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Ancient Documents

Ancient History Sourcebook - Mesopotamian Laws

A Collection of Mesopotamian Laws, c. 2250 - 550 BC. (Assyrian and Babylonian Literature)

Link: https://coursebible.com/ancient-documents/ancient-history-sourcebook-a-collection-of-mesopotamian-laws-c-2250-550-bce

Quotes about the Bible and History

From Bible History Online, many of the quotes are from historical sources.

Link: https://bible-history.com/biblehistoryonline_quotes.php

Antony By Plutarch

(died 30 B.C.E.) Written 75 A.C.E. Translated by John Dryden [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/antony.html

Caesar By Plutarch

(died 44 B.C.E.) Written 75 A.C.E. Translated by John Dryden [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/caesar.html

Philo of Alexandria

Resource Pages for Philo of Alexandria. Lots of Resources.

Link: http://www.torreys.org/bible/philopag.html

On-line primary literature for Biblical Studies

Texts of ANE contracts, Joesphus, Pseudepigrapha, Rabbinic, Early Church Fathers, Magical papyri etc. [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

Link: https://coursebible.com/resources/on-line-primary-literature

Extra-biblical references to Jesus and Christianity

The following are early extra-biblical references to Jesus and/or Christians by non-Christian writers (in some cases, Christian writers are quoting non-Christian writers' references to Jesus). Quotes are copied from the accompanying links, unless otherwise noted. Within the text of the article, authors' names are links to encyclopedia articles about them. [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

Link: https://coursebible.com/jesus/extra-biblical-references-to-jesus-and-christianity

The Electronic New Testament Manuscripts Project

NT manuscripts and transcriptions. The Electronic New Testament Manuscripts Project is an international, scholarly, volunteer effort to make images and transcriptions of New Testament manuscripts available freely on the Internet. University of Western Australia [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

Link: http://www.tei-c.org/Applications/el01.xml

Apostolic Fathers

Epistle of Barnabas Lightfoot 1 Clement Lightfoot 2 Clement Lightfoot Didache [Hoole] or, alternatively, the Lightfoot translation Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus Lightfoot another translation The Shepherd of Hermas Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Philadelphians Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians Lightfoot Fragments of Papias Epistle of Polycarp (to the Philippians) Lightfoot Martyrdom of Polycarp Lightfoot[Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

Link: https://coursebible.com/apostolic-fathers

Duke Papyrus Archive

Collection of 1373 Egyptian Papyri, with background articles [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

Link: http://odyssey.lib.duke.edu/papyrus/

On-Line Texts Related to Biblical Study

Related to ancient Near Eastern religions, Hellenistic Mediterranian religions and Biblical Study. [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

Link: https://coursebible.com/resources/on-line-primary-literature

Extra Biblical Writings (Huge Collection)

Full Texts. (Pseudepigrapha, Gnostic, Apocrypha & Dead Sea Scrolls) [N.T Studies]

Link: https://coursebible.com

Frequently Asked Questions about Classics

Link: http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/classics-faq/faq.html

Writings and Classics Pages

Until this section is finished being indexed into the main database you can click here to see a list of links including the Bible History Online general resources on this subject, although many of these links are outdated. [Ancient Documents]

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/wc_writ.htm

Pliny-Trajan Correspondence Regarding the Christians

[Pliny the Younger][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/latin/pliny.html

Pliny and Trajan Correspondence Regarding the Christians

[Pliny the Younger][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.pohick.org/sts/historical.html

Letters 10.25ff

[Pliny the Younger][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/pliny-trajan1.html

The Grandeur of Rome

[Pliny the Elder][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/pliny-natihist-rome.html

Description of Greece - Book 1

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0160&query=book%3D%231

Description of Greece - Book 2

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0160&query=book%3D%232

Description of Greece - Book 3

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0160&query=book%3D%233

Description of Greece - Book 4

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0160&query=book%3D%234

Description of Greece - Book 5

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0160&query=book%3D%235

Description of Greece - Book 6

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0160&query=book%3D%236

Description of Greece - Book 7

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0160&query=book%3D%237

Description of Greece - Book 8

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0160&query=book%3D%238

Description of Greece - Book 9

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0160&query=book%3D%239

Description of Greece - Book 10

[Pausanius][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0160&query=book%3D%2310

The Destruction of Corinth

[Polybius ][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/polybius-corinth146.html

Life of Pyrrhus

[Plutarch ][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/pyrrhus.html

Life of Tiberius Gracchus

[Plutarch ][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/tiberius.html

Life of Tiberius Gracchus

[Plutarch ][Greco-Roman writings] Translated by John Dryden

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/tiberius.html

Life of Caius Gracchus

[Plutarch ][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/gracchus.html

Life of Sulla

[Plutarch ][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/sylla.html

Life of Marius

[Plutarch ][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/c_marius.html

Life of Pompey

[Plutarch ][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/pompey.html

Life of Crassus

[Plutarch ][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/crassus.html

Life of Cicero

[Plutarch ][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/cicero.html

Life of Caesar

[Plutarch ][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/caesar.html

The Assassination of Julius Caesar

[Plutarch ][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/plutarch-caesar.html

Life of Anthony

[Plutarch ][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/antony.html

Gallic Wars - Book 1

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Caesar/CaesarGal01.html

Gallic Wars - Book 2

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Caesar/CaesarGal02.html

Gallic Wars - Book 3

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Caesar/CaesarGal03.html

Gallic Wars - Book 4

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Caesar/CaesarGal04.html

Gallic Wars - Book 5

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Caesar/CaesarGal05.html

Gallic Wars - Book 6

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Caesar/CaesarGal06.html

Gallic Wars - Book 7

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Caesar/CaesarGal07.html

Gallic Wars - Book 8

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Caesar/CaesarGal08.html

Civil Wars - Book 1

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Caesar/CaesarCiv01.html

Civil Wars - Book 2

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Caesar/CaesarCiv02.html

Civil Wars - Book 3

[Julius Caesar][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Caesar/CaesarCiv03.html

Acts of the Divine Augustus

[Augustus][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Augustus/deeds.html

History of Rome (Books 1-5)

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 1: The Earliest Legends;
Book 2: The Early Years of the Republic;
Book 3: The Decemvirate;
Book 4: The Growing Power of the Plebs;
Book 5: The Veii and the Destruction of Rome by the Gauls

Link: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new?id=Liv1His&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public

History of Rome (Books 6-10)

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 6: The Reconciliation of the Orders - (389 - 366 B.C.);
Book 7: Frontier Wars - (366 - 341 B.C.);
Book 8: The First Samnite War and Settlement of Latium - (341 -321 B.C.);
Book 9: The Second Samnite War - (321 - 304 B.C.);
Book 10: The Third Samnite War - (303 - 293 B.C.)

Link: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new?id=Liv2His&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public

History of Rome (Books 21-25) Vol. III

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 21: From Saguntum to the Trebia;
Book 22: The Disaster of Cannae;
23: Hannibal at Capua;
Book 24: The Revolution in Syracuse;
Book 25: The Fall of Syracuse

Link: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new?id=Liv3His&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public

History of Rome (Books 26-30) Vol. IV

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 26: The Fate of Capua;
Book 27: Scipio in Spain ;
Book 28: The Final Conquest of Spain;
Book 29: Scipio in Africa;
Book 30: Close of the Hannibalic War

Link: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new?id=Liv4His&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public

History of Rome (Books 26-32) Vol. IV

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 26: The Fate of Capua;
Book 27: Scipio in Spain ;
Book 28: The Final Conquest of Spain;
Book 29: Scipio in Africa;
Book 30: Close of the Hannibalic War;
Book 31: Rome and Macedon;
Book 32: The Second Macedonian War

Link: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new?id=Liv4His&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public

History of Rome (Books 33-39) Vol. V

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 33: The Second Macedonian War;
Book 34: Close of the Macedonian War;
Book 35: Antiochus in Greece;
Book 36: War Against Antiochus - First Stage;
Book 37: Final Defeat of Antiochus;
Book 38: Arraignment of Scipio Africanus;
Book 39: The Bacchanalia in Rome and Italy

Link: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new?id=Liv5His&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public

History of Rome (Books 40-45) Vol. VI

[Livy][Greco-Roman writings]
Book 40: Perseus and Demetrius;
Book 41: Perseus and the States of Greece;
Book 42: The Third Macedonian War;
Book 43: The Third Macedonian War - Continued;
Book 44: Pydna and the Fall of Macedonia;
Book 45: Rome stabilizes the East

Link: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new?id=Liv6His&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public

The Divine Augustus

[Suetonius][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/suetonius-augustus.html

The Divine Augustus

[Suetonius][Greco-Roman writings] Ancient History Sourcebook

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/suetonius-augustus.html

Life of Vitellius

[Suetonius][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/suetonius-vitellius13.html

Life of Domitian

[Suetonius][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/suetonius-domitian4.html

Life of Augustus

[Nicolaus of Damascus][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/nicolaus.html

The Annals - Book 1 - (A.D. 14-15)

[Tacitus][Greco-Roman writings] Publius Cornelius Tacitus

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/tacitus/TacitusAnnals01.html

The Annals - Book 2 - (A.D. 16-19)

[Tacitus][Greco-Roman writings] Publius Cornelius Tacitus

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/tacitus/TacitusAnnals02.html

The Annals - Books 1-16 (A.D. 14-66)

[Tacitus][Greco-Roman writings] Publius Cornelius Tacitus. Tacitus grew up during a the reign of Nero, and may have been a teenager when Nero died and the Roman empire was plunged into civil war. In his later years he became interested in writing an unbiased account of those times, starting his account just before Tiberius came to the throne. We do not have a complete account of either the Annals or the Histories, but what has been preserved provides an interesting look at Roman life, written by one who lived close to those times.

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/tacitus/

The Histories - Books 1-5 (A.D. 69-70)

[Tacitus][Greco-Roman writings] Publius Cornelius Tacitus. Tacitus grew up during a the reign of Nero, and may have been a teenager when Nero died and the Roman empire was plunged into civil war. In his later years he became interested in writing an unbiased account of those times, starting his account just before Tiberius came to the throne. We do not have a complete account of either the Annals or the Histories, but what has been preserved provides an interesting look at Roman life, written by one who lived close to those times.

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/tacitus/

Nero and the Great Fire of Rome

[Dio Cassius][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/diocassius-nero1.html

Geography

[Strabo][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0198

The Grandeur of Rome

[Strabo][Greco-Roman writings] Perseus Encyclopedia

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/strabo5-rome.html

The Geography

[Claudius Ptolemy][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Periods/Roman/_Texts/Ptolemy/home.html

Satire 3

[Juvenal][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/juvenal3.html

Immigrants in Rome

[Martial][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/martial9-3.html

Perseus Catalogue of Greek Texts

[Collections][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/Texts/chunk_TOC.html

Perseus Catalogue of Latin Texts

[Collections][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/Texts/latin_TOC.html

MIT's Catalogue of Classics

[Collections][Greco-Roman writings]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Browse/index.html

P52 Fragment of the Gospel of John

[Papyri] [Manuscripts] [Images of New Testament Texts] a.k.a. John Rylands P457

Link: http://www.historian.net/P52.html

P52: A Fragment of the Gospel of John

[Papyri] [Manuscripts] [Images of New Testament Texts]
a.k.a. John Rylands P457;
This is the oldest known manuscript fragment of the New Testament.
DESCRIPTION
Language: Greek
Medium: papyrus
Size: 3.5 inches long; 2.5 inches wide; Length: 7 lines on each side
Approximate Date: c. 125""150 CE
Place of Discovery: Egypt
Date of Discovery/Acquisition: 1920
Acquirer: Bernard P. Grenfell
Current Location: John Rylands Library,Manchester, England
Inventory Number: Rylands Greek Papyrus 457
Manuscript Number: P52
Manuscript Family: Alexandrian

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/greek/johnpap.html

The Damascus Document (CD)

Brit Damesek [The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.ibiblio.org/expo/deadsea.scrolls.exhibit/Library/damasc.html

The Temple Scroll (11QT)

An Introduction to the Qumran Temple Scroll (11QT). REL 365: The Dead Sea Scrolls course webpage, including materials and links relating to Khirbet Qumran, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the Bible. [The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.taylor-edu.ca/codex/DSS/Introductions/11QT_BG.html

The War Rule 1QM, 4Q49l-496

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.piney.com/DocDSSWar.html

The War Rule (4Q285 (SM))

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: https://coursebible.com/qumran-library/the-war-rule

4QMMT (4Q394-399)

Some of the Fragments of 4QMMT [The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rs/rak/courses/427/texts/4QMMT.htm

Hosea Commentary (4QpHosea)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: https://coursebible.com/qumran-library/hosea-commentary

Habakkuk Commentary (1QpHab)

An Introduction to the Commentary on Habakkuk Scroll (1QpHab) by Lisa Bots [The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.taylor-edu.ca/codex/DSS/Introductions/1QpHab.html

Some Torah Precepts (4Q396)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: https://coursebible.com/qumran-library/some-torah-precepts

The Great Isaiah Scroll

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.ao.net/~fmoeller/qumdir.htm

Enoch (4Q201)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: https://coursebible.com/qumran-library/enoch

Songs for the Sabbath Sacrifice (4Q403)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: https://coursebible.com/qumran-library/songs-of-the-sabbath-sacrifice

A Baptismal Liturgy (4Q414)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.webcom.com/~gnosis/library/baptl.htm

The Parable of the Bountiful Tree (4Q302a)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.webcom.com/~gnosis/library/partre.htm

Prayer For King Jonathan (4Q448)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: https://coursebible.com/qumran-library/prayer-for-king-jonathan

Plea for Deliverance (11QPs)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: https://coursebible.com/qumran-library/psalms-scroll

Prayer of King Nabonindus (4Q242)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: https://coursebible.com/dead-sea-scroll/the-healing-of-king-nabonindus-4q242

The Thanksgiving Psalms (Pss. 4, 5, 8, 23)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.webcom.com/~gnosis/library/psalm.htm

The Coming of Melchizedek (11Q13)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.webcom.com/~gnosis/library/commelc.htm

The Book of Secrets (1Q27, 4Q299-301)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.webcom.com/~gnosis/library/bks.htm

The Book of Secrets (1Q27, 4Q299-301)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.webcom.com/~gnosis/library/bks.htm

The Divine Throne Chariot

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.webcom.com/~gnosis/library/dtc.htm

Redemption and Resurrection (4Q521)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.piney.com/redres.html

Calendrical Document (4Q321)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: https://coursebible.com/qumran-library/calendrical-document

Tongues of Fire (1Q29, 4Q376)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.webcom.com/~gnosis/library/tongfi.htm

The Copper Scroll (3Q15)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://faculty.biu.ac.il/~barilm/copertx2.html

A Phylactery (Mur 4 Phyl)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: https://coursebible.com/qumran-library/phylactery

The Creation of the World

[Philo][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/philo-creation.html

On Ascetics

[Philo][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/philo-ascetics.html

On Eating the Passover Meal

[Philo][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/themes.html

Against Apion - Book 1

[Josephus][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/apion-1.htm

Against Apion - Book 2

[Josephus][Ancient Documents]

Link: http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/apion-2.htm

The Damascus Document

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: https://coursebible.com/qumran-library/damascus-document

The Damascus Document

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: https://coursebible.com/qumran-library/damascus-document

The Community Rule (1QS)

An Online Transcription of Dead Sea Scroll 1QS (The "Manual of Discipline") [The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: https://coursebible.com/dead-sea-scroll/an-online-transcription-of-dead-sea-scroll-1qs

Transcription of the Community Rule

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents] (Requires SPTiberian Font)

Link: https://coursebible.com/dead-sea-scroll/an-online-transcription-of-dead-sea-scroll-1qs

Community Rule (4QSd)

[The Dead Sea Scrolls][Ancient Documents]

Link: https://coursebible.com/qumran-library/the-community-rule

Center for the Study of Ancient Documents

Introduction to the services of the Center and an experimental digital archive of epigraphical images, available for downloading.

Link: http://www.csad.ox.ac.uk/CSAD/Links.html

Duke Papyri Collection with APIS

Duke Papyri Collection with APIS (Advanced Papyrological Information System). Searchable online catalogue and proposal for APIS, an papyrological information system based on the Web.

Link: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/papyrus/

University of Michigan Papyrus Collection

Contains an introduction to the University's papyrus collection, a list of papyrological tools, a selective bibliography, and a list of exhibitions and events.

Link: http://www.lib.umich.edu/pap/

The Perseus Project

Large site containing search tools, Greek texts with English translation, searchable lexicons, and over 13,000 images of art and artifacts along with descriptions of the image and its context.

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/

Institut für Papyrologie (University of Heidelberg)

German language site. Includes a staff directory and current research projects.

Link: http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/institute/fak8/papy/Homepage_Papyrologie/pap.htm

Centro di Studi Papirologici (University of Lecce)

Centro di Studi Papirologici (University of Lecce) Maintained by the University Papyrological Center. Includes images of Demotic papyri. Italian language site.

Link: http://siba2.unile.it/images/papiri/csp.html

Saskatoon Repository

Saskatoon Repository of the International Papyrological Photographic Archive (University of Saskatchewan) A comprehensive list of the holdings in the Archive, which contains photographic copies of the most-published papyri of the Cairo Museum and several universities. This site does not contain any of the photographs themselves.

Link: http://www.usask.ca/antharch/cnea/

Papyrus Collection of the University of Copenhagen

Contains an inventory and photographic archive of the published papyri in the Carlsberg collection.

Link: http://www.hum.ku.dk/cni/papcoll/

Noncanonical Webpage

Contains Old and New Testament apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, as well as documents of the Church Fathers and the Nag Hammadi collection.

Link: https://coursebible.com/resources/on-line-primary-literature

Internet Classics Archive

Searchable archive of translated Greek and Roman texts.

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/

Early Church Documents

Translated documents of the early and medieval Christian church, as well as contemporary Jewish, Islamic, non-heterodox, and Hellenistic sources. Includes an annotated table of contents.

Link: http://www2.evansville.edu/ecoleweb/documents.html

Epigraphical Museum Athens

The Epigraphical Museum was founded in 1885 and it was established in the ground floor of the building of the National Archaeological Museum, which was constructed between 1866 and 1889, according to architectural plans by L.Lange and E.Ziller. It was renovated and extended in six new rooms, during the years 1953-1960, according to plans of the architect P.Karantinos. It comprises a collection of Attic inscriptions and also a collection of inscriptions from other districts of Greece. [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.greece-athens.com/place.php?place_id=10

Duke Papyrus Archive

[ Browse | Search ] [ Information about papyri | Information about the Duke Papyrus Archive | Links to other sites ] [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/papyrus/

Hellenistic Greek Linguistics

(James K. Tauber) [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.jtauber.com/new_testament_greek

Inscriptiones Graecae Eystettenses

Greek Inscriptions of Asia Minor [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.gnomon.ku-eichstaett.de/LAG/IGEyst.html

Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts

(Timothy W. Seid, Brown University) [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.earlham.edu/~seidti/iam/interp_mss.html

Papyrology Homepage

With over 7,000 inventory numbers and more than 10,000 individual fragments, the University of Michigan is home to one of the largest collections of papyri in the world. Provides the public with access not only to our own papyrological collections but to many other papyrological resources as well. [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.lib.umich.edu/pap/

POxy Oxyrhynchus Papyri Project

Updated. (Oxford) [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.papyrology.ox.ac.uk/

Papyrological Photographic Archive

Program in Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology. Saskatoon Repository of International Papyrological Photographic Archive, (Department of Classics, University of Saskatoon) [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://artsandscience.usask.ca/cnea/

Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. Genizah Fragments The Newsletter of Cambridge University's Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit at Cambridge University Library (Cambridge University Library) [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/Taylor-Schechter/GF/GF30.html

Tebtunis Papyrus Project

(Bancroft Library, Berkeley) [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/APIS/index.html

Thesaurus Lingua Graecae Home Page

The Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG®) is a research center at the University of California, Irvine. Founded in 1972 the TLG has already collected and digitized most literary texts written in Greek from Homer to the fall of Byzantium in AD 1453. Its goal is to create a comprehensive digital library of Greek literature from antiquity to the present era. [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.tlg.uci.edu/

University of Michigan Papyrus Collection

[Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.lib.umich.edu/pap/

Yale Papyrus Collection

The Yale Papyrus Collection has formed gradually over the years since 1889, when it was founded. Many of the acquisitions consisted of unsorted fragments of manuscripts, and almost every item was in need of considerable conservation work. (Yale University), [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/papyrus/

Abbildungen Heidelberger Papyri

(University of Heidelberg) [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.rzuser.uni-heidelberg.de/~gv0/Papyri/P.Heid._Uebersicht.html

Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents

(University of Oxford, England) [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://www.csad.ox.ac.uk/CSAD/

Duke Papyrus Archive

(Duke University) [Papyrology and Epigraphy]

Link: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/papyrus/

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 10

From the captivity of the ten tribes to the first year of Cyrus. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_10

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 11

From the first of Cyrus to the death of Alexander the great. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_11

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 13

From the death of Judas Maccabeus to the death of queen Alexandra. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_13

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 14

From the death of queen Alexandra to the death of Antigonus. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_14

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 15

From the death of Antigonus to the finishing of the temple by Herod. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_15

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 16

From the finishing of the temple by Herod to the death of Alexander and Aristobulus. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_16

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 17

From the death of Alexander and Aristobulus to the banishment of Archelaus. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_17

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 18

From the banishment of Archelus to the departure from Babylon. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_18

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 19

From the departure out of Babylon to Fadus, the roman procurator. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_19

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 20

From Fadus the procurator to Florus. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_20

War of the Jews - Preface

Preface to War of the Jews. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=War_0

War of the Jews - Book 1

From the taking of Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes to the death of Herod the great. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=War_1

War of the Jews - Book 2

From the death of Herod till Vespasian was sent to subdue the Jews by Nero. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=War_2

War of the Jews - Book 3

From Vespasian's coming to subdue the Jews to the taking of Gamala. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=War_3

War of the Jews - Book 4

From the siege of Gamala to the coming of Titus to besiege Jerusalem. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=War_4

War of the Jews - Book 5

From the coming of Titus to besiege Jerusalem, to the great extremity to which the Jews were reduced. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=War_5

War of the Jews - Book 6

From the great extremity to which the Jews were reduced to the taking of Jerusalem by Titus. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=War_6

War of the Jews - Book 7

From the taking of Jerusalem by Titus to the sedition at Cyrene. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=War_7

Against Apion - Book 1

[The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Apion_1

Against Apion - Book 2

[The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Apion_2

Josephus's Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades

Book 1 [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Hades_1

Tobit

The Book of Tobit, named after its principal hero, combines specifically Jewish piety and morality with oriental folklore in a fascinating story that has enjoyed wide popularity in both Jewish...[Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=tob+1&version=nrs

Judith

The Book of Judith is a vivid story relating how, in a grave crisis, God delivered the Jewish people through the instrumentality of a woman. The unknown author composed this edifying narrative ...[Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=jdt+1&version=nrs

Additions to Esther

The Book of Esther is named after its Jewish heroine. It tells the story of the plot of Haman the Agagite, the jealous and powerful vizier of King Xerxes (Ahasuerus) of Persia (485-464 B.C.), to destroy ...[Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=esx+1&version=nrs

Wisdom of Solomon

The Book of Wisdom was written about a hundred years before the coming of Christ. Its author, whose name is not known to us, was a member of the Jewish community at Alexandria, in ...[Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=wis+1&version=nrs

Sirach

The Book of Sirach derives its name from the author, Jesus, son of Eleazar, son of Sirach (Sir 50:27). Its earliest title seems to have been "Wisdom of the Son of Sirach." ...[Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=sir+1&version=studybible

Baruch

The opening verses of this book ascribe it, or at least its first part, to Baruch, the well-known secretary of the prophet Jeremiah. It contains five very different compositions, the first and the last ...[Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=bar+1&version=nrs

Letter of Jeremiah

Usually placed at the end of Baruch as the sixth chaptter, it is patterned after the earlier letter of Jeremiah (29), in the spirit of the warnings against idolatry contained in Jeremiah 10 and Isaiah 44. Its earnestness is impressive, but in restating previous inspired teachings at a later day, it does so with no special literary grace ...[Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=ljr+1&version=studybible

Additions to Daniel - Prayer of Azariah

The first addition consists of a prayer in which Azarias, standing in the midst of the furnace, asks that God may deliver him and his companions, Ananias and Misael, and put their enemies to shamea brief notice of the fact that the Angel of the Lord saved the Three Children from all harm, whereas the flame consumed the Chaldeans above the furnace ; and a doxology leading on to the hymn familiarly known as the "Benedicite". [Apocryphal Book Listing] [Additions to Daniel]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=aza+1&version=nrs

Additions to Daniel - Susanna

The second addition tells the history of Susanna, a faithful wife of a wealthy Jew named Joakim, and resident in Babylon. Accused falsely of adultery by two unworthy elders whose criminal advances she had repelled, she was sentenced to death by the tribunal before which she had been arraigned. As Susanna was led forth to execution, Daniel, moved by God, accuses the people of condeming a daughter of Israel to death without sufficient inquiry. He then examines the two pretended witnesses separately and proves that their testimony is self-contradictory. In fulfilment of the Law of Moses, the two elders were put to death, "and Daniel became great in the sight of the people from that day, and thenceforward." [Apocryphal Book Listing] [Additions to Daniel]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=sus+1&version=studybible

Additions to Daniel - Bell and the Dragon

The last addition contains the narrative of the destruction of Bel and the dragon. The first narrative recounts the clever manner in which Daniel shows the king that the offerings to the Babylonian idol, Bel, were really consumed at night by the pagan priests and their families: in consequence, these impostors were put to death, and Bel and its temple destroyed. The second recounts how Daniel caused to die a great dragon that the Babylonians worshipped. Enraged at this, the people forced the king to cast the Prophet into a lions' den. Daniel remained there unharmed for six days, and fed by the prophet Habakkuk who was miraculously transported from Judea to Babylon. On the seventh day, the king having found Daniel alive in the midst of the lions, praised aloud the God of Daniel and delivered the Prophet's accusers to the fate which Daniel had miraculously escaped. [Apocryphal Book Listing] [Additions to Daniel]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=bel+1&version=nrs

Antiquities of the Jews - Preface

Preface to Antiquities of the Jews. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_0

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 1

From the Creation to the death of Isaac. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_1

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 2

From the death of Isaac to the exodus out of Egypt. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_2

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 3

From the exodus out of Egypt, to the rejection of that generation. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_3

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 4

From the rejection of that generation to the death of Moses. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_4

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 5

From the death of Moses to the death of Eli. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_5

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 6

From the death of Eli to the death of Saul. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_6

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 7

From the death of Saul to the death of David. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_7

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 8

From the death of David to the death of Ahab. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_8

Antiquities of the Jews - Book 9

From the death of Ahab to the captivity of the ten tribes. [The Writings of Flavius Josephus]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/?book=Ant_9

Center for the Study of Ancient Documents

Introduction to the services of the Center and an experimental digital archive of epigraphical images, available for downloading. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

Link: http://www.csad.ox.ac.uk/

University of Michigan Papyrus Collection

Contains an introduction to the University's papyrus collection, a list of papyrological tools, a selective bibliography, and a list of exhibitions and events. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

Link: http://www.lib.umich.edu/pap/

The Perseus Project

Large site containing search tools, Greek texts with English translation, searchable lexicons, and over 13,000 images of art and artifacts along with descriptions of the image and its context. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/

Institut für Papyrologie (University of Heidelberg)

German language site. Includes a staff directory and current research projects. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

Link: http://www.papy.uni-hd.de/

Centro di Studi Papirologici (University of Lecce)

Maintained by the University Papyrological Center. Includes images of Demotic papyri. Italian language site. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

Link: http://siba2.unile.it/images/papiri/csp.html

Saskatoon Repository

Saskatoon Repository of the International Papyrological Photographic Archive (University of Saskatchewan) A comprehensive list of the holdings in the Archive, which contains photographic copies of the most-published papyri of the Cairo Museum and several universities. This site does not contain any of the photographs themselves. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

Link: http://www.usask.ca/antharch/cnea/

Papyrus Collection of the University of Copenhagen

Contains an inventory and photographic archive of the published papyri in the Carlsberg collection. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

Link: http://www.hum.ku.dk/cni/papcoll/

Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Maintained by the Orion Center at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The site contains up-to-date information about Orion Center services and symposia, virtual tours of the caves at Qumran, and a selective list of Dead Sea Scroll sites. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

Link: http://orion.mscc.huji.ac.il/

Library of Congress Exhibit on the Dead Sea Scrolls

Background information on the Dead Sea Scrolls, and images of those fragments and artifacts displayed at the Library of Congress exhibit. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

Link: http://sunsite.unc.edu/expo/deadsea.scrolls.exhibit/intro.html

Noncanonical Webpage

Contains Old and New Testament apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, as well as documents of the Church Fathers and the Nag Hammadi collection. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

Link: https://coursebible.com/resources/on-line-primary-literature

Internet Classics Archive

Searchable archive of translated Greek and Roman texts. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/

Early Church Documents

Translated documents of the early and medieval Christian church, as well as contemporary Jewish, Islamic, non-heterodox, and Hellenistic sources. Includes an annotated table of contents. [Ancient Documents] [Collections]

Link: http://www2.evansville.edu/ecoleweb/documents.html

Classical and Mediterranean Archaeology Homepage

Lengthy list of sites as well as search tools for classical and mediterranean archaeology, and lists of other indexes. [Index Sites] [Collections]

Link: http://www.gzg.fn.bw.schule.de/faecher/links/classic.htm

1 Maccabbes

1 Maccabees was written about 100 B.C., in Hebrew, but the original has not come down to us. Instead, we have an early, pre-Christian, Greek translation full of Hebrew idioms ... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=1ma+1&version=nrs

2 Maccabbes

Although this book, like the preceding one, receives its title from its protagonist, Judas Maccabee (or Maccabeus), it is not a sequel to 1 Maccabees. The two differ in many respects ... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=2ma+1&version=nrs

1 Esdras

Although not belonging to the Canon of the Sacred Scriptures, this book is usually found in an appendix to the editions of the Vulgate. It is made up almost entirely from ... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=1es+1&version=nrs

Prayer of Manasseh

The Prayer of Manasses is an apocryphal writing which purports to give the prayer referred to in 2 Chronicles 33:13, 18-19. Its original is Greek... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=mns+1&version=nrs

3 Maccabees

The third does not hold a place in the Apocrypha, but is read in the Greek Church. Its design is to comfort the Alexandrian Jews in their persecution. Its writer was evidently an Alexandrian Jew... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=3ma+1&version=nrs

2 Esdras

Known as 4 Esdras in most Latin manuscripts; the (Protestant) English apocrypha, however, give it as II Esdras, from the opening words: "The second book of the prophet Esdras"... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=2es+1&version=nrs

4 Maccabees

The fourth contains a history of the Jews from B.C. 184 to B.C. 86. It is a compilation made by a Jew after the destruction of Jerusalem, from ancient memoirs, to which he had access... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/OnlineStudyBible/bible.cgi?new=1&word=4ma+1&version=nrs

Apocrypha Translation List

Of the various translations we display on our site, only seven of them inlcude any of the Apocryphal (Deuterocanonical) books. Below is a table showing the seven translations and the books they include... [Apocryphal Book Listing]

Link: http://www.biblestudytools.net/History/BC/Apocrypha/ApocryphaTranslationTable.html

Josephus' Lineage

This graph of Josephus' lineage [right column] is a historical reconstruction based on information in the opening paragraph of his autobiography & other works. He claims to have recorded his genealogy "as I have found it described in the public records" [Life 1]. But when coordinated with historical information about the Hasmonean dynasty that he himself reports in his other works [left four columns] there are some obvious major generational discrepancies in his family tree. Josephus' count of his ancestors' generations would make him a fourth cousin of Herod's 2nd wife, Mariamne, who died sixty-eight years before he was born! Josephus' reports of his own experiences make it more probable that he was at most a sixth or, more likely, a seventh cousin of his near contemporary Herod Agrippa II, who was king of Iturea [southern Lebanon] in the decades surrounding the Jewish-Roman war of 66-70 CE.

Link: http://religion.rutgers.edu/iho/josephus2.html

Census Edict for Roman Egypt

This document shows a census ordered by Gaius Vibius Maximus, the Rmoan Prefectus of Egypt. GREEK TEXT (from Hunt & Edgar 1934:108), TRANSLATION by K. C. Hanson (Adapted from Hunt & Edgar). Language: Greek; Medium: papyrus; Length: 21 lines of writing; Genre: Official Edict; Date: 104 CE; Place of Discovery: Egypt Date of Discovery: ? Current Location: British Museum, London.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/greek/census.html

Marriage Contract From Egypt

This Greek document shows a Marriage Contract From Egypt written in 13 BC. It mentions Caesar Augustus and a Roman Drachma.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/greek/marriage.html

Divorce Agreement from Egypt

This Greek document shows a Marriage Contract From Egypt written in 13 BC. It mentions Caesar Augustus and a Roman Drachma.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PTJ/divorce.html

Widow's Petition Ostracon

This pottery was discovered with 8 lines of Hebrew text. Legal Petition written around the 9th""7th centuries BCE.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/westsem/petition.html

The Pilate Inscription

The Pilate Inscription [text & interpretation] Language: Latin; Medium: limestone; Size: 82 centimeters high 65 centimeters wide; Length: 4 lines of writing; Genre: Building Dedication Dedicator: Pontius Pilate (praefect of Judea) Approximate Date: 26-37 CE; Place of Discovery: Caesarea, Israel; Date of Discovery: 1961; Current Location: Israel Museum(Jerusalem)

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/latin/pilate.html

Josephus' References to Crucifixion

"Josephus (b. 37 C.E.) is our best literary source for the practice of crucifixion in Israel during the Greco-Roman period. As a general in command of the Jewish forces of Galilee in the Great Revolt against Rome (66-73 C.E.), he reports his attempts to save the lives of three crucified captives by appealing directly to the Roman general Titus. One survived the cross under a physician's care, the other two could not be saved." by Dr. James D. Tabor

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/cruc-josephus.html

Life of Christ: Gospels in Harmony

Ken Palmer organizes events from the life of Christ. The events are in approximate chronological order. When an event appears in more than one gospel, the parallel accounts are grouped together. Understand that this is a general guide. Since many passages omit clear time references, some of the sequencing is speculative.

Link: http://www.lifeofchrist.com/life/harmony.html

Quotations from Ancient Documents

Ancient documents (including the books in the Apocrypha). From Dr. K. C. Hanson's website. Israel in the Time of Jesus. The translator is indicated at the end of each passage; those marked "KCH" indicate K. C. Hanson's translations, and those marked "DEO" indicated Douglas E. Oakman's translations.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PTJ/quote2.html

The Complete King James Version

Old and New Testaments and Apocrypha.


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Link: http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/studybible/browse.html

The Complete Revised Standard Version

Old and New Testaments and Apocrypha.

Link: http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/rsv/browse.html

Die Bibel, Martin Luther Translation

Full texts of the Old and New Testaments.

Link: http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/luther/browse.html

The Flood Narrative From the Gilgamesh Epic

Translation by E.A. Speiser, in Ancient Near Eastern Texts (Princeton, 1950)

Link: http://www.pseudepigrapha.com/pseudepigrapha/gilgamesh.html

The Gilgamesh Epic

The Epic of Gilgamesh is, perhaps, the oldest written story on Earth. It comes to us from Ancient Sumeria, and was originally written on 12 clay tablets in cunieform script. It is about the adventures of the historical King of Uruk (somewhere between 2750 and 2500 BC).

Link: http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/mesopotamian/gilgamesh/

The Hammurabi Stele

THE HAMMURABI STELE. Partially Retold in English, by Stan Rummel, Director of The Humanities Program, Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas. "In the following selections, I have frequently changed the grammar and sequence of words from that of the original text, and I have omitted sections of material, so that what is given will read comprehensibly in English. I have grouped regulations by topical categories for discussion, rather than simply following their numerical sequence." Also includes an image: Detail of the top of the Hammurabi Stele, picturing King Hammurabi coming before the god Shamash.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/hammurabi.html

Manumission and Bridewealth Document

Manumission and Bridewealth Document (14th cent. BCE?)TRANSLATION by K. C. Hanson (Adapted from Finkelstein 1969:546). Language: Akkadian; Medium: Clay tablet; Size: 43 centimeters long 5 centimeters wide; Length: 25 lines of writing Genre: Manumission & Marriage Contract Approximate Date: 14th cent. BCE? Place of Discovery: Ugarit acropolis, Ras Shamra, Syria Date of Discovery: 1936 Current Location: Musée National d'Alep Aleppo, Syria.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/manumission.html

Ishtar Gate Inscription

Dedicatory Inscription on the Ishtar Gate, Babylon; TRANSLATION (Adapted from Marzahn 1995:29-30)Language: Akkadian Medium: glazed brick Size: c. 15 meters high c. 10 meters wide Length: 60 lines of writing Genre: Dedication Inscription Dedicator: Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylonia (reigned 605""562 BCE) Approximate Date: 600 BCE Place of Discovery: Babylon (near modern Baghdad, Iraq) Date of Excavation: 1899""1914 Current Location: Pergamon Museen (Berlin, Germany)

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/ishtarins.html

Gaius Cornelius Tacitus - History of Rome

[Ancient Historians and Generals] The electronic edition, originally translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb, did not include any internal text divisions other than the primary book divisions. To make the text more usable for students to search and quote, the paragraph indexing used in The Modern Library edition of Church and Brodribb's text, published under the title of The Complete Works of Tacitus, 1942, was added along with HTML links, and then the text was converted to HTML.

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/tacitus/index.htm

Herodotus - History of Persian Wars

[Ancient Historians and Generals] Book 1 - CLIO Book 2 - EUTERPE Book 3 - THALIA Book 4 - MELPOMENE Book 5 - TERPSICHORE Book 6 - ERATO Book 7 - POLYMNIA Book 8 - URANIA Book 9 - CALLIOPE Brief history of Persia - tiny index to Herodotus

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/herodotus/

Assyrian and Babylonian texts

Assyrian and Babylonian texts. Ancient History, Archaeology and Biblical Studies. The primary purpose of this site is to provide on-line text documents from archaeologists and ancient writers, and some tools for Bible study. Everything is provided in an HTML format which has internal reference markers. These internal markers are not visible when simply reading the text, but they allow HTML search tools to index information available here. A simple search program is provided here.

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/

Julius Caesar - Wars against France and Germany

Roman civil war. [Ancient Historians and Generals] Julius Caesar's War Commentaries

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/caesar/

Inscription of Tiglath Pileser I - (38k)

Assyrian and Babylonian texts. Text Source: Library collection: "World's Greatest Literature" Published work: "Babylonian and Assyrian Literature" Translator: Sir H. Rawlinson, K.C.B., D.C.L., Etc. Publisher: P. F. Collier & Son, New York Copyright: Colonial Press, 1901

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Assyria/Inscra00.html

Sections of the Jewish Talmud

Jewish texts. Selections from the Jewish Talmud

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/bib/Talmud/index.html

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II - (24k)

Assyrian and Babylonian texts. Text Source: Library collection: "World's Greatest Literature" Published work: "Babylonian and Assyrian Literature" Translator: Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A. Publisher: P. F. Collier & Son, New York Copyright: Colonial Press, 1901

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Assyria/Inscra01.html

Annals of Assur-Nasir-Pal - (71k)

Assyrian and Babylonian texts. Text Source: Library collection: "World's Greatest Literature" Published work: "Babylonian and Assyrian Literature" Translator: Rev. J. M. Rodwell, M.A. Publisher: P. F. Collier & Son, New York Copyright: Colonial Press, 1901

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Assyria/Inscra02.html

Inscription of Nebuchadnezzar - (30k)

Assyrian and Babylonian texts. Text Source: Library collection: "World's Greatest Literature" Published work: "Babylonian and Assyrian Literature" Translator: Rev. J. M. Rodwell, M.A. Publisher: P. F. Collier & Son, New York Copyright: Colonial Press, 1901

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Assyria/Inscrb00.html

Julius Caesar

Wars against France and Germany. Roman civil war. Ancient Historians and Generals. This is a detailed discription of the war campaigns of Julius Caesar, starting from the time that he was in charge of the Roman forces in France (Gaul). Caesar's writting style is that of a detailed factual report, prepared year by year, of the events. The parts not written by him attempt a similiar style, but are not as clean (See the notes of Hortius, at the start of the 8th book of the Gallic Wars). Caesar's writings present himself as a much more balanced and just leader than Suetonius or Plutarch indicate in their biographies of him. Also, the accounts of the army during the Spanish campaign show a more brutal side to his leadership.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/julius_caesar/julius_caesar_intro.html

Gaius Cornelius Tacitus

History of Rome. Ancient Historians and Generals. Tacitus grew up during a the reign of Nero, and may have been a teenager when Nero died and the Roman empire was plunged into civil war. In his later years he became interested in writing an unbiased account of those times, starting his account just before Tiberius came to the throne. We do not have a complete account of either the Annals or the Histories, but what has been preserved provides an interesting look at Roman life, written by one who lived close to those times.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/tacitus/introduction.html

Herodotus

Herodotus - History of Persian Wars . Ancient Historians and Generals (text) each chapter is approximately 130-250 kb.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/herodotus/persian_wars_intro.html

Inscription of Tiglath Pileser I

Full Text (38k) This inscription of Tiglath Pileser I is found on an octagonal prism and on some other clay fragments discovered at Kalah-Shergat and at present in the British Museum. On the whole for its extent and historical information relating to the early history of Assyria this inscription is one of the most important of the series showing the gradual advance and rise of Assyria, while as one of the first interpreted it presents considerable literary interest in respect to the details of the progress of Assyrian interpretation. It is also nearly the oldest Assyrian text of any length which has been hitherto discovered and is very interesting from its account of the construction of the temples and palaces made by the King in the early part of his reign.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/tiglath_pileser_1_inscription.html

Inscription of Tiglath Pileser I

Full Text (38k) This inscription of Tiglath Pileser I is found on an octagonal prism and on some other clay fragments discovered at Kalah-Shergat and at present in the British Museum. On the whole for its extent and historical information relating to the early history of Assyria this inscription is one of the most important of the series showing the gradual advance and rise of Assyria, while as one of the first interpreted it presents considerable literary interest in respect to the details of the progress of Assyrian interpretation. It is also nearly the oldest Assyrian text of any length which has been hitherto discovered and is very interesting from its account of the construction of the temples and palaces made by the King in the early part of his reign.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/tiglath_pileser_1_inscription.html

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II

Full Text (24k) This inscription is engraved on an obelisk of black marble, five feet in height, found by Mr. Layard in the centre of the Mound at Nimroud, and now in the British Museum. Each of its four sides is divided into five compartments of sculpture representing the tribute brought to the Assyrian King by vassal princes, Jehu of Israel being among the number. Shalmaneser, whose annals and conquests are recorded upon it, was the son of Assur-natsir-pal, and died in 823 B.C., after a reign of thirty-five years. A translation of the inscription was one of the first achievements of Assyrian decipherment, and was made by Sir. H. Rawlinson; and Dr. Hincks shortly afterward (in 1851) succeeded in reading the name of Jehu in it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/black_obelisk_of_shalmaneser_2_inscription.html

Annals of Assur-Nasir-Pal

Full Text (71k) Concerning Assur-nasir-habal or Assur-nasir-pal (i.e., "Assur preserves the son") we possess fuller historical records than of any other of the Assyrian monarchs, and among these the following inscription is the most important. From it, and from the inscription upon his statue discovered by Mr. Layard in the ruins of one of the Nimroud temples, we learn that he was the son of Tuklat-Adar or Tuklat-Ninip, that he reigned over a territory extending from the "Tigris to the Lebanon, and that he brought the great sea and all countries from the sunrise to the sunset under his sway.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/assur_nasir_pal_annals.html

Inscription of Nebuchadnezzar II

Full Text (30k) Babylonian inscriptions are by no means so replete with interest as the Assyrian. The latter embrace the various expeditions in which the Assyrian monarchs were engaged, and bring us into contact with the names and locality of rivers, cities, and mountain-ranges, with contemporary princes in Judea and elsewhere, and abound in details as to domestic habits, civil usages, and the implements and modes of warfare. But the Babylonian inscriptions refer mainly to the construction of temples, palaces, and other public buildings, and at the same time present especial difficulties in their numerous architectural terms which it is often impossible to translate with any certainty. They are, however, interesting as records of the piety and religious feelings of the sovereigns of Babylon, and as affording numerous topographical notices of that famous city; while the boastful language of the inscription will often remind the reader of Nebuchadnezzar's words in Dan. iv. 30: "Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for the house of the kingdom, by the might of my power, and for the honor of my majesty?" Compare column vii, line 32.

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/nebuchadnezzar_2_inscription.html