internal markers are not visible when simply reading the text, but they allow HTML search tools to index information available here. A simple search program is provided here.

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Julius Caesar - Wars against France and Germany

Roman civil war. [Ancient Historians and Generals] Julius Caesar's War Commentaries

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Inscription of Tiglath Pileser I - (38k)

Assyrian and Babylonian texts. Text Source: Library collection: "World's Greatest Literature" Published work: "Babylonian and Assyrian Literature" Translator: Sir H. Rawlinson, K.C.B., D.C.L., Etc. Publisher: P. F. Collier & Son, New York Copyright: Colonial Press, 1901

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Sections of the Jewish Talmud

Jewish texts. Selections from the Jewish Talmud

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Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II - (24k)

Assyrian and Babylonian texts. Text Source: Library collection: "World's Greatest Literature" Published work: "Babylonian and Assyrian Literature" Translator: Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A. Publisher: P. F. Collier & Son, New York Copyright: Colonial Press, 1901

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Annals of Assur-Nasir-Pal - (71k)

Assyrian and Babylonian texts. Text Source: Library collection: "World's Greatest Literature" Published work: "Babylonian and Assyrian Literature" Translator: Rev. J. M. Rodwell, M.A. Publisher: P. F. Collier & Son, New York Copyright: Colonial Press, 1901

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Inscription of Nebuchadnezzar - (30k)

Assyrian and Babylonian texts. Text Source: Library collection: "World's Greatest Literature" Published work: "Babylonian and Assyrian Literature" Translator: Rev. J. M. Rodwell, M.A. Publisher: P. F. Collier & Son, New York Copyright: Colonial Press, 1901

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Julius Caesar

Wars against France and Germany. Roman civil war. Ancient Historians and Generals. This is a detailed discription of the war campaigns of Julius Caesar, starting from the time that he was in charge of the Roman forces in France (Gaul). Caesar's writting style is that of a detailed factual report, prepared year by year, of the events. The parts not written by him attempt a similiar style, but are not as clean (See the notes of Hortius, at the start of the 8th book of the Gallic Wars). Caesar's writings present himself as a much more balanced and just leader than Suetonius or Plutarch indicate in their biographies of him. Also, the accounts of the army during the Spanish campaign show a more brutal side to his leadership.

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Gaius Cornelius Tacitus

History of Rome. Ancient Historians and Generals. Tacitus grew up during a the reign of Nero, and may have been a teenager when Nero died and the Roman empire was plunged into civil war. In his later years he became interested in writing an unbiased account of those times, starting his account just before Tiberius came to the throne. We do not have a complete account of either the Annals or the Histories, but what has been preserved provides an interesting look at Roman life, written by one who lived close to those times.

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Herodotus

Herodotus - History of Persian Wars . Ancient Historians and Generals (text) each chapter is approximately 130-250 kb.

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Inscription of Tiglath Pileser I

Full Text (38k) This inscription of Tiglath Pileser I is found on an octagonal prism and on some other clay fragments discovered at Kalah-Shergat and at present in the British Museum. On the whole for its extent and historical information relating to the early history of Assyria this inscription is one of the most important of the series showing the gradual advance and rise of Assyria, while as one of the first interpreted it presents considerable literary interest in respect to the details of the progress of Assyrian interpretation. It is also nearly the oldest Assyrian text of any length which has been hitherto discovered and is very interesting from its account of the construction of the temples and palaces made by the King in the early part of his reign.

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Inscription of Tiglath Pileser I

Full Text (38k) This inscription of Tiglath Pileser I is found on an octagonal prism and on some other clay fragments discovered at Kalah-Shergat and at present in the British Museum. On the whole for its extent and historical information relating to the early history of Assyria this inscription is one of the most important of the series showing the gradual advance and rise of Assyria, while as one of the first interpreted it presents considerable literary interest in respect to the details of the progress of Assyrian interpretation. It is also nearly the oldest Assyrian text of any length which has been hitherto discovered and is very interesting from its account of the construction of the temples and palaces made by the King in the early part of his reign.

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Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II

Full Text (24k) This inscription is engraved on an obelisk of black marble, five feet in height, found by Mr. Layard in the centre of the Mound at Nimroud, and now in the British Museum. Each of its four sides is divided into five compartments of sculpture representing the tribute brought to the Assyrian King by vassal princes, Jehu of Israel being among the number. Shalmaneser, whose annals and conquests are recorded upon it, was the son of Assur-natsir-pal, and died in 823 B.C., after a reign of thirty-five years. A translation of the inscription was one of the first achievements of Assyrian decipherment, and was made by Sir. H. Rawlinson; and Dr. Hincks shortly afterward (in 1851) succeeded in reading the name of Jehu in it.

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Annals of Assur-Nasir-Pal

Full Text (71k) Concerning Assur-nasir-habal or Assur-nasir-pal (i.e., "Assur preserves the son") we possess fuller historical records than of any other of the Assyrian monarchs, and among these the following inscription is the most important. From it, and from the inscription upon his statue discovered by Mr. Layard in the ruins of one of the Nimroud temples, we learn that he was the son of Tuklat-Adar or Tuklat-Ninip, that he reigned over a territory extending from the "Tigris to the Lebanon, and that he brought the great sea and all countries from the sunrise to the sunset under his sway.

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Inscription of Nebuchadnezzar II

Full Text (30k) Babylonian inscriptions are by no means so replete with interest as the Assyrian. The latter embrace the various expeditions in which the Assyrian monarchs were engaged, and bring us into contact with the names and locality of rivers, cities, and mountain-ranges, with contemporary princes in Judea and elsewhere, and abound in details as to domestic habits, civil usages, and the implements and modes of warfare. But the Babylonian inscriptions refer mainly to the construction of temples, palaces, and other public buildings, and at the same time present especial difficulties in their numerous architectural terms which it is often impossible to translate with any certainty. They are, however, interesting as records of the piety and religious feelings of the sovereigns of Babylon, and as affording numerous topographical notices of that famous city; while the boastful language of the inscription will often remind the reader of Nebuchadnezzar's words in Dan. iv. 30: "Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for the house of the kingdom, by the might of my power, and for the honor of my majesty?" Compare column vii, line 32.

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