People - Ancient Egypt

Ptolemy XII Auletes in Wikipedia

Ptolemy Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos (117–51 BC) (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Νέος Διόνυσος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ Θεός Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaios Néos Diónusos Theós Philopátōr Theós Philádelphos), New Dionysus, God Beloved of his Father, God Beloved of his Brother) was more commonly known as "Auletes" (The Flutist) (Αὐλητής, Aulētḗs), or "Nothos" (The Bastard) (Νόθος, Nóthos). Auletes means pipes-player, and refers to his chubby cheeks, like the inflated cheeks of a pipe-player. Early life - Ptolemy XII was a Hellenistic ruler of Macedonian descent. He is assumed to be an illegitimate son of Ptolemy IX Soter since it can not be confirmed if he is the son of Cleopatra IV of Egypt. [1] His reign as king was interrupted by a general rebellion that resulted in his exile from 58-55 BC. Thus, Ptolemy XII ruled Egypt from 80 to 58 BC and from 55 BC until his death in 51 BC. Ptolemy XII was generally described as a weak, self-indulgent man, a drunkard, and a music lover. [2] [edit]Family Ptolemy had two wives, the first bore him 3 children: Cleopatra VI Berenice IV Cleopatra VII The second wife (whose name remains unknown) also bore him 3 children: Arsinoe IV Ptolemy XIII Ptolemy XIV His first reign (80–58 BC) - In 80 BC, Ptolemy XII's predecessor Ptolemy XI was removed by the Egyptian population from the throne of Egypt after the king had killed his coregent and step mother Berenice III. [3] When Ptolemy XI died without a male heir, the only available male descendents of the Ptolemy I lineage were the illegitimate sons of Ptolemy IX by an unknown Greek concubine [4] . The boys were living in exile in Sinope, at the court of Mithridates VI, King of Pontus. As the eldest of the boys Ptolemy XII was proclaimed king as Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos and married his sister, Tryphaena. Ptolemy XII was coregent with his daughter Cleopatra VI Tryphaena and his wife Cleopatra V Tryphaena. However, Ptolemy XI had left the throne to Rome in his will therefore Ptolemy XII was not the legitimate successor. Nevertheless, Rome did not challenge Ptolemy XII's succession because the Senate was unwilling to acquire an Egyptian expansion. [5] Ptolemy XII's personal cult name (Neos Dionysos) earned him the ridiculing sobriquet Auletes (flute player) - as we learn from Strabo's writing (Strabo XVII, 1, 11): Now all at kings after the third Ptolemy, being corrupted by luxurious living, have administered the affairs of government badly, but worst of all the fourth, seventh, and the last, Auletes, who, apart from his general licentiousness, practised the accompaniment of choruses with the flute, and upon this he prided himself so much that he would not hesitate to celebrate contests in the royal palace, and at these contests would come forward to vie with the opposing contestants. The first pylon at Edfu Temple was decorated by Ptolemy XII in 57 BC with figures of himself smiting the enemy. Before Ptolemy XII's reign, the geographical distance between Rome and Egypt resulted in an indifferent attitude towards each other. Nevertheless, Egyptians asked the Romans to settle dynastic conflicts [6] During his reign, Ptolemy XII attempted to secure his own fate and the fate of his dynasty by means of a pro-Roman policy. In 63 BC, it appeared that Pompey would emerge as the leader of a Roman struggle thus Ptolemy sought to form a patron-client relationship with the Roman by sending him riches and extending an invitation to Alexandria. Pompey accepted the riches but refused the invitation. [7] Nevertheless, a patron relationship with a leader in Rome did not guarantee his permanence on the throne, thus Ptolemy XII soon afterwards travelled to Rome to negotiate a bribe for an official recognition of his kingship. After paying a bribe of six thousand talents to Julius Caesar and Pompey, a formal alliance was formed (a foedus) and his name was inscribed into the list of friends and allies of the people of Rome (amici et socii populi Romani). [8] Exile in Rome (58–55 BC) - In 58 BC, Ptolemy XII failed to comment on the Roman conquest of Cyprus, a territory ruled by his brother, thereby upsetting the Egyptian population to start a rebellion. Egyptians were already aggravated by heavy taxes (to pay for the Roman bribes) and a substantial increase in the cost of living. Ptolemy XII fled to Rome, possibly with his daughter Cleopatra VII, in search of safety. [9] His daughter Berenice IV became his successor. She ruled as coregent with her sister (or possibly mother) Cleopatra VI Tryphaena. A year after Ptolemy XII's exile, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena died and Berenice ruled alone over Alexandria from 57 to 56BC.[10] From Rome, Ptolemy XII prosecuted his restitution but met opposition with certain members of the Senate. Ptolemy XII's old ally Pompey housed the exiled king and his daughter and argued on behalf of Ptolemy's restoration in the Senate. During this time, Roman creditors realized that they would not get the return on their loans to the Egyptian king without his restoration.[11] Thus in 57 BC, pressure from the Roman public forced the Senate's decision to restore Ptolemy.[12] However, Rome did not wish to invade Egypt to restore the king since the Sybylline books stated that if an Egyptian king asked for help and Rome proceeded with military intervention, great dangers and difficulties would occur.[13] Egyptians heard rumors of Rome's possible intervention and disliked the idea of their exiled king's return. Cassius Dio reported that a group of one hundred men were sent as envoys from Egypt to make their case to the Romans against Ptolemy XII's restoration, but Ptolemy had their leader (a philosopher named Dion) poisoned and most of the other protesters killed before they reached Rome to plead their desires. [14] Restoration (55–51 BC) - Ptolemy XII finally recovered his throne by paying Aulus Gabinius 10,000 talents to invade Egypt in 55 BC. After defeating the frontier forces of the Egyptian kingdom, Aulus Gabinius's army proceeded to attack the palace guards but the guards surrendered before a battle commenced. [15] The exact date of Ptolemy XII's restoration is unknown; the earliest possible date of restoration is 4 January 55 BC and the latest possible date was 24 June the same year. Nevertheless, upon entering the palace, Ptolemy had Berenice and her supporters executed. From then on, he reigned until he fell ill in 51 BC. Around two thousand Roman soldiers and mercenaries, the so- called Gabiniani, were stationed in Alexandria to ensure Ptolemy XII's authority on the throne. In exchange, Rome was able to exert its power over the restored king.[16] His daughter, Cleopatra VII became his coregent. The moment of Ptolemy XII's restoration, Roman creditors demanded the return on their investments but the Alexandrian treasury could not repay the king's debt. Learning from previous mistakes, Ptolemy XII shifted popular resentment of tax increases from the king to a Roman, his main creditor Gaius Rabirius Postumus, whom he appointed Dioiketes (minister of finance). So Rabirius was placed in charge of debt repayment. Perhaps Gabinius had also put pressure on Ptolemy XII to appoint Rabirius, who had now direct access to the financial resources of Egypt but exploited the land too much. The king had to imprison Rabirius to protect his life from the angry people. Then he had him escaped. The Roman immediately left Egypt and went back to Rome at the end of the year 54 BC. There he was accused de repetundis, but defended by Cicero and he was probably acquitted.[17] Ptolemy, also, permitted a debasing of the coinage as an attempt to repay the loans. Near the end of Ptolemy's reign, the value of Egyptian coins dropped to about fifty percent of its value at the beginning of his reign.[18] Before his death, Ptolemy XII chose his daughter Cleopatra VII as his coregent. In his will, he declared that she and her brother Ptolemy XIII should rule the kingdom together. To safeguard his interests, he made the people of Rome executors of his will. Since the Senate was busy with its own affairs, Pompey (as Ptolemy XII's ally) approved the will. [19] "Throughout his long-lasting reign the principal aim of Ptolemy was to secure his hold on the Egyptian throne so as to eventually pass it to his heirs. To achieve this goal he was prepared to sacrifice much: the loss of rich Ptolemaic lands, most of his wealth and even, according to Cicero, the very dignity on which the mystique of kingship rested when he appeared before the Roman people as a mere supplicant." [20]

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Berenice IV in Tour Egypt

BERENICE IV 58-55 B.C. PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY Berenice IV was the oldest daughter of Auletes (Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos) and ruled for three years during his exile. At the beginning of his exile, she co-ruled with her mother Cleopatra V Tryphaena until the mother's death about a year later. Berenice ruled as sole regent and was expected to marry. The one selected was Seleucus Kybiosaktes. After a few days, she had her husband strangled. The second man she chose was Archelaus. Her father finally paid out enough money and was brought back to Egypt. Archelaus' army was defeated and Pompey suggested that Auletes be returned to the throne. One of his first acts was to have his daughter, Berenice, executed.

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Berenice IV of Egypt in Wikipedia

Berenice IV (Greek: Βερενίκη), (77 BC - 55 BC) born and died in Alexandria and was the daughter of Ptolemy XII of Egypt and probably Cleopatra V of Egypt Tryphaena, sister of Cleopatra VI Tryphaena of Egypt, and the famous Cleopatra VII (lover of Julius Caesar and Mark Antony). Berenice loved fashion, parties, and jewels. She was quite lazy and fearful, especially of the peasants, slaves and any form of lower social class. She spoke only her native tongue, was poorly educated due to her lack of work ethic, and ignored the peasants, making her a poor leader. Despite her flaws, she was a kind and loving person towards her friends and family, and was also very beautiful. In 58 BC, Ptolemy XII and Cleopatra VII fled to Rome in search of political and military aid against Berenice's elder sister Tryphaena, who had become far too powerful. After Tryphaena's death in 57 BC, possibly poisoned on behalf of Berenice, she at age 20 became the sole ruler of Egypt due to her father's absence, and with him and Cleopatra absent she had no worry about being overthrown or overpowered and executed. As a lone woman ruling Egypt, she was expected to marry and have a man as a co-regent. When she did not, her consuls forced her to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but she had him strangled and remained as sole ruler. The public feared the Ptolemic reign would fail to continue due to Berenice's foolishness. It is also believed she cared far too much for fashion and luxuries, leading to rising expenses. She later married Archelaus, but he was not co-regent. Archelaus had been appointed to the priesthood at Comana at Cappadocia by Pompey, and claimed to be a son of Mithridates VI. Strabo instead says his father was Archelaus, a general of Mithridates VI in the First Mithridatic War who defected to the Romans. The reign of Berenice ended in 55 BC when her father retook the throne with the aid of the Romans led by Aulus Gabinius, and had Berenice beheaded. Archelaus, who according to Strabo had previously had a friendly relationship with Gabinius, died in battle against the forces of Gabinius.

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Cleopatra VII in Tour Egypt

CLEOPATRA VII PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY In the springtime of 51 BC, Ptolemy Auletes died and left his kingdom in his will to his eighteen year old daughter, Cleopatra, and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII who was twelve at the time. Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as well as a younger sister, Arsinoe IV. There were two younger brothers as well, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. It is thought that Cleopatra VI may have died as a child and Auletes had Berenice beheaded. At Ptolemy Auletes' death, Pompey, a Roman leader, was left in charge of the children. During the two centuries that preceded Ptolemy Auletes death, the Ptolemies were allied with the Romans. The Ptolemies' strength was failing and the Roman Empire was rising. City after city was falling to the Roman power and the Ptolemies could do nothing but create a pact with them. During the later rule of the Ptolemies, the Romans gained more and more control over Egypt. Tributes had to be paid to the Romans to keep them away from Egypt. When Ptolemy Auletes died, the fall of the Dynasty appeared to be even closer. According to Egyptian law, Cleopatra was forced to have a consort, who was either a brother or a son, no matter what age, throughout her reign. She was married to her younger brother Ptolemy XIII when he was twelve, however she soon dropped his name from any official documents regardless of the Ptolemaic insistence that the male presence be first among co-rulers. She also had her own portrait and name on coins of that time, ignoring her brother's. When Cleopatra became co-regent, her world was crumbling down around her. Cyprus, Coele-Syria and Cyrenaica were gone. There was anarchy abroad and famine at home. Cleopatra was a strong-willed Macedonian queen who was brilliant and dreamed of a greater world empire. She almost achieved it. Whether her way of getting it done was for her own desires or for the pursuit of power will never be known for certain. However, like many Hellenistic queens, she was passionate but not promiscuous. As far as we know, she had no other lovers other than Caesar and Antony. Many believe that she did what she felt was necessary to try to save Alexandria, whatever the price. By 48 BC, Cleopatra had alarmed the more powerful court officials of Alexandria by some of her actions. For instance, her mercenaries killed the Roman governor of Syria's sons when they came to ask for her assistance for their father against the Parthians. A group of men led by Theodotus, the eunuch Pothinus and a half-Greek general, Achillas, overthrew her in favor of her younger brother. They believed him to be much easier to influence and they became his council of regency. Cleopatra is thought to have fled to Thebaid. Between 51 and 49 BC, Egypt was suffering from bad harvests and famine because of a drought which stopped the much needed Nile flooding. Ptolemy XIII signed a decree on October 27, 50 BC which banned any shipments of grain to anywhere but Alexandria. It is thought that this was to deprive Cleopatra and her supporters who were not in Alexandria. Regardless, she started an army from the Arab tribes which were east of Pelusium. During this time, she and her sister Arsinoe moved to Syria. They returned by way of Ascalon which may have been Cleopatra's temporary base. In the meantime, Pompey had been defeated at Pharsalus in August of 48 BC. He headed for Alexandria hoping to find refuge with Ptolemy XIII, of whom Pompey was a senate-appointed guardian. Pompey did not realize how much his reputation had been destroyed by Pharsalus until it was too late. He was murdered as he stepped ashore on September 28, 48 BC. The young Ptolemy XIII stood on the dock and watched the whole scene. Four days later, Caesar arrived in Alexandria. He brought with him thirty-two hundred legionaries and eight hundred cavalry. He also brought twelve other soldiers who bore the insignia of the Roman government who carried a bundle of rods with an ax with a blade that projected out. This was considered a badge of authority that gave a clear hint of his intentions. There were riots that followed in Alexandria. Ptolemy XIII was gone to Pelusium and Caesar placed himself in the royal palace and started giving out orders. The eunuch, Pothinus, brought Ptolemy back to Alexandria. Cleopatra had no intentions of being left out of any deals that were going to be made. She had herself smuggled in through enemy lines rolled in a carpet. She was delivered to Caesar. Both Cleopatra and Ptolemy were invited to appear before Caesar the next morning. By this time, she and Caesar were already lovers and Ptolemy realized this right away. He stormed out screaming that he had been betrayed, trying to arouse the Alexandrian mob. He was soon captured by Caesar's guards and brought back to the palace. It is thought that Caesar had planned to make Cleopatra the sole ruler of Alexandria. He thought she would be a puppet for Rome. The Alexandrian War was started when Pothinus called for Ptolemy XIII's soldiers in November and surrounded Caesar in Alexandria with twenty thousand men. During the war, parts of the Alexandrian Library and some of the warehouses were burned. However, Caesar did manage to capture the Pharos lighthouse, which kept his control of the harbor. Cleopatra's sister, Arsinoe, escaped from the palace and ran to Achillas. She was proclaimed the queen by the Macedonian mob and the army. Cleopatra never forgave her sister for this. During the fighting, Caesar executed Pothinus and Achillas was murdered by Ganymede. Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile while he was trying to flee. Because of his death, Cleopatra was now the sole ruler of Egypt. Caesar had restored her position, but she now had to marry her younger brother Ptolemy XIV, who was eleven years old. This was to please the Alexandrians and the Egyptian priests. Surely Caesar went through all of this trouble for more than his infatuation with the queen of Egypt. It must have been out of arrogance and his desire to get his hands on Egypt's vast resources. However, Cleopatra's intelligence and inheritance did have some influence as well. In what must have been very calculated on his part, she became pregnant rather quickly. For him to have a son to carry the throne was very appealing to him. Caesar and Cleopatra took an extended trip up the Nile for about two months. They stopped in Dendara where Cleopatra was worshipped as a Pharaoh. Caesar would never have this honor. Caesar only left the boat to attend important business in Syria just a few weeks before the birth of their son, Caesarion (Ptolemy Caesar) who was born on June 23, 47 BC. During July of the year 46 BC, Caesar returned to Rome. He was given many honors and a ten-year dictatorship. These celebrations lasted from September to October and he brought Cleopatra over, along with her entourage. The conservative Republicans were very offended when he established Cleopatra in his home. Her social manners did not make the situation any better. She upset many. Cleopatra had started calling herself the New Isis and was the subject of much gossip. She lived in luxury and had a statue made of gold placed by Caesar, in the temple of Venus Genetrix . Caesar also openly claimed Caesarion as his son. Many were upset that he was planning to marry Cleopatra regardless of the laws against bigamy and marriages to foreigners. However, on the Ides of March of 44 BC, all of that came to an end. Caesar was assassinated outside the Senate Building in Rome. He was killed in a conspiracy by his Senators. Many of the Senators thought he was a threat to the republic's well-being. It was thought that Caesar was making plans to have himself declared king. After Caesar's murder, Cleopatra fled Rome and returned home to Alexandria. Caesar had not mentioned Cleopatra or Caesarion in his will. She felt her life, as well as that of her child, was in great danger. Upon returning to Alexandria, she had her consort, Ptolemy XIV, assassinated and established Caesarion as her co-regent at the age of four. She found Egypt suffering from plagues and famine. The Nile canals had been neglected during her absence which caused the harvests to be bad and the inundations low. The bad harvests continued from 43 until 41 BC. Trying to help secure recognition for Caesarion with Caesar's former lieutenant Dolabella, Cleopatra sent Dolabella the four legions that Caesar had left in Egypt. Cassius captured the legions which caused Dolabella to commit suicide at Laodicea during the summer of 43 BC. She was planning to join Mark Antony and Octavian (who became Augustus) with a large fleet of ships after Dolabella's death, but was stopped by a violent storm. Cleopatra watched in the time that followed, who would be the next power in Rome. After Brutus and Cassius had been killed and Antony, Octavian and Lepidus were triumphant, Cleopatra knew which one she would have to deal with. Octavian went back to Italy very ill, so Antony was the one to watch. Her son gained his right to become king when Caesar was officially divinized in Rome on January 1, 42 BC. The main object was the promotion of Octavian, but the triumvirs knew of Cleopatra's aid to Dolabella. Cleopatra was invited by Mark Antony to Tarsus in 41 BC. She already knew enough about him to know how to get to him. She knew about his limited strategic and tactical abilities, his blue blood, the drinking, his womanizing, his vulgarity and his ambition. Even though Egypt was on the verge of economic collapse, Cleopatra put on a show for Mark Antony that even Ptolemy Philadelphos couldn't have done better. She sailed with silver oars, purple sails with her Erotes fanning her and the Nereid handmaids steering and she was dressed as Aphrodite, the goddess of love. This was a very calculated entrance; considered vulgar by many. It was a vulgar display to attract the attention of a vulgar man. Mark Antony loved the idea of having a blue-blooded Ptolemy woman. His former mistress as well as his current wife, Fulvia, were merely middle class. Cleopatra and Antony spent the winter of 41 to 40 in Alexandria. According to some sources, Cleopatra could get out of him whatever she wanted, including the assassination of her sister, Arsinoe. Cleopatra may not have had so much influence over him later on. He took control of Cyprus from her. Actually it may have been Cleopatra who was the exploited one. Antony needed money and Cleopatra could be generous when it benefited her as well. In the spring of 40 BC, Mark Antony left Cleopatra and returned home. He did not see her for four years. Antony's wife, Fulvia had gotten into a serious movement against Octavian over veterans' allotments of land. She fled to Greece and had a bitter confrontation with Antony. She became ill and died there. Antony patched things up with Octavian that same autumn by marrying Octavian's sister, Octavia. She was a beautiful and intelligent woman who had been recently widowed. She had three children from her first marriage. In the meantime, Cleopatra had given birth to twins, one boy and one girl, in Alexandria. Antony's first child by Octavia was a girl. Had Octavia given him a son, things might have turned out different. Antony kept the idea of the treasures of the Ptolemies and how much he wanted it. When he finally did get the treasures, the standard interest rate in Rome fell from 12 percent to 4. Mark Antony left Italy and went to deal with the Parthians. Octavia had just had another daughter and went with him just as far as Corcyra. He gave her the excuse that he did not want to expose her to the dangers of the battles and sent her home. He told her that she would be more use to him at home in Rome keeping peace with her brother, Octavian. However, the first thing that he did when he reached Antioch, was to send for Cleopatra. Their twin children were officially recognized by Antony and were given the names of Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene. Mark Antony gave her much land which was very essential to Egypt. He gave her Cyprus, the Cilician coast, Phoenicia, Coele-Syria, Judea and Arabia. This allowed Egypt to be able to build ships from the lumber from Cilician coast. Egypt then built a large fleet. Antony had planned a campaign against the Parthians. He obviously needed Cleopatra's support for this and in 36 BC, he was defeated. He became more indebted to her than ever. They had just had a third child. On their return to Syria, she met him and what was left of his army, with food, clothing and money. Early in 35 BC, he returned to Egypt with her. Antony's wife, Octavia was in Athens with supplies and reinforcements waiting for her husband. He sent her a letter telling her to not come any further. Her brother, Octavian, tried to provoke Antony into a fight. Octavian would release troops as well as ships to try to force Antony into a war, which, by this time was almost inevitable. Antony might have been able to patch things up with Octavia and her brother had he returned to Rome in 35 BC. Cleopatra probably did her best to keep him in Alexandria. Octavia remained completely loyal to Antony through all of this. In 34 BC, Antony had a campaign into Armenia, which was successful and financially rewarding. He celebrated his triumph with a parade through Alexandria with Cleopatra presiding over as the New Isis. Antony presented himself as the New Dionysus as part of his dream of the Graeco-Roman rule. Within a few days, a more political ceremony took place in which the children were given their royal titles with Antony sitting on the throne as well. Ptolemy XV (Caesarion) was made the co-ruler with his mother and was called the King of Kings. Cleopatra was called the Queen of Kings, which was a higher position than that of Caesarion's. Alexander Helios, which meant the sun, was named Great King of the Seleucid empire when it was at its highest. Cleopatra Selene, which meant the moon, was called Queen of Cyrenaica and Crete. Cleopatra and Antony's son, Ptolemy Philadelphos was named King of Syria and Asia Minor at the age of two. Cleopatra had dreams of becoming the Empress of the world. She was very close to achieving these dreams and her favorite oath was, "As surely as I shall yet dispense justice on the Roman Capital." In 32 to 31 BC, Antony finally divorced Octavia. This forced the Western part of the world to recognize his relationship with Cleopatra. He had already put her name and face on a Roman coin, the silver denarii. The denarii was widely circulated throughout the Mediterranean. By doing this, Antony's relationship with the Roman allegiance was ended and Octavian decided to publish Antony's will. Octavian then formally declared war against Cleopatra. Antony's name was nowhere mentioned in the official declaration. Many false accusations were made against Cleopatra saying that she was a harlot and a drunken Oriental. These accusations were most likely made out of fear of Cleopatra and Antony. Many probably thought that the New Isis would prevail and that Antony would start up a new wave of world conquest and rule in a co-partnership from Alexandria. However, Octavian's navy severely defeated Antony in Actium, which is in Greece, on September 2, 31 BC. Octavian's admiral, Agrippa, planned and carried out the defeat. In less than a year, Antony half-heartedly defended Alexandria against the advancing army of Octavian. After the defeat, Antony committed suicide by falling on his own sword in 30 BC. After Antony's death, Cleopatra was taken to Octavian where her role in Octavian's triumph was carefully explained to her. He had no interest in any relationship, negotiation or reconciliation with the Queen of Egypt. She would be displayed as a slave in the cities she had ruled over. She must have had memories of her sister, Arsinoe, being humiliated in this way. She would not live this way, so she had an asp, which was an Egyptian cobra, brought to her hidden in a basket of figs. She died on August 12, 30 BC at the age of 39. The Egyptian religion declared that death by snakebite would secure immortality. With this, she achieved her dying wish, to not be forgotten. The only other ruler to cast a shadow on the fascination with Cleopatra was Alexander who was another Macedonian. After Cleopatra's death, Caesarion was strangled and the other children of Cleopatra were raised by Antony's wife, Octavia. Her death was the mark of the end of the Egyptian Monarchs. The Roman Emperors came into to rule in Egypt. The Ptolemies were Macedonian in decent, but ruled as Egyptians, as Pharaohs. Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt. What is often not associated with Cleopatra was her brilliance and her devotion to her country. She was a quick-witted woman who was fluent in nine languages, however, Latin was not one of them. She was a mathematician and a very good businesswoman. She had a genuine respect for Caesar, whose intelligence and wit matched her own. Antony on the other hand almost drove her insane with his lack of intelligence and his excesses. She dealt with him and made the most of what she had to do. She fought for her country. She had a charismatic personality, was a born leader and an ambitious monarch who deserved better than suicide.

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Cleopatra VII in Wikipedia

Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; (Late 69 BC[1] – August 12, 30 BC) was the last person to rule Egypt as an Egyptian pharaoh – after her death Egypt became a Roman province. She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt, and therefore was a descendant of one of Alexander the Great's generals who had seized control over Egypt after Alexander's death. Most Ptolemeis spoke Greek and refused to learn Egyptian, which is the reason that Greek as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents like the Rosetta Stone.[2] By contrast, Cleopatra learned Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of an Egyptian Goddess. Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes and later with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler. As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated her son with Caesar, Caesarion, to co-ruler in name. After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus. Her unions with her brothers produced no children. After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed suit, according to tradition killing herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC.[3] She was briefly outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh, but he was soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt became the Roman province of Aegyptus. Though Cleopatra bore the ancient Egyptian title of pharaoh, the Ptolemaic dynasty was Hellenistic, having been founded 300 years before by Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great.[4][5][6][7] As such, Cleopatra's language was the Greek spoken by the Hellenic aristocracy, though she was reputed to be the first ruler of the dynasty to learn Egyptian. She also adopted common Egyptian beliefs and deities. Her patron deity was Isis, and thus, during her reign, it was believed that she was the re-incarnation and embodiment of the goddess. Her death marked the end of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Hellenistic period and the beginning of the Roman era in the eastern Mediterranean. To this day, Cleopatra remains a popular figure in Western culture. Her legacy survives in numerous works of art and the many dramatizations of her story in literature and other media, including William Shakespeare's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra, Jules Massenet's opera Cléopâtre and the 1963 film Cleopatra. In most depictions, Cleopatra is put forward as a great beauty and her successive conquests of the world's most powerful men are taken to be proof of her aesthetic and sexual appeal. In his Pensées, philosopher Blaise Pascal contends that Cleopatra's classically beautiful profile changed world history: "Cleopatra's nose, had it been shorter, the whole face of the world would have been changed."[8] Biography Accession to the throne The identity of Cleopatra's mother is unknown, but she is generally believed to be Cleopatra V Tryphaena of Egypt, the sister or cousin and wife of Ptolemy XII, or possibly another Ptolemaic family member who was the daughter of Ptolemy X and Cleopatra Berenice III Philopator if Cleopatra V was not the daughter of Ptolemy X and Berenice III.[9] Cleopatra's father Auletes was a direct descendant of Alexander the Great's general, Ptolemy I Soter, son of Arsinoe and Lacus, both of Macedon. Centralization of power and corruption led to uprisings in and the losses of Cyprus and Cyrenaica, making Ptolemy's reign one of the most calamitous of the dynasty. When Ptolemy went to Rome with Cleopatra, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena seized the crown but died shortly afterwards in suspicious circumstances. It is believed, though not proven by historical sources, that Berenice IV poisoned her so she could assume sole rulership. Regardless of the cause, she did until Ptolemy Auletes returned in 55 BC, with Roman support, capturing Alexandria aided by Roman general Aulus Gabinius. Berenice was imprisoned and executed shortly afterwards, her head allegedly being sent to the royal court on the decree of her father, the king. Cleopatra was now, at age 14, put as joint regent and deputy of her father, although her power was likely to have been severely limited. Ptolemy XII died in March 51 BC, thus by his will making the 18-year-old Cleopatra and her brother, the 10-year-old Ptolemy XIII joint monarchs. The first three years of their reign were difficult, due to economic difficulties, famine, deficient floods of the Nile, and political conflicts. Although Cleopatra was married to her young brother, she quickly made it clear that she had no intention of sharing power with him. In August 51 BC, relations between Cleopatra and Ptolemy completely broke down. Cleopatra dropped Ptolemy's name from official documents and her face appeared alone on coins, which went against Ptolemaic tradition of female rulers being subordinate to male co-rulers. In 50 BC Cleopatra came into a serious conflict with the Gabiniani, powerful Roman troops of Aulus Gabinius who had left them in Egypt to protect Ptolemy XII after his restoration to the throne in 55 BC. This conflict was one of the main causes for Cleopatra's soon following loss of power. The sole reign of Cleopatra was finally ended by a cabal of courtiers, led by the eunuch Pothinus, removing Cleopatra from power and making Ptolemy sole ruler in circa 48 BC (or possibly earlier, as a decree exists from 51 BC with Ptolemy's name alone). She tried to raise a rebellion around Pelusium, but she was soon forced to flee with her only remaining sister, Arsinoe.[10] Relation with Julius Caesar Assassination of Pompey While Cleopatra was in exile, Pompey became embroiled in the Roman civil war. In the autumn of 48 BC, Pompey fled from the forces of Caesar to Alexandria, seeking sanctuary. Ptolemy, only fifteen years old at that time, had set up a throne for himself on the harbour, from where he watched as on September 28, 48 BC, Pompey was murdered by one of his former officers, now in Ptolemaic service. He was beheaded in front of his wife and children, who were on the ship from which he had just disembarked. Ptolemy is thought to have ordered the death to ingratiate himself with Caesar, thus becoming an ally of Rome, to which Egypt was in debt at the time, though this act proved a miscalculation on Ptolemy's part. When Caesar arrived in Egypt two days later, Ptolemy presented him with Pompey's severed head; Caesar was enraged. Although he was Caesar's political enemy, Pompey was a Consul of Rome and the widower of Caesar's only legitimate daughter, Julia (who died in childbirth with Pompey's son). Caesar seized the Egyptian capital and imposed himself as arbiter between the rival claims of Ptolemy and Cleopatra. Relationship with Julius Caesar Eager to take advantage of Julius Caesar's anger toward Ptolemy, Cleopatra had herself smuggled secretly into the palace to meet with Caesar. One legend claims she entered past Ptolemy’s guards rolled up in a carpet.[11] She became Caesar’s mistress, and nine months after their first meeting, in 47 BC, Cleopatra gave birth to their son, Ptolemy Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion, which means "little Caesar". At this point Caesar abandoned his plans to annex Egypt, instead backing Cleopatra's claim to the throne. After a war lasting six months between the party of Ptolemy XIII and the Roman army of Caesar, Ptolemy XIII was drowned in the Nile and Caesar restored Cleopatra to her throne, with another younger brother Ptolemy XIV as her new co-ruler.[12] Although Cleopatra was 21 years old when they met and Caesar was 52, they became lovers during Caesar’s stay in Egypt between 48 BC and 47 BC. Cleopatra claimed Caesar was the father of her son and wished him to name the boy his heir, but Caesar refused, choosing his grandnephew Octavian instead. During this relationship, it is also rumored that Cleopatra introduced Caesar to her astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria, who first proposed the idea of leap day and leap years. Cleopatra, Ptolemy XIV and Caesarion visited Rome in summer 46 BC, where the Egyptian queen resided in one of Caesar's country houses.[13] The relationship between Cleopatra and Caesar was obvious to the Roman people and it was a scandal, because the Roman dictator was already married to Calpurnia Pisonis. But Caesar even erected a golden statue of Cleopatra represented as Isis in the temple of Venus Genetrix (the mythical ancestress of Caesar's family), which was situated at the Forum Julium.[14] The Roman orator Cicero said in his preserved letters that he hated the foreign queen.[15] Cleopatra and her entourage were in Rome when Caesar was assassinated on 15 March, 44 BC.[16] She returned with her relatives to Egypt. When Ptolemy XIV died – allegedly poisoned by his older sister - Cleopatra made Caesarion her co-regent and successor and gave him the epithets Theos Philopator Philometor (= Father- and motherloving God)...

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Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator in Wikipedia

Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Theós Philopátōr, lived 62 BC/61 BC–January 13, 47 BC?, reigned from 51 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty (305–30 BC) of Egypt. Co-ruler of Egypt, inner turmoil - Son of Pharaoh Ptolemy XII of Egypt (80–58 BC and 55–51 BC), he succeeded his father in the spring of 51 BC as co-ruler of Egypt by his marriage to his older sister Cleopatra VII of Egypt (69–30 BC). In October of 50 BC, Ptolemy XIII was promoted to senior ruler along with her, although the eunuch Pothinus acted as regent for him. In the spring of 48 BC, Ptolemy XIII and Pothinus attempted to depose Cleopatra VII due to her increasing status as Queen. Her face appeared on minted coins, for example, while Ptolemy XIII's name was omitted on official documents. Ptolemy intended to become sole ruler, with Pothinus acting as the power behind the throne. Civil war - They managed to force her to flee to Syria, but she soon organized her own army and a civil war began in Egypt. Soon their other sister started to claim the throne as Arsinoe IV (48–47 BC), further complicating the situation. At this point defeated Roman general Pompey the Great came to Egypt seeking refuge from his pursuing rival Julius Caesar. Initially, Ptolemy XIII and Pothinus pretended to have accepted his request, but on September 29, 48 BC, Pothinus had the general murdered, in hopes of winning favor with Caesar when the victorious general arrived. When Caesar did arrive he was presented with the head of his deceased rival and former ally, but reportedly, instead of being pleased, reacted with disgust and ordered that Pompey's body be located and given a proper Roman funeral. Cleopatra VII proved more successful in winning Caesar's favor and became his lover. Caesar arranged the execution of Pothinus and the official return to the throne of Cleopatra VII, though she had never officially abdicated her marriage to Ptolemy XIII. Still determined to depose Cleopatra VII, Ptolemy XIII allied himself with Arsinoe IV. Jointly, they organized the factions of the army loyal to them against those loyal to Cleopatra VII and the relatively small part of his army that had accompanied Caesar to Egypt. The battle between the warring factions occurred in mid-December of 48 BC inside Alexandria itself, which suffered serious damage, including (according to some sources)[citation needed] the burning of some of the buildings which comprised the Library of Alexandria. The arrival of Roman reinforcements from Pergamum gave the victory to Caesar and Cleopatra VII, forcing Ptolemy XIII and Arsinoe IV to flee the city. Ptolemy XIII reportedly drowned on January 13, 47 BC while attempting to cross the Nile. Whether he was attempting to flee or was seeking negotiations remains uncertain from sources of the time. Cleopatra VII remained the unchallenged ruler of Egypt, although she named their younger brother Ptolemy XIV of Egypt (47–44 BC) her new co-ruler.

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Cleopatra VII in Tour Egypt

CLEOPATRA VII PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY In the springtime of 51 BC, Ptolemy Auletes died and left his kingdom in his will to his eighteen year old daughter, Cleopatra, and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII who was twelve at the time. Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as well as a younger sister, Arsinoe IV. There were two younger brothers as well, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. It is thought that Cleopatra VI may have died as a child and Auletes had Berenice beheaded. At Ptolemy Auletes' death, Pompey, a Roman leader, was left in charge of the children. During the two centuries that preceded Ptolemy Auletes death, the Ptolemies were allied with the Romans. The Ptolemies' strength was failing and the Roman Empire was rising. City after city was falling to the Roman power and the Ptolemies could do nothing but create a pact with them. During the later rule of the Ptolemies, the Romans gained more and more control over Egypt. Tributes had to be paid to the Romans to keep them away from Egypt. When Ptolemy Auletes died, the fall of the Dynasty appeared to be even closer. According to Egyptian law, Cleopatra was forced to have a consort, who was either a brother or a son, no matter what age, throughout her reign. She was married to her younger brother Ptolemy XIII when he was twelve, however she soon dropped his name from any official documents regardless of the Ptolemaic insistence that the male presence be first among co-rulers. She also had her own portrait and name on coins of that time, ignoring her brother's. When Cleopatra became co-regent, her world was crumbling down around her. Cyprus, Coele-Syria and Cyrenaica were gone. There was anarchy abroad and famine at home. Cleopatra was a strong-willed Macedonian queen who was brilliant and dreamed of a greater world empire. She almost achieved it. Whether her way of getting it done was for her own desires or for the pursuit of power will never be known for certain. However, like many Hellenistic queens, she was passionate but not promiscuous. As far as we know, she had no other lovers other than Caesar and Antony. Many believe that she did what she felt was necessary to try to save Alexandria, whatever the price. By 48 BC, Cleopatra had alarmed the more powerful court officials of Alexandria by some of her actions. For instance, her mercenaries killed the Roman governor of Syria's sons when they came to ask for her assistance for their father against the Parthians. A group of men led by Theodotus, the eunuch Pothinus and a half-Greek general, Achillas, overthrew her in favor of her younger brother. They believed him to be much easier to influence and they became his council of regency. Cleopatra is thought to have fled to Thebaid. Between 51 and 49 BC, Egypt was suffering from bad harvests and famine because of a drought which stopped the much needed Nile flooding. Ptolemy XIII signed a decree on October 27, 50 BC which banned any shipments of grain to anywhere but Alexandria. It is thought that this was to deprive Cleopatra and her supporters who were not in Alexandria. Regardless, she started an army from the Arab tribes which were east of Pelusium. During this time, she and her sister Arsinoe moved to Syria. They returned by way of Ascalon which may have been Cleopatra's temporary base. In the meantime, Pompey had been defeated at Pharsalus in August of 48 BC. He headed for Alexandria hoping to find refuge with Ptolemy XIII, of whom Pompey was a senate-appointed guardian. Pompey did not realize how much his reputation had been destroyed by Pharsalus until it was too late. He was murdered as he stepped ashore on September 28, 48 BC. The young Ptolemy XIII stood on the dock and watched the whole scene. Four days later, Caesar arrived in Alexandria. He brought with him thirty-two hundred legionaries and eight hundred cavalry. He also brought twelve other soldiers who bore the insignia of the Roman government who carried a bundle of rods with an ax with a blade that projected out. This was considered a badge of authority that gave a clear hint of his intentions. There were riots that followed in Alexandria. Ptolemy XIII was gone to Pelusium and Caesar placed himself in the royal palace and started giving out orders. The eunuch, Pothinus, brought Ptolemy back to Alexandria. Cleopatra had no intentions of being left out of any deals that were going to be made. She had herself smuggled in through enemy lines rolled in a carpet. She was delivered to Caesar. Both Cleopatra and Ptolemy were invited to appear before Caesar the next morning. By this time, she and Caesar were already lovers and Ptolemy realized this right away. He stormed out screaming that he had been betrayed, trying to arouse the Alexandrian mob. He was soon captured by Caesar's guards and brought back to the palace. It is thought that Caesar had planned to make Cleopatra the sole ruler of Alexandria. He thought she would be a puppet for Rome. The Alexandrian War was started when Pothinus called for Ptolemy XIII's soldiers in November and surrounded Caesar in Alexandria with twenty thousand men. During the war, parts of the Alexandrian Library and some of the warehouses were burned. However, Caesar did manage to capture the Pharos lighthouse, which kept his control of the harbor. Cleopatra's sister, Arsinoe, escaped from the palace and ran to Achillas. She was proclaimed the queen by the Macedonian mob and the army. Cleopatra never forgave her sister for this. During the fighting, Caesar executed Pothinus and Achillas was murdered by Ganymede. Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile while he was trying to flee. Because of his death, Cleopatra was now the sole ruler of Egypt. Caesar had restored her position, but she now had to marry her younger brother Ptolemy XIV, who was eleven years old. This was to please the Alexandrians and the Egyptian priests. Surely Caesar went through all of this trouble for more than his infatuation with the queen of Egypt. It must have been out of arrogance and his desire to get his hands on Egypt's vast resources. However, Cleopatra's intelligence and inheritance did have some influence as well. In what must have been very calculated on his part, she became pregnant rather quickly. For him to have a son to carry the throne was very appealing to him. Caesar and Cleopatra took an extended trip up the Nile for about two months. They stopped in Dendara where Cleopatra was worshipped as a Pharaoh. Caesar would never have this honor. Caesar only left the boat to attend important business in Syria just a few weeks before the birth of their son, Caesarion (Ptolemy Caesar) who was born on June 23, 47 BC. During July of the year 46 BC, Caesar returned to Rome. He was given many honors and a ten-year dictatorship. These celebrations lasted from September to October and he brought Cleopatra over, along with her entourage. The conservative Republicans were very offended when he established Cleopatra in his home. Her social manners did not make the situation any better. She upset many. Cleopatra had started calling herself the New Isis and was the subject of much gossip. She lived in luxury and had a statue made of gold placed by Caesar, in the temple of Venus Genetrix . Caesar also openly claimed Caesarion as his son. Many were upset that he was planning to marry Cleopatra regardless of the laws against bigamy and marriages to foreigners. However, on the Ides of March of 44 BC, all of that came to an end. Caesar was assassinated outside the Senate Building in Rome. He was killed in a conspiracy by his Senators. Many of the Senators thought he was a threat to the republic's well-being. It was thought that Caesar was making plans to have himself declared king. After Caesar's murder, Cleopatra fled Rome and returned home to Alexandria. Caesar had not mentioned Cleopatra or Caesarion in his will. She felt her life, as well as that of her child, was in great danger. Upon returning to Alexandria, she had her consort, Ptolemy XIV, assassinated and established Caesarion as her co-regent at the age of four. She found Egypt suffering from plagues and famine. The Nile canals had been neglected during her absence which caused the harvests to be bad and the inundations low. The bad harvests continued from 43 until 41 BC. Trying to help secure recognition for Caesarion with Caesar's former lieutenant Dolabella, Cleopatra sent Dolabella the four legions that Caesar had left in Egypt. Cassius captured the legions which caused Dolabella to commit suicide at Laodicea during the summer of 43 BC. She was planning to join Mark Antony and Octavian (who became Augustus) with a large fleet of ships after Dolabella's death, but was stopped by a violent storm. Cleopatra watched in the time that followed, who would be the next power in Rome. After Brutus and Cassius had been killed and Antony, Octavian and Lepidus were triumphant, Cleopatra knew which one she would have to deal with. Octavian went back to Italy very ill, so Antony was the one to watch. Her son gained his right to become king when Caesar was officially divinized in Rome on January 1, 42 BC. The main object was the promotion of Octavian, but the triumvirs knew of Cleopatra's aid to Dolabella. Cleopatra was invited by Mark Antony to Tarsus in 41 BC. She already knew enough about him to know how to get to him. She knew about his limited strategic and tactical abilities, his blue blood, the drinking, his womanizing, his vulgarity and his ambition. Even though Egypt was on the verge of economic collapse, Cleopatra put on a show for Mark Antony that even Ptolemy Philadelphos couldn't have done better. She sailed with silver oars, purple sails with her Erotes fanning her and the Nereid handmaids steering and she was dressed as Aphrodite, the goddess of love. This was a very calculated entrance; considered vulgar by many. It was a vulgar display to attract the attention of a vulgar man. Mark Antony loved the idea of having a blue-blooded Ptolemy woman. His former mistress as well as his current wife, Fulvia, were merely middle class. Cleopatra and Antony spent the winter of 41 to 40 in Alexandria. According to some sources, Cleopatra could get out of him whatever she wanted, including the assassination of her sister, Arsinoe. Cleopatra may not have had so much influence over him later on. He took control of Cyprus from her. Actually it may have been Cleopatra who was the exploited one. Antony needed money and Cleopatra could be generous when it benefited her as well. In the spring of 40 BC, Mark Antony left Cleopatra and returned home. He did not see her for four years. Antony's wife, Fulvia had gotten into a serious movement against Octavian over veterans' allotments of land. She fled to Greece and had a bitter confrontation with Antony. She became ill and died there. Antony patched things up with Octavian that same autumn by marrying Octavian's sister, Octavia. She was a beautiful and intelligent woman who had been recently widowed. She had three children from her first marriage. In the meantime, Cleopatra had given birth to twins, one boy and one girl, in Alexandria. Antony's first child by Octavia was a girl. Had Octavia given him a son, things might have turned out different. Antony kept the idea of the treasures of the Ptolemies and how much he wanted it. When he finally did get the treasures, the standard interest rate in Rome fell from 12 percent to 4. Mark Antony left Italy and went to deal with the Parthians. Octavia had just had another daughter and went with him just as far as Corcyra. He gave her the excuse that he did not want to expose her to the dangers of the battles and sent her home. He told her that she would be more use to him at home in Rome keeping peace with her brother, Octavian. However, the first thing that he did when he reached Antioch, was to send for Cleopatra. Their twin children were officially recognized by Antony and were given the names of Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene. Mark Antony gave her much land which was very essential to Egypt. He gave her Cyprus, the Cilician coast, Phoenicia, Coele-Syria, Judea and Arabia. This allowed Egypt to be able to build ships from the lumber from Cilician coast. Egypt then built a large fleet. Antony had planned a campaign against the Parthians. He obviously needed Cleopatra's support for this and in 36 BC, he was defeated. He became more indebted to her than ever. They had just had a third child. On their return to Syria, she met him and what was left of his army, with food, clothing and money. Early in 35 BC, he returned to Egypt with her. Antony's wife, Octavia was in Athens with supplies and reinforcements waiting for her husband. He sent her a letter telling her to not come any further. Her brother, Octavian, tried to provoke Antony into a fight. Octavian would release troops as well as ships to try to force Antony into a war, which, by this time was almost inevitable. Antony might have been able to patch things up with Octavia and her brother had he returned to Rome in 35 BC. Cleopatra probably did her best to keep him in Alexandria. Octavia remained completely loyal to Antony through all of this. In 34 BC, Antony had a campaign into Armenia, which was successful and financially rewarding. He celebrated his triumph with a parade through Alexandria with Cleopatra presiding over as the New Isis. Antony presented himself as the New Dionysus as part of his dream of the Graeco-Roman rule. Within a few days, a more political ceremony took place in which the children were given their royal titles with Antony sitting on the throne as well. Ptolemy XV (Caesarion) was made the co-ruler with his mother and was called the King of Kings. Cleopatra was called the Queen of Kings, which was a higher position than that of Caesarion's. Alexander Helios, which meant the sun, was named Great King of the Seleucid empire when it was at its highest. Cleopatra Selene, which meant the moon, was called Queen of Cyrenaica and Crete. Cleopatra and Antony's son, Ptolemy Philadelphos was named King of Syria and Asia Minor at the age of two. Cleopatra had dreams of becoming the Empress of the world. She was very close to achieving these dreams and her favorite oath was, "As surely as I shall yet dispense justice on the Roman Capital." In 32 to 31 BC, Antony finally divorced Octavia. This forced the Western part of the world to recognize his relationship with Cleopatra. He had already put her name and face on a Roman coin, the silver denarii. The denarii was widely circulated throughout the Mediterranean. By doing this, Antony's relationship with the Roman allegiance was ended and Octavian decided to publish Antony's will. Octavian then formally declared war against Cleopatra. Antony's name was nowhere mentioned in the official declaration. Many false accusations were made against Cleopatra saying that she was a harlot and a drunken Oriental. These accusations were most likely made out of fear of Cleopatra and Antony. Many probably thought that the New Isis would prevail and that Antony would start up a new wave of world conquest and rule in a co-partnership from Alexandria. However, Octavian's navy severely defeated Antony in Actium, which is in Greece, on September 2, 31 BC. Octavian's admiral, Agrippa, planned and carried out the defeat. In less than a year, Antony half-heartedly defended Alexandria against the advancing army of Octavian. After the defeat, Antony committed suicide by falling on his own sword in 30 BC. After Antony's death, Cleopatra was taken to Octavian where her role in Octavian's triumph was carefully explained to her. He had no interest in any relationship, negotiation or reconciliation with the Queen of Egypt. She would be displayed as a slave in the cities she had ruled over. She must have had memories of her sister, Arsinoe, being humiliated in this way. She would not live this way, so she had an asp, which was an Egyptian cobra, brought to her hidden in a basket of figs. She died on August 12, 30 BC at the age of 39. The Egyptian religion declared that death by snakebite would secure immortality. With this, she achieved her dying wish, to not be forgotten. The only other ruler to cast a shadow on the fascination with Cleopatra was Alexander who was another Macedonian. After Cleopatra's death, Caesarion was strangled and the other children of Cleopatra were raised by Antony's wife, Octavia. Her death was the mark of the end of the Egyptian Monarchs. The Roman Emperors came into to rule in Egypt. The Ptolemies were Macedonian in decent, but ruled as Egyptians, as Pharaohs. Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt. What is often not associated with Cleopatra was her brilliance and her devotion to her country. She was a quick-witted woman who was fluent in nine languages, however, Latin was not one of them. She was a mathematician and a very good businesswoman. She had a genuine respect for Caesar, whose intelligence and wit matched her own. Antony on the other hand almost drove her insane with his lack of intelligence and his excesses. She dealt with him and made the most of what she had to do. She fought for her country. She had a charismatic personality, was a born leader and an ambitious monarch who deserved better than suicide.

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Cleopatra VII in Wikipedia

Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; (Late 69 BC[1] – August 12, 30 BC) was the last person to rule Egypt as an Egyptian pharaoh – after her death Egypt became a Roman province. She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt, and therefore was a descendant of one of Alexander the Great's generals who had seized control over Egypt after Alexander's death. Most Ptolemeis spoke Greek and refused to learn Egyptian, which is the reason that Greek as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents like the Rosetta Stone.[2] By contrast, Cleopatra learned Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of an Egyptian Goddess. Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes and later with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler. As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated her son with Caesar, Caesarion, to co-ruler in name. After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus. Her unions with her brothers produced no children. After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed suit, according to tradition killing herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC.[3] She was briefly outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh, but he was soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt became the Roman province of Aegyptus. Though Cleopatra bore the ancient Egyptian title of pharaoh, the Ptolemaic dynasty was Hellenistic, having been founded 300 years before by Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great.[4][5][6][7] As such, Cleopatra's language was the Greek spoken by the Hellenic aristocracy, though she was reputed to be the first ruler of the dynasty to learn Egyptian. She also adopted common Egyptian beliefs and deities. Her patron deity was Isis, and thus, during her reign, it was believed that she was the re-incarnation and embodiment of the goddess. Her death marked the end of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Hellenistic period and the beginning of the Roman era in the eastern Mediterranean. To this day, Cleopatra remains a popular figure in Western culture. Her legacy survives in numerous works of art and the many dramatizations of her story in literature and other media, including William Shakespeare's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra, Jules Massenet's opera Cléopâtre and the 1963 film Cleopatra. In most depictions, Cleopatra is put forward as a great beauty and her successive conquests of the world's most powerful men are taken to be proof of her aesthetic and sexual appeal. In his Pensées, philosopher Blaise Pascal contends that Cleopatra's classically beautiful profile changed world history: "Cleopatra's nose, had it been shorter, the whole face of the world would have been changed."[8] Contents [hide] 1 Biography 1.1 Accession to the throne 1.2 Relation with Julius Caesar 1.3 Cleopatra in the Roman Civil War 1.4 Cleopatra and Mark Antony 1.5 Death 2 Character and cultural depictions 3 Ancestry 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links 7.1 General 7.2 Paintings Biography - Accession to the throne The identity of Cleopatra's mother is unknown, but she is generally believed to be Cleopatra V Tryphaena of Egypt, the sister or cousin and wife of Ptolemy XII, or possibly another Ptolemaic family member who was the daughter of Ptolemy X and Cleopatra Berenice III Philopator if Cleopatra V was not the daughter of Ptolemy X and Berenice III.[9] Cleopatra's father Auletes was a direct descendant of Alexander the Great's general, Ptolemy I Soter, son of Arsinoe and Lacus, both of Macedon. Centralization of power and corruption led to uprisings in and the losses of Cyprus and Cyrenaica, making Ptolemy's reign one of the most calamitous of the dynasty. When Ptolemy went to Rome with Cleopatra, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena seized the crown but died shortly afterwards in suspicious circumstances. It is believed, though not proven by historical sources, that Berenice IV poisoned her so she could assume sole rulership. Regardless of the cause, she did until Ptolemy Auletes returned in 55 BC, with Roman support, capturing Alexandria aided by Roman general Aulus Gabinius. Berenice was imprisoned and executed shortly afterwards, her head allegedly being sent to the royal court on the decree of her father, the king. Cleopatra was now, at age 14, put as joint regent and deputy of her father, although her power was likely to have been severely limited. Ptolemy XII died in March 51 BC, thus by his will making the 18-year-old Cleopatra and her brother, the 10-year-old Ptolemy XIII joint monarchs. The first three years of their reign were difficult, due to economic difficulties, famine, deficient floods of the Nile, and political conflicts. Although Cleopatra was married to her young brother, she quickly made it clear that she had no intention of sharing power with him. In August 51 BC, relations between Cleopatra and Ptolemy completely broke down. Cleopatra dropped Ptolemy's name from official documents and her face appeared alone on coins, which went against Ptolemaic tradition of female rulers being subordinate to male co-rulers. In 50 BC Cleopatra came into a serious conflict with the Gabiniani, powerful Roman troops of Aulus Gabinius who had left them in Egypt to protect Ptolemy XII after his restoration to the throne in 55 BC. This conflict was one of the main causes for Cleopatra's soon following loss of power. The sole reign of Cleopatra was finally ended by a cabal of courtiers, led by the eunuch Pothinus, removing Cleopatra from power and making Ptolemy sole ruler in circa 48 BC (or possibly earlier, as a decree exists from 51 BC with Ptolemy's name alone). She tried to raise a rebellion around Pelusium, but she was soon forced to flee with her only remaining sister, Arsinoe...

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Ptolemy XIV of Egypt in Wikipedia

Ptolemy XIV (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος, Ptolemaĩos, who lived 60 BC/59 BC–44 BC and reigned 47 BC–44 BC), was a son of Ptolemy XII of Egypt and one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. Following the death of his older brother Ptolemy XIII of Egypt on January 13, 47 BC, he was proclaimed Pharaoh and co-ruler by their older sister and remaining Pharaoh, Cleopatra VII of Egypt. Cleopatra also married her new co-ruler but continued to act as lover of Roman dictator Julius Caesar. Ptolemy is considered to have reigned in name only, with Cleopatra keeping actual authority to herself. On March 15, 44 BC Caesar was murdered in Rome by a group of conspirators whose most notable members were Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Ptolemy soon followed him in death. An inscription mentioning him as alive was dated at July 26, 44 BC. It has been assumed but remains uncertain that Cleopatra poisoned her co-ruler to replace him with Ptolemy XV Caesarion, her son by Caesar who was proclaimed co-ruler on September 2, 44 BC and whom his mother intended to support as successor of his father.

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Cleopatra VII in Tour Egypt

CLEOPATRA VII PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY In the springtime of 51 BC, Ptolemy Auletes died and left his kingdom in his will to his eighteen year old daughter, Cleopatra, and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII who was twelve at the time. Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as well as a younger sister, Arsinoe IV. There were two younger brothers as well, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. It is thought that Cleopatra VI may have died as a child and Auletes had Berenice beheaded. At Ptolemy Auletes' death, Pompey, a Roman leader, was left in charge of the children. During the two centuries that preceded Ptolemy Auletes death, the Ptolemies were allied with the Romans. The Ptolemies' strength was failing and the Roman Empire was rising. City after city was falling to the Roman power and the Ptolemies could do nothing but create a pact with them. During the later rule of the Ptolemies, the Romans gained more and more control over Egypt. Tributes had to be paid to the Romans to keep them away from Egypt. When Ptolemy Auletes died, the fall of the Dynasty appeared to be even closer. According to Egyptian law, Cleopatra was forced to have a consort, who was either a brother or a son, no matter what age, throughout her reign. She was married to her younger brother Ptolemy XIII when he was twelve, however she soon dropped his name from any official documents regardless of the Ptolemaic insistence that the male presence be first among co-rulers. She also had her own portrait and name on coins of that time, ignoring her brother's. When Cleopatra became co-regent, her world was crumbling down around her. Cyprus, Coele-Syria and Cyrenaica were gone. There was anarchy abroad and famine at home. Cleopatra was a strong-willed Macedonian queen who was brilliant and dreamed of a greater world empire. She almost achieved it. Whether her way of getting it done was for her own desires or for the pursuit of power will never be known for certain. However, like many Hellenistic queens, she was passionate but not promiscuous. As far as we know, she had no other lovers other than Caesar and Antony. Many believe that she did what she felt was necessary to try to save Alexandria, whatever the price. By 48 BC, Cleopatra had alarmed the more powerful court officials of Alexandria by some of her actions. For instance, her mercenaries killed the Roman governor of Syria's sons when they came to ask for her assistance for their father against the Parthians. A group of men led by Theodotus, the eunuch Pothinus and a half-Greek general, Achillas, overthrew her in favor of her younger brother. They believed him to be much easier to influence and they became his council of regency. Cleopatra is thought to have fled to Thebaid. Between 51 and 49 BC, Egypt was suffering from bad harvests and famine because of a drought which stopped the much needed Nile flooding. Ptolemy XIII signed a decree on October 27, 50 BC which banned any shipments of grain to anywhere but Alexandria. It is thought that this was to deprive Cleopatra and her supporters who were not in Alexandria. Regardless, she started an army from the Arab tribes which were east of Pelusium. During this time, she and her sister Arsinoe moved to Syria. They returned by way of Ascalon which may have been Cleopatra's temporary base. In the meantime, Pompey had been defeated at Pharsalus in August of 48 BC. He headed for Alexandria hoping to find refuge with Ptolemy XIII, of whom Pompey was a senate-appointed guardian. Pompey did not realize how much his reputation had been destroyed by Pharsalus until it was too late. He was murdered as he stepped ashore on September 28, 48 BC. The young Ptolemy XIII stood on the dock and watched the whole scene. Four days later, Caesar arrived in Alexandria. He brought with him thirty-two hundred legionaries and eight hundred cavalry. He also brought twelve other soldiers who bore the insignia of the Roman government who carried a bundle of rods with an ax with a blade that projected out. This was considered a badge of authority that gave a clear hint of his intentions. There were riots that followed in Alexandria. Ptolemy XIII was gone to Pelusium and Caesar placed himself in the royal palace and started giving out orders. The eunuch, Pothinus, brought Ptolemy back to Alexandria. Cleopatra had no intentions of being left out of any deals that were going to be made. She had herself smuggled in through enemy lines rolled in a carpet. She was delivered to Caesar. Both Cleopatra and Ptolemy were invited to appear before Caesar the next morning. By this time, she and Caesar were already lovers and Ptolemy realized this right away. He stormed out screaming that he had been betrayed, trying to arouse the Alexandrian mob. He was soon captured by Caesar's guards and brought back to the palace. It is thought that Caesar had planned to make Cleopatra the sole ruler of Alexandria. He thought she would be a puppet for Rome. The Alexandrian War was started when Pothinus called for Ptolemy XIII's soldiers in November and surrounded Caesar in Alexandria with twenty thousand men. During the war, parts of the Alexandrian Library and some of the warehouses were burned. However, Caesar did manage to capture the Pharos lighthouse, which kept his control of the harbor. Cleopatra's sister, Arsinoe, escaped from the palace and ran to Achillas. She was proclaimed the queen by the Macedonian mob and the army. Cleopatra never forgave her sister for this. During the fighting, Caesar executed Pothinus and Achillas was murdered by Ganymede. Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile while he was trying to flee. Because of his death, Cleopatra was now the sole ruler of Egypt. Caesar had restored her position, but she now had to marry her younger brother Ptolemy XIV, who was eleven years old. This was to please the Alexandrians and the Egyptian priests. Surely Caesar went through all of this trouble for more than his infatuation with the queen of Egypt. It must have been out of arrogance and his desire to get his hands on Egypt's vast resources. However, Cleopatra's intelligence and inheritance did have some influence as well. In what must have been very calculated on his part, she became pregnant rather quickly. For him to have a son to carry the throne was very appealing to him. Caesar and Cleopatra took an extended trip up the Nile for about two months. They stopped in Dendara where Cleopatra was worshipped as a Pharaoh. Caesar would never have this honor. Caesar only left the boat to attend important business in Syria just a few weeks before the birth of their son, Caesarion (Ptolemy Caesar) who was born on June 23, 47 BC. During July of the year 46 BC, Caesar returned to Rome. He was given many honors and a ten-year dictatorship. These celebrations lasted from September to October and he brought Cleopatra over, along with her entourage. The conservative Republicans were very offended when he established Cleopatra in his home. Her social manners did not make the situation any better. She upset many. Cleopatra had started calling herself the New Isis and was the subject of much gossip. She lived in luxury and had a statue made of gold placed by Caesar, in the temple of Venus Genetrix . Caesar also openly claimed Caesarion as his son. Many were upset that he was planning to marry Cleopatra regardless of the laws against bigamy and marriages to foreigners. However, on the Ides of March of 44 BC, all of that came to an end. Caesar was assassinated outside the Senate Building in Rome. He was killed in a conspiracy by his Senators. Many of the Senators thought he was a threat to the republic's well-being. It was thought that Caesar was making plans to have himself declared king. After Caesar's murder, Cleopatra fled Rome and returned home to Alexandria. Caesar had not mentioned Cleopatra or Caesarion in his will. She felt her life, as well as that of her child, was in great danger. Upon returning to Alexandria, she had her consort, Ptolemy XIV, assassinated and established Caesarion as her co-regent at the age of four. She found Egypt suffering from plagues and famine. The Nile canals had been neglected during her absence which caused the harvests to be bad and the inundations low. The bad harvests continued from 43 until 41 BC. Trying to help secure recognition for Caesarion with Caesar's former lieutenant Dolabella, Cleopatra sent Dolabella the four legions that Caesar had left in Egypt. Cassius captured the legions which caused Dolabella to commit suicide at Laodicea during the summer of 43 BC. She was planning to join Mark Antony and Octavian (who became Augustus) with a large fleet of ships after Dolabella's death, but was stopped by a violent storm. Cleopatra watched in the time that followed, who would be the next power in Rome. After Brutus and Cassius had been killed and Antony, Octavian and Lepidus were triumphant, Cleopatra knew which one she would have to deal with. Octavian went back to Italy very ill, so Antony was the one to watch. Her son gained his right to become king when Caesar was officially divinized in Rome on January 1, 42 BC. The main object was the promotion of Octavian, but the triumvirs knew of Cleopatra's aid to Dolabella. Cleopatra was invited by Mark Antony to Tarsus in 41 BC. She already knew enough about him to know how to get to him. She knew about his limited strategic and tactical abilities, his blue blood, the drinking, his womanizing, his vulgarity and his ambition. Even though Egypt was on the verge of economic collapse, Cleopatra put on a show for Mark Antony that even Ptolemy Philadelphos couldn't have done better. She sailed with silver oars, purple sails with her Erotes fanning her and the Nereid handmaids steering and she was dressed as Aphrodite, the goddess of love. This was a very calculated entrance; considered vulgar by many. It was a vulgar display to attract the attention of a vulgar man. Mark Antony loved the idea of having a blue- blooded Ptolemy woman. His former mistress as well as his current wife, Fulvia, were merely middle class. Cleopatra and Antony spent the winter of 41 to 40 in Alexandria. According to some sources, Cleopatra could get out of him whatever she wanted, including the assassination of her sister, Arsinoe. Cleopatra may not have had so much influence over him later on. He took control of Cyprus from her. Actually it may have been Cleopatra who was the exploited one. Antony needed money and Cleopatra could be generous when it benefited her as well. In the spring of 40 BC, Mark Antony left Cleopatra and returned home. He did not see her for four years. Antony's wife, Fulvia had gotten into a serious movement against Octavian over veterans' allotments of land. She fled to Greece and had a bitter confrontation with Antony. She became ill and died there. Antony patched things up with Octavian that same autumn by marrying Octavian's sister, Octavia. She was a beautiful and intelligent woman who had been recently widowed. She had three children from her first marriage. In the meantime, Cleopatra had given birth to twins, one boy and one girl, in Alexandria. Antony's first child by Octavia was a girl. Had Octavia given him a son, things might have turned out different. Antony kept the idea of the treasures of the Ptolemies and how much he wanted it. When he finally did get the treasures, the standard interest rate in Rome fell from 12 percent to 4. Mark Antony left Italy and went to deal with the Parthians. Octavia had just had another daughter and went with him just as far as Corcyra. He gave her the excuse that he did not want to expose her to the dangers of the battles and sent her home. He told her that she would be more use to him at home in Rome keeping peace with her brother, Octavian. However, the first thing that he did when he reached Antioch, was to send for Cleopatra. Their twin children were officially recognized by Antony and were given the names of Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene. Mark Antony gave her much land which was very essential to Egypt. He gave her Cyprus, the Cilician coast, Phoenicia, Coele-Syria, Judea and Arabia. This allowed Egypt to be able to build ships from the lumber from Cilician coast. Egypt then built a large fleet. Antony had planned a campaign against the Parthians. He obviously needed Cleopatra's support for this and in 36 BC, he was defeated. He became more indebted to her than ever. They had just had a third child. On their return to Syria, she met him and what was left of his army, with food, clothing and money. Early in 35 BC, he returned to Egypt with her. Antony's wife, Octavia was in Athens with supplies and reinforcements waiting for her husband. He sent her a letter telling her to not come any further. Her brother, Octavian, tried to provoke Antony into a fight. Octavian would release troops as well as ships to try to force Antony into a war, which, by this time was almost inevitable. Antony might have been able to patch things up with Octavia and her brother had he returned to Rome in 35 BC. Cleopatra probably did her best to keep him in Alexandria. Octavia remained completely loyal to Antony through all of this. In 34 BC, Antony had a campaign into Armenia, which was successful and financially rewarding. He celebrated his triumph with a parade through Alexandria with Cleopatra presiding over as the New Isis. Antony presented himself as the New Dionysus as part of his dream of the Graeco-Roman rule. Within a few days, a more political ceremony took place in which the children were given their royal titles with Antony sitting on the throne as well. Ptolemy XV (Caesarion) was made the co-ruler with his mother and was called the King of Kings. Cleopatra was called the Queen of Kings, which was a higher position than that of Caesarion's. Alexander Helios, which meant the sun, was named Great King of the Seleucid empire when it was at its highest. Cleopatra Selene, which meant the moon, was called Queen of Cyrenaica and Crete. Cleopatra and Antony's son, Ptolemy Philadelphos was named King of Syria and Asia Minor at the age of two. Cleopatra had dreams of becoming the Empress of the world. She was very close to achieving these dreams and her favorite oath was, "As surely as I shall yet dispense justice on the Roman Capital." In 32 to 31 BC, Antony finally divorced Octavia. This forced the Western part of the world to recognize his relationship with Cleopatra. He had already put her name and face on a Roman coin, the silver denarii. The denarii was widely circulated throughout the Mediterranean. By doing this, Antony's relationship with the Roman allegiance was ended and Octavian decided to publish Antony's will. Octavian then formally declared war against Cleopatra. Antony's name was nowhere mentioned in the official declaration. Many false accusations were made against Cleopatra saying that she was a harlot and a drunken Oriental. These accusations were most likely made out of fear of Cleopatra and Antony. Many probably thought that the New Isis would prevail and that Antony would start up a new wave of world conquest and rule in a co-partnership from Alexandria. However, Octavian's navy severely defeated Antony in Actium, which is in Greece, on September 2, 31 BC. Octavian's admiral, Agrippa, planned and carried out the defeat. In less than a year, Antony half-heartedly defended Alexandria against the advancing army of Octavian. After the defeat, Antony committed suicide by falling on his own sword in 30 BC. After Antony's death, Cleopatra was taken to Octavian where her role in Octavian's triumph was carefully explained to her. He had no interest in any relationship, negotiation or reconciliation with the Queen of Egypt. She would be displayed as a slave in the cities she had ruled over. She must have had memories of her sister, Arsinoe, being humiliated in this way. She would not live this way, so she had an asp, which was an Egyptian cobra, brought to her hidden in a basket of figs. She died on August 12, 30 BC at the age of 39. The Egyptian religion declared that death by snakebite would secure immortality. With this, she achieved her dying wish, to not be forgotten. The only other ruler to cast a shadow on the fascination with Cleopatra was Alexander who was another Macedonian. After Cleopatra's death, Caesarion was strangled and the other children of Cleopatra were raised by Antony's wife, Octavia. Her death was the mark of the end of the Egyptian Monarchs. The Roman Emperors came into to rule in Egypt. The Ptolemies were Macedonian in decent, but ruled as Egyptians, as Pharaohs. Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt. What is often not associated with Cleopatra was her brilliance and her devotion to her country. She was a quick-witted woman who was fluent in nine languages, however, Latin was not one of them. She was a mathematician and a very good businesswoman. She had a genuine respect for Caesar, whose intelligence and wit matched her own. Antony on the other hand almost drove her insane with his lack of intelligence and his excesses. She dealt with him and made the most of what she had to do. She fought for her country. She had a charismatic personality, was a born leader and an ambitious monarch who deserved better than suicide.

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Cleopatra VII in Wikipedia

Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; (Late 69 BC[1] – August 12, 30 BC) was the last person to rule Egypt as an Egyptian pharaoh – after her death Egypt became a Roman province. She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt, and therefore was a descendant of one of Alexander the Great's generals who had seized control over Egypt after Alexander's death. Most Ptolemeis spoke Greek and refused to learn Egyptian, which is the reason that Greek as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents like the Rosetta Stone.[2] By contrast, Cleopatra learned Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of an Egyptian Goddess. Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes and later with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler. As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated her son with Caesar, Caesarion, to co-ruler in name. After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus. Her unions with her brothers produced no children. After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed suit, according to tradition killing herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC.[3] She was briefly outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh, but he was soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt became the Roman province of Aegyptus. Though Cleopatra bore the ancient Egyptian title of pharaoh, the Ptolemaic dynasty was Hellenistic, having been founded 300 years before by Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great.[4][5][6][7] As such, Cleopatra's language was the Greek spoken by the Hellenic aristocracy, though she was reputed to be the first ruler of the dynasty to learn Egyptian. She also adopted common Egyptian beliefs and deities. Her patron deity was Isis, and thus, during her reign, it was believed that she was the re-incarnation and embodiment of the goddess. Her death marked the end of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Hellenistic period and the beginning of the Roman era in the eastern Mediterranean. To this day, Cleopatra remains a popular figure in Western culture. Her legacy survives in numerous works of art and the many dramatizations of her story in literature and other media, including William Shakespeare's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra, Jules Massenet's opera Cléopâtre and the 1963 film Cleopatra. In most depictions, Cleopatra is put forward as a great beauty and her successive conquests of the world's most powerful men are taken to be proof of her aesthetic and sexual appeal. In his Pensées, philosopher Blaise Pascal contends that Cleopatra's classically beautiful profile changed world history: "Cleopatra's nose, had it been shorter, the whole face of the world would have been changed."[8] Contents [hide] 1 Biography 1.1 Accession to the throne 1.2 Relation with Julius Caesar 1.3 Cleopatra in the Roman Civil War 1.4 Cleopatra and Mark Antony 1.5 Death 2 Character and cultural depictions 3 Ancestry 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links 7.1 General 7.2 Paintings Biography - Accession to the throne The identity of Cleopatra's mother is unknown, but she is generally believed to be Cleopatra V Tryphaena of Egypt, the sister or cousin and wife of Ptolemy XII, or possibly another Ptolemaic family member who was the daughter of Ptolemy X and Cleopatra Berenice III Philopator if Cleopatra V was not the daughter of Ptolemy X and Berenice III.[9] Cleopatra's father Auletes was a direct descendant of Alexander the Great's general, Ptolemy I Soter, son of Arsinoe and Lacus, both of Macedon. Centralization of power and corruption led to uprisings in and the losses of Cyprus and Cyrenaica, making Ptolemy's reign one of the most calamitous of the dynasty. When Ptolemy went to Rome with Cleopatra, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena seized the crown but died shortly afterwards in suspicious circumstances. It is believed, though not proven by historical sources, that Berenice IV poisoned her so she could assume sole rulership. Regardless of the cause, she did until Ptolemy Auletes returned in 55 BC, with Roman support, capturing Alexandria aided by Roman general Aulus Gabinius. Berenice was imprisoned and executed shortly afterwards, her head allegedly being sent to the royal court on the decree of her father, the king. Cleopatra was now, at age 14, put as joint regent and deputy of her father, although her power was likely to have been severely limited. Ptolemy XII died in March 51 BC, thus by his will making the 18-year-old Cleopatra and her brother, the 10-year-old Ptolemy XIII joint monarchs. The first three years of their reign were difficult, due to economic difficulties, famine, deficient floods of the Nile, and political conflicts. Although Cleopatra was married to her young brother, she quickly made it clear that she had no intention of sharing power with him. In August 51 BC, relations between Cleopatra and Ptolemy completely broke down. Cleopatra dropped Ptolemy's name from official documents and her face appeared alone on coins, which went against Ptolemaic tradition of female rulers being subordinate to male co-rulers. In 50 BC Cleopatra came into a serious conflict with the Gabiniani, powerful Roman troops of Aulus Gabinius who had left them in Egypt to protect Ptolemy XII after his restoration to the throne in 55 BC. This conflict was one of the main causes for Cleopatra's soon following loss of power. The sole reign of Cleopatra was finally ended by a cabal of courtiers, led by the eunuch Pothinus, removing Cleopatra from power and making Ptolemy sole ruler in circa 48 BC (or possibly earlier, as a decree exists from 51 BC with Ptolemy's name alone). She tried to raise a rebellion around Pelusium, but she was soon forced to flee with her only remaining sister, Arsinoe...

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Ptolemy XV Cesarion in Wikipedia

Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar (June 23, 47 BC – August 23, 30 BC), nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) Greek: Πτολεμαῖος ΙΕʹ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καῖσαρ, Καισαρίων, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr Philomḗtōr Kaĩsar, Kaisaríōn was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned, as a child, jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 44 BC. For eighteen days, up to August, 30 BC he was sole pharaoh, when he was killed on orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, for whom he was named. Life - Ptolemy XV, sometimes referred to as "Ptolemy Caesar", most commonly known by his nickname Caesarion, was born in Egypt in 47 BC. His mother insisted that he was the son of the Roman dictator Julius Caesar. Caesarion was said to have inherited Caesar's looks and manner, but Caesar apparently did not officially acknowledge him. Nevertheless he may have allowed him to use his name.[1] The matter became contentious when Caesar's adopted son Octavian came into conflict with Cleopatra. His supporter Gaius Oppius wrote a pamphlet which attempted to prove that Caesar could not have fathered Caesarion. Cleopatra also compared her relationship to her son with the Egyptian goddess Isis and her miraculous child Horus.[1] Caesarion spent two of his early years, from 46–44 BC, in Rome, where he and his mother were Caesar's guests. Cleopatra hoped that her son would eventually succeed his father as the head of the Roman Republic as well as Egypt. After Caesar's assassination on March 15, 44 BC, Cleopatra and Caesarion returned to Egypt. Caesarion was named co-ruler by his mother on September 2, 44 BC at the age of three, although he was King in name only, with Cleopatra keeping actual authority all to herself. During the tense period of time leading up to the final conflict between Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) and Octavian (future Emperor Augustus), Antony shared control of the Republic in a triumvirate with Octavian and Lepidus, but Lepidus was forced into retirement by Octavian in 36BC, leaving Antony and Octavian as rivals. Two years later, in 34BC, Antony granted various eastern lands and titles to Caesarion and to his own three children with Cleopatra. Caesarion was proclaimed a god, son of god[disputed – discuss] and "King of Kings". This grandiose title was "unprecedented in the management of Roman client-king relationships" and could be seen as "threatening the 'greatness' of the Roman people".[2] Most threatening to Octavian (whose claim to power was based on his status as Julius Caesar's grandnephew and adopted son), Antony declared Caesarion to be Caesar's true son and heir. These proclamations, known as the Donations of Alexandria, caused a fatal breach in Antony's relations with Octavian, who used Roman resentment over the Donations to gain support for war against Antony and Cleopatra.[3] After the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium, Cleopatra seems to have groomed Caesarion to take over as "sole ruler without his mother."[1] She may have intended to go into exile, perhaps with Antony, who was hoping he would be allowed to retire, as Lepidus had. When Octavian invaded Egypt in 30 BC, Cleopatra sent Caesarion, at the time 17 years old, to the Red Sea port of Berenice for safety, with possible plans of an escape to India. Octavian captured the city of Alexandria on August 1, 30 BC, the date that marks the official annexation of Egypt to the Roman Republic. Mark Antony had committed suicide prior to Octavian's entry into the capital; Cleopatra followed his example by committing suicide on August 12, 30 BC. Caesarion's guardians, including his tutor, either were themselves lured by false promises of mercy into returning the boy to Alexandria or perhaps even betrayed him; the records are unclear. Plutarch says that Caesarion had actually escaped to India, but was falsely promised the kingdom of Egypt, Caesarion, who was said to be Cleopatra's son by Julius Caesar, was sent by his mother, with much treasure, into India, by way of Ethiopia. There Rhodon, another tutor like Theodorus, persuaded him to go back, on the ground that [Octavian] Caesar invited him to take the kingdom.[4] Octavian is supposed to have had Caesarion executed in Alexandria, following the advice of Arius Didymus, who said "Too many Caesars is not good" (a pun on a line in Homer).[5] The exact circumstances of his death have not been documented; it is popularly thought that he was strangled. Octavian then assumed absolute control of Egypt. The year 30 BC was considered the first year of the new ruler's reign according to the traditional chronological system of Egypt. In lists of the time Octavian himself appears as a Pharaoh and the successor to Caesarion. Depictions - Few images of Caesarion survive. He is thought to be depicted in a partial statue found in the harbor of Alexandria by Franck Goddio in 1997. He is also portrayed twice in relief, as an adult pharaoh, with his mother on the Temple of Hathor at Dendera. Egyptian names - In addition to his Greek name and nicknames, Caesarion also had a full set of royal names in the Egyptian language: Iwapanetjer entynehem Setepenptah Irmaatenre Sekhemankhamun These are usually translated as: "Heir of the God who saves" "Chosen of Ptah" "Carrying out the rule of Ra" or "Sun of Righteousness" "Living Image of Amun"...

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Augustus in Tour Egypt

AUGUSTUS (OCTAVIUS) 63 BC - 14 AD - Caesar's sole male relative was a slight, frail grandnephew only 18 years old, who was named heir in Caesar's will to three-quarters of his great wealth. By another condition in the will of the dead dictator, this youth was also adopted as Caesar's son, and so for a while he called himself Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, or Caesar the Younger. After 27 BC, he is known as Augustus. Octavian Augustus was really the greatest civil leader that the ancient world ever produced. When he came to Rome after Caesar's murder, his only possessions were an inherited name and whatever appeal his youth might bring; but in cold, sagacious steps he made his way rapidly on the policy of avenging Caesar. Through his good sense, moderation, and conscientious attention to duty, Augustus won the support of all major elements in the Mediterranean world. In many provinces, which now enjoyed more careful government and suffered less from extortion, he was made a god, and the month of his final achievement was named after him. Augustus lived to be 76 years old. In his last year, he revised a recital of the great deeds he had achieved for the Roman state, which was to be set up at his tomb. The original version in Rome has disappeared, but another copy of this work, was carved on the temple of Augustus at Ancyra and still survives. In his administration of the Roman Empire, the disaster which upset Augustus the most took place in Germany. While Augustus remained at peace with Parthia, he advanced the Roman frontier in Europe to the Danube and Rhine. By this advance he subjected modern Switzerland, Austria, much of Hungary, and the Balkans to Roman rule and protected the connections between the western and eastern provinces of the Empire; no other Roman leader made such additions. In 9 AD, the governor of Germany, Varus, was lured into a trap and three Roman legions were wiped out; all of Germany was lost. Since Augustus had neither the energy nor the military strength to start a reconquest, the Roman frontier remained essentially on the Rhine. Yet, the Mediterranean world attained peace and prosperity under the government of Augustus, who was celebrated in temples, statues, and dedications as an earthly redeemer. The Empire was expensive in its demands of men for the armed forces and of money to support the political system, but the accompanying economic expansion supported these burdens without great difficulty for two centuries and more.

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Augustus in Wikipedia

Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) was the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.[note 1] Born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, he was adopted posthumously by his great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC via his last will and testament, and between then and 27 BC was officially named Gaius Julius Caesar. In 27 BC the Senate awarded him the honorific Augustus ("the revered one"), and thus consequently he was Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus.[note 2] Because of the various names he bore, it is common to call him Octavius when referring to events between 63 and 44 BC, Octavian (or Octavianus) when referring to events between 44 and 27 BC, and Augustus when referring to events after 27 BC. In Greek sources, Augustus is known as Ὀκτάβιος (Octavius), Καῖσαρ (Caesar), Αὔγουστος (Augustus), or Σεβαστός (Sebastos), depending on context. The young Octavius came into his inheritance after Caesar's assassination in 44 BC. In 43 BC, Octavian joined forces with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in a military dictatorship known as the Second Triumvirate. As a triumvir, Octavian ruled Rome and many of its provinces[note 3] The triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its rulers: Lepidus was driven into exile, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by the fleet of Octavian commanded by Agrippa in 31 BC. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Octavian restored the outward facade of the Roman Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, but in practice retained his autocratic power. It took several years to determine the exact framework by which a formally republican state could be led by a sole ruler; the result became known as the Roman Empire. The emperorship was never an office like the Roman dictatorship which Caesar and Sulla had held before him; indeed, he declined it when the Roman populace "entreated him to take on the dictatorship".[1] By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including those of tribune of the plebs and censor. He was consul until 23 BC.[2] His substantive power stemmed from financial success and resources gained in conquest, the building of patronage relationships throughout the Empire, the loyalty of many military soldiers and veterans, the authority of the many honors granted by the Senate,[3] and the respect of the people. Augustus' control over the majority of Rome's legions established an armed threat that could be used against the Senate, allowing him to coerce the Senate's decisions. With his ability to eliminate senatorial opposition by means of arms, the Senate became docile towards him. His rule through patronage, military power, and accumulation of the offices of the defunct Republic became the model for all later imperial governments. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana, or Roman peace. Despite continuous wars on the frontiers, and one year-long civil war over the imperial succession, the Mediterranean world remained at peace for more than two centuries. Augustus enlarged the empire dramatically, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, and Raetia, expanded possessions in Africa, and completed the conquest of Hispania. Beyond the frontiers, he secured the empire with client states, and made peace with Parthia through diplomacy. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, and created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome. Much of the city was rebuilt under Augustus; and he wrote a record of his own accomplishments, known as the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, which has survived. Upon his death in 14 AD, Augustus was declared a god by the Senate - to be worshipped by the Romans.[4] His names Augustus and Caesar were adopted by every subsequent emperor, and the month of Sextilis was officially renamed August in his honour. He was succeeded by his stepson, former son-in-law and adopted son, Tiberius...

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Tiberius in Tour Egypt

TIBERIUS 14 - 37 AD Tiberius showed that he was the real ruler of the Empire and though at first his policy was not always compatible, he nevertheless took considerable efforts to further the national interests. At first he negotiated in matters of state only when violations had to be checked; retracting certain orders published by the Senate, and sometimes offering to sit on the tribunal beside the magistrates, or at the end of the advisory. He also undertook the arrest of any decline in public morality due to negligence. He abolished foreign cults at Rome, particularly the Egyptian and Jewish, forcing all citizens who had embraced these superstitious faiths to burn their religious vestments and other accessories. Tiberius showed large-scale generosity no more than twice in his reign. As the years went by, this stinginess turned to greed. He made many states and individuals relinquish their ancient immunities and mineral rights, and the privilege of collecting taxes. Tiberius was also a very cruel man. Some signs of Tiberius' savage and dreary character could be distinguished many times over. Tiberius did so many wicked deeds under the rationale of reforming public morals--but in reality to satisfy his lust for seeing people suffer--that many satires were written against the evils he committed. Tiberius broke out in every sort of cruelty and never lacked for victims. Not a day, however holy, passed without an execution. There was an extreme amount of violence performed against the Jews and their synagogues by groups of Alexandrian Greeks organized in unions and cult associations. Houses were overrun and looted, victims were dragged out and burned to death or torn limb-from-limb in the market-place. Much evidence is still existing, not only of the hatred that Tiberius earned but of the state of terror in which he himself lived, and the insults heaped upon him. His uneasiness of mind was aggravated by a perpetual stream of reproaches from all sides; and every one of his condemned victims either cursed him to his face or arranged for a notice to be posted in the theater seats occupied by senators. At last, growing thoroughly disgusted with himself, he confessed his misery. At the age of seventy-seven years old and a reign of twenty-three years, Tiberius died in a country house. His body was carried to Rome, where it was cremated with due ceremony. Two years before his death, Tiberius named Gaius and Drusus as his co-heirs; and if either should die, the survivor was to be the sole heir to the throne.

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Tiberius in Wikipedia

Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (November 16, 42 BC – March 16, AD 37), born Tiberius Claudius Nero, was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced his father and was remarried to Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian. Tiberius would later marry Augustus' daughter Julia the Elder (from his marriage to Scribonia) and even later be adopted by Augustus, by which act he officially became a Julian, bearing the name Tiberius Julius Caesar. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the next forty years; historians have named it the Julio-Claudian dynasty. In relations to the other emperors of this dynasty, Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus, great-uncle of Caligula, paternal uncle of Claudius, and great-great uncle of Nero. Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals, conquering Pannonia, Dalmatia, Raetia, and temporarily Germania; laying the foundations for the northern frontier. But he came to be remembered as a dark, reclusive, and somber ruler who never really desired to be emperor; Pliny the Elder called him tristissimus hominum, "the gloomiest of men."[1] After the death of Tiberius’ son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23, the quality of his rule declined and ended in a terror. In 26, Tiberius exiled himself from Rome and left administration largely in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian Prefects Sejanus and Macro. Caligula, Tiberius' grand-nephew and adopted grandson, succeeded the emperor upon his death...

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Gaius Caligula in Wikipedia

Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (30 August AD 12 – 24 January AD 41), commonly known as Caligula and sometimes Gaius, was Roman Emperor from 37 to 41. Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caligula's father Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of emperor Tiberius, was a very successful general and one of Rome's most beloved public figures. The young Gaius earned the nickname Caligula (the diminutive form of caliga meaning "little soldier's boot") from his father's soldiers while accompanying him during his campaigns in Germania. When Germanicus died at Antioch in 19 AD, his mother Agrippina the Elder returned to Rome with her six children where she became entangled in an increasingly bitter feud with Tiberius. This conflict eventually led to the destruction of her family, with Caligula as the sole male survivor. Unscathed by the deadly intrigues, Caligula accepted the invitation to join the emperor on the island of Capri in 31, where Tiberius himself had withdrawn five years earlier. At the death of Tiberius in 37, Caligula succeeded his great-uncle and adoptive grandfather. There are few surviving sources on Caligula's reign, although he is described as a noble and moderate ruler during the first two years of his rule. After this, the sources focus upon his cruelty, extravagance, and sexual perversity, presenting him as an insane tyrant. While the reliability of these sources has been questioned, what is known is that during his brief reign, Caligula worked to increase the authority of the emperor. He directed much of his attention to ambitious construction projects and notoriously luxurious dwellings for himself. However, he initiated the construction of two new aqueducts in Rome: the Aqua Claudia and the Anio Novus. During his reign, the empire annexed the Kingdom of Mauretania and made it into a province. In early 41, Caligula was assassinated as the result of a conspiracy involving officers of the Praetorian Guard, as well as members of the Roman Senate and of the imperial court. The conspirators' attempt to use the opportunity to restore the Roman Republic was thwarted, as the same day the Praetorian Guard declared Caligula's uncle Claudius emperor in his place...

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Claudius in Wikipedia

Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54), born Tiberius Claudius Drusus, then Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus until his accession, was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54 AD. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he succeeded his nephew Caligula. The son of Drusus and Antonia Minor, he was born in Lugdunum in Gaul, and was the first emperor to be born outside Italy. He was reportedly afflicted with some type of disability, and his family had virtually excluded him from public office until his consulship with his nephew Caligula in 37 AD. Claudius' infirmity may have saved him from the fate of many other nobles during the purges of Tiberius' and Caligula's reigns; potential enemies did not see him as a serious threat. His survival led to his being declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last adult male of his family. Despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an able and efficient administrator. He was also an ambitious builder, constructing many new roads, aqueducts, and canals across the empire. During his reign, the empire conquered Britain, Thrace, Noricum, Pamphylia, Lycia, and Judaea. He took a personal interest in the law, presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day. However, he was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign, particularly by the nobility. Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position; this resulted in the deaths of many senators. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion. After his death in 54, his grand-nephew and adopted son Nero succeeded him as emperor...

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Artaxerxes III in Wikipedia

Artaxerxes III of Persia (Ca. 425 BC – 338 BC) (Old Persian: 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎠,[3] transliterated as Artaxšaçā), was the Great King (Shah) of Persia and the eleventh Emperor of the Achaemenid Empire, as well as the first Pharaoh of the 31st dynasty of Egypt. He was the son and successor of Artaxerxes II and was succeeded by his son, Arses of Persia (also known as Artaxerxes IV). His reign coincided with the reign of Philip II in Macedon and Nectanebo II in Egypt. Before ascending the throne Artaxerxes was a satrap and commander of his father's army. Artaxerxes came to power after one of his brothers was executed, another committed suicide, the last murdered and his father, Artaxerxes II died at the age of 86. Soon after becoming king, Artaxerxes murdered all of the royal family to secure his place as emperor. He started two major campaigns against Egypt. The first campaign failed, and was followed up by rebellions throughout the western empire. In 343 BC, Artaxerxes defeated Nectanebo II, the Pharaoh of Egypt, driving him from Egypt, stopping a revolt in Phoenicia on the way. In Artaxerxes' later years, Philip II of Macedon's power was increasing in Greece, where he tried to convince the Greeks to revolt against Achaemenid Persia. His activities were opposed by Artaxerxes, and with his support, the city of Perinthus resisted a Macedonian siege. There is evidence for a renewed building policy at Persepolis in his later life, where Artaxerxes erected a new palace and built his own tomb but projects like the Unfinished Gate. According to a Greek source, Diodorus of Sicily, Bagoas poisoned Artaxerxes, but a cuneiform tablet (now in the British Museum) suggests that the king died from natural causes.[4] Name - Ochus was the name of Artaxerxes before ascending the throne; and Artaxerxees III (Old Persian:𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎠, Artaxšaçrā, "he whose empire is well-fitted" or "perfected", or Arta:"honoured"+Xerxes:"a king" ("the honoured king"), according to Herodotus "the great warrior"[5][6]) was the throne name adopted by Ochus when he succeeded his father in 358 BC. He is generally referred to as Ochus, but in Iran he is known as Ardeshir III (اردشیر سوم Modern Persian form of Artaxerxes). In Babylonian inscriptions he is called "Umasu, who is called Artakshatsu". The same form of the name (probably pronounced Uvasu) occurs in the Syrian version of the Canon of Kings by Elias of Nisibis.[5] Early life and accession - Main article: accession of Artaxerxes III Before ascending the throne Artaxerxes had been a satrap and commander of his father's army.[7] In 359, just before ascending the throne he attacked Egypt as a reaction to Egypt's failed attacks on coastal regions of Phoenicia.[8] In 358 BC his father, Artaxerxes II, died at the age of 86, apparently because of a broken heart caused by his children's behaviour, and, since his other sons, Darius, Ariaspes and Tiribazus had already been eliminated by plots, Artaxerxes III succeeded him as Emperor.[9] His first order was the execution of over 80 of his nearest relations to secure his place as emperor.[10] In 355 BC, Artaxerxes forced Athens to conclude a peace which required the city to leave Asia Minor and to acknowledge the independence of its rebellious allies.[11] Artaxerxes raised a campaign against the rebellious Cadusians, but he managed to appease both of the Cadusian kings. A successful character emerging from this campaign was Darius Codomannus, who later occupied the throne as Darius III. He then ordered the disbanding of all the satrapal armies of Asia Minor, as he felt that they could no longer garuantee peace in the west, and instead equipped the western satraps with the means to revolt.[12] The order was however ignored by Artabazus of Lydia, who asked for the help of Athens in a rebellion against the king. Athens sent the assistance to Sardis. Orontes of Mysia also came to Artabazus and the joined forces managed to defeat the forces sent by Artaxerxes in 354 BC. However, in 353 BC, they were defeated by Artaxerxes’ army and were disbanded. Orontes was pardoned by the king, while Artabazus fled to the safety of court of Philip II of Macedon. First Egyptian Campaign - In around 351 BC, Artaxerxes embarked on a campaign to recover Egypt, which had revolted under his father, Artaxerxes II's rule. At the same time a rebellion had broken out in Asia Minor, which, being supported by Thebes, threatened to become serious.[1] Levying a vast army, Artaxerxes marched into Egypt, and engaged Nectanebo II. After a year of fighting the Egyptian Pharaoh, with the services of the Greek generals Diophantus and Lamius inflicted a crushing defeat on the Persians.[13] Artaxerxes was compelled to retreat and postpone his Egyptian enterprise...

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Arses in Tour Egypt

ARSES 338-336 B.C. 31ST DYNASTY Arses was the second ruler of the Thirty-first Dynasty and was the youngest son of Ochus. After Ochus was murdered, Arses succeeded him and ruled until he was murdered in 336 BC by his commander Bagoas.

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Arses of Persia in Wikipedia

Artaxerxes (Artaxšacā) IV Arses was king of Persia between 338 BC and 336 BC. He was the youngest son of King Artaxerxes III and Atossa and was not expected to succeed to the throne of Persia. His unexpected rise to the throne came in 338 BC as a result of the murder of his father and most of his family by Bagoas, the powerful Vizier of Persia who had recently fallen in Artaxerxes' disfavor. Bagoas sought to remain in office by replacing Artaxerxes with his son Arses (Artaxerxes IV), whom he thought easier to control. Arses remained little more than a puppet-king during the two years of his reign while Bagoas acted as the power behind the throne. Eventually, disgruntled by this state of affairs and possibly influenced by the nobles of the Royal Court, who generally held Bagoas in contempt, Arses started planning Bagoas' murder. The Vizier again acted first in order to protect himself and managed to poison Arses. Bagoas then raised a cousin of Arses to the throne as King Darius III of Persia. A major concern for Persia during this King's short reign were hostilities on the western borders with Macedonia under Kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. This would lead to war between the two states during the reign of Arses' successor. He is known as Arses in Greek sources and that seems to be his real name but the Xanthus trilingue and potsherds from Samaria report that he had taken the royal name of Artaxerxes IV, following his father and grandfather. Etymology Arses is a Greek rendering of an old Persian name .The Iranian form is attested in Avestan Aršan- (etymologically related to Greek arsēn "male, manly") and in old Persian it is preserved in Aršaka and Aršāma.[1]

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Darius III Codomannus in Tour Egypt

DARIUS III 335-332 B.C. 31ST DYNASTY Darius III Codomannus was the last ruler of the Thirty-first Dynasty. He reigned for six years until the arrival of Alexander the Great. Alexander hunted Darius without result, for Darius was later murdered by one of his own generals: Bessus, the Satrap of Bactria.

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Darius III of Persia in Wikipedia

Darius III (Artashata) (c. 380–330 BC, Persian داریوش Dāriūš, pronounced [dɔːriˈuːʃ]) was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC. It was under his rule that the Persian Empire was conquered during the Wars of Alexander the Great (for more information on the name, see the entry for Darius I). Appointment - Artaxerxes III of Persia and all of his sons except one, Arses, were killed off through the assassination plots of a Vizier named Bagoas, who installed Arses on the throne as a puppet king. When he found out Arses couldn’t be controlled, however, Bagoas killed him off as well in 336 BC, and installed to the throne a man named Codomannus, the last surviving legitimate heir to the Persian throne. Codomannus was a distant relative of the royal house who had distinguished himself in a combat of champions in a war against the Cadusii[1] and was serving at the time as a royal courier[2]. Codomannus was the son of Arsames, son of Ostanes, one of Artaxerxes's brothers and Sisygambis, daughter of Artaxerxes II Memnon. He took the throne at the age of 46. Codomannus took the regnal name Darius III, and quickly demonstrated his independence from his assassin benefactor. Bagoas then tried to poison Darius as well, when he learned that even Darius couldn't be controlled, but Darius was warned and forced Bagoas to drink the poison himself[3]. The new king found himself in control of an unstable empire, large portions of which were governed by jealous and unreliable satraps and inhabited by disaffected and rebellious subjects, such as Khabash in Egypt. Compared to his ancestors and his fellow heirs who had since perished, Darius had a distinct lack of experience ruling an empire, and a lack of any previous ambition to do so. Darius was a ruler of entirely average stamp, without the striking talents and qualities which the administration of a vast empire required during that period of crisis [4]. In 336 BC Philip II of Macedonia was authorized by the League of Corinth as its Hegemon to initiate a sacred war of vengeance against the Persians for desecrating and burning the Athenian temples during the Second Persian War. He sent an advance force into Asia Minor under the command of his generals Parmenion and Attalus to "liberate" the Greeks living under Persian control. After they took the Greek cities of Asia from Troy to the Maiandros river, Philip was assassinated and his campaign was suspended while his heir consolidated his control of Macedonia and the rest of Greece. Conflict with Alexander - In the spring of 334 BC, Philip's heir, Alexander the Great, who had himself been confirmed as Hegemon by the League of Corinth, invaded Asia Minor at the head of a combined Macedonian and Greek army. This invasion, which marked the beginning of the Wars of Alexander the Great, was followed almost immediately by the victory of Alexander over the Persians at Battle of the Granicus. Darius never showed up for the battle, because there was no reason for him to suppose that Alexander intended to conquer the whole of Asia, and Darius may well have supposed that the satraps of the ‘lower’ satrapies could deal with the crisis,[5] so he instead decided to remain at home in Persepolis and let his satraps handle it. Darius did not actually take the field against Alexander’s army until a year and a half after Granicus, at the Battle of Issus in 333 BC. His forces outnumbered Alexander's soldiers by at least a 2 to 1 ratio, but Darius was still outflanked, defeated, and forced to flee. It is told by Arrian that at the Battle of Issus the moment the Persian left went to pieces under Alexander’s attack and Darius, in his war-chariot, saw that it was cut off, he incontinently fled – indeed, he led the race for safety [6]. On the way, he left behind his chariot, his bow, and his royal mantle, all of which were later picked up by Alexander. Greek sources such as Diodorus Siculus' Library of History and Justin's Epitoma Historiarum Philippicarum recount that Darius fled out of fear at the Battle of Issus and again two years later at the Battle of Gaugamela despite commanding a larger force in a defensive position each time.[7] At the Battle of Issus, Darius III even caught Alexander by surprise and failed to defeat the Greek forces.[8] Darius fled so far so fast, that Alexander was able to capture Darius’s headquarters, and take Darius’s family as prisoners in the process. Darius petitioned to Alexander through letters several times to get his family back, but Alexander refused to do so unless Darius would acknowledge him as the new emperor of Persia. In 331 BC, Darius' sister-wife Statira, who had otherwise been well-treated[9], died in captivity, reputedly during childbirth[10]. Circumstances were more in Darius’s favor at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC. He had a good number of troops who had been organized on the battlefield properly, he had the support of the armies of several of his satraps, and the ground on the battlefield was almost perfectly even, so as not to impede movement. Despite all these beneficial factors, he still fled the battle before any victor had been decided and deserted his experienced commanders as well as one of the largest armies ever assembled.[11] Another source accounts that when Darius perceived the fierce attack of Alexander, as at Issus he turned his chariot around, and was the first to flee [12], once again abandoning all of his soldiers and his property to be taken by Alexander. Many Persian soldiers lost their lives that day, so many in fact that after the battle the casualties of the enemy ensured that Darius would never again raise an imperial army [13]. Darius then fled to Ecbatana and attempted to raise a third army, while Alexander took possession of Babylon, Susa, and the Persian capital at Persepolis. Darius reportedly offered all of his empire west of the Euphrates River to Alexander in exchange for peace several times, each time denied by Alexander against the advice of his senior commanders.[14] Alexander could have declared victory after the capture of Persepolis, but he instead decided to pursue Darius. Flight, imprisonment and death - Darius did attempt to restore his once great army after his defeat at the hands of Alexander, but he failed to raise a force comparable to that which had fought at Battle of Gaugamela, partly because the defeat had undermined his authority, and also because Alexander’s liberal policy, for instance in Babylonia and in Persis, offered an acceptable alternative to Persian domination [13]. When at Ecbatana Darius learned of Alexander's approaching army, he decided to retreat to Bactria where he could better use his cavalry and mercenary forces on the more even ground of the plains of Asia. He led his army through the Caspian Gates, the main road through the mountains that would work to slow a following army.[15] The Persian forces became increasingly demoralized with the constant threat of a surprise attack from Alexander, leading to many desertions and eventually a coup led by Bessus, a satrap, and Nabarzanes, who managed all audiences with the King and was in charge of the palace guard.[16] The two men suggested to Darius that the army regroup under Bessus and that power would be transferred back to the King once Alexander was defeated. Darius obviously did not accept this plan, and his conspirators became more anxious to remove him for his successive failures against Alexander and his forces. Patron, a Greek mercenary, encouraged Darius to accept a bodyguard of Greek mercenaries rather than his usual Persian guard to protect him from Bessus and Nabarzanes, but the King could not accept for political reasons and grew accustomed to his fate.[17] Bessus and Nabarzanes eventually bound Darius and threw him in an ox-cart while they ordered the Persian forces to continue on. According to Curtius' History of Alexander, at this point Alexander and a small, mobile force arrived and threw the Persians into a panic, leading to Bessus and two other conspirators, Satibarzanes and Barsaentes, wounding the king with their javelins and leaving him to die.[18] A Macedonian soldier found Darius either dead or dying in the wagon shortly thereafter-a disappointment to Alexander, who wanted to capture Darius alive. Alexander saw Darius’s dead body in the wagon, and took the signet ring off the dead king’s finger. Afterwards he sent Darius’s body back to Persepolis and ordered that he be buried, like all his royal predecessors, in the royal tombs.[19] Alexander gave Darius a magnificent funeral and eventually married Darius' daughter Statira at Opis in 324 BC. With the old king defeated and given a proper burial, Alexander's rulership of Persia became official. So ended Darius’s life, with his last purpose being to serve as a vehicle for Alexander’s ascension to the throne of Asia. Although he may have possessed certain virtues, he was regarded by some historians as cowardly and inefficient [20], as under his rulership, the entirety of the Persian Empire fell to a foreign invader. After killing Darius, Bessus took the regal name Artaxerxes V and began calling himself the King of Asia [13]. He would later be captured by Alexander, and subsequently tortured and executed. Another of Darius' generals would ingratiate himself to Alexander by giving the conqueror Darius' favored companion, Bagoas (a different Bagoas than the unfaithful minister mentioned above).[21]

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Alexander the Great in Tour Egypt

ALEXANDER THE GREAT MACEDONIAN DYNASTY The Egyptians, oppressed under the Persian rule, welcomed Alexander the Great with open arms when he entered the country in 332 B.C. While there he visited the Oracle of Amon, at Siwa, where he was declared "the son of Amon." Exactly how this happened is unclear. One story is that either upon entering or exiting the temple he was greeted by the priest as "my son." Alexander's army and followers were not in a strategic position to see the priest and thought the words came from the god himself. However it happened, from that point on Alexander was instated as a son of god, like the pharaohs of old. Alexander initiated the building of Alexandria, but never lived to see the city. He left Egypt in 331 B.C. and left Cleomenes of Naukratis in charge of the territory. This position was later claimed by Ptolemy. When Alexander died, Ptolemy's generals divided the kingdom.

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Alexander the Great in Wikipedia

Alexander III of Macedon (356–323 BC), popularly known as Alexander the Great (Greek: Μέγας Ἀλέξανδρος, Mégas Aléxandros), was a Greeki[›] king (basileus) of Macedon. He is the most celebrated member of the Argead Dynasty and created one of the largest empires in ancient history. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander was tutored by the famed philosopher Aristotle, succeeded his father Philip II of Macedon to the throne in 336 BC after the King was assassinated, and died thirteen years later at the age of 32. Although both Alexander's reign and empire were short-lived, the cultural impact of his conquests lasted for centuries. Alexander was known to be undefeated in battle and is considered one of the most successful commanders of all time.[1] He is one of the most famous figures of antiquity, and is remembered for his tactical ability, for his conquests, and for spreading Greek culture into the East, marking the beginning of Hellenistic civilization. Philip had brought most of the city-states of mainland Greece under Macedonian hegemony, using both military and diplomatic means. Upon Philip's death, Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. He succeeded in being awarded the generalship of Greece and, with his authority firmly established, launched the military plans for expansion left by his father. He invaded Persian-ruled Asia Minor, and began a series of campaigns lasting ten years. Alexander repeatedly defeated the Persians in battle; marched through Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Bactria; and in the process he overthrew the Persian king Darius III and conquered the entirety of the Persian Empire.ii[›] Following his desire to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea", he invaded India, but was eventually forced to turn back by the near-mutiny of his troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, before realizing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following Alexander's death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, which resulted in the formation of a number of states ruled by Macedonian aristocracy (the Diadochi). Remarkable though his conquests were, Alexander's lasting legacy was not his reign, but the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered. Alexander's importation of Greek colonists and culture to the East resulted in a new Hellenistic culture, aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire until the mid-15th century. Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and features prominently in the history and myth of Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which generals, even to this day, compare themselves, and military academies throughout the world still teach his tactical exploits.iii[›] Early life - Lineage and childhood "The night before the consummation of their marriage, she dreamed that a thunderbolt fell upon her body, which kindled a great fire, whose divided flames dispersed themselves all about, and then were extinguished. And Philip, some time after he was married, dreamed that he sealed up his wife's body with a seal, whose impression, as he fancied, was the figure of a lion. Some of the diviners interpreted this as a warning to Philip to look narrowly to his wife; but Aristander of Telmessus, considering how unusual it was to seal up anything that was empty, assured him the meaning of his dream was that the queen was with child of a boy, who would one day prove as stout and courageous as a lion." Plutarch describing Olympias and Philip's dreams.[2] Alexander was born on 20 (or 21) July 356 BC,[3][4] in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon. He was the son of Philip II, the King of Macedon. His mother was Philip's fourth wife Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, the king of the northern Greek state of Epirus.[2][5][6][7] Although Philip had either seven or eight wives, Olympias was his principal wife for a time. As a member of the Argead dynasty, Alexander claimed patrilineal descent from Heracles through Caranus of Macedon.v[›] From his mother's side and the Aeacids, he claimed descent from Neoptolemus, son of Achilles;vi[›] Alexander was a second cousin of the celebrated general Pyrrhus of Epirus, who was ranked by Hannibal as, depending on the source, either the best[8] or second-best (after Alexander)[9] commander the world had ever seen. According to the ancient Greek historian Plutarch, Olympias, on the eve of the consummation of her marriage to Philip, dreamed that her womb was struck by a thunder bolt, causing a flame that spread "far and wide" before dying away. Some time after the wedding, Philip was said to have seen himself, in a dream, sealing up his wife's womb with a seal upon which was engraved the image of a lion.[2] Plutarch offers a variety of interpretations of these dreams: that Olympia was pregnant before her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb; or that Alexander's father was Zeus. Ancient commentators were divided as to whether the ambitious Olympias promulgated the story of Alexander's divine parentage, some claiming she told Alexander, others that she dismissed the suggestion as impious.[2] On the day that Alexander was born, Philip was preparing himself for his siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalkidiki. On the same day, Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies, and that his horses had won at the Olympic Games. It was also said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus-one of the Seven Wonders of the World-burnt down, leading Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it burnt down because Artemis was attending the birth of Alexander.[3][6][10] Alexander fighting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus (detail). 3rd century BC mosaic, Pella Museum. In his early years, Alexander was raised by his nurse, Lanike, the sister of Alexander's future friend and general Cleitus the Black. Later on in his childhood, Alexander was tutored by the strict Leonidas, a relative of his mother, and by Lysimachus.[11][12] When Alexander was ten years old, a horse trader from Thessaly brought Philip a horse, which he offered to sell for thirteen talents. The horse refused to be mounted by anyone, and Philip ordered it to be taken away. Alexander, however, detected the horse's fear of his own shadow and asked for a turn to tame the horse, which he eventually managed. According to Plutarch, Philip, overjoyed at this display of courage and ambition, kissed him tearfully, declaring: "My boy, you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Macedon is too small for you", and bought the horse for him.[13] Alexander would name the horse Bucephalus, meaning 'ox-head'. Bucephalus would be Alexander's companion throughout his journeys as far as India. When Bucephalus died (due to old age, according to Plutarch, for he was already thirty), Alexander named a city after him (Bucephala).[14][15][16] Adolescence and education When Alexander was thirteen years old, Philip decided that Alexander needed a higher education, and he began to search for a tutor. Many people were passed over including Isocrates and Speusippus, Plato's successor at the Academy, who offered to resign to take up the post. In the end, Philip offered the job to Aristotle, who accepted, and Philip gave them the Temple of the Nymphs at Mieza as their classroom. In return for teaching Alexander, Philip agreed to rebuild Aristotle's hometown of Stageira, which Philip had razed, and to repopulate it by buying and freeing the ex- citizens who were slaves, or pardoning those who were in exile.[17][18][19][20] Mieza was like a boarding school for Alexander and the children of Macedonian nobles, such as Ptolemy, Hephaistion, and Cassander. Many of the pupils who learned by Alexander's side would become his friends and future generals, and are often referred to as the 'Companions'. At Mieza, Aristotle educated Alexander and his companions in medicine, philosophy, morals, religion, logic, and art. From Aristotle's teaching, Alexander developed a passion for the works of Homer, and in particular the Iliad; Aristotle gave him an annotated copy, which Alexander was to take on his campaigns.[21][22][23][24]...

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Philip III of Macedon in Wikipedia

Philip III Arrhidaeus (Greek: Φίλιππος Γ' ὁ Ἀρριδαῖος; ca. 359 BC – December 25, 317 BC) was the king of Macedon from after June 11, 323 BC until his death. He was a son of King Philip II of Macedon by Philinna of Larissa, allegedly a Thessalian dancer, and a half-brother of Alexander the Great. Named Arrhidaeus at birth, he assumed the name Philip when he ascended to the throne. In Plutarch's report, he became both physically and mentally disabled following a poisoning attempt by Philip II's wife, Queen Olympias, who wanted to eliminate a possible rival to her son Alexander. However, this may just be malicious gossip, and there is no evidence that Olympias really caused her stepson's condition. Alexander was very fond of him, and took him on his campaigns, both to protect his life and to ensure he would not be used as a pawn in a challenge for the throne. After Alexander's death in Babylon, Arrhidaeus was proclaimed king by the Macedonian army in Asia. However, he was a mere figurehead, and a pawn of the powerful generals, one after the other. His reign and his life did not last long. The crater Ariadaeus on the Moon is named after him. Biography - He appears to have never been a danger for Alexander's succession to Philip II, notwithstanding their being of about the same age; all the same, when the satrap of Caria Pixodarus proposed his daughter in marriage to Philip, who offered Arrhidaeus as husband, Alexander thought it prudent to block the operation, with considerable irritation of his father (337 BC). Arrhidaeus' whereabouts under the reign of his brother Alexander are unclear; what is certain is that no civil or military command was given him in those thirteen years (336 BC– 323 BC). He was at Babylon at the time of Alexander's death, the 11 June 323 BC. A succession crisis erupted: Arrhidaeus was the most obvious candidate, but he was mentally unfit to rule. A conflict exploded between Perdiccas, leader of the cavalry, and Meleager, who commanded the phalanx: the first wanted to wait to see if Roxana, Alexander's pregnant wife, would deliver a male baby, while the second objected that Arrhidaeus was the closest relative living and so should be chosen king. Meleager was killed, and a compromise was engineered: Arrhidaeus would become king with the name of Philip, and he would be joined by Roxana's son as co-sovereign should he prove a male, as he did, and joined his uncle with the name of Alexander. It was immediately decided that Philip Arrhidaeus would reign, but not rule: this was to be the prerogative of the new regent, Perdiccas. When news arrived in Macedon that Arrhidaeus had been chosen as king, Cynane, a daughter of Philip II, matured the design to travel to Asia and offer the new king her daughter Eurydice for wife. This move was an obvious affront to the regent, whom Cynane had completely bypassed: to prevent the move Perdiccas sent his brother Alcetas to kill Cynane, but reactions among the troops generated by this murder was such that the regent had to give up and accept the marriage. From that moment on Philip Arrhidaeus was to be under the sway of his bride, a proud and determined woman bent on substantiating her husband's power. Eurydice's chance came when the first war of the Diadochi sealed the fate of Perdiccas, making a new settlement necessary; settlement that was made at Triparadisus in Syria in 320 BC. Eurydice moved deftly enough to obtain the removal of the first two designed regents, Peithon and Arrhidaeus, but was powerless to block the too powerful Antipater: the latter was made new regent and Philip Arrhidaeus and his wife were forced to follow him to Macedon. The regent died of natural causes the following year, nominating as his successor not his son Cassander, but a friend of his, Polyperchon. Cassander's refusal to accept his father's decision sparked the second war of the Diadochi, in which Eurydice saw once again a chance to free Philip from the control of the regent. An opportunity presented itself in 317 BC, when Cassander expelled Polyperchon from Macedon: Eurydice immediately allied herself with him and made her husband nominate him new regent, and Cassander reciprocated by leaving her in full control of the country when he left to campaign in Greece. But all this was to prove exceedingly volatile: that same year (317) Polyperchon and Olympias, allied with the king of Epirus Aeacides, invaded Macedon, while the Macedonian troops refused to fight the son of Alexander, whom the invaders had brought with them. Philip and Eurydice had no choice but to escape, only to be captured at Amphipolis and thrown into prison. It soon became clear that Philip was too dangerous to be left alive, as many enemies of Olympias saw him as a useful tool against her, and so on December 25 317 BC she had him executed, while his wife was forced to commit suicide. The following year, when Cassander reconquered Macedon and avenged Philip's death, he interred the bodies of Philip and Eurydice with royal pomp at Aegae, and celebrated funeral games to their honour. In 1977 important excavations were made near Vergina leading to the discovery of a two-chambered royal tomb, with an almost perfectly conserved male skeleton. Manolis Andronikos, the chief archaeologist on the ground and the majority of archaeologists, decided it was the skeleton of Philip II, but many have disputed this attribution and instead proposed it to be the remains of Philip Arrhidaeus. Subsequent forensic reconstruction of the skull contained in the gold Larnax (cremains container) clearly demonstrates damage to the right eye socket of the skull in keeping with historical accounts that Philip II had been struck by an arrow in the right eye and as a consequence, had been severely disfigured. See Prag, John and Richard Neave: Making Faces: Using Forensic and Archaelogical Evidence (British Museum Press: 1997). Arrhidaeus in fiction - He appears as one of the main characters in the novel Funeral Games by Mary Renault. In Renault's version, the villainous Cassander slows down his advance on Macedon to give Olympias enough time to kill Arrhidaeus and Cynane.

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Alexander IV in Wikipedia

Alexander IV Aegus (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος Aἰγός - 323–309 BC) was the son of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon) and the princess Roxana, of Bactria. Birth - Because Roxana was pregnant when her husband died and the gender of the baby was unknown, there was dissension in the Macedonian army regarding the order of succession. While the infantry supported the baby's uncle, Philip III (who was both feeble-minded and illegitimate), the chiliarch Perdiccas, commander of the elite Companion cavalry, persuaded them to wait in the hope that Roxana's unborn child would be male. The factions compromised, deciding that Perdiccas would rule the Empire as regent while Philip would reign, but only as a figurehead with no real power. If the child was male, then he would be king. Alexander IV was born in August, 323 BC. Regents - After a severe regency, military failure in Egypt, and mutiny in the army, Perdiccas was assassinated by his senior officers in May or June 321 or 320 BC (problems with Diodorus's chronology have made the year uncertain[1]), after which Antipater was named as the new regent at the Partition of Triparadisus. He brought with him Roxana and the two kings to Macedon and gave up the pretence of ruling Alexander's Empire, leaving former provinces in Egypt and Asia in control of the satraps (see diadochi). When Antipater died in 319 BC he left Polyperchon, a Macedonian general who had served under Philip II and Alexander the Great, as his successor, passing over his own son, Cassander. Civil War - Cassander allied himself with Ptolemy Soter, Antigonus and Eurydice, the ambitious wife of king Philip Arrhidaeus, and declared war upon the Regency. Polyperchon was allied with Eumenes and Olympias. Although Polyperchon was successful at first, taking control of the Greek cities, his fleet was destroyed by Antigonus in 318 BC. When, after the battle, Cassander assumed full control of Macedon, Polyperchon was forced to flee to Epirus, followed by Roxana and the young Alexander. A few months later, Olympias was able to persuade her relative Aeacides of Epirus to invade Macedon with Polyperchon. When Olympias took the field, Eurydice's army refused to fight against the mother of Alexander and defected to Olympias, after which Polyperchon and Aeacides retook Macedon. Philip and Eurydice were captured and executed on December 25, 317 BC, leaving Alexander IV king, and Olympias in effective control, as she was his regent. Cassander returned in the following year (316 BC), conquering Macedon once again. Olympias was immediately executed, while the king and his mother were taken prisoner and held in the citadel of Amphipolis under the supervision of Glaucias. When the general peace between Cassander, Antigonus, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus put an end to the Third Diadoch War in 311 BC, the peace treaty recognized Alexander IV's rights and explicitly stated that when he came of age he would succeed Cassander as ruler. Death - Following the treaty, defenders of the Argead dynasty began to declare that Alexander IV should now exercise full power and that a regent was no longer needed. Cassander's response was definitive: to secure his rule, in 309 BC he commanded Glaucias to secretly assassinate the 13- year old Alexander IV and his mother. The orders were carried out, and they were both poisoned. One of the royal tombs discovered by the archaeologist Manolis Andronikos in the so called "Great Tumulus" in Vergina in 1977/8 is believed to belong to Alexander IV. [2] In popular culture - The tragic young monarch appears as a character in Funeral Games, an historical novel by Mary Renault.

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Ptolemy I Soter in Tour Egypt

PTOLEMY I SOTER, THE FIRST KING OF ANCIENT EGYPT'S PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY by Jimmy Dunn -- In the ancient world, there is no surprise that military men often became rulers. These men, most of whom rose through the military ranks, usually had considerable administrative skills and had proved themselves to be leaders. Almost certainly the first man to unite Egypt at the dawn of civilization was a military man who became king, and this tradition has been followed throughout the history of the world, up unto our present times. Alexander the Great built an empire during the latter part of the first millennium BC, including Egypt which he captured in about 332 BC. Though he ordered the building of a great city in his name on the Egyptian Mediterranean coast, he was not finished with his conquests and would soon depart the country, leaving behind a banker of Naucratis named Cleomenes as Egypt's satrap, or governor. He was greatly despised. Demosthenes called him "Ruler of Egypt and dishonest manipulator of the country's lucrative grain trade". Aristotle even spoke up, concurring and citing Cleomenes' numerous incidents of fraudulent conduct with merchants, priests of the temple and government officials. The Roman historian Arrian added his own assessment, telling us that "he was an evil man who committed many grievous wrongs in Egypt" When Ptolemy I took over the post from Clemones in Egypt, he had little option but to try, sentence and execute Cleomenes. Ptolemy I is thought to have been the son of Lagus, a Macedonian nobleman of Eordaea. His mother's name was Arsinoe. He was a boyhood friend of Alexander the Great at Pella, and later became one of his most trusted generals as well as a member of his royal bodyguards. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Ptolemy I, at least nominally continued to act as satrap for a time under Alexander's successors, but these were apparently not strong rulers and soon the empire created by Alexander began to break up. Hence, Alexander's generals, known as the diadochi (followers), divided up the conquered territories for themselves. We tend to think of Ptolemy I as then becoming the king of Egypt, but this was not entirely true. Nominally, he was answerable to the Council of State that had been set up in Babylon after Alexander's death, and to Perdiccas, the regent who held Alexander's signet ring. Matters at this point were far from settled as to the ultimate ruler of Egypt. There are various legends about the burial of Alexander, most of which culminate with his body being under the control of Ptolemy I. This gave Egypt's satrap both political and religious advantage, and Perdiccas realized this. In fact, so important was Ptolemy I's advantage that, in the spring of 321 BC, Perdiccas marched against him with an army of 5,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry. However, he was repulsed by Ptolemy I near Memphis and then Perdiccas was murdered by his own officers. Nevertheless, the diadochi continued to war amongst themselves, although Antigonus Gonatus, Commander of the Grand Army, tried to keep them under control with a firm policy of repression, replacement and execution when necessary. To keep him at bay, three of the diadochi, consisting of Ptolemy I, Lysimachus and Cassander, entered into an uneasy partnership that would finally pay off. When Antigonus prepared to attack Cassander in Macedon, Ptolemy I marched against Antigonus' son, Demetrius Poliorcetes and defeated him at Gaza in 312 BC. After that, there was a peace treaty signed the following year confirming Ptolemy I as satrap in Egypt. However, wars between the diadochi persisted, and in 306 BC, Ptolemy I lost a sea battle at Salamis in Cyprus against Demetrius, though he held back Antigonus on land the same year at Gaza. It is said that he defended the Rhodians against Demetrius in 305 BC, and for this received from them his title Soter, meaning "Saviour". It was actually in November of that year that some ancient sources tell us that he officially assumed the kingship of Egypt. (Though this is not certain, he almost certainly assumed the kingship between 304 and 306 BC). Then, in 301 BC at the battle of Ipsus, Antigonus was killed, and the three allies were finally able to divide up the empire between themselves. Not only did Ptolemy become supreme ruler of Egypt, but also added Palestine and lower Syria to his empire. Under his rule, all of these territories appear to have prospered. Ptolemy I Soter took the Egyptian name Meryamun Setepenre, which means "Beloved of Amun, Chosen of Re". Hence, he attempted to take on the guise of a Pharaoh as other foreign rulers before him, and is even said to have married a daughter of Nectanebo II, though this is by no means certain. However, as early as 320 BC, he had her set aside for Eurydice, the daughter of Antipater, who was regent of Macedon. By her, Ptolemy I had four children and possibly more, and then another three by Berenice, a widowed lady-in- waiting to Eurydice. Even prior to his possible marriage to the daughter of Nectanebo II, Ptolemy is known to have married at least once, if not twice. Some sources provide that his first marriage was to a lady named Thais, who was an Athenian hetera, and it is fairly well known that he was married to a Persian princess named Artacama (Artakama), but there is never further mention of her after the wedding. By Thais, some sources report that he had three children named Lagus, Leontiscus and Eirene. By Eurydice, his children included Ptolemy Ceraunus, an unknown son, Ptolemais, Lysandra and possibly Meleager and Argaeus. His union with Berenice apparently was responsible for his heir to the Egyptian throne, Ptolemy II, as well as Arsinoe II and Philotera. Egypt's first ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty became a monarch in the Hellenistic whole while at the same time continued the line of god- kings in Egypt, wisely paying at least lip service to the prominent priesthood, who not only helped keep the population in check but also provided an excellent civil service that provided the country with stability and allowed it to prosper. If Ptolemy I Soter did not complete the many great works he began, we can certainly admire his imagination and efforts. It was he who, in 290 BC, began the construction of the Pharos Lighthouse in Alexandria, though it was unfinished at his death in about 285 BC (some sources day 283 BC, at the age of 84) and had to be completed by his son and successor, Ptolemy II Philadelphus. It was he who erected the great Mouseion, Alexandria's famous ancient university though it would again be his son who would really establish it by inviting world renowned scholars to live in Egypt. However, it was also Ptolemy I who created the famous Library of Alexandria, and who obsessively filled it with the books that would allow his son to tempt away these scholars to Egypt. It should be noted that this king was also responsible for having the Hebrew Bible translated into the Greek language. Ptolemy I not only supported the intellectual foundations of Alexandria, he was also somewhat of a scholar himself, writing a history of Alexander the Great. Demetrius Phalereus, the first head of the ancient Alexandria Library and one who was also instrumental in creating the Mouseion, advised Ptolemy I to "collect together books on kingship and the exercise of power, and to read them". It seems likely that Ptolemy I at least attempted to follow this advice, judging from his success in governing the territories under his authority. He sought to consolidate the religions of the Egyptians and Greeks by actually creating the worship of a new god named Serapis, which was in reality a composite deity made up of both Egyptian and Greek gods. Ptolemy I established for this god the Sarapeion in Alexandra, a temple dedicated to the god which also held a daughter library to that of the Great Library of Alexandria. He was also responsible for many other temples and temple additions in Egypt, which undoubtedly proved useful with his relationship to Egypt's powerful priesthood. This is not to say that Ptolemy I was entirely successful. Serapis, though becoming a popular god not only with the Greeks in Egypt but elsewhere in the world, seems to have never really attained that stature among the Egyptians themselves, who went about mostly worshipping their old gods. In addition, choosing Alexandria as his capital segregated the Greeks of his generation and their descendents from the Egyptian people. In fact, Alexandria came to be considered more of a Greek city in Egypt, rather than actually an Egyptian city. Ptolemy I Soter was probably buried in Alexandria in the royal necropolis, but alas, not much if any of that cemetery has ever been found. He was succeeded in death by his son who became known as Ptolemy II and who may have shared a co-regency with his father for a period of time before Ptolemy I's death.

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Ptolemy I Soter in Wikipedia

Ptolemy I Soter I (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr, i.e. Ptolemy (pronounced /ˈtɒləmi/) the Savior, c. 367 BC – c. 283 BC) was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, who became ruler of Egypt (323 BC – 283 BC) and founder of both the Ptolemaic Kingdom and the Ptolemaic Dynasty. In 305/4 BC he took the title of pharaoh. His mother was Arsinoe of Macedon, and, while his father is unknown, ancient sources variously describe him either as the son of Lagus, a Macedonian nobleman, or as an illegitimate son of Philip II of Macedon (which, if true would have made Ptolemy the half- brother of Alexander). Ptolemy was one of Alexander's most trusted generals, and was among the seven somatophylakes (bodyguards) attached to his person. He was a few years older than Alexander, and had been his intimate friend since childhood. He may even have been in the group of noble teenagers tutored by Aristotle.[citation needed] Ptolemy served with Alexander from his first campaigns, and played a principal part in the later campaigns in Afghanistan and India. At the Susa marriage festival in 324, Alexander had Ptolemy marry the Persian princess Artakama. Ptolemy also had a consort in Thaïs, the Athenian hetaera and one of Alexander's companions in his conquest of the ancient world. Successor of Alexander - When Alexander died in 323 BC Ptolemy is said to have instigated the resettlement of the empire made at Babylon. Through the Partition of Babylon, he was appointed satrap of Egypt, under the nominal kings Philip Arrhidaeus and the infant Alexander IV; the former satrap, the Greek Cleomenes, stayed on as his deputy. Ptolemy quickly moved, without authorization, to subjugate Cyrenaica. By custom, kings in Macedonia asserted their right to the throne by burying their predecessor. Probably because he wanted to pre-empt Perdiccas, the imperial regent, from staking his claim in this way, Ptolemy took great pains in acquiring the body of Alexander the Great, placing it temporarily in Memphis, Egypt. Ptolemy then openly joined the coalition against Perdiccas. Perdiccas appears to have suspected Ptolemy of aiming for the throne himself, and may have decided that Ptolemy was his most dangerous rival. Ptolemy executed Cleomenes for spying on behalf of Perdiccas - this removed the chief check on his authority, and allowed Ptolemy to obtain the huge sum that Cleomenes had accumulated.[1] Rivalry and wars - In 321, Perdiccas invaded Egypt. Ptolemy decided to defend the Nile, and Perdiccas's attempt to force it ended in fiasco, with the loss of 2000 men. This was a fatal blow to Perdiccas' reputation, and he was murdered in his tent by two of his subordinates. Ptolemy immediately crossed the Nile, to provide supplies to what had the day before been an enemy army. Ptolemy was offered the regency in place of Perdiccas; but he declined.[2] Ptolemy was consistent in his policy of securing a power base, while never succumbing to the temptation of risking all to succeed Alexander.[3] In the long wars that followed between the different Diadochi, Ptolemy's first goal was to hold Egypt securely, and his second was to secure control in the outlying areas: Cyrenaica and Cyprus, as well as Syria, including the province of Judea. His first occupation of Syria was in 318, and he established at the same time a protectorate over the petty kings of Cyprus. When Antigonus One-Eye, master of Asia in 315, showed dangerous ambitions, Ptolemy joined the coalition against him, and on the outbreak of war, evacuated Syria. In Cyprus, he fought the partisans of Antigonus, and re-conquered the island (313). A revolt in Cyrene was crushed the same year. In 312, Ptolemy and Seleucus, the fugitive satrap of Babylonia, both invaded Syria, and defeated Demetrius Poliorcetes ("besieger of cities"), the son of Antigonus, in the Battle of Gaza. Again he occupied Syria, and again-after only a few months, when Demetrius had won a battle over his general, and Antigonus entered Syria in force-he evacuated it. In 311, a peace was concluded between the combatants. Soon after this, the surviving 13-year-old king, Alexander IV, was murdered in Macedonia, leaving the satrap of Egypt absolutely his own master. The peace did not last long, and in 309 Ptolemy personally commanded a fleet that detached the coastal towns of Lycia and Caria from Antigonus, then crossed into Greece, where he took possession of Corinth, Sicyon and Megara (308 BC). In 306, a great fleet under Demetrius attacked Cyprus, and Ptolemy's brother Menelaus was defeated and captured in another decisive Battle of Salamis. Ptolemy's complete loss of Cyprus followed. The satraps Antigonus and Demetrius now each assumed the title of king; Ptolemy, as well as Cassander, Lysimachus and Seleucus I Nicator, responded by doing the same. In the winter of 306 BC, Antigonus tried to follow up his victory in Cyprus by invading Egypt; but Ptolemy was strongest there, and successfully held the frontier against him. Ptolemy led no further overseas expeditions against Antigonus. However, he did send great assistance to Rhodes when it was besieged by Demetrius (305/304). Pausanius reports that the grateful Rhodians bestowed the name Soter ("saviour") upon him as a result of lifting the siege. This account is generally accepted by modern scholars, although the earliest datable mention of it is from coins issued by Ptolemy II in 263 BC. When the coalition against Antigonus was renewed in 302, Ptolemy joined it, and invaded Syria a third time, while Antigonus was engaged with Lysimachus in Asia Minor. On hearing a report that Antigonus had won a decisive victory there, he once again evacuated Syria. But when the news came that Antigonus had been defeated and slain by Lysimachus and Seleucus at the Battle of Ipsus in 301, he occupied Syria a fourth time. The other members of the coalition had assigned all Syria to Seleucus, after what they regarded as Ptolemy's desertion, and for the next hundred years, the question of the ownership of southern Syria (i.e., Judea) produced recurring warfare between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic dynasties. Henceforth, Ptolemy seems to have mingled as little as possible in the rivalries between Asia Minor and Greece; he lost what he held in Greece, but reconquered Cyprus in 295/294. Cyrene, after a series of rebellions, was finally subjugated about 300 and placed under his stepson Magas. Successor - In 289, Ptolemy made his son by Berenice -- Ptolemy II Philadelphus-- his co-regent. His eldest (legitimate) son, Ptolemy Keraunos, whose mother, Eurydice, the daughter of Antipater, had been repudiated, fled to the court of Lysimachus. Ptolemy I Soter died in 283 at the age of 84. Shrewd and cautious, he had a compact and well-ordered realm to show at the end of forty years of war. His reputation for bonhomie and liberality attached the floating soldier-class of Macedonians and Greeks to his service, and was not insignificant; nor did he wholly neglect conciliation of the natives. He was a ready patron of letters, founding the Great Library of Alexandria. He himself wrote a history of Alexander's campaigns that has not survived. This used to be considered an objective work, distinguished by its straightforward honesty and sobriety. However, Ptolemy may have exaggerated his own role, and had propagandist aims in writing his History. Although now lost, it was a principal source for the surviving account by Arrian of Nicomedia. Euclid - Ptolemy personally sponsored the great mathematician Euclid, but found Euclid's seminal work, the Elements, too difficult to study, so he asked if there were an easier way to master it. Euclid famously quipped: "Sire, there is no Royal Road to Geometry."[citation needed] Fiction Portrayals - Ptolemy was played by Vergilio Teixeira in the film Alexander the Great (1956) and by Robert Earley, Elliot Cowan, and Anthony Hopkins in the Oliver Stone film Alexander (2004). L. Sprague de Camp's novel The Bronze God of Rhodes features Ptolemy as a minor character. He also appears in Harry Turtledove's novel The Gryphon's Skull. Duncan Sprott's novel The Ptolemies features Ptolemy as a central character and founder of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Ptolemy appears as a character in Mary Renault's novels Fire From Heaven, The Persian Boy, and Funeral Games. He also appears in her non-fictional The Nature of Alexander. Ptolemy is one of the minor characters in the historical novel Roxana Romance by A.J. Cave with the Hellenic spelling of Ptolemaios.

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Ptolemy II Philadelphus in Tour Egypt

PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS, THE SECOND KING OF EGYPT'S GREEK PERIOD by Jimmy Dunn -- In about 285 BC, Ptolemy I Soter probably took as his co-ruler one of his sons by Berenice, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who became the sole ruler of Egypt and the rest of his father's empire upon the elder king's death in about 282 BC. He took the Egyptian name, Meryamun Setepenre, which means "Beloved of Amun, Chosen of Re". His reign can only be described as successful, considering the expansion of his possessions around the Mediterranean, the internal stability in Egypt, and the fulfillment of many of his father's imaginative projects, such as the Pharos Lighthouse and the Alexandrian University and Library. However, it is important to put into perspective many of these accomplishments, and to understand the basis for the future of the Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt that flowed from this early period. Ptolemy II was actually not born in Egypt but in Cos in about 309 BC. As a youth, he enjoyed the best tutors. The practice of getting the best scholars or poets available to educate the crown prince was something that Ptolemy I had the occasion to observe in Macedonia, where the young Alexander was taught by no less a figure than Aristotle himself. Ptolemy II would need this training, as well as the natural attributes of his family, in order to rule during an age of intrigue amidst international ambitions. Indeed, the Ptolemies were known for their seemingly natural ability to live in greed, luxury and intrigue while other members of the diadochi (the followers) of Alexander the Great, who split his empire amongst themselves, suffered from these follies. When he took the throne of Egypt, he was known as Ptolemy II Philadelphus was, like his father before him, not simply the ruler of Egypt. Indeed, he specifically wanted control over the Aegean, the eastern Mediterranean trade routes and the sea passage through the Black Sea. He was in fact making headway on his ambitions in this regard when Macedonia made a resurgence under Antigonus Gonatas. Greece and the Aegean had been Macedonia's natural sphere of influence ever since the days of Philip II, and Gonatas showed no signs of abandoning that role. When Gonatas began to restore the naval supremacy that Macedonia had once enjoyed, nothing could have been more alarming to Ptolemy II. Therefore, the Egyptian king began to actively subsidize any and all of Macedonia's enemies in the area. Athens, under Macedonian control, was one such enemy. Ptolemy II was already supplying much of Athens' wheat, and he concentrated his efforts there. He knew that most Athenians longed for freedom and autonomy from Macedonia, and that they had a dream of regaining control of Piraeus. However, he also worked anti-Macedonian allies, such as the Sparetan king Areus, into a coalition. Eventually, when he felt the time was ripe, Ptolemy II, through his agents, encouraged the Athenian to declare war on Antigonus. The patriotic notion of war was made in Athens by an idealistic and handsome Athenian citizen named Chremonides, who also gave his name to the war. However, this war backfired on Ptolemy II and the Greeks. Ptolemy actually did very little to support the efforts of the Athenians, even though Chremonidean had claimed that Ptolemy "conspicuously shows his zeal for the common freedom of the Greeks". When the Spartan king Areus met Antigonus outside Corinth during this war, he died on the battlefield, leaving Antigonus to lay siege to Athens. There was no rescue by Ptolemy II, and in the end, the Greeks were much worse off than before. However, it must be said that, through all of this, Ptolemy seems to have been gaining ground in the region, and he continued to spark conflicts between Macedonia and its enemies. This was a time of intrigue amongst all parties, and sometimes Ptolemy II expanded his region of control, only to lose it again and these types of conflicts outside of Egypt appear to have been ongoing through his reign. At home, this was a period of considerable achievement for Egypt's new capital, Alexandria, which grew so fast during the reign of Ptolemy II and his predecessor that it had to be divided into three governable districts. By the end of his reign, it consisted of Rhakotis, the native Egyptian quarter, Bruchium, the royal Greek-Macedonian quarter and the Jewish Quarter, that was almost as large as the Greek. However, Alexandria did not only grow quantitatively, but in quality as well. It was Ptolemy II who called upon the most learned men in all fields to come to Alexandria and to the new university to lecture. He managed to integrate them into the Alexandrian society and provided these scholars with a life free from want and from taxes, allowing them to study write, collate manuscripts, research lecture and theorize in their respective disciplines. Together with is father, the new king of Egypt established the foundations upon which Alexandria's fame would be based. Not that all of this arose completely from Ptolemy II's pure passion for intellectualism. Much of his policy was one of cultural ostentation and self-advertisement. To a certain extent, offering patronage to Hellenistic scholars such as poets was a brilliant step, not unlike the powerful men of today that harness the power of print and television. These scholars were well cared for by Ptolemy II, but in return, at intervals, were also expected to glorify their patrons with palpable flattery and hints of divine status. In his first hymn, Callimachus associates, indeed virtually equates Ptolemy II with Zeus, and with the second, Apollo. He writes, "From Zeus come kings, for than Zeus's princes nothing is more divine... We can judge this from our lord (Ptolemy II) since he has outstripped the rest by a wide margin. What he thinks in the morning he accomplishes by evening - by evening the greatest projects, but the lesser one the moment he thinks of them." Thus, through Callimachus and many others that he supported, there arose a viable catalog of works exhorting the king. Manetho even dedicated his history of Egypt to him, though it was Ptolemy II who had ordered him to write the history in the first place. Of course, this sort of advertisement did not very well reach the Egyptian people outside of those in Alexandria. Egypt was really two lands at this point, and through much of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Many of the Greeks never bothered to even learn the local language, and indeed it is claimed that the famous and last Ptolemy, Cleopatra, was the only Ptolemaic ruler ever to learn the Egyptian. Therefore, the Greeks worked through an army of translators to communicate with the priests and bureaucracy that actually ran the remainder of Egypt. Ptolemy ran Egypt as a private estate, and much of the bureaucracy, which had a stranglehold on Egypt, was simply to insure that he received what was due him. The dynastic cult of the Ptolemies was a Greek cult with a Greek hierarchy, and with worshippers drawn from the Greek speaking population of the country. Though they borrowed from pharaonic cult practices, this made no fundamental difference to this basic fact. The nearest the Ptolemies came to any kind of integration was the imposition of themselves, and their cult, for political reasons, on the native theocracy. They treated Egyptian priests with some amount of respect, and in return they enjoyed pharaonic privileges and honors. Nevertheless, it is clear that the priests, particularly of Upper Egypt, still regarded them privately as foreign interlopers, not unlike the Hyksos, to be expelled when the time was right. That never happened. Nevertheless, Egypt is said to have attained its greatest height under Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Though perhaps most famous for completing his father's great works in Alexandria, he is also credited with other accomplishments. For example, he completing the canal from the Pelusiac branch of the Nile River. The construction of this canal was begun under Necho and continued by Darius who abandoned it when he was told that the Red Sea was at a higher level than Egypt. Ptolemy II provided the canal with a lock and after its completion, the canal was named the Ptolemy River in his honor. And even though Ptolemy II's buildings and many of his accomplishments have been lost to us through time, one of his most enduring contributes to Egypt is readily visible to us today. He was the first to import camels to Egypt. Interestingly, one of Ptolemy II's claims to fame was his marriage to his full sister. At first, he made a dynastic marriage with Arsinoe, the daughter of the powerful Lysimachus of Thrace, who had been one of Alexander the Great's foremost generals. By her, he had three children. However, when his sister, another Arsinoe, who was bored with sanctuary on Samorthrace, finally returned to Egypt, she cultivated her brother who was her junior by eight years. Ptolemy II ended up repudiating his existing wife, after some rumors of treason associated with her arose and she was banished to Coptos in Southern Egypt. He then married his full sister. She promptly adopted his first wife's children, and began to appear with her brother and now husband on his gold and silver coinage. In fact, by some sexist oddity, it was his sister and wife, who while they both lived, and not Ptolemy II who was known as Philadelphus. The date of this marriage is uncertain, but it must have taken place before 274/3 BC, when Arsinoe appears as regnant queen on the Pithom stele. It is not always certain that the more ancient Egyptian pharaohs who also married their sisters had sexual relations with them, but Arsinoe was undeniably beautiful, as well as determined, and therefore her incestuous marriage to her brother seems to have been more than a mere act of calculated policy. Nevertheless, calculation undoubtedly entered into it. Ptolemy I had already been deified, and the more divinity that hedged the royal succession the better. Ptolemy II probably figured on playing Osiris to Arsinoe's Isis for the benefit of his Egyptian subjects, and Zeus to her Hera for the Greeks. Sailors were already praying to Arsinoe during her lifetime, a sign that she was regarded in some sense as the avatar of Isis, and she was promptly deified after her death. It has often been thought that she held considerable influence over Ptolemy, though her role as the political power behind the throne has probably been exaggerated. Ptolemy could be a forceful enough ruler when force was called for. All was not perfect, though. By now, the very intellectualism in Alexandria established by the first two Ptolemies had created satirists in the city, and no great man seems to have escaped them. When Ptolemy II married his full sister, the Greek poet Sotades published a lampoon that included the stinging line, "You are pushing the prong into an unholy fleshpot". This landed him in prison, and later Ptolemy II had him hunted down by his admiral, Patroclus, who drowned him in a lead coffin. Ptolemy seems to have died a relatively peaceful death and been buried in Alexandria as was probably his father. he was succeeded by Ptolemy III Euergetes, a product of his first wife who had been brought up by his stepmother.

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Ptolemy II Philadelphus in Wikipedia

Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaĩos Philádelphos" 309 BCE–246 BCE), was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 BCE to 246 BCE. He was the son of the founder of the Ptolemaic kingdom Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice, and was educated by Philitas of Cos. He had two half-brothers, Ptolemy Keraunos and Meleager, both of whom became kings of Macedonia (in 281 BCE and 279 BCE respectively). Both died in the Gallic invasion of 280-279 BCE (see Brennus). As did the Ptolemies III through V, Ptolemy II erected a commemmorative stele, the Great Mendes Stela. Reign - He began his reign as co-regent with his father Ptolemy I from ca. 290 BCE–ca. 283 BCE, and maintained a splendid court in Alexandria. Egypt was involved in several wars during his reign. Magas of Cyrene opened war on his half-brother (274 BCE), and the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter, desiring Coele-Syria with Judea, attacked soon after in the First Syrian War. Two or three years of war followed. Egypt's victories solidified the kingdom's position as the undisputed naval power of the eastern Mediterranean; his fleet (112 ships) bore the most powerful naval siege units of all time, guaranteed the king access to the coastal cities of his empire. The Ptolemaic sphere of power extended over the Cyclades to Samothrace, and the harbours and coast towns of Cilicia Trachea, Pamphylia, Lycia and Caria. The victory won by Antigonus II Gonatas, king of Macedonia, over the Egyptian fleet at Cos (between 258 BCE and 256 BCE) did not long interrupt Ptolemy's command of the Aegean Sea. In a Second Syrian War with the Seleucid kingdom, under Antiochus II Theos (after 260 BCE), Ptolemy sustained losses on the seaboard of Asia Minor and agreed to a peace by which Antiochus married his daughter Berenice (c. 250 BCE). Family - Ptolemy's first wife, Arsinoe I, daughter of Lysimachus, was the mother of his legitimate children: Ptolemy III Euergetes, his successor. Lysimachus Berenice Phernopherus, married Antiochus II Theos, king of Syria. After her repudiation he married his full sister Arsinoe II, the widow of Lysimachus-an Egyptian custom-which brought him her Aegean possessions. Ptolemy had several concubines. With a woman named Bilistiche he had an (illegitimate) son named Ptolemy Andromachou [2] Other mistresses include: Agathoclea (?), Aglais (?) daughter of Megacles, the cupbearer Cleino, Didyme, the Chian harp player Glauce, the flautist Mnesis, the actress Myrtion, the flautist Pothine and Stratonice. [3] Court - The material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height under Ptolemy II. Pomp and splendor flourished. Ptolemy deified his parents and his sister-wife, after her death (270 BCE). Ptolemy staged a procession in Alexandria in honor of Dionysus led by 24 chariots drawn by elephants and a procession of lions, leopards, panthers, camels, antelopes, wild asses, ostriches, a bear, a giraffe and a rhinoceros. According to scholars, most of the animals were in pairs - as many as eight pairs of ostriches - and although the ordinary chariots were likely led by a single elephant, others which carried a 7-foot-tall (2.1 m) golden statue may have been led by four.[4] Callimachus, keeper of the library, Theocritus,[5] and a host of lesser poets, glorified the Ptolemaic family. Ptolemy himself was eager to increase the library and to patronize scientific research. He had exotic animals of far off lands sent to Alexandria. Although an enthusiast for Hellenic culture, he also adopted Egyptian religious concepts, which helped to bolster his image as a sovereign. The tradition preserved in the pseudepigraphical Letter of Aristeas which connects the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament into Greek with his patronage is probably overdrawn. However, Walter Kaiser says, "There can be little doubt that the Law was translated in Philadelphus's time since Greek quotations from Genesis and Exodus appear in Greek literature before 200 B.C. The language of the Septuagint is more like Egyptian Greek than it is like Jerusalemite Greek, according to some." [6] Ptolemy had many brilliant mistresses, and his court, magnificent and dissolute, intellectual and artificial, has been compared with the Versailles of Louis XIV. Ptolemy was of a delicate constitution. Elias Joseph Bickermann (Chronology of the Ancient World, 2nd ed. 1980) gives the date of his death as January 29. Relations with India - Ptolemy is recorded by Pliny the Elder as having sent an ambassador named Dionysius to the Mauryan court at Pataliputra in India, probably to Emperor Ashoka: "But [India] has been treated of by several other Greek writers who resided at the courts of Indian kings, such, for instance, as Megasthenes, and by Dionysius, who was sent thither by Philadelphus, expressly for the purpose: all of whom have enlarged upon the power and vast resources of these nations." Pliny the Elder, "The Natural History", Chap. 21 [7] He is also mentioned in the Edicts of Ashoka as a recipient of the Buddhist proselytism of Ashoka, although no Western historical record of this event remain.

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Ptolemy III Euergeter in Tour Egypt

PTOLEMY III EUERGETES THE THIRD KING OF EGYPT'S PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY BY JIMMY DUNN -- Ptolemy III Euergetes (Benefactor), the third ruler of Egypt's Ptolemaic Dynasty, was the son of Ptolemy II Philadelphus by one of his early wives named Arsinoe. However, his father apparently abandoned this first Arsinoe to marry his full sister, who was also named Arsinoe and who is frequently referred to as Arsinoe II. It was she who raised Ptolemy III Euergetes in his blood mothers place. He succeeded to the throne at about the age of 30, taking the Egyptian name Iwaennetjerwysenwy Sekhemankhre Setepamun, which means, "Hear of the [two] Benificent Gods, Chosen of Ptah, Powerful is the South of Re, Living Image of Amun". Strangely, he married a woman named Berenice, who was the daughter of his half-uncle Magus, king of Cyrenaica, but his sister was also named Berenice. It is doubtful that any modern television soap opera could fictionally match the intrigue and complexities of the world during the time of the Ptolemies. Ptolemy III Euergetes' father had been at war with Antioch under its king, Antiochus II Theos (the so called Second Syrian War). However, in 253, the king of Egypt was hard enough pressed to make his peace with Antiochus II. A device frequently used by the Ptolemies to make peace was the dynastic alliance, and thus Ptolemy II had offered his daughter, Berenice Syra to Antiochus II, along with "a vast dowry", possibly the revenues of Coele-Syria. However, in order to make this match, Antiochus II was required to repudiate his prior wife, Laodice, with a settlement that included a considerable domain. Shortly after taking the throne, Ptolemy was called to the support of his sister in Syria. Antiochus II died about the same time as Ptolemy II, probably of illness, but some say that it was court intrigue and that his first wife, Laodice, had the kings poisoned. This left two, ambitious queen mothers, Laodice and Berenice Syra, in a competition on behalf of their potentially regnant sons. Ptolemy III at once left for Antioch, but before he could reach the city, his sister and her son, his young nephew, had already been slain. This lead to the Third Syrian (or Laodicean) War. Ptolemy III apparently sacked Antioch in revenge for his sister and her son's death and occupied the city for a brief period between 246 and 244 BC, then continued campaigning into Babylonia for the next five years, until 241 BC. We believe that he fought a naval battle off Andros during this period, and though the evidence is conflictive, he appears to have lost it. He did manage to hold on to Seleucia-in Pieria, the port of Antioch, but many of his other victorious claims seem to have been either ephemeral or exaggerated. Apparently, he also maintained control of Ephesus and Lebedos, which was now renamed Ptolemais, as well as cities in Trace and on the Hellespont. However, so important was Seleucia-in Pieria that Ptolemy III made fifteen hundred talents of silver, amounting to about ten percent of his annual income, from its capture. Ptolemy III had left his wife, the other Berenice, as head of state, with a panel of advisors in Egypt. Berenice, though was not simply the "other Berenice". She is known by Hellenistic historians as Berenice II, the daughter of King Magas of Cyrene. She was a battle-seasoned equestrienne who raced victorious chariot teams at Nemea, and whose dedicated lock of hair was immortalized as a constellation by Callimachus. (The Lock of Berenike, a poem, elaborates the conceit that a lock of hair, dedicated to Aphrodite by Berenice in thanks for her husband's safe return from the Third Syrian War, disappeared and was rediscovered among the constellations by the astronomer Conon). However, when trouble erupted back in Egypt, he rapidly returned to put down the dissidents. Ptolemy III Euergetes continued his father's policy of supporting anti-Macedonia allies during much of his reign. He largely financed the Achaean League, which opposed Macedonia at that time, and which consisted of a group of cities united in a confederacy. The league had a common federal citizenship, but each city retained independent control of their internal affairs. However, when the League came into conflict with Sparta in about 228 BC, Ptolemy III calculated that Sparta would prove a more effective ally against Macedonia, and therefore switched his backing to them. Though Ptolemy III seems to have had his problems in Egypt, history considers him a prudent ruler, which is demonstrated by the famous Canopus Decree of March 4th, 238 BC. The Decree, made by the Egyptian priesthood, paid homage to the king and his wife as Theoi Euergetai, "Benefactor Gods", for their contributions and promotion of Egyptian cults, especially those involving sacred animals (particularly the Apis and Mnevis bulls), but also for maintaining peace by means of a strong national defense system and for good government in general. As an example of the latter, the decree singles out Ptolemy's importation, at his own expense, of grain for the population when an inadequate Nile flood threatened nationwide famine, "in return for which things the gods have granted stability to their royal rule, and will give them all other good things for ever hereafter". The decree, like the Rosetta stone, was to be inscribed in hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek and consecrated in temples of the first, second and third rank. Ptolemy III is credited with having begun the building of the great temple dedicated to Horus at Edfu in the tenth year of his reign (about 237 BC), but the main structure was not finished until 231 BC, in the reign of his son. The temple was formally opened in 142 BC during the Reign of Ptolemy VIII, although the reliefs on the great pylon were not finished until the reign of Ptolemy XII. Of course, this was certainly not his only building project. Among others, he is also credited with several structures at Karnak, for example. The king is also credited for recovering, during one of his campaigns abroad (the Third Syrian War), some of the sacred statues that the Persians had carried off during their rule of Egypt. Like his father, Ptolemy III's reign of 25 years saw Egypt prosper and expand. He continued the work of his father and grandfather in Alexandria, particularly at the Great Library. In fact, he ordered all books unloaded on the Alexandria docks to be seized, and copies made of them. The Library kept the originals (marked "from the ships"), while the owners were provided with the copies. He is also said to have borrowed from Athens the official copies of all three tragedians (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides) in order to correct the texts in the Library. He had to put up a considerable deposit for this loan, yet once he had his hands on the originals, he decided to forfeit his deposit and keep them. Upon his death, he was probably buried in Alexandria in the royal cemetery, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Ptolemy IV Philopator in 222 BC.

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Ptolemy III Euergetes in Wikipedia

Ptolemy III Euergetes, (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs, reigned 246 BC–222 BC) was the third ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. Family - Euergetes ("Benefactor") was the eldest son of Ptolemy II Philadelphus and his first wife, Arsinoe I, and came to power in 246 BC upon the death of his father. He married Berenice of Cyrene in the year corresponding to 244/243 BC; and their children were: Arsinoe III, born in ca 246/245 BC. She later married her brother Ptolemy IV Ptolemy IV Philopator, born ca 244 BC Possibly Lysimachus. The name of the son is not known, but he is said to have been born in ca 243 BC.[2] Alexander, born in c. 242 BC [3] Magas, probably born in ca 241 BC. Scalded to death in his bath by Theogos or Theodotus, at the orders of Ptolemy IV. [4] Berenice, probably born in ca 239 BC and died a year later. [5] Leadership - Ptolemy III Euergetes was responsible for the first known example of a series of decrees published as bilingual inscriptions on massive stone blocks in three writing systems. Ptolemy III's stone stela is the Canopus Stone of 238 BC. Other well-known examples are the Memphis Stele (Memphis Stone), bearing the Decree of Memphis, about 218 BC, passed by his son, Ptolemy IV, and the famous Rosetta Stone erected by Ptolemy Epiphanes, his grandson, in 196 BC. Ptolemy III's stone contains decrees about priestly orders, and is a memorial for his daughter Berenice. But two of its 26 lines of hieroglyphs decree the use of a leap day added to the Egyptian calendar of 365 days, and the associated changes in festivals. He is also credited with the foundation of the Serapeum. War with Seleucids - Due to a falling out at the Seleucid court, his eldest sister Berenice Phernophorus was murdered along with her infant son. In response Ptolemy III invaded Syria.[6] During this war, the Third Syrian War, he occupied Antioch and even reached Babylon.[7] This war is cryptically alluded to in Daniel XI 7-9.[8]

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Ptolemy IV Philopator in Tour Egypt

PTOLEMY IV PHILOPATOR THE FOURTH KING OF EGYPT'S GREEK PERIOD BY JIMMY DUNN -- Under the Ptolemies, there was no real national foundation established for their rule in Egypt as the successor and son of Ptolemy III Euergetes, Ptolemy IV Philopator took the throne. These kings had been viewed by the local Egyptians with nothing more positive than resentful acquiescence. Basically, the Ptolemies had run Egypt as a private estate for their own benefit and gratification, even though we can say that they produced some amazing results, at least in Alexandria. Thus, the Egyptians needed only a weakening of control at the top to produce a whole string of violent insurrections, intended to reestablish the old pharaonic tradition and shift the cultural center of gravity back to Memphis. From the time of Ptolemy IV onward, the dynasty's declining prestige abroad was matched by faltering administration at home, though it is hard to decide whether constant dynastic intrigues, minority regencies, military reversals and economic crises were primarily responsible for the breakdown of the system, or whether simmering anarchy and anti-governmental feelings contributed more. At any rate, the royal revenues began to decline as did the Ptolemy's fortunes in general. Ptolemy IV took the throne in about 222 BC, using the Egyptian name Iwaennetjerwy-menkhwy Setepptah Userkare Sekhemankhamun, a name that means "Heir of the [two] Beneficent Gods, Chosen of Ptah, Powerful is the Soul of Re, Living Image of Amun". Unlike his predecessors, this Ptolemy led a dissolute life, aided and abetted by Sosibius, an Alexandrian Greek who had ingratiated himself into high office and made sure that he was indispensable to the king. Though some recent attempts have been made to credit Ptolemy IV with an active foreign policy, history mostly regards him as one dominated to a great extent by his advisers and women. In fact, probably acting on wild rumors that Sosibius may very well have started, Ptolemy agreed to have his mother, the famous Beerenie II, and his brother Magus respectively poisoned and scalded to death within a year of his accession. Then trouble seems to have begun when Antiochus III of Syria, no doubt having heard through his intelligence sources of Egypt's weaknesses under the dissolute king, began to move through Phoenicia taking Egyptian vassal cities during the fourth Syrian War. He captured the port of Seleucia-in-Pieria which had been taken by Ptolemy IV's father, and then Tyre and Ptolemais-Ake surrendered to him, thus leaving the road through Palestine to Egypt open to him. Had Antiochus III been a better military man, he would have probably marched on against the Egyptian fortress of Pelusium, which could not have withstood him. However, Potlemy IV's diplomats stalled him with peace talks producing a four month truce which Ptolemy IV, with Sosibius' aid, used to recruit foreign mercenaries as well as raise and train an Egyptian army of some thirty thousand men. In the summer of 217 BC, at the head of a fifty-five thousand man army and accompanied by his young sister, Arsinoe, Ptolemy IV took the field in person to face Antiochus III's army of sixty-eight thousand at Raphia in Palestine, just beyond the Egyptian frontier. Here, Ptolemy IV defeated Antiochus III, and relieved Egypt of the threat of invasion. Interestingly, Ptolemy employed forest elephants, a small variety from Somalia against Antiochus III's larger African bush (some say Indian) elephants. Those of Ptolemy were scared off by the larger elephants, and at first the battle went against the Egyptians, but Antiochus III overextended himself, leaving himself open for the defeat in a pitched battle considered one of the largest of this period. However, this victory bought little gain to Egypt, and in the end, would prove troublesome because of the now well trained Egyptian troops. Ptolemy IV spent another thee months settling affairs in the Egyptian controlled region before heading home. This was really a short period of time, and better men might have stayed to take advantage of the situation, but some believe the king was apparently eager to return to the luxuries of Alexandria. For example, he left the important port of Seleucia-in-Pieria, which his father had taken in the first place, in the hands of Antiochus III. However, his reluctance to purse these military matters may have been somewhat more complex. A fall in population and a shrinkage of overseas trade had brought about an acute shortage of silver in Egypt and only seven years after Raphia, silver seems to have been abandoned altogether as Ptolemaic Egypt's standard currency. It might have been understandable that Ptolemy IV balked at hiring the extra mercenaries needed to pursue an aggressive foreign policy, and the financial considerations may have even dictated his later disastrous enrollment of Egyptian troops. After returning to Egypt, he married his sister in October of 217 BC and the two received a cult as the "Father-Loving Gods" (Theoi Philpatores). She provided an heir seven years later, but afterwards, Ptolemy IV tuned his affections to another woman named Agathoclea, who he took as a mistress. With her brother Agathocles, they encouraged his excesses. Now, though the true deterioration only may have set in about the time of Ptolemy IV's death in about 204 BC, or shortly before, events in Egypt took on a vicious cycle. The Egyptian troops trained under the king stimulated a strong nationalist movement which resulted, at first, in a long and successful guerilla campaign against the Alexandria court. Indeed, by the end of his reign, they were able to achieve total independence in the south, which for a time was ruled once more by native pharaohs. During the period of rebel insurrection, an increased army of mercenaries was needed to fend off their constant marauding, further draining capital and resulting in a cutback in overseas trade, which in turn made the economic situation even worse. Nevertheless, scholarship in Alexandria went on unabated. Ptolemy IV himself was a dabbler in the arts and in this regard a free thinker who wrote a tragedy entitled Adonis, and presumably played the lead. He actually founded a Homereion, a shrine honoring Homer, with inside it a statue of the poet surrounded by personified figures of the cities that claimed to be his birthplace. At the same time, one must wonder about the works that were composed during this period. One story tells of a poetry competition during his reign. In it, all of the judges ranked the poetry according to the amount of applause it received, with the exception of Aristophanes of Byzantium. He chose the one who received the least applause. When asked for an explanation, he retreated to the great Library, retrieving texts that showed his candidate was the only original poet. All the others had simply been plagiarizing their predecessors. One of Ptolemy IV's other accomplishments, more of a tidbit of trivia than anything else, was the building a a huge, though apparently non-functioning and immovable ship measuring some 420 feet in length with a capacity to hold some 2,850 marines. He also did some work at the Temple of Isis at Philae, at Tanis, at the Temple of Montu at Medamud, at the Ptolemaic Temple of Hathor on the West Bank at Thebes (modern Luxor), at the Khonsu Temple at Karnak, and probably at the Temple of Horus at Edfu. After Ptolemy IV's death in the summer of 204, he was doubtless buried in Alexandria, but more intrigue was to follow. Arsinoe III had, in fact, remained his wife, at least in name, and her son Ptolemy V was still a child. She was eager to rule through her son, but so to was Sosibius and Agathocles, who had also become a powerful minister. They had Arsinoe III murdered, and while we do not know of Sosibius' fate, Agathocles briefly became regent using a forged will of Ptolemy IV. However, this did not set well with the Alexandrians and he was soon lynched by the Alexandrian mob, which was now emerging as an active, if not organized political force. They then went after his relatives and associates, and Polybius tells us that: "All of them were then handed over together to the mod, and some began to bite them, others to stab them, others to gouge out their eyes. As soon as any of them fell, the body was torn limb from limb until they had mutilated them all"

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Ptolemy IV Philopator in Wikipedia

Ptolemy IV Philopator (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr, reigned 221-205 BCE), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II of Egypt was the fourth Pharaoh of the Ptolemaic Egypt. Under the reign of Ptolemy IV, the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began. His reign was inaugurated by the murder of his mother, and he was always under the dominion of favourites, male and female, who indulged his vices and conducted the government as they pleased. Self-interest led his ministers to make serious preparations to meet the attacks of Antiochus III the Great on Coele-Syria including Judea, and the great Egyptian victory of Raphia (217), where Ptolemy himself was present, secured the northern borders of the kingdom for the remainder of his reign. The arming of Egyptians in this campaign had a disturbing effect upon the native population of Egypt, leading to the secession of Upper Egypt under pharaohs Harmachis (also known as Hugronaphor) and Ankmachis (also known as Chaonnophris), thus creating a kingdom that occupied much of the country and lasted nearly twenty years. Philopator was devoted to orgiastic forms of religion and literary dilettantism. He built a temple to Homer and composed a tragedy, to which his favourite Agathocles added a commentary. He married (about 220 BC) his sister Arsinoe III, but continued to be ruled by his mistress Agathoclea, sister of Agathocles. Ptolemy is said to have built a giant ship known as the tessarakonteres ("forty"), a huge type of galley. The forty of its name may refer to its number of banks of oars. The only recorded instance of this type of vessel, in fact, is this showpiece galley built for Ptolemy IV, described by Callixenus of Rhodes, writing in the 3rd century BCE, and by Athenaeus in the 2nd century AD. Plutarch also mentions that Ptolemy Philopater owned this immense vessel in his Life of Demetrios. The current theory is that Ptolemy's ship was an oversize catamaran galley, measuring 128 m 420 ft. Ptolemy IV is a major protagonist of the apocryphal 3 Maccabees, which describes purported events following the Battle of Raphia, in both Jerusalem and Alexandria.

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Ptolemy V Epiphanes in Tour Egypt

PTOLEMY V EPIPHANES THE FIFTH KING OF EGYPT'S PTOLEMAIC PERIOD BY JIMMY DUNN -- Ptolemy V Epiphanes ("manifest"), the fifth king of Egypt Ptolemaic Period began life precariously. His father, Ptolemy IV Philopator was a weak king who died at the relatively young age of 41, after a dissolute life shrouded by controlling advisors. After his mother, Arsinoe III's death at the hands of his father's advisers, Sosibius and Agathocles, these same people took custody of the child, who was then only five years old. However, when the Alexandria mob found out about the murder of his mother, they lynched Agathocles (Sosibius disappears from the record at about the time of his accession tot he throne) in about October of 203 BC, leaving him to be raised by one ambitious adviser after another. This caused near anarchy, particularly in Upper Egypt. In fact, what Ptolemy V inherited from his father was considerable trouble. Also, Ptolemaic possessions and navel bases around the Mediterranean were shrinking as other rulers took advantage of Egypt's internal weaknesses. Antiochus III almost certainly eyed the scene with uncommon interest, and in fact, frantic embassies were sent off in all directions by Egypt. They urged Antiochus to respect the peace of 217 BC, and in Rome they sought diplomatic representations to Antiochus. In Greece, they hired mercenaries to aid against the Seleucid threat. Rome, which was becoming a world power at this point, did issue warnings to various powers about invading Egypt, including the Seleucid ruler, Antiochus, which he accommodated because at that point he was not much interested in Egypt itself, but rather to subjugate Coele- Syria and also to raid Egypt's coastal strongholds from Caria to Cilicia. In fact, Philip V of Macadon and Antiochus made a secret pact to conquer, and share Ptolemy's overseas possessions between them. Philip seized several islands and places in Caria and Thrace. Antiochus swept down through Coele-Syria in what is known as the Fifth Syrian War (202-195) and, after some temporary reversals, particularly at Gaza, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Ptolemaic forces at Panion in 200 BC, near the headwaters of the river Jordan. He took the Palestinian holdings of the Egyptians, including the key port of Sidon. Hence, the heir to the throne had little time to grow into a proper man. For almost his entire reign, Upper Egypt achieved total independence under a series of native pharaohs, which also had the effect of depriving the king of a substantial proportion of his revenues, besides necessitating an increased army of mercenaries to fend off the rebels. In an attempt to settle the civil problems, it was decided to crown the young prince as he turned twelve, at the old capital of Memphis in about 197 BC. This was the first time that a Ptolemy had been crowned in Memphis to our knowledge, but it did begin a tradition that would continue from then on. He took the Egyptian name, Iwaennetjerwy-merwyitu Setepptah Userkare Sekhem-ankhamun, the same as his father, which means "Heir of the [two] Beneficent Gods, Chosen of Ptah, Powerful is the Soul of Re, Living Image of Amun" Much of this is recorded in the decree of the priests of Memphis in 196 BC, and inscribed in three scripts (hieroglyphs, demotic and Greek) on the famous Rosetta Stone found in 1799. An uneasy peace with the Seleucid ruler followed when, in 192 BC, Ptolemy V married the daughter of Antiochus the Great. Her name was Cleopatra (I), and she produced two sons and a daughter for the king. The sons became Ptolemy VI and perhaps Potlemy VIII, and the daughter was presumably Cleopatra II. Additionally, there seems to have been marriage negotiations for him between the Egyptian and Macedonian courts on his accession, though the identity of the Macedonian princess involved is unknown. It is really difficult to assess what sort of man Ptolemy V Epiphanes became. He seems to have spent most of his reign putting out fires of one sort or another. There seems to be some indications that he worked hard to portray himself as a traditional Egyptian king. At Sehel island near Elephantine at Aswan, he had inscribed on a rock face, 2000 years after Djoser's death, a text which describes the action taken by Djoser to deal with a famine during his reign. It reads: "My heart was in sore distress, for the Nile had not risen for seven years. The grain was not abundant, the seeds were dried up, everything that one had to eat was in pathetic quantities, each person was denied his harvest. Nobody could walk any more: children were in tears; the young people were struck down; the old people's hearts were sad and their legs were bent when they sat on the ground, and their hands were hidden away. Even the courtiers were going without, the temples were closed and the sanctuaries were covered in dust. In short, everything in existence was afflicted." In this text, Djoser looks back into the archives, attempting to find the origins of the Nile flood and to understand the role of Khnum, the ram-god of Elephantine, in the rising of the waters. He then makes an offering to Khnum, and the god appears to him in a dream, promising: "I will cause the Nile to rise up for you. There will be no more years when the inundation fails to cover any area of land. The flowers will sprout up, their stems bending with the weight of the pollen." It is believed that Ptolemy V was no doubt actually referring to himself in the guise of Djoser, as he coped with the combined effects of famine and the revolt of the successors of the Meroitic king Ergamenes in southern Egypt. It is likely that the Nubians from Meroe participated in the Upper Egyptian revolt during his reign. Nevertheless, he apparently used considerable cruelty in suppressing the native rebellion ,and some accounts represent him as a personal tyrant. Otherwise, it is said that he was a remarkably passionate sportsman who excelled in athletic exercises. Very little is known about his building activities in Egypt. The elder of his sons by Cleopatra (1) would become Ptolemy VI Philometor. In fact, that happened all too soon as Ptolemy V Epiphanes died, some say by poisoning, at the age of twenty-eight in about 181 BC. Prior to his death Ptolemy V had managed to put down the revolt and take back southern Egypt from Ankhwennefer in about 191 BC and squash the last of the insurgencies in the Delta, which left a weaker but stable regime in Egypt with Cleopatra I acting as the regent fro young Ptolemy VI Philometor. Ptolemy V was presumably buried in Alexandria, though his tomb, like all the other Ptolemies, has never been discovered.

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Ptolemy V Epiphanes in Wikipedia

Ptolemy V Epiphanes (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Ἐπιφανής, Ptolemaĩos Epiphanḗs, reigned 204–181 BCE), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoe III of Egypt, was the 5th ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty. He became ruler at the age of five, and under a series of regents the kingdom was paralyzed. Regency infighting - Ptolemy Epiphanes was only a small boy when his father, Ptolemy Philopator, died. The two leading favorites of Philopator, Agathocles and Sosibius, fearing that Arsinoe would secure the regency had her murdered before she heard of her husband's death, which secured the regency for themselves. In 202 BCE however Tlepolemus, the general in charge of Pelusium, put himself at the head of a revolt. Once Epiphanes was in the hands of Tlepolemus he was persuaded to give a sign that the killers of his mother should be killed. According to Bevan the child king's consent was given more from fear than anything else and Agathocles along with several of his supporters being killed by the Alexandrian mob.[2] War with Egypt and Macedonia - Antiochus III the Great and Philip V of Macedon made a pact to divide the Ptolemaic possessions overseas. Philip seized several islands and places in Caria and Thrace, whilst the Battle of Panium (198 BCE) definitely transferred Coele-Syria, including Judea, from the Ptolemies to the Seleucids. Antiochus after this concluded peace, giving his own daughter Cleopatra I to Epiphanes to marry (193–192 BCE). Nevertheless, when war broke out between Antiochus and Rome, Egypt ranged itself with the latter power. Epiphanes in manhood was remarkable as a passionate sportsman; he excelled in athletic exercises and the chase. Struggle against the Egyptian Revolt - Great cruelty and treachery were displayed in the suppression of the native rebellion, and some accounts represent him as personally tyrannical. In 197 BCE Lycopolis was held by the forces of Ankmachis, (also known as Chaonnophris) the secessionist pharaoh of Upper Egypt, but was forced to withdraw to Thebes. The war between North and South continued until 185 BCE with the arrest of Ankmachis by Ptolemaic General Conanus. In 183 BCE/184 BCE The rebels in Lower Egypt surrendered on the basis of terms that Epiphanes had given his personal to honour. However, showing himself in the opinion of Bevan treacherous and vindictive he had them put to death in a cruel manner.[2] The Rosetta Stone was a statement of thanks to the Egyptian priesthood for help during the crisis. Succession - The elder of his two sons, Ptolemy VI Philometor (181–145 BCE), succeeded as an infant under the regency of his mother Cleopatra the Syrian. Her death was followed by a rupture between the Ptolemaic and Seleucid courts, on the old question of Coele-Syria.

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Ptolemy VI Philometor in Tour Egypt

PTOLEMY VI PHILOMETOR BY JIMMY DUNN -- The Ptolemies in Egypt provide us with an interesting dynasty fraught with all manner of intrigue. After the death of Ptolemy V Epiphanes the Dynasty becomes even more complicated. In the last 13 years of Ptolemy V's reign he had, by Cleopatra I, the daughter of Antiochus the Great, two sons and a daughter. The elder of the two boys became Ptolemy VI Philometor when he took the crown of Egypt after his father's death. He was still young so his mother acted as regent, but she too soon died, five years later, and two greedy officials took over as the young king's regents. Similar to what had happened to his father, Eulaeus and Lenaeus, a eunuch and a Syrian ex-slave respectively, appointed themselves as his guardians. According to Peter Clayton in Chronicle of the Pharaohs, the two regents foolishly soon declared war on Antiochus IV in 170 BC. However, this situation may not have been so simple. When the Coele-Syria (Sixth Syrian War) broke out around 171 or 170, it is true that Ptolemy VI was no more than sixteen, and still very much in the hands of his advisors. While Diodorus blames the regents for forcing Ptolemy to fight, Livy and others put the responsibility on Antiochus. Others believe that the long history of this territorial quarrel suggest that both sides must, inevitably, share the blame. Apparently, in 170 BC, Ptolemy VI declared himself of age, thus obviating the need for a regent. He took the throne name Iwa-en-netjerwy- per Setep-en-Ptah-khepri Ir-maat-en-amun-re, meaning "Heir of the [two] Houses of the Gods, Chosen of Ptah, Truth is the Form of Amun-Re". He married his sister, another Cleopatra (II), and took as their co-regent his younger brother, Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Sometimes referred to as Ptolemy VII). Irregardless of who initiated the war between Egypt and Antiochus, Antiochus drove south against Ptolemy in the spring of 169 BC, and wiped out the Egyptian expeditionary forces, capturing Pelusium and apparently also his young nephew, Ptolemy VI. Thus, Antiochus became virtual master of Egypt except for Alexandria. At this point Ptolemy VI made adjustments in his advisors and negotiated with Antiochus who was, after all, his uncle. However, in Alexandria, these events sparked off the Alexandria "Mob". Antiochus's troops had been looting the temples, and so Alexandrians decided to wash their hands of Ptolemy VI, and proclaim Ptolemy VIII Euergetes joint ruler with his sister, Cleopatra. Antiochus then apparently made a half hearted attempt to besiege Alexandria, but withdrew in 169. Hence, the two brothers both became, at least nominally, rulers of Egypt. By now, Rome had become a dominating power, and so the Egyptians, on behalf of the younger brother (Ptolemy Euergetes), and Antiochus, who held Ptolemy Philometor appealed to Rome for assistance in deciding the matter. The outcome was that Ptolemy Philometor ruled in the old capital of Memphis, while his younger brother Euergetes ruled in Alexandria with their sister. While Antiochus IV returned to Syria in 169 BC, he was still a dominant power in Egypt due to his protection of Ptolemy VI, which was an anathema to the brothers and sister alike. Therefore, they joined forces and appealed to Rome for help against Antiochus. The results were that Antiochus returned to Egypt in 168 BC, marching to Pelusium where he demanded control not only of this frontier fortress, but also of Cyprus, an Egyptian possession. The Ptolemies were not disposed to grant him these concessions, so he next marched on Memphis and then turned north to Alexandria, while his fleet took Cyprus. Unfortunately, Rome's hands were tied at this point, because of the country's involvement in the Macedonian war with Perseus. However, on June 22nd, 168 BC, at the battle of Pydna, Perseus was defeated and now Rome turned her attention to the Ptolemaic plea, and sent a three man mission to Alexandria, led by Caius Popilius Laenas. The confrontation between the Roman Senate's representatives and Antiochus IV took place in July, just outside of Alexandria at Eleusis. The senate's decree was that Antiochus should vacate Egypt and Cyprus immediately. He asked for time to consider, but Popilius refused. Taking his stick and drawing a circle in the sand around Antiochus' feet, Popilius demanded his answer before he left the circle. Of course, Antiochus realized that Rome was now the major state in the Mediterranean, and he had little option but to comply with the Senate's demands. For a short while the two brothers and their sister all ruled Egypt, but that was not a good situation, and eventually their reconciliation began to fall apart. There seems to have continued some amount of of trouble particularly between the two brothers. Though Ptolemy VI showed himself to be a clever, civilized and even an energetic ruler, he apparently became overcome with the machinations of his brother to the point where he went to Rome in 164 BC. He quietly took up residence in a working-class district, in ostentatious poverty, and waited for the authorities to discover his plight and come to him, in embarrassment and with largesse, which they duly did. Rome actually did very little, other than to instruct a mission already on its way to Asia Minor to visit Alexandria and effect a reconciliation. Ptolemy VI thereupon took off for Cyprus, to have some sort of base from which to operate. Envoys from Alexandria, where his brother's rule was becoming intolerable, soon arrived begging for his return. This change of heart in Alexandria may well have dictated what happened next. In May 163 BC, the two brothers, with the approval of Rome, agreed on a partition of the Ptolmaic holdings, with Ptolemy VI taking Egypt, and his brother the province of Cyrenaica. This solution, reducing Ptolemy VIII to essentially the status of a crown prince, did not remove the tension between the too brothers for long. In fact, Ptolemy VIII talked the Roman Senate into backing his claim on Cyprus, though his brother ignored this ruling with the results that Rome sent Ptolemy VI's ambassadors home and repudiated its alliance with him. Ptolemy VI attempted to have his brother assassinated, who then went to Rome to show off the scars from the incident, getting some token military support for his efforts. With five Roman ships and some Roman advisers, along with the authorization to levy Greek troops at his own expense, he attempted to capture Cyprus but that did not work, and instead he was captured by his brother. However, perhaps because he was afraid of Rome's reaction, Ptolemy VI not only allowed his brother to live, but also offered his own daughter, Cleopatra Thea, to his brother in marriage. He also, at Rome's insistence, sent his brother back to Cyrene, preserving the status quo prior to the troubles. Afterwards he sent his son, Eupator, to govern Cyprus, where he died very young in 150 BC. The Athenians, to whom he had presented a library and perhaps a gymnasium, in gratitude erected a bronze equestrian statue of him on the Acropolis, and celebrated. Benefactions of this kind were common, and formed an integral part of Ptolemy VI's foreign policy, creating not only good will but also, he hoped, a network of accepted obligations. Hence, over the next quarter century, Ptolemy VI's reign passed quietly enough, though things were never exactly quiet under Ptolemaic rule, and Egypt prospered. Ptolemy VI, of course, continued the intrigues that his family were known for to some extent. Therefore, when a character called Balas claimed to be the son of Antiochus IV got himself mixed up in this adventure. Balas, imposter or not, was sent to Rome where, perhaps for political reasons, the senate approved Balas's dubious credentials. Now while his endorsement may have come from Rome, it was Ptolemy VI and others who were his real backers. At first, Balas, who now styled himself as Alexander Balas, did will in the Seleucid territory. In fat, Ptolemy VI, shrewd and patient, then encouraged him to marry his daughter, Cleopatra Thea, who had briefly been betrothed to his younger brother. Obviously, no Ptolemy would ever pass up the chance to become the power behind the Seleucid throne, particularly while Coele-Syria, an old Egyptian possession, was still potentially recoverable. However, Balas seems never to have been anything but a pretender to the throne, and when Demetrius II came to Syria with a force of Cretan mercenaries, Ptolemy marched north, as though to defend his son-in-law. In reality, Ptolemy saw this as a chance to further his holdings, and Balas, who saw through the guise, tried to procure his assassination. The attempt failed, and Ptolemy pressed on north toward Antioch. His daughter, Cleopatra Thea, found her way back to her father after seeing that Balas was finished, and Ptolemy VI declared her marriage void. coolly prepared to refurbish her as a bride for the young Dmetrius. Of course, the price of such a marriage would be the return of Coele-Syria to Egyptian hands. In fact, Ptolemy VI was taken by surprise when the volatile citizens of Antioch decided to acclaim him as their new monarch. It must have been very tempting to Ptolemy VI, to receive the Seleucid monarchy, which had so bedazzled Ptolemy III, but it had come too late. He knew that Rome would probably not be happy with this development, so he refused the offer and persuaded the citizens of Antioch to stick with Demetrius, who promptly became his new son-in-law. Soon afterwards, Balas was killed by an Arab chieftain with whom he had sought refuge in northern Syria after suffering a crushing military defeat, and his head brought to Ptolemy. Unfortunately, in that same battle of 145 BC, Ptolemy himself was wounded, and died two days later. Ptolemy was almost certainly buried in Alexandria, though little of the Royal cemetery remains today. The widowed Cleopatra was left in Alexandria with the young heir, Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator, who, for a very short time, was nominally Egypt's king under his mothers doubtful protection. As a side note, during his life, Ptolemy VI abandoned a rather old form of portraiture. While his ancestors had portrayed themselves on coinage usually with a modified version of Ptolemy I Sorter's features, Ptolemy VI, on a gold ring bezel now in the Louvre, had himself depicted as thin, almost nervous looking, with a scanty beard.

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Ptolemy VI Philometor in Wikipedia

Ptolemy VI Philometor (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλομήτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philomḗtōr, ca. 186–145 BC) was a king of Egypt from the Ptolemaic period. He reigned from 180 to 145 BC. Ptolemy succeeded in 180 at the age of about 6 and ruled jointly with his mother, Cleopatra I, until her death in 176 BC. The following year he married his sister, Cleopatra II. In 170 BC, Antiochus IV began the sixth Syrian War and invaded Egypt twice. He was crowned as its king in 168, but abandoned his claim on the orders of the Roman Senate. From 169–164, Egypt was ruled by a triumvirate consisting of Ptolemy, his sister-queen and his younger brother known as Ptolemy VIII Physcon. In 164 he was driven out by his brother and went to Rome to seek support, which he received from Cato. He was restored the following year by the intervention of the Alexandrians and ruled uneasily, cruelly suppressing frequent rebellions. In 152 BC, he briefly ruled jointly with one of his sons, known as Ptolemy Eupator, but it is thought that Ptolemy Eupator died that same year.

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Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator in Tour Egypt

PTOLEMY VII NEOS PHILOPATOR 145 B.C. PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator was the seventh ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He was the son of Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II. Upon Philometor's death, Cleopatra's son, who was about 16 years old and had been appointed co-ruler by his father earlier that year, became king under his mother's regency. Philopator's uncle Physcon (Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) wanted to rule and a large number of supporters. He could not get Cleopatra out of the way, so he did the next best thing, he married her. Philopator was killed during the wedding feast.

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Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator in Wikipedia

Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Νέος Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Néos Philopátōr) was an Egyptian king of the Ptolemaic period. His reign is controversial, and it is possible that he did not reign at all, but was only granted royal dignity posthumously. Even his identity is unclear. According to one reconstruction, he was the son of Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II of Egypt, he reigned briefly with his father in 145 BC, and for a short time after that, and was murdered by his uncle, Ptolemy VIII Physcon, who succeeded him. Alternately, some scholars identify Ptolemy Neos Philopator with Ptolemy Memphites, a son of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra II who was murdered by his father about 132/131 BC after his mother had tried to depose Physcon and proclaim their son king; yet others point to a number of minor co-regents – all of whom were named Ptolemy as was the tradition in the dynasty. By tradition, though, the numbering of the Ptolemies is kept intact. Occasionally, the numbering is reversed, and Ptolemy VIII Physcon is numbered as Ptolemy VII, with a boy-king – the one named Ptolemy Memphites, most likely – numbered Ptolemy VIII; in some older sources, Ptolemy VII is omitted altogether. This lowers the numbering of all the later Ptolemies, until Caesarion is Ptolemy XIV; the nicknames are unchanged, of course.

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Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II in Tour Egypt

PTOLEMY VIII EUERGETES II (PHYSCON) 170-163 & 145-116B.C. PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Physcon) was the eighth ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He was the younger brother of Ptolemy VI Philometor and the uncle of Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator. He ruled Egypt when Philometor fled Alexandria for Rome. His rule proved to be intolerable and the Alexandrians were begging for Philometor to return. When he did, the two brothers split up rule; Physcon ruling the western province of Cyrenaica and Philometor ruled Egypt. Upon Philometor's death, his son, Philopator, took over the throne with his mother as co-regent. Physcon married Philopator's mother, Cleopatra II, and had Philopator killed at the wedding feast. He returned to Memphis as Pharaoh and expulsed many of the Alexandrians who had sided against him. He also married Cleopatra II's daughter, Cleopatra III. He died on June 26, 116 BC and left his power to Cleopatra III and whichever of her sons she might prefer.

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Ptolemy VIII Physcon in Wikipedia

Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs) (c. 182 BC – June 26, 116 BC), nicknamed Φύσκων, Phúskōn, Physcon ("Sausage", "Potbelly" or "Bladder") for his obesity, was a king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. His complicated career started in 170 BC, when Antiochus IV Epiphanes invaded Egypt, captured his brother Ptolemy VI Philometor and let him continue as a puppet monarch. Then Alexandria chose Ptolemy Euergetes as king. After Antiochus left (169 BC), Euergetes agreed to joint rule with his older brother Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II. This arrangement led to continuous intrigues, lasting until October 164 BC, when Philometor went to Rome to gain support from the Senate, who were a little helpful, but Physcon's sole rule was not popular, and in May 163 BC the two brothers agreed to a partition that left Physcon in charge of Cyrenaica. Although the arrangement lasted until Philometor's death in 145 BC, it did not end the sparring. Physcon convinced the Senate to back his claim on Cyprus, but Philometor ignored this, and after Physcon's attempt to conquer the island failed, in 161 BC] the Senate sent Philometor's ambassadors home. Sometime around 156 BC/155 BC Philometor tried to have Physcon assassinated, but this failed, and Physcon went to Rome, displayed the scars of wounds he received in the attempt, and despite the opposition of Cato the Elder, received the Senate's support and some resources for another attempt on Cyprus. (An inscription records that Physcon had bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome if he died childless, an act not mentioned by any literary source.) The second attempt on Cyprus also failed, and Philometor captured Physcon, but spared him, offering him the hand of his daughter Cleopatra Thea, and sent him back to Cyrenaica. When Philometor died on campaign in 145 BC, Cleopatra II had her son proclaimed Ptolemy VII, but Physcon returned, proposed joint rule and marriage to Cleopatra II, his sister. He then had the unlucky youth assassinated during the wedding feast. He then took the throne as "Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II", the name deliberately recalling his ancestor Ptolemy III Euergetes, and had himself proclaimed as pharaoh in 144 BC. Physcon took his revenge on the intellectuals of Alexandria who had opposed him, engaging in mass purges and expulsions that included Aristarchus of Samothrace and Apollodorus, leaving Alexandria a changed city. In 145 BC, "he expelled all intellectuals: philologists, philosophers, professors of geometry, musicians, painters, schoolteachers, physicians and others, with the result that these brought 'education to Greeks and barbarians elsewhere,' as mentioned by an author who may have been one of the king's victims" (Menecles of Barca, FGrHist 270 F 9).[1] He then seduced and married Cleopatra III (who was his wife's daughter) without divorcing Cleopatra II, who was infuriated, and by 132 BC or 131 BC, the people of Alexandria rioted and set fire to the royal palace. Physcon, Cleopatra III, and their children escaped to Cyprus, while Cleopatra II had their twelve-year-old son Ptolemy Memphitis acclaimed as king. Physcon was however able to get hold of the boy and killed him, sending the dismembered pieces to Cleopatra. The ensuing civil war pitted Cleopatra's Alexandria against the countryside, who supported Physcon. Cleopatra offered the throne of Egypt to Demetrius II Nicator, but he got no further than Pelusium, and by 127 BC Cleopatra left for Syria, leaving Alexandria to hold out for another year. After further intrigues, Cleopatra II ended up back in Egypt in 124 BC, and about this time Physcon sent his second daughter by Cleopatra III, Cleopatra Tryphaena, to marry Antiochus VIII Philometor. A formal amnesty decree followed in 118 BC, but it was insufficient to improve government, and the Romans would soon be forced to intervene after his death in 116 BC. When he died, he left the throne to Cleopatra III and one of her sons, whichever she preferred. She would have chosen her younger son Alexander to have reigned with her. However, the Alexandrians wanted her older son Philometer Soter, governor of Cyprus, to co-reign. She reluctantly complied, with Philometer taking the name Ptolemy IX, though her younger son would also rule at one point.

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Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II in Tour Egypt

CLEOPATRA III & PTOLEMY IX SOTER II (LATHYROS) 116-107 & 88-80 B.C. PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros) were co-regents during the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Cleopatra III was the niece of Physcon (Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) and was married to him while her mother was still his official wife. She bore Physcon two sons - Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter II (Lathyros) and Ptolemy X Alexander I as well as three daughters, Cleopatra IV, Cleopatra Tryphaena, and Cleopatra Selene. In Physcon's will he left the succession to Cleopatra and to whichever son she preferred. She hated Lathyros, but doted on the younger son Alexander. The Alexandrians wanted Lathyros to be co-regent. He was then governor of Cyprus. Lathyros was brought back to Alexandria to co-rule and Alexander was sent to Cyprus to replace Lathyros. Lathyros was married to Cleopatra IV, his sister, but his mother repudiated the marriage and replaced her with Cleopatra Selene, who was Cleopatra IV's sister. Cleopatra IV went to Cyprus where she tried to raise an army and to marry Ptolemy Alexander. She failed to marry him and moved on to Syria where she used her army as a dowry and married Antiochus IX Cyzicenus who was son of Antiochus Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. Cleopatra III finally succeeded in driving out Lathyros in 107 BC when she accused him of trying to murder her. He left behind his wife and his two sons. His brother returned from Cyprus and assumed the throne. Lathyros was in Cyprus during this time. After the death of Alexander in a naval battle, Lathyros, who was now in his mid-fifties, was brought back to Alexandria to try to put back together the Ptolemaic empire. He died at the age of 62 and left no legitimate heir to the throne, both of his sons by Cleopatra Selene appear to have died at a young age. His daughter Cleopatra Berenice ruled alone for a while after his death.

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Ptolemy IX Lathyros in Wikipedia

Ptolemy IX Soter II or Lathyros ("grass pea") (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ Λάθυρος, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr Láthuros) was king of Egypt three times, from 116 BC to 110 BC, 109 BC to 107 BC and 88 BC to 81 BC, with intervening periods ruled by his brother, Ptolemy X Alexander. At first he was chosen by his mother Cleopatra III to be her co-regent (his father Ptolemy VIII wished that she would rule with one of her sons), though she was more forced to choose him by the Alexandrians. He married his sister Cleopatra IV, but his mother pushed her out and replaced her with his younger sister Cleopatra Selene. Later, she claimed that he tried to kill her, and successfully deposed him, putting her favorite son Alexander on the throne as co-regent with her. However, she later grew tired of the now Ptolemy X and deposed him, putting Ptolemy IX back on the throne. She was soon murdered by Ptolemy X, who took the throne again. He was then killed in battle, and Ptolemy IX reigned until his own death. In Alexandria, Ptolemy IX, replaced the sarcophagus of Alexander the Great with a glass one, and melted the original down in order to strike emergency gold issues of his coinage. The citizens of Alexandria were outraged at this and soon after, Ptolemy IX was killed. His daughter Berenice III took the throne after his death, and reigned for about a year. She was forced to marry her stepson Alexander, who reigned under the name Ptolemy XI Alexander II and had her killed nineteen days later. Ptolemy IX's name recalls that of his great Macedonian ancestor, Ptolemy I Soter; note that in older references and in younger ones by the German historian Huss, he may be numbered VIII.

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Cleopatra III of Egypt in Wikipedia

Cleopatra III (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα, 161–101 BC) was queen of Egypt 142–101 BC. Cleopatra III was also known as Cleopatra Euergetis while associated with her husband Ptolemy VIII or her son Ptolemy X. She is attested as Cleopatra Philometor Soteira while associated with her eldest son Ptolemy IX. According to Strabo she was sometimes known as Cleopatra Kokke when discussed in relation to her son Ptolemy X. [1] Younger Years - Cleopatra III’s uncle Ptolemy VIII of Egypt ruled together with her parents from ca 170 to 164 BC at which point he expelled Cleopatra II and Ptolemy VI of Egypt. But he was soon forced to abdicate. [2] Cleopatra III’s parents retook the throne and remained in power for almost 20 years until 145 BC. During this time Cleopatra III was born to Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II of Egypt (sometime between 160 and 155 BC). Cleopatra was a sister of Ptolemy Eupator, Cleopatra Thea and possibly Berenice. [3] [4] After the death of her father Ptolemy VI from injuries sustained when falling from his horse during the battle of Oinoparas against Alexander Balas, Cleopatra III’s uncle Ptolemy VIII became the King of Egypt again. [3] Joint rule with her mother and husband - Ptolemy VIII first married Cleopatra III’s mother Cleopatra II in 145 BC, and married Cleopatra III in ca 139 BC. Cleopatra II rebelled against Ptolemy VIII in ca 132 BC. Cleopatra III fled to Cyprus in 130 BC with her husband Ptolemy VIII and was able to return to Alexandria in 127 BC. [2] Cleopatra III and Ptolemy VIII had five children [1][4]: Ptolemy IX born ca 143 BC Tryphaena born ca 141 BC. Married Antiochus VIII Grypus, king of Syria in 124 BC Ptolemy X born ca 140 or 139 BC. Married his niece Berenice (daughter of Ptolemy IX and Cleopatra Selene I) Cleopatra IV born between 138 and 135 BC. Married first her brother Ptolemy IX and second Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, king of Syria Cleopatra Selene I born between 135 and 130 BC. Married first to her brother Ptolemy IX, and later to her brother Ptolemy X. Later married to Antiochus VIII Grypus, king of Syria, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, king of Syria and Antiochus X Eusebes, king of Syria In ca 124 BC Cleopatra III and her husband were joined again by her mother Cleopatra II as a joint ruler. Joint Rule with her sons - After the death of Ptolemy VIII in 116 BC Cleopatra III ruled jointly with her mother Cleopatra II and her son Ptolemy IX. [2] Cleopatra III expelled Ptolemy IX from Alexandria in 107 BC and replaced him as co-regent with her second son Ptolemy X. After 6 years of joint rule Ptolemy X had his mother Cleopatra III murdered in 101 BC. [1]

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Cleopatra III & Ptolemy X Alexander I in Tour Egypt

CLEOPATRA III & ALEXANDER I 107-88 B.C. PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY Cleopatra III & Alexander I were co-rulers of the Ptolemaic Dynasty after Cleopatra had driven out her older son, Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros), after accusing him of trying to kill her. Alexander had been the governor of Cyprus, but after Lathyros had been ousted, he returned to Alexandria to rule with his mother. Not long after he came to rule, his mother soon grew tired of him as well and forced him to flee from Alexandria. In 101, he returned under the pretense of a reconciliation with his mother. He came back and had her assassinated. Alexander was finally driven out of Egypt after selling off Alexander the Great's gold coffin to raise money. He willed his kingdom to Rome however, they could not claim their inheritance while he was still alive. It did allow him to gain favor with moneylenders in Rome. This did allow him to finance a fleet. He was killed in a naval battle off Cyprus.

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Cleopatra III of Egypt in Wikipedia

Cleopatra III (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα, 161–101 BC) was queen of Egypt 142–101 BC. Cleopatra III was also known as Cleopatra Euergetis while associated with her husband Ptolemy VIII or her son Ptolemy X. She is attested as Cleopatra Philometor Soteira while associated with her eldest son Ptolemy IX. According to Strabo she was sometimes known as Cleopatra Kokke when discussed in relation to her son Ptolemy X. [1] Younger Years Cleopatra III’s uncle Ptolemy VIII of Egypt ruled together with her parents from ca 170 to 164 BC at which point he expelled Cleopatra II and Ptolemy VI of Egypt. But he was soon forced to abdicate. [2] Cleopatra III’s parents retook the throne and remained in power for almost 20 years until 145 BC. During this time Cleopatra III was born to Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II of Egypt (sometime between 160 and 155 BC). Cleopatra was a sister of Ptolemy Eupator, Cleopatra Thea and possibly Berenice. [3] [4] After the death of her father Ptolemy VI from injuries sustained when falling from his horse during the battle of Oinoparas against Alexander Balas, Cleopatra III’s uncle Ptolemy VIII became the King of Egypt again. [3] Joint rule with her mother and husband - Ptolemy VIII first married Cleopatra III’s mother Cleopatra II in 145 BC, and married Cleopatra III in ca 139 BC. Cleopatra II rebelled against Ptolemy VIII in ca 132 BC. Cleopatra III fled to Cyprus in 130 BC with her husband Ptolemy VIII and was able to return to Alexandria in 127 BC. [2] Cleopatra III and Ptolemy VIII had five children [1][4]: Ptolemy IX born ca 143 BC Tryphaena born ca 141 BC. Married Antiochus VIII Grypus, king of Syria in 124 BC Ptolemy X born ca 140 or 139 BC. Married his niece Berenice (daughter of Ptolemy IX and Cleopatra Selene I) Cleopatra IV born between 138 and 135 BC. Married first her brother Ptolemy IX and second Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, king of Syria Cleopatra Selene I born between 135 and 130 BC. Married first to her brother Ptolemy IX, and later to her brother Ptolemy X. Later married to Antiochus VIII Grypus, king of Syria, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, king of Syria and Antiochus X Eusebes, king of Syria In ca 124 BC Cleopatra III and her husband were joined again by her mother Cleopatra II as a joint ruler. Joint Rule with her sons - After the death of Ptolemy VIII in 116 BC Cleopatra III ruled jointly with her mother Cleopatra II and her son Ptolemy IX. [2] Cleopatra III expelled Ptolemy IX from Alexandria in 107 BC and replaced him as co-regent with her second son Ptolemy X. After 6 years of joint rule Ptolemy X had his mother Cleopatra III murdered in 101 BC. [1]

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Ptolemy X Alexander I in Wikipedia

Ptolemy X Alexander I (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Ἀλέξανδρος, Ptolemaĩos Aléxandros) was King of Egypt from 110 BC to 109 BC and 107 BC till 88 BC. He was the son of Ptolemy VIII Physcon and Cleopatra III. In 110 BC he became King with his mother as co-regent, after his mother had deposed his brother Ptolemy IX Lathyros. However, in 109 BC he was deposed by Ptolemy IX. In 107 BC he became King again, and again with his mother as co-regent. In 101 BC he had his mother killed, and ruled either alone or with his niece/wife, Berenice III. When he died, Ptolemy IX regained the throne. When Ptolemy IX died, Ptolemy X's wife Berenice III took over the throne for six months.

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Cleopatra Berenice in Tour Egypt

CLEOPATRA BERENICE 81-80 B.C. PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY Cleopatra Berenice was the daughter of Lathyros (Ptolemy IX Soter II) and was married to Ptolemy X Alexander I. After the death of Alexander, she ruled for about one year alone. She was forced to marry her much younger stepson (or possible son). Nineteen days after the marriage took place, Ptolemy XI murdered his new bride.

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Berenice III of Egypt in Wikipedia

Berenice III (120–80 BC, Greek: Βερενίκη), sometimes called Cleopatra Berenice, ruled as queen of Egypt from 81 to 80 BC, and possibly from 101 to 88 BC jointly with her uncle/husband Ptolemy X Alexander.[1] She was born in 120 BC, the daughter of Ptolemy IX Lathyros and Cleopatra Selene I. She married Ptolemy X Alexander I in 101 BC, after he took the throne from Lathyros and had his mother (and her grandmother) Cleopatra III killed. When Lathyros reclaimed the throne, Berenice lost her own rule. However, when Lathyros died at the end of 81 BC, Berenice took over the throne and ruled for six months, during which time she gained the love of the people.[1] She was forced to marry Ptolemy XI Alexander II in 80 BC. He had her killed 19 days later, an unwise decision, since it moved the people to revolt and kill him a few days later.[2]

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Ptolemy XI Alexander II in Tour Egypt

PTOLEMY XI ALEXANDER II 80 B.C. PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY Ptolemy XI Alexander II was the son of Ptolemy X Alexander. After the death of his uncle Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros), his step- mother (or possibly mother) Cleopatra Berenice ruled for about one year alone. Ptolemy XI was required to marry his step-mother, who was much older than he. The marriage took place and nineteen days later, Ptolemy XI killed his new bride. He was then lynched by the Alexandrian mob, with whom his wife had been very popular

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Ptolemy XI Alexander II in Wikipedia

Ptolemy XI Alexander II (Πτολεμαῖος Ἀλέξανδρος, Ptolemaĩos Aléxandros) was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty who ruled Egypt for a few days in 80 BC. Ptolemy XI was born to Ptolemy X Alexander and either Cleopatra Selene or Berenice III. Ptolemy IX Lathryos died in 81 BC or 80 BC, leaving no legitimate heir, and so Cleopatra Berenice (another name of Berenice III) ruled alone for a time. However, Rome's Sulla wanted a pro-Roman ruler on the throne, and sent the young son of Ptolemy X to Egypt, displaying Ptolemy Alexander's will in Rome as justification for this obvious intervention. The will also required Ptolemy XI to marry Cleopatra Berenice, who was his stepmother and half-sister (or possibly his natural mother - the ancient sources are unclear). However, nineteen days after the marriage, Ptolemy murdered his bride for unknown reasons, an unwise move since Berenice was very popular; Ptolemy was immediately lynched by the citizens of Alexandria. He was succeeded by Ptolemy XII.

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Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos in Tour Egypt

PTOLEMY XII NEOS DIONYSOS 80-58 & 55-51 B.C. PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos was the illegitimate son of Lathyros (Ptolemy IX Soter II). His younger brother became governor of Cyprus and Ptolemy XII came to Alexandria to rule after the death of Ptolemy XI Alexander II. He was often referred to by his subjects as the Bastard or the Flute Player (Auletes). He referred to himself as 'Theos Philopator Philadelphos Neos Dionysos'. It is only in the history books that he is referred to as Ptolemy XII. He was married to his sister-wife, Cleopatra V Tryphaena and was the father of the famous Cleopatra VII, who grew up to be the last of the Ptolemies. In 59 BC, he raised enough money to bribe Caesar, who was now consul for Rome. However, he was driven out of Alexandria in 58 BC. This occurred partly because of his tameness when Rome absorbed Cyprus. In his absence, he left as co-regents his wife-sister Cleopatra V Tryphaena and their eldest daughter, Berenice IV. Cleopatra Tryphaena died about a year later and Berenice IV ruled as sole regent. She was made to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes but after a short time, she had him strangled. Auletes returned to the throne in 55 BC and ruled until his death in 51 BC. On his death, he left his regency to his daughter Cleopatra VII.

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Tantamani in Wikipedia

Tantamani (Assyrian pronunciation, identical to Tandaname) or Tanwetamani (Egyptian) or Tementhes (Greek) (d. 653 BC) was king of Egypt (664 BC to 656 BC), and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. His prenomen or royal name was Bakare which means "Glorious is the Soul of Re."[1] He was the son of King Shabaka and the nephew of his predecessor Taharqa.[2]. In some sources he is said to be the son of Shebitku.[3] Assyrian records call Tantamani a son of Shabaka and refer to Qalhata as a sister of Taharqa. Some Egyptologists interpreted the Assyrian text as stating that Tantamani was a son of Shebitku, but as he was most likely a son of Shabaka himself, it is now more common to consider Tantamani a son of Shabaka.[4] Once the Assyrians had appointed Necho I as king and left Egypt, Tantamani marched down the Nile from Nubia and reoccupied all of Egypt including Memphis. Necho I, the Assyrians' representative, was killed in Tantamani's campaign. In reaction, the Assyrians returned to Egypt in force, defeated Tantamani's army in the Delta and advanced as far as south as Thebes, which they sacked. The Assyrian reconquest effectively ended Nubian control over Egypt although Tantamani's authority was still recognised in Upper Egypt until his 8th Year in 656 BC when Psamtik I's navy peacefully took control of Thebes and effectively unified all of Egypt. Thereafter, Tantamani ruled only Nubia (Kush). Tantamani died in 653 BC and was succeeded by Atlanersa, a son of Taharqa. He was buried in the family cemetery at El-Kurru. The archaeologist Charles Bonnet discovered the statue of Tantamani at Kerma (now called Doukki Gel) in 2003.[5]

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Psammetichus I (Psam-tik) in Tour Egypt

PSAMMETIKHOS I BY JIMMY DUNN -- Psammetikhos I was the first ruler of the 26th Dynasty, though his reign overlaps that of the 25th Dynasty. We believe he ruled from about 664 through 610 BC. This is often referred to as the Saite period in Egyptian history, named for the power center of the Delta. It was not until Psammetikhos' ninth regnal year that he completely control Egypt. His birth name was Psamtik I, but he was known as Psammetichus I by the Greeks. His thrown name was Wah-ib-re, meaning "Constant is the Heart of Re" (Horus Name: Aib, Nebty Name: Neba, Bik-nub Name: Qenu). Some Egyptologists place the 26th Dynasty in to Third Intermediate Period of Egypt's history, while others place it in the Late Period. Certainly, when Psammetikhos began his rule of Egypt, things were still chaotic, with various rulers claiming power. But Psammetikhos would consolidate his rule over Egypt, and reign for about a half a century, returning Egypt to stability. Both Psammetikhos I and his father, Necho I of Sais were originally involved with an intrigue associated with the Kushite ruler, Taharqo against Assyria, but were then captured, held and indoctrinated by the Assyrians. Psammetikhos I was even given the Assyrian name, Nabu-shezibanni, before finally being returned to Egypt where his father assumed power in the Delta. Upon the death of Necho in 664, Psammetikhos was recognized by his Assyrian overlords as King of Egypt, but this was a title at first without substance. He had rule over Memphis and Sais, but mostly the country was controlled by the old advisories of the Nubian Kings, who had been driven back to their own land. His was tasked with the responsibilities of controlling not only the unruly princes and petty kings of the Delta, but also to reconcile with the power center at Thebes. Working with Thebes turned out to be easier then one might imagine, because he was able to align himself with the daughter of a great Theaban nobleman named Mentuemhet. At that time, she held the title, "Adoratice of Amun" (God's Wife of Amun). He was able to insert his own daughter, Nitokris, as her successor He was therefor able to effect both secular and religious ties that were to hold his growing presence in Egypt together, while he went after his Delta opponents. In order to do this, he raised a conscript army, as well as employing the services of mercenaries, many of whom were Greek, including Carians. This involvement with foreign mercenaries apparently caused some concern about their control within Egypt, and archaeological evidence suggests that sites such as Naukratis, among others, were established to facilitate this, along with offering Egypt an increased commercial presence within the Mediterranean world. Psammetikhos also took as his principle wife Mehtemweskhet who was the daughter of Harsiese S, High Priest at Heliopolis, further cementing his rule. To all appearances, Psammetikhos I had been a loyal subject of his Assyrian overlords, but as that empire's glories waned, Psammetikhos took his opportunity to break their hold, and in so doing became the absolute ruler of Egypt. During the remaining four decades of Psammetikhos I's rule, he continued to consolidate his power and bring the country under complete unity, something Egypt had really not seen in a number of years. He undertook a number of building projects, including fortresses in the Delta at Naukratis and Daphnae, as well as at Elephantine. He also greatly expanded the Serapeum at Saqqara. After consolidating Egypt, militarily, Psammetikhos I was mostly concerned with keeping Egypt's sovereignty strong. There were expeditions into northern Nubia probably to discourage any further ambitions of the Kushite kings. In the north east, Babylon had become such an important power that the king actually formed an alliance with his old masters in Assyria in order to combat Babylon's growing menace. This enabled Egypt to obtain control of the Palestinian coast. There were also actions required on the Libyan frontier in order to combat the threat posed by the fugitive Delta princes. Psammetikhos I, as well as other kings of this dynasty, followed the archaistic tendencies of the previous dynasty in art, as well as in many customs, such as the formulation of their names. The renaissance in art is such that it is sometimes difficult to tell whether an artifact came from this period of time, or from the Old or Middle Kingdoms. Psammetikhos I was succeeded by his son, Necho (Nekau) II, who continued to build on his father's accomplishments in Egypt.

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Psamtik I in Wikipedia

Psamtik I (also spelled Psammeticus or Psammetichus, in Greek: Ψαμμήτιχος), was the first of three kings of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. His prenomen, Wahibre, means "Constant is the Heart of Re."[3] The story in Herodotus of the Dodecarchy and the rise of Psamtik is fanciful. It is known from cuneiform texts that twenty local princelings were appointed by Esarhaddon and confirmed by Assurbanipal to govern Egypt. Necho I, the father of Psammetichus by his Queen Istemabet, was the chief of these kinglets, but they seem to have been quite unable to hold the Egyptians to the hated Assyrians against the more sympathetic Nubians. The labyrinth built by Amenemhat III of the Twelfth dynasty of Egypt is ascribed by Herodotus to the Dodecarchy, or rule of 12, which must represent this combination of rulers. Psamtik was the son of Necho I who died in 664 BC when the Kushite king Tantamani tried unsuccessfully to seize control of lower Egypt from the Assyrian Empire. After his father's death, Psamtik managed to both unite all of Egypt and free her from Assyrian control within the first ten years of his reign. Military campaigns - Psamtik I reunified Egypt in his 9th regnal year when he dispatched a powerful naval fleet in March 656 BC to Thebes and compelled the existing God's Wife of Amun at Thebes, Shepenupet II to adopt his daughter Nitocris I as her Heiress in the so-called Adoption Stela. Psamtik's success destroyed the last vestiges of the Nubian Dynasty's control over Upper Egypt under Tantamani since Thebes now accepted his authority. Nitocris would serve in office for 70 years from 656 BC until her death in 586 BC. Thereafter, Psamtik I campaigned vigorously against those local princes who opposed his reunification of Egypt. One of his victories over certain Libyan marauders is mentioned in a Year 10 and Year 11 stela from the Dakhla Oasis. Psamtik I proved to be a great Pharaoh of Egypt who won Egypt's independence from the Assyrian Empire and restored Egypt's prosperity through his long 54 Year reign. The pharaoh proceeded to establish intimate relations with the Greeks and also encouraged many Greek settlers to establish colonies in Egypt and serve in the Egyptian army. Discovering the origin of language - The Greek historian Herodotus conveyed an anecdote about Psamtik in the second volume of his Histories (2.2). During his travel to Egypt, Herodotus heard that Psammetichus ("Psamtik") sought to discover the origin of language by conducting an experiment with two children. Allegedly he gave two newborn babies to a shepherd, with the instructions that no one should speak to them, but that the shepherd should feed and care for them while listening to determine their first words. The hypothesis was that the first word would be uttered in the root language of all people. When one of the children cried "bekos" with outstretched arms the shepherd concluded that the word was Phrygian because that was the sound of Phrygian word for "bread." Thus, they concluded that the Phrygians were an older people than the Egyptians, and that Phrygian was the original language of men. There are no other extant sources to verify this story. Wives - Psamtik I's chief wife was Mehtenweskhet, the daughter of Harsiese, the Vizier of the North and High Priests of Atum at Heliopolis. Psamtik and Mehtenweshket were the parents of Necho II, Merneith, and the Divine Adoratice Nitocris I. Psamtik's father-in-law-the aforementioned Harsiese-was married three times: to Sheta, with whom he had a daughter named Naneferheres, to Tanini and, finally, to an unknown lady, by whom he had both Djedkare, the Vizier of the South and Mehtenweskhet.[4] Harsiese was the son of Vizier Harkhebi, and was related to two other Harsieses, both Viziers, who were a part of the family of the famous Mayor of Thebes Montuemhat.

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Nekau (Necho) II in Tour Egypt

NEKAU II, OF EGYPT'S 26TH DYNASTY BY JIMMY DUNN -- Nekau (II), who we know better as Necho, was either the 2nd or 3rd king of Egypt's 26th Dynasty, depending on whether we allow the rule of a nominal king Nekau I at the beginning of the Dynasty. Nekau was his Birth name, and Necho is actually his Greek name. His Throne name was Wah-em-ib-re, which means "Carrying out the Wish of Re Forever". He came to the throne, succeeding his father, Psammetichus I in about 610 BC., and probably ruled Egypt until about 595 BC. He continued the foreign involvement of his father, and Palestine once more became an Egyptian possession. In fact, much of Egypt's involvement in that area is found in the Biblical account of the Book of Kings. Initially things went well for Nekau II and we find the Egyptian forces campaigning east of the Euphrates river against the Chaldaeans, defeating Josiah of Judah in 609 BC. at Harran. This allowed the Egyptians to establish themselves on the Euphrates for a short while, though apparently the Egyptians did not end up controlling that city. He then intervened in the kingdom of Israel and deposed Josiah's son Jehoahaz, replacing him with his brother Eliakim (Jehoiakim (II Kings 23: 29-35). Afterwards, we are told that Jerusalem paid tribute to Egypt. He also ruled Syria at least as for as Carchemish. But this position was also soon lost, when in 605 BC, the king suffered a catastrophic loss. The son of the Babylonian king, Nabopolassar was sent to deal with Syria. This was Nebuchadrezzar, and he captured Carchemish from the Egyptians, and then pursued the fleeing army as far as Hamath, where he apparently overwhelmed them. Hence, this was followed by a retreat to by the Egyptians to their eastern frontier at Gaza. Necho is known to have been responsible for monuments honoring the Apris Bull in Memphis. We also find inscriptional evidence of the king in the quarries of the Mokattam Hills. But in many ways, Necho was a very foresighted individual who's vision included a "Suez Canal" almost 2,500 years prior to the modern construct. He had a navigable canal dug, using some 12,000 workers, through the Wadi Tumilat between the Pelusiac branch of the Nile (where the great frontier fortress of Pelusium was located) and the Red Sea. He caused a great port city, Per-Temu-Tjeku ("the House of Atum of Tjeku", modern Tell el-Mashkuta) west of modern Ismailia to be built on the canal, and like Suez later, its fortunes were inevitably linked with this new waterway. Tradition held that this was the Biblical city of Pithom, but recent excavations have shown this to be incorrect. At this time, Greece was expanding her trading contacts and Necho took the opportunity to recruit displaced Ionian Greeks to form an Egyptian Navy. This was, militarily, revolutionary, for the Egyptians had an inherent distaste for and fear of the sea. While this new navy was probably not much threat to his rivals, it did lead to other benefits, such as the creation of a new African trade route. He also encouraged some Greek settlement in the Delta. When Nacho II died in 595 BC., he left behind a son and three daughters. His son, Psammetichus II, only ruled for a brief period.

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Necho II in Wikipedia

Necho II (sometimes Nekau) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (610 BCE - 595 BCE). Necho II is most likely the pharaoh mentioned in several books of the Bible (see Hebrew Bible / Old Testament). The Book of Kings states that Necho II met King Josiah of the Kingdom of Judah at Megiddo and killed him (2 Kings 23:29 ) (see Battle of Megiddo (609 BC)). Another book called the Book of Chronicles 2 Chronicles 35:20-27 gives a lengthier account and 2 Chronicles 35:20 states that when Josiah had prepared the temple, Necho king of Egypt came up to fight against Carchemish by the Euphrates River and that King Josiah was fatally wounded by an Egyptian archer. He was then brought back to Jerusalem to die. Necho is quoted as saying: "What quarrel is there between you and me, O king of Judah? It is not you I am attacking at this time, but the house with which I am at war. God has told me to hurry; so stop opposing God, who is with me, or he will destroy you." (NIV) However, at Carchemish in the summer of 605 BC (or 607 BC by some sources) an important battle was fought there by the Babylonian army of Nebuchadrezzar II and that of Pharaoh Necho II of Egypt (see the record contained in the Book of Jeremiah chapter 46 regarding Egypt and its defeat).[1] The aim of Necho's campaign was to contain the Westward advance of the Babylonian Empire and cut off its trade route across the Euphrates. However, the Egyptians were defeated by the unexpected attack of the Babylonians and were eventually expelled from Syria. Biography - Family - Necho II was the son of Psammetichus I by his Great Royal Wife Mehtenweskhet. His prenomen or royal name Wahemibre means "Carrying out the Wish of Re."[2] Reign - Necho played a significant role in the histories of the Assyrian Empire, Babylonia and the Kingdom of Judah. Upon his ascension, Necho was faced with the chaos created by the raids of the Cimmerians and the Scythians, who had not only ravaged Asia west of the Euphrates, but had also helped the Babylonians shatter the Assyrian Empire. That once mighty empire was now reduced to the troops, officials, and nobles who had gathered around a general holding out at Harran, who had taken the throne name of Ashur-uballit II. Necho attempted to assist this remnant immediately upon his coronation, but the force he sent proved to be too small, and the combined armies were forced to retreat west across the Euphrates. First campaign - Aerial view of Tel Megiddo site of the battle of Megiddo in 609 BC. In the spring of 609 BC, Necho personally led a sizable force to help the Assyrians. At the head of a large army, consisting mainly of his mercenaries, Necho took the coast route Via Maris into Syria, supported by his Mediterranean fleet along the shore, and proceeding through the low tracts of Philistia and Sharon. He prepared to cross the ridge of hills which shuts in on the south the great Jezreel Valley, but here he found his passage blocked by the Jewish army. Their king, Josiah, sided with the Babylonians and attempted to block his advance at Megiddo, where a fierce battle was fought and Josiah was killed (2 Kings 23:29, 2 Chronicles 35:20-24). Herodotus reports the campaign of the pharaoh in his Histories: " Necos, then, stopped work on the canal and turned to war; some of his triremes were constructed by the northern sea, and some in the Arabian Gulf, by the coast of the Sea of Erythrias. The windlasses for beaching the ships can still be seen. He deployed these ships as needed, while he also engaged in a pitched battle at Magdolos with the Syrians, and conquered them; and after this he took Cadytis (Kadesh), which is a great city of Syria. He sent the clothes he had worn in these battles to Branchidae of Miletus and dedicated them to Apollo. " Necho soon captured Kadesh on the Orontes and moved forward, joining forces with Ashur-uballit and together they crossed the Euphrates and laid siege to Harran. Although Necho became the first pharaoh to cross the Euphrates since Thutmose III, he failed to capture Harran, and retreated back to northern Syria. At this point, Ashur-uballit vanished from history, and the Assyrian Empire was conquered by the Babylonians. Leaving a sizable force behind, Necho returned to Egypt. On his return march, he found that the Judeans had selected Jehoahaz to succeed his father Josiah, whom Necho deposed and replaced with Jehoiakim. He brought Jehoahaz back to Egypt as his prisoner, where Jehoahaz ended his days (2 Kings 23:31; 2 Chronicles 36:1-4). Second campaign - Meanwhile, the Babylonian king was planning on reasserting his power in Syria. In 609 BC, King Nabopolassar captured Kumukh, which cut off the Egyptian army, then based at Carchemish. Necho responded the following year by retaking Kumukh after a four month siege, and executed the Babylonian garrison. Nabopolassar brought forth another army, which he encamped at Qurumati on the Euphrates, but his health forced him to return to Babylon in January of 605 BC; the Egyptians sallied forth in 606 BC and attacked the leaderless Babylonians (probably then led by the crown prince Nebuchadrezzar) who fled their position. At this point, the aged Nabopolassar, passed command of the army to his son Nebuchadrezzar II, who led them to a decisive victory over the Egyptians at Carchemish, and pursued the fleeing survivors to Hamath. Necho's dream of restoring the Egyptian Empire in Asia that had occurred under the New Kingdom was destroyed as Nebuchadrezzar conquered their territory from the Euphrates to the Brook of Egypt (Jeremiah 46:2; 2 Kings 23:29) down to Judea. Although Nebuchadrezzar spent many years in his new conquests on continuous pacification campaigns, Necho was offered no opportunity to recover any significant part of his lost territories: when Ashkalon rose in revolt; despite repeated pleas the Egyptians sent no help, and were barely able to repel a Babylonian attack on their eastern border in 601 BC. When he repelled the attack, Necho managed to capture Gaza while pursuing the enemy. Necho turned his attention in his remaining years to forging up relationships with new allies: the Carians, and further to the west, the Greeks. Ambitious projects - At some point during his Syrian campaign, over the next three years, Necho II initiated but never completed the ambitious project of cutting a navigable canal from the Pelusiac branch of the Nile to the Red Sea, the earliest precursor of the Suez Canal.[3] It was in connection with this new activity that Necho founded the new entrepot city of Per-Temu Tjeku which translates as 'The House of Atum of Tjeku' at the site now known as Tell el-Maskhuta[4], about 15 km west of Ismailia. The waterway was intended to facilitate trade between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean; Necho also formed an Egyptian navy by recruiting displaced Ionian Greeks. This was an unprecedented act by the pharaoh since most Egyptians had traditionally harboured an inherent distaste for and fear of the sea.[5] The navy which Necho created served to operate along both the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts.[6] Herodotus (4.42) also reports that Necho sent out an expedition of Phoenicians, who in three years sailed from the Red Sea around Africa back to the mouth of the Nile.[7] Some current historians tend to believe Herodotus' account, primarily because he stated with disbelief that the Phoenicians " as they sailed on a westerly course round the southern end of Libya(Africa), they had the sun on their right - to northward of them" (The Histories 4.42) -- in Herodotus' time it was not known that Africa extended south past the equator. However, Egyptologists also point out that it would have been extremely unusual for an Egyptian Pharaoh to carry out such an expedition.[8] Alan B. Lloyd doubts the event and attributes the development of the story by other events.[9] Death and succession - Necho II died in 595 BC and was succeeded by his son, Psamtik II, as the next pharaoh of Egypt. Psamtik II, however, later removed Necho's name from almost all of his father's monuments for unknown reasons.

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Psammetichus II in Tour Egypt

KING PSAMMETICHUS II (PSAMTIK II) OF EGYPT'S 26TH DYNASTY BY JIMMY DUNN Of the Late Period Pharaohs prior to the Persian Conquest of Egypt, some are fairly well known to us, while others are not. Of this latter group, Psammetichus II (Psamtik II) must be included. His birth name was Psamtik, while his throne name was Neferibre, meaning "Beautiful is the Heart of Re". Psammetichus II was almost certainly the son of Nekau (Necho) probably by a Queen Chedebnitjerbone I. He ascended to the throne of Egypt we believe as the third king of Egypt 26th Dynasty (Saite Dynasty), probably in the year 595 BC at a time when Egypt was traveling down the road to eventual decline, though his reign is seen as a short respite; a reversal of his father's misfortunes. He probably only ruled for a period of about six years. We know a little about his family. He married a Queen Takhout (Takhut) of Athribis who provided him with a daughter named Ankhnesneferibre. We also know of a princess Herynebti Menekhoubaste and of course, Apries (Wahibre Haaibre), who succeeded him on the throne. Limestone quarries in the Makattam Hills near Cairo were clearly worked during this king's reign.He may have founded the temple at Hibis in the El-Kharga Oasis, and the oldest known remains at Philae belong to his reign. It seem that he made additions to the Temple of Neith at Sais, monuments at Ausim (Letopolis) and the Temple at El-Mahalla el-Kubra, and blocks from his reign have also been found at Abydos, Karnak (where he also usurped the kiosk of Taharqa), Elephantine and El-Naharya. Perhaps the best known of his monuments, originally erected at Heliopolis as one of two, was an obelisk that was carried off to Rome by Augustus, who placed it as a sundial in a vast square (Horologium Divi Augusti) where its shadow indicated the hours of the day and the days of the year. It was found broken into five pieces in 1748. It was later repaired, and in 1789, Pius VI moved the obelisk to Piazza di Montecitorio where it was put on top of what remained of a column erected by Antoninus Pius. There, he crowned it with a reminder that it had once been used as a sundial. We also know that Psammetichus II led a foray into Nubia in 592, marching as far south as the Third or even the Fourth Cataract. A well known graffito inscribed in Greek on the left leg of the colossal seated statue of Ramesses II, on the south side of the entrance to the temple of Abu Simbel, records that: "When King Psammetichus came to Elephantine, this was written by those who sailed with Psammetichus the son of Theocles, and they came beyond Kerkis as far as the river permits. Those who spoke foreign tongues (Greek and Carians who also scratched their names on the monument) were led by Potasimto, the Egyptians by Amasis." The military leaders mentioned in this reference are also known to us from other sources. This was the first confrontation between Egypt and Nubia since the time of Tantamani. A Kushite king named Anlamani had revived the kingdom of Napata, and according to Egyptian records, the campaign during Psammetichus II's reign was made in order to put down a Nubian rebellion, though in fact it may have been due as much to the foreign aspirations of the Pharaoh as much as any Kushite attempt to reconquer Egypt. The Egyptian army seems to have advanced to Pnubs and according to Reisner, perhaps Napata, where they looted the temples and destroyed the royal Kushite statues. As a result, Kush's power was crushed, and their kings had no real possibility of ever regaining control of Egypt. In fact, they seem to have been pushed to remove their capital further south. Curiously, however, Psammetichus II does not appear to have capitalized much on his victory. His troops retreated back to the First Cataract, and Elephantine continued to be the southern border of Egypt. One outcome of this campaign was the deliberate slighting of monument, not only of the 25th Dynasty Kushite kings, but unexplainably, also of Psammetichus II's father, Necho. In addition, another foray was made under Psammetichus II during the following year into southern Palestine. In 602 BC, Jehoiakim of Jerusalem rebelled against Babylon. However, after his son, Jehoiachin succeeded him in 598, Jerusalem was almost immediately recaptured by Nebuchadrezzar II, who pillaged the temple and deported the new Judah ruler to Babylon, replacing him with Zedekiah, Jehoiachin's uncle. Though Jehoiachin remained in exile for thirty-seven years, his supporters constantly struggled against Zedekiah. Psammetichus II's campaign, that was perhaps more peaceful then otherwise, though recorded as a traditional military campaign, encouraged Zedekiah to embark upon a rebellion that ultimately proved to be catastrophic for Jerusalem when the city fell in 587 BC. At home, we also know that Psammetichus II made sure that Ankhnesneferibre (Neferibre lives for her), his daughter, by a Queet Takhut, was adopted by the Divine Adoratice Nitocris, who she eventually succeeded as Wife of Amun at Thebes in 584. Ankhnesneferibre managed to hold this office until the Persian conquest of Egypt in 525 BC. Otherwise, there were some magnificent tombs, such as those of the Stewards of Amun, Shoshenq son of Harsiese (TT27) Padineith (TT197) and Ankh-hor (TT414) that attest to the fact that there was a certain amount of wealth and splendor during this king's reign. Psammetichus II is believed to have died in February of 589 BC, and was succeeded by his son, Apries.

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Psamtik II in Wikipedia

Psamtik II (also spelled Psammetichus or Psammeticus) was a king of the Saite based Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (595 BC-589 BC). His prenomen, Neferibre, means "Beautiful is the Heart of Re."[1] He was the son of Necho II. Campaigns and battles - Psamtik II led a foray into Nubia in 592 BC, marching as far south as the Third or even the Fourth Cataract of the Nile according to a contemporary stela from Thebes (Karnak) which dates to Year 3 of this king's name and refers to a heavy defeat that was inflicted upon the kingdom of Kush.[2] A well-known graffito inscribed in Greek on the left leg of the colossal seated statue of Ramesses II, on the south side of the entrance to the temple of Abu Simbel, records that: " "When King Psammetichus (ie. Psamtik II) came to Elephantine, this was written by those who sailed with Psammetichus the son of Theocles, and they came beyond Kerkis as far as the river permits. Those who spoke foreign tongues (Greek and Carians who also scratched their names on the monument) were led by Potasimto, the Egyptians by Amasis.[3] " Kerkis was located near the Fifth Cataract of the Nile "which stood well within the Cushite Kingdom."[4] This was the first confrontation between Egypt and Nubia since the reign of Tantamani. A Kushite king named Anlamani had revived the power of the kingdom of Napata. Psamtik II's campaign was likely initiated to destroy any future aspirations the Kushites may have had to reconquer Egypt. The Egyptian army advanced to Pnubs (Kerma) and the capital city of Napata in a series of fierce battles, where they looted its temples and destroyed the royal Kushite statues.[5] The Kushite capital was sacked under the reign of the native Kushite king Aspelta who was the younger brother of Anlamani and the son of Senkamanisken. The Year 3 Karnak stela is dated to II Shemu day 10 of Psamtik II's reign and states that: " The army that your Majesty sent to Nubia has reached the land of Pnubs....Nubians from all parts [of Kush] had arisen against him, their hearts full of anger when he attacked those who had rebelled against him there; because he was furious at those who had arisen against him. His Majesty took part in the combat as soon as he reached the battle. The rebels capitulated before a single arrow was unleashed against them....Those who tried to flee did not succeed and were brought back as prisoners: four thousand two hundred men.[6] " As a result of Psamtik's devastating campaign, Kush's power was crushed, and its kings from Aspelta onwards lost any opportunity of ever regaining control of Egypt. Instead, the Nubian rulers decided to shift their capital further south from Napata to the relative safety of Meroe. Curiously, however, Psamtik II does not appear to have capitalized on his victory. His troops retreated back to the First Cataract, and Elephantine continued to be the southern border of Egypt. An outcome of this campaign was the deliberate destruction of monuments belonging to the 25th Dynasty Kushite kings in Egypt "by hacking out their names and the emblems of royalty from their statues and reliefs."[7] Later, in 591 BC, during the fourth year of his reign, Psamtik II launched an expedition into Palestine "to foment a general Levantine revolt against the Babylonians" that involved, among other, Zedekiah of the Kingdom of Judah.[8] Monuments - Psamtik II was both a dynamic warrior pharaoh as well as a prolific builder in his brief 6 year reign. A significant Saite sanctuary was likely built by Psamtik II and his son Apries at the village of El-Mahalla El-Kubra which lies equidistant from Sebennytos and Behbeit El-Hagar in the Lower Nile Delta.[9] Officials from the Napoleonic expedition to Egypt observed "an extraordinary number of pharaonic building elements of granite and turquoise reused in modern buildings" at this site; this discovery was subsequently confirmed by Nestor L'Hôte in 1828 who counted more than 120 granite columns built into this village's mosque alone.[10][11] A 1.8 metre long fragment of red granite with the name of Psamtik II and a door lintel of Apries was also seen at El-Mahalla El-Kubra.[10] Under Psamtik II's reign, a pair of more than 21.79 metre high obelisks were erected in the temple of Heliopolis; the first Emperor of Rome, Augustus later had one of the obelisks, which had probably been thrown down by the Persian invaders in 525 BC, brought to Rome in 10 BC.[10] Psamtik II also constructed a kiosk on Philae island. This kiosk today "represents the oldest known monument known on the island" and consisted "of a double row of four columns, which were connected by screen walls."[10] Psamtik II was also responsible for founding the Temple-house at Hibis in El-Kharga Oasis for the triad of Amun, Mut, and Khonsu with significant installations for the cult of Osiris.[12] This 19.5 X 26 metre temple was originally situated on the bank of an ancient lake which has now disappeared and its temple decorations were only completed under the Persian kings Darius I and possibly Darius II.[10] The Hibis temple consisted of a hypostyle hall with two-by-two papyrus capital columns, a hall of offerings, three sanctuaries in the rear section of the temple and a chapel at the side of the sanctuaries for the cult of Psamtik II.[13] The front of the temple house of Hibis featured: "a pronaos with four papyrus bundle columns and screen walls. During the construction of the pranaos, the side walls were extended for the addition of a court[yard]. This extension, was, however, only carried out in the 30th Dynasty [by Nectanebo I and Nectanebo II.] The eight papyrus columns of the pronaos still show the New Kingdom type of open, bell-shaped capitals."[14] A massive sandstone gateway through an outer enclosure wall still stands almost 5 metres tall and was constructed during the Ptolemaic or Roman periods.[15] Many inscriptions and decrees were carved on the gateway on a wide variety of topics such as taxation, inheritance, the court system and the rights of women, with the earliest text dating to 49 AD.[15] The Temple of Psamtik II at Hibis was completely preserved until 1832 when its roof and portions of the temple were removed for the construction of an aluminium factory.[14] Only excavation work by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1910-1911 and restorations performed by the Egyptian Antiquities Service arrested its decline.[16] Today, the Hibis temple remains-together with the Oracle or Ammoneion of Siwa--as "the best preserved and best-documented temple of the early Egyptian Late Period and is therefore a primary monument to the history of [Egyptian temple] building."[14] Successor - When Psamtik II died in 589 BC, he was succeeded by Apries who was his son by Queen Takhut, a Princess of Athribis. Psamtik and Queen Takhut were also the parents of Menekhubaste, a Priestess of Atum at Heliopolis, and Ankhnesneferibre, a God's Wife of Amun who was served in this powerful office in Upper Egypt through to the remainder of the Saite period in 525 BC when Egypt was conquered by the Persians.[17] The date of Psamtik II's death is mentioned in the Adoption stela of Ankhenesneferibre: Year 6, I Akhet day 23.[18]

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Apries in Tour Egypt

APRIES, THE 4TH RULER OF EGYPT'S 26TH DYNASTY BY JIMMY DUNN -- The King commonly referred to as Apries (his Greek name), who's birth name was Wah-ib-re, meaning "Constant is the Heart of Re" and who's Throne name was Haa-ib-re, meaning "Jubilant is the Heart of Re Forever", succeeded his father, Psamtik II in February of 589 BC., of Egypt's 26th Dynasty. We believe he ruled Egypt until his defeat at the hands of Amasis in 570 BC. Some sources provide that Apries was the Biblical Hophra. Herodutus claimed that the wife of Apries was called Nitetis, but there appears to be no contemporary souses evidencing her name. We are also told that in the fourth year of his reign, he managed to have Ankhnesneferibre, apparently the daughter of Psammetichus II, adopted as the successor of Nitigret for the title, God's Wife of Amun. He did build, as all Egyptian kings felt was their duty, in locations such as the temples at Athribis (Tell Atrib), in the Bahariya Oasis, at Memphis and Sais. He continued a foreign policy of his father of intervention in Palestinian affairs, but was plagued with a number of military problems at home and abroad. He addressed himself vigorously to a Chaldaean problem that had plagued his predecessors, initially operating on a large scale basis against them in conjunction with the Phoenician cities and Zedekiah of Judah. However, this ended up being a disaster and possibly caused an invasion of Egypt in the late 580s BC. However, he also conducted some well conceived campaigns against Cyprus and Phonenicia between 574 and 570 BC. However, during his reign, a strategically important military garrison of native Egyptian troops at Elephantine (modern Aswan) mutinied, though that was contained. His worse nightmare transpired after he sent his Egyptian native army to help Libya against the Dorian Greek invaders (against the Greek city of Cyrene), they were badly beaten, and upon the survivor's return, civil war broke out. Apris was blamed for this disaster, resulting in a confrontation between the regular Egyptian army (the machimoi) and foreign mercenaries (Greek) under his command. Actually, the defeat at Cyrene probably only provided an excuse for the revolt. For sometime, the mercenaries under his command had been treated considerably better than the native Egyptian army. When Apris sent his general, Amasis (Ahmose II) to put down the revolt, instead he was implored by the Egyptians instead to be their leader, a plead which he accepted. The history of what followed this is somewhat difficult. Various sources actually give considerably different accounts. However, it appears that a messenger arrived to tell Apries of Amasis' treason, and was abruptly killed for his bad news. Now according to almost all accounts, the Greek mercenary troops of Apries under his command advanced on the native Egyptian army. They may have met in the northwest Egyptian Delta in around January or February of 570 BC at a location called Momemphis. Afterwards, many sources provide conflictive information, but it appears Apries probably survived this first battle, though his army was defeated and he was forced to retreat. He may have fled the country, but most sources indicate that he returned to his palace at Memphis, where he may have continued to control a part of Egypt. However, for a somewhat different account of these events, see our section on Amasis (Ahmose II). Regardless, most sources provide that his body was treated with respect by Amasis. The new king allowed the remains of Apries to be transported to Sais, where he was buried with full royal honors. Only one definite statue of the king survives, though there are several others, including one that might also be attributable to Amasis, that may be of that of Apries.

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Apries in Wikipedia

Apries (Απριης) is the name by which Herodotus (ii. 161) and Diodorus (i. 68) designate Wahibre Haaibre, Ουαφρης (Pharaoh-Hophra), a pharaoh of Egypt (589 BC - 570 BC), the fourth king (counting from Psamtik I) of the Twenty- sixth dynasty of Egypt. He was equated with the Waphres of Manetho, who correctly records that he reigned for 19 years. Apries is also called Hophra in Jeremiah 44:30. Apries inherited the throne from his father, pharaoh Psamtik II, in February 589 BC and his reign continued his father's history of foreign intrigue in Palestinian affairs.[3] Apries was an active builder who constructed "additions to the temples at Athribis (Tell Atrib), Bahariya Oasis, Memphis and Sais."[4] In Year 4 of his reign, Apries' sister Ankhnesneferibre was adopted as the new God's Wife of Amun at Thebes.[5] However, Apries' reign was also fraught with internal problems. In 588 BC, Apries dispatched a force to Jerusalem to protect it from Babylonian forces sent by Nebuchadrezzar II. His forces were quickly crushed and Jerusalem was destroyed by the Babylonians. His unsuccessful attempt to intervene in the politics of the Kingdom of Judah was followed by a mutiny of soldiers from the strategically important Aswan garrison.[6] While the mutiny was contained, Apries later attempted to protect Libya from incursions by Dorian Greek invaders but his efforts here backfired spectacularly as his forces were mauled by the Greek invaders.[6] When the defeated army returned home, a civil war broke out between the indigenous Egyptian army troops and foreign mercenaries in the Egyptian army. At this time of crisis, the Egyptians turned in support towards a victorious general, Amasis II who had led Egyptian forces in a highly successful invasion of Nubia in 592 BC under pharaoh Psamtik II, Apries' father.[6] Amasis quickly declared himself pharaoh in 570 BC and Apries fled Egypt and sought refuge in another foreign country. When Apries marched back to Egypt in 567 BC with the aid of a Babylonian army to reclaim the throne of Egypt, he was likely killed in battle with Amasis' forces.[7][8] Amasis thus secured his kingship over Egypt and was now the unchallenged ruler of Egypt. Amasis, however, reportedly treated Apries' mortal remains with respect and observed the proper funerary rituals by having Apries' body carried to Sais and buried there with "full military honours."[5] Amasis, the former general who had declared himself pharaoh also married Apries' daughter Chedebnitjerbone II to legitimise his accession to power. While Herodotus claimed that the wife of Apries was called Nitetis in (Greek), "there are no contemporary references naming her" in Egyptian records.[9] Eusebius placed the eclipse of Thales in 585 BC in the eighth or twelfth year of Apries' reign. Monuments - An obelisk which Apries erected at Sais was moved by the 3rd century AD Roman Emperor Diocletian and originally placed at the Temple of Isis in Rome. It is today located in front of the Santa Maria sopra Minerva basilica church in Rome.

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Amasis in Tour Egypt

AMASIS, THE LAST GREAT EGYPTIAN PHARAOH by Jimmy Dunn -- Amasis who was probably the 5th ruler of Egypt during the 26th Dynasty, has been called the last great Egyptian Pharaoh. This is because the rule of his son, Psammetichus III, was very short lived, and in fact even in the last days of Amasis' life the Persians were already advancing on Egypt. They were the overwhelming power of the region, and would control Egypt up until Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt, and the ensuing Greek rulers. After his son, never again would an Egyptian rule ancient Egypt. Amasis was actually the king's Greek name. His birth name was Ahmose II, which means "The Moon is Born, Son of Neith". His throne name was Khnem-ib-re, meaning "He who embraces the Heart of Re". We believe he ruled Egypt between 570 and 526 BC. We believe that Amasis was the son of a Lady Takheredeneset, and married two women by the names of Tentheta and Nakhtsebastetru. He may have had a third wife named Khedebneithireretbeneret, who was actually a daughter of his great nemesis, Apris. He had a number of children by the first two wives, including his successor, Psammetichus III. Another child we specifically know of was General Ahmose, who, along with his mother Nakhtsebastetru, were buried in tomb LG 83 at Giza. A daughter, Nitokris II, may have come to Thebes for adoption as prospective God's Wife. If so, she was probably the daughter of Khedebneithirerebeneret, because the current God's Wife, Ankhesenneferibre, was a sister of Apries. From Herodutus, we learn that he was a likeable, popular ruler who is said to have had such a strong inclination for drink that he sometimes delayed state matters in order to indulge in a drinking bout. However, he did not ascend the throne easily, nor was he in line to do so. We first know of Amasis as a general in Nubia under Psammetikhos I. It would seem that his predecessor, Apries, undertook several military campaigns, but his last against the Greek city of Cyrene ended in disaster. Apries was blamed for the failure, and so a revolt broke out. In reality, the defeat at Cyrene was really only an excuse for this revolt by Egyptian troops. For some time, the Greek mercenaries within the Egyptian army, who were probably treated better then the Egyptians themselves, were apparently the subject of jealously and contempt by the native Egyptian elements. Actually, Amasis, as a general in the Egyptian army, was sent to put down the revolt of the machimoi (the native Egyptian soldiers), but instead the soldiers proclaimed him as Pharaoh. When word reached Apries of Amasis' treason, he slaughtered the messenger and proceeded to advance on the forces of Amasis. By this late date in Pharaonic history, Apries' army was mostly made up of of Aegean mercenaries. The two armies met somewhere in the north-west Egyptian Delta in about January or February of 570 BC, and Apries was forced to retreat. However, this did not give Amasis complete control of Egypt. Apries's apparent retreat was only as far south as Memphis and he continued to control southern Egypt, while Amasis established himself at Sais in Northern Egypt. Yet Apries was not content with this, and aided by his Greek troops, once again marched on Amasis in October of 570 BC, where he was once again defeated by his former general. With this defeat, Apries could only find safety abroad, and he eventually turned up in the court of Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. Now, Amasis took control of a united Egypt. This was complete when sometime between October 19th and December 9th of 570 BC, Thebes submitted to his reign. Yet poor Apries was not yet finished. In March of 567, he again marched on Egypt at the head of a Babylonian army, but once again, Amasis defeated him, this time capturing the former king. It seem that Amasis allowed Apries to live for a short time, however, because we find Herodotus telling us that: The Egyptians complained that he did wrong by maintaining a man who was the greatest enemy both to them and (Amasis), therefore he delivered Apries to the people, who strangled him. Apparently, Amasis still held some respect for his former ruler, because he buried Apries with kingly honors in the royal necropolis at Sais. This may very well be explained if indeed Amasis was married to Apries' daughter. However, various sources differ somewhat on these events. For an alternative version, see our section on Apries. Now as the ruler of all Egypt, Amasis took on the traditional role of builder, and is attested to by quarry inscriptions at Tura and Elephantine, and with building projects at Memphis, including two granite colossi and a temple of Isis, Philae, Elephantine, Edfu, Sohag, Abydos, Koptos, Karnak and any number of Delta sites, including his tomb at Sais. While we have never discovered this tomb, again Herodotus steps in to describe it for us: (It is) a great cloistered building of stone, decorated with pillars carved in the imitation of palm-trees, and other costly ornaments. Within the cloister is a chamber with double doors, and behind the doors stands the sepulchre." This was really a very prosperous time for Egypt. We are told that agriculture, always the backbone of Egypt, met a spectacular level of success, and Herodotus again tells us that the number of inhabited cities in Egypt reached as high as 20,000. After consolidating his power, Amasis was apparently somewhat weary of the Greeks, who had been around since the beginning of the Dynasty, and of course, fought against him on the side of Apries. Psammetikhos I had encouraged the Greek merchants in the city of Naukratis, and Amasis consolidated them in that area only. This made for easier control of these merchants, and created a lucrative income for the crown in the form of taxes. Prior to Apries' defeat, the Greek mercenaries were established in camps between Babastis and the sea on the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, where Herodotus tells us they had remained for over a century. Apparently, he first moved them to Memphis, where he could keep an eye on things. But, Amasis was not willing to push the Greeks too far because he needed their alliance against the expanding threat of the Persians, as well as an attempted invasion by the Chaldaeans. Apparently after this unsuccessful invasion, he formed an alliance with the Chaldaeans, Croesus of Lydia and Sparta. Unfortunately, the Persians destroyed the alliance by first capturing Lydia in 546 and then the Chaldaeans. So instead, he cultivated his relationship with the Aegean world, extending his foreign relationships to include Cyprus. He is said to have even financed the rebuilding of the temple of Apollo at Delphi after its destruction in 548 BC. According to archaeological records, he probably even allowed the Greek soldiers to return their old mercenary camps. Regrettably, for all his efforts, the Persians would eventually prove too ambitious to stop. By the time of Amasis' death after a long reign of some 44 years, the Persians had long ago conquered Babylon, and were already at the frontiers of Egypt. His son was eventually captured by the Persians, and Herodotus tells us that the Persian ruler Cambyses had Amasis's mummy exhumed, and: "subjected to every indignity, such as lashing with whips and the plucking of its hairs, until the executioners were weary. At last, as the corpse had been embalmed and would not fall to pieces under the blows, Cambyses ordered it burnt"

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Amasis II in Wikipedia

Amasis II (also Ahmose II) was a pharaoh (570 BC - 526 BC) of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt, the successor of Apries at Sais. He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest.[2] Life - Most of our information about him is derived from Herodotus (2.161ff) and can only be imperfectly verified by monumental evidence. According to the Greek historian, he was of common origins.[3] A revolt which broke out among native Egyptian soldiers gave him his opportunity to seize the throne. These troops, returning home from a disastrous military expedition to Cyrene in Libya, suspected that they had been betrayed in order that Apries, the reigning king, might rule more absolutely by means of his Greek mercenaries; many Egyptians fully sympathized with them. General Amasis, sent to meet them and quell the revolt, was proclaimed king by the rebels instead, and Apries, who had now to rely entirely on his mercenaries, was defeated. Apries was either taken prisoner in the ensuing conflict at Memphis before being eventually strangled and buried in his ancestral tomb at Sais, or fled to the Babylonians and was killed mounting an invasion of his native homeland in 567 BC with the aid of a Babylonian army. An inscription confirms the struggle between the native Egyptian and the foreign soldiery, and proves that Apries was killed and honourably buried in the third year of Amasis (c.567 BC). Amasis then married Chedebnitjerbone II, one of the daughters of his predecessor Apries, in order to better legitimise his kingship. Some information is known about the family origins of Amasis: his mother was a certain Tashereniset as a bust statue of this lady, which is today located in the British Museum, shows.[4] A stone block from Mehallet el-Kubra also establishes that his maternal grandmother-Tashereniset's mother-was a certain Tjenmutetj.[5] Egypt's wealth - Although Amasis thus appears first as champion of the disparaged native, he had the good sense to cultivate the friendship of the Greek world, and brought Egypt into closer touch with it than ever before. Herodotus relates that under his prudent administration, Egypt reached a new level of wealth; Amasis adorned the temples of Lower Egypt especially with splendid monolithic shrines and other monuments (his activity here is proved by existing remains). Amasis assigned the commercial colony of Naucratis on the Canopic branch of the Nile to the Greeks, and when the temple of Delphi was burnt, he contributed 1,000 talents to the rebuilding. He also married a Greek princess named Ladice daughter of King Battus III (see Battus) and made alliances with Polycrates of Samos and Croesus of Lydia. Under Amasis or Ahmose II, Egypt's agricultural based economy reached its zenith. Herodotus who visited Egypt less than a century after Amasis II's death writes that: It is said that it was during the reign of Ahmose II that Egypt attained its highest level of prosperity both in respect of what the river gave the land and in respect of what the land yielded to men and that the number of inhabited cities at that time reached in total 20,000[6] His kingdom consisted probably of Egypt only, as far as the First Cataract, but to this he added Cyprus, and his influence was great in Cyrene. In his fourth year (c.567 BC), Amasis was able to defeat a Babylonian invasion of Egypt Nebuchadrezzar II; henceforth, the Babylonians experienced sufficient difficulties controlling their empire that they were forced to abandon future attacks against Amasis.[7] However, Amasis was later faced with a more formidable enemy with the rise of Persia under Cyrus who ascended to the throne in 559 BC; his final years were preoccupied by the threat of the impending Persian onslaught against Egypt.[8] With great strategic skill, Cyrus had destroyed Lydia in 546 BC and finally defeated the Babylonians in 538 BC which left Amasis with no major Near Eastern allies to counter Persia's increasing military might.[8] Amasis reacted by cultivating closer ties with the Greek states to counter the future Persian invasion into Egypt but was fortunate to have died in 526 BC shortly before the Persians attacked.[8] The final assault instead fell upon his son Psamtik III, whom the Persians defeated in 525 BC after a reign of only six months.[9] Tomb and desecration - Amasis II died in 526 BC. He was buried at the royal necropolis of Sais, and while his tomb was never discovered, Herodotus describes it for us: [It is] a great cloistered building of stone, decorated with pillars carved in the imitation of palm-trees, and other costly ornaments. Within the cloister is a chamber with double doors, and behind the doors stands the sepulchre.[10] Herodotus also relates the desecration of Ahmose II/Amasis' mummy when the Persian king Cambyses conquered Egypt and thus ended the 26th Saite dynasty: [N]o sooner did [... Cambyses] enter the palace of Amasis that he gave orders for his [Amasis's] body to be taken from the tomb where it lay. This done, he proceeded to have it treated with every possible indignity, such as beating it with whips, sticking it with goads, and plucking its hairs. [... A]s the body had been embalmed and would not fall to pieces under the blows, Cambyses had it burned.[11]

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Psamtik III in Wikipedia

Psamtik III (also spelled Psammetichus or Psammeticus) was the last Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt from 526 BC – 525 BC. Most of what we know about his reign and life was documented by the Greek historian Herodotus in the 5th century. Herodotus states that Psamtik had ruled Egypt for only six months before he was confronted by a Persian invasion of his country led by King Cambyses II of Persia.[1] Psammetichus was subsequently defeated at Pelusium, and fled to Memphis where he was captured. The deposed pharaoh was carried off to Susa in chains, and later executed. Family - Psamtik III was the son of the pharaoh Amasis II and one of his wives, Queen Takheta. He succeeded his father as pharaoh in 526 BC, when Amasis died after a long and prosperous reign of some 44 years. According to Herodotus, he had a son named Amasis and a wife and daughter, both unnamed in historical documents. Defeat and imprisonment - Psamtik ruled Egypt for no more than six months. A few days after his coronation, rain fell at Thebes, which was a rare event that frightened some Egyptians, who interpreted this as a bad omen. The young and inexperienced pharaoh was no match for the invading Persians. After the Persians under Cambyses had crossed the Sinai desert with the aid of the Arabs, a bitter battle was fought near Pelusium, a city on Egypt's eastern frontier, in the spring of 525 BC.[2] The Egyptians were defeated at Pelusium and Psamtik was betrayed by one of his allies, Phanes of Halicarnas. Consequently, Psamtik and his army were compelled to withdraw to Memphis.[3] The Persians captured the city after a long siege, and captured Psamtik after its fall. Shortly thereafter, Cambyses ordered the public execution of two thousand of the principal citizens, including (it is said) a son of the fallen king. Captivity and execution - According to book III of The History by Herodotus, Psamtik's daughter was enslaved, his son given a death sentence, and a male companion was turned into a beggar. They were all brought before him to test his reaction, and he only became upset over seeing the state of the beggar. Psamtik III was spared but his son was cut to pieces. The deposed pharaoh was imprisoned and taken to Susa in chains where he was initially treated relatively well. After a while, however, Psamtik reportedly plotted a rebellion against Cambyses and was executed for his involvement in this conspiracy by being forced to drink bull's blood thereby causing his death.

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Cambyses in Tour Egypt

CAMBYSES II, THE PERSIAN RULER OF EGYPT (27TH DYNASTY) AND HIS LOST ARMY by Jimmy Dunn -- In 525 BC the Persian emperor Cambyses II, son of Cyrus the Great, who had already named his son as king of Babylon though Cambyses II resigned that position after only one year, invaded Egypt and successfully overthrew the native Egyptian pharaoh, Psamtek III, last ruler of Egypt's 26th Dynasty to become the first ruler of Egypt's 27th Persian Dynasty. His father had earlier attempted an invasion of Egypt against Psamtek III's predecessor, Amasis, but Cyrus' death in 529 BC put a halt to that expedition. After capturing Egypt, Cambyses took the Throne name Mesut-i-re (Mesuti-Ra), meaning "Offspring of Re". Though the Persians would rule Egypt for the next 193 years until Alexander the Great defeated Darius III and conquered Egypt in 332 BC, Cambyses II's victory would bring to an end (for the most part) Egyptians truly ruling Egyptians until the mid 20th century, when Egypt finally shrugged off colonial rule. We know very little about Cambyses II through contemporary texts, but his reputation as a mad tyrannical despot has come down to us in the writings of the Greek historian Herodotus (440 BC) and a Jewish document from 407 BC known as 'The Demotic Chronicle' which speaks of the Persian king destroying all the temples of the Egyptian gods. However, it must be repeatedly noted that the Greeks shared no love for the Persians. Herodotus informs us that Cambyses II was a monster of cruelty and impiety. Herodotus gives us three tales as to why the Persians invaded Egypt. In one, Cambyses II had requested an Egyptian princess for a wife, or actually a concubine, and was angered when he found that he had been sent a lady of second rate standing. In another, it turns out that he was the bastard son of Nitetis, daughter of the Saite (from Sais) king Apries, and therefore half Egyptian anyway, whereas the third story provides that Cambyses II, at the age of ten, made a promise to his mother (who is now Cassandane) that he would "turn Egypt upside down" to avenge a slight paid to her. However, Ctesias of Cnidus states that his mother was Amytis, the daughter of the last king of independent Media so we are really unsure of that side of his parentage. While even Herodotus doubts all of these stories, and given the fact that his father had already planned one invasion of Egypt, the stories do in fact reflect the later Greek bias towards his Persian dynasty. Regardless of Cambyses II's reason for his invasion of Egypt, Herodotus notes how the Persians easily entered Egypt across the desert. They were advised by the defecting mercenary general, Phanes of Halicarnassus, to employ the Bedouins as guides. However, Phanes had left his two sons in Egypt. We are told that for his treachery, as the armies of the Persians and the mercenary army of the Egyptians met, his sons were bought out in front of the Egyptian army where they could be seen by their father, and there throats were slit over a large bowl. Afterwards, Herodotus tells us that water and wine were added to the contents of the bowl and drunk by every man in the Egyptian force. This did not stop the ensuing battle at Pelusium, Greek pelos, which was the gateway to Egypt. Its location on Egypt's eastern boundary, meant that it was an important trading post was well and also of immense strategic importance. It was the starting point for Egyptian expeditions to Asia and an entry point for foreign invaders. Here, the Egyptian forces were routed in the battle and fled back to Memphis. Apparently Psamtek III managed to escape the ensuing besiege of the Egyptian capital, only to be captured a short time afterwards and was carried off to Susa in chains. Herodotus goes on to tell us of all the outrages that Cambyses II then inflicted on the Egyptians, not only including the stabbing of a sacred Apis bull and his subsequent burial at the Serapeum in Saqqara, but also the desecration and deliberate burning of the embalmed body of Amasis (a story that has been partly evidenced by destruction of some of Amasis' inscriptions) and the banishment of other Egyptian opponents. The story of Cambyses II's fit of jealousy towards the Apis bull, whether true or simply Greek propaganda, was intended to reflect his personal failures as a monarch and military leader. In the three short years of his rule over Egypt he personally led a disastrous campaign up the River Nile into Ethiopia. There, we are told, his ill-prepared mercenary army was so meagerly supplied with food that they were forced to eat the flesh of their own colleagues as their supplies ran out in the Nubian desert. The Persian army returned northwards in abject humiliation having failed even to encounter their enemy in battle. Then, of course, there is also the mystery of his lost army, some fifty thousand strong, that vanished in the Western Desert on their way to the Siwa Oasis along with all their weapons and other equipment, never to be heard of again. Cambyses II had also planned a military campaign against Carthage, but this too was aborted because, on this occasion, the king's Phoenician sea captains refused to attack their kinfolk who had founded the Carthagian colony towards the end of the 8th century BC. In fact, the conquest of Egypt was Cambyses' only spectacular military success in his seven years of troubled rule over the Persian empire. However, we are told that when the Persians at home received news of Cambyses' several military disasters, some of the most influential nobles revolted, swearing allegiance to the king's younger brother Bardiya. With their support, the pretender to the great throne of Cyrus seized power in July 522 BC as Cambyses II was returning home. The story is told that, on hearing of this revolt, and in haste to mount his horse to swiftly finish the journey home, Cambyses II managed to stab himself in the thigh with his own dagger. At that moment, he began to recall an Egyptian prophecy told to him by the priests of Buto in which it was predicted that the king would die in Ecbatana. Cambyses II had thought that the Persian summer capital of Ecbatana had been meant and that he would therefore die in old age. But now he realized that the prophecy had been fulfilled in a very different way here in Syrian Ecbatana. Still enveloped in his dark and disturbed mood, Cambyses II decided that his fate had been sealed and simply lay down to await his end. The wound soon became gangrenous and the king died in early August of 522 BC. However, it should be noted that other references tell us that Cambyses II had his brother murdered even prior to his expedition to Egypt, but apparently if it was not Bardiya (though there is speculation that Cambyses II's servants perhaps did not kill his brother as ordered), there seems to have definitely been an usurper to the throne, perhaps claiming to be his brother, who we are told was killed secretly. The Real Cambyses II Modern Egyptologists believe that many of these accounts are rather biased, and that Cambyses II's rule was perhaps not nearly so traumatic as Herodotus, who wrote his history only about 75 years after Cambyses II's demise, would have us believe. In reality, the Saite dynasty had all but completely collapsed, and it is likely that with Psamtek III's (Psammetichus III) capture by the Persians, Cambyses II simply took charge of the country. The Egyptians were particularly isolated at this time in their history, having seen there Greek allies defect, including not only Phanes, but Polycrates of Samos. In addition, many of Egypt's minorities, such as the Jewish community at Elephantine and even certain elements within the Egyptian aristocracy, seem to have even welcomed Cambyses II's rule. The Egyptian evidence that we do have depicts a ruler anxious to avoid offending Egyptian susceptibilities who at least presented himself as an Egyptian king in all respects. It is even possible that the pillaging of Egyptian towns told to us by Greek sources never occurred at all. In an inscription on the statue of Udjadhorresnet, a Saite priest and doctor, as well as a former naval officer, we learn that Cambyses II was prepared to work with and promote native Egyptians to assist in government, and that he showed at least some respect for Egyptian religion. For example, regardless of the death of the Apris Bull, it should be noted that the animal's burial was held with proper pomp, ceremony and respect. Udjahorresnet also tells us that: "I let His Majesty know the greatness of Sais, that it is the seat of Neith-the-Great, mother who bore Re and inaugurated birth when birth had not yet been...I made a petition to the majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Cambyses, about all the foreigners who dwelled in the temple of Neith, in order to have them expelled from it., so as to let the temple of Neith be in all its splendor, as it had been before. His Majesty commanded to expel all the foreigners who dwelled in the temple of Neith, to demolish all their houses and all their unclean things that were in the temple. When they had carried all their personal belongings outside the wall of the temple, His Majesty commanded to cleanse the temple of Neith and to return all its personnel to it...and the hour- priests of the temple. His Majesty commanded to give divine offerings to Neith-the-Great, the mother of god, and to the great gods of Sais, as it had been before. His Majesty knew the greatness of Sais, that it is a city of all the gods, who dwell there on their seats forever. " Indeed, Cambyses II continued Egyptian policy regarding sanctuaries and national cults, confirmed by his building work in the Wadi Hammamat and at a few other Egyptian temples. Udjadhorresnet goes on to say in his autobiography written on a naophorous statue now in the Vatican collection at Rome, that he introduced Cambyses II to Egyptian culture so that he might take on the appearance of a traditional Egyptian Pharaoh. However, even though Cambyses II had his name written in a kingly Egyptian cartouche, he did remained very Persian, and was buried at Takht-i-Rustam near Persepolis (Iran). It has been suggested that Cambyses II may have originally followed a traditional Persian policy of reconciliation in the footsteps of their conquests. In deed, it may be that Cambyses II's rule began well enough, but with the his defeats and losses, his mood may very well have turned darker with time, along with his actions. We do know that there was a short lived revolt which broke out in Egypt after Cambyses II died in 522 BC, but the independence was lost almost immediately to his successor, a distant relative and an officer in Cambyses II's army, named Darius. The dynasty of Persian rulers who then ruled Egypt did so as absentee landlords from afar. Within recent years all manner of artifacts and monuments have been discovered in Egypt's Western Desert. Here and there, new discoveries of temples and tombs turn up, even in relatively inhabited areas where more modern structures are often difficult to distinguish from ancient ruins. It is a place where the shifting sands can uncover whole new archaeological worlds, and so vast that no more than very small regions are ever investigated systematically by Egyptologists. In fact, most discoveries if not almost all are made by accident, so Egypt antiquity officials must remain ever alert to those who bring them an inscribed stone unearthed beneath a house, or a textile fragment found in the sand. Lately, there has been considerable petroleum excavation in the Western Desert. Anyone traveling the main route between the near oasis will see this activity, but the exploration for oil stretched much deeper into the Western Desert. It is not surprising that they have come upon a few archaeological finds, and it is not unlikely that they will come across others. Very recently, when a geological team from the Helwan University geologists found themselves walking through dunes littered with fragments of textiles, daggers, arrow-heads, and the bleached bones of the men to whom all these trappings belonged, they reported the discovery to the antiquity service. Mohammed al-Saghir of the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) now believes that this accidental find may very well be at least remnants of the mysterious Lost Army of Cambyses II, and he is now organizing a mission to investigate the site more thoroughly. If he is successful and the discovery is that of Cambyses II's 50,000 strong lost army, than it will not only answer some ancient mysteries, but will probably also provide us with a rich source of information on the Persian military of that time, and maybe even expand our knowledge of Cambyses II himself. The Persian armed forces consisted of many elements, including companies of foreign mercenaries such as Greeks, Phoenicians, Carians, Cilicians, Medes and Syrians. Hence, if this is not another false lead, we may expect excellent preservation of helmets, leather corselets, cloth garments, spears, bows, swords and daggers – a veritable treasure trove of military memorabilia. The rations and support equipment will all be there, ready for detailed analysis. However, it should be noted that some Egyptologists question the very existence of such an army, rather believing that the whole affair was simply a fable told by a very prejudiced Greek. Yet if true, Cambyses II probably sent his army to Siwa Oasis in the Western Desert to seek (or seize) legitimization of his rule from the oracle of Amun, much as Alexander the Great would do in the 4th century BC. However, the army was overtaken by a sandstorm and buried. For centuries adventurers and archaeologists have tried to find the lost army, and at times, tantalizing, though usually false glues have been discovered. Legitimizing his rule does not fully explain the need for taking such a large army to the Siwa Oasis. Accounts and other resources provide that the priests of the oracle were perhaps posing a danger to Cambyses II's rule, probably encouraging revolt among the native Egyptians. Perhaps the priests felt slighted that Cambyses II had not immediately sought their approval as Alexander the Great would do almost upon his arrival in Egypt. Therefore, it is likely that Cambyses II intended to forces their legitimization of his rule. In fact, some sources believe that his intent was to simply destroy the Oasis completely for their treachery, while it is also know that the army was to continue on after Siwa in order to attack the Libyans. Yet the Siwa Oasis, the western most of Egypt's Oasis, is much deeper into the desert than others, such as Bahariya, and apparently, like many of Cambyses II's military operations, this one too was ill conceived. Why he so easily entered Egypt with the help of the Bedouins, and than sent such a large force into the desert only to be lost is a mystery. We know that the army was dispatched from the holy city of Thebes, supported by a great train of pack animals. After a seven day march, it reached the Kharga Oasis and moved on to the last of the near Oasis, the Bahariya, before turning towards the 325 kilometers of desert that separated it from the Siwa Oasis. It would have been a 30 day march through burning heat with no additional sources of water or shade. According to Herodotus (as later reported to him by the inhabitants of Siwa), after many days of struggle through the soft sand, the troops were resting one morning when calamity struck without warning. "As they were at their breakfast, a wind arose from the south, strong and deadly, bringing with it vast columns of whirling sand, which buried the troops and caused them utterly to disappear." Overwhelmed by the powerful sandstorm, men and animals alike were asphyxiated as they huddled together, gradually being enveloped in a sea of drift-sand. It was after learning of the loss of his army that, having witnessed the reverence with which the Egyptians regarded the sacred Apis bull of Memphis in a ceremony and believing he was being mocked, he fell into a rage, drew his dagger and plunged it into the bull-calf. However, it seems that he must have latter regretted this action, for the Bull was buried with due reverence.

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Cambyses II in Wikipedia

Cambyses II (Old Persian: 𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 [1] Kɑmboujie[2], Persian: کمبوجیه, d. 522 BC) was the son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), founder of the Persian Empire and of its first dynasty. His grandfather was Cambyses I, king of Anshan. Following Cyrus' conquests of the Near East and Central Asia, Cambyses further expanded the empire into Egypt during the Late Period. His forces invaded the Kingdom of Kush (located in what is now the Republic of Sudan) without any breakthrough successes. Rise to power When Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon in 539 BC, Cambyses was employed in leading religious ceremonies.[3] In the cylinder which contains Cyrus' proclamation to the Babylonians, Cambyses' name is joined to his father's in the prayers to Marduk. On a tablet dated from the first year of Cyrus, Cambyses is called king of Babylon, although his authority seems to have been ephemeral. Only in 530 BC, when Cyrus set out on his last expedition into the East, did Cyrus associate Cambyses on the throne. Numerous Babylonian tablets of the time date from the accession and the first year of Cambyses, when Cyrus was "king of the countries" (i.e., of the world). After the death of his father in August 530, Cambyses became sole king. The tablets dating from his reign in Babylonia run to the end of his eighth year, in March 522 BC. Herodotus (3.66), who dates his reign from the death of Cyrus, gives him seven years five months, from 530 BC to the summer of 523.[4] The traditions of Cambyses The traditions about Cambyses, preserved by the Greek authors, come from two different sources. The first, which forms the main part of the account of Herodotus (3. 2–4; 10–37), is of Egyptian origin. Here Cambyses is made the legitimate son of Cyrus and a daughter of Apries named Nitetis (Herod. 3.2, Dinon fr. II, Polyaen. viii. 29), whose death he avenges on the successor of the usurper Amasis. Nevertheless, (Herod. 3.1 and Ctesias a/i. Athen. Xiii. 560), the Persians corrected this tradition: Cambyses wants to marry a daughter of Amasis, who sends him a daughter of Apries instead of his own daughter, and by her Cambyses is induced to begin the war. His great crime is the killing of the Apis bull, for which he is punished by madness, in which he commits many other crimes, kills his brother and his sister, and at last loses his empire and dies from a wound in the thigh, at the same place where he had wounded the sacred animal. Intermingled are some stories derived from the Greek mercenaries, especially about their leader Phanes of Halicarnassus, who betrayed Egypt to the Persians. In the Persian tradition the crime of Cambyses is the murder of his brother; he is further accused of drunkenness, in which he commits many crimes, and thus accelerates his ruin. These traditions are found in different passages of Herodotus, and in a later form, but with some trustworthy detail about his household, in the fragments of Ctesias. With the exception of Babylonian dated tablets and some Egyptian inscriptions, we possess no contemporary evidence about the reign of Cambyses but the short account of Darius in the Behistun Inscription. It is difficult to form a correct picture of Cambyses' character from these inscriptions. Darius' account Conquest of Egypt - It was quite natural that, after Cyrus had conquered the Middle East, Cambyses should undertake the conquest of Egypt, the only remaining independent state in that part of the world. The war took place in 525 BC, when Amasis II had just been succeeded by his son Psamtik III. Cambyses had prepared for the march through the desert by an alliance with Arabian chieftains, who brought a large supply of water to the stations. King Amasis had hoped that Egypt would be able to withstand the threatened Persian attack by an alliance with the Greeks. But this hope failed, as the Cypriot towns and the tyrant Polycrates of Samos, who possessed a large fleet, now preferred to join the Persians, and the commander of the Greek troops, Phanes of Halicarnassus, went over to them. In the decisive battle at Pelusium the Egyptian army was defeated, and shortly afterwards Memphis was taken. The captive king Psammetichus was executed, having attempted a rebellion. The Egyptian inscriptions show that Cambyses officially adopted the titles and the costume of the Pharaohs. [edit]Attempts to conquer south and west of Egypt From Egypt, Cambyses attempted the conquest of Kush, located in the modern Sudan. But his army was not able to cross the deserts and after heavy losses he was forced to return. In an inscription from Napata (in the Berlin museum) the Nubian king Nastasen relates that he had defeated the troops of "Kambasuten" and taken all his ships. This was once thought to refer to Cambyses II (H. Schafer, Die Aethiopische Königsinschrift des Berliner Museums, 1901); however, Nastasen lived far later and was likely referring to Khabash. Another expedition against the Siwa Oasis failed likewise, and the plan of attacking Carthage was frustrated by the refusal of the Phoenicians to operate against their kindred. The death of Cambyses - According to most ancient historians, in Persia the throne was seized by a man posing as his brother Bardiya, who had really been killed by Cambyses a few years earlier. Some modern historians consider that this person really was Bardiya, the story that he was an impostor was created by Darius after he became monarch. Whoever this new monarch may have been, Cambyses attempted to march against him, but died shortly after under disputed circumstances. According to Darius, who was Cambyses' lance-bearer at the time, he decided that success was impossible, and died by his own hand in March 522 BCE. Herodotus and Ctesias ascribe his death to an accident. Ctesias writes that Cambyses, despondent from the loss of family members, stabbed himself in the thigh while working with a piece of wood. He died eleven days later from the wound. Herodotus' story is that while mounting his horse, the tip of Cambyses' scabbard broke and his sword pierced his thigh - Herodotus mentions it is the same place where he stabbed a sacred cow in Egypt. He then died of gangrene of the bone and mortification of the wound. Some modern historians suspect that Cambyses may have been assassinated, either by Darius as the first step to usurping the empire for himself, or by supporters of Bardiya.[5] According to Herodotus (3.64) he died in Ecbatana, i.e. Hamath; Josephus (Antiquites xi. 2. 2) names Damascus; Ctesias, Babylon, which is absolutely impossible.[6] Cambyses was buried in Pasargadae. The remains of his tomb were identified in 2006.[7] The lost army of Cambyses - According to Herodotus 3.26, Cambyses sent an army to threaten the Oracle of Amun at the Siwa Oasis. The army of 50,000 men was halfway across the desert when a massive sandstorm sprang up, burying them all. Although many Egyptologists regard the story as a myth, people have searched for the remains of the soldiers for many years. These have included Count László Almásy (on whom the novel The English Patient was based) and modern geologist Tom Brown. Some believe that in recent petroleum excavations, the remains may have been uncovered.[8] In January 1933, Orde Wingate searched unsuccessfully for the Lost Army of Cambyses in the Egypt's Western Desert, then known as the Libyan Desert. In February 1977 there were reports that archaeologists had found remains of Cambyses' army, but this story proved to be a hoax. From September 1983 to February 1984, Gary S. Chafetz, an American journalist and author, led an expedition-sponsored by Harvard University, The National Geographic Society, the Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority, and the Ligabue Research Institute-that searched for the Lost Army of Cambyses. The six-month search was conducted along the Egyptian-Libyan border in a remote 100-square-kilometer area of complex dunes south west of the uninhabited Bahrein Oasis, approximately 100 miles south east of Siwa (Amon) Oasis. The $250,000 expedition had at its disposal 20 Egyptian geologists and laborers, a National Geographic photographer, two Harvard Film Studies documentary filmmakers, three camels, an ultra-light aircraft, and ground-penetrating radar. The expedition discovered approximately 500 tumili (Zoroastrian-style graves) but no artifacts. Several tumili contained bone fragments. Thermoluminence later dated these fragments to 1,500 BCE, approximately 1000 years earlier than the Lost Army. A recumbent winged sphinx carved in oolitic limestone was also discovered in a cave in the uninhabited Sitra Oasis (between Bahrein and Siwa Oases), whose provenance appeared to be Persian. Chafetz was arrested when he returned to Cairo in February 1984 for "smuggling an airplane into Egypt," even though he had the written permission of the Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority to bring the aircraft into the country. He was interrogated for 24 hours. The charges were dropped after he promised to donate the ultra-light to the Egyptian Government. The aircraft now sits in the Egyptian War Museum in Cairo. [9][10][11][12] In the summer of 2000, a Helwan University geological team, prospecting for petroleum in Egypt's Western Desert, came across well-preserved fragments of textiles, bits of metal resembling weapons, and human remains that they believed to be traces of the Lost Army of Cambyses. The Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities announced that it would organize an expedition to investigate the site, but released no further information.[13] In November 2009, two Italian archaeologists, Angelo and Alfredo Castiglioni, announced the discovery of human remains, tools and weapons which date to the era of the Persian army. These artifacts were located near Siwa Oasis.[14] According to these two archaeologists this is the first archaeological evidence of the story reported by Herodotus. While working in the area, the researchers noticed a half-buried pot and some human remains. Then the brothers spotted something really intriguing-what could have been a natural shelter. It was a rock about 35 meters (114.8 feet) long, 1.8 meters (5.9 feet) in height and 3 meters (9.8 feet) deep. Such natural formations occur in the desert, but this large rock was the only one in a large area.[15] However, these "two Italian archaelogists" presented their discoveries in a film rather than a scientific journal. Doubts have been raised because the Castiglioni brothers also happen to be the two filmmakers who produced five controversial African shockumentaries in the 1970s- including Addio ultimo uomo, Africa ama, and Africa dolce e selvaggia-films in which audiences saw unedited footage of the severing of a penis, the skinning of a human corpse, the deflowering of a girl with a stone phallus, and a group of hunters tearing apart an elephant’s carcass.[16] The Secretary General of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, Zahi Hawass, has said in a press release that media reports of this "are unfounded and misleading" and that "The Castiglioni brothers have not been granted permission by the SCA to excavate in Egypt, so anything they claim to find is not to be believed."[17] In fiction - Cambyses II has appeared as a character in several works of fiction. Thomas Preston's play King Cambyses, a lamentable Tragedy, mixed full of pleasant mirth was probably produced in the 1560s. A tragedy by Elkanah Settle, Cambyses, King of Persia, was produced in 1667. Cambyses and his downfall are also central to Egyptologist Georg Ebers's 1864 novel, Eine ägyptische Königstochter (An Egyptian Princess). Qambeez is 1931 play about him by Ahmed Shawqi is about him. In 1929, Robert E. Howard (under the pseudonym "Patrick Howard") published a poem, "Skulls and Dust", about Cambyses' death. Cambyses' lost army also appears in Biggles Flies South (1938), and a 2002 novel by Paul Sussman, The Lost Army of Cambyses (ISBN 0-593- 04876-8) recounts the story of rival archaeological expeditions searching for the remains of his army.

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Darius I in Tour Egypt

DARIUS I 521-486 B.C. 27TH DYNASTY Darius I was the second ruler of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty. He was son of Hystaspes and a member of the Cyrus family. He was in Egypt while Cambyses ruled and Darius treated the Egyptians with respect and goodwill. During his reign he undertook the completion of the canal that extended from the Nile to the Red Sea. He also expanded the Serapeum at Saqqara as well as erected a large temple of Amun in el-Kharga, a southwestern oasis. During his reign there was the defeat of the Persians in the battle of Marathon. This showed that the great empire was not invincible and a revolt in Egypt followed.

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Darius I of Persia in Wikipedia

Darius I, known as Darius the Great, was the third "king of kings" (emperor) of the Achaemenid Empire. Darius held the empire at its peak, then including Egypt, northern India, and parts of Greece. The decay and downfall of the empire commenced with his death and the coronation of his son, Xerxes I.[1] Darius ascended the throne by assassinating the alleged usurper Bardiya with the assistance of six other Persian noble families; Darius was crowned the following morning. The new emperor met with rebellions throughout his kingdom, and quelled them each time. A major event in Darius's life was his expedition to punish Athens and Eretria for their aid in the Ionian Revolt and subjugate Greece. Darius expanded his empire by conquering Thrace and Macedon, and invading the Saka, Iranian tribes who had invaded Medes and had previously killed Cyrus the Great. [2] Darius organized the empire, by dividing it into provinces and placing governors to govern it. He organized a new uniform monetary system, along with making Aramaic the official language of the empire. Darius also worked on construction projects throughout the empire, focusing on Susa, Pasargadae, Persepolis, Babylon, and Egypt. Darius created a codification of laws for Egypt. He also carved the cliff-face Behistun Inscription, an autobiography of great modern linguistic significance. Primary sources See also: Behistun Inscription and Herodotus Darius left a tri-lingual monumental relief on Mount Behistun which was written in Elamite, Old Persian and Babylonian between his coronation and his death. The inscription first gives a brief autobiography of Darius with his ancestry and lineage. To expand on his ancestry, Darius left a sequence of events that occurred after the death of Cyrus the Great. Darius mentions several times that he is the rightful emperor by the grace of Ahura Mazda, the Zoroastrian God. In addition, further texts and monuments from Persepolis have been found, including a fragmentary Old Iranian inscription from Gherla, Rumania (Harmatta), and a letter from Darius to Gadates, preserved in a Greek text of the Roman period. [2] Herodotus, a Greek historian and author of The Histories, provided an account of many Persian emperors and the Greco-Persian Wars. He wrote an extensive amount of information on Darius which spans half of book 3, along with books 4, 5 and 6; it begins with removal of the alleged usurper Gaumata and continues to the end of Darius's reign. [2] The Book of Ezra (chapter 6, verse 1) describes the adoption and precise instructions to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem. It was completed and inaugurated of the sixth year of Darius (March 515 BCE), as also related in the Book of Ezra (chapter 6, verse 15), so the 70-year prophecy of Jeremiah was fulfilled. Between Cyrus and Darius, an exchange of letters with King Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes is described (Chapter 4, Verse 7), the grandson of Darius I, in whose reign Ezra and Nehemiah came to Jerusalem. The generous funding of the temple gave Darius and his successors the support of the Jewish priesthood. [3][4]There is mention of a Darius in the Book of Daniel, identified as Darius the Mede. He began ruling when he was 62 years old (chapter 5, verse 31), appointed 120 satraps to govern over their provinces or districts (chapter 6, verse 1), was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans (chapter 9, verse 1), and predated Cyrus (chapter 11, verse 1). Therefore, many scholars identify him with Cyaxares II rather than Darius I of Persia.[5] Life Birth and youth - Darius was born as the eldest son to Hystaspes and Rhodugune in 550 BCE. Hystaspes was a leading figure of authority in Persis which was the homeland of the Persians. Darius' inscription states that his father was satrap of Bactria in 522 BCE. According to Herodotus, Hystaspes was the satrap of Persis, although most historians state that this is an error. Also according to Herodotus (III.139), Darius, prior to seizing power and "of no consequence at the time", had served as a spearman (doryphoros) in the Egyptian campaign (528–525 BCE) of Cambyses II, then the Persian emperor.[6] Rise to power - The rise of Darius to the throne contains two different sides to the story. Our sources (the Bisitun inscription and Herodotus) both give similar stories (below). However, historians have inferred from these that Darius' rise to power may have been illegitimate. It seems likely that 'Gaumata' was in fact Bardiya, and that under cover of revolts, Darius killed the heir to the throne and took it himself. The fact that Darius' father and grandfather are still alive (Bisitun Inscription) implies that he was not the next in line to a hereditary throne.[7] Darius' version - The account of Darius which is written at the Behistun Inscription states that Cambyses II killed his own brother Bardiya, but that this murder was not known among the Iranian people. A would-be usurper named Gaumata came and lied to the people, stating he was Bardiya.[8] The Iranians had grown rebellious against Cambyses' rule, and on 11 March 522 BCE, a revolt against Cambyses broke out, in his absence. On 1 July, the Iranian people chose to be under the leadership of Gaumata, as "Bardiya". No member of the Achamenid family would rise against Gaumata for the safety of their own life. Darius, who had served Cambyses as his lance-bearer until the deposed ruler's death, prayed for aid, and in September 522 BCE, he along with Otanes, Intraphrenes, Gobryas, Hydarnes, Megabyxus and Aspathines killed Gaumata in the fortress of Sikayauvati. Darius was proclaimed emperor.[8] Greek historians - According to the accounts of Greek historians, Cambyses II had left Patizeithes in charge of the kingdom when he headed for Egypt. He later sent Prexaspes to murder Bardiya. After the killing, Patizeithes put his brother Gaumata, a Magian who resembled Bardiya, on the throne and declared him the emperor. Otanes discovered that Gaumata was an impostor, and along with six other Iranian nobles including Darius, created a plan to oust the pseudo-Bardiya. After killing the impostor along with his brother Patizeithes and other Magians, Darius was crowned emperor the following morning.[2]...

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Xerxes I in Tour Egypt

XERXES I 486-466 B.C. 27TH DYNASTY Xerxes I was the third ruler of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty. The revolt that began during the reign of Darius I, who was Xerxes' father, was finally laid to rest during the second year of Xerxes I's reign. It is said that the slaves' lives were much harder during the time of Xerxes. It is not certain whether this is true since Xerxes was much more involved elsewhere and paid little attention to Egypt.

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Xerxes I of Persia in Wikipedia

Xerxes I of Persia (English: /ˈzɜrksiːz/; Old Persian: خشایارشا (Ḫšayāršā), IPA: [xʃajaːrʃaː]; also known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth Zoroastrian king of kings of the Achamenid Empire. Life Youth and rise to power - Immediately after seizing the kingship, Darius I of Persia (son of Hystaspes) married Atossa (daughter of Cyrus the Great). They were both descendants of Achaemenes from different Achaemenid lines. Marrying a daughter of Cyrus strengthened Darius' position as king.[1] Darius was an active emperor, busy with building programs in Persepolis, Susa, Egypt, and elsewhere. Toward the end of his reign he moved to punish Athens, but a new revolt in Egypt (probably led by the Persian satrap) had to be suppressed. Under Persian law, the Achaemenian kings were required to choose a successor before setting out on such serious expeditions. Upon his great decision to leave (487-486 BC),[2] Darius prepared his tomb at Naqsh-e Rostam and appointed Xerxes, his eldest son by Atossa, as his successor. Darius' failing health then prevented him from leading the campaigns,[3] and he died in October 486 BC.[3] Xerxes was not the oldest son of Darius and according to old Iranian traditions should not have succeeded the King. Xerxes was however the oldest son of Darius and Atossa hence descendent of Cyrus. This made Xerxes the chosen King of Persia.[4] Some modern scholars also view the unusual decision of Darius to give the throne to Xerxes to be a result of his consideration of the unique positions that Cyrus the Great and his daughter Atossa have had.[5] Artobazan was born to "Darius the subject", while Xerxes was the eldest son born in the purple after Darius' rise to the throne, and Artobazan's mother was a commoner while Xerxes' mother was the daughter of the founder of the empire.[6] Xerxes was crowned and succeeded his father in October–December 486 BC[7] when he was about 36 years old.[2] The transition of power to Xerxes was smooth due again in part to great authority of Atossa[1] and his accession of royal power was not challenged by any person at court or in the Achaemenian family, or any subject nation.[8] Almost immediately, he suppressed the revolts in Egypt and Babylon that had broken out the year before, and appointed his brother Achaemenes as governor or satrap (Old Persian: khshathrapavan) over Egypt. In 484 BC, he outraged the Babylonians by violently confiscating and melting down[9] the golden statue of Bel (Marduk, Merodach), the hands of which the rightful king of Babylon had to clasp each New Year's Day. This sacrilege led the Babylonians to rebel in 484 BC and 482 BC, so that in contemporary Babylonian documents, Xerxes refused his father's title of King of Babylon, being named rather as King of Persia and Media, Great King, King of Kings (Shahanshah) and King of Nations (i.e. of the world). Although Herodotus' report in the Histories has created certain problems concerning Xerxes' religious beliefs, modern scholars consider him as a Zoroastrian.[10] Death - In the year 465 BC Xerxes was murdered by Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard and the most powerful official in Persian court (Hazarapat/commander of thousand). He was promoted to this most prestigious of positions in Achamenid court after his refusal to help Mardonius in Plataea and instead withdrawing the second Persian army successfully out of Greece. Although he bore the same name as famed uncle of Xerxes, a Hyrcanian, his rise to prominence was due to his popularity in religious quarters of the court and harem intrigues. He put his seven sons in key positions and had an effective master plan to dethrone the Achamenids.[11] In August, 465 B.C he assassinated Xerxes with the help of a eunuch Aspamitres. Greek historians give contradicting accounts on the full story. According to Ctesias (in Persica 20), he then accused the crown prince Darius (Xerxes' eldest son) of the murder; he instigated Artaxerxes (another of Xerxes' son), to avenge the patricide. But according to Aristotle (in Politics 5.1311b), Artabanus killed Darius first and then the king himself. Later on after discovering what he had done and planned for the royal power, Artabanus together with his sons were killed by Artaxerxes I.[12] Participating in the scuffles was also general Megabyzus (baghabukhsha) whose side switching probably saved the day for the Achamenids.[13] Campaigns Invasion of the Greek mainland - Main article: Greco-Persian Wars Darius left to his son the task of punishing the Athenians, Naxians, and Eretrians for their interference in the Ionian Revolt and their victory over the Persians at Marathon. From 483 BC Xerxes prepared his expedition: A channel was dug through the isthmus of the peninsula of Mount Athos, provisions were stored in the stations on the road through Thrace, two bridges were built across the Hellespont. Soldiers of many nationalities served in the armies of Xerxes, including the Assyrians, Phoenicians, Babylonians, Indians, Egyptians and Jews.[14] According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Xerxes' first attempt to bridge the Hellespont ended in failure when a storm destroyed the flax and papyrus bridge; Xerxes ordered the Hellespont (the strait itself) whipped three hundred times and had fetters thrown into the water. Xerxes' second attempt to bridge the Hellespont was successful.[15] Xerxes concluded an alliance with Carthage, and thus deprived Greece of the support of the powerful monarchs of Syracuse and Agrigentum. Many smaller Greek states, moreover, took the side of the Persians, especially Thessaly, Thebes and Argos. Xerxes set out in the spring of 480 BC from Sardis with a fleet and army which Herodotus claimed was more than two million strong with at least 10,000 elite warriors named Persian Immortals. Xerxes was victorious during the initial battles. Thermopylae and Athens - At the Battle of Thermopylae, a small force of Greek warriors led by King Leonidas of Sparta resisted the much larger Persian forces, but were ultimately defeated. According to Herodotus, the Persians broke the Spartan phalanx after a Greek man called Ephialtes betrayed his country by telling the Persians of another pass around the mountains. After Thermopylae, Athens was captured and the Athenians and Spartans were driven back to their last line of defense at the Isthmus of Corinth and in the Saronic Gulf. The delay caused by the Spartans allowed Athens to be evacuated. What happened next is a matter of some controversy. According to Herodotus, upon encountering the deserted city, in an uncharacteristic fit of rage particularly for Persian kings, Xerxes had Athens burned. He almost immediately regretted this action and ordered it rebuilt the very next day[citation needed]. However, Persian scholars dispute this view as pan-Hellenic propaganda[citation needed], arguing that Sparta, not Athens, was Xerxes' main foe in his Greek campaigns, and that Xerxes would have had nothing to gain by destroying a major center of trade and commerce like Athens once he had already captured it. At that time, anti-Persian sentiment was high among many mainland Greeks, and the rumor that Xerxes had destroyed the city was a popular one, though it is equally likely the fire was started by accident as the Athenians were frantically fleeing the scene in pandemonium[citation needed], or that it was an act of "scorched earth" warfare to deprive Xerxes' army of the spoils of the city. At Artemisium, large storms had destroyed ships from the Greek side and so the battle stopped prematurely as the Greeks received news of the defeat at Thermopylae and retreated. Xerxes was induced by the message of Themistocles (against the advice of Artemisia of Halicarnassus) to attack the Greek fleet under unfavourable conditions, rather than sending a part of his ships to the Peloponnesus and awaiting the dissolution of the Greek armies. The Battle of Salamis (September 29, 480 BC) was won by the Greek fleet, after which Xerxes set up a winter camp in Thessaly.[citation needed] Due to unrest in Babylon, Xerxes was forced to send his army home to prevent a revolt, leaving behind an army in Greece under Mardonius, who was defeated the following year at Plataea.[17] The Greeks also attacked and burned the remaining Persian fleet anchored at Mycale. This cut off the Persians from the supplies they needed to sustain their massive army, and they had no choice but to retreat. Their withdrawal roused the Greek city-states of Asia. Construction projects - The rock-cut tomb at Naqsh-e Rustam north of Persepolis, copying that of Darius, is usually assumed to be that of Xerxes After the military blunders in Greece, Xerxes returned to Persia and completed the many construction projects left unfinished by his father at Susa and Persepolis. He built the Gate of all Nations and the Hall of a Hundred Columns at Persepolis, which are the largest and most imposing structures of the palace. He completed the Apadana, the Palace of Darius and the Treasury all started by Darius as well as building his own palace which was twice the size of his father's. His taste in architecture was similar to that of Darius, though on an even more gigantic scale.[18] He also maintained the Royal Road built by his father and completed the Susa Gate and built a palace at Susa.[19] In classical music - Xerxes is the protagonist of the opera Serse by the German-English Baroque composer George Frideric Handel. It was first performed in King's Theatre in London on 15 April 1738. The famous aria, "Ombra mai fù" is taken from the opera. Children - By queen Amestris Amytis, wife of Megabyzus Artaxerxes I Darius, the first born, murdered by Artaxerxes I and Artabanus. Hystaspes, murdered by Artaxerxes I. Achaemenes, murdered by Egyptians. Rhodogune By unknown wives Artarius, satrap of Babylon. Tithraustes Arsames or Arsamenes or Arxanes or Sarsamas satrap of Egypt. Parysatis[20] Ratashah[21] Depictions in popular culture - Later generations' fascination with ancient Sparta, and particularly the Battle of Thermopylae, has led to Xerxes' portrayal in a number of works of popular culture. For instance, he was played by David Farrar in the 1962 film The 300 Spartans, where he is portrayed as a cruel, power-crazed despot and an inept commander. He also features prominently in the graphic novel 300 by Frank Miller, as well as the movie adaptation (portrayed by Brazilian actor Rodrigo Santoro). Other works dealing with the Persian Empire or the Biblical story of Esther have also referenced Xerxes, such as the video game Assassin's Creed II and the film One Night with the King, in which Ahasueras (Xerxes) was portrayed by British actor Luke Goss. He is the leader of the Persian Empire in the video game Civilization II (along with Scheherazade) and III, although Civilization IV replaces him with Cyrus the Great.

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Artaxerxes I of Persia in Wikipedia

Artaxerxes I (Latin; Greek Ἀρταξέρξης; Persian اردشیر یکم (Ardeshir) corruption of Old Persian 𐎠𐎼𐎭𐎧𐎨𐏁𐎨[1] Artaxšacā, "whose reign is through arta (truth)"; the name has nothing to do with Xerxes)[2] was king of the Persian Empire from 465 BC to 424 BC. He was the son of Xerxes I of Persia and Amestris, daughter of Otanes. He is also surnamed μακρόχειρ "Macrocheir (Latin = Longimanus)", allegedly because his right hand was longer than his left. [3] After Persia had been defeated at Eurymedon, military action between Greece and Persia was at a standstill. When Artaxerxes I took power, he introduced a new Persian strategy of weakening the Athenians by funding their enemies in Greece. This indirectly caused the Athenians to move the treasury of the Delian League from the island of Delos to the Athenian acropolis. This funding practice inevitably prompted renewed fighting in 450 BC, where the Greeks attacked at the Battle of Cyprus. After Cimon's failure to attain much in this expedition, the Peace of Callias was agreed between Athens, Argos and Persia in 449 BC. Artaxerxes I offered asylum to Themistocles, who was the winner of the Battle of Salamis, after Themistocles was ostracized from Athens. Portrayal in the Book of Ezra and Nehemiah Artaxerxes (Hebrew: אַרְתַּחְשַׁסְתְּא‎, pronounced [artaχʃast]) commissioned Ezra, a Jewish priest-scribe, by means of a letter of decree, to take charge of the ecclesiastical and civil affairs of the Jewish nation. A copy of this decree may be found in Ezra 7:13-28 . Ezra thereby left Babylon in the first month of the seventh year (~ 457 BC) of Artaxerxes' reign, at the head of a company of Jews that included priests and Levites. They arrived in Jerusalem on the first day of the fifth month of the seventh year (Hebrew Calendar). The rebuilding of the Jewish community in Jerusalem had begun under Cyrus the Great, who had permitted Jews held captive in Babylon, to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple of Solomon. Consequently, a number of Jews returned to Jerusalem in 538 B.C., and the foundation of this "Second Temple" was laid the following year. In Artaxerxes' 20th year (445 B.C.), Nehemiah, the king's cupbearer, apparently was also a friend of the king as in that year Artaxerxes inquired after Nehemiah's sadness. Nehemiah related to him the plight of the Jewish people and that the city of Jerusalem was undefended. The king sent Nehemiah to Jerusalem with letters of safe passage to the governors in Trans-Euphrates, and to Asaph, keeper of the royal forests, to make beams for the citadel by the Temple and to rebuild the city walls.[4] Interpretations of Artaxerxes actions - Roger Williams, a seventeenth-century Christian minister and founder of Rhode Island, interpreted several passages in the Old and New Testament to support limiting government interference in religious matters. Williams published The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution, describing his analysis of why a civil government should be separate from religion according to the Bible. Williams believed that Israel was a unique covenant kingdom and not an appropriate model for New Testament Christians who believed that the Old Testament covenant had been fulfilled. Therefore, the more informative Old Testament examples of civil government were "good" non-covenant kings such as Artaxerxes, who tolerated the Jews even though he was a pagan and did not insist that they follow his "state" religion.[5] Offspring - By queen Damaspia Xerxes II By Alogyne of Babylon Sogdianus By Cosmartidene of Babylon Darius II Arsites By Andia of Babylon Bogapaeus Parysatis, wife of Darius II Ochus By another(?) unknown wife An unnamed daughter, wife of Hieramenes, mother of Autoboesaces and Mitraeus[6] By various wives eleven other children

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Darius II in Tour Egypt

DARIUS II 424-404 B.C. 27TH DYNASTY Darius II was the fifth king of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty. During his reign, he did some work on the temple of Amun is the Kharga oasis. There were also many foreigners in Egypt during this time, mostly Greeks and Jews. He died in the spring of 404 BC.

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Darius II of Persia in Wikipedia

Darius II (Dārayavahuš), originally called Ochus and often surnamed Nothus (from Greek νόθος), was king of the Persian Empire from 423 BC to 404 BC. Artaxerxes I, who died on December 25, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a half Xerxes II was murdered by his brother Secydianus or Sogdianus (the form of the name is uncertain). His illegitimate brother, Ochus, satrap of Hyrcania, rebelled against Sogdianus, and after a short fight killed him, and suppressed by treachery the attempt of his own brother Arsites to imitate his example. Ochus adopted the name Darius (in the chronicles he is called Nothos"). Neither Xerxes II nor Secydianus occurs in the dates of the numerous Babylonian tablets from Nippur; here the reign of Darius II follows immediately after that of Artaxerxes I. Of Darius's reign historians know very little (a rebellion of the Medes in 409 BC is mentioned by Xenophon), except that he was quite dependent on his wife Parysatis. In the excerpts from Ctesias some harem intrigues are recorded, in which he played a disreputable part. As long as the power of Athens remained intact he did not meddle in Greek affairs; even the support which the Athenians in 413 BC gave to the rebel Amorges in Caria would not have roused him, had not the Athenian power been broken in the same year before Syracuse. He gave orders to his satraps in Asia Minor, Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, to send in the overdue tribute of the Greek towns, and to begin a war with Athens; for this purpose they entered into an alliance with Sparta. In 408 BC he sent his son Cyrus to Asia Minor, to carry on the war with greater energy. In 404 BC Darius II died after a reign of nineteen years, and was followed by Artaxerxes II. Offspring - By Parysatis Artaxerxes II Cyrus the Younger Oxathres or Oxendares or Oxendras Artoxexes Ostanes Amestris wife of Teritouchmes & then Artaxerxes II & seven other unnamed children By other wives Artostes The unnamed satrap of Media at 401 B.C.

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Amyrtaios in Tour Egypt

AMYRTAIOS (AMYRTEOS) 404-399 B.C. 28TH DYNASTY Amyrtaios was the only ruler of the Twenty-eighth Dynasty. He is thought to have been a Libyan. He ruled Egypt from Sais for six years. He began his reign after the death of Darius II when there was a renewed revolt in Egypt. They achieved independence for a short time again. On the Elephantine Papyri, there is documentation of a loan contract that is written in the year 5 of this king. This is indication that he was recognized in Upper and Lower Egypt. He must have driven the Persians out of the whole country.

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Amyrtaeus in Wikipedia

Amyrtaeus (or Amenirdisu) of Sais is the only king of the Twenty-eighth dynasty of Egypt and is thought to be related to the royal family of the Twenty-sixth dynasty. He ended the First Persian Occupation and reigned from 404 BC to 399 BC. Amyrtaeus was probably the grandson of the Amyrtaeus of Sais who is known to have carried on a rebellion in 465–463 BC with the Libyan chief, Inarus (himself a grandson of Psamtik III), against the Satrap of Artaxerxes I. He is known from Aramaic and ancient Greek sources, and is mentioned in the Demotic Chronicle. He is not known to have left any monuments, and his name in Egyptian is only reconstructed from demotic notices. Before assuming the throne of Egypt, Amyrtaeus had revolted against Darius II as early as 411 BC, leading a guerrilla action in the western Nile Delta around his home city of Sais. Following the death of Darius, Amyrtaeus declared himself king in 404 BC. According to Isocrates, Artaxerxes II assembled an army in Phoenicia under the command of Abrocomas to retake Egypt shortly after coming to the Persian throne, but political problems with his brother Cyrus the Younger prevented this from taking place, allowing the Egyptians sufficient time to throw off Achaemenid rule. While the rule of Amyrtaeus in the western Delta was established by 404 BC, Artaxerxes II continued to be recognized as king at Elephantine as late as 401 BC, but Aramaic papyri from the site refer to Regnal Year 5 of Amyrtaeus in September 400 BC. The Elephantine papyri also demonstrate that between 404 and 400 BC (or even 398) Upper Egypt remained under Persian control, while the forces of Amyrtaeus dominated the Delta. Amyrtaeus was defeated in open battle by his successor, Nepherites I of Mendes, and executed at Memphis, an event which the Aramaic papyrus Brooklyn 13 implies occurred in October 399 BC.

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Nepherites I in Tour Egypt

NEPHERITES I (NEF'AURUD) 399-393 B.C. 29TH DYNASTY Nepherites I was the first ruler of the Twenty-ninth Dynasty. Nepherites I sent a gift to the Spartans after an allegiance had been entered into with Sparta against Persia. This gift was lost to the Persians after the ships from Egypt approached Rhodes. The Egyptians did not know that the Rhodians had defected to the Persians.

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Nepherites I in Wikipedia

King Nepherites I, or Nefaarud I, founded the Twenty-ninth dynasty of Egypt by defeating Amyrtaeus in open battle, and then executing him at Memphis in the autumn of 399 BC. These events are recorded in an Aramaic papyrus document (Papyrus (Papyrus Brooklyn 13). Nepherites was a native of Mendes, where he also made his capital and burial place. He ruled Egypt from 398 BC to 393 BC. In foreign affairs, he supported Sparta in its war against the Persians by supplying it with grain and material for 100 triremes. In Egypt, he is poorly attested perhaps due to the passage of time: from Mendes, fragments of a granite gate and stone blocks of a temple of Thoth were found. A statue of this pharaoh is known from Buto. Nepherites is attested in Middle and Upper Egypt by a chapel at Akoris (Tehna) and a Naos at Sohag among other construction projects. He is documented by Serapeum stela from Saqqara where a faience palgue mentioning his Year 2 is known. A mummy bandage label written in demotic preserves his Year 4. His tomb containing some remains of a sarcophagus and funerary equipment was discovered by a team from the University of Toronto and the University of Washington in 1992-1993.

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Psammuthes in Wikipedia

Psammuthes was an Egyptian Pharaoh of the Twenty-ninth dynasty during 393 BC. Upon the death of Nepherites I, two rival factions fought for the throne: one supported Muthis son of Nefaarud, and the other supported an usurper named Psammuthes.[1] Both men were, however, overcome by an unrelated man named Hakor.[2]

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Hakoris in Tour Egypt

HAKORIS (HAKOR)(ACHORIS)(HAGOR) 393-380 B.C. 29TH DYNASTY There is some discrepancy as to whether Hakoris was the second of the third king of the Twenty-ninth Dynasty. Psammuthis is the king in which the confusion is associated with because he is shown to have ruled during the same year as Hakoris (393 BC). Hakoris reigned for thirteen years and built many monuments which are found in all parts of Egypt. During his reign there was peace between Persia and Sparta. Persia was free to move against Egypt and there was a three-year war between the two. Egypt was relatively strong during this time and became allies with Cyprus. Egypt was delivered from Persia. The tomb of Hakoris has not been found.

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Hakor in Wikipedia

Hakor, or Akoris, was the Pharaoh of Egypt from 393 BC to 380 BC. Hakor overthrew his predecessor Psammuthes and falsely proclaimed himself to be the grandson of Nepherites I, founder of the 29th Dynasty, on his monuments in order to legitimise his kingship.[2] While Hakor ruled Egypt for only 13 years, his reign is important for the enormous number of buildings which he constructed and for his extensive restoration work on the monuments of his royal predecessors.[2] Reign - Early in his reign, Hakor revolted against his overlord, the Persian King Artaxerxes. In 390 BC, he concluded a tripartite alliance with Evagoras, king of Cyprus, and Athens. This alliance led Persia to begin supporting Sparta in the Corinthian War, which eventually led to the ending of that war by the Peace of Antalcidas in 387/6 BC. In it, Artaxerxes II proclaimed his authority over the cities of Asia Minor and Cyprus gave full autonomy to the Greek city states of mainland Greece as long as they did not make war on him.[2] After the end of that war, Persia turned its attention to Egypt, but Hakor, supported by the Athenian general Chabrias, held them off in a three year war between 385 and 383 BC.[3] Hakor died in 380 BC and was succeeded by his son Nepherites II, but Nepherites was overthrown by Nectanebo I within a year, thus ending the dynasty.

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Nepherites II in Tour Egypt

NEPHERITES II 380 B.C. 29TH DYNASTY Nepherites II was the fourth and final ruler of the Twenty- ninth Dynasty. He reigned for only four months before he was overthrown by the founder of the Thirtieth Dynasty. He assumed the throne after the death of Hakoris, who was Nepherites' father. The name Nepherites has an etymological meaning of "His great ones are prosperous".

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Nepherites II in Wikipedia

Nepherities II or Nefaarud II became Pharaoh of Egypt in 380 BC after the death of his father Hakor. He was the last pharaoh of the twenty-ninth dynasty and the son of Hakor. He was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling Egypt for only 4 months.[1]

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Nectanebo I in Tour Egypt

NECTANEBO I, THE FIRST RULER OF EGYPT'S 30TH AND LAST NATIVE EGYPTIAN DYNASTY BY JIMMY DUNN -- Nectanebo I (Nakhtnebef) of Sebennytos (modern Sammanud) founded the 30th Dynasty, the last dynasty to be ruled by native Egyptians, late in Egypt's Pharaonic Period. His birth name was Nakhtnebef, meaning "strong in his Lord", while his throne name was Kheper-Ka-re, meaning "The Soul of Re Abides". Nectanebo was actually the name given to him by the Greeks. The line of 29th Dynasty pharaohs of Egypt hailed from Mendes and Nakhtnebef had been a general under the last of these rulers, known as Nepherites II. In fact, he had suppressed a revolt under the Nepherites II's predecessor, Hakoris. However, he later turned on his royal masters, bringing an abrupt end to the reign of Nepherites II and Egypt's 29th Dynasty. Nectanebo I was the son of General Djedhor, perhaps a descendent of Nepherites I. He was probably a close associate of the Athenian general, Khabrias (Chabrias), who had commanded the Greek mercenaries that formed the core of Hakoris' army in the later part of that king's reign Khabrias probably helped Nectanebo in his rise to power, though he was later recalled to Athens in the winder of 380/379 BC. It is known that Nectanebo I married a lady with the Greek name Ptolemais, and it is not unlikely that she was a daughter of Khabrias. We also know that he was married a woman named Udjashu, who provided him with a son and heir, Teos (Djedhor). Near the beginning of his reign a combined Persian and Greek force entered Egypt from the western (Mendes) side of the Delta, bypassing the strongly fortified but common access through the eastern Delta fortress of Pelusium. They arrived by both land and sea, with the sea fleet consisting almost entirely of Greeks. These forces were sent by the Persian, Artaxerxes II, who's family had once ruled Egypt, under the leadership of the Athenian Iphicrates and the Persian Pharnabazes in 373 BC in order to forcefully return Egypt to the Persian fold. Fortunately for Nectanebo I, after being defeated at first, the strange allies delayed their march on Memphis because of their mistrust in each other. Iphicrates wanted to march directly on Memphis, while Pharnabazes, fearing the Greeks were planning to capture Egypt for themselves, insisted on waiting for the main body of Persian troops to arrive by land. That gave Nectanebo I time to regroup and launch a successful counter attack, forcing the invading forces out of Egypt. Local conditions played a large part in his success. The inundation of the Nile gave the Egyptians the advantage in a flooded landscape they knew very well. Afterwards, Nectanebo I seems to have suffered few other problems. In this late period just before the Second Persian Period and then afterwards, the Macadonian takeover of Egypt, Nectanebo I achieved much during a stable, 18 year reign. Nectanebo was consciously archaistic in his titulary, using the same prenomen as Senusret I of the 12th Dynasty. However, his building and artisitic activity moved away from classic Egyptian proportions and towards those associated with monuments of the Greek dominated Egypt. He restored dilapidated temples throughout the land. He awarded new endowments and tax exemptions to a number of religious institutions. He was responsible for erecting the First Pylon in the Temple of Amun at Karnak, and in particular, he erected the oldest standing section of the Temple Complex at Philae, that would later blossom into one of the most sacred and delightful sites during the Greek Period. During his reign, there was also a growth in the popularity of the cults of sacred animals, reflected in new construction at Hermopolis Magna, Mendes (Tell el-Rub'a) and Saft el-Hinna. We also know of a mamissi that was built during the time of Nectanebo I at the Temple of Hathor at Dendera, and his building work is also attested by a Kiosk at El-Kab, at the Osiris Temple at Abydos, several temples in the area of Memphis and Saqqara, at the Khonsu-Neferhotep I Temple at Tanis, a temple in the area of Qantir, the Neith Temple at Sais, relief blocks found at Munagat el-Kuba, restorations at Tell el-Balamun and enlargement of the temple of Hibis in the Kharga Oasis. He was also responsible for a number of sculptures that found their way to the Hellenistic capital of Alexandria, and later to Rome, where they formed the basis of some of the earliest assessments of Ancient Egyptian Art. Toward the end of his reign, an attempt was made to renew old alliances between Egypt and the Hellenic powers of Athens and Sparta, with the view of opposing the next assault on the part of the Persians, who were certainly not ready to abandon what they regarded to be their rebellious province of Egypt. Prior to his death, Nactanebo I established his successor, Teos, as a co-regent. Nectanebo I was probably buried at Sebannytos, but no definite site as been unearthed. A few of his shabtis figures are known, while the broken remains of his sarcophagus have been recovered from reuse in various buildings in Cairo, showing it to by stylistically similar to 18th Dynasty examples.

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Nectanebo I in Wikipedia

Nectanabo (or more properly Nekhtnebef) was a pharaoh of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt. In 380 BC, Nectanebo deposed and killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of Egyptian kings. He seems to have spent much of his reign defending his kingdom from Persian reconquest with the occasional help of troops from Athens or Sparta. He is also known as a great builder who erected many monuments and temples throughout his long and stable 18 year reign. Nectanebo I restored numerous dilapidated temples throughout Egypt and erected a small kiosk on the sacred island of Philae which would become one of the most important religious cites in Ancient Egypt.[1] This was the first phase of the temple of Isis at Philae; he also built at Elkab, Memphis and the Delta sites of Saft el-Hinna and Tanis.[2] He also significantly erected a stela before a pylon of Ramesses II at Hermopolis.[3] He also built the first pylon in the temple of Karnak. From about 365 BC, Nectanebo was a co-regent with his son Teos, who succeeded him. He died in 362 BC and was succeeded by Teos on the throne.

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Teos in Tour Egypt

TEOS (TACHOS)(DJEHO) 365-360 B.C. 30TH DYNASTY Teos was the second ruler of the Thirtieth Dynasty and was the son of his predecessor, Nectanebo I. After his father had died, Teos took over the throne and planned an attack on the Persians. He had the help of mercenaries from Greece, but his own generals disagreed with his leadership and the entire event was a fiasco. He was deserted by both the Greeks and the Egyptians. He fled to Persia by way of Arabia and Artaxerxes II, the ruler of Persia, gave him refuge. He lived in Persia until his death.

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Teos of Egypt in Wikipedia

Teos was Pharaoh of Egypt between the years of 362 to 360 BC; he had been co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365. He was overthrown by Nectanebo II with the aid of Agesilaus II of Sparta and was forced to flee to Persia by way of Arabia. The Persian king Artaxerxes II gave him refuge, and Teos lived in Persian exile until his death.

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Nectanebo II in Tour Egypt

NECTANEBO II, THE LAST ANCIENT EGYPTIAN NATIVE KING by Jimmy Dunn -- The 30th Dynasty was not one of Egypt's greatest moments, despite the fact that Nectanebo I, the founder of the dynasty, may have provided us with a last a vision of the empire's past. By the end of the 30th Dynasty and the reign of Nectanebo II, Egypt would no longer be ruled by true Egyptians, and in many ways, they would not be ruled again purely by Egyptians until the 1952 revolt that brought President Nasser into power. His birth name, Nakhthorheb and epithet, mery-hathor, means "strong is His Lord, Beloved of Hathor". His throne name was Snedjem-ib-re Setep-en-inhur, meaning "Pleasing to the Heart of Re, Chosen of Onuris (Osiris)". Nectanebo II upsurped the Egyptian throne in 360 AD away from the son of Nectanebo I (Teos, Tachos). In the fifth century BC, Egypt had been part of the Achaemenid Empire (Persian), but in 404 BC, Egypt regained its independence. Nectanebo I had to repel an offensive by the Persians. When his son went on the offensive against the Persians, taking to the field at the head of an army containing a large contingent of Greek mercenaries under the aging king Agesilaos (Agesilaus) of Sparta, he left his brother, Tjahapimu, in charge of Egypt. Tjahapimu was very possibly Teos' older half brother who was passed over for accession in favor of a child born to Queen Ptolemais (however, some scholars believe Tjahapimu was the son of Teos, making Nectanebo II his grandson). In order to finance the war, Teos had levied heavy taxes at home, and now in his brother's absence, Tjahapimu used this as a pretext for raising the country in revolt. By now, Tjahapimu's son, Nectanabis (Nakhthorheb, the future Nechtanebo II) was serving with the royal army, by now in Syria, and as Plutarch version of the events describes, he managed to gain the support of both his own men and those under Greek command for the rebel cause: "Then, having jointed Tachos, who was making preparations for his campaign [against Persia], he [Agesilaus] was not appointed commander o the entire force, as he was hoping, but only given command of the mercenaries, whilst Chabrias the Athenian was put in charge of the fleet. Tachos himself was commander-in-chief. This was the first thing which vexed Agesilaus; then, whilst he found the prince's arrogance and empty pretensions hard to bear, he was compelled to put up with them. He even sailed with him against the Phoenicians, and, setting aside his sense of dignity and his natural instincts, he showed deference and subservience, until he found his opportunity. For Tachos' cousin Nectanabis [i.e. the future Nectanebo II], who commanded part of the forces, rebelled, and, having been proclaimed king by the Egyptians and having sent to Agesilaus begging him for help, he made the same appeal to Chabrias, offering both men great rewards. Tachos presently learned of this and begged them to stand by him, whereupon Chabrias tried by persuasion and exhortation to keep Agesilaus on good terms with Tachos...The Spartans sent a secret dispatch to Agesilaus ordering him to see to it that he did what was in Sparta's best interests, so Agesilaus took his mercenaries and transferred his allegiance to Nectanabis... Tachos, deserted by his mercenaries, took flight, but meanwhile another pretender rose up against Nectanabis in the province of Mendes and was declared king" The individual from Mendes may have been a scion of the former 29th Dynasty which hailed from that city. In fact, a brief civil war did break out and for a time Nectanebo II was besieged in Tanis, though Agesilaos came to his rescue. Afterwards, Agesilaos was sent home with a bonus of 250 talents of gold. Nectanebo II had won out and Egypt was his, at lest for a while. The next threat came from Teos, acting as a Persian proxy, but he soon died and with the help of Nektanebo II's Greek forces, he was able to maintain Egypt's independence for the time being. However, it must be noted that the Mendes contender did in fact thwart the last attempt by an Egyptian pharaoh to conquer the Near East, for Nectanebo II had been obliged to return to Egypt in order to but down this rebellion against his authority. Nectanebo II ruled Egypt for some eighteen years. During a period of quit while Persia suffered from its own dynastic squabbles, Nectanebo II definitely returned to the old values and stability brought by the gods. Temples were built or refurbished and there are actually more than a hundred Egyptian sites that show evidence of his attentions. The king was also presented as highly pious and under the gods' protection. This is exemplified by a grand stone statue now in the Metropolitan Museum of New York. It depicts Horus the falcon, wearing the Double Crown. Between its legs is a small figure of Nectanebo II wearing the nemes headdress and carrying a curved harpesh and a small shrine. We have records that Nectanebo II personally participated in the burial of an Apis Bull at Saqqara, and also of his role in raising the status of the Buchis bull of Armant to that of the Apis bull of Memphis. There is also inscriptional evidence of acts of piety on his part to Isis of Behbeit el-Hagar (Samannud, ancient Sebennytos, the birthplace of the 30th Dynasty kings), for whom he at least began the construction of an enormous temple (now in ruins), and he also built at Bubastis and was active at Karnak. He also dedicated temples to Isis at Philae and to Amun at Siwa. Sometime during this period, we also know that he buried his probable mother Udjashu, in a fine sarcophagus, the remains of which are now in the Cairo Antiquities Museum. However, the threat of Persia never vanished. By 350 BC, the new Persian ruler Artaxerxes III had sufficiently established authority over most of his empire to contemplate an attack on Egypt. Little is known about this campaign, except for the fact that two mercenary leaders, Lamias of Sparta and Diophantes of Athens, dealt with the Persian generals on behalf of the Egyptians. The Persian defeat must have been devastating, because king Artaxerxes III Ochus now personally started to build a larger army at Babylon, and a navy was gathered at Sidon, one of the towns of Phoenicia. Nectanebo knew what was afoot and knew how to intervene. The people of Sidon felt oppressed by the sheer size of Artaxerxes' preparations, and the Egyptian king seems to have told their king Tennes (Phoenician Tabnit) that he would come to their assistance if they rebelled. And so it happened: the Sidonians revolted and Nectanebo duly sent 4,000 Greek mercenaries to Sidon. They were commanded by one of the best Greek generals, Mentor of Rhodes, who had been forced to flee to Egypt after he had joined a failed revolt against the Persians. However, in the Autumn of 343 BC, the Persian king returned and was successful in penetrating northern Egypt, after having whittled down Egypt's potential allies. Greek mercenaries fought for both Egypt and Persia and it was with some 20,000 Greeks, forming about one-fifth of his army, that Nectanebo II stood at Pelusium in the eastern Delta. Regrettably, the Greek generalship on the Persian side outflanked the Egyptians, and Pelusium fell, followed by other Delta strongholds. This time there was no inundation that served Nectanebo I so well, and Nectanebo II was driven out of Memphis. He apparently retreated to Upper (southern) Egypt where he was able to stage a short-lived revival after Artaxerxes returned home at the end of the campaigning season. However, the Persians returned, and Nectanebo II was eventually forced to retreat further southwards into Nubia, where he perhaps found refuge in the Kushite court. His unused sarcophagus of black granite, finely carved all over with texts and scenes from the Book of What is in the Underworld, was later used as a ritual bath in Alexandria from where it eventually made its way to the British Museum, a mute monument to the last truly Egyptian king of ancient times. A curious postscript to Nectanebo II is a medieval legend (recounted in the 'Alexander Romance'). This tells how Nectanebo was said to have fled to the Macedonian court (i.e. to the anti-Persain faction). There he was recognized as a great Egyptian magician, and attracted the attentions of the Macedonian king's (Philip II's) wife Olympias, becoming the unbeknown father of Alexander the Great, thus continuing in due course the pharaoh-bred line legend for Alexander. Though doubtless a fabrication, it may very well explain why Nectanebo II's sarcophagus was made a shrine.

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Nectanebo II in Wikipedia

Nectanebo II (ruled 360 - 343 BC), also known by the name Nakhthoreb, was the third and last king of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt and also the last native Egyptian ruler of the country in antiquity. Nectanebo was placed on the Egyptian throne by the Spartan king Agesilaus II, who helped him overthrow Teos and fight off a rival pretender. After a reign of 17 years, he was defeated by the Persian king Artaxerxes III, and fled first to Memphis then into Upper Egypt, and finally into exile in Nubia, where he vanishes from history. With Nectanebo's flight, all organized resistance to the Persians collapsed, and Egypt once again was reduced to a satrapy of the Persian Empire. Nectanebo II's sarcophagus was found in modern times in a mosque at Alexandria; his intended burial "presumably lay at his native town [of] Sebennytos."[2] At some point in time, the king's sarcophagus was "used as a water container, bath, or a tank for ablutions, as shown by the twelve draining holes drilled around the base."[3] It today resides in the British Museum. Nectanebo's gold stater Nectanebo II has the distinction of being the pharaoh to have minted a gold coin with hieroglyphs. The reverse of the coin has a horse reared on its back legs;[4] the obverse has two hieroglyphs, in ligature, the necklace of gold, nb, upon the nfr symbol for beauty. (Perfect gold, or in modern translation: 'Fine' gold.) [edit]Nectanebo and the Alexander Romance Main article: Alexander Romance There is an apocryphal tale, appearing in the pseudo-historical Alexander Romance, which details another end for the last Egyptian Pharaoh of Egypt. Soon after Alexander the Great's godhood was confirmed by the Oracle of Zeus Ammon, a rumor was begun that Nectanebo II did not travel to Nubia but instead to the court of Philip II of Macedon in the guise of an Egyptian magician. There, while Philip was away on campaign, Nectanebo convinced his wife Olympias that Amun was to come to her and that they would father a son. Nectanebo, disguising himself as Amun, slept with Olympias and from his issue came Alexander.[5] This myth would hold strong appeal for Egyptians who desired continuity and harbored a strong dislike for foreign rule. In the early Ptolemaic tale of Nectanebo and Petesis[6], only preserved in a Greek fragment from the Memphis Serapeum, the Pharaoh has a prophetic dream of Isis, in which the god Onuris is angry with him because of his unfinished temple in Sebennytos. Nectanebo calls in the best sculptor of the realm, Petesis, to finish the job, but he bungles his assignment when he gets drunk and chases a beautiful girl instead. The narrative ends abruptly here, but this is probably the preface to the fall of Egypt to the Persians.[7]

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Ochus (Artaxerxes III) in Tour Egypt

OCHUS (ARTAXERXES III) 343-338 B.C. 31ST DYNASTY Ochus was the first ruler of the Thirty-first Dynasty. He was the king of Persia for twenty years when the Persians defeated the Egyptians and Ochus became ruler over Egypt. He was the son of Artaxerxes II. He ruled over Egypt for six years. He was murdered in 338 BC by his own commander Bagoas in the summer of 338 BC.

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Pinedjem II in Wikipedia

Pinedjem II was a High Priest of Amun at Thebes in Ancient Egypt from 990 BC to 969 BC and was the de facto ruler of the south of the country. He was married to his sister Isetemkheb D (both children of Menkheperre, the High Priest of Amun at Thebes, by Isetemkheb) and also to his niece Nesikhons, the daughter of his brother Smendes II.[1] He succeeded Smendes II, who had a short rule. His children by Isetemkheb D were: Psusennes II[2] Harweben, a Chantress of Amun; buried at Bab el-Gasus[3] (?) Henuttawy, God's Wife of Amun[3] By Neskhons he had four children: two sons, Tjanefer and Masaharta, and two daughters, Itawy and Nesitanebetashru.[2] When Pinedjem II died, his mummy, along with those of his wives and at least one daughter (Nesitanebetashru) were laid to rest in a tomb at Deir el-Bahri, above the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut. Subsequently, the mummies of other previous Theban-based rulers, including the much earlier 18th- and 19th-dynasty pharaohs Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX were gathered together and also laid in this tomb, which was revealed in 1881.

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Psusennes III in Wikipedia

Psusennes III was the High Priest of Amun at Thebes (1080 – 943 BC) at the end of the 21st Dynasty. Little is known of this individual; he is thought by some to be the same person as (King) Psusennes II.[1] His name appears on a document found at the 'mummy cache' DB320 which describes him as a son of the High Priest Pinedjem II. This makes him a possible candidate for Psusennes II because Pinedjem II died in Year 10 of Siamun, who was the immediate predecessor of this Pharaoh.

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Shoshenq I in Tour Egypt

SHESHONQ I, FOUNDER OF EGYPT'S 22ND DYNASTY BY JIMMY DUNN - For rather obvious reasons, the 22nd Dynasty is known as the Libyan or Bubastite dynasty. All the kings of this period are listed by Manetho as being from Bubastis, a city located in the eastern Nile Delta, and their Libyan origin is evident in the founder's name, Sheshonq I (Shoshenq I). They ruled Egypt for about 200 years, beginning in 945 BC. It was a rare occurrence for an outside military power to simply conquer Egypt, and the Libyan takeover of the country was no exception. When foreign rule of Egypt took place, it was almost always by elements who had settled in the country and it was Bubastis that the Libyans eventually dominated, creating a seat of power that would rise up to control the Two Lands. Sheshonq I was not the first Libyan to at least rule a part of Egypt, and in fact, many other Libyan names appear in official capacities before him. By the end of the New Kingdom, Libyans may have made up a majority of the Egyptian army, and by this time, Libyans constituted a substantial and influential presence in Egypt To a certain extent, referring to the Libyans as foreign rulers of Egypt must be put into some prospective. For example, hardly anyone would say that, during the 1960s, the Irish took control of the United States, even though John Kennedy, who was of Irish decent with an obvious Irish name became president. His family had lived in the United States for many years, just as Sheshonq I's family had lived in Egypt for generations. It is likely that Sheshonq I considered himself just as much Egyptian as John Kennedy considered himself American, though perhaps both recognized their heritage. Sheshonq was actually the son-in-law of his predecessor, Psusennes II (though some references provide that it was his son, Osorkon I, who married Psusennes II's daughter named Maatkara), and a nephew of Osorkon the elder. He had, prior to ascending the throne, the strength of the Egyptian military behind him as commander-in-chief of all the armies and was also a trusted adviser to Psusennes II. He was noted in the Theban records as "Great Chief of the Meshwesh", who originally were recruited from Libyan tribes as essentially an internal police force. Like his predecessors, and even the Greeks who would follow him in the not so distant future, he adopted the royal Egyptian titles as his own. He choose to associate himself with the king named Smendes I from the previous dynasty, basing his titles on those of that former ruler. His birth name, Sheshonq I, and epithet (meryamun) translate as "Sheshonq, Beloved of Amun. His throne name was Hedj-kheper-re Setep-en-re, meaning "Bright is the Manifestation of Re, Chosen of Re". Sheshonq I was known as a strong ruler who once again brought together a divided Egypt, which had been fragmented between Thebes in the South and Tanis in the north. Hence, his reign is seen as a highpoint in the otherwise bleak Third Intermediate Period. He was responsible for incorporating his sons into various high offices that allowed him to exercise specific control over important regions of the country. His son, Iuput, became Governor of Upper Egypt, High Priest of Amun and commander-in-chief of the armies, which had the effect of uniting secular and religious elements within the empire. At the same time another son named Djedptahaufankh was able to support his brother as Third Prophet of Amun, while yet another son, Nimlot, became military commander at Herakleopolis. Herakleoplis was near Thebes and this military base could keep that important region in check. He also appointed a chief of an allied Libyan tribe named Nesy as fourth prophet of Amun. Loyalty to the throne was also encouraged by allowing powerful locals to marry the daughters of the royal court. Hence, Shjeshonq I created a stable power base at home, which allowed him, after having put down a small disturbance in the Dakhla Oasis, to turn his attention towards the old Egyptian Near Eastern holdings. After the death of Solomon in 930 BC, Judah was under the control of Rehoboam (Solomon's son), while Israel was ruled by Jeroboam I, and both of these kingdoms were attractive prospects for the new Egyptian ruler. Apparently, Jeroboam I had led an open rebellion against Solomon before his death, weakening both kingdoms. Sheshonq, known in the Hebrew Bible as Shishak, defeated both in 925 BC during a very successful campaign. In fact, one would have to look back to the reign of Ramesses III in Egypt's 20th Dynasty to find an equal to this victorious expedition. The expedition opened with an engagement in the area of Bitter Lakes against Bedouins. Afterwards, he went first against Judah, setting out from Gaza with 1,200 chariots and an army that included Libyans and Nubians. He penetrated some distance into the Negev, capturing the principal towns of Judah before he arriving at the walls of Jerusalem. He surrounded the city but was bought off by being given, according to 1 Kings 14:26, "the treasures of the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the King's house; he even took away all: and he took away all the shields of gold which Solomon had made". Apparently, the only treasure that Rehoboam was able to retain was the most sacred Ark of the Covenant. Now, Sheshonq I turned his attention to Israel, forcing Jeroboam, who had once been under Sheshonq I's protection, to flee over the Jordan River. He was nevertheless captured by an Egyptian patrol. Sheshonq finally halted at Megiddo, which had been conquered by Tuthmosis III 500 years before. There, he erected a victory stele in the manner of his predecessors before marching southwards over Mount Carmel and returning to Egypt by way of Ashkelon and Gaza. He likewise inscribed his success on the walls of the Temple of Amun at Thebes (modern Luxor). He reopened the sandstone quarries at Gebel el-Silsila for building material so that Iuput, as High Priest of Amun could build a great new court (the Babastite Portal) before the Second Pylon at Karnak. Its south outer wall was decorated with a huge relief of Sheshonq I's victories, provided through the grace of Amun. From his inscriptions at Karnak, we find at a list of cities effected by his military campaign in the Levant. Those that can be somewhat identified From a statue of Sheshonq I discovered in the sanctuary of the goddess Baalat-Gebal at Byblos, it also appears that this pharaoh also had a good relationship with King Abibaal. Most scholars believe that this was due to economic trade, rather than any military actions, and apparently he also established trade relationships with others in the Levant. Notably, it was during the reign of Sheshonq I, while his son Iuput was at Thebes, that many of the royal mummies in the Valley of the Kings were moved to a cache in a arge gallery just south of Deir el-Bahari, which had a few years earlier been adapted as the tomb of the late High Priest Pinudjem II Unfortunately for Sheshonq I, his life ended in about 924 BC, soon after the Palestinian campaigns, and with it, Egypt's new found success in the Levant. Most scholars believe that he was buried with his ancestors in the group of royal tombs at Tanis, though no specific grave has ever been discovered. He may have even been buried in his native town of Bubastis. His mummy was encased in a cartonnage and a sliver coffin, both having Horus falcon heads to identify the king with Osiris-Sokar. The only item of Sheshonq I's funerary equipment that has been unearthed is a canopic Chest, which seemed to have been modeled on an earlier 18th or 19th Dynasty type. Regrettably, this artifact first appeared on the antiquities market and there was no information on the location where it was discovered. He was succeed by a son named Osorkon I, but he was honored by four other kings of the 22nd and 23rd Dynasty who also took his name.

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Sheshonk I in Wikipedia

Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq), also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq), was a Meshwesh Berber king of Egypt-of Libyan ancestry[2]-and the founder of the Twenty- second Dynasty. Shoshenq I was the son of Nimlot A, Great Chief of the Ma, and his wife Tentshepeh A, a daughter of a Great Chief of the Ma herself. He is perhaps mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as Shishaq. Chronology - The conventional dates for his reign as established by Kenneth Kitchen are 945 – 924 BC but his time-line has recently been revised downwards by a few years to 943–922 BC since he may well have lived for up to 2 to 3 years after his successful campaign in Canaan, conventionally dated to 925 BC. As Edward Wente of the University of Chicago noted on page 276 of his JNES 35(1976) Book Review of Kitchen's study of the Third Intermediate Period, there is "no certainty" that Shoshenq's 925 BC campaign terminated just prior to this king's death a year later in 924 BC. The English Egyptologist, Morris Bierbrier also dated Shoshenq I's accession "between 945-940 BC" in his seminal 1975 book concerning the genealogies of Egyptian officials who served during the late New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period.[3] Bierbrier based his opinion on Biblical evidence collated by W. Albright in a BASOR 130 paper. This development would also account for the mostly unfinished state of decorations of Shoshenq's building projects at the Great Temple of Karnak where only scenes of the king's Palestinian military campaign are fully carved. Building materials would first have had to be extracted and architectural planning performed for his great monumental projects here. Such activities usually took up to a year to complete before work was even begun. This would imply that Shoshenq I likely lived for a period in excess of one year after his 925 BC campaign. On the other hand, if the Karnak inscription was concurrent with Shoshenq's campaign into Canaan, the fact that it was left unfinished would suggest this campaign occurred in the last year of Shoshenq's reign. This possibility would also permit his 945 BC accession date to be slightly lowered to 943 BC. The most recent and comprehensive study of Ancient Egyptian chronology affirms the theory that Sheshonq I came to power in 943 BC rather than 945 BC as is conventionally assumed based on epigraphic evidence from the Great Dakhla stela, which dates to Year 5 of his reign.[4] The editors of the 2006 book 'Ancient Egyptian Chronology' write: "The chronology of early Dyn. 22 depends on dead reckoning. The sum of the highest attested regnal dates for Osorkon II, Takelot I, Osorkon I, and Shoshenq I, added to 841 BC as year 1 of Shoshenq III, yields 938 BC at the latest for year 1 of Shoshenq I...[However] The large Dakhla stela provides a lunar date in the form of a wrš feast in year 5 of Shoshenq [I], yielding 943 BC as his year 1."[5] [edit]Biblical Shishak Sheshonk I is frequently identified, at least in popular works, with the Egyptian king "Shishaq" (שׁישׁק Šîšaq, transliterated), who, according to the Book of Kings, invaded Judah in the time of king Jeroboam. While the names are similar, the campaigns of the historical Sheshonk in Canaan do not match the outline of events in the Book of Kings.[6] Origins and family - Shoshenq I was the son of Nimlot A and Tentsepeh A. His paternal grandparents were the Chief of the MA Shoshenk (A) and his wife Mehytenweskhet A. Prior to his reign, Shoshenq I had been the Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Army, and chief advisor to his predecessor Psusennes II, as well as the father-in-law of Psusennes' daughter Maatkare. He also held his father's title of Great Chief of the Ma or Meshwesh, which is an Egyptian word for Berbers of Libya. His ancestors were Libyans who had settled in Egypt during the late New Kingdom, probably at Herakleopolis Magna,[7] though Manetho claims Shoshenq himself came from Bubastis, a claim for which no supporting physical evidence has yet been discovered. Significantly, his Libyan uncle Osorkon the Elder had already served on the throne for at least six years in the preceding 21st Dynasty; hence, Shoshenq I's rise to power was not wholly unexpected. As king, Shoshenq chose his eldest son, Osorkon I, as his successor and consolidated his authority over Egypt through marriage alliances and appointments. He assigned his second son, Iuput A, the prominent position of High Priest of Amun at Thebes as well as the title of Governor of Upper Egypt and Commander of the Army to consolidate his authority over the Thebaid.[8] Finally, Shoshenq I designated his third son, Nimlot B, as the "Leader of the Army" at Herakleopolis in Middle Egypt.[9] Foreign policy This Karnak temple wall depicts a list of city states conquered by Shoshenq I in his Near Eastern military campaigns. He pursued an aggressive foreign policy in the adjacent territories of the Middle East, towards the end of his reign. This is attested, in part, by the discovery of a statue base bearing his name from the Lebanese city of Byblos, part of a monumental stela from Megiddo bearing his name, and a list of cities in the region comprising Syria, Philistia, Phoenicia, the Negev and the Kingdom of Israel, among various topographical lists inscribed on the walls of temples of Amun at al-Hibah and Karnak. Unfortunately there is no mention of either an attack nor tribute from Jerusalem, which has led some to suggest that Sheshonk was not the Biblical Shishak. The fragment of a stela bearing his cartouche from Megiddo has been interpreted as a monument Shoshenq erected there to commemorate his victory.[10] Some of these conquered cities include Ancient Israelite fortresses such as Megiddo, Taanach and Shechem. Burial - He was succeeded by his son Osorkon I after a reign of 21 Years. According to the British Egyptologist Aidan Dodson, no trace has yet been found of the tomb of Shoshenq I; the sole funerary object linked to Shoshenq I is a canopic chest of unknown provenance that was donated to the Ägyptisches Museum Berlin (ÄMB 11000) by Julius Isaac in 1891.[11] This may indicate his tomb was looted in antiquity, but this hypothesis is unproven. Egyptologists differ over the location of Sheshonq I's burial and speculate that he may have been buried somewhere in Tanis-perhaps in one of the Anonymous royal tombs here-or in Bubastis. However, Troy Sagrillo in a GM 205 (2005) paper observes that "there are only a bare handful of inscribed blocks from Tanis that might name the king (i.e., Shoshenq I) and none of these come from an in situ building complex contemporary with his reign."[12] Hence, it is more probable that Shoshenq was buried in another city in the Egyptian Delta. Sagrillo offers a specific location for Shoshenq's burial -the Ptah temple enclosure of Memphis-and notes that this king built: "fairly widely in the area, undoubtedly including a pylon and forecourt at the Ptah temple (Kitchen, TIPE 1996, pp.149-150)...It is, therefore, not completely improbable that he (ie: Shoshenq I) built his tomb in the region. The funerary cult surrounding his 'House of Millions of Years of Shoshenq, Beloved of Amun' was functioning several generations after its establishment at the temple (Ibrahem Aly Sayed 1996, p.14). The 'House of Millions of Years of Shoshenq, Beloved of Amun' was probably the forecourt and pylon of the Ptah temple, which, if the royal necropoleis at Tanis, Saïs, and Mendes are taken as models, could very well have contained a royal burial within it or the temenos."[13] Sagrillo concludes by observing that if Shoshenq I's burial place was located at Memphis, "it would go far in explaining why this king's funerary cult lasted for some time at the site after his death."[13] While Shoshenq's tomb is currently unknown, the burial of one of his prominent state officials at Thebes, the Third Prophet of Amun Djedptahiufankh, was discovered intact in Tomb DB320 in the 19th Century. Inscriptions on Djedptahiufankh's Mummy bandages show that he died in or after Year 11 of this king. His Mummy was discovered to contain various gold bracellets, amulets and precious carnelian objects and give a small hint of the vast treasures that would have adorned Shoshenq I's tomb. Legacy - Modern Culture - Raiders of the Lost Ark, a 1981 American action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg, Written by George Lucas and Philip Kaufman. It is the first film in the Indiana Jones franchise, and pits Indiana Jones against the Nazis, who search for the Ark of the Covenant, in an attempt to make their army invincible. 'Sheshonk' was mentioned as 'Shishak' in the dialogue near 00:17:28 : Indiana: "The Hebrews put the broken pieces in the Ark. When they settled in Canaan, they put it in the Temple of Solomon ." Colonel Musgrove: "ln Jerusalem." Indiana: "Where it stayed for many years, until, whoosh, it's gone." Major Eaton: "Where?" Indiana: "Nobody knows where or when. An Egyptian Pharaoh, Shishak,invaded Jerusalem about 980 BC, and may have taken the Ark to the city of Tanis and hidden it in a secret chamber called the Well of Souls. About a year after the Pharaoh returned to Egypt, the city of Tanis was consumed by the desert in a year-long sandstorm. Wiped clean by the wrath of God."

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Osorkon I in Tour Egypt

OSORKON (SEKHEMKHEPERRE-SETEPENRE) 924-909 B.C. 22ND DYNASTY Osorkon I is in the second king of the Twenty-second Dynasty. Between the reigns of Osorkon I and Takelot I, a Shoshenq II is often shown as a co-regent for a brief period of time.

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Osorkon I in Wikipedia

The son of Shoshenq I and his chief consort, Karomat A, Osorkon I was the second king of Egypt's 22nd Dynasty and ruled around 922 BC-887 BC. He succeeded his father Shoshenq I who probably died within a year of his successful 923 BC campaign against the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Osorkon I's reign is known for many temple building projects and was a long and prosperous period of Egypt's History. His highest known date is a "Year 33 Second Heb Sed" inscription found on the bandage of Nakhtefmut's Mummy which held a bracellet inscribed with Osorkon I's praenomen: Sekhemkheperre. This date can only belong to Osorkon I since no other early Dynasty 22 king ruled for close to 30 years until the time of Osorkon II. Other mummy linens which belong to his reign include three separate bandages dating to his Regnal Years 11, 12, and 23 on the mummy of Khonsmaakheru in Berlin. The bandages are anonymously dated but definitely belong to his reign because Khonsmaakheru wore leather bands that contained a menat-tab naming Osorkon I.[1] Secondly, no other king who ruled around Osorkon I's reign had a 23rd Regnal Year including Shoshenq I who died just before the beginning of his Year 22. While Manetho gives Osorkon I a reign of 15 Years in his Ægyptiaca, this is most likely an error for 35 Years based on the evidence of the second Heb Sed bandage, as Kenneth Kitchen notes. Osorkon I's throne name--Sekhemkheperre--means "Powerful are the Manifestations of Re." [2] Osorkon I's successor Although Osorkon I is thought to have been directly succeeded by his son Takelot I, it is possible that another ruler, Heqakheperre Shoshenq II, intervened briefly between these two kings because Takelot I was a son of Osorkon I through Queen Tashedkhons, a secondary wife of this king. In contrast, Osorkon I's senior wife was Queen Maatkare B, who may have been Shoshenq II's mother. However, Shoshenq II could also have been another son of Shoshenq I since the latter was the only other king to be mentioned in objects from Shoshenq II's intact royal tomb at Tanis aside from Shoshenq II himself. These objects are inscribed with either Shoshenq I's praenomen Hedjkheperre Shoshenq (though this is not certain as it requires reading the objects as a massive hierogylyphic text), or Shoshenq, Great Chief of the Meshwesh, which was Shoshenq I's title before he became king. Since Derry's forensic examination of his Mummy reveals him to be a Man in his fifties upon his death, Shoshenq II could have lived beyond Osorkon's 35 year reign and Takelot I's 13 year reign to assumed the throne for a few short years. An argument against this hypothesis is the fact that most kings of the period were commonly named after their grandfathers, and not their fathers. While the British scholar Kenneth A. Kitchen views Shoshenq II to be the High Priest of Amun at Thebes Shoshenq C,[3] and a short-lived coregent of Osorkon I who predeceased his father, the well-respected German Egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath in his seminal 1997 book, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, maintains that Shoshenq II was rather an independent king of Tanis who ruled the 22nd Dynasty in his own right for c.2 Years.[4] von Beckerath's hypothesis is supported by the fact that Shoshenq II employed a complete royal titulary along with a distinct prenomen Heqakheperre and his intact tomb at Tanis was filled with numerous treasures including jewelled pectorals and bracellets, an impressive falconheaded silver coffin and a gold face mask–items which indicate a genuine king of the 22nd Dynasty. More significantly, however, no mention of Osorkon I's name was preserved on any ushabtis, jars, jewelry or other objects within Shoshenq II's tomb. This situation would be improbable if he was indeed Osorkon I's son, and was buried by his father, as Kitchen's Chronology suggests. These facts, taken together, imply that Sheshonq II ruled on his own accord at Tanis and was not a mere coregent. Manetho's Epitome states that "3 Kings for 25 years" separate Osorkon I from a Takelot (Takelothis).[5] This could be an error on Manetho's part or an allusion to Shoshenq II's reign. It may also be a reference to the recently discovered early Dynasty 22 king Tutkheperre, whose existence is now corroborated by an architectural block from the Great Temple of Bubastis, where Osorkon I and Osorkon II are well attested monumentally.[6] Aftermath Osorkon I's reign in Egypt was peaceful and uneventful; however, both his son and grandson, Takelot I and Osorkon II respectively, later encountered difficulties controlling Thebes and Upper Egypt within their own reigns since they had to deal with a rival king: Harsiese A. Osorkon I's tomb has never been found.

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Takelot in Tour Egypt

TAKELOT I (USERMARE-SETEPENAMUN) 909-? B.C. 22ND DYNASTY Takelot I was the third king of the Twenty-second Dynasty. He was the successor to Osorkon I, but is shown to have had a co- regent, Sheshonq II, for a brief period before his reign began.

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Takelot I in Wikipedia

Hedjkheperre Setepenre Takelot I was a son of Osorkon I and Queen Tashedkhons who ruled Egypt for 13 Years according to Manetho. Takelot would marry Queen Kapes who bore him Osorkon II. Initially, Takelot was believed to be an ephemeral Dynasty 22 Pharaoh since no monuments at Tanis or Lower Egypt could be conclusively linked to his reign, or mentioned his existence, except for the famous Pasenhor Serapeum stela which dates to Year 37 of Shoshenq V. However, since the late 1980s, Egyptologists have assigned several documents mentioning a king Takelot in Lower Egypt to him rather than Takelot II. Takelot I's reign was relatively short when compared to the three decades-long reigns of his father Osorkon I and son, Osorkon II. Takelot I, rather than Takelot II, was the king Hedjkheperre Setepenre Takelot who is attested by a Year 9 stela from Bubastis as well as the owner of a partly robbed Royal Tomb at Tanis which belonged to this ruler as the German Egyptologist Karl Jansen-Winkeln reported in a 1987 Varia Aegyptiaca 3 (1987), pp. 253-258 paper.[1] Evidently, both king Takelots used the same prenomen or royal name: Hedjkheperre Setepenre. The main difference between Takelot I and II is that Takelot I never employed the Theban inspired epithet 'Si-Ese' (Son of Isis) in his titulary, unlike Takelot II.[2] As Kenneth Kitchen writes in the third (1996) edition of his book on The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt: "It was Takeloth I who first used the prenomen Hedjkheperre Setepenre (in imitation of his grandfather Shoshenq I), being followed in this [practise] by Takeloth II. The only clear distinction...between Takeloth I and II (as both use the epithet Meriamun) is that Takeloth II uses also the epithet Si-Ese, "Son of Isis", in his second cartouche. A second marker suggested by Jansen-Winkeln (with some reserve) is that Takeloth I has his name spelt with the vertical t-sign (Gardiner U33, ti becoming t), while [both] Takeloth II and III use the small loaf t-sign (X 1), and the rope-tether sign (V 13). This criterion...seems sound. This would suggest attributing to Takeloth I (not II) a donation-stela of Year 9 (from Bubastis), another in Berlin (also from Bubastis) and a fragment in the former Grant collection. This also bears on the high priests of Ptah at Memphis and the Serapeum. There, a block is known bearing the name of a high priest Merenptah and a pair of cartouches hitherto attributed to Takeloth II which, in fact, correspond precisely to those now attributable to Takeloth I (no Si- Ese; tall t). Therefore it seems proper to move this priest back in time to the reign of Takeloth I."[2] Tomb The evidence that the royal Tanite tomb belonged to Takelot I was suggested long ago by the presence of grave goods found within the burial which mentioned his known parents: "namely a Gold Bracelet (Cairo JE 72199) and an alabaster Jar (Cairo JE 86962) of Osorkon I, and a Ushabti figure of Queen Tashedkhons."[3] In addition, a heart scarab found in the king's burial gave his name simply as "Takelot Meryamun" without the Si-Ese epithet used by Takelot II. Recent confirmation of this circumstantial evidence was published by the German scholar Jansen-Winkeln in 1987.[4] His examination of several inscriptions written on the tomb's walls proved beyond doubt that the person buried here could only be Takelot I, Osorkon II's father. Jansen-Winkeln's conclusions have been accepted by Egyptologists today including Professor Kenneth Kitchen. Osorkon II arranged for this aforementioned inscription to be carved on a scene in his tomb where Osorkon is depicted adoring Osiris and Udjo (as a uraeus). " [Made?] by the King of the South & North Egypt, Lord of Both Lands, Usimare Setepenamun, Son of Re, Lord of Crowns, Osorkon II Meryamun, [to furbish] the Osiris (ie: deceased) King Takelot Meryamun in his Mansion which is [an abode] of the Sun-disc: I have caused him to rest in this Mansion in the vicinity of 'Hidden-of Name' (Amun), according to the doing by a son of benefactions for his father, [to] furbish the one who has made his fortune in conformity with that Horus Son-of-Isis, commanded for his father, Wennufer. How pleasant (it is) in my heart, for the Lord of the Gods! " Above the inscription was carved the cartouche of Osorkon II and the following text. " A Son, furbishing the one who created (ie: begot) him.[5] " This Text establishes that Osorkon II honoured his father by reburying him in the Tanite royal tomb complex. Takelot I's final resting place forms the third chamber of Osorkon II's tomb which means that Osorkon II interred his father within the walls of his own tomb. Takelot I was buried in an usurped Middle Kingdom sarcophagus that was inscribed with his own Authority Takelot I's authority was not fully recognised in Upper Egypt, and Harsiese A, or another local Theban king, challenged his power there. Several Nile Quay Texts at Thebes mention two sons of Osorkon I namely the High Priests of Amun Iuwelot and Smendes III in Years 5, 8 and 14 of an anonymous king who can only be Takelot I since Takelot I was their brother.[7] Uniquely, however, the Quay Texts specifically omit any reference to the identity of the king himself. This might suggest that there was a dispute in the royal succession following Osorkon I's death in Upper Egypt, which seriously impaired Takelot I's control there. Harsiese A, as the son of the High Priest Shoshenq C and grandson of Osorkon I, or a hypothethical king named Maatkheperre Shoshenq must have appeared as a rival. The Theban priests henceforth, chose to avoid any involvement in this dispute by deliberately leaving the name of the king in the Quay Texts 'Blank' rather than choosing sides, as G. Broekman notes in his study of the Karnak Quay Texts.[8] This situation was ultimately later resolved by Osorkon II who is clearly attested as Pharaoh at Thebes by his 12th Regnal Year, according to Nile Quay Text No.8 and Text No.9.

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Shoshenq II in Tour Egypt

SHOSHENQ II (HEQAKHEPERRE-SETEPENRE) ?-883 B.C. 22ND DYNASTY Shoshenq II is thought to have been the co-regent during the period between Osorkon I and Takelot I during the Twenty- second Dynasty. His mummy was found at Tanis in the tomb of Psusennes I.

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Shoshenq II in Wikipedia

Heqakheperre Shoshenq II was an Egyptian king of the 22nd dynasty of Egypt. He was the only ruler of this Dynasty whose tomb was not plundered by tomb robbers. His final resting place was discovered within Psusennes I's tomb at Tanis by Pierre Montet in 1939. Montet removed the coffin lid of Shoshenq II on March 20, 1939, in the presence of king Farouk of Egypt himself.[1] It proved to contain a large number of jewel-encrusted bracelets and pectorals, along with a beautiful hawkheaded silver coffin and a gold funerary mask.[2] The gold facemask had been placed upon the head of the king.[3] Montet later discovered the intact tombs of two Dynasty 21 kings-Psusennes I and Amenemope a year later in February and April 1940 respectively. Shoshenq II's prenomen, Heqakheperre Setepenre, means "The Manifestation of Re rules, Chosen of Re."[4] Shoshenq II's enigmatic identity - There is a small possibility that Shoshenq II was the son of Shoshenq I. Two bracelets from Shoshenq II's tomb mention king Shoshenq I while a pectoral was inscribed with the title 'Great Chief of the Ma Shoshenq,' a title which Shoshenq I employed under Psusennes II before he became king.[5] These items may be interpreted as either evidence of a possible filial link between the two men or just mere heirlooms. A high degree of academic uncertainty regarding the parentage of this king exists: some scholars today contend that Shoshenq II was actually a younger son of Shoshenq I--who outlived Osorkon I and Takelot I- due to the discovery of the aforementioned items naming the founder of the 22nd Dynasty within his intact royal Tanite tomb. As the German Egyptologist Karl Jansen-Winkeln observes in the recent (2005) book on Egyptian chronology: "The commonly assumed identification of this king with the (earlier) HP and son of Osorkon I does not appear to be very probable."[6] A forensic examination of Shoshenq II's body by Dr. Douglas Derry, the head of Cairo Museum's anatomy department, reveals that he was a man in his fifties when he died.[7] Hence, Shoshenq II could have easily survived Osorkon I's 35 year reign and ruled Egypt for a short while before Takelot I came to power. Moreover, Manetho's Epitome explicitly states that "3 Kings" intervened between Osorkon I and Takelot I.[8] Unfortunately, Manetho's suggested position for these three kings cannot be presently verified due to the paucity of evidence for this period and the brevity of their reigns. Another of these poorly known rulers must be the mysterious Tutkheperre Shoshenq who was an early Dynasty 22 ruler since he is now monumentally attested in both Lower and Upper Egypt at Bubastis and Abydos respectively[9] Evidence that Shoshenq II was a predecessor of Osorkon II is indicated by the fact that his hawk-headed coffin is stylistically similar to "a hawk- headed lid" which enclosed the granite coffin of king Harsiese A, from Medinet Habu.[10] Harsiese A was an early contemporary of Osorkon II and likely Takelot I too since the latter did not control Upper Egypt in his reign. This implies that Shoshenq II and Harsiese A were near contemporaries since Harsiese A was the son of the High Priest of Amun Shoshenq C at Thebes and, thus, the grandson of Osorkon I. Harsiese's funerary evidence places Shoshenq II roughly one or two generations after Osorkon I and may date him to the brief interval between Takelot I and Osorkon I at Tanis.[11] In this case, the objects naming Shoshenq I in this king's tomb would simply be heirlooms, rather than proof of an actual filial relation between Shoshenq I and II. This latter interpretation is endorsed by Jürgen von Beckerath, in his 1997 book, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten who believes Shoshenq II was actually an elder brother of Takelot I. The view that Shoshenq II was an elder brother of Takelot I is also endorsed by Norbert Dautzenberg in a GM 144 paper.[12] Von Beckerath, however, places Shoshenq II between the reigns of Takelot I and Osorkon II at Tanis.[13] Kenneth Kitchen, in his latest 1996 edition of '’The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (c.1100–650 BC)’', maintains that Shoshenq II was the High Priest of Amun Shoshenq C, son of Osorkon I and Queen Maatkare, who was appointed as the junior coregent to the throne but predeceased his father.[14] Kitchen suggests such a coregency is reflected on the bandages of the Ramesseum mummy of Nakhtefmut, which contain the dates "Year 3 [Blank]" and "Year 33 Second Heb Sed" respectively.[15] The "Year 33" date mentioned here almost certainly refers to Osorkon I since Nakhtefmut wore a ring which bore this king's prenomen. Kitchen infers from this evidence that Year 33 of Osorkon I is equivalent to Year 3 of Shoshenq II, and that the latter was Shoshenq C himself.[16] Unfortunately, however, the case for a coregency between Osorkon I and Shoshenq II is uncertain because there is no clear evidence that the Year 3 and Year 33 bandages on Naktefmut's body were made at the same time. These two dates were not written on a single piece of mummy linen-which would denote a true coregency. Rather, the dates were written on two separate and unconnected mummy bandages which were likely woven and used over a period of several years, as the burial practices of the Amun priests show. A prime example is the Mummy of Khonsmaakheru in Hamburg which contains separate bandages dating to Years 11, 12, and 23 of Osorkon I-or a minimum period of 12 Years between their creation and final use. (Altenmüller: 2000) A second example is the mummy of Djedptahiufankh, the Third or Fourth Prophet of Amun, which bears various bandages from Years 5, 10, and 11 of Shoshenq I, or a spread of six years in their final use for embalming purposes. As these two near contemporary examples show, the temple priests simply reused whatever old or recycled linens which they could gain access to for their mummification rituals. The Year 3 mummy linen would, hence, belong to the reign of Osorkon's successor. Secondly, none of the High Priest Shoshenq C's own children-the priest Osorkon whose funerary papyrus, P. Denon C, is located in the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg or a second priest named Harsiese (likely king Harsiese A) who dedicated a Bes statue in memory of his father, now in Durham Museum-give royal titles to their father on their own funerary objects. The priest Osorkon only calls himself the "son of the High Priest Shoshenq", rather than the title "King's Son" in his funerary papyri, which would presumably have been created long after his father's death.[17] On Harsiese, Jacquet-Gordon notes that "there is no good evidence to suggest that the 1st prophet Shoshenq C ever claimed or was accorded royal rank."[18] She observes that Harsiese designated his father as a High Priest of Amun on a Bes statue without any accompanying royal name or prenomen and stresses that if Shoshenq C "had [even] the slightest pretensions to royal rank, his son would not have omitted to mention this fact. We must therefore conclude that he had no such pretensions."[19][20] This implies that the High Priest Shoshenq C was not king Shoshenq II. While Shoshenq C's name is indeed written in a cartouche on the Bes statue, no actual royal name or prenomen is ever given. An example of a king's son who enclosed his name in a cartouche on a monument but never inherited the throne was Wadjmose, a son of the New Kingdom king Thutmose I. Independent Reign - More significantly, Shoshenq II's intact burial did not contain a single object or heirloom naming Osorkon I-an unlikely situation if Osorkon did indeed bury his own son. Kitchen notes that this king's burial goods included a pectoral that was originally inscribed for the Great Chief of the Ma Shoshenq I- before the latter became king-and "a pair of bracellets of Shoshenq I as king but no later objects."[21] This situation appears improbable if Shoshenq II was indeed Shoshenq C, Osorkon I's son who died and was buried by his own father. Other Dynasty 21 and 22 kings such as Amenemopet and Takelot I, for instance, employed grave goods which mentioned their parent's names in their own tombs. This suggests that Heqakheperre Shoshenq II was not a son of Osorkon I but someone else, perhaps Shoshenq I. Karl Jansen- Winkeln writes in the most recent book on Egyptian chronology that: "As the individuals interred in the [Tanite] royal tombs often bore objects belonging to their parents, this king (Shoshenq II) is probably a son of Shoshenq I."[6] Since this pharaoh's funerary objects such as his silver coffin, jewel pectorals, and cartonnage all give him the unique royal name Heqakheperre, he was most likely a genuine king of the 22nd Dynasty in his own right, and not just a minor coregent. Jürgen von Beckerath adopts this interpretation of the evidence and assigns Shoshenq II an independent reign of 2 years at Tanis.[13] In the most recent 2005 academic publication on Egyptian chronology, the Egyptologists Rolf Krauss and David Alan Warburton also ascribed Shoshenq II an independent reign of between 1 to 2 years in the 22nd dynasty although they place Shoshenq II's brief reign between that of Takelot I and Osorkon II.[22] The exclusive use of silver for the creation of Shoshenq II's coffin is a potent symbol of his power because silver "was considerably rarer in Egypt than gold."[23] Death and Burial - Dr. Derry's medical examination of Shoshenq II's mummy reveals that the king died as a result of a massive septic infection from a head wound.[24] The final resting place of Shoshenq II was certainly a reburial because he was found interred in the tomb of another king, Psusennes I of the 21st Dynasty. Scientists have found evidence of plant growth on the base of Sheshonq II's coffin which suggests that Shoshenq II's original tomb had become waterlogged;[25] hence, the urgent need to rebury him and his funerary equipment in Psusennes' tomb instead. As Aidan Dodson writes: "It is abundantly clear that the presence of Shoshenq II within NRT III (Psusennes I's tomb) was the result of a reburial. Apart from the presence of the [king's] coffinettes within an extremely mixed group of secondhand jars, the broken condition of the trough of the king's silver coffin showed that it had received rough handling in antiquity."[26]

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Osorkon II in Tour Egypt

OSORKON II, OF EGYPT'S 22ND DYNASTY BY JIMMY DUNN -- Sermon II, a Libyan, succeeded Takelot I in 874 BC to become the fifth ruler of Egypt's 22nd Dynasty, known as the Libyan or Bubastite Dynasty, at Tanis. He was probably a young man when he came to the throne, for high reign was relatively long. Osorkon was this king's birth name, which together with the epithet, meryamun, means "Osorkon, Beloved of Amun" His throne name was User-maaat-re Setepen-amun, meaning "Powerful is the Justice of Re, Chosen of Amun". His set of titles harked back to Shoshenq I and his Horus name incorporated an epithet of Ramesses II: "He whom Ra has crowned king of the Two Lands". At the same time, his cousin, Harsiese became High Priest of Amun at Karnak, perhaps as an appointee of Osorkon II (or his father). However, this was perhaps an unwise move, for it created problems when, in year four of Osorkon II's reign, Harsiese declared himself king in the south. Had Harsiese's father, Shoshenq II lived, it might have been he who would have inherited the throne in the first place. Yet, Harsiese's declaration held little real power, perhaps because of a continuing illness. In fact, his skull contains a hole, apparently made through a surgical procedure, which Harsiese seems to have survived, to judge from the healing shown by the wound. He was buried in the trough of a granite coffin taken from the tomb of Ramesses II's sister, Henutmire. Nevertheless, while Hariese's claim to the throne may have not provided him with much power, it does seem to have limited the rule of Osorkon II. Upon Harsiese's death, Osorkon II consolidated his position by appointing one of his sons, Nimlot C, as High Priest at Karnak. He went on to appoint another son, Sheshonq D, as High Priest of Ptah at Memphis and made his young son (under the age of 10), Harnakhte, High Priest of Amun at Tanis, the royal capital. Obviously, his considerations for this were motivated by politics rather than religiously. In fact, an interesting inscription on a statue from Tanis dated to the reign of Osorkon II petitions Amun to confirm the appointment of his children to various high civil and religious offices. Nimlot C was also governor of Hierakleopolis and Middle Egypt as well as Chief Priest of Arsaphes. Osorkon II initiated major building works during his reign, particularly at Babastis in the temple of the tutelary cat-goddess Bastet. He built for himself there a fine, monumental red granite hall to celebrate his jubilee (sed festival) in year 22 of his reign, which he adorned with reliefs of himself and his wife, Karomama I. It is unknown why he deviated from the normal thirty-year threshold for such a festival, but also recorded with these reliefs was the reintroduction of an 18th Dynasty policy of fiscal exemption for the temples of Egypt, which had once been announced by Amenhotep III at Soleb. He also built at Memphis, Tanis, Thebes and Leontopolis, which would become the seat of power for the following dynasty of kings. At Tanis, his contributions included a new forecourt where a stelophorous statue of the king was discovered, and other outlying structures to the Temple of Amun. Much of the stone for this work was derived from the demolition of Piramesses, Ramesses II's old capital. By the end of his reign, Assyria under king Shalmaneser III (858-828 BC), was wielding considerable influence over the Levant after overcoming northern Mesopotamia and Syria. Hence, in 853, Egypt was forced to confront the threat by aligning with Israel and the neighboring kingdoms, including her old ally Byblos so that together, they could halt the Assyrian advance, which they did at the battle of Qarqar on the Orontes. However, Egypt's involvement in this seems to have been limited to a thousand troops that were contributed to the coalition. During the very last years of Osorkon II's reign, he took an alternative approach to the Assyrian problem, offering gifts of various exotic fauna to the foreign king. Little else is really known about the final years of this king's reign, the last flourish of the 22nd Dynasty, except that Thebes apparently made another attempt at gaining independence. During the king's last two years, apparently he shared the kingdom with a certain Takelot II of Thebes, effectively marking the end of Egypt as a unified state for a period of nearly two centuries. Even a Biblical passage from this period suggests such a split, when it refers to the "kings of Egypt". Upon his death, Osorkon II was buried at Tanis in the tomb (NRT 1) he had earlier appropriated for himself and his late father. He was interred in a huge sarcophagus with a lid carved from the remains of a group- statue of the Ramesside Period. He shared the burial chamber with his young son, Harnakhte, who's tenor as High Priest of Amun at Tanis was apparently short-lived. Unfortunately, his tomb was robbed during antiquity, leaving only a few debris of the hawk-headed coffin and canopic jars behind. He was succeeded by Shoshenq III, who was presumably his son, though no certain evidence survives.

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Osorkon II in Wikipedia

Usermaatre Setepenamun Osorkon II was a pharaoh[1] of the Twenty-second Dynasty of Ancient Egypt and the son of Takelot I and Queen Kapes. He ruled Egypt around 872 BC to 837 BC from Tanis, the capital of this Dynasty. After succeeding his father, he was faced with the competing rule of his cousin, king Harsiese A, who controlled both Thebes and the Western Oasis of Egypt. Osorkon feared the serious challenge posed by Harsiese's kingship to his authority but, when Harsiese conveniently died in 860 BC, Osorkon II ensured that this problem would not recur by appointing his own son Nimlot C as the next High Priest of Amun at Thebes. This consolidated the pharaoh's authority over Upper Egypt and meant that Osorkon II ruled over a united Egypt. Osorkon II's reign would be a time of large scale monumental building and prosperity for Egypt According to a recent paper by Karl Jansen-Winkeln, king Harsiese A, and his son [..du] were only ordinary Priests of Amun, rather than High Priests of Amun, as was previously assumed. The inscription on the Koptos lid for [..du], Harsiese A's son, never once gives him the title of High Priest.[2] demonstrates that the High Priest Harsiese who served is attested in statue CGC 42225 – which mentions this High Priest and is dated explicitly under Osorkon II – was, in fact, Harsiese B. The High Priest Harsiese B served Osorkon II in his final 3 years. This statue was dedicated by the Letter Writer to Pharaoh Hor IX, who was one of the most powerful men in his time.[3] However, Hor IX almost certainly lived during the end of Osorkon II's reign since he features on Temple J in Karnak which was built late in this Pharaoh's reign, along with the serving High Priest Takelot F(the son of the High Priest Nimlot C and therefore, Osorkon II's grandson). Hor IX later served under both Shoshenq III, Pedubast I and Shoshenq VI. This means that the High Priest Harsiese mentioned on statue CGC 42225 must be the second Harsiese: Harsiese B. Foreign policy and monumental program - Despite his astuteness in dealings with matters at home, Osorkon II was forced to be more aggressive on the international scene. The growing power of Assyria meant the latter's increased meddling in the affairs of Israel and Syria – territories well within Egypt's sphere of influence. In 853 BC, Osorkon's forces, in a coalition with those of Israel and Byblos, fought the army of Shalmaneser III at the Battle of Qarqar to a standstill thereby halting Assyrian expansion in Canaan, for a brief while. Osorkon II devoted considerable resources into his building projects by adding to the temple of Bastet at Bubastis which featured a substantial new hall decorated with scenes depicting his Sed festival and images of his Queen Karomama. Mutemhat was another of his wives. Monumental construction was also performed at Thebes, Memphis, Tanis and Leontopolis. Osorkon II also built Temple J at Karnak during the final years of his reign, which was decorated by his then serving High Priest Takelot F(the future Takelot II). Takelot F was the son of the deceased High Priest Nimlot C and, thus, Osorkon II's grandson. Osorkon II was the last great Twenty-second Dynasty king of Tanis who ruled Egypt from the Delta to Upper Egypt because his successor, Shoshenq III lost effectively control of Middle and Upper Egypt in his 8th Year with the emergence of king Pedubast I at Thebes. Many officials are datable under Osorkon II. Ankhkherednefer was inspector of the palace; Djeddjehutyiuefankh was fourth prophet of Amun[4]; Bakenkhons was another prophet of Amun under that king[5]. Reign length - Osorkon II died around 837 BC and is buried in Tomb NRT I at Tanis. He is now believed to have reigned for more than 30 years, rather than just 25 years. The celebrations of his first Sed Jubilee was traditionally thought to have occurred in his 22nd Year but the Heb Sed date in his Great Temple of Bubastis is damaged and can be also be read as Year 30, as Edward Wente notes.[6] The fact that this king's own grandson, Takelot F, served him as High Priest of Amun at Thebes–as the inscribed Walls of Temple J prove – supports the hypothesis of a longer reign for Osorkon II. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Nile Quay Text No.14 (dated to Year 29 of an Usimare Setepenamun) belongs to Osorkon II on palaeographical grounds.[7] This finding suggests that Osorkon II likely did celebrate his first Heb Sed in his 30th Year as was traditionally the case with other Libyan era Pharaohs such as Shoshenq III and Shoshenq V. In addition, a Year 22 Stela from his reign preserves no mention of any Heb Sed celebrations in this year as would be expected, (see Von Beckerath). While Osorkon II's precise reign length is unknown, some Egyptologists such as Jürgen von Beckerath – in his 1997 book Chronology of the Egyptian Pharaohs[8] – and Aidan Dodson have suggested a range of between 38 to 39 years.[9] However, these much higher figures are not verified by the current monumental evidence. Gerard Broekman gives Osorkon II a slightly shorter reign of 34 Years.[10] The respected English Egyptologist, Kenneth Kitchen in a recent 2006 Agypten und Levante article now accepts that if Nile Level Text 14 is correctly attributed to Year 29 of Osorkon II, then the reference to Osorkon's Sed Festival jubilee should be amended from Year 22 to Year 30.[11] Kitchen, in turn, suggests that Osorkon II would have died shortly after in his Year 31.[12] Marriages and children Osorkon II is known to be the father of Tjesbastperu, Nimlot C--a High Priest of Amun at Thebes--Hornakht, a short-lived chief priest of Amun at Tanis and Shoshenq D, a High Priest of Ptah at Memphis who died young in his father's reign.[13] Osrkon's son Nimlot C, in turn, was the father of Takelot II who would later rule Upper Egypt at the same time that Shoshenq III ruled Lower Egypt. Osorkon II appointed his third son Hornakht as the chief priest of Amun at Tanis to strengthen his authority in Lower Egypt; however, this was clearly a political move since Hornakht died prematurely before the age of 10.[14] In this period of Egypt's history, religious and political power were at their most inseparable. Successor - David Aston has convincingly argued in a JEA 75 (1989) paper that Osorkon II was succeeded by Shoshenq III at Tanis rather than Takelot II Si-Ese as Kitchen assumed because none of Takelot II's monuments have been found in Lower Egypt where other genuine Tanite kings such as Osorkon II, Shoshenq III and even the short- lived Pami (at 6-7 Years) are attested on donation stelas, temple walls and/or annal documents.[15] Other Egyptologists such as Gerard Broekman, Karl Jansen-Winkeln, Aidan Dodson and Jürgen von Beckerath have also endorsed this position. von Beckerath also identifies Shoshenq III as the immediate successor of Osorkon II and places Takelot II as a separate king in Upper Egypt.[16] Gerard Broekman writes in a recent 2005 GM article that "in light of the monumental and genealogical evidence," Aston's Chronology for the position of the 22nd Dynasty kings "is highly preferable" to Kitchen's chronology.[17] The only documents which mention a king Takelot in Lower Egypt such as a royal tomb at Tanis, a Year 9 donation stela from Bubastis and a heart scarab featuring the nomen 'Takelot Meryamun' - have now been attributed exclusively to king Takelot I by Egyptologists today including Kitchen himself.[18] The English Egyptologist Aidan Dodson in his book, The Canopic Equipment of the Kings of Egypt, observes that Shoshenq III built "a dividing wall, with a double scene showing Osorkon II" and himself "each adoring an unnamed deity" in the antechamber of Osorkon II's tomb.[19] Dodson concludes that while one may argue Shoshenq III erected the wall to hide Osorkon II's sarcophagus, it made no sense for Shoshenq to create such an elaborate relief if Takelot II had really intervened between him and Osorkon II at Tanis for 25 years unless Shoshenq III was Osorkon II's immediate successor. Shoshenq III must, hence, have wished to associate himself with his predecessor – Osorkon II.[20] Consequently, the case for establishing Takelot II as a Twenty-second Dynasty king and successor to Osorkon II disappears, as Dodson writes. Tomb - The French excavator, Pierre Montet discovered Osorkon II's plundered royal tomb at Tanis on February 27, 1939. It revealed that Osorkon II was buried in a massive granite sarcophagus with a lid carved from a Ramesside era statue. Only some fragments of a Hawk-headed coffin and canopic jars remained in the robbed tomb to identify him.[21] While the tomb had been looted in antiquity, what jewellry which remained "was of such high quality that existing conceptions of the wealth of the northern Twenty-first and Twenty-second dynasties had to be revised."[22]

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Takelot II in Tour Egypt

TAKELOT II (HEDJKHEPERRE-SETEPENRE) 860-835 B.C. 22ND DYNASTY Takelot II was the sixth king of the Twenty-second Dynasty. He was the father to the high priest of Amun, Osorkon. This Osorkon was responsible for the longest inscription on the Bubastite Gate. According to his inscription, during the fifteenth year of Takelot's reign, there was warfare in the North and South and a great convulsion broke out in the land. The remains of Takelot II were found in a usurped sarcophagus from the Middle Kingdom in Tanis. His Canopic jars and ushabti-figures were found with him as well.

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Takelot II in Wikipedia

Hedjkheperre Setepenre Takelot II Si-Ese was a pharaoh of the Twenty-Third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt in Middle and Upper Egypt (840 – 815 BC). He has been identified as the High Priest of Amun Takelot F, son of the High Priest of Amun Nimlot C at Thebes and, thus, the son of Nimlot C and grandson of king Osorkon II according to the latest academic research.[1] Most Egyptologists today including Aidan Dodson,[2] Gerard Broekman,[3] Jürgen von Beckerath,[4] M.A. Leahy and Karl Jansen-Winkeln also accept David Aston's hypothesis[5] that Shoshenq III was Osorkon II's actual successor at Tanis, rather than Takelot II. As Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton write in their comprehensive book on the Royal Families of Ancient Egypt: " Takelot II is likely to have been identical with the High Priest Takelot F, who is stated in [the] Karnak inscriptions to have been a son of Nimlot C, and whose likely period of office falls neatly just before Takelot II's appearance.[6] " Takelot II rather ruled a separate kingdom that embraced Middle and Upper Egypt, distinct from the Tanite Twenty-second Dynasty who only controlled Lower Egypt. Takelot F, the son and successor of the High Priest of Amun Nimlot C, served for a period of time under Osorkon II as a High Priest of Amun before he proclaimed himself as king Takelot II in the final three regnal years of Osorkon II. This situation is attested by the relief scenes on the walls of Temple J at Karnak which was dedicated by Takelot F – in his position as High Priest – to Osorkon II, who is depicted as the celebrant and king.[7] All the documents which mention Takelot II Si-Ese and his son, Osorkon B, originate from either Middle or Upper Egypt (none from Lower Egypt) and a royal tomb at Tanis which named a king Hedjkheperre Setepenre Takelot along with a Year 9 stela from Bubastis are now recognised as belonging exclusively to Takelot I. While both Takelot I and II used the same prenomen, Takelot II added the epithet Si-Ese ("Son of Isis") to his royal titulary both to affiliate himself with Thebes and to distinguish his name from Takelot I. The Crown Prince Osorkon - Takelot II controlled Middle and Upper Egypt during the final 3 Years of Osorkon II and the first 2 decades of Shoshenq III. The majority of Egyptologists today concede that king Osorkon III was the illustrious "Crown Prince and High Priest Osorkon B," son of Takelot II. A misunderstanding arose over his identity because in the Crown Prince's famous Chronicle, which was carved on the Bubastite Portal at Karnak, Osorkon dates his actions by both the regnal years of Takelot II (years 11 through 24) -with a short year 25 left unmentioned - and then by those of the Tanite king, Shoshenq III (from regnal years 22 through 29).[8] While Kenneth Kitchen has interpreted this to mean that Shoshenq III succeeded Takelot II at Tanis, in fact Takelot II and Shoshenq III were likely close contemporaries because immediately after the death of his father in year 25 of Takelot II, Osorkon B started dating his activities to year 22, and not year 1, of Shoshenq III onwards. Consequently, there was never a two decade long break in Osorkon B's struggle to regain control of Thebes (from Year 1 to Year 22 of Sheshonq III) as Kitchen's chronology implies because year 25 of Takelot II is equivalent to year 22 of Sheshonq III.[9] Osorkon B did not immediately ascend to his father's throne presumably because he was involved in a prolonged civil war with his rival Pedubast I and, later, Shoshenq VI, for control of Thebes. Instead, he merely dated his activities to the serving Dynasty 22 Pharaoh at Tanis: Shoshenq III. The Crown Prince Osorkon B was not outmaneuvered to the throne of Tanis by Shoshenq III because both men ruled over separate kingdoms with the 22nd Dynasty controlling Lower Egypt, and Takelot II/Osorkon B ruling over most of Upper Egypt from Herakleopolis Magna to Thebes, where they are monumentally attested. In 1983, a donation stela was discovered by Japanese excavators (Heian Museum 1983) at Tehna which reveals that Osorkon III was once a High Priest of Amun himself. This person can only be the well-known High Priest Osorkon B since no other Theban High Priests named Osorkon are known until the reign of Takelot III half a century later when the latter's son Osorkon F served in this office.[10] Theban Uprising and Conflict - In Year 11 of Takelot II, an insurrection began under Pedubast I whose followers challenged this king's authority at Thebes. Takelot reacted by dispatching his son, Osorkon B, to sail southwards to Thebes and quell the uprising. Osorkon B succeeded in retaining control of the city and then proclaimed himself as the new High Priest of Amun. Some of the rebel's bodies were deliberately burned by Osorkon to permanently deny their souls any hope of an afterlife. However, just four years later, in year 15 of Takelot II, a second major revolt broke out and this time Osorkon B's forces were expelled from Thebes by Pedubast I. This caused a prolonged period of turmoil and instability in Upper Egypt as a prolonged struggle broke out between the competing factions of Takelot II/Osorkon B and Pedubast I/Shoshenq VI for control of Thebes. This conflict would last for 27 long years – from Year 15 to Year 25 of Takelot II and then from Year 22 to Year 39 of Shoshenq III when Osorkon B finally defeated his enemies and conquered this great city. Osorkon B proclaimed himself as king Osorkon III sometime after his victory. On other matters, the Chronicle of Prince Osorkon B, which is carved on the Bubastis Portal at Karnak, records Osorkon's activities between regnal years 11 and 24 of his father and then from regnal years 22 through 29 of Shoshenq III. However, Takelot II's brief 25th year is attested by a donation stela made by his son in his position as High Priest at Thebes shortly before Takelot died; it granted 35 aurourae of land to Takelot II's daughter, Karomama E.[11] As of 2008, no tomb or final resting place has been found for Takelot. Marriages and children - Takelot II married his sister and Great Royal Wife Karomama Merymut II; they were the parents of Osorkon B, the High Priest of Amun at Thebes who later became king Osorkon III.

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Shoshenq III in Tour Egypt

SHOSHENQ III (USERMARE-SETEPENRE) 835-783 B.C. 22ND DYNASTY Shoshenq III was the seventh king of the Twenty-second Dynasty. He is thought to have ruled for fifty-two years. During the twenty- eighth year of his reign, an Apis bull was born. This is recorded on the Serapeum stela by a priest named Pediese. His tomb was found at Tanis and was similar in structure to those of Psusennes I and Osorkon II.

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Shoshenq III in Wikipedia

King Usermaatre Setepenre or Usimare Setepenamun Shoshenq III ruled Egypt's 22nd Dynasty for 39 years according to contemporary historical records. Two Apis Bulls were buried in the fourth and 28th years of his reign and he celebrated his Heb Sed Jubilee in his regnal year 30. Little is known of the precise basis for his successful claim to the throne since he was not a son of Osorkon II and Shoshenq's parentage and family ties are unknown. From Shoshenq III's eighth regnal year, his reign was marked by the loss of Egypt's political unity, with the appearance of Pedubast I at Thebes. Henceforth, the kings of the 22nd Dynasty only controlled Lower Egypt. The Theban High Priest Osorkon B (the future Osorkon III) did date his activities at Thebes and (Upper Egypt) to Shoshenq III's reign but this was solely for administrative reasons since Osorkon did not declare himself king after the death of his father, Takelot II. On the basis of Osorkon B's well known Chronicle, most Egyptologists today accept that Takelot II's 25th regnal year is equivalent to Shoshenq III's 22nd year.[1] Family - Shoshenq III married Djed-Bast-Es-Ankh, the daughter of Takelot, a High Priest of Ptah at Memphis, and Tjesbastperu, Osorkon II's daughter.[2] He had at least 4 sons and 1 daughter: Ankhesen-Shoshenq, Bakennefi A, Pashedbast B, Pimay the 'Great Chief of the Ma', and Takelot C, a Generalissimo. A certain Padehebenbast may also have been another son of Shoshenq III but this is not certain. They all appear to have predeceased their father through his nearly four decade long rule. Shoshenq III's third son, Pimay ('The Lion' in Egyptian), was once thought to be identical with king Pami ('The Cat' in Egyptian), but it is now believed that they are two different individuals, due to the separate orthography and meaning of their names. Instead, it was an unrelated individual named Shoshenq IV who ultimately succeeded Shoshenq III. Shoshenq III was buried in the looted Royal Tomb NRT V at Tanis.

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Pami in Tour Egypt

PAMI (USERMARE-SETEPENRE PIMAY)(PEMAY) 783-773 B.C. 22ND DYNASTY Pami was the eighth king of the Twenty-second Dynasty. He reigned for approximately six years following the fifty-two year reign of Shoshenq III. Pemay is translated to "The Cat".

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Pami in Wikipedia

Usermaatre Setepenre Pami was an Egyptian Pharaoh who ruled Egypt for 7 years. He was a member of the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt of Meshwesh Libyans who had been living in the country since the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt when their ancestors infiltrated into the Egyptian Delta from Libya. Their descendants began to rule Egypt from the mid-940s BC onwards with the ascendance of Shoshenq I to power. Pami's name, in Egyptian, means the Cat or "He who belongs to the Cat [Bastet]."[1] Identity - Pami's precise relationship with his immediate predecessor-Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq IV--is unknown but he is attested as the father of Shoshenq V in a Year 11 Serapeum stela dating to the latter's reign. Pami was once assumed to be Pimay, the third son of Shoshenq III who served as the "Great Chief of Ma" under his father. However, the different orthographies of their names (Pami vs. Pimay) prove that they were 2 different individuals. In addition, the name Pami translates as 'The Cat' in Egyptian whereas the name Pimay means 'The Lion.' Pami's name was mistakenly transcribed as Pimay by past historians based upon the common belief that he was Shoshenq III's son. This is now recognised to be an erroneous translation of this king's nomen/name which should rather be written as Pami. While a previous Dynasty 22 king held the title 'Great Chief of the Ma' before ascending the throne–namely Shoshenq I–Shoshenq III's son, Pimay, was a different man from king Pami because their names are different. Moreover, if Pimay did indeed outlive his father, he should have then succeeded his father as king rather than the obscure Shoshenq IV who is not attested as a son of Shoshenq III. Consequently, it seems certain that Shoshenq III outlived all of his sons through his nearly 4 decade long reign. While a minority of scholars hold to the traditional view that Pami was Pimay, a son of Shoshenq III by his wife Queen Djed- Bast-Es-Ankh, no archaeological evidence proves that Pami was ever a son of Shoshenq III. The different spelling and meanings of the word Pami and Pimay and the fact that Shoshenq III was actually succeeded by Shoshenq IV-rather than Pimay as was once thought-suggest rather that Pami was a son of his obscure predecessor--Shoshenq IV instead. Reign Length - Two Apis bulls were buried in Pami's own reign-one each during his Second and Sixth Year respectively. The Year 2 II Peret day 1 Serapeum stela from Pami's reign states that 26 Years passed between Year 28 of Shoshenq III–the burial of the previous Apis Bull-and Year 2 of Pami. Pami's Highest Year Date was originally thought to be his 6th Year based on his Year 6 Serapeum stela. However, in 1998, Pierre Tallet, Susanne Bickel and Marc Gabolde from the University of Montpellier published the surviving contents of a reused stone block from an enclosure wall at Heliopolis in a BIFAO 98(1998) paper titled "Heliopolitan Annals from the Third Intermediate Period." According to the article, the block is 2 cubits (104 cm) large and likely formed the right inside side of a doorway. The block is essentially an Annal document which postdates Pami's reign and was originally part of a larger monument which catalogued the deeds of various Dynasty 22 Pharaohs. However, only the section concerning Pami's reign has survived. It chronicles this king's Yearly donations both to the gods of the Great Temple of Heliopolis and to other local deities and temples in this city. While the ending of the block is damaged, a 7th Regnal Year can be clearly seen for Pami and a brief 8th Year in the lost or erased section is possible. In any event, his Highest Year Date is now his 7th Year and Pami would have reigned for almost 7 full years based upon this document.

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Shoshenq IV in Tour Egypt

SHOSHENQ IV (AKHEPERRE-SETEPENRE) 773-735 B.C. 22ND DYNASTY Shoshenq IV was the ninth king of the Twenty-second Dynasty. The Serapeum stela of Pasenhor is dated as the thirty-seventh year of Shoshenq IV. This shows that he reigned at least this long. In the year 732, toward the end of his reign, an Assyrian, Tiglath- pileser III took Damascus and killed Rezin. He then captured many cities of northern Israel and took the people to Assyria. The Egyptian troops had at one time joined forces with Damascus, Israel and some other states to resist Shalmaneser III at Qarqar. There is no indication that Shoshenq IV made any attempt to help the former allies.

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Shoshenq IV in Wikipedia

Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq IV ruled Egypt's 22nd Dynasty between the reigns of Shoshenq III and Pami. This Pharaoh's existence was first argued by David Rohl[citation needed] but the British Egyptologist Aidan Dodson settled the issue in a seminal GM 137(1993) article.[1] Dodson's arguments here for the existence of a new Tanite king called Shoshenq IV is accepted by all Egyptologists today including J. Von Beckerath and Kenneth Kitchen– the latter in the preface to the third edition of his book on the Third Intermediate Period in Egypt."[2] While Shoshenq IV shared the same prenomen as his illustrious ancestor Shoshenq I, he is distinguished from Shoshenq I by his use of an especially long nomen–Shoshenq Meryamun Si-Bast Netjerheqawaset/Netjerheqaon which featured both the Si- Bast and Netjerheqawaset/Netjerheqaon epithets.[3] These two epithets were gradually employed by the 22nd Dynasty Pharaohs starting from the reign of Osorkon II. In contrast, Shoshenq I's nomen reads simply as "Shoshenq Meryamun" while neither Shoshenq I, Osorkon I nor Takelot I ever used any epithets beyond the standard 'Meryamun' (Beloved of Amun) form during their reigns.[4] Aidan Dodson--in his 1994 book on the Canopic Equipment of the kings of Egypt--perceptively observes that when the Si-Bast epithet "appears during the dynasty of Osorkon II," it is rather infrequent while the Netjerheqawaset/Netjerheqaon epithet is only exclusively attested "in the reigns of that monarch's successors"--ie: Shoshenq III, Shoshenq IV, Pami and Shoshenq V.[5] This means that Shoshenq IV was a late Tanite era king who ruled Egypt after Shoshenq III. His prenomen is explicitly attested on a published Year 10 stela (St. Petersburg Hermitage 5630) which bears his unique long form titulary. This stela mentions the Chief of the Libu, Niumateped, who is also attested in office in Year 8 of Shoshenq V. Since the title 'Chief of the Libu' is only first documented in use from Year 31 of Shoshenq III onwards, this new king again can only have ruled after Shoshenq III.[6] Burial - Like Shoshenq III, Shoshenq IV was not a son of his predecessor and the exact grounds for his claim to the throne are unknown. He ruled Egypt between Shoshenq III and Pami for either 12 or 13 Years based on different Egyptologists' interpretation of his reign. According to Dodson, excavation work in the looted NRT V Tanite tomb of Shoshenq III revealed the presence of 2 sarcophagi: one inscribed for Usermaatre Setepenre Shoshenq III and the other being an anonymous sarcophagus. The unmarked sarcophagus, however, "was clearly a secondary introduction" according to its position in the tomb.[7] In the tomb's debris, several fragments were found from one or two canopic jars bearing the name "Hedjkheperre-Setpenre-meryamun-sibast-Netjerheqaon."[7] Since the epithet Netjerheqaon was never employed by the 22nd Dynasty kings until the reign of Shoshenq III, this is clear evidence that Shoshenq IV was buried in Shoshenq III's Tanite tomb and must have succeeded this king; it also establishes that the king buried here was certainly not Shoshenq I. NOTE: The original king Shoshenq IV in pre-1993 books and journal articles has been renamed Shoshenq VI by Egyptologists because he was a Theban king who is only attested by Upper Egyptian documents. He was never a king of the Tanite 22nd Dynasty of Egypt.

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Osorkon IV in Tour Egypt

OSORKON IV (AKHEPERRE-SETEPENAMUN) 735-712 B.C. 22ND DYNASTY Osorkon IV was the tenth and final ruler of the Twenty-second Dynasty. During his reign, Hoshea, the king of Israel, sent messengers to Osorkon in Egypt. He was requesting help against Shalmaneser V. No help was sent. Samaria was captured and the Israelites were taken away to Assyria. There was also threats from Sargon II, who was the Assyrian king. To try to avoid an attack, Osorkon IV tried a rich gift and it apparently worked. The Assyrian king came no further.

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Osorkon IV in Wikipedia

Osorkon IV was a ruler of Lower Egypt who, while not always listed as a member of the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt, he is attested as the ruler of Tanis--and thereby one of Shoshenq V's successors. Therefore he is sometimes listed as part of the dynasty, whether for convenience or in fact. His parentage is uncertain: he could be a son of Shoshenq V[1]. His mother, named on an electrum headpiece in the Louvre, is Tadibast III[2]. Reign - Kenneth Kitchen gives his reign dates as 732/30 - 716 BC. His reign was never recognised at Memphis where documents were dated to the reign of 24th Saite dynasty king Bakenranef. During his time, Egypt was ruled concurrently by four dynasties - 22nd, 23rd, 24th and the 25th. Shortly after Osorkon had ascended the throne, Upper Egypt was conquered by the Kushite king, Piankhi, and Osorkon IV ended ruling only the East Nile Delta region. Relationship with Assyria - He is perhaps mentioned in the bible as the Pharaoh "So" to whom Hoshea, King of Israel appealed for help. However, So dispatched no aid or troops. The Israelite capital Samaria was captured by the Assyrian king Shalmaneser V in 722 BC and its inhabitants were imprisoned and taken to exile in Assyria and Media. To avoid military conflict with the Assyrians or even invasion, Osorkon sent presents, including several horses, to placate the new Assyrian king Sargon II, who rose to power later in 722. Osorkon's tactic apparently worked, since Sargon accepted his gifts and did not take action against him.

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Pedubaste I in Tour Egypt

PEDUBASTE I (USERMARE-SETEPENAMUN)(PETUBASTIS) 828-803 B.C. 23RD DYNASTY Pedubaste I was the first king of the Twenty-third Dynasty. He is mentioned several times in the inscriptions at Karnak. Pedubaste is thought to have been the son of the high priest of Amun, Harsiese.

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Pedubast I in Wikipedia

Pedubastis I or Pedubast I (c. 829 BC–804 BC) was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Pedubast is recorded as being of Libyan ancestry and ruled Egypt for 25 years according to Manetho. He first became king at Thebes in Year 8 of Shoshenq III and his highest dated Year is his 23rd Year according to Nile Level Text No. 29. This year is equivalent to Year 31 of Shoshenq III. He was the main opponent to Takelot II and later, Osorkon B, of the Twenty-Third Dynasty Libyan kings of Upper Egypt at Thebes. His accession to power plunged Thebes into a protracted civil war which lasted for three decades between these two competing factions. Each faction had a rival line of High Priests of Amun with Pedubast's being Harsiese B who is attested in office as early as Year 6 of Shoshenq III and then Takelot E who appears in office from Year 23 of Pedubast I. Osorkon B was Pedubast I and Harsiese's chief rival. This conflict is obliquely mentioned in the famous Chronicle of Prince Osorkon at Karnak. Recent excavations by the University of Columbia in 2005 reveal that Pedubast's authority was recognised both at Thebes and the western desert oases of Egypt-at the Great Temple of Dakhla where his cartouche has been found. He was succeeded in power by Shoshenq VI.

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Shepsesre Tefnakht I in Tour Egypt

SHEPSESRE TEFNAKHT 725-720 B.C. 24TH DYNASTY Tefnakht was the first king of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. In the Piankhy stela, he is called the "chief of the West," "chief of Me," and "chief of Sais." He also gives himself titles as prophets and royal titles. It is thought that his vigorous expansionist activity was the cause of an invasion from the south.

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Tefnakht in Wikipedia

Shepsesre Tefnakht (in Greek known as Tnephachthos), was a Libyan-descended prince of Saïs, Great Chief of the Meshwesh and Great Chief of the Libu, and founder of the relatively short Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt. He is thought to have reigned roughly 732 BCE - 725 BCE or 7 years. He first began his career as the "Great Chief of the West" and Prince of Saïs, and was a late contemporary of the final of the 22nd dynasty: Shoshenq V. Tefnakht I was actually the second ruler of Saïs; he was preceded by Osorkon C, who is attested by several documents mentioning him as this city's Chief of the Ma and Army Leader, according to Kenneth Kitchen.[2] A recently discovered statue dedicated by Tefnakht to Amun-Re reveals important details about his personal origins.[3] The statue's text states that Tefnakht was the son of a Gemnefsutkapu and the grandson of Basa, a priest of Amun near Sais.[4] Consequently, Tefnakht was not descended from a line of Chiefs of the Ma and Libu tribes but rather came from a family of priests. Tefnakht's royal name, Shepsesre, translates as "Noble like Re" in Egyptian.[5] Biography - Tefnakht erected two donation stelas in Years 36 and 38 of Shoshenq V as a Prince at Saïs. His Year 38 stela from Buto is significant not only because Tefnakht employs the rather boastful epithet of "Great Chief of the entire land" but due to its list of his religious titles as prophet of Neith, Edjo and the Lady of Imay.[6] This reflects his control over Sais, Buto to the north and Kom el-Hish to the southwest even prior to the end of the 22nd Dynasty-with the death of Shoshenq V-and reflects Tefnakht's political base in the Western Delta region of Egypt. The 22nd Dynasty was politically fragmenting even prior to the death of Shoshenq V. Tefnakht established his capital at Sais, and formed an alliance with other minor kings of the Delta region in order to conquer Middle and Upper Egypt, which was under the sway of the Nubian king Piye. He was able to capture and unify many of the cities of the Delta region, thus making Tefnakht considerably more powerful than any of his predecessors in either the 22nd or 23rd dynasties. Tefnakht was not a member of the Tanite based 22nd Dynasty of Egypt since Tanis is located in the Eastern Delta whereas his local city of Sais was situated in the Western Delta closer to Libya. His modest title 'Great chief of the West' also hints at a non- royal background. Prior to assuming the title of "Great Chief of the West", Tefnakht managed to extend his control southward, capturing the city of Memphis and besieging the city of Herakleopolis, which was an ally of the Kushite king Piye of Nubia. This caused him to face considerable opposition from Piye, especially after Nimlot, the local ruler of Hermopolis defected from Piye's sphere of influence, to his side. A pair of naval engagements in Middle Egypt soon checked any further advances by Tefnakht's coalition into Piye's territories, and Memphis was soon recaptured by Piye. After further campaigns, Tefnakht's allies surrendered to Piye and Tefnakht soon found himself isolated. He finally dispatched a letter formally submitting his loyalty and swearing his loyalty to Piye. Tefnakht, however, was the only Lower Egyptian king to not see Piye face to face. These details are recounted in the Great Victory stela of Piye which this Nubian ruler erected on the New Year's Day of his 21st regnal year. Shortly afterwards, Piye returned home to Nubia at Gebel Barkal, and never returned to Lower Egypt again. Kingship - Despite this setback, Tefnakht was left alone as the local prince of his region. He managed, over time, to soon reestablish his kingdom's control in the Delta region from the political vacuum which resulted after Piye's departure from this region. It is generally believed that prince Tefnakht officially proclaimed himself as king Shepsesre Tefnakht I and adopted a royal title- sometime after Piye's departure from Lower Egypt. His successor at Sais was Bakenranef. While most scholars such as Kenneth Kitchen have equated that Manetho's Tefnakht was the king Shepsesre Tefnakht II of Sais who is attested by the Year 8 Athens donation stela, a recent article by Olivier Perdu[7] has suggested that this Tefnakht was rather Tefnakht II, a much later king of Sais who ruled during the Nubian 25th Dynasty. In his paper, Perdu published a newly discovered stela dating from the second year of Necho I's reign, which he contends is similar in style, text and content to the Year 8 stela of Shepsesre Tefnakht. Perdu, thus, infers that that these two kings of Sais-Necho I and Tefnakht II-were close contemporaries. However his arguments are not currently accepted by scholars who believe that the Year 8 Athens stela of king Shepsesre Tefnakht likely belongs to Tefnakht I rather than a hypothethical Tefnakht II who would then have assumed power in 685 BC at Sais-early during the reign of Taharqa, one of the most powerful Nubian rulers of Egypt. Unlike Necho I, neither of this king's presumed Saite royal predecessors, a certain Nekauba and Tefnakht II, are monumentally attested in Lower Egypt. Hence, the latter two kings who appear in the records of Manetho's Epitome may well be fictitious. Moreover, it is improbable that Taharqa would have tolerated the existence of a rival line of kings at Sais during the first half of his reign when he exercised full control over Memphis and the Delta region.

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Wahkare Bakenranef in Tour Egypt

WAHKARE BAKENRANEF 720-715 B.C. 24TH DYNASTY Bakenranef was the second king of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. His name was found on a vase that was found in an Etruscan tomb at Tarquinia which is located 100 kilometers northwest of Rome. Papyrus plants on the vase suggest the area of the Delta. He is shown in the company of gods and goddesses, such as goddess Neith of Sais.

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Bakenranef in Wikipedia

Bakenranef, known by the ancient Greeks as Bocchoris,[1] was briefly a king of the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt. Based at Sais in the western Delta, he ruled Lower Egypt from c. 725 to 720 BC. Though the Ptolemaic period Egyptian historian Manetho[2] considers him the sole member of the Twenty-fourth dynasty, modern scholars include his father Tefnakht in that dynasty. Although Sextus Julius Africanus quotes Manetho as stating that "Bocchoris" ruled for six years, some modern scholars again differ and assign him a shorter reign of only five years, based on evidence from an Apis Bull burial stela. It establishes that Bakenranef's reign ended only at the start of his 6th regnal year which, under the Egyptian dating system, means he had a reign of 5 full years. Bakenranef's prenomen or royal name, Wahkare, means "Constant is the Spirit of Re" in Egyptian.[3] Manetho is the source for two events from Bakenranef's reign. The first is the story that a lamb uttered the prophecy that Egypt would be conquered by the Assyrians, a story later repeated by such classical authors as Claudius Aelianus (De Natura Animalis 12.3). The second was that Bakenranef was captured by Shabaka, a king of the Twenty-fifth dynasty, who executed Bakenrenef by having him burned alive. A Kushite king, Shabaka extended his rule over the whole of Egypt, which had been split since the Twenty-first dynasty. Diodorus Siculus, writing about three centuries after Manetho, adds some different details. Diodorus states that although Bakenranef was "contemptible in appearance", he was wiser than his predecessors (1.65). The Egyptians attributed to him a law concerning contracts, which provided for a way to discharge debts where no bond was signed; it was observed down to Diodorus' time (1.79). For this, and other acts, Diodorus included "Bocchoris" as one of the six most important lawgivers of ancient Egypt. For a minor kinglet briefly in control of the Nile Delta, this is an unexpectedly prominent ranking: "He was a surprising choice," Robin Lane Fox observes,[4] "Perhaps some Greeks, unknown to us, had had close dealings with him; from his reign we have scarab-seals bearing his Egyptian name, one of which found its way into a contemporary Greek grave on Ischia up near the Bay of Naples." Ischia was the earliest of eighth-century Greek colonies in Italy. The Roman historian Tacitus mentions that many Greek and Roman writers thought he had a part in the origin of the Jewish nation: Most writers, however, agree in stating that once a disease, which horribly disfigured the body, broke out over Egypt; that king Bocchoris, seeking a remedy, consulted the oracle of Hammon, and was bidden to cleanse his realm, and to convey into some foreign land this race detested by the gods. The people, who had been collected after diligent search, finding themselves left in a desert, sat for the most part in a stupor of grief, till one of the exiles, Moses by name, warned them not to look for any relief from God or man, forsaken as they were of both, but to trust to themselves, taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery. They agreed, and in utter ignorance began to advance at random. Nothing, however, distressed them so much as the scarcity of water, and they had sunk ready to perish in all directions over the plain, when a herd of wild asses was seen to retire from their pasture to a rock shaded by trees. Moses followed them, and, guided by the appearance of a grassy spot, discovered an abundant spring of water. This furnished relief. After a continuous journey for six days, on the seventh they possessed themselves of a country, from which they expelled the inhabitants, and in which they founded a city and a temple [5] Despite the importance implied by these writers, few contemporary records of Bakenranef have survived. The chief inscription of his reign concerns the death and burial of an Apis bull during Years 5 and 6 of his reign; the remainder are a few stelae that Auguste Mariette recovered while excavating the Serapeum in Saqqara. Shabaka deposed and executed Bakenranef by burning him alive at the stake and buried the Bull in his own Year 2 (720 BC) while campaigning in Lower Egypt. This effectively ended the short-lived 24th Dynasty of Egypt as a potential rival to the Nubian 25th Dynasty.

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Piye in Tour Egypt

PIYE AND THE 25TH DYNASTY BY JIMMY DUNN Most references point to Piye as being the first ruler of the 25th Dynasty. Obviously, different references refer to him under different names. We believe he ruled Kush (Nubia) from about 750 to 719 BC. Piankhi was his birth name. But in various references, we see his birth name referred to as Piankhy, Piye, Piy and Piyi. However, some references point out that his true name was Piye, and that this was wrongly read as Piankhi. His Throne Name was Men-kheper-re, meaning "The Manifestation of Re Abides"). But this name too will vary, being also spelled Menkheperra. Of course, this king, as most others, had several other names which are not generally provided. Piye ascended the Nubian (Kushite) thrown (or at least its northern half) as the successor of Kashta, which explains why at least one reference refers to Kashta as the founder of the 25th Dynasty. Kashta apparently had made some earlier advances into Egypt. But it was Piye who, for the first time, consolidated the rulership of Nubia and Egypt. From the earliest dynastic periods, Nubia was always a matter of conquest for the Egyptian pharaohs, and as such, much of Nubia was often under the control of Egypt. At times, it was very much a part of Egypt, and the customs of Nubia were a reflection of those in at least Upper Egypt. This perhaps explains Piye's seemingly strong emotional ties with Egypt, what he considered to be part of his motherland, even though he was not from Egypt proper. So at least towards the end of the Third Intermediate Period, when Egypt seems to have surrendered to chaos with four kings claiming rule within Egypt, as well as a number of local chieftains exercising control, particularly in the Delta, Piye decided to step in and fix Egypt's problems. Kashta had a stele erected at the Elephantine Temple of Khnum (current day Aswan), but in the early ears of Piye's reign, he extended his rule to Thebes itself. There, he had his sister, Amenirdis I, named as the successor of Shepenwepet I, who had the title, "God's Wife of Amun". Shepenwepet I was the sister of Rudamun of the Theban 23rd Dynasty, and apparently both Rudamun and Piye were recognized at Thebes at the same time. After the death of Rudamun, the Theban royal line seems to have abandoned Thebes in favor of Hierakleopolis, where Peftjauawy-bast, the last king of his dynasty remained an ally of Piye. Soon, Piye was given a reason to intervene further north. Tefnakhte (a Lybian), the Prince of Western Egypt based in the Delta city of Sais extended his control south by taking the city of Memphis, as well as the old Middle Kingdom of Itj-tawy (Lisht). At first, Piye merely checked Tefnakhte's movement south with a pair of naval battles in Middle Egypt, though he left the Saite rulers in control of the North. However, after spending New Years in Nubia, Piye returned to Thebes in time for the great Opet Festival, and subsequently set about taking the remainder of Egypt under his control. His troops moved north, capturing three towns, and killing one of Tefnakhte's sons in the process. Soon, Piye attacked the city of Ashmunein which was ruled by Nimlot, once an ally of Piye. Using wooden siege towers, the city fell after five months. Further North, Hierakleopolis, ruled by Piye's loyal ally, King Peftjauawybast, had been threatened by Tefnakhte, but the capture of Nimlot relieved the pressure on Hierakleopolis, and soon Piye had control of every major center south of Memphis, as well as capturing another of Tefnakhte's sons. The only real obstacle left for Piye was Memphis, the ancient capital of Egypt. While the city was heavily fortified and defended, as well as the water of the Nile protecting its walls, Piye was able to use the masts of boats and ships in the Memphite harbor to assault the city and scale the walls. In very short order, Memphis too was bought under his control. It is said that his first act was to protect the temple of Ptah, and then to go there himself to be anointed and to worship. With the capture of Memphis, most of the Delta rulers soon yielded to the Kushite king. One notable exception was Tefnakhte, who even went so far as to mount another, but unsuccessful campaign against Piye. Finally, he to submitted to Piye's rule of Egypt, taking an oath of loyalty. After conquering Egypt, Piye simply went home to Nubia, and to our knowledge, never again returned to Egypt. He is portrayed as a ruler who did not glory in the smiting of his adversaries, as did other kings, but rather preferred treaties and alliances. He left the rule of the country largely in the hands of his vassals, but recorded his victories on a stela (called the Victory Stela, now in the Egyptian Museum) at Napata. He left few monuments in Egypt, other than an expansion of the Temple of Amun at Thebes (current day Luxor). Later, Tefnakhte would again claim kingdom and as the founder of the 24th Dynasty, rule at least the western Delta. However, later successors to Piye would consolidate their control over Egypt, at least for a time. Upon Piye's death, he was buried at El-Kurru, where he erected a small pyramid resembling the tall, narrow structures that had been built above many private tombs of Egypt's New Kingdom.

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Piye in Wikipedia

Piye, (Arabic: بعنخي‎) (whose name was once transliterated as Piankhi the Nubian)[2] (d. 721 BC) was a Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt who ruled Egypt from the city of Napata, located deep in Nubia, Sudan. His predecessor as king of Kush, Kashta, almost certainly exercised a strong degree of influence over Thebes prior to Piye's accession because Kashta managed to have his daughter, Amenirdis I, adopted as the Heiress to the serving God's Wife of Amun, Shepenupet I, before the end of his reign. Family - Piye was the son of Kashta and Pebatjma. He is known to have had three or four wives. Abar was the mother of his successor Taharqa. Further wives are Tabiry, Peksater and probably Khensa. Piye was the father of King Taharqa and the God's Wife of Amun Shepenwepet II. A daughter named Qalhata would later marry King Shabaka, she was the mother of king Tanutamun and probably of King Shabataka as well. Three of his daughters - Tabekenamun, Naparaye and Takahatenamun - married their brother Taharqa. Another daughter, Arty, married king Shabataka. Piye had two further sons named Har and Khaliut. Piye's Conquest of Egypt - As ruler of Nubia and Upper Egypt, Piye took advantage of the squabbling of Egypt's rulers by expanding Nubia's power beyond Thebes into Lower Egypt. In reaction to this, Tefnakht of Sais formed a coalition between the local kings of the Delta Region and enticed Piye's nominal ally-king Nimlot of Hermopolis-to defect to his side. Tefnakht then sent his coalition army south and besieged Herakleopolis where its king Peftjaubast and the local Nubian commanders appealed to Piye for help. Piye reacted quickly to this crisis in his Year 20 by assembling an army to invade Middle and Lower Egypt and visited Thebes in time for the great Opet Festival which proves he effectively controlled Upper Egypt by this time. His military feats are chronicled in the Victory stela at Gebel Barkal. Piye viewed his campaign as a Holy War, commanding his soldiers to cleanse themselves ritually before beginning battle. He himself offered sacrifices to the great god Amun.[3] Piye then marched north and achieved complete victory at Herakleopolis, conquering the cities of Hermopolis and Memphis among others, and received the submission of the kings of the Nile Delta including Iuput II of Leontopolis, Osorkon IV of Tanis and his former ally Nimlot at Hermopolis. Hermopolis fell to the Nubian king after a siege lasting five months. Tefnakht took refuge in an island in the Delta and formally conceded defeat in a letter to the Nubian king but refused to personally pay homage to the Kushite ruler. Satisfied with his triumph, Piye proceeded to sail south to Thebes and returned to his homeland in Nubia never to return to Egypt. Despite Piye's successful campaign into the Delta, his authority only extended northward from Thebes up to the western desert oases and Herakleopolis where Peftjaubastet ruled as a Nubian vassal king. The local kings of Lower Egypt especially Tefnakht were essentially free to do what they wanted without Piye's oversight. It was Shabaka, Piye's successor, who later rectified this unsatisfactory situation by attacking Sais and defeating Tefnakht's successor Bakenranef at Sais, in his second regnal year. Reign Length - Piye adopted two throne names: Usimare and Sneferre during his reign and was much more passionate (in common with many kings of Nubia) about the worship of the god Amun. He revitalised the moribund Great Temple of Amun at Gebel Barkal, first built under Thutmose III of the New Kingdom by employing numerous sculptors and stone masons from Egypt to renew the temple. He was once thought to have also used the throne name 'Menkheperre' ("the Manifestation of Ra abides") but this prenomen has now been recognised as belonging to a local Theban king named Ini instead who was a contemporary of Piye. Piye's Highest known Date was long thought to be the Year 24 III Akhet day 10 date mentioned in the "Smaller Dakhla Stela" (Ashmolean Museum No.1894) from his reign. This sandstone stela measures 81.5 cm by 39.5 cm and was discovered from the Sutekh temple at Mut al-Kharib in the Western Desert Oasis town of Dakhla, according to a JEA 54(1968) article by Jac Janssen. However, in early 2006, the Tomb of the Southern Vizier Padiamonet, son of Pamiu, was discovered in the third Upper Terrace of Queen Hatshepsut's mortuary Temple at Deir El-Bahari by the Polish Mission for the Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology. It was carved approximately 8 metres into the rock face of the temple cliff in an area where several other Third Intermediate Period and Late Period burials have also been discovered. According to this article in the Polish news site Nauka w Polsce (Science & Scholarship in Poland), Padiamonet's tomb contains a burial inscription which is dated to Year 27 of Piye.[1] Dr. Zbigniew Szafrański, Director of the Polish Mission, states regarding the find: " The tomb had been plundered. We don't know whether in antiquity or in more recent times; however we have found fragments of the mummy. On the basis of the inscriptions found in the tomb we suspect that buried there was the vizier Padiamonet who died in the 27th Year of the rule of the Pharaoh Piankhi (Piye) from the 25th Dynasty.[4] " Szafrański further notes that the Mummy cartonnage (a cover in which the mummy is placed) found in Padiamonet's burial chamber featured "beautiful, ornate, colourful pictures [in which] you can read in hieroglyphs the name of the Vizier. It is also visible on the fragments of the [mummy] bandages."[4] The Great Temple at Gebel Barkal contains carved relief scenes depicting Piye celebrating a Heb Sed Festival but there is some doubt among scholars as to whether it portrayed a genuine Sed Feast or was merely Anticipatory. Under the latter scenario, Piye would have planned to hold a Jubilee Festival in this Temple in his 30th Year-hence his recruitment of Egypt's Artisans to decorate it-but died before this event took place. While Piye's precise reign length is still unknown, this new find and his subsequently higher Year 27 date affirms the traditional view that Piye lived into his Year 30 and celebrated his Jubilee that year. Kenneth Kitchen in his book, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, has suggested a reign of 31 years for Piye based on the Year 7 donation stela of a certain Shepsesre Tefnakht whom he viewed as Piye's opponent. However, this stela is now believed to refer instead to a second later Saite king called Tefnakht II from the late Nubian era because it is almost similar in style and format to a newly revealed donation stela-from a private collection-which is dated to Year 2 of Necho I's reign. (This new document was analysed by Olivier Perdu in CRAIBL 2002) Hence, no reliance can be placed on the Year 8 stela of Shepsesre Tefnakht to determine Piye's reign length. However, Dr Szafrański's recent discovery suggests that the Gebel Barkal Heb Sed scenes are genuine and supports the conventional view that Piye enjoyed a reign of roughly three full decades. More recently, in the February 2008 issue of National Geographic, Robert Draper wrote that Piye ruled for 35 years and invaded all of Egypt in his 20th regnal year in about 730 BC[5]; however, no archaeological source gives Piye a reign of more than 31 years at present. Piye was buried in a pyramid (the first pharaoh to receive such an entombment in more than 500 years)[6] alongside his four favorite horses at el-Kurru near Gebel Barkal, a site that would come to be occupied by the tombs of several later members of the dynasty.

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Shebaka in Tour Egypt

SHABAKA (SHABAQO, SHEBAKA), EGYPT'S SECOND NUBIAN RULER By Jimmy Dunn -- Piye (Piankhi), the great king of Nubia who became king of Egypt, was succeeded upon his death by Shabaka (Shabaqo, Shebaka) who became the second ruler of Egypt's 25th Dynasty. There is some controversy surrounding the dates for his accession to the throne. Most scholars believe that this occurred in 715 BC. However, some specialists such as Robert G. Morkot believe the correct date to be shortly after 712 BC. We have been left with considerable information on Shabaka's wives and children. His major wife seems to have been Queen Tabakenamun, who was a king's daughter and a king's sister. She held the religious offices of Priestess of Hathor, Mistress of Tepihu (Aophroditopolis), Priestess of Hathor of Iunyt (Dendera) and Priestess of Neit. It is thought that her royal titles suggest that she was a sister/wife of the king, but her priestly offices may indicate that she was the daughter of one of the Libyan kings. Another wife was Mesbat, who may have been the mother of the High Priest of Amun, Harenmakhet, as evidenced by her name on his sarcophagus. A third wife was queen Qalhata, who became the mother of Tantamani. Therefore, she is depicted on the "Dream Stela". She was very possibly the sister of Taharqo, and hence a daughter of Piye. Therefore Tantamani was probably one of Shabaka's youngest sons, and some scholars believe that besides Tantamani and Harenmakhet, Shabaka may have also been the father of his immediate successor, Shebitku, though other scholars maintain that he was actually Piye's son. It has long been thought that Shabaka was the younger brother of Piye, although there is really no direct evidence of such. This was at variance with Egyptian customs, though otherwise Piye displayed considerably respect for ancient Egyptian traditions. In fact, Shabaka continued the revival of old Egyptian traditions just as Piye before him. He even had old temple records researched in order to learn more about ancient customs. One important relic of this is the Shabaka Stone, a slab of basalt now in the British Museum. Though much worn due to its later use as a millstone, on its deeply scored face it recounts that it is a copy taken from an ancient, worm-eaten papyrus discovered at Memphis and recounting the Memphite theology of the creator gods. Though Piye changed his own titulary a number of times during his reign, Shabaka attempted to model himself upon the Old Kingdom pharaohs. His throne name was Neferkare, a name that had been used by Pepi II and many of his successors. Also in Old Kingdom style, his Horus, Two Ladies and Holden Horus names were the same, Sebaq-tawy, probably meaning "He who blesses the Two Lands". In fact, Shabaka set about establishing himself in Egypt with his residence at Memphis. He seems to have followed the Libyan tradition of placing a son as High Priest of Amun, though he did not apparently install any daughter as the future God's Wife of Amun. Within the Saite territory, a stela of Shabaka's 4th year from Sau and other of his 6th year from the twin towns of Pe and Dep (Buto) depict the king before the city's patron deities. As in the reign of Piye, the Saites were the main opposition to Shabaka's rule in Egypt. Bakenranef, the last king of Egypt's Third Intermediate Period and the 24th Dynasty, had at leas been acknowledged in Memphis, and expanded his control across the Delta to Tanis. Apparently having ensured that his position in Kush was stable, and undoubtedly with Thebes in his hands, we believe that Shabaka must have marched northwards. However, while it would seem that Shabaka ended up with the whole of Egypt, the events surrounding his actions against the Saites has been a matter of controversy, for no clear contemporary records survive. Yet is it clear that the Nubians controlled all of Egypt from about 710 or 709 BC. The overall control that was exerted by Shabaka south of the 24th Dynasty territory in the northern Delta is indicated by the vast array of building work that he undertook during his reign. This work was mostly performed at Thebes, on both banks of the Nile River and largely directed to the cult of Amun, but he also built at other cult centers such as Memphis (Ptah), Abydos (Osiris), Dendera (Hathor), Esna (Khnum) and Edfu (Horus). He was the first in many years to build on both sides of the Nile at Thebes. On the west bank, he enlarged the 18th Dynasty temple at Medinet Habu. On the east bank he worked at at Luxor and at Karnak, he built a structure called the "Treasury of Shabaka" between the Akh-menu and the northern enclosure wall of the Iput-isut. He also enlarged the entrance to the temple of Ptah, and it was probably Shabaka who directed building work near the future Kiosk of Taharqa, beside the sacred lake and in the precinct of Montu. Upon Shabaka's death in about 702 BC, after a fairly lengthy reign, Shabaka was buried, like Piye, in a steep-sided pyramid at el-Kurru in Nubia. He was succeeded by Shebitku, who was either his, or Piye's son.

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Shabaka in Wikipedia

Shabaka (Shabataka) or Shabaka Neferkare, 'Beautiful is the Soul of Re', was a Kushite pharaoh of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, between (721 BC; 707/706 BC). Family - Shabaka is thought to be the son of King Kashta and Pebatjma, although a text from the time of Taharqa could be interpreted to mean that Shabaka was a brother of Taharqa and hence a son of Piye. Shabaka's Queen Consort was Qalhata, according to Assyrian records, a sister of Taharqa. Shabaka and Qalhata were the parents of King Tantamani and most likely the parents of King Shebitku as well.[2] It is possible that Queen Tabakenamun was a wife of Shabaka.[3] She is thought to be a wife of Taharqa by others.[2] Shabaka's son Haremakhet became High Priest of Amun and is known from a a statue and a fragment of a statue found in Karnak.[2] A lady named Mesbat is mentioned on the sarcophagus of Haremakhet and may be his mother.[3] Shabaka is the father of at least two more children, but the identity of their mother is not known. Piankharty later becomes the wife of her (half-)brother Tamtamani. She is depicted on the Dream Stela with him. Isetemkheb H likely married Tantamani as well. She was buried in Abydos, Egypt.[2] Biography - He succeeded his brother Piye on the throne, and adopted the throne name of the 6th-dynasty ruler Pepi II. Shabaka's reign was initially dated from 716 BC to 702 BC by Kenneth Kitchen. However, new evidence indicates that Shabaka died around 707 or 706 BC because Sargon II (722-705 BC) of Assyria states in an official inscription at Tang-i Var (in Northwest Iran)--which is datable to 706 BC-that it was Shebitku, Shabaka's successor, who extradited Iamanni of Ashdod to him as king of Egypt.[4][5] This view has been accepted by many Egyptologists today such as Aidan Dodson,[6] Rolf Krauss, David Aston, and Karl Jansen-Winkeln among others because there is no concrete evidence for coregencies or internal political/regional divisions in the Nubian kingdom during the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. All contemporary records suggest that the Nubian Pharaohs ruled Egypt with only a single king on the throne, while Taharqa states explicitly on one of his Kawa stelas that he assumed power only after the death of his brother, Shebitku.[7] Shabaka's reign is significant because he consolidated the Nubian Kingdom's control over all of Egypt from Nubia down to the Delta region. It also saw an enormous amount of building work undertaken throughout Egypt, especially at the city of Thebes. In Karnak he erected a pink granite statue of himself wearing the twin crowns of Egypt. Shabaka succeeded in preserving Egypt's independence from outside foreign powers especially the Assyrian empire under Sargon II. The most famous relic from Shabaka's reign is the Shabaka stone which records several Old Kingdom documents that the king ordered preserved.[8] Despite being relative newcomers to Egypt, Shabaka and his family were immensely interested in Egypt's past and the art of the period reflects their tastes which harked back to earlier periods. Shabaka would grant refuge to king Iamanni of Ashdod after the latter fled to Egypt following the suppression of his revolt by Assyria in 712 BC. Death - Shabaka is assumed to have died in his 15th regnal year based on BM cube statue 24429, which is dated to Year 15, II Shemu day 11 of Shabaka's reign.[9] From the evidence of the Tang-i Var inscription, Shabaka was already dead by 707 or 706 BC.[10] He was buried in a pyramid at el-Kurru and was succeeded by his nephew Shebitku, Piye's son, following the Kushite tradition of succession from brother to brother, to son of the first brother. Shebitku would eventually be succeeded by Tantamuni-a son of Shabaka.

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Shebitku in Tour Egypt

SHEBITKU (SHABATAKA) 698-690 B.C. 25TH DYNASTY Shebitku was the second king of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. He was the nephew and successor of Shebaka. During Shebaka's reign, there was a policy of conciliation and cooperation with the Assyrians. This kept the Assyrians from coming further into Egypt. Shebitku had a different policy; resistance. A stela from Kawa tells of Shebitku asking his brothers, including Taharqa, to come to him at Thebes from Nubia. The army went with Taharqa. On another stela that is the story told that when Jerusalem was under attack by the Assyrians, that the king of Ethiopia (Kush) came against Sennacherib (of Assyria). Shebitku joined in the resistance against Sennacherib and an Egyptian army was sent to Palestine, led by Shebitku's brother, Taharqa.

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Shebitku in Wikipedia

Shebitku (or Shabatka) was the third king of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt who ruled from (707/706 BC-690 BC) according to Dan'el Kahn's most recent academic research.[3] He was the nephew and successor of Shabaka. He was a son of Piye, the founder of this dynasty. Shebitku's prenomen or throne name, Djedkare, means "Enduring is the Soul of Re."[4] Timeline - In 1999, an Egypt-Assyrian synchronism from the Great Inscription of Tang-i Var in Iran was re-discovered and re-analysed. Carved by Sargon II of Assyria (722-705 BC), the inscription dates to the period around 707/706 BC and reveals that it was Shebitku, king of Egypt, who extradited the rebel king Iamanni of Ashdod into Sargon's hands, rather than Shabaka as previously thought.[5] The pertinent section of the inscription by Sargon II reads: " "(19) I (scil. Sargon) plundered the city of Ashdod, Iamani,[6] its king, feared [my weapons] and...He fled to the region of the land of Meluhha and lived (there) stealthfully (literally:like a thief). (20) Shapataku' (Shabatka) king of the land of Meluhha, heard of the mig[ht] of the gods Ashur, Nabu (and) Marduk which I had [demonstrated] over all lands...(21) He put (Iamani) in manacles and handcuffs...he had him brought captive into my presence."[7] " The Tang-i Var inscription dates to Sargon 15th year between Nisan 707 BC to Adar 706 BC.[8] This shows that Shebitku was ruling in Egypt by April 706 BC at the very latest, and perhaps as early as November 707 BC to allow some time for Iamanni's extradition and the recording of this deed in Sargon's inscription.[9] A suggestion that Shebitku served as Shabaka's viceroy in Nubia and that Shebitku extradited Iamanni to Sargon II during the reign of king Shabaka has been rejected by the Egyptologist Karl Jansen-Winkeln in Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), which is the most updated publication on Egyptian chronology.[10] As Jansen-Winkeln writes: "there has never been the slightest hint at any form of coregency of the Nubian kings of Dynasty 25. Had Shabaka been ruler of Egypt in the year 707/706 and Shebitku [was] his "viceroy" in Nubia, one would definitely expect that the opening of diplomatic relations with Assur as well as the capture and extradation of Yamanni would have been part of Shabaka's responsibility. Sargon can also be expected to have named the regent of Egypt and senior king, rather than the distant viceroy Shebitku [in Nubia]. If, on the other hand, Shebitku was already Shabaka's successor in 707/706 [BC], the reports of the Yamani affair become clearer and make more sense. It had hitherto been assumed that the Nubian king (Shabaka) handed over Yamani more or less immediatedly after his flight to Egypt. Now it appears...certain that Yamani was only turned over to the Assyrians a couple of years later (under Shebitku instead)."[10] Consequently, Shebitku's reign should be dated to c.707 or 706 BC (at the very latest) to 690 BC. The alleged coregency of Shebitku - Turin Stela 1467, which depicts Shabaka and Shebitku seated together (with Shebitku behind Shabaka) facing two other individuals across an offering table, was once considered to be clear evidence for a royal co-regency between these two Nubian kings in William Murnane's 1977 book on Ancient Egyptian Coregencies.[11] However, the Turin Museum has subsequently acknowledged the statue to be a forgery. Robert Morkot and Stephen Quirke who analysed the stela in a 2001 article, also confirmed that the object is a forgery which cannot be used to postulate a possible coregency between Shabaka and Shebitku.[12] Secondly, Shebitku's Year 3, 1st month of Shemu day 5 inscription in Nile Level Text Number 33 has been assumed to record a coregency between Shabaka and Shebitku among some scholars. This Nile text records Shebitku mentioning his appearing (xai) in Thebes as king in the temple of Amun at Karnak where "Amun gave him the crown with two uraei like Horus on the throne of Re" thereby legitimising his kingship.[13] Jürgen von Beckerath argued in a GM 136 (1993) article that the inscription recorded both the official coronation of Shebitku and the very first appearance of the king himself in Egypt after comparing this inscription with Nile Level Text No.30 from Year 2 of Shebitku when Shabaka conquered all of Egypt.[14] If correct, this would demonstrate that Shebitku had truly served as a coregent to Shabaka for 2 years. Kenneth Kitchen, however, astutely observes that the "verb xai (or appearance) applies to any official 'epiphany' or official manifestation of the king to his 'public appearances'."[15] Kitchen also stresses that the period around the first month of Shemu days 1-5 marked the date of a Festival of Amun-Re at Karnak which is well attested during the New Kingdom Period, the 22nd Dynasty and through to the Ptolemaic period.[16] Hence, in the third Year of Shebitku, this Feast to Amun evidently coincided with both the Inundation of the Nile and a personal visit by Shebitku to the Temple of Amun "but we have no warrant whatever for assuming that Shebitku...remained uncrowned for 2 whole years after his accession."[17] William Murnane also endorsed this interpretation by noting that Shebitku's Year 3 Nile Text "need not refer to an accession or coronation at all. Rather, it seems simply to record an 'appearance' of Shebitku in the temple of Amun during his third year and to acknowledge the god's influence in securing his initial appearance as king."[18] In other words, Shebitku was already king of Egypt and the purpose of his visit to Karnak was to receive and record for posterity the god Amun's official legitimization of his reign. Therefore, the evidence for a possible coregency between Shabaka and Shebitku is illusory at present. Reign - During Shebitku's reign, there was initially a policy of conciliation with Assyria which was marked by the formal extradition of Iamanni back into Sargon II's hands. After Sargon II's death, however, Shebitku appears to have adopted a different policy by actively resisting any new Assyrian expansion into Canaan under Sargon's son and successor Sennacherib. A stela from Kawa relates that Shebitku asked his 'brothers', including Taharqa, to travel north to Thebes from Nubia. The Nubian army travelled along with Taharqa presumably to fight the Assyrians at the Battle of Eltekh in 701 BC. Another stela records that when Jerusalem was under attack by the Assyrians, the king of Kush marched against Sennacherib. Shebitku joined in the resistance against Sennacherib and an Egyptian army was sent to Palestine, led by Shebitku's brother, Prince Taharqa. Shebitku also completed the decoration of the Temple of Osiris Heqadjet in Thebes during his reign. The Temple had been constructed under Osorkon III. The decorations are notable for proving that Osorkon III's daughter, Shepenupet I was still the serving God's Wife of Amun at Karnak and had outlived her two brothers Takelot III and Rudamun by at least three full decades. In 690 BC, Shebitku died and was succeeded by Taharqa, his younger brother.

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Taharqa in Tour Egypt

TAHARQA 690-664 B.C. 25TH DYNASTY Taharqa was the brother of Shebitku and was the third king of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. Shebitku died and Taharqa was crowned. Taharqa is responsible for building done both in Nubia as well as Egypt. He built the colonnade in the first court of the temple of Amun at Karnak. There is one column that stands twenty-one meters high and is still standing. During his reign, the Assyrians threatened Egypt once again. The Assyrians were successful in one invasion in which they captured Memphis, wounded Taharqa and stole his family and property. Taharqa survived the attack. It is thought that Taharqa died in 664 BC and was buried in his pyramid at Nuri near Napata.

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Taharqa in Wikipedia

Taharqa was a pharaoh of Egypt and the Kingdom of Kush and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. His reign can be dated from 690 BC to 664 BC.[3] He was the son of Piye, the Nubian king of Napata who had first conquered Egypt; Taharqa was also the younger brother and successor of Shebitku.[4] Evidence for the dates of his reign are derived from the Serapeum stela Cat. 192 "which records that an Apis bull who was born and installed (4th month of Peret, day 9) in Year 26 of Taharqa died in Year 20 of Psammetichus I (4th month of Shomu, day 20) having lived 21 years. This would give Taharqa a reign of 26 years and a fraction, in 690-664 B.C."[5] Taharqa was the brother of Shebitku, the previous pharaoh of Egypt. Taharqa explicitly states in Kawa Stela V, line 15 that he succeeded Shebitku with this statement: "I received the Crown in Memphis after the Falcon (ie: Shebitku) flew to heaven."[6] Biblical references - Scholars have identified him with Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, who waged war against Sennacherib during the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah (2 Kings 19:9; Isaiah 37:9) and drove him from his intention of destroying Jerusalem and deporting its inhabitants-a critical action that, according to Henry T. Aubin, has shaped the Western world.[7] The events in the Biblical account are believed to have taken place in 701 BC, whereas Taharqa came to the throne some ten years later. A number of explanations have been proposed: one being that the title of king in the Biblical text refers to his future royal title, when at the time of this account he was likely only a military commander. Assyrian invasion of Egypt - It was during his reign that Egypt's enemy Assyria at last invaded Egypt. Esarhaddon led several campaigns against Taharqa, which he recorded on several monuments. His first attack in 677 BC, aimed to pacify Arab tribes around the Dead Sea, led him as far as the Brook of Egypt. Esarhaddon then proceeded to invade Egypt proper in Taharqa's 17th regnal year, after Esarhaddon had settled a revolt at Ashkelon. Taharqa defeated the Assyrians on that occasion. Three years later in 671 BC the Assyrian king captured and sacked Memphis, where he captured numerous members of the royal family. Taharqa fled to the south, and Esarhaddon reorganized the political structure in the north, establishing Necho I of the 26th dynasty as king at Sais. Upon Esarhaddon's return to Assyria he erected a victory stele, showing Taharqa's young Prince Ushankhuru in bondage. Upon the Assyrian king's departure, however, Taharqa intrigued in the affairs of Lower Egypt, and fanned numerous revolts. Esarhaddon died enroute to Egypt, and it was left to his son and heir Ashurbanipal to once again invade Egypt. Ashurbanipal defeated Taharqa, who afterwards fled first to Thebes, then up the Nile into his native homeland-Nubia. Taharqa died there in 664 BC and was succeeded by his appointed successor Tantamani, a son of Shabaka. Taharqa was buried at Nuri.[8] Depictions - Taharqa was described by the ancient Greek historian Strabo as being counted among the greatest military tacticians of the ancient world.[9] Will Smith is developing a film entitled The Last Pharaoh, which he will produce and star as Taharqa. Carl Franklin contributed to the script.[10] Randall Wallace was hired to rewrite in September 2008.[11]

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Tantamani in Tour Egypt

TANWETAMANI (TANTAMANI), THE LAST NUBIAN KING OF EGYPT AND THE LOOTING OF THE TEMPLE OF AMUN AT THEBES by Jimmy Dunn -- Tanwetamani (Assyrian Tandamane or Tantamani, Greek Tementhes, also known as Tanutamun) was Egypt's last ruler of the 25th Dynasty as well as the last Nubain (Kushite) Ruler, ruling from about 664 to 657 BC. We are told his throne name was Ba-ka-re, meaning "Glorious is the Soul of Re". He succeeded Taharqa, though he was probably the son of that king's sister, queen Qalhata. His succession to the throne is recorded in a record known as the Dream Stela, not to be confused with that of Tuthmosis IV. It was discovered along with the Victory Stela of Piye at Gebel Barkal in 1862, and now resides in the Nubian Museum in Aswan. Tanwetamani may have served as a co-regent with Taharqa, but his parentage and family relationships are difficult. From his stela we find depicted two women, one of whom is referred to as "the royal sister, the Mistress of Egypt, Qalhata", while the other is "the royal sister, the Mistress of Ta-Seti, Pi-(ankh)-Arty". An analysis of the text associated with the stela would seem to indicate that Qalhata was Tanwetamani's mother, while the second woman was his wife. The fact that Qalhata was his mother is also supported by her tomb at Nuri in the modern Sudan, where she is given the title of "King's Mother". Foundation deposits also show that the tomb was build during the reign of Tanwetamani. Of his father, K.A. Kitchen provides: "The parentage of Tantamani is not absolutely certain; the 'Rassam Cylinder' of Assurbanipal calls him 'son of Shabaku', while Cylinder B makes him 'the son of his (Taharqa's) sister', cited above. It would be possible for Tantamani to have been a son of Shabako by an elder sister of Taharqa. This solution, however, would make Tantamani the son of an uncle/niece marriage; and most scholars prefer - perhaps correctly - to take the Assyrian 'Shabaku' as intended (or an error) for Shibitku. As the latter was a brother of Taharqa, Tantamani would then have beena the offspring of a brother/sister match precisely like the marriages of Alara and Kasaqa, Kashta and Pebatma, Piankhy and three of his five wives, and Taharqa and two wives. So, provisionally, I adopt this latter solution here." TIP 121 Therefore, most recent histories which discuss the 25th dynasty identify Tanwetamani (Urdamani) as a son of Shabataka, Taharqa's brother, not of his uncle Shabaka as the Rassam cylinder annalist appears to suggest.. The errant orthography can be explained by the fact that the name Shabaka is more properly vocalized as Shebitku. If so then the "t" in the doubled consonant "tk" in the name of Shebitku would easily be lost to a foreign ear. The annalist wrote what he heard and recorded Shabataku instead of Shabitku. In the narrative of his stela, the king is referred to as "lord of valor like Montu, great of strength like a fierce-eyed lion". It goes on to explain that in the first year of his reign, Tanwetamani had a dream of two serpents, one on his right hand and one on his left. After waking, the king's advisors interpreted the dream, saying that, "the southland is already thin, seize the northland". Hence, he should bring Egypt back under control of the Kushite empire. After this passage, another states that Tanwetamani then "rose on the throne of Horus", a term which may be interpreted as his having ascended the throne. This is the primary evidence we have for his co- regency with Taharqa, but we are also told that Assyrian text provides that he did not do so until after Taharqa's death. We assume that at the time of his accession, Tanwetamani was most likely inside Egypt proper, for the text on the stela states that "he went from where he was to Napata (Nubia), and there was none who stood up to oppose him". Hence, he went to the Temple of Amun and was acknowledged as god and king. Other text within the stela confirms that he was at this time in control of southern, or Upper Egypt, but at the very least was not in control of parts of the north. After ascending the throne, he went north from Nubia, first stopping at Elephantine where he participated in a festival procession of the God Khnum. From there he sailed further north to Waset (Thebes) where he once again participated in the festival. However, after this, he goes further north to Memphis, where we learn that: "the sons of revolt rushed forth to fight against his majesty. His majesty made a great slaughter amongst them, and it was not know how many of them were killed." Nekau of Sais may have been killed in this battle, but his son, Psamtek, who was loyal to the Assyrians fled to Asia. After this victory, Tanwetamani honored the God, Ptah-Sokar and his wife Sakhmet in the great temple of Memphis, and afterwards ordered the building of a chapel dedicated to Amun at Napata in Nubia. The temple, we know, was to be built of stone overlaid with gold, sections of cedar wood and the leaves of the door plated with electrum. This temple may be associated with parts of the great temple of Amun at Gebel Barkal. Afterwards, he prepared to attack the Delta: "His majesty sailed down the river...and he did battle with the princes of the Northland and they went into their huts as rats go into their holes. And his majesty passed many days by them, and not one of them came forth to do battle with his majesty; and his majesty made a sailing up the river to Memphis and he sat down in his palace to think out and plan how he could make his soldiers surround them with mounds. And one said to him: 'These princes have come to where the sovereign is.' And his majesty said, 'Have they come to do battle? Or have they come to pay fealty to me? If they come to pay fealty, they live from this hour'. They said before his majesty: 'They have come to pay fealty to the sovereign, our lord.' ... His majesty said, 'Where are they at this moment?' They said 'They wait standing in the court.' Then his majesty went forth from his house and his appearance was like the shining of Re upon the horizon, and he found them prostrate upon their bellies, smelling the earth before him." Tanwetamani apparently spared the lives of the Delta princes, sending them home, but this victory was short lived. The Assyrians mustered their army and we find the son of Nekau telling us that: "In my second campaign, I made straight for Egypt and Kush. Tandamani heard of my campaign and that I trod the soil of Egypt. He abandoned Memphis and fled to Thebes to save his life. The kings, princes and mayors whom I had set up in Egypt came and kissed my feet. I took the road after Tandamani and marched to Thebes, his stronghold. He saw the approach of my terrible battle array and he fled to Kipkip. Thebes in its entirety I captured with the help of Assur and Ishtar. Silver, gold, precious stones, all the possessions of his palace, many colored clothing, linen, great horses, two obelisks of electrum, the door posts of the temple door I took from their bases and removed to Assyria. Great booty, beyond counting, I took away from Thebes. Against Egypt and Kush I let my weapons rage and I showed my might." The "door posts of the temple" may refer to the great gate of electrum erected by Tuthmosis IV and renewed by Shabaka. This attack on Thebes was one of the great tragedies of the ancient world, and was remembered by a Jewish prophet fifty years later: "Will you fare better than No-Amon? - She that lay by the streams of the Nile, surrounded by water, whose rampart was the Nile, waters her wall; Kush and Egypt were her strength, and it was boundless. Punt and the Libyans brought her help. Yet she to became an exile and went into captivity. Her infants too were dashed to the ground at every street corner. Her nobles were shared out by lot, and all her great men were thrown into chains." Interestingly, Tanwetamani seems to have continued to be acknowledged as pharaoh in Thebes until his eighth year. There are inscriptions at Luxor that date the installation of priests by his name and the Kushites still maintained a large official presence in the city. Piye's daughter, Shepenwepet II we know as God's Wife of Amun, with Taharqa's daughter, Amenirdis II as her designated successor. Even in year none of Tanwetamani's reign, his cousin remained the High Priest of Amun, and we have other evidence of the Kushite's continued power within the region. It is possible that Tanwetamani one again tried to assert control over Egypt, though the evidence is slight. In a brief passage in the work of Polyaenus from a 2nd Century (AD) text, we hear of a later battle near the temple of Isis at Memphis that may have involved Tanwetamani. He states that Psamtik, aided by Carian mercenary troops, defeated "Tementhes". A few Egyptologist believe, based on a hellenistic Jewish source, that Tanwetamani may have even retaken Memphis, but much of this is conjecture. In any case, Tanwetamani probably continued to rule in Nubia for at least a few more years, and was buried in the necropolis at Nuri.

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Ramesses III in Wikipedia

Usimare Ramesses III (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and is considered to be the last great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt. He was the son of Setnakhte and Queen Tiy-merenese. Ramesses III is believed to have reigned from March 1186 to April 1155 BC. This is based on his known accession date of I Shemu day 26 and his death on Year 32 III Shemu day 15, for a reign of 31 years, 1 month and 19 days.[1] (Alternate dates for this king are 1187 to 1156 BC). Tenure and chaos Further information: Battle of Djahy (12th century BC), Battle of the Delta, and Bronze Age collapse During his long tenure in the midst of the surrounding political chaos of the Greek Dark Ages, Egypt was beset by foreign invaders (including the so-called Sea Peoples and the Libyans) and experienced the beginnings of increasing economic difficulties and internal strife which would eventually lead to the collapse of the Twentieth Dynasty. In Year 8 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Peleset, Denyen, Shardana, Weshwesh of the sea, and Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great land and sea battles. Although the Egyptians had a reputation as poor seamen they fought tenaciously. Rameses lined the shores with ranks of archers who kept up a continuous volley of arrows into the enemy ships when they attempted to land on the banks of the Nile. Then the Egyptian navy attacked using grappling hooks to haul in the enemy ships. In the brutal hand to hand fighting which ensued, the Sea People were utterly defeated. The Harris Papyrus state: " As for those who reached my frontier, their seed is not, their heart and their soul are finished forever and ever. As for those who came forward together on the seas, the full flame was in front of them at the Nile mouths, while a stockade of lances surrounded them on the shore, prostrated on the beach, slain, and made into heaps from head to tail.[2] " Ramesses III claims that he incorporated the Sea Peoples as subject peoples and settled them in Southern Canaan, although there is no clear evidence to this effect; the pharaoh, unable to prevent their gradual arrival in Canaan, may have claimed that it was his idea to let them reside in this territory. Their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states in this region such as Philistia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. Ramesses III was also compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his Year 6 and Year 11 respectively.[3] The heavy cost of these battles slowly exhausted Egypt's treasury and contributed to the gradual decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. The severity of these difficulties is stressed by the fact that the first known labor strike in recorded history occurred during Year 29 of Ramesses III's reign, when the food rations for the Egypt's favoured and elite royal tomb-builders and artisans in the village of Set Maat her imenty Waset (now known as Deir el Medina), could not be provisioned.[4] Something in the air (but not necessarily Hekla 3) prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground and also arrested global tree growth for almost two full decades until 1140 BC. The result in Egypt was a substantial inflation in grain prices under the later reigns of Ramesses VI-VII whereas the prices for fowl and slaves remained constant.[5] The cooldown, hence, affected Ramesses III's final years and impaired his ability to provide a constant supply of grain rations to the workman of the Deir el-Medina community. These difficult realities are completely ignored in Ramesses' official monuments, many of which seek to emulate those of his famous predecessor, Ramesses II, and which present an image of continuity and stability. He built important additions to the temples at Luxor and Karnak, and his funerary temple and administrative complex at Medinet-Habu is amongst the largest and best-preserved in Egypt; however, the uncertainty of Ramesses' times is apparent from the massive fortifications which were built to enclose the latter. No Egyptian temple in the heart of Egypt prior to Ramesses' reign had ever needed to be protected in such a manner. Ramesses' two main names transliterate as wsr-m3‘t-r‘–mry-ỉmn r‘-ms-s–ḥḳ3-ỉwnw. They are normally realised as Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesse-hekaiunu, meaning "Powerful one of Ma'at and Ra, Beloved of Amun, Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis". Conspiracy against the king Thanks to the discovery of papyrus trial transcripts (dated to Ramesses III), it is now known that there was a plot against his life as a result of a royal harem conspiracy during a celebration at Medinet Habu. The conspiracy was instigated by Tiye, one of his two known wives (the other being Iset Ta-Hemdjert), over whose son would inherit the throne. Iset's son, Ramesses (the future Ramesses IV), was the eldest and the successor chosen by Ramesses III in preference to Tey's son Pentawere. The trial documents[6] emphasize the extensive scale of the conspiracy to assassinate the king since many individuals were implicated in the plot.[7] Chief among them were Queen Tey and her son Pentawere, Ramesses' chief of the chamber, Pebekkamen, seven royal butlers (a respectable state office), two Treasury overseers, two Army standard bearers, two royal scribes and a herald. There is little doubt that all of the main conspirators were executed: some of the condemned were given the option of committing suicide (possibly by poison) rather than being put to death.[8] According to the surviving trials transcripts, 3 separate trials were started in total while 38 people were sentenced to death.[9] The tombs of Tey and her son Pentawere were robbed and their names erased to prevent them from enjoying an afterlife. The Egyptians did such a thorough job of this that the only references to them are the trial documents and what remains of their tombs. Some of the accused harem women tried to seduce the members of the judiciary who tried them but were caught in the act. Judges who took part in the carousing were severely punished.[10] Historian Susan Redford speculates that Pentawere, being a noble, was given the option to commit suicide by taking poison and so be spared the humiliating fate of some of the other conspirators who would have been burned alive with their ashes strewn in the streets. Such punishment served to make a strong example since it emphasized the gravity of their treason for ancient Egyptians who believed that one could only attain an afterlife if one's body was mummified and preserved - rather than being destroyed by fire. In other words, not only were the criminals killed in the physical world; they did not attain an afterlife. They would have no chance of living on into the next world, and thus suffered a complete personal annihilation. By committing suicide, Pentawere could avoid the harsher punishment of a second death. This could have permitted him to be mummified and move on to the afterlife. It is not known if the assassination plot succeeded. Ramesses III died in his 32nd year before the summaries of the sentences were composed.[11] His body shows no obvious wounds.[10] But some measures would have left little or no visible traces on the body. Among the conspirators were practitioners of magic,[12] who might well have used poison. Some have put forth a hypothesis that a snakebite from a viper was the cause of the king's death but this proposal has not been proven. His mummy includes an amulet to protect Ramesses III in the afterlife from snakes. The servant in charge of his food and drink were also among the listed conspirators, but there were also other conspirators who were called the snake and the lord of snakes. In one respect the conspirators certainly failed. The crown passed to the king's designated successor: Ramesses IV. Ramesses III may have been doubtful as to the latter's chances of succeeding him since, in the Great Harris Papyrus, he implored Amun to ensure his son's rights.[13] Legacy The Great Harris Papyrus or Papyrus Harris I, which was commissioned by his son and chosen successor Ramesses IV, chronicles this king's vast donations of land, gold statues and monumental construction to Egypt's various temples at Piramesse, Heliopolis, Memphis, Athribis, Hermopolis, This, Abydos, Coptos, El Kab and other cities in Nubia and Syria. It also records that the king dispatched a trading expedition to the Land of Punt and quarried the copper mines of Timna in southern Canaan. Papyrus Harris I records some of Ramesses III activities: " I sent my emissaries to the land of Atika, [ie: Timna] to the great copper mines which are there. Their ships carried them along and others went overland on their donkeys. It had not been heard of since the (time of any earlier) king. Their mines were found and (they) yielded copper which was loaded by tens of thousands into their ships, they being sent in their care to Egypt, and arriving safely." (P. Harris I, 78, 1-4)[14] " More notably, Ramesses began the reconstruction of the Temple of Khonsu at Karnak from the foundations of an earlier temple of Amenhotep III and completed the Temple of Medinet Habu around his Year 12.[15] He decorated the walls of his Medinet Habu temple with scenes of his Naval and Land battles against the Sea Peoples. This monument stands today as one of the best-preserved temples of the New Kingdom.[16] The mummy of Ramesses III was discovered by antiquarians in 1886 and is regarded as the prototypical Egyptian Mummy in numerous Hollywood movies.[17] His tomb (KV11) is one of the largest in the Valley of the Kings. Chronological dispute Some scientists have tried to establish a chronological point for this pharaoh's reign at 1159 BC, based on a 1999 dating of the "Hekla 3 eruption" of the Hekla volcano at Iceland. Since contemporary records show that the king experienced difficulties provisioning his workmen at Deir el-Medina with supplies in his 29th Year, this dating of Hekla 3 might connect his 28th or 29th regnal year to circa 1159 BC.[18] A minor discrepancy of 1 year is possible since Egypt's granaries could have had reserves to cope with at least a single bad year of crop harvests following the onset of the disaster. This implies that the king's reign would have ended just 3 to 4 years later around 1156 or 1155 BC. A rival date of "2900 BP" or c.1000 BC has since been proposed by scientists based on a re-examination of the volcanic layer.[19] However, no Egyptologist dates Ramesses III's reign to as late as 1000 BC.

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Ramesses IV (Hekamaatresetepenamun) in Tour Egypt

RAMESSES IV, BEGINNING THE EMPIRE'S COLLAPSE BY JIMMY DUNN -- The story of the Ramessid kings following Ramesses III is one of decline and the end of the great empire ruled under the rule of Egyptians. Afterwards, Egypt would mostly be ruled by foreigners of one kind or another. However, Ramesses III's son, probably by either Queen Isis or Queen Titi, did seem to have enjoyed a fairly prosperous, albeit short reign. Of course, we know from many other kings during this period that his birth name, Ramesses, means "Re has Fashioned Him". His throne name, Heqamaatre means "Ruler of Justice like Re. We know that he had a chief wife named Tentopet, who was buried in QV74 in the Valley of the Queens, as little else of his family is known. Ramesses IV became crown prince in the twenty-two of his father's reign. Though only the fifth son of his Ramesses III, his four older brother's predeceased their father. Whether or not he ruled as a co-regent of his father, during the closing years of Ramesses III's life, his son took on increasing responsibilities. For example, as early as year 27 of Ramesses III's reign, he Ramesses IV is depicted as being responsible for the appointment of one Amenemopet as the High Priest of Mut at Karnak. Some scholars maintain that it was Ramesses IV who resided over the court that tried those arrested in the "Harem Conspiracy" involving his father, but this is by no means certain. His father may, or may not have survived that conspiracy, but irregardless, it is clear that the assassination attempt was aimed at eliminating Ramesses IV as the crown prince. Obviously, this did not take place. Though little in the way of military action can be documented during Ramesses IV's reign, there is some slight evidence of a sea action, in Ramesses IV's third year, perhaps with the Sea People that were such a bother to his father. And though we know of the viceroy of Nubia, one Hori II, who's father had served under Siptah at the end of the 19th Dynasty, there is little other evidence for Ramesses IV's activities outside Egypt proper. We do know, from several inscribed stele in the Wadi Hammamat, that he sent large expeditions out to obtain good stone for statues. One of these included 8,368 men, that included some 2,000 soldiers. Prior to this, little activity had taken place at Wadi Hammamat prior to the reign of Seti I. Apparently the soldiers were not sent so much to defend the workmen, but rather to control them. We also find recorded expeditions to the turquoise mines at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai, as well as southern campaigns into Nubia as far south as the fort of Buhen, that lies just north of the Second Cataract (rapids) on the Nile River. He was also responsible, together with his father, for major work on enlargement of the temple of Khonsu at Karnak. He also apparently at least began a mortuary temple, intended to be even larger than that of his father's, near the temple of Hatshepsut. There is another, smaller temple associated with him north of Medinet Habu, of which even less is known. It has been suggested that the larger temple was abandoned for the less demanding size of the smaller. In addition, he is attested to by a stela at Koptos and from other smaller monuments in the Sinai, as well as a statue from Memphis and an Obelisk from Heliopols. Due to his building actives, he apparently increased, and perhaps even doubled, the work force at Deir el-Medina. However, as at the end of his father's reign, further delays in the delivery of basic commodities needed by these workmen occurred, that, in hindsight at the end of the 20th Dynasty, can be seen to have had a significant impact on the demise of the Egyptian Empire. These problems coincided with the growing influence of the High Priest of Amun. Ramesesnakht, the older of that high office, was soon accompanying the state officials when they went to pay the men their monthly rations, which indicates that probably the temple of Amun, and not the Egyptian state itself, was now at least partially responsible for their wages. In fact, Ramesesnakht controlled a powerful family consisting of many priests in the temple of Amun. His son, Usermaatranakht was "steward of the estate of Amun" and as such, he not only controlled a vast Temple estate, but also a majority of the state owned land in Middle Egypt. The High Priest of Amun was now a hereditary position, and its heirs would become more and more independent of the king so that by the time of Ramesses XI at the end of the 20th Dynasty, the Egypt would finally be divided between the High Priests at Thebes and the Lower Egyptian King, resulting in the Third Intermediate Period. Despite all of the good work for the gods and his prayer to Osiris for a long reign [as my predecessor], recorded on a stele discovered by Mariette at Abydos that dates to year four of Ramesses IV's reign, the king died after only about six years on the throne. He was succeeded on the throne by a brother who continued the line of Ramessid names (Ramesses V). Ramesses IV was buried on the West Bank of ancient Thebes (modern Luxor) just outside the earlier main grouping of tombs in the Eastern Valley of the Kings in KV2, but his body was later discovered in the royal cache unearthed in the tomb of Amenhotep II (KV35) and is now in the Egyptian Antiquities Museum in Cairo.

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Ramesses IV in Wikipedia

Heqamaatre Ramesses IV (also written Ramses or Rameses) was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. His name prior to assuming the crown was Amonhirkhopshef. He was the fifth son of Ramesses III and was appointed to the position of crown prince by the twenty-second year of his father's reign when all four of his elder brothers predeceased him.[2] His promotion to crown prince: 'is suggested by his appearance (suitably entitled) in a scene of the festival of Min at the Ramesses III temple at Karnak, which may have been completed by Year 22 [of his father's reign]. (the date is mentioned in the poem inscribed there)'[3] As his father's chosen successor the Prince employed three distinctive titles: "Hereditary Prince", "Royal scribe" and "Generalissimo"; the latter two of his titles are mentioned in a text at Amenhotep III's temple at Soleb[4] and all three royal titles appear on a lintel now in Florence, Italy.[5] As heir-apparent he took on increasing responsibilities; for instance, in Year 27 of his father's reign, he is depicted appointing a certain Amenemopet to the important position of Third Prophet of Amun in the latter's TT 148 tomb.[6][7] Amenemope's Theban tomb also accords prince Ramesses all three of his aforementioned sets of royal titles.[8] Due to the three decade long rule of Ramesses III, Ramesses IV is believed to have been a man in his forties when he took the throne. His rule has been dated to either 1151 to 1145 BC or 1155 to 1149 BC. Projects At the start of his reign, the pharaoh initiated a substantial building campaign program on the scale of Ramesses II by doubling the size of the work gangs at Deir el-Medina to a total of 120 men and dispatching numerous expeditions to the stone quarries of Wadi Hammamat and the turquoise mines of the Sinai.[9] The Great Rock stela of Ramesses IV at Wadi Hammamat records that the largest expedition-dated to his Year 3, third month of Shemu day 27- consisted of 8,368 men alone including 5,000 soldiers, 2,000 personnel of the Amun temples, 800 Apiru and 130 stonemasons and quarrymen under the personal command of the High Priest of Amun, Ramessesnakht.[10] The scribes who composed the text conscientiously noted that this figure excluded 900 men "who are dead and omitted from this list."[11] Consequently, once this omitted figure is added to the tally of 8,368 men who survived the Year 3 quarry expedition, a total of 900 men out of an original expedition of 9,268 men perished during this massive endeavour for a mortality rate of almost 10%. This gives an indication of the harshness of life in Egypt's stone quarries. Some of the stones which were dragged 60 miles to the Nile from Wadi Hammamat weighed 40 tons or more.[12] Other Egyptian quarries including Aswan were located much closer to the Nile which enabled them to use barges to transport stones long distances. Part of the king's program included the extensive enlargement of his father's Temple of Khonsu at Karnak and the construction of a large mortuary temple near the Temple of Hatshepsut. Ramesses IV also sent several expeditions to the turquoise mines the Sinai; a total of four expeditions are known prior to his fourth year. The Serabit el- Khadim stela of the Royal Butler Sobekhotep states: "Year 3, third month of Shomu. His Majesty sent his favoured and beloved one, the confident of his lord, the Overseer of the Treasury of Silver and Gold, Chief of the Secrets of the august Palace, Sobekhotep, justified, to bring for him all that his heart desired of turquoise (on) his fourth expedition."[13] This expedition dates to either Ramesses III or IV's reign since Sobekhotep is attested in office until at least the reign of Ramesses V.[14] Ramesses IV's final venture to the turquoise mines of the Sinai is documented by the stela of a senior army scribe named Panufer. Panufer states that this expedition's mission was both to procure turquoise and to establish a cult chapel of king Ramesses IV at the Hathor temple of Serabit el- Khadim.[15] The stela reads: Year 5, second month of Shomu [ie: summer]. The sending by His Majesty build the Mansion of Millions of Years of Ramesses IV in the temple of Hathor, Lady of Turquoise, by Panefer, the Scribe of the Commands of the Army, son of Pairy, justified.[16] While little is known regarding the route that the mining missions took from Egypt to Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai, AJ Peden who wrote a biography of Ramesses IV's reign in 1994 states that there were "two obvious routes" to reach this site: "The first was a straightforward march from a Delta base, such as Memphis, east south-east and then south into Sinai. Surviving a march in this inhospitable land would have presented formidable logistical obstacles, perhaps forcing an alternative route to be adopted. This would involve a departure from the Delta to a site near the modern port of Suez. From here they could have proceeded by boat to the ports of Abu Zenima or El-Markha on the west coast of the Sinai peninsula and from there it is a short journey inland of only a day or two to the actual site of Serabit el-Khadim."[17] Attestations Ramesses IV is attested by his aforementioned building activity at Wadi Hammamat and Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai as well as several papyri and even one obelisk. The creation of a royal cult in the Temple of Hathor is known under his reign at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai while Papyrus Mallet (or P. Louvre 1050) dates to Years 3 and 4 of his reign.[18] Papyrus Mallet is a six column text dealing partly with agricultural affairs; its first column lists the prices for various commodities between Year 31 of Ramesses III until Year 3 of Ramesses IV.[19] The final four columns contain a memorandum of 2 letters composed by the Superintendent of Cattle of the Estate of Amen-Re, Bakenkhons, to several mid-level administrators and their subordinates.[19] Meanwhile, surviving monuments of Ramesses IV in the Delta consists of an obelisk recovered in Cairo and a pair of his cartouches found on a pylon gateway both originally from Heliopolis.[18] The most important document to survive from this pharaoh's rule is Papyrus Harris I, which honours the life of his father, Ramesses III, by listing the latter's many accomplishments and gifts to the temples of Egypt, and the Turin papyrus, the earliest known geologic map. Ramesses IV was perhaps the last New Kingdom king to engage in large- scale monumental building after his father as "there was a marked decline in temple building even during the longer reigns of Ramesses IX and VI. The only apparent exception was the attempt of Ramesses V and VI to continue the vast and uncompleted mortuary temple of Ramesses IV at the Assasif."[20] Death Despite Ramesses IV's many endeavours for the gods and his prayer to Osiris-preserved on a Year 4 stela at Abydos- that "thou shalt give me the great age with a long reign [as my predecessor]", the king did not live long enough to accomplish his ambitious goals.[21] After a short reign of about six and a half years, Ramesses IV died and was buried in tomb KV2 in the Valley of the Kings. His mummy was found in the royal cache of Amenhotep II's tomb KV35 in 1898.[21] His chief wife is Queen Duatentopet or Tentopet who was buried in QV74. His son, Ramesses V, would succeed him to the throne.[22]

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Ramesses V (Usermaatresekheperenre) in Tour Egypt

RAMESSES V (USERMAATRESEKHEPERENRE) 1147-1143 B.C. 20TH DYNASTY Ramesses V is thought to have reigned no more than four years. He was the son of Ramesses IV and Queen Ta-Opet. The mummy was found in the tomb of Amenophis II and is now located in the Cairo Museum. The mummy shows that he died of smallpox at about the age of 35. His tomb was unfinished and was in the Biban el-Moluk, but was annexed by Ramesses VI. All that is found of his reign is a stela that was discovered at Gebel Silsilh.

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Ramesses V in Wikipedia

Usermare Sekhepenre Ramesses V (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the fourth pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt and was the son of Ramesses IV and Queen Duatentopet. Reign His reign was characterized by the continued growth of the power of the priesthood of Amun, which controlled much of the temple land in the country and state finances at the expense of Pharaoh. The Turin 1887 papyrus records a financial scandal during his reign that involved the priests of Elephantine. A period of domestic instability also afflicted his reign since Turin Papyrus Cat. 2044 states that the workmen of Deir el-Medina periodically stopped work on Ramesses V's KV9 tomb in this king's first regnal year out of fear of "the enemy", presumably Libyan raiding parties, who had reached the town of Per-Nebyt and "burnt its people."[1] Another incursion by these raiders into Thebes is recorded a few days later.[2] This shows that the Egyptian state was having difficulties ensuring the security of its own elite tomb workers, let alone the general populace, during this troubled time. The great Wilbour Papyrus, dating to Year 4 of his reign, was a major land survey and tax assessment document which covered various lands "extending from near Crocodilopolis (Medinet el-Fayyum) southwards to a little short of the modern town of El- Minya, a distance of some 90 miles."[3] It reveals most of Egypt's land was controlled by the Amun temples which also directed the country's finances. The document highlights the increasing power of the High Priest of Amun Ramessesnakht whose son, a certain Usimare'nakhte, held the office of chief tax master. Death The circumstances of Ramesses V's death are unknown but it is believed he had a reign of almost 4 full years. It is possible he was dethroned by his successor, Ramesses VI because Ramesses VI usurped his predecessor's KV9 tomb.[4] An ostracon records that this king was only buried in Year 2 of Ramesses VI which was highly irregular since Egyptian tradition required a king to be mummified and buried precisely 70 days into the reign of his successor.[5] However, another reason for the much delayed burial of Ramesses V in Year 2, second month of Akhet day 1 of Ramesses VI's reign (see KRI, VI, 343) may have been connected with Ramesses VI's need "to clear out any Libyans [invaders] from Thebes and to provide a temporary tomb for Ramesses V until plans for a double burial within tomb KV9 could be put into effect."[2] Moreover, a Theban work journal (P. Turin 1923) dated to Year 2 of Ramesses VI's reign shows that a period of normality had returned to the Theban West Bank by this time.[2] Ramesses V's mummy has been recovered and seems to indicate that he suffered from smallpox due to lesions found on his face and this is thought to have caused his death.[6]

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Ramesses VI (Nebmaatremeryamun) in Tour Egypt

RAMESSES VI (NEBMAATREMERYAMUN) 1143-1136 B.C. 20TH DYNASTY The fifth king of the 20th Dynasty usurped the throne from his nephew, Ramesses V. However, the son of Ramesses III allowed mortuary ceremonies to continue for Ramesses V, who was only on the throne for four years. He usurped cartouches of previous kings and left his name on inscriptions in the Sinai. His built statues in Bubastis, Coptos, Karnak and Nubia. After his tomb was vandalized, the priests had to pin the corpse on a board in order to provide the remains with a decent burial.

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Ramesses VI in Wikipedia

Ramesses VI (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the fifth ruler of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt who reigned from 1145 BC to 1137 BC and a son of Ramesses III by Iset Ta-Hemdjert. His royal tomb, KV9, is located near Tutankhamun's tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Ramesses' prenomen or royal name was Nebmaatre-meryamun meaning "Lord of Justice is Re, Beloved of Amun" while his royal epithet-Amunherkhepshef Netjer-heqa-iunu-translates as "Amun is his Strength, God Ruler of Heliopolis.[2] His 8th Regnal Year is attested in a graffito which names the then serving High Priest of Amun, Ramessessnakht. Based on Raphael Ventura's successful reconstruction of Turin Papyrus 1907+1908, Ramesses VI is generally assumed to have enjoyed a reign of 8 full Years.[3][4] He lived for two months into his brief 9th Regnal Year before dying and was succeeded by his son, Ramesses VII. Reign - Egypt's political and economic decline continued unabated during Ramesses VI's reign; he is the last king of Egypt's New Kingdom whose name is attested in the Sinai.[5] At Thebes, the power of the chief priests of Amun Ramessesnakht grew at the expense of Pharaoh despite the fact that Isis, Ramesses VI's daughter, was connected to the Amun priesthood "in her role as God's Wife of Amun or Divine Adoratice."[6] Shortly after his burial, his tomb was penetrated and ransacked by grave robbers who hacked away at his hands and feet in order to gain access to his jewelry. A medical examination of his mummy which was found in KV35 in 1898 revealed severe damage to his body, with the head and torso being broken into several pieces by an axe.[4] This damage was caused by tomb robbers who were robbing the dead king's body of his jewelry. The creation of Ramesses VI's tomb, however, protected Tutankhamon's own intact tomb from grave robbers since debris from its formation was dumped over the tomb entrance to the boy king's tomb.

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Ramesses VII (Usermaatresetepenre) in Tour Egypt

RAMESSES VII (USERMAATRESETEPENRE) 1136-1129 B.C. 20TH DYNASTY Ramesses VII is probably the son of Ramesses VI and was the sixth king of the 20th Dynasty. He built a tomb in the Valley of the Kings, but there are no other monuments that he built. He did have a son that did not live to succeed him.

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Ramesses VII in Wikipedia

Usermaatre Meryamun Setepenre Ramesses VII (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the sixth pharaoh of the 20th dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He reigned from about 1136 to 1129 BC[1] and was the son of Ramesses VI. Other dates for his reign are 1138-1131 BC.[2] The Turin Accounting Papyrus 1907+1908 is dated to Year 7 of his reign and states that 11 full years passed from Year 5 of Ramesses VI to Year 7 of his reign.[3] Reign Length Ramesses VII's seventh year is also attested in Ostraca O. Strasbourg h 84 which is dated to II Shemu of his 7th Regnal Year.[4] In 1980, C.J. Eyre proposed that a Year 8 papyri belonged to the reign of Ramesses VII. This papyri, dated anonymously to a Year 8 IV Shemu day 25, details the record of the commissioning of some copper work and mentions 2 foreman at Deir El-Medina: Nekhemmut and Hor[mose].[5] The foreman Hormose was previously attested in office only during the reign of Ramesses IX while his father and predecessor in this post-a certain Ankherkhau-served in office from the second decade of the reign of Ramesses III through to Year 4 of Ramesses VII where he is shown acting with Nekhemmet and the scribe Horisheri.[6] The new Year 8 papyri proves that Hormose succeeded to his father's office as foreman by Year 8 of a certain king but Dominique Valbelle has now argued that this document must rather be dated to the reign of Ramesses IX instead.[7] Since Ramesses VII's accession is known to have occurred around the end of III Peret, the king would have ruled Egypt for 7 years and 5 months when this document was drawn up provided that it belonged to his reign-something which is now in dispute.[8] At any rate, his reign must have lasted for a minimum of 6 years and 10 months-or nearly 7 full years-since the accession date of his successor Ramesses VIII has been fixed by Amin Amer to an 8 month period between I Peret day 2 and I Akhet day 13.[9] Ramesses VII could easily have died on III Peret during this large interval for a reign of 7 full years. Very little is known about his reign, though it was evidently a period of turmoil as grain prices soared to the highest level.[10] Ramesses VII was buried in Tomb KV1 upon his death. His mummy has never been found, though four cups inscribed with the pharaoh's name were found in the "royal cache" in DB320 along with the remains of other pharaohs.[11]

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Ramesses VIII (Usermaatreakhenamun) in Tour Egypt

RAMESSES VIII (USERMAATREAKHENAMUN) 1129-1126 B.C. 20TH DYNASTY Ramesses VIII was the seventh king of the Twentieth Dynasty and was probably Ramesses III's son. His mummy has never been found and all that remains of his reign is an inscription at Medinet Habu and some plaques. His tomb was found but was very modest.

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Ramesses VIII in Wikipedia

Usermare Akhenamun Ramesses VIII (also written Ramses and Rameses) or Ramesses Sethherkhepshef Meryamun ('Set is his Strength, beloved of Amun')[1] (at 1130-1129 BC, or simply 1130 BC as Krauss and Warburton date his reign[2]), was the seventh Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt and was one of the last surviving sons of Ramesses III.[3] Reign Ramesses VIII is the most obscure ruler of this Dynasty and the current information from his brief kingship suggests that he lasted on the throne for one year at the most.[4][5] Some scholars assign him a maximum reign of two years. The fact that he succeeded to power after the death of Ramesses VII-a son of Ramesses VI-may indicate a continuing problem in the royal succession.[4] Ramesses VIII's prenomen or royal name, Usermaatre Akhenamun, means "Powerful is the Justice of Re, Helpful to Amun."[6] Monuments from his reign are scarce and consist primarily of an inscription at Medinet Habu, a mention of this ruler in one document-Berlin stela 2081 of Hori at Abydos-and one scarab. His only known date is a Year 1, I Peret day 2 graffito in the tomb of Kyenebu at Thebes.[7] Burial He is the sole pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty whose tomb has not been definitely identified in the Valley of the Kings, though some scholars have suggested that the tomb of Prince Mentuherkhepshef, KV19, the son of Ramesses IX, was originally started for Ramesses VIII but proved unsuitable when he became a king in his own right. Currently an all-Egyptian team of researchers headed by Afifi Rohiem under the supervision of Dr.Zahi Hawass are looking for the pharaoh's tomb.[8]

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Ramesses IX (Neferkaresetepenre) in Tour Egypt

RAMESSES IX (NEFERKARESETEPENRE) 1126-1108 B.C. 20TH DYNASTY Ramesses IX was the eighth king of the Twentieth Dynasty. He is thought to have reigned for about seventeen or more years. During his reign, there was a scandal in which the tombs in the Theban necropolis were being robbed which was recorded in the Abbott Papyrus. There were also campaigns by Libyan bandits. He had a son, Montuherkhopshef, who did not live to succeed Ramesses. His tomb was found in the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes).

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Ramesses IX in Wikipedia

Ramesses IX (also written Ramses) (originally named 'Amon-her-khepshef Khaemwaset' (1129 – 1111 BC)[1] was the eighth king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. He was the third longest serving king of this Dynasty after Ramesses III and Ramesses XI. He is now believed to have assumed the throne on I Akhet day 21 based on evidence presented by Jürgen von Beckerath in a 1984 GM article.[2][3] According to Papyrus Turin 1932+1939, Ramesses IX enjoyed a reign of 18 Years and 4 months and died in his 19th Year in the first month of Peret between day 17 and 27.[4] His throne name, Neferkare Setepenre, means "Beautiful Is The Soul of Re, Chosen of Re."[5] Ramesses IX is believed to be the son of Montuherkhopshef, a son of Ramesses III since Montuherkhopshef's wife, the lady Takhat, bears the prominent title of King's Mother; no other 20th dynasty king had a mother with this name.[6] Tomb Robberies His reign is best known for the Year 16 tomb robberies, recorded in the Abbott Papyrus, the Leopold II-Amherst Papyrus and the Mayer Papyri, when several royal and noble tombs in the Western Theban necropolis were found to have been robbed, including that of a 17th Dynasty king, Sobekemsaf I. Paser, Mayor of Eastern Thebes or Karnak, accused his subordinate Paweraa, the Mayor of West Thebes responsible for the safety of the necropolis, of being either culpable in this wave of robberies or negligent in his duties of protecting the Valley of the Kings from incursions by tomb robbers. Paweraa played a leading part in the vizierial commission set up to investigate, and, not surprisingly, it proved impossible for Paweraa to be officially charged with any crime due to the circumstantiality of the evidence. Paser disappeared from sight soon after the report was filed.[7] Ramesses IX brought a measure of stability to Egypt after the wave of tomb robberies. He also paid close attention to Lower Egypt and built a substantial monument at Heliopolis. Projects Most of his building works centre on the sun temple centre of Heliopolis in Lower Egypt where the most significant monumental works of his reign are situated.[8] However, he also decorated the wall to the north of the Seventh Pylon in the Temple of Amun-Re at Karnak.[9] Finally, his name has been found at the Dakhla Oasis in Western Egypt and Gezer at Palestine which may suggest a residual Egyptian influence in Asia; the majority of the New Kingdom Empire's possessions in Canaan and Syria had long been lost to the Sea Peoples by his reign. He is also known for having honoured his predecessors Ramesses II, Ramesses III and Ramesses VII. Burial Ramesses IX's son Mentuherkhepeshef did not live to succeed his father, although Montuherkhopshef had one of the most beautiful tombs in the Valley of the Kings (KV19). The throne was instead assumed by Ramesses X whose precise relationship to Ramesses IX is unclear. He might have been Ramesses IX's son, perhaps by the latter's wife Baketwernel since Baketwernel is designated as both a King's wife, sister and mother respectively in Egyptian sources. The tomb of Ramesses IX, (KV6), has been open since antiquity, as evidenced by the presence of Roman and Greek graffiti on the tomb walls. It is quite long in the tradition of the 'syringe' tunnels of the later 19th and 20th Dynasties and lies directly opposite the tomb of Ramesses II in the Valley of the Kings; this fact may have influenced Ramesses IX's choice of location for his final resting place due to its proximity to this great Pharaoh.[10] In 1881, the mummy of Ramesses IX was found in the Deir el-Bahri cache (DB320). In modern literature The novel Ancient Evenings by Norman Mailer is told from the perspective of characters living during the reign of Ramesses IX, including Ramesses IX himself.

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Ramesses X (Khepermaatresetepenre) in Tour Egypt

RAMESSES X (KHEPERMAATRESETEPENRE) 1108-1099 B.C. 20TH DYNASTY Ramesses X was the ninth king of the Twentieth Dynasty. During his reign the workers went on strike for wages not paid. There are few monuments of Ramesses that have survived. He left a tomb in the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes).

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Ramesses X in Wikipedia

Khepermare Ramesses X (also written Ramses and Rameses) (ruled c. 1111 BC – 1107 BC)[1] was the ninth ruler of the 20th dynasty of Ancient Egypt. His birth name was Amonhirkhepeshef. It is uncertain if his reign was 3 or 4 Years, but there is now a strong consensus among Egyptologists that it did not last as long as 9 Years, as was previously assumed. His prenomen or throne name, Khepermaatre, means "The Justice of Re Abides."[2] He was possibly a son of Ramesses IX and husband of Tyti, but this is unproven. The English Egyptologist Aidan Dodson states: "No evidence is known to indicate the relationship between the final kings Ramesses IX, X and XI. If they were a father-son succession, Tyti, who bears the titles of King's Daughter, King's Wife and King's Mother, would seem [to be] a good candidate for the wife of Ramesses X, but little else can be discerned."[3] Ramesses X is a poorly documented king. All that is really known about his kingship is that the general insecurity and wave of tomb robberies which had become prevalent under his predecessors continued to grow under his reign. His Year 1 and Year 2 is attested by Papyrus Turin 1932+1939 while his third Year is documented in a diary kept by a Workmen of Deir El Medina.[4] The diary mentions the general idleness of the necropolis workmen due to the threat posed by Libyan marauders in the Valley of the Kings. It records that the Deir El-Medina workmen were absent from work in Year 3 IIIrd Month of Peret (ie: Winter) days 6, 9, 11, 12, 18, 21 and 24 for fear of the "desert-dwellers" (ie: the Libyans or Meshwesh) who evidently roamed through Upper Egypt and Thebes at will.[5] This is partly a reflection of the massive Libyan influx into the Western Delta region of Lower Egypt during this time. Ramesses X is also the last New Kingdom king whose rule over Nubia is attested from an inscription at Aniba.[6] His KV18 tomb in the Valley of the Kings was left unfinished and it is uncertain if he was ever buried here since no remains or fragments of funerary objects were discovered within it.

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Ramesses XI (Menmaatresetepenptah) in Tour Egypt

RAMESSES XI, THE LAST NEW KINGDOM PHARAOH by Jimmy Dunn -- Ramesses may be translated as " Re has Fashioned Him", and Ramesses XI's Epithet was Khaemwaset Mereramun Netjerheqaiunu, which means, "Appearing in Thebes, Beloved of Amun, God, Ruler of Heliopolis". His throne name, Menmaatre Setepenptah translates as "The Justice of Re Remains, Chosen of Ptah". We believe that he reigned for some 28 years on the throne of Egypt between 1098 and 1070 BC, though to give him credit as the true king of the Two Lands throughout this period might be an exaggeration. We know little about his family, other than that he had a daughter by the name of Henuttawy. Ramesses III was the last great pharaoh of Egypt, and there is no question that, by the time of the last Pharaoh of Egypt's 20th Dynasty, Ramesses XI, at the tail end of the New Kingdom, Egypt's glorious empire was well into its twilight years. From the vary beginning of Egypt's history, kings had sent its representatives north into southern Syria to the city of Byblos, for various trade, and they would have normally been accepted as honored visitors and given whatever they required for their Egyptian King. However, we are told just how far Egypt had fallen by this time in the Tale of Wenamun, now preserved in Moscow. When Wenamun was sent by Ramesses XI to Byblos to secure cedar for a new barque of Amun at Thebes, he was robbed on his journey. On arrival in that ancient port, he was required to pay for the wood, that might in an earlier era been given freely, but now had no money for its purchase. Such was the fate of Egypt only one Dynasty past the time of Ramesses the Great, no more than several hundred years before. It must be noted that, while many generalities about the reign of Ramesses XI are agreed upon by Egyptologists, specifics vary dramatically. There is no question that some, if not much of his reign was marked by a division of control in Egypt between the north and the Theban region south. The crisis that had gripped the Theban region in the previous decades grew worse, with persistent trouble from Libyan attacks that prevented workmen on the West Bank from completing their duties, tomb robberies, famine (the "year of the hyenas"), and even civil war. What is in disagreement, or arguable, is the various parties' alliance, or at least the degree of alliance, to the king in Lower (northern) Egypt. It would seem that repeatedly, individual's who were possibly sent to Thebes by the king to Thebes to establish order instead established themselves as at least de facto rulers of Lower Egypt. It seems likely that Ramesses XI did not take control of a completely undivided Egypt upon his ascent to the throne after the death of Ramesses X. The previous regimes had witnessed an elevation in the power of the priesthood at Thebes, and as early as the reign of Ramesses IX, a High Priest of Amun named Amenhotep had himself depicted on the same scale as that king on two reliefs at Karnak. Apparently, that priest survived through the reign of Ramesses X and at least up until the twelfth year of Ramesses XI's reign. At some point prior to that time, Panehsy (Panehesy) who was the viceroy of Nubia, marched north with Nubian troops, possibly at the request of Ramesses XI, to restore order in Thebes. However, whether he did so on behalf of the king or on his own seems questionable due to alter events, which might even indicate that the High Priest, Amenhotep, was perhaps, more under the control of Ramesses IX than might be otherwise evidenced. Apparently, in order to feed his men and perhaps even to help limit the power of the High Priest, Panehsy was either given, or perhaps usurped, the office of "overseer of the granaries". Obviously, this would have certainly brought him into conflict with the priesthood of Amun, for that temple owned the bulk of the land and its produce. This event escalated into a civil war, as, during a period of eight or nine months sometime between years 17 and 19 of Ramesses XI's reign, Paneshy besieged the high priest at the fortified temple of Medinet Habu. We do not know if the High Priest, Amenhotep, survived this attack, but strangely, he may have appealed to Ramesses XI for protection, which appears to have resulted in an even wider civil war. We are told that Paneshy marched north, reaching as far as Hardai in Middle Egypt, which he sacked. He may have even driven farther north, but his advance was eventually met by the king's army and he was driven back. Paneshy eventually had to retreat to Nubia where he apparently caused trouble for some years before his death. In the interval, the army of the Pharaoh, under the leadership of a general Piankh, drove on into Thebes, where he too seems to have usurped power from the king. He seems to have taken on the titles of Paneshy and even styled himself as vizier. Whether the former High Priest died in the siege at Medinet Habu or not, after his death, Paneshy also became high priest of Amun. With these high offices, General Piankh began a period of the wehem mesut, or "renaissance", a term used by earlier kings at the beginning of the 12th and 19th Dynasties to indicate that the empire had been reborn after a period of chaos. Now, Theban documents began to be dated by the years of the renaissance rather than that of the King in Piramesses, so we find correspondence between years one and ten of the renaissance and the king's reignal years nineteen through twenty-eight. After the death of Piankh, his son-in-law named Herihor took over his offices and assumed control of the south. However, Herihor's rule of southern Egypt was not so much of an usurpation as one of tacit recognition by both he and Ramesses XI of each other's sphere of influence. It was Herihor who had built the temple of Khonsu, dedicated to the moon god son of Amun, which lies just within the southern termenos wall of the Karnak complex. Here, depictions of both Herihor and Ramesses XI were carved at the same scale, though not in the same scenes. Though Herihor's name and titles are depicted in a royal cartouche in the forecourt of this temple, it would seem that there was cooperation between the two. Egyptologists disagree on which of these two men died first, but irregardless, upon the death of Ramesses XI, Smendes came to the throne in the north and the Third Intermediate Period was born, as the glory of the New Kingdom passed into history. It should be noted that, while Ramesses XI had a tomb excavated in the Valley of the Kings (KV4) opposite Thebes (modern Luxor) on the West Bank, it was never finished, and apparently it was not used for Ramesses XI's burial. In fact, after having been fully investigated in 1980, many fragments of material relating to earlier royal burials found in the debris. It would seem that the tomb was put to use as a workshop where some of the royal mummies in the process of being transferred to other hiding places were stripped of any valuables that could be used to bolster the Theban regions ailing economy. Thus far, Ramesses XI's mummy has not been identified.

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Ramesses XI in Wikipedia

Ramesses XI (also written Ramses and Rameses) reigned from 1107 BC to 1078 BC or 1077 BC and was the tenth and final king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. He ruled Egypt for at least 29 years although some Egyptologists think he could have ruled for as long as 30 years. The latter figure would be up to 2 years beyond this king's highest known date of Year 10 of the Whm-Mswt era or Year 28 of his reign.[2] One scholar, Ad Thijs, has even suggested that Ramesses XI reigned as long as 33 years-such is the degree of uncertainty surrounding the end of his long reign.[3] He was, perhaps, the son of Ramesses X by Queen Tyti who was a King's Mother.[4] He married both Baketwernel a King's Sister, and Tentamun, the daughter of Nebseny, with whom he fathered Henuttawy--the future wife of the high priest Pinedjem I. It is believed that Ramesses ruled into his Year 29 since a graffito records that the High Priest of Amun Piankhy returned to Thebes from Nubia on III Shemu day 23-or just 3 days into what would have been the start of Ramesses XI's 29th regnal year. Piankhy is know to have campaigned in Nubia during Year 28 of Ramesses XI's reign (or Year 10 of the Whm Mswt) and would have returned home to Egypt in the following year. Background Ramesses XI's reign was characterized by the gradual disintegration of the Egyptian state. Civil conflict was already evident around the beginning of his reign when High Priest of Amon, Amenhotep, was ousted from office by the king with the aid of Nubian soldiers under command of Pinehesy, Viceroy of Nubia, for overstepping his authority with Ramesses XI. Tomb robbing was prevalent all over Thebes as Egypt's fortunes declined and her Asiatic empire was lost. As the chaos and insecurity continued, Ramesses was forced to inaugurate a triumvirate in his Regnal Year 19, with the High Priest of Amun Herihor ruling Thebes and Upper Egypt and Smendes controlling Lower Egypt. Herihor had risen from the ranks of the Egyptian military to restore a degree of order, and became the new high Priest of Amun. This period was officially called the Era of the Renaissance or Whm Mswt by Egyptians. Herihor amassed power and titles at the expense of Pinehesy, Viceroy of Nubia, whom he had expelled from Thebes. This rivalry soon developed into full-fledged civil war under Herihor's successor. At Thebes, Herihor usurped royal power without actually deposing Ramesses, and he effectively became the defacto ruler of Upper Egypt because his authority superseded the king's. Herihor died around Year 6 of the Whm Mswt (Year 24 of Ramesses XI) and was succeeded as High Priest by Piankh. Piankh initiated one or two unsuccessful campaigns into Nubia to wrest control of this gold-producing region from Pinehesy's hands, but his efforts were ultimately fruitless as Nubia slipped permanently out of Egypt's grasp. This watershed event worsened Egypt's woes, because she had now lost control of all her imperial possessions and was denied access to a regular supply of Nubian gold. Reign length Ramesses XI's reign is notable for a large number of important papyri that have been uncovered, including the Adoption Papyrus, which mentions Regnal Years 1 and 18 of his reign; the Turin Taxation Papyrus; the House-list Papyrus; and an entire series of Late Ramesside Letters written by the scribes Dhutmose, Butehamun, and the High Priest Piankh -the latter of which chronicle the severe decline of the king's power even in the eyes of his own officials. Thijs, in his GM 173 paper, notes that the House-list Papyrus, which is anonymously dated to Year 12 of Ramesses XI (i.e., the document was compiled in either Year 12 of the pre-Renaissance period or during the Whm Mswt era itself), mentions two officials: the Chief Doorkeeper Pnufer, and the Chief Warehouseman Dhutemhab. These individuals were recorded as only ordinary Doorkeeper and Warehouseman in Papyri BM 10403 and BM 10052 respectively, which are explicitly dated to Year 1 and 2 of the Whm Mswt period. This would suggest that the Year 12 House-list Papyrus postdates these two documents and was created in Year 12 of the Whm Mswt era instead (or Regnal Year 30 proper of Ramesses XI), which would account for these two individuals' promotions. Thijs then proceeds to use several anonymous Year 14 and 15 dates in another papyrus, BM 9997, to argue that Ramesses XI lived at least into his 32nd and 33rd Regnal Years (or Years 14 and 15 of the Whm Mswt). This document mentions a certain Sermont, who was only titled an Ordinary Medjay (Nubian) in the Year 12 House-list Papyrus but is called "Chief of the Medjay" in Papyrus BM 9997. Sermont's promotion would thus mean that BM 9997 postdates the House-list Papyrus and must be placed late in the Renaissance period. If true, then Ramesses XI should have survived into his 33rd Regnal Year or Year 15 of the Whm Mswt era before dying. Unfortunately, however, it must be stressed that there are clear inconsistencies in the description of an individual's precise title even within the same source document itself. For instance, Papyrus Mayer A mentions both a certain Dhuthope, a doorkeeper of the temple of Amun as well as a Dhuthope, Chief Doorkeeper of the temple of Amun. The reference to the first Dhuthope occurs in the regular papyrus entry while the other appears towards the end of the list but few people would dispute that they refer to the same man. Similarly, the Necropolis Journal entry from Year 17 of Ramesses XI lists the Chief Workman Nekhemmut as well as a workman named Nekhemmut, son of Amenua. While they appear to be the same person at first glance, their official titles are different with the latter lacking the senior title 'Chief'. Hence, Thijs' case for a Year 33 proper for Ramesses XI may be illusory. Since there are two attested promotions of individuals in 2 separate papyri, however, there is a small possibility that Ramesses XI did live into his 33rd Regnal Year. Against this view, however, is the fact that no evidence survives of any Heb Sed Feasts for Ramesses XI. At present, only his proposal that Papyrus BM 10054 dates to Year 10 of the Whm-Mswt (or Year 28 proper of Ramesses XI) has been confirmed by other scholars such as Von Beckerath and Annie Gasse-the latter in a JEA 87 (2001) paper which studied several newly discovered fragments belonging to this document.[5] Consequently, it would appear that Ramesses XI's highest undisputed date is presently Year 11 of the Whm-Mswt (or Year 29 proper) of his reign, when Piankh's Nubian campaign terminated which means that the pharaoh had a minimum reign of 29 years when he died-which can perhaps be extended to 30 years due to the "gap between the beginning of Dynasty 21 and the reign of Ramesses XI."[6], with 33 years being hypothethical at present. When Ramesses XI died, the village of Deir El Medina was abandoned because the Royal Necropolis was shifted northward to Tanis. There was no further need for their services at Thebes. Burial Sometime during this troubled period, Ramesses XI died in obscurity. While he had a tomb prepared for himself in the Valley of the Kings (KV4), it was left unfinished and only partly decorated since Ramesses XI instead arranged to have himself buried away from Thebes, possibly near Memphis. This pharaoh's tomb, however, includes some unusual features, including four rectangular, rather than square, pillars in its burial chamber and an extremely deep central burial shaft– at over 30 feet or 10 metres long– which was perhaps designed as an additional security device to prevent tomb robbery.[7] Ramesses XI's tomb was used as a workshop for processing funerary materials from the burials of Hatshepsut, Thutmose III and perhaps Thutmose I during the 21st dynasty under the reign of the High Priest of Thebes, Pinedjem I.[8] Ramesses XI's tomb has stood open since antiquity and was used as a dwelling by the Copts.[9] Since Ramesses XI had himself buried in Lower Egypt, Smendes rose to the kingship of Egypt, based on the well known custom that he who buried the king inherited the throne. Since Smendes buried Ramesses XI, he could legally assume the crown of Egypt and inaugurate the 21st Dynasty from his hometown at Tanis, even if he did not control Middle and Upper Egypt, which were now effectively in the hands of the High Priests of Amun at Thebes.

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Smendes in Tour Egypt

SMENDES, THE FIRST KING OF THE 21ST DYNASTY AND THE THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD by Jimmy Dunn -- The founders of Egyptian Dynasties frequently worked to establish their legitimacy to the throne, and yet, in later years were just as frequently honored by their successors as great men. Fables came to surround these men, but at the same time, it is not uncommon for us to know little of their background, because they often rose from non-royal or at least obscure circumstances. Smendes (Smedes), who we believe founded the 21st Dynasty, ending the New Kingdom at the beginning of the Third Intermediate Period, is a very difficult individual with almost intractable origins and affiliations. His reign, which Manetho assigns 26 years, produced only a tiny handful of monuments and we have never discovered either his tomb or his mummy (though many believe his tomb to be NRT-I at Tanis, this structure offers up no clues concerning Smendes). Smendes is a Greek rendering of this king's name. His birth name and epithet were Nes-ba-neb-djed (mery-amun), meaning "He of the Ram, Lord of Mendes, Beloved of Amun". His throne name was Hedj-kheper-re Setep-en-re, meaning "Bright is the Manifestation of Re, Chosen of Re". In fact, most of what we know of Smendes predates his rise to the throne. From the Report of Wenamun, dating to Year 5 of the "Renaissance Era" during the last decade of the reign of Ramesses XI, we learn much of what we know of this future king. While on the way to Lebanon to obtain wood for the renewal of the divine barque of Amun-Re, Wenamun stopped at Tanis, which he describes as "the place where Smendes and Tentamun are". Smendes is specifically described as being the one to whom Wenamun gave his letters of credence from Herihor, the High-Priest of Amun and a powerful general in the south. Wenamun was then sent in a ship by Smendes to Syria. Smendes, along with Herihor and others, was cited as having contributed money to this expedition. Smendes, together with Tentamun, are therefore shown to be of great importance in Egypt's Delta, equals at least of the High-Priest of Amun in the south. Consider the fact that Ramesses XI at this time presumably lived at Piramesses, only about 20 kilometers to the southwest of Tanis, and yet Wenamun came to Smendes for assistance rather than to the king. In fact, Herihor assumed some royal titles even while Ramesses XI was still alive, and the implication would seem to be that Smendes had a similar standing in the north. Nevertheless, we can only guess at Smendes' origins. It has been suggested that he was a brother of Nodjmet, the wife of Herihor, but it has also been suggested that Nodjmet could have been a sister of Ramesses XI. However, Tentamun, who was presumably Smendes' wife, may have been a member of the royal family. She could have been a daughter of another woman named Tentamun, who may have been the wife of Ramesses XI (or possibly another Ramesside king). The older Tentamun was certainly the mother of Henttawy, who later became the wife of the High-Priest of Amun, Pinedjem I, who also acquired kingly status in the south. As a royal son-in-law, Smendes' status is more easily understood, though perhaps not his total eclipse of the king. Obviously there is a great deal of confusion concerning the origin of Smendes. Nevertheless, it is very probable that the families of Smendes and Herihor, or at least their descendants, were linked. Whatever his original status, after the death of Ramesses XI, Smendes became a king of Egypt, and is recorded as such in most reference material. However, only two sources specifically name him as pharaoh, consisting of a stela in a quarry at Dibabia near Gebelein (Jebelein), and a small depiction in the temple of Montu at Karnak. Interestingly, while there are no known unambiguously dated documents from his reign, the contemporary High-Priests of Amun used year numbers without a king's name, and it is generally believed that, at least through year 25, these refer to Smendes' reign. In fact, Smendes probably never ruled over a united Egypt as such, a condition which probably also existed at the end of the reign of Ramesses XI. During much of what we refer to as the 21st Dynasty, there was also a dynasty of High-Priests of Amun at Thebes who effectively ruled Upper Egypt, while the kings at Tanis ruled the north. However, there appears to have been a rather delicate balance of powers, and perhaps even a formal arrangement for this division of Egypt. The Priests at Thebes seem to have held sway over a region which stretched from the north of el-Hiba (south of the entrance to the Fayoum) to the southern frontier of Egypt, and their aspirations became apparent around year 16 of Smendes' reign, when Pinedjem I apparently began to take on full pharaonic titles, yet at all times he continued to defer to Smendes as at least a senior king. Hence, to the outside world, Egypt appears to have been a united entity during this period, and in a certain respect, it was. While Egypt was effectively divided between the north and south by powerful men, the government of Egypt became a theocracy, with the supreme political authority being vested in the god Amun himself. In a hymn to Amun on a papyrus from Deir el-Bahri, which has been dubbed the "credo of the theocracy", the god's name is written in a cartouche and he is addressed as the superior of all the gods, the fountainhead of creation, and the true king of Egypt. In fact, Wenamun also says in his tale that Smendes and Tentamun are "the pillars which Amun has set up for the north of his land. Apparently, Tanis was developed as a northern counterpart to Thebes, and therefore a principal cult center for Amun in Lower Egypt. However, there is also evidence that Memphis functioned as a residence for the northern kings, for a decree of Smendes is recorded as having been issued there. The city may have once more served as a major administrate base at this time. During this period, the High-Priesthood of Amun at Thebes was passed on from father to son, more or less, so that Pinudjem's heirs inherited both the position of High-Priest and control of southern Egypt. Intriguingly, however, it was also one of Herihor probable sons, Amenemnisu, who succeeded Smendes on the throne for a brief period.

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Smendes in Wikipedia

Hedjkheperre Setepenre Smendes was the founder of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt and succeeded to the throne after burying Ramesses XI in Lower Egypt – territory which he controlled. His Egyptian nomen or birth name was actually Nesbanebdjed[4] meaning "He of the Ram, Lord of Mendes"[5] but it was translated into Greek as Smendes by later classical writers such as Josephus and Sextus Africanus. While Smendes' precise origins remain a mystery, he is thought to have been a powerful governor in Lower Egypt during the Renaissance era of Ramesses XI and his base of power was Tanis[citation needed]. Family - Nesibanebdjedet (Smendes) may have been a son of a lady named Hrere. Hrere was a Chief of the Harem of Amun-Re and likely the wife of a high priest of Amun. If Hrere was the mother of Nesibanebdjedet, then he was a brother of Nodjmet and through her brother in law of the High Priests Herihor and Piankh. Nesibanebdjedet (Smendes) was married to Tentamun B, likely a daughter of Ramesses IX. They may have been the parents of his successor Amenemnisu.[6] Report of Wenamun - Smendes features prominently in the Report of Wenamun, dated to Year 5 of the Renaissance or Whm Mswt era (or Year 23 proper of Ramesses XI), as a person of the highest importance. Wenamun states here that he had to visit Tanis and personally present his letters of accreditation to Smendes in order to receive the latter's permission to travel north to modern Lebanon and procure precious cedar wood for use in the Great Temples of Amun at Thebes. Smendes responded by dispatching a ship for Wenamun's travels to Syria and the Levant. Reign - Smendes' nominal authority over Upper Egypt is attested by a single inscribed stela found in a quarry at Ed-Dibabiya, opposite Gebelein on the right bank of the Nile as well as a separate graffito inscription on an enclosure Wall of the Temple of Monthu at Karnak dating from the reign of Tuthmose III.[7] The quarry stela describes how Smendes "while residing in Memphis, heard of danger to the temple of Luxor from flooding, gave orders for repairs (hence the quarry works), and received news of the success of the mission."[8] Smendes is assigned a reign of 26 Years by Manetho in his Epitome and was the husband of Tentamun. This figure is supported by the Year 25 date on the Banishment Stela which recounts that the High Priest Menkheperre suppressed a local revolt in Thebes in Year 25 of a king who can only be Smendes because there is no evidence that the High Priests counted their own regnal years even when they assumed royal titles like Pinedjem I did.[9] Menkheperre then exiled the leaders of the rebellion to the Western Desert Oases. These individuals were pardoned several years later during the reign of Smendes' successor, Amenemnisu. Smendes ruled over a divided Egypt and only effectively controlled Lower Egypt during his reign while Middle and Upper Egypt was effectively under the suzerainty of the High Priests of Amun such as Pinedjem I, Masaharta and Menkheperre. His prenomen or throne name Hedjkheperre Setepenre/Setepenamun--which means 'Bright is the Manifestation of Rê, Chosen of Rê/Amun'[3]--became very popular in the following 22nd Dynasty and 23rd Dynasty. In all, five kings: Shoshenq I, Shoshenq IV, Takelot I, Takelot II and Harsiese A adopted it for their own use. On the death of Smendes in 1051 BC, he was succeeded by Neferkare Amenemnisu, who may have been this king's son.

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Amenemnisu in Tour Egypt

AMENEMNISU (NEPHERCHERES)(NEFERKAREHIKWAST) 1040 B.C. 21ST DYNASTY Amenemnisu was the second ruler of the Twenty-first Dynasty. He is though to have ruled for 4 years possibly as the co-regent with Psusennes I.

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Amenemnisu in Wikipedia

Neferkare Amenemnisu' was a pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty of ancient Egypt. Amenemnisu's existence was only confirmed in 1940 when the tomb of his successor Psusennes I was discovered by Pierre Montet. Previously, his existence had been doubted as no objects naming him had been discovered. However, the memory of his short rule as the second pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty was preserved in Manetho's Epitome as a king Nephercheres who is assigned a short reign of 4 years. Amenemnisu's name means "Amun is King" in Egyptian.[1] While his reign is generally obscure, the serving High Priest of Amun at Thebes, Menkheperre, is known to have pardoned several leaders of a rebellion against this Priests authority during Amenemnisu's reign.[2] These rebels had previously been exiled to the Western Oasis of Egypt in Year 25 of Smendes. A gold bow cap inscribed with both Amenemnisu's royal name, Neferkare, and that of his successor Psusennes I was discovered in the tomb of Psusennes I.[3]

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Psusennes I in Tour Egypt

PSUSENNES I (AKHEPERRE-SETEPANAMUN PSIBKHAEMNE) 1040-992 B.C. 21ST DYNASTY Psusennes I was the third king of the Twenty-first Dynasty and is probably the best known of all this dynasty's kings. This is because of the discovery of his intact tomb during the excavation of Tanis. His mummy was found in the tomb and was that of an old man. Also is the tomb was a second burial chamber was for his sister and wife, Queen Mutnodjme. At some time later, her mummy and funerary objects were removed. King Amunemope's mummy and funerary objects were placed there after he was moved from another tomb that was not too far away. There were also several other mummies found in this tomb as well. These mummies were thought to have been placed here to be protected from the destruction of the other tombs around.

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Psusennes I in Wikipedia

Psusennes I, or [Greek Ψουσέννης], Psibkhanno or Hor-Pasebakhaenniut I [Egyptian ḥr-p3-sb3-ḫˁỉ--nỉwt] was the third king of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt who ruled between 1047 – 1001 BC. Psusennes is the Greek version of his original name Pasebakhaemniut, which means "The Star Appearing in the City" while his throne name, Akheperre Setepenamun, translates as "Great are the Manifestations of Re, chosen of Amun."[2] He was the son of Pinedjem I and Henuttawy, Ramesses XI's daughter by Tentamun. He married his sister Mutnedjmet. Burial - Professor Pierre Montet discovered pharaoh Psusennes' intact tomb (No.3 or NRT III) in Tanis in 1940.[3] Unfortunately, due to its moist Lower Egypt location, most of the "perishable" wood objects were destroyed by water - a fate not shared by KV62, the tomb of Tutankhamun in the drier climate of Upper Egypt. However, the king's magnificent funerary mask was recovered intact; it proved to be made of gold and lapis lazuli and held inlays of black and white glass for the eyes and eyebrows of the object.[4] Psusennes I's mask is considered to be "one of the masterpieces of the treasure[s] of Tanis" and is currently housed in Room 2 of the Cairo Museum.[5] It has a maximum width and height of 38 cm and 48 cm respectively.[6] The pharaoh's "fingers and toes had been encased in gold stalls, and he was buried with gold sandals on his feet. The finger stalls are the most elaborate ever found, with sculpted fingernails. Each finger wore an elaborate ring of gold and lapis lazuli or some other semiprecious stone."[7] Psusennes' outer and middle sarcophagi had been recycled from previous burials in the Valley of the Kings through the state-sanctioned tomb-robbing that was common practice in the Third Intermediate Period. A cartouche on the red outer sarcophagus shows that it had originally been made for Pharaoh Merneptah, the nineteenth dynasty successor of Ramesses II. Psusennes, himself, was interred in an "inner silver coffin" which was inlaid with gold.[8] Since "silver was considerable rarer in Egypt than gold," Psusennes I's silver "coffin represents a sumptuous burial of great wealth during Egypt's declining years."[9] Dr. Douglass Derry, who worked as the head of Cairo University's Anatomy Department, examined the king's remains in 1940, determined that the king was an old man when he died.[10] Derry noted that Psusennes I's teeth were badly worn and full of cavities, and observed that the king suffered from extensive arthritis and was probably crippled by this condition in his final years.[11] Reign - Psusennes' precise reign length is unknown because different copies of Manetho's records credit him with a reign of either 41 or 46 Years. Some Egyptologists have proposed raising the 41 year figure by a decade to 51 years to more closely match certain anonymous Year 48 and Year 49 dates in Upper Egypt. However, the German Egyptologist Karl Jansen-Winkeln has suggested that all these dates should be attributed to the serving High Priest of Amun Menkheperre instead who is explicitly documented in a Year 48 record.[12] Jansen-Winkeln notes that "in the first half of Dyn. 21, [the] HP Herihor, Pinedjem I and Menkheperre have royal attributes and [royal] titles to differing extents" whereas the first three Tanite kings (Smendes, Amenemnisu and Psusennes I) are almost never referred to by name in Upper Egypt with the exception of one graffito and rock stela for Smendes.[13] In contrast, the name of Psusennes I's Dynasty 21 successors such as Amenemope, Osochor and Siamun appear frequently in various documents from Upper Egypt while the Theban High Priest Pinedjem II who was a contemporary of the latter three kings never adopted any royal attributes or titles in his career.[14]. Hence, two separate Year 49 dates from Thebes and Kom Ombo[15] could be attributed to the ruling High Priest Menkheperre in Thebes instead of Psusennes I but this remains uncertain. Psusennes I's reign has been estimated at 46 years by the editors of the Handbook to Ancient Egyptian Chronology.[16] Psusennes I must have enjoyed cordial relations with the serving High Priests of Amun in Thebes during his long reign since the High Priest Smendes II donated several grave goods to this king which was found in Psusennes II's tomb. During his long reign, Psusennes built the enclosure walls and the central part of the Great Temple at Tanis which was dedicated to the triad of Amun, Mut and Khonsu.[17]

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Amenope in Tour Egypt

AMENOPE (AMUNEMOPE)(AMENOPHTHIS)(USERMARE-SETEPENAMUN) 993-984 B.C. 21ST DYNASTY Amenope was the fourth king of the Twenty-first Dynasty. It is possible that he wrote one of the most famous Egyptian books of wisdom, known as the Instruction of Amenope. In this book, advice is offered to his son on integrity, honesty, self- control and kindness. He teaches that it is reliance on god that this tranquillity and the freedom from overanxiety can be attained.

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Amenemope in Wikipedia

Pharaoh Amenemope (prenomen: Usimare) was the son of Psusennes I and Queen Mutnodjemet. Amenemope's birth name or nomen translates as "Amun in the Opet Feast."[1] He served as a junior co-regent at the end of his father's final years according to the evidence from a mummy bandage fragment. All surviving versions of his Manetho's Epitome state that Amenemope enjoyed a reign of 9 years. Both Psusennes I and Amenemope's royal tombs were discovered intact by the French Egyptologist Pierre Montet in his excavation at Tanis in 1940 and were filled with significant treasures including gold funerary masks, coffins and numerous other items of precious jewelry. Montet opened Amenemope's tomb in April 1940, just a month before the German invasion of France and the Low Countries in World War II. Thereafter, all excavation work abruptly ceased until the end of the war. Montet resumed his excavation work at Tanis in 1946 and later published his findings in 1958. The Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen states that there are few known monuments of Amenemope. His tomb at Tanis was barely 20 feet long by 12–15 feet wide, "a mere cell compared with the tomb of Psusennes I" while his only other original projects was to continue with the decoration of the chapel of Isis "Mistress of the Pyramids at Giza" and to make an addition to one of the temples in Memphis.[2] Amenemope was served by two High Priests of Amun at Thebes-Smendes II (briefly) and then by Pinedjem II, Smendes' brother.[3] Kitchen observes that "in Thebes, his authority as king was undisputed--no less than nine burials of the Theban clergy had braces, pendants or bandages inscribed with the name of Amenemope as pharaoh and of Pinedjem as pontiff. Pen-nest-tawy, captain of the barge of Amun in Thebes, possessed a Book of the Dead dated to Year 5 of this king's reign."[4] In the introduction to the third (1996) edition of his book on The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (TIPE), Kitchen notes that Papyrus Brooklyn 16.205 which mentions "a Year 49 followed by a Year 4 must now be attributed to the time of Psusennes I and Amenemope, [and] not to Shoshenq III and Pimay. [ie. Pami] (cf.103, §83 below)" due to the discovery of a new Tanite king named Shoshenq IV who ruled for a minimum of 10 years between Year 39 of Shoshenq III and Year 1 of Pami.[5] Consequently, the creation of this papyrus document must be dated to Year 4 of king Amenemope. Burial - Four objects from king Amenemope's royal tomb preserve the name of his illustrious father Psusennes I including a collar and several bracelets.[6] His funerary mask, now located in Egypt's Cairo Museum, renders a youthful depiction of the king. Unlike Psusennes I, Amenemope was buried with much less opulence since "his wooden coffins were covered with gold leaf instead of being of solid silver" while "he wore a gilt mask rather than one of solid gold."[7] He was later reburied in the tomb of his father Psusennes I during the reign of Siamun.

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Osorkon the Elder in Wikipedia

Akheperre Setepenre Osorkon the Elder was the fifth king of the twenty-first dynasty of Egypt and was the first pharaoh of Libyan extraction in Egypt. He is also sometimes known as "Osochor," following Manetho's Aegyptiaca. Osorkon the Elder was the son of Shoshenq, the Great Chief of the Ma by the latter's wife 'Mehtenweskhet who is given the prestigious title of 'King's Mother' in a document. Osochor was the brother of Nimlot A, the Great Chief of the Ma, and Tentshepeh A the daughter of the Great Chief of the Ma and, thus, an uncle of Shoshenq I, founder of the Twenty- second Dynasty. His existence was doubted by most scholars until Eric Young established in 1963 that the induction of a temple priest named Nespaneferhor in Year 2 I Shemu day 20 under a certain king named Akheperre Setepenre-in fragment 3B, line 1-3 of the Karnak Priest Annals -occurred one generation prior to the induction of Hori, Nespaneferhor's son in Year 17 of Siamun, which is also recorded in the same annals.[1] Young argued that this king Akheperre Setepenre was the unknown Osochor. This hypothesis was not fully accepted by all Egyptologists at that time, however. But in a 1976-1977 paper, Jean Yoyotte noted that a Libyan king named Osorkon was the son of Shoshenq A by the Lady Mehtenweshkhet, with Mehtenweshkhet being explicitly titled the "King's Mother" in a certain genealogical document.[2] Since none of the other kings named Osorkon had a mother named Mehtenweshkhet, it was conclusively established that Akheperre Setepenre was indeed Manetho's Osochor, whose mother was Mehtenweshkhet. The Lady Mehtenweshet A was also the mother of Nimlot A, Great Chief of the Meshwesh and, thus, Shoshenq I's grandmother. Osorkon's time-line - Based on a calculation of the aforementioned Year 2 lunar date of this king-which Rolf Krauss in an astronomical calculation has shown to correspond to 990 BC-Osochor must have become king 2 years before the induction of Nespaneferhor in 992 BC.[3] Osorkon the Elder's reign is significant because it foreshadows the coming the Libyan Twenty-second dynasty. He is credited with a reign of six years in Manetho's Aegyptiaca and was succeeded in power by Siamun, who was either Osochor's son or an unrelated native Egyptian.

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Siamun in Tour Egypt

SIAMUN (AMUNEMOPE)(AMENOPHTHIS)(USERMARE-SETEPENAMUN) 978-959 B.C. 21ST DYNASTY Siamun is listed as the sixth king of the Twenty-first Dynasty. Very little is known about his reign except that he is the one who sealed up the great Der el-Bahri cache. He is believed to have reigned for seventeen years.

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Siamun in Wikipedia

Neterkheperre or Netjerkheperre-setepenamun Siamun was the sixth pharaoh of Egypt during the Twenty- first dynasty. He built extensively in Lower Egypt for a king of the Third Intermediate Period and is regarded as one of the most powerful rulers of this Dynasty after Psusennes I. Siamun's prenomen, Netjerkheperre-Setepenamun, means "Like a God is The Manifestation of Re, Chosen of Amun"[1] while his name means 'son of Amun.' Reign Length Siamun was erroneously credited with a reign of only 9 Years by Manetho, a figure which is now universally amended to 19 Years by all scholars on the basis of a Year 17 I Shemu day [lost] inscription in fragment 3B, lines 3-5 dated to Siamun from the Karnak Priestly Annals.[3] It records the induction of Hori, son of Nespaneferhor into the Priesthood at Karnak.[4] This date was a lunar Tepi Shemu feast day. Based on the calculation of this lunar Tepi Shemu feast, Year 17 of Siamun has been shown by the German Egyptologist Rolf Krauss to be equivalent to 970 BC.[5] Hence, Siamun would have taken the throne about 16 years earlier in 986 BC.[6] A stela dated to Siamun's Year 16 records a land-sale between some minor priests of Ptah at Memphis.[7] The Year 17 inscription is an important palaeographical development because it is the first time in Egyptian recorded history that the word pharaoh was employed as a title and linked directly to a king's royal name-as in Pharaoh Siamun here. Henceforth, references to Pharaoh Psusennes (Psusennes II here), Pharaoh Shoshenq, Pharaoh Osorkon and so forth become commonplace. Prior to Siamun's reign and all throughout the Middle and New Kingdom, the word pharaoh referred only to the office of the king. Monuments According to the French Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal, Siamun doubled the size of the Temple of Amun at Tanis and initiated various works at the Temple of Horus at Mesen.[8] He also built at Heliopolis and at Piramesse where a surviving stone block bears his name.[9] Siamun constructed and dedicated a new temple to Amun at Memphis with 6 stone columns and doorways which bears his royal name. Finally, he bestowed numerous favours onto the Memphite Priests of Ptah. In Upper Egypt, he generally appears eponymously on a few Theban monuments although Siamun's High Priest of Amun at Thebes, Pinedjem II, organised the removal and re-burial of the New Kingdom royal mummies from the Valley of the Kings in several hidden mummy caches at Deir El-Bahari Tomb DB320 for protection from looting. These activities are dated from Year 1 to Year 10 of Siamun's reign.[10] One fragmentary but well known surviving triumphal relief scene from the Temple of Amun at Tanis depicts an Egyptian pharaoh smiting his enemies with a mace. The king's name is explicitly given as [(Neterkheperre Setepenamun) Siamun, beloved of Am(un)] in the relief and there can be no doubt that this person was Siamun as the eminent British Egyptologist, Kenneth Kitchen stresses in his book, On the Reliability of the Old Testament.[11] Siamun appears here "in typical pose brandishing a mace to strike down prisoners(?) now lost at the right except for two arms and hands, one of which grasps a remarkable double-bladed ax by its socket."[12] The writer observes that this double bladed axe or 'halbread' has a flared crescent shaped blade which is close in form to the Aegean influenced double axe but is quite distinct from the Palestinian/Canaanite double headed axe which has a different shape that resembles an X.[13] Thus, Kitchen concludes Siamun's foes were the Philistines who were descendants of the Aegean based Sea Peoples and that Siamun was commemorating his recent victory over them at Gezer by depicting himself in a formal battle scene relief at the Temple in Tanis. More recently Paul S Ash has put forward a detailed argument that Siamun's relief portrays a fictitious battle. He points out that in Egyptian reliefs Philistines are never shown holding an axe, and that there is no archaeological evidence for Philistines using axes. He also argues that there is nothing in the relief to connect it with Philistia or the Levant.[14] Foreign policy Under Siamun, Egypt embarked upon an active foreign policy and he is most probably the Pharaoh who formed an alliance with the new ruler of Israel, King Solomon against the Philistines. Solomon, the son of David, had just assumed power around 971 or 970 BCE which was certainly around the middle of Siamun's reign. As part of the arrangements within this Egyptian-Israelite alliance, the Egyptian king attacked and laid waste the Philistine city of Gezer in part to safeguard Egypt's commercial ties with Phoenicia-something which the Philistines were threatening-and also to take advantage of the Philistines' momentary weakness after King David's series of Biblical wars against their state. Solomon, for his part, was then permitted to permanently secure his kingdom's southern borders by occupying Gezer, which henceforth, remained a part of Ancient Israel. The alliance was consecrated by a royal marriage between Solomon and a daughter of the Egyptian king.[15] Identification with the destruction of Gezer Further information: Sack of Gezer The only mention in the Bible of a Pharaoh who might be Siamun is "Pharaoh King of Egypt had come up and captured Gezer; he destroyed it by fire, killed the Canaanites who dwelt in the town, and gave it as dowry to his daughter, Solomon's wife.[15] As shown above, Kenneth Kitchen believes that Siamun conquered Gezer and gave it to Solomon. Others such as Paul S Ash and Mark W. Chavalas disagree, and Chavalas states that "it is impossible to conclude which Egyptian monarch ruled concurrently with David and Solomon".[16] Professor Edward Lipinski argues that Gezer, then unfortified, was destroyed late in the 10th century (and thus not contemporary with Solomon) and that the most likely Pharaoh was Shoshenq I. "The attempt at relating the destruction of Gezer to the hypothetical relationship between Siamun and Solomon cannot be justified factually, since Siamun's death precedes Solomon's accession."[17] Although Siamun's original royal tomb has never been located, scholars believe that he is one of "two completely decayed mummies in the antechamber of NRT-III (Psusennes I's tomb)" on the basis of ushabtis found on them which bore this king's name.[18] Siamun's original tomb may have been inundated by the Nile which compelled a reburial of this king in Psusennes I's tomb.[19]

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Psusennes II in Tour Egypt

PSUSENNES II (TITKHEPERURE-SETEPENAMUN)(PSIBKHAEMNE) 959-945 B.C. 21ST DYNASTY Psusennes II was the seventh and final king of the Twenty- first Dynasty. He is believed to have ruled for 14 years. There are inscriptions on monuments which are the only information showing his reign.

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Psusennes II in Wikipedia

Titkheperure or Tyetkheperre Psusennes II [Greek Ψουσέννης] or Hor-Pasebakhaenniut II [Egyptian ḥr-p3-sb3-ḫˁỉ--nỉwt], was the last king of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt. His royal name means "Image of the transformation of Re" in Egyptian.[2] Psusennes II is often considered the same person as the High-Priest of Amun known as Psusennes III.[3] The Egyptologist Karl Jansen-Winkeln notes that an important graffito from the Temple of Abydos contains the complete titles of a king Tyetkheperre Setepenre Pasebakhaenniut Meryamun "who is simultaneously called the HPA (ie. High Priest of Amun) and supreme military commander."[4] This suggests that Psusennes was both king at Tanis and the High Priest in Thebes at the same time meaning he did not resign his office as High Priest of Amun during his reign.[5] The few contemporary attestations from his reign include the aforementioned graffito in Seti I's Abydos temple, an ostracon from Umm el-Qa'ab, an affiliation at Karnak and his presumed burial – which consists of a gilded coffin with a royal uraeus and a Mummy, found in an antechamber of Psusennes I's tomb at Tanis. He was a High Priest of Amun at Thebes and the son of Pinedjem II and Istemkheb. His daughter Maatkare was the Great Royal Wife of Osorkon I. Items which can be added to this list include a Year 5 Mummy linen that was written with the High Priest Psusennes III's name. It is generally assumed that a Year 13 III Peret 10+X date in fragment 3B, line 6 of the Karnak Priestly Annals belongs to his reign.[6] Unfortunately, however, the king's name is not stated and the only thing which is certain is that the fragment must be dated after Siamun's reign whose Year 17 is mentioned in lines 3-5.[7] Hence, it belongs to either Psusennes II or possibly Shoshenq I's reign. More impressive are the number of objects which associate Psusennes II together with his successor, Shoshenq I, such as an old statue of Thutmose III which contains two parallel columns of texts – one referring to Psusennes II and the other to Shoshenq I – a recently unearthed block from Basta which preserves the nomen of Shoshenq I together with the prenomen of Psusennes II, and a now lost graffito from Theban Tomb 18.[8] Recently, the first conclusive date for king Psusennes II was revealed in a newly published priestly annal stone block. This document, which has been designated as 'Block Karnak 94, CL 2149,' records the induction of a priest named Nesankhefenmaat into the chapel of Amun-Re within the Karnak precint in Year 11 the first month of Shemu day 13 of a king named Psusennes.[9] The preceding line of this document recorded the induction of Nesankhefenmaat's father, a certain Nesamun, into the priesthood of Amun-Re in king Siamun's reign.[10] Siamun was the predecessor of Psusennes II at Tanis. The identification of the aforementioned Psusennes with Psusennes II is certain since the same fragmentary annal document next records-in the following line-the induction of Hor, the son of Nesankhefenmaat, into the priesthood of the chapel of Amun-Re at Karnak in Year 3 the second month of Akhet day 14 of king Osorkon I's reign just one generation later.[10]--with Shoshenq I's 21 year reign being skipped over. This would not be unexpected since most Egyptologists believe that a generation in Egyptian society lasted a minimum of 25 years and a maximum of 30 years.[11] Therefore, the Year 11 date can only be assigned to Psusennes II and constitutes the first securely attested date for this pharaoh's reign. Reign Length Unlike his immediate predecessor and successor – Siamun and Shoshenq I respectively– Psusennes II is generally less well attested in contemporary historical records even though various versions of Manetho's Epitome credits him with either a 14 or a 35 year reign, (generally amended to 15 years by most scholars including the British Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen).[12] However, the German scholar Rolf Krauss has recently argued that Psusennes II's reign was 24 years rather than Manetho's original figure of 14 years.[13] This is based on personal information recorded in the Large Dakhla stela which dates to Year 5 of Shoshenq I; the stela preserves a reference to a land-register from Year 19 of a 'Pharaoh Psusennes'. In Year 5 of Shoshenq I, this king and the founder of the 22nd Dynasty dispatched a certain Ma (i.e. Libyan) subordinate named Wayheset to the desert oasis town of Dakhla in order to restore the king's authority over the western oasis region of Upper Egypt. Wayheset's titles include Prince and Governor of the Oasis. His activities are recorded in the Large Dakhla stela.[14] This stela states that Wayheset adjudicated in a certain water dispute by consulting a land-register which is explicitly dated to Year 19 of a "Pharaoh Psusennes" in order to determine the water rights of a man named Nysu-Bastet.[15] Kitchen notes that this individual made an appeal to the Year 19 cadastral land-register of king Psusennes which belonged to his mother which historians assumed was made some "80 years" ago during the reign of Psusennes I.[14] The land register recorded that certain water rights were formerly owned by Nysu-Bastet's mother Tewhunet in Year 19 of a king Psusennes. This ruler was generally assumed by Egyptologists to be Psusennes I rather than Psusennes II since the latter's reign was believed to have lasted only 14–15 years. Based on the land register evidence, Wayheset ordered that these watering rights should now be granted to Nysu-Bastet himself. However, if the oracle dated to Year 19 of Psusennes I as many scholars traditionally assumed, Nysu-Bastet would have been separated from his mother by a total of 80 years from this date into Year 5 of Shoshenq I-a figure which is highly unlikely since Nysu-Bastet would not have waited until extreme old age to uphold his mother's watering rights. This implies that the aforementioned king Psusennes here must be identified with Psusennes II instead-Shoshenq I's immediate predecessor and, more significantly, that Psusennes II enjoyed a minimum reign of 19 years. The term "mother" in ancient Egypt could also be an allusion to an ancestress, the matriarch of a lineage whereby Nysu-Bastet may have been petitioning for his hereditary water rights that belonged to his grandmother, whose family name was Tewhunet. However, this argument does not account for the use of Pharaoh as a title in the Dakhla stela-a literary device which first occurs late during the reign of Siamun, an Egyptian king who ruled between 45 to 64 years after Year 19 of Psusennes I. The most significant component of the Great Dakhla stela is its palaeography: the use of the title Pharaoh Psusennes. A scholar named Helen Jacquet-Gordon believed in the 1970s that the large Dakhla stela belonged to Shoshenq III's reign due to its use of the title 'Pharaoh' directly with the ruling king's birth name-i.e.: "Pharaoh Shoshenq"--which was an important palaeographical development in Egyptian history. Throughout the Old, Middle and New Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt, the word pharaoh was never employed as a title such as Mr. and Mrs. or attached to a king's nomen such as Pharaoh Ramesses or Pharaoh Amenhotep; instead, the word pr- `3 or pharaoh was used as a noun to refer to the activities of the king (i.e., it was "Pharaoh" who ordered the creation of a temple or statue, or the digging of a well, etc.). Rolf Krauss aptly observes that the earliest attested use of the word pharaoh as a title is documented in Year 17 of the 21st Dynasty king Siamun from Karnak Priestly Annals fragment 3B[16] while a second use of the title '[Pharaoh] [birth name]' occurs during Psusennes II's reign where a hieratic graffito in the Ptah chapel of the Abydos temple of Seti I explicitly refers to Psusennes II as the "High Priest of Amen-Re, King of the Gods, the Leader, Pharaoh Psusennes."[17][18] Consequently, the practice of attaching the title pr-`3 or pharaoh with a king's royal birth name had already started prior to the beginning of Shoshenq I's reign, let alone Shoshenq III. Hence, the Shoshenq mentioned in the large Year 5 Dakhla stela must have been Shoshenq I while the Psusennes mentioned in the same document likewise can only be Psusennes II which means that only 5 years (or 10 years if Psusennes II ruled Egypt for 24 years) would separate Nysu-Bastet from his mother.[19] The additional fact that the Large Dakhla stela contains a Year 5 IV Peret day 25 lunar date has helped date the aforementioned king Shoshenq's accession to 943 BC and demonstrates that the ruler here must be Shoshenq I, not Shoshenq III who ruled a century later.[19] Helen Jacquet-Gordon did not know of the two prior examples pertaining to Siamun and Psusennes II. Timeline The editors of the recent 2006 book on titled 'Handbook on Ancient Egyptian Chronology'--Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss and David Warburton-accept this logical reasoning and have amended Manetho's original figure of 14 years for Psusennes II to 24 years instead to Psusennes II.[20] This is not unprecedented since previous Egyptologists had previously amended the reign of Siamun by a decade from 9 years-as preserved in surviving copies of Manetho's Epitome-to 19 years based on certain Year 16 and Year 17 dates attested for the latter.[7] Psusennes II ruled Egypt for a minimum of 19 years based on the internal chronology of the Large Dakhla stela. However, a calculation of a lunar Tepi Shemu feast which records the induction of Hori son of Nespaneferhor into the Amun priesthood in regnal year 17 of Siamun, Psusennes II's predecessor-demonstrates that this date was equivalent to 970 BC.[21] Since Siamun enjoyed a reign of 19 years, he would have died 2 years later in 968/967 BC and been succeeded by Psusennes II by 967 BC at the latest. Consequently, a reign of 24 years or 967-943 BC is now likely for Psusennes II; hence, his reign has been raised from 14 to 24 years. Psusennes II's royal name has been found associated with his successor, Shoshenq I in a graffito from tomb TT18, and in an ostracon from Umm el-Qa'ab.[22]

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Herihor in Tour Egypt

HERIHOR, A RULER BUT NOT A KING by Jimmy Dunn - Under Ramesses XI at the end of the New Kingdom, the steadily increasing power of the Amun Priesthood at Thebes finally came to a head. Homer said of Thebes in the Iliad, Book 9, that "in Egyptian Thebes the heaps of precious ingots gleam, the hundred-gated Thebes". By this time, the priesthood at Amun was in control of two-thirds of all temple land in Egypt, which was extensive. They also owned 90 percent of all ships, and 80 percent of all factories, as well as many other resources, so their grip on the Egyptian economy was paramount. No wonder that, by the end of Ramesses XI's reign, he was virtually powerless and it was but a short step for the priesthood at Thebes to enforce supremacy, at least in the south. Earlier in Ramesses XI's reign, after Amunhotpe assumed the position of High-Priest of Amun, he attempted to inflate his status, probably resulting in a nine month period when Amunhotpe was "suppressed", clearly as some sort of major civil upheaval, This seemingly included an attack on the fortified temple complex of Medinet Habu on the West Bank at Thebes (modern Luxor). This problem was ultimately settled by Paneshy, who was the Egyptian Viceroy of Nubia. He marched north to Thebes to restore order, and for probably a period of years, continued to hold sway over southern Egypt and Nubia. Apparently this too was unacceptable, and he in tern was eventually ousted by General Herihor. This all seems to have been, in the end, a situation of the survival of the fittest, for apparently there were never any gains for the king himself. After having driven Paneshy into Nubia, and even though campaigning against the now-renegade Paneshy continued for some years, prosecuted by Herihor's son-in-law and eventual successor, Piankh, General Herihor at least nominally assumed the viceroyalty of his opponent, and additionally was appointed as the High-Priest of Amun. He thus acquired the authority of a military dictator as well as the economic resources of the Amun temple at Karnak. One must wonder whether his appointment to this high office by Ramesses XI was due to the king's stupidity, or more likely forced upon him. However, Herihor's wife, Nodjmet, may have been a sister of Ramesses XI, which might help to explain the king's allowances. Herihor marked the establishment of his new regime by initiating a new dating era, known as the Renaissances, or "Repeating of Births", a term that had previously been used by kings who founded new dynasties. The first year of this system began with the nineteenth regnal year of Ramesses XI. Herihor was this individual's birth name, and he had as an epithet, Si-amun, which can all be translated to mean "Horus Protects Me, Son of Amun". His title became Hem-netjer-tepy-en-amun, which means "The First Prophet [High-Priest] of Amun". It has been suggested that Herihor's family may have been Libyan, though there is no clear cut evidence. Though clearly dominate over southern Egypt, however, the reason he is not referenced as a true king of a divided Egypt in most sources is that he never took on outwardly the titles of a king, though he did use cartouches, usually reserved only for kings These can be found today within the temple of Khonsu at Karnak. This temple, located on the south side in the complex of Amun at Thebes, was also his most major building work. There, he had constructed the forecourt and pylons. We also here about Herihor in the famous report of Wenamen, who he sent abroad to purchase wood for a new barque of Amun. This report is very valuable to us today, because, not only does it point out Egypt's weakness during this period, it also provides some information on the dynamics of leadership in Egypt while Herihor controlled the south. Herihor apparently sent his envoy not to Ramesses XI, who probably lived in Pi-Ramessse, but rather to Smendes at Tanis, not very far from Pi-Ramessse in the Delta for assistance along his journey. The implications are that, by this point, Ramesses XI was virtually powerless Otherwise, the records of him are the pious restorations written on some of the coffins and dockets on the mummies from the Royal cache (DB 320) of mummies discovered at Deir el_Bahri. Just as in the case of Ramesses IX, there were tomb robberies at Thebes, and at least some of the mummies of previous rulers were initially moved to caches by Herihor in order to save them from vandalism. Among these mummies was found Herihor's wife, though their joint funerary papyrus, a magnificent illustrated copy of the Book of the Dead, had come on to the antiquities market some years before the formal discovery. A linen docket on the mummy shows that the queen was embalmed in or after year one of Smendes' rule, indicating that she apparently outlived her husband by as many as five years. She had apparently been hidden in another cache of mummies before being transferred to this second cache, and it would also seem that husband and wife were not buried together despite having a joint funerary papyrus. In fact, there has so far been no trace of Herihor's burial apart from this papyrus. Herihor probably died some five years prior to Ramesses XI. One must wonder how different Egypt's history might have been had he outlived Ramesses XI. Nevertheless, the heirs of his office would change Egypt for many years to come. No funerary figurines, canopic jars or other fragments of funerary equipment have ever been discovered. There is good reason to suspect, from rock graffiti, that Herihor's tomb may still remain intact somewhere in the Theban hills.

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Herihor in Wikipedia

Herihor was an Egyptian army officer and High Priest of Amun at Thebes (1080 BC to 1074 BC) during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses XI. Life While his origins are unknown, it is thought that his parents were Libyans.[1] Recent studies by Karl Jansen-Winkeln in ZAS 119 (1992) suggest that Piankh-originally thought to be Herihor's successor-was actually Herihor's father-in- law and predecessor.[2] Herihor advanced through the ranks of the military during the reign of Ramesses XI and was integral to restoring order by ousting Pinehesy, viceroy of Nubia, from Thebes. His wife Nodjmet, may have been Ramesses XI's daughter. After that, he assumed more and more titles, from high priest to vizier, before finally openly taking the royal title at Thebes even if he still nominally recognised the authority of Ramesses XI, the actual king of Egypt. Herihor never really held power outside the environs of Thebes, and Ramesses XI actually outlived him by at least two years. While both Herihor and his wife Nodjmet were given royal cartouches in inscriptions on their funerary equipment, their 'kingship' was limited to a few relatively restricted areas of Thebes whereas Ramesses XI's name was still recorded in official administrative documents throughout the country.[3] The two men quietly agreed to accept the new political situation where the High Priest was as powerful as Pharaoh. The report of Wenamun (also known as Wen-Amon) was made in Year 5 of Herihor and Herihor is mentioned in several Year 5 and Year 6 mummy linen graffitos. The de facto split between Ramesses XI and his 21st Dynasty successors with the High Priests of Amun at Thebes (referred to in Ancient Egyptian as Wehem Mesut) resulted in the unofficial political division of Egypt between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt with the Tanite kings ruling the latter from Tanis. In practice, these were often two branches of the same family through intermarriage and the division between these two dynasties is somewhat artificial: Herihor's great-grandson was crowned Psusennes I at Tanis. Another Theban High Priest would later assume the throne of all Egypt as Psusennes II. This division was not completely ended until the country was finally reunited with the accession of the Libyan Dynasty 22 king Shoshenq I in 943 BC; Shoshenq was able to appoint his son Iuput to be the new High Priest of Amun at Thebes and thus exercise authority over all of the country.

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Piankh in Wikipedia

While the High Priest of Amun Piankh (or Payankh) has been assumed to be a son-in-law of Herihor and his heir to the Theban throne of the High Priest of Amun, recent studies by Karl Jansen-Winkeln of the surviving temple inscriptions and monumental works by Herihor and Piankh in Upper Egypt imply that Piankh was actually Herihor's predecessor and father in-law.[1][2] Be that as it may, Piankh’s wife was Hrere, Herihor's daughter, while his son was Pinedjem I[3]. Piankh led an army against Pinehesy, viceroy of Kush, who had conquered large parts of Upper Egypt and succeeded in driving him back into Nubia [4]. Piankh's name literally means "of life". Piankh held a number of official positions including High Priest of Amun[5], King's scribe, King's son of Kush, Overseer of the foreign countries to the South, overseer of the granaries and commander of the archers (i. e. chief of police) of the whole of [Upper] Egypt.[6]. He was succeeded in office by either Herihor or Pinedjem I, his son. He is the only Ancient Egyptian High Priest of Amun, or yet, Ancient Egyptian royalty with a detailed family tree which was put together by Wessa Wassif and Habib Kozman, in 1956, which was later edited again by his great relative Nabil Mounier Habib, Habib's grandson, with the help of novelist and ancient Egyptian specialist Naguib Mahfouz, at the American University in Cairo, in 1990 . His family line still thrives in Egypt until today.

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Pinedjem I in Tour Egypt

PINEDJEM I IN THE THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD BY JIMMY DUNN - We see at the beginning of the 21st Dynasty and what Egyptology refers to as the beginning of the Third Intermediate Period, two individuals officially rising to power almost simultaneously in about 1070 BC. They were Smendes in the north at Tanis and Pinedjem in the south at Thebes. By "officially rising", we mean that, at least in the case of Smendes, he seems to have been a very powerful individual some years before, at least as implied in the Record of Wenamen. While we are really unsure of Smendes' claim to the Egyptian throne, Pinedjem I's pedigree is better known, as he was the son of the preceding High-Priest of Amun, Piankh, who ruled southern Egypt for only a short time after the death of Herihor. While we know something of Pinedjem, this is nevertheless a very complicated period in Egyptian history, in appearances, we have a divided Egypt with Smendes controlling the North, and Pinedjem I the south, yet there seems to have been little conflict, and even cooperation between the two men. This period is frequently referred to as a theocracy, because we are told essentially that the real ruler of Egypt at this time was actually the god Amun himself. This situation might be easier to visualize were Smendes the High-Priest of Amun in the north just as Pinedjem was in the south, but that does not seem to be the case and the situation appears to have been much more complicated. More probably the underlying reason for this almost disturbing peace was family relations. It seems likely that either by marriage or ancestry, these rulers of north and south were related. Pinedjem apparently married Henuttawy (I), a daughter of Ramesses XI, and it also seems every possible that Smendes' wife, could have also been a daughter of the same king. Essentially, Smendes took on, to the outside world, all the attributes of a king ruling over a united Egypt, but in fact he only ruled in the north, as far south as el-Hiba (just south of the Fayoum). Pinedjem I, on the other hand, sends us mixed signals, writing his name in a royal cartouche, for example, but dating material such as the restoration dockets on the royal mummies to the reign of Smendes. Pinedjem was this king's birth name, and together with his ephithet, mery-amun, his name may be translated as "He who belongs to the Pleasant One {Horus or Ptah}, Beloved of Amun. He chose a throne name of Kha-kheper-re Setep-en-amun, which means "The Soul of Re appears, Chosen of Amun". There may have been an upheaval of the Tanis-Thebes relationship around year 16 of Smendes' reign. For a period of time, although claiming no more than his military and priestly titles, Pinudjem executed a number of monuments showing him in full pharaonic regalia. Although in one case a representation was altered back to showing him in priestly garb, as if to hint at some hesitation on Pinudjem's part, from year 16, we find him bearing full pharaonic titles. His Horus name was "Powerful bull, crowned in Thebes and beloved of Amun", and from this point on his name was written in a cartouche and is found in inscriptions at Thebes, Koptos, Abydos and even Tanis. However, the dating system continued to reference Smendes' reign. Beyond Henuttawy (I), he apparently had a second wife named Maatkare, and by his wives, several sons including Psusennes I, who perhaps surprisingly became a successor of Smendes in the North,. and Masaherta and Menkheppere, who became successive High-Priests of Amun at Thebes, and therefore rulers of the south. His second wife, Maatkare, was probably also a daughter, who became the "Divine Adoratice': God's Wife and chief of the Priestesses of Amun. In the Temple of Amun at Karnak in Thebes, Pinedjem can be found on the outer face and entrance of the pylon beyond the first court, and his name is on a number of scattered blocks. He also usurped a colossal standing statue of Ramesses II, in the first court of the temple of Amun at Karnak. Apparently, Pinudjem I passed on the office of High-Priest of Amun to his son, Masaharta, while still alive, though he apparently continuing to hold sway over southern Egypt until his death in about 1032 BC. Pinedjem I's mummy and a large number of his bright blue faience funerary figurines wee found in the royal cache at Deir el-Bahari (DB 320) in six boxes. Like the mummy of Nodjmet, the wife of Herihor, Pinedjem appears to have been moved to this cache of mummies from a previous cache. He may have attempted to take over the tomb of Ramesses XI (KV4), but never did so, for unknown reasons. In fact, none of the original burials of any of the High-Priests form this period are currently known.

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Pinedjem I in Wikipedia

Pinedjem I was the High Priest of Amun at Thebes in Ancient Egypt from 1070 BC to 1032 BC and the de facto ruler of the south of the country from 1054 BC. He was the son of the High Priest Piankh. However, many Egyptologists today believe that the succession in the Amun priesthood actually ran from Piankh to Herihor to Pinedjem I.[1][2] According to the new hypothesis, Pinedjem I was too young to succeed to the High Priesthood of Amun after the death of Piankh. Herihor instead intervened to assume to this office. After Herihor's death, Pinedjem I finally claimed this office which had once been held by his father Piankh. This interpretation is supported by the decorations from the Temple of Khonsu at Karnak where Herihor's wall reliefs here are immediatedly followed by those of Pinedjem I with no intervening phase for Piankh and also by the long career of Pinedjem I who served as High Priest of Amun and later as king at Thebes. Reign - He inherited a political and religious base of power at Thebes. Pinedjem strengthened his control over both Middle and Upper Egypt and asserted his kingdom's virtual independence from the Twenty-first Dynasty based at Tanis. He married Duathathor-Henuttawy, a daughter of Ramesses XI, to cement his relations with the other powerful families of the period. Their son, Psusennes I, went on to become Pharaoh at Tanis, thereby removing at a stroke the gap between the two families. In practice, however, the 21st dynasty kings and the Theban high priests were probably never very far apart politically since they respected each other's political autonomy. Around Year 15 or 16 of Smendes, Pinedjem I proclaimed himself pharaoh over Upper Egypt[3] and his priestly role was inherited by his two sons Masaharta and Menkheperre. His daughter, Maatkare, held the position of Divine Adoratrice of Amun. Pinedjem's mummy was found in the cache at Deir el-Bahri. Family - His parents Piankhi and Nodjmet had several children; three brothers (Heqanefer, Heqamaat, Ankhefenmut) and one sister (Faienmut) of Pinedjem are known.[4] Three of his wives are known. Duathathor-Henuttawy, the daughter of Ramesses XI bore him several children: the future pharaoh Psusennes I, the God's Wife of Amun Maatkare, Princess Henuttawy and probably Queen Mutnedjmet, the wife of Psusennes.[5] Another wife was Isetemkheb, Singer of Amun. She is mentioned along with Pinedjem on bricks found at el-Hiban.[6] A possible third wife is Tentnabekhenu, who is mentioned on the funerary papyrus of her daughter Nauny.[7] Nauny was buried at Thebes and is called a King's Daughter, thus it is likely that Pinedjem was her father.[8] Other than Psusennes, he had four sons, whose mother is unidentified, but one or more of them must have been born to Duathathor- Henuttawy[6]: Masaharta, Djedkhonsuefankh, Menkheperre (all of whom became High Priests of Amun)[9] and Nesipaneferhor, a God's Father (priest) of Amun, whose name replaced that of a son of Herihor in the Karnak temple of Khonsu.[10]

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Masaherta in Wikipedia

Masaharta or Masaherta was the High Priest of Amun at Thebes between 1054 BC and 1045 BC. His father was Pinedjem I, who was the Theban High Priest of Amun and de facto ruler of Upper Egypt from 1070 BC, then declared himself pharaoh in 1054 BC and Masaharta succeeded him as high priest. His mother was probably Duathathor-Henuttawy, the daughter of Ramesses XI, last ruler of the 20th dynasty. His aunt Tentamun, another daughter of Ramesses married Pharaoh Smendes I, who ruled Lower Egypt. One of Masaharta's brothers was Psusennes I, who followed Smendes's successor, the short-lived Amenemnisu as pharaoh.[1] Masaharta was responsible for the restoration of the mummy of Amenhotep I in the 16th regnal year of Smendes. Several of his inscriptions are known from the Karnak temple of Amenhotep II, from ram-headed sphinxes also in Karnak, and a large falcon statue. He died of illness around the 24th regnal year at el-Hiba. His mummy was found in the Deir el-Bahri cache along with several family members; it is now in Luxor.[2] He was succeeded as high priest by his brother Djedkhonsuefankh, who served only for a short time and was followed by another brother, Menkheperre. The God's Wife of Amun was their sister Maatkare during Masaharta's reign. His wife is likely to have been the Singer of Amun Tayuheret, whose mummy was found in the Deir el-Bahri cachette.[3] It is possible that he had a daughter called Isetemkheb, since a lady by this name is called the daughter of a high priest on her funerary objects; it is also possible, though, that she was Menkheperre's daughter.[4]

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Menkheperre in Wikipedia

Menkheperre, son of Pharaoh Pinedjem I by wife Henuttawy (daughter of Ramesses XI by wife Tentamon), was the High Priest of Amun at Thebes in Ancient Egypt from 1045 BC to 992 BC and de facto ruler of the south of the country.[1] Menkheperre's eldest full brother Masaharta followed their father as High Priest. He was followed by another brother, Djedkhonsuefankh, after whose death, in the 25th year of Smendes I, Menkheperre became High Priest. With his elder half-brother ruling at Tanis as Pharaoh Psusennes I, Menkheperre's power, like that of Masaharta, must have been somewhat curtailed. Menkheperre took as his throne name the title of "First prophet of Amun", just as his great- grandfather Herihor had, perhaps an indication of this diminished role, though he kept the cartouche unlike his successors in the temple.[1] Menkheperre married his niece Isetemkheb, daughter of his brother Psusennes I and wife Wiay. Their children were:[2] Smendes II, also called Nesbanebdjed II, who followed him as High Priest. Henuttawy, wife of Smendes II, Chantress of Amun. She is mentioned on the 10th pylon of the Karnak temple. She was buried in the Deir el-Bahari tomb MMA60, her coffins are now in Boston and New York. She had a daughter called Isetemkheb. Pinedjem II, High Priest after his brother's death. He married his sister Isetemkheb and became the father of Pharaoh Psusennes II. Isetemkheb D, wife of Pinedjem II. Hori, priest of Amun and Seth. His mummy and coffins were found at Bab el-Gasus (Deir el-Bahari) and are now in Cairo. Meritamen, Chantress of Amun. She was buried at Bab el-Gasus under the pontificate of Psusennes II. Her coffins are in Cairo. Gautseshen, Chantress of Montu. She was buried at Bab el- Gasus, her coffins and papyrus are now in Cairo. She was married to Tjanefer, Third Prophet of Amun. Their sons, Pinedjem and Menkheperre became Third and Fourth Prophet of Amun, respectively.

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Smendes II in Wikipedia

Nesbanebdjed II, or in Hellenized form, Smendes II, was a High Priest of Amun at Thebes in Ancient Egypt. He governed from about 992 BC to 990 BC.[1] Smendes was one of the sons of High Priest Menkheperre and Princess Isetemkheb, the daughter of Psusennes I.[2] He married his sister Henuttawy II and had a daughter, Isetemkheb; another wife, Takhentdjehuti bore him Neskhons, who would be the wife of his brother and successor Pinedjem II.[2][3]. His pontificate was short and left few traces, missing, for instance from the annals of Egyptian historian Manetho. He is mentioned on an inscription in Karnak, on mummy bandages and on a few bracelets found on the mummy of Psusennes I. A scribe's palette now in New York belonged either to him or to Smendes III.[1] He was succeeded by his brother Pinedjem II.

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Thutmose IV (Menkheperure) in Tour Egypt

TUTHMOSIS IV OF THE 18TH DYNASTY by Jimmy Dunn The Pharaoh Tuthmosis IV, who ruled during Egypt famous 18th Dynasty, is probably most famous for his "Dream Stele, that can still today be found between the paws of the great Sphinx at Giza. Dreams were important in ancient Egypt and were considered to be divine predictions of the future. In Tuthmosis IV\'s "Dream Stele", he tells us that, while out on a hunting trip, he fell asleep in the shadow of the Sphinx (or apparently, the shadow of the Sphinx\'s head, for the monument was apparently buried in sand at the time). In the young prince\'s sleep, Re-Harakhte, the sun god embodied in the Sphinx, came to him in a dream and promised that if he would clear away the sand that engulfed the monument, Tuthmosis would become king of Egypt. Tuthmosis IV\'s Dream Stele In part, the stele reads: "Now the statue of the very great Khepri (the Great Sphix) restin in this place, great of fame, sacred of respect, the shade of Ra resting on him. Memphis and every city on its two sides came to him, their arms in adoration to his face, bearing great offerings for his ka. One of these days it happened that price Tuthmosis came travelling at the time of midday. He rested in the shadow of the great god. (Sleep and) dream (took possession of me) at the moment the sun was at zenith. Then he found the majesty of this noble god speaking from his own mouth like a father speaks to his son, and saying, \'Look at me, observe me, my son Tuthmosis. I am your father, Horemakhet-Khepri-Ra-Atum. I shall give to you the kingship (upon the land before the living)...(Behold, my condition is like one in illness), all (my limbs being ruined). The sand of the desert, upon which I used to be, (now) confronts me; and it is in order to cause that you do what is in my heart that I have waited." Obviously, the prince carried out these instructions, and thus became the eighth ruler of the 18th Dynasty. His throne name was Men-kheperu-re, meaning "Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re". We can also find references to him under the names of Thuthmose IV, Thutmosis IV, and Djehutymes IV. He ruled Egypt between 1419 and 1386 BC. He was apparently the son of Amenhotep II by his wife, Tiaa, but Egyptologists speculate whether, because of the wording of the "Dream Stele", his claim on the Egyptian throne was legitimate. In fact, other evidence supports this contention. His father, Amenhotep II, never recognized Tuthmosis as a co-regent, or announced any intent for Thutmosis to succeed him. We know that Tuthmosis IV was probably married to Mutemwiya, who produced his heir to the throne, Amenhotep III, though he never acknowledged her as either a major or minor queen. It is possible, though now doubted by some, that she was the daughter of he Mitannian king, Artatama, who sent his daughter to the Egyptian court as part of a diplomatic exchange. Other of his wives included Merytra, who we believe later changed her name to Tiaa (same as his mother\'s name) and a non-royal wife, Nefertiry. He probably also married one of his sisters named Iaret. Tuthmosis IV is not the best documented of Egyptian pharaohs. We actually know very little about him in comparison to others of this dynasty. Little military action appears to have occurred during his reign, although our knowledge may be marred by the lack of texts. We do know that there was a Nubian campaign in Year 8 of his rule, and that apparently there were also campaigns in Syria. However, even though the king is referred to twice as the "conqueror of Syria", these may have actually been little more then policing actions, rather than full scale battles. Little is also known of his building work. Tuthmosis IV did finish a giant obelisk that was originally quarried at Aswan under Tuthmosis III, his grandfather. At 32 meters (105 feet) it was the tallest Egyptian obelisk that we know of, and was uniquely intended to stand as a single obelisk at the Temple of Karnak. Most of the obelisks were usually erected in pairs. However, Tuthmosis III originally intended for there to be a pair of these Obelisks. Its counterpart developed a fault during the quarry process, and remains today joined to the bed-rock at Aswan. Today, the finished obelisk stands outside St. John Leteran in Rome, rather then in Egypt. He also began work work at most of Egypt\'s major temple sites and four sites in Nubia, but almost all of this was simply adding to existing monuments. Most of his work was adding to the temples of his father and grandfather, and perhaps suggesting new sites and monuments to his son. We know of his minor building projects in the following locations: The Delta at Alexandria Seriakus Heliopolis (possibly) Giza Abusir Saqqara Memphis Crocodilopos in the Fayoum Hermopolis Amarna Abydos (a chapel) Dendera Medamud Karnak Luxor The West Bank at Luxor (his tomb and mortuary temple) Armant Tod Elkab Edfu Elephantine Konosso In Nubia at the following locations: Faras Buhen Amada (where he decorated the peristyle court) Tabo Gebel Barkal (a foundation deposit) He also provided some decorations in the Hathor temple at the Serabit el-Khadim turquoise mines in the Sinai. His best attested building project we have available today is his own tomb, KV 43, located in the Valley of the Kings and discovered by Howard Carter. However, his mummy was missing from his tomb, having been found five years earlier in a cache of mummies located in the tomb of Amenhotep II. Perhaps better known are the fine private tombs built by his nobles on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes) in an area commonly referred to as the Tombs of the Nobles. These include such notable tombs as that of Nakht (TT 52) and Menna (TT 69).

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Thutmose IV in Wikipedia

Thutmose IV (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis IV and meaning Thoth is Born) was the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, who ruled in approximately the 14th century BC. His prenomen or royal name, Menkheperure, means "Established in forms is Re."[1] Dates and length of reign Dating the beginning of the reign of Thutmose IV is difficult to do with certainty because he is several generations removed from the astronomical dates which are usually used to calculate Egyptian chronologies, and the debate over the proper interpretation of these observances has not been settled. Thutmose's grandfather Thutmose III almost certainly acceded the throne in either 1504 or 1479, based upon two lunar observances during his reign.[2] After ruling for nearly 54 years,[3] Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV's father, took the throne and ruled for at least 26 years,[4] but has been assigned up to 35 years in some chronological reconstructions.[5] The currently preferred reconstruction, after analyzing all this evidence, usually comes to an accession date around 1401 BC[6] or 1400 BC[7] for the beginning of Thutmose IV's reign. The length of his reign is not as clear as one would wish. He is usually given about nine or ten years of reign. Manetho credits him a reign of 9 years and 8 months.[8] However, Manetho's other figures for the 18th dynasty are frequently assigned to the wrong kings or simply incorrect, so monumental evidence is also used to determine his reign length.[9] Of all of Thutmose IV's dated monuments, three date to his first regnal year, one to his fourth, possibly one to his fifth, one to his sixth, two to his seventh, and one to his eighth.[10] Two possible other dated objects, one dated to a Year 19 and another year 20, have been suggested as belonging to him, but neither have been accepted as dating to his reign.[10] The reading of the king in these dates are today accepted as referring to the prenomen of Thutmose III--Menkheperre-and not Menkhepe[ru]re Thutmose IV himself. Due to the absence of higher dates for Thutmose IV after his Year 8 Konosso stela,[11] Manetho's figures here are usually accepted.[8] There were once chronological reconstructions which gave him a reign as long as 34–35 years.[8][12] Today, however, most scholars ascribe give him a 10 year reign from 1401 to 1391 BC, within a small margin of error. Life Thutmose IV was born to Amenhotep II and Tiaa but was not actually the crown prince and Amenhotep II's chosen successor to the throne. Some scholars speculate that Thutmose ousted his older brother in order to usurp power and then commissioned the Dream Stele in order to justify his unexpected kingship. Thutmose's most celebrated accomplishment was the restoration of the Sphinx at Giza and subsequent commission of the Dream Stele. According to Thutmose's account on the Dream Stele, while the young prince was out on a hunting trip, he stopped to rest under the head of the Sphinx, which was buried up to the neck in sand. He soon fell asleep and had a dream in which the Sphinx told him that if he cleared away the sand and restored it he would become the next Pharaoh. After completing the restoration of the Sphinx, he placed a carved stone tablet, now known as the Dream Stele, between the two paws of the Sphinx.The restoration of the Sphinx and the text of the Dream Stele would then be a piece of propaganda on Thutmose's part, meant to bestow legitimacy upon his unexpected kingship.[13]. Little is known about his brief ten-year rule. He suppressed a minor uprising in Nubia in his 8th year (attested in his Konosso stela) around 1393 BC and was referred to in a stela as the Conqueror of Syria,[14] but little else has been pieced together about his military exploits. Betsy Bryan who penned a biography of Thutmose IV stresses that Thutmose IV's Konosso stela appears to refer to a minor desert patrol action on the part of the king's forces to protect certain gold-mine routes in Egypt's Eastern Desert from occasional attacks by the Nubians.[15] Thutmose IV's rule is significant because he was the New Kingdom pharaoh who established peaceful relations with Mitanni and married a Mitannian princess to seal this new alliance. Thutmose IV's role in initiating contact with Egypt's former rival, Mitanni, is documented by Amarna letter EA 29 composed decades later by Tushratta, a Mittanian king who ruled during the reign of Akhenaten, Thutmose IV's grandson. Tushratta states to Akhenaten that: " When [Menkheperure], the father of Nimmureya (ie. Amenhotep III) wrote to Artatama, my grandfather, he asked for the daughter of my grandfather, the sister of my father. He wrote 5, 6 times, but he did not give her. When he wrote my grandfather 7 times, then only under such pressure, did he give her. (EA 29)[16] Monuments Like most of the Thutmoside kings, he built on a grand scale. Thutmose IV completed the eastern obelisk first started by Thutmose III, which, at 32 m (105 ft), was the tallest obelisk ever erected in Egypt, at the Temple of Karnak.[14] Thutmose IV called it the tekhen waty or 'unique obelisk.' It was transported to the grounds of the Circus Maximus in Rome by Emperor Constantius II in 357 AD and, later, "re-erected by Pope Sixtus V in 1588 at the Piazza San Giovanni" in the Vatican where it is today known as the 'Lateran Obelisk."[17] Thutmose IV also built a unique chapel and peristyle hall against the back or eastern walls of the main Karnak temple building.[18] The chapel was intended "for people "who had no right of access to the main [Karnak] temple. It was a 'place of the ear' for the god Amun where the god could hear the prayers of the townspeople."[19] This small alabaster chapel of Thutmose IV has today been carefully restored by French scholars from the Centre Franco-Egyptien D'Étude des Temple de Karnak (CFEETK) mission in Karnak.[20] Burial Thutmose IV was buried in the Valley of the Kings, in tomb KV43, but his body was later moved to the mummy cache in KV35, where it was discovered by Victor Loret in 1898. An examination of his body shows that he was very ill and had been wasting away for the final months of his life prior to his death. He was succeeded by his son, Amenhotep III.

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Amenhotep III (Nebmaatre) in Tour Egypt

AMENHOTEP III, THE NINTH KING OF EGYPT\'S 18TH DYNASTY BY JIMMY DUNN - We believe that Amenhotep III ruled for almost 40 years during the 18th Dynasty of Egypt\'s history that represented one of its most prosperous and stable periods. We must grant to Amenhotep III\'s grandfather, Tuthmosis III, who is sometimes referred to as the Napoleon of ancient Egypt, the foundation of this success by dominating through military action Egypt\'s Syrian, Nubian and Libyan neighbors. Because of that, little or no military actions were called for during his grandson's reign. The small police actions in Nubia that did take place were directed by his son and viceroy of Kush, Merymose (or perhaps an earlier viceroy) . Amenhotep (or heqawaset) was this kings birth name, meaning "Amun is Pleased, Ruler of Thebes. His throne name was Nub-maat-re, which means "Lord of Truth is Re. Amenhotep III\'s birth is splendidly depicted in a series of reliefs inside a room on the east side of the temple of Luxor. Built by Amenhotep III, the room was dedicated to Amun. However, it portrays the creator god, Khnum of Elephantine (at modern Aswan) with his ram head, fashioning the child and his ka on a potter\'s wheel under the supervision of the goddess Isis. The god Amun is then led to Amenhotep III\'s mother by Thoth, god of wisdom, after which Amun is shown in the presence of the goddesses Hathor and Mut while they nurse the future king. His father was Tuthmosis IV by one of that king\'s chief queens, Mutemwiya. She may have, though mostly in doubt now, been the daughter of the Mitannian king, Artatama. That queen was indeed probably sent to Egypt for the purposes of a diplomatic marriage. It is more than likely that Amenhotep III succeeded to the throne of Egypt as a child, sometime between the ages of two and twelve years of age. There is a statue of the treasurer Sobekhotep holding a prince Amenhotep-mer-khepseh that was most likely executed shortly before Tuthmosis IV\'s death, as well as a painting in the tomb of the royal nurse, Hekarnehhe (TT64) portraying the prince as a young boy, though not a small child. This, and the fact that his mother is not so very prominently visible, along with other factors, suggests that he was more likely between six and twelve years of age at the time of his father\'s death. It is unlikely that his mother, Mutemwiya, served as a regent for the young king, and whoever may have been in charge at the beginning of his reign seems to have remained in the background. Amenhotep III\'s own chief queen, who he married in year two of his reign, was not of royal blood, but came from a very substantial family. She was Tiy, the daughter of Yuya and his wife, Tuya, who owned vast holdings in the Delta. Yuya was also a powerful military leader. Their tomb, numbered KV46 in the Valley of the Kings, is well known. His brother-in-law by this marriage, Anen, would during his reign also rise to great power as Chancellor of Lower Egypt, Second Prophet of Amun, sem-priest of Heliopolis, and Divine Father. It is possible that the king\'s early regency was carried out by his wife\'s family. However, it would seem that Amenhotep collected a large harem of ladies over the years, including several from diplomatic marriages, including Gilukhepa, a princess of Naharin, as well as two of his daughters (Isis and in year 30 of his reign, Sitamun or Satamun, who bore the title "great royal wife" simultaneously with her mother). We can document at least six of his children consisting of two sons and four daughters (other daughters including Henuttaneb and Nebetiah). However, his probable oldest son, Tuthmosis who was a sem-priest, died early leaving the future heretic king, Amenhotep IV, otherwise known as Akhenaten, as the crown prince. The King\'s Early Years In essence, we may split Amenhotep III\'s reign into two parts, with his earliest years given much to sportsmanship with a few minor military activities. While as usual, an expedition into Nubia in year five of his reign was given grandiose attention on some reliefs, it probably amounted to nothing more than a low key police action. However, it may have pushed as for as south of the fifth cataract. It was recorded on inscriptions near Aswan and at Konosso in Nubia. There is also a stele in the British Museum recording a Nubian campaign, but it is unclear whether it references this first action, or one later in his reign. There was also a Nubian rebellion reported at Ibhet, crushed by his son. While Amenhotep III was almost certainly not directly involved in this conflict, he records having slaughtered many within the space of a single hour. We learn from inscriptions that this campaign resulted in the capture of 150 Nubian men, 250 women, 175 children, 110 archers and 55 servants, added to the 312 right hands of the slain. Perhaps to underscore the Kushite subjection to Egypt, he had built at Soleb, almost directly across the Nile from the Nubian capital at Kerma, a fortress known as Khaemmaat, along with a temple. The Prosperity and International Relationships However, by year 25 of Amenhotep III\'s reign, military problems seem to have been settled, and we find a long period of great building works and high art. It was also a period of lavish luxury at the royal court. The wealth needed to accomplish all of this did not come from conquests, but rather from foreign trade and an abundant supply of gold, mostly from the mines in the Wadi Hammamat and further south in Nubia. Amenhotep III was unquestionably involved with international diplomatic efforts, which led to increased foreign trade. During his reign, we find a marked increase in Egyptian materials found on the Greek mainland. We also find many Egyptian place names, including Mycenae, Phaistos and Knossos first appearing in Egyptian inscriptions We also find letters written between Amenhotep III and his peers in Babylon, Mitanni and Arzawa preserved in cuneiform writing on clay tablets. From a stele in his mortuary temple, we further learn that he sent at least one expedition to punt. It is rather clear that the nobility prospered during the reign of Amenhotep III. However, the plight of common Egyptians is less sure, and we have little evidence to suggest that they shared in Egypt\'s prosperity. Yet, Amenhotep III and his granary official Khaemhet boasted of the great crops of grain harvested in the kings 30th (jubilee) year. And while such evidence is hardly unbiased, the king was remembered even 1,000 years later as a fertility god, associated with agricultural success. Building Projects Though a number of Amenhotep III\'s building projects no longer exist, we find at Karnak almost a complete makeover of the temple, including his efforts to embellish the already monumental temple to Amun, as well as his the East Temple for the sun god and his own festival building. His impact in the Karnak temple was thematic, leaving the impression of a warrior king whose victories honored both himself and the God Amun, and he changed the face of this temple almost completely. He had his workers dismantle the peristyle court in front of the Fourth Pylon, as well as the shrines associated with it, using them as fill for a new Pylon, the Third, on the east-west axis. This created a new entrance to the temple, and he had two rows of columns with open papyrus capitals erected down the center of the newly formed forecourt. At the south end of Karnak, he began construction on the Tenth Pylon, with a slightly different orientation then that of the Seventh and Eighth, in order for it to lead to a new entrance for the percent of the goddess Mut. He may have even started a new temple for her. To balance the south temple complex, he built a new shrine to the goddess Ma\'at, the daughter of the sun-god, to the north of central Karnak. At Luxor he built a new temple to the same god, including the still standing colonnaded court. That effort is considered a masterpiece of elegance and design and particular credit must be given to his mater architect, Amenhotep son of Hapu. He also built a monumental mortuary temple on the West Bank at Thebes (modern Luxor) that is the single largest royal temple known to us from ancient Egypt. Unfortunately, it was built much too close to the flood plain and was in ruins by the 19th Dynasty, when material was quarried from it for new building projects. While some of the ground plan of the temple may be made out, the only material remains are the Colossi of Memnon. These statues were misnamed by the Greeks, but actually depict Amenhotep III. The southern of the statues also depicts the two most important women in the king\'s life, his mother Mutemwiya and his wife, Queen Tiy. However, it should be noted that within the grounds of the temple, more fragments of colossal statuary have been found than in any other known sacred precinct. In the fields behind the statues, also stands a great, repaired stele that was once in the sanctuary of his temple, around which are located fragments of sculptures. The West Bank was also the site of Amenhotep III\'s huge palace, called Malkata. Fragments of this building remain, unlike most other royal residences. From this scant evidence, it would seem that the walls were plastered and painted with lively scenes from nature. Next to the palace complex he also built a great harbor. Further south on the west bank at Kom el-Samak, Amenhotep III also built a jubilee pavilion of painted mud brick and at Sumenu, some twenty kilometers south of Thebes the king built a temple dedicated to the cult of the crocodile god, Sobek. Along with these building projects, we also know that he developed and expanded cults at a number of other locations including Amada (for Amun and Ra-Horakhty), Hebenu and Hermopolis, where we find two colossus statues of baboons and an altar. There were other building projects in Egypt proper at Memphis, where blocks of brown quartzite remain from the king\'s great temple called "Nebmaatra United with Ptah", Elephantine (now destroyed) and a completed chapel at Elkab. Building elements at Bubastis, Athribis, Letopolis and Heliopolis also attest to the king\'s interest in the eastern Delta. He also built temples are shrines in Nubia at Quban, Wadi es-Sebua, Sedinga, Soleb and Tabo Island. There were also building elements or stele in his name at Aniba, Buhen, Mirgissa, Kawa and Gebel Barkal. Artistry of the Period Artistically, many of the royal portraits of the king in sculptor are truly masterpieces of any historical age. After the Colossi of Memnon, the largest of these is the limestone statue of the king and queen with three small standing princesses discovered at Medinet Habu. However, many other statues give the king a look of reflection, and bringing to life emotional emphasis. We find grand statues of black granite depicting a seated Amenhotep wearing the nemes headdress, unearthed by Belzoni from behind the Colossi of Memnon and from Tanis in the Delta. Others statues and some reliefs and paintings depict the king wearing the more helmet like khepresh, sometimes referred to as the Blue, or War Crown. Even in recent years, some statuary of Amenhotep III continues to be discovered, such as an incredible six foot (1.83 meter) high pink quartzite statue of the king standing on a sledge and wearing the Double Crown of Egypt. It was discovered in the courtyard of Amenhotep III colonnade of the Luxor temple in 1989. This particular statue was unearthed completely intact, with the only damage resulting from a careful removal of the name Amun during the reign of his son. This statue was probably executed late in his reign, regardless of the fact that is shows a youthful king. So good were many of his statues that they were later usurped by kings, sometimes by them simply overwriting his cartouche with their own. At other times, such as in the case of the huge red granite head found by Belzoni and initially identified as representing Tuthmosis III, his statues were more extensively reworked (this example by Ramesses II). We also find many other fine statues, paintings and reliefs executed during the life of Amenhotep III. Two well known portraits of his principle queen include a small ebony head now in Berlin, and a small faced and crowned head found by Petrie at the temple of Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai. A cartouche on the front of the crown allowed precise identification as that of Tiy. We also find Tiy appearing with the king on temple walls at Soleb and west Thebes. However, there are also fine reliefs of her in some of the courtier tombs, such as TT47 belonging to Userhet and TT192 of Khereuf. There was also a proliferation of private statues, as well as many fine private tombs with excellent artwork (such as TT55, the Tomb of Ramose) during the reign of Amenhotep III, including a number representing Amenhotep son of Hapu, his well known architect, but also of other nobles and dignitaries. Other notable items include the set of rose granite lions originally placed before the temple at Soleb in Nubia, but later moved to the Temple at Gebel Barkal. Religion and the King\'s Deification It is likely that Amenhotep III was deified during his own lifetime, and that the worship of the sun god, Aten, by his son may have directly or indirectly also involved the worship of his father. Amenhotep III was somewhat insistent that he be identified with this sun god during his lifetime. From the time of his first jubilee in his 30 years of reign, we find scenes where he is depicted taking the role of Ra riding in his solar boat. Of course, the king was expected to merge with the sun after his death, but in Amenhotep III\'s case, we find that he named his palace complex "the gleaming Aten", and used stamp seals for commodities that may be read, "Nebmaatra (one of his names) is the gleaming Aten". He consistently identified himself with the national deities rather than his royal predecessors, even representing himself as the substitute for major gods in a few instances. We even find during his reign the solorization of many well known gods, including Nekhbet, Amun, Thoth and Horus-khenty-khety. Yet, no stele or statues we know for certain were dedicated to Amenhotep III as a major deity during his lifetime. It is notable that the deification of Ramesses II only 100 years later carried with it a significant number of monuments identifying him as a deity during his lifetime. Nevertheless, it has been argued that his son, best known as Akhenaten, may have worshipped his father as Aten. There are many arguments against this, but it is clear that at least to some degree, it is true. After all, the deceased king was identified with the Aten upon his death. But whether he was worshipped as such during his lifetime may ultimately depend on whether or not Akhenaten ruled as a co-regent before his father\'s death. If they did rule together, than objects venerating Amenhotep III during Akhenaten\'s reign could be seen as worship of a living deity, though not necessarily as the Aten. Regardless, this is all a mater of hot debate within Egyptology circles, thought the answers today seem no clearer. The End of the Reign From clay dockets at his Malkata palace, we believe Amenhotep III may have died in about the 39th year of his rule, perhaps when he was only 45 years old. His wife, Tiy, apparently outlived him by as many as twelve years. She is shown, along with her youngest daughter, Beket-Aten, in a relief on an Amarna Tomb that may be dated to between year nine and twelve of Akhetaten\'s reign. From a group of well known documents called the Amarna Letters, we find inquires about her health that lead us to believe that she may have lived in her son\'s capital for a time prior to her death. Regardless, upon her death, she may have first been buried at Amarna but was then returned to Thebes where she was buried along with her husband in tomb WV22 in the Valley of the Kings. However, it is also possible that she may have been buried in tomb KV55, where objects bearing her name have also been discovered. Neither the king or his queen were discovered in that tomb, but it is very possible Queen Tiy may be the "Elder Woman) from the cache of mummies found by Loret in KV35, the tomb of Amenhotep II. For many years, it was also though that Amenhotep III\'s body was also a part of that cache, but fairly recent analysis indicates that the body thought to be his may instead by that of his son, or possibly even Ay, one of the last kings of the 18th Dynasty.

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Amenhotep III in Wikipedia

Amenhotep III (sometimes read as Amenophis III; Egyptian *ˀAmāna-Ḥātpa; meaning Amun is Satisfied) was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC or June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC[4] after his father Thutmose IV died. Amenhotep III was the son of Thutmose by Mutemwia, a minor wife of Amenhotep's father.[5] His reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of her artistic and international power. When he died (probably in the 39th year of his reign), his son initially ruled as Amenhotep IV, but later changed his own royal name to Akhenaten. Family The son of the future Thutmose IV (the son of Amenhotep II) and a minor wife Mutemwiya, Amenhotep was born around 1388 BC.[6] He was a member of the Thutmosid family that had ruled Egypt for almost 150 years since the reign of Thutmose I. Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great Royal Wife Tiye, a queen who could be considered as the progenitor of monotheism[7] through her first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, who predeceased his father, and her second son, Akhenaten, who ultimately succeeded Amenhotep III to the throne. Amenhotep II also may have been the father of a third child-called Smenkhkare, who later would succeed Akhenaten, briefly rule Egypt as pharaoh, and who is thought to have been a woman.[7] Amenhotep III and Tiye may also have had four daughters: Sitamun, Henuttaneb, Isis or Iset, and Nebetah.[8] They appear frequently on statues and reliefs during the reign of their father and also are represented by smaller objects-with the exception of Nebetah.[9] Nebetah is attested only once in the known historical records on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet Habu.[10] This huge sculpture, that is seven meters high, shows Amenhotep III and Tiye seated side by side, "with three of their daughters standing in front of the throne--Henuttaneb, the largest and best preserved, in the centre; Nebetah on the right; and another, whose name is destroyed, on the left."[8] Amenhotep III elevated two of his four daughters-Sitamun and Isis-to the office of "great royal wife" during the last decade of his reign. Evidence that Sitamun already was promoted to this office by Year 30 of his reign, is known from jar-label inscriptions uncovered from the royal palace at Malkata.[8] It should be noted that Egypt's theological paradigm encouraged a male pharaoh to accept royal women from several different generations as wives to strengthen the chances of his offspring succeeding him.[11] The goddess Hathor herself was related to Ra as first the mother and later wife and daughter of the god when he rose to prominence in the pantheon of the Ancient Egyptian religion.[8] Hence, Amenhotep III's marriage to his two daughters should not be considered unlikely based on contemporary views of marriage. Amenhotep III is known to have married Gilukhepa, the first of a series of diplomatic brides and the daughter of Shuttarna II of Mitanni, in the tenth year of his reign.[12] Around Year 36 of his reign, he also married Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni.[13] Life Amenhotep III enjoyed the distinction of having the most surviving statues of any Egyptian pharaoh, with over 250 of his statues having been discovered and identified. Since these statues span his entire life, they provide a series of portraits covering the entire length of his reign. Another striking characteristic of Amenhotep III's reign is the series of over 200 large commemorative stone scarabs that have been discovered over a large geographic area ranging from Syria (Ras Shamra) through to Soleb in Nubia.[14] Their lengthy inscribed texts extol the accomplishments of the pharaoh. For instance, 123 of these commemorative scarabs record the large number of lions (either 102 or 110 depending on the reading) that Amenhotep III killed "with his own arrows" from his first regnal year up to his tenth year.[15] Similarly, five other scarabs state that the foreign princess who would become a wife to him, Gilukhepa, arrived in Egypt with a retinue of 317 women. She was the first of many such princesses who would enter the pharaoh's household.[15] Another eleven scarabs record the excavation of an artificial lake he had built for his royal wife, Queen Tiye, in his eleventh regnal year, " "Regnal Year 11 under the Majesty of...Amenhotep (III), ruler of Thebes, given life, and the great royal wife Tiyi; may she live; her father's name was Yuya, her mother's name Tuya. His Majesty commanded the making of a lake for the great royal wife Tiyi-- may she live--in her town of Djakaru. (near Akhmin). Its length is 3,700 (cubits) and its width is 700 (cubits). (His Majesty) celebrated the Festival of Opening the Lake in the third month of Inundation, day sixteen. His Majesty was rowed in the royal barge Aten-tjehen in it [the lake]."[16] " Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a child, perhaps between the ages of 6 and 12. It is likely that a regent acted for him if he was made pharaoh at that early age. He married Tiye two years later and she lived twelve years after his death. His lengthy reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of her artistic and international power. Proof of this is shown by the diplomatic correspondence from the rulers of Assyria, Mitanni, Babylon, and Hatti which is preserved in the archive of Amarna Letters; these letters document frequent requests by these rulers for gold and numerous other gifts from the pharaoh. The letters cover the period from Year 30 of Amenhotep III until at least the end of Akhenaten's reign. In one famous correspondence-Amarna letter EA 4--Amenhotep III is quoted by the Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil I in firmly rejecting the latter's entreaty to marry one of this pharaoh's daughters: " "From time immemorial, no daughter of the king of Egy[pt] is given to anyone."[17] " Amenhotep III's refusal to allow one of his daughters to be married to the Babylonian monarch may indeed be connected with Egyptian traditional royal practices that could provide a claim upon the throne through marriage to a royal princess, or, it be viewed as a shrewd attempt on his part to enhance Egypt's prestige over those of her neighbours in the international world.[citation needed] The pharaoh's reign was relatively peaceful and uneventful. The only recorded military activity by the king is commemorated by three rock-carved stelas from his fifth year found near Aswan and Sai Island in Nubia. The official account of Amenhotep III's military victory emphasizes his martial prowess with the typical hyperbole used by all pharaohs. " "Regnal Year 5, third month of Inundation, day 2. Appearance under the Majesty of Horus: Strong bull, appearing in truth; Two Ladies: Who establishes laws and pacifies the Two Lands;...King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Nebmaatra, heir of Ra; Son of Ra: [Amenhotep, ruler of Thebes], beloved of [Amon]-Ra, King of the Gods, and Khnum, lord of the cataract, given life. One came to tell His Majesty, "The fallen one of vile Kush has plotted rebellion in his heart." His Majesty led on to victory; he completed it in his first campaign of victory. His Majesty reached them like the wing stroke of a falcon, like Menthu (war god of Thebes) in his transformation...Ikheny, the boaster in the midst of the army, did not know the lion that was before him. Nebmaatra was the fierce- eyed lion whose claws seized vile Kush, who trampled down all its chiefs in their valleys, they being cast down in their blood, one on top of the other."[18] " Amenhotep III celebrated three Jubilee Sed festivals, in his Year 30, Year 34, and Year 37 respectively at his Malkata summer palace in Western Thebes.[19] The palace, called as Per-Hay or "House of Rejoicing" in ancient times, comprised a temple of Amun and a festival hall built especially for this occasion.[19] One of the king's most popular epithets was Aten-tjehen which means "the Dazzling Sun Disk"; it appears in his titulary at Luxor temple and, more frequently, was used as the name for one of his palaces as well as the Year 11 royal barge, and denotes a company of men in Amenhotep's army.[20] Proposed co-regency by Akhenaten There is currently no conclusive evidence of a co-regency between Amenhotep III and his son, Akhenaten. A letter from the Amarna palace archives dated to Year 2-rather than Year 12-of Akhenaten's reign from the Mitannian king, Tushratta, (Amarna letter EA 27) preserves a complaint about the fact that Akhenaten did not honor his father's promise to forward Tushratta statues made of solid gold as part of a marriage dowry for sending his daughter, Tadukhepa, into the pharaoh's household.[21] This correspondence implies that if any co-regency occurred between Amenhotep III and Akhenaten, it lasted no more than a year at the most.[22] Lawrence Berman observes in a 1998 biography of Amenhotep III that, "It is significant that the proponents of the coregency theory have tended to be art historians [ie: Raymond Johnson], whereas historians [such as Donald Redford and William Murnane] have largely remained unconvinced. Recognizing that the problem admits no easy solution, the present writer has gradually come to believe that it is unnecessary to propose a coregency to explain the production of art in the reign of Amenhotep III. Rather the perceived problems appear to derive from the interpretation of mortuary objects."[23]...

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Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten in Tour Egypt

Amenhotep IV-better known as Akhenaten, the new name he took early on in his reign-ushered in a revolutionary period in Egyptian history. The Amarna Interlude, as it is often called, saw the removal of the seat of government to a short-lived new capital city, Akhetaten (modern el-Amarna), the introduction of a new art style, and the elevation of the cult of the sun disc, the Aten, to pre-eminent status in Egyptian religion. This last heresy in particular was to bring down on Akhenaten and his immediate successors the opprobrium of later kings. The young prince was at least the second son of Amenhotep III by his chief wife, Tiy: an elder brother, prince Tuthmosis, had died prematurely (strangely, a whip bearing his name was found in Tutankhamun's tomb). There is some controversy over whether or not the old king took his son into partnership on the throne in a co-regency there are quite strong arguments both for and against A point in favor of a co-regency is the appearance during the latter years of Amenhotep III's reign of artistic styles that are subsequently seen as part of the 'revolutionary' Amarna art introduced by Akhenaten; on the other hand, both 'traditional' and 'revolutionary' Art styles could easily have coexisted during the early years of Akhenaten's reign. At any rate, if there had been a co-regency, it would not have been for longer than the short period before the new king assumed his preferred name of Akhenaten ('Servant of the Aten') in Year 5. The beginning of Akhenaten's reign marked no great discontinuity with that of his predecessors. Not only was he crowned at Karnak (temple of the god Amun) but, like his father he married a lady of non-royal blood, Nefertiti, the daughter of the vizier Ay. Ay seems to have been a brother of Queen Tiy (Anen was another) and a son of Yuya and Tuya. Nefertiti's mother is not known; she may have died in childbirth or shortly afterwards, since Nefertiti seems to have been brought up by another wife of Ay named Tey, who would then be her stepmother. The cult of the Aten The tenth king of the 18th Dynasty was perhaps the most controversial because of his break with traditional religion. Some say that he was the most remarkable king to sit upon Egypt’s throne. There can be little doubt that the new king was far more of a thinker and philosopher than his forebears. Akhenaten was traditionally raised by his parents, Amenhotep III and Queen Tiy (1382-1344 B.C.) by worshipping Amen. Akhenaten, however, preferred Aten, the sun god that was worshipped in earlier times. Amenhotep III had recognized the growing power of the priesthood of Amun and had sought to curb it; his son was to take the matter a lot further by introducing a new monotheistic cult of sun-worship that was incarnate in the sun's disc, the Aten. When early in his reign he changed his name to Akhenaten, meaning "He Who is of Service to Aten", he also renamed his queen to Nefer-Nefru-Aten, which is "Beautiful is the Beauty of Aten." This was not in itself a new idea: as a relatively minor aspect of the sun god Re-Harakhte, the Aten had been venerated in the Old Kingdom and a large scarab of Akhenaten's grandfather Tuthmosis IV (now in the British Museum) has a text that mentions the Aten. Rather, Akhenaten's innovation was to worship the Aten in its own right. Portrayed as a solar disc whose protective rays terminated in hands holding the ankh hieroglyph for life, the Aten was accessible only to Akhenaten, thereby obviating the need for an intermediate priesthood. At first, the king built a temple to his god Aten immediately outside the east gate of the temple of Amun at Karnak, but clearly the coexistence of the two cults could not last. He therefore proscribed the cult of Amun, closed the god's temples, took over the revenues. He then sent his officials around to destroy Amen’s statues and to desecrate the worship sites. These actions were so contrary to the traditional that opposition arose against him. The estates of the great temples of Thebes, Memphis and Heliopolis reverted to the throne. Corruption grew out of the mismanagement of such large levies. To make a complete break, in Year 6 the king and his queen, left Thebes behind and moved to a new capital in Middle Egypt, half way between Memphis and Thebes. It was a virgin site, not previously dedicated to any other god or goddess, and he named it Akhetaten-The Horizon of the Aten. Today the site is known as In the tomb of Ay, the chief minister of Akhenaten (and later to become king after Tutankhamun's death), occurs the longest and best rendition of a composition known as the 'Hymn to the Aten', said to have been written by Akhenaten himself. Quite moving in itself as a piece of poetry, its similarity to, and possible source of the concept in, Psalm 104 has long been noted. It sums up the whole ethos of the Aten cult and especially the concept that only Akhenaten had access to the god: 'Thou arisest fair in the horizon of Heaven, 0 Living Aten, Beginner of Life…there is none who knows thee save thy son Akhenaten. Thou hast made him wise in thy plans and thy power.' No longer did the dead call upon Osiris to guide them through the after-world, for only through their adherence to the king and his intercession on their behalf could they hope to live beyond the grave. According to present evidence, however, it appears that it was only the upper echelons of society which embraced the new religion with any fervor (and perhaps that was only skin deep). Excavations at Amarna have indicated that even here the old way of religion continued among the ordinary people. On a wider scale, throughout Egypt, the new cult does not seem to have had much effect at a common level except, of course, in dismantling the priesthood and closing the temples; but then the ordinary populace had had little to do with the religious establishment anyway, except on the high days and holidays when the god's statue would be carried in procession from the sanctuary outside the great temple walls. The standard bureaucracy continued its endeavors to run the country while the king courted his god. Cracks in the Egyptian empire may have begun to appear in the later years of the reign of Amenhotep III; at any rate they became more evident as Akhenaten increasingly left government and diplomats to their own devices. Civil and military authority came under two strong characters: Ay, who held the title 'Father of the God' (and was probably Akhenaten's father-in-law), and the general Horemheb (also Ay's son-in-law since he married Ay's daughter Mutnodjme, sister of Nefertiti). Both men were to become pharaoh before the 18th Dynasty ended. This redoubtable pair of closely related high officials no doubt kept everything under control in a discreet manner while Akhenaten pursued his own philosophical and religious interests. A new artistic style It is evident from the art of the Amarna period that the court officially emulated the king's unusual physical characteristics. Thus individuals such as the young princesses are endowed with elongated skulls and excessive adiposity, while Bek-the Chief Sculptor and Master of Works-portrays himself in the likeness of his king with pendulous breasts and protruding stomach. On a stele now in Berlin Bek states that he was taught by His Majesty and that the court sculptors were instructed to represent what they saw. The result is a realism that breaks away from the rigid formality of earlier official depictions, although naturalism is very evident in earlier, unofficial art. The power behind the throne? Although the famous bust of Nefertiti in Berlin, the queen is not subject to quite the same extremes as others in Amarna art, by virtue of being elegantly female. Indeed, there are several curious aspects of Nefertiti's representations. In the early years of Akhenaten's reign, for instance, Nefertiti was an unusually prominent figure in official art, dominating the scenes carved on blocks of the temple to the Aten at Karnak. One such block shows her in the age-old warlike posture of pharaoh grasping captives by the hair and smiting them with a mace hardly the epitome of the peaceful queen and mother of six daughters. Nefertiti evidently played a far more prominent part in her husband's rule than was the norm. Private collection Tragedy seems to have struck the royal family in about Year 12 with the death in childbirth of Nefertiti's second daughter, Mekytaten; it is probably she who is shown in a relief in the royal tomb with her grief-stricken parents beside her supine body, and a nurse standing nearby holding a baby. The father of the infant was possibly Akhenaten, since he is also known to have married two other daughters, Merytaten (not to be confused with Mekytaten) and Akhesenpaaten (later to become Tutankhamun's wife). Nefertiti appears to have died soon after Year 12, although some suggest that she was disgraced because her name was replaced in several instances by that of her daughter Merytaten, who succeeded her as 'Great Royal Wife'. The latter bore a daughter called Merytaten-tasherit (Merytaten the Younger), also possibly fathered by Akhenaten. Merytaten was to become the wife of Smenkhkare, Akhenaten's brief successor. Nefertiti was buried in the royal tomb at Amarna, judging by the evidence of a fragment of an alabaster ushabti figure bearing her cartouche found there in the early 1930s. The king's resting place Akhenaten died c. 1334, probably in his 16th reignal year. Evidence found by Professor Geoffrey Martin during re-excavation of the royal tomb at Amarna showed that blocking had been put in place in the burial chamber, suggesting that Akhenaten was buried there initially. Others do not believe that the tomb was used, however, in view of the heavily smashed fragments of his sarcophagus and canopic jars recovered from it, and also the shattered examples of his ushabtis-found not only in the area of the tomb but also by Petrie in the city. What is almost certain is that his body did not remain at Amarna. A burnt mummy seen outside the royal tomb in the 1880s, and associated with jewelry from the tomb (including a small gold finger ring with Nefertiti's cartouche, was probably Coptic, as was other jewelry nearby. Akhenaten's adherents would not have left his body to be despoiled by his enemies once his death and the return to orthodoxy unleashed a backlash of destruction. They would have taken it to a place of safety and where better to hide it than in the old royal burial ground at Thebes where enemies would never dream of seeking it? It has been suggested that he was buried in tomb KV55, though other possibilities are also likely.

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Akhenaten in Wikipedia

Akhenaten (pronounced /ˌɑːkəˈnɑːtən/;[1] often also spelled Echnaton, Akhnaton, or rarely Ikhnaton; meaning Effective spirit of Aten) was known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning Amun is Satisfied), a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, ruled for 17 years and died in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. He is especially noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten, which is sometimes described as monotheistic or henotheistic. An early inscription likens him to the sun as compared to stars, and later official language avoids calling the Aten a god, giving the solar deity a status above mere gods. Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, traditional religious practice was gradually restored, and when some dozen years later rulers without clear rights of succession from the Eighteenth Dynasty founded a new dynasty, they discredited Akhenaten and his immediate successors, referring to Akhenaten himself as 'the enemy' in archival records.[5] He was all but lost from history until the discovery, in the 19th century, of Amarna, the site of Akhetaten, the city he built for the Aten. Early excavations at Amarna by Flinders Petrie sparked interest in the enigmatic pharaoh, which increased with the discovery in the Valley of the Kings, at Luxor, of the tomb of King Tutankhamun, who has been proved to be Akhenaten's son according to DNA testing in 2010 by Dr. Zahi Hawass, Cairo.[6] Akhenaten remains an interesting figure, as does his Queen, Nefertiti. Their modern interest comes partly from his connection with Tutankhamun, partly from the unique style and high quality of the pictorial arts he patronized, and partly from ongoing interest in the religion he attempted to establish. Early life The future Akhenaten was a younger son of Amenhotep III and his Chief Queen Tiye, his elder brother Crown Prince Thutmose having died when both were children. Thus, Akhenaten's early education might have prepared him for the priesthood like his maternal uncle Anen; at any rate, in an inscription dating to his early reign he emphasized his familiarity with ancient temple documents.[7] Amenhotep IV succeeded his father after Amenhotep III's death at the end of his 38-year reign, or possibly after a coregency lasting one to two years. Suggested dates for Akhenaten's reign (subject to the debates surrounding Egyptian chronology) are from 1353 BC-1336 BC or 1351 BC–1334 BC. Akhenaten's chief wife was Nefertiti, made famous to the modern world by her exquisitely sculpted and painted bust, now displayed in the Neues Museum of Berlin, and among the most recognized works of art surviving from the ancient world. After four years of reign, Akhenaten began building a new city to serve as the seat of the Aten and a governmental capital of Egypt. Its buildings were decorated in a startling new style which was intended to express the tenets of the new worship. Religious policies Some recent debate has focused on the extent to which Akhenaten forced his religious reforms on his people. Certainly, as time drew on, he revised the names of the Aten, and other religious language, to increasingly exclude references to other gods; at some point, also, he embarked on the wide-scale erasure of traditional gods' names, especially those of Amun. Some of his court changed their names to remove them from the patronage of other gods and place them under that of Aten (or Ra, with whom Akhenaten equated the Aten). Yet, even at Amarna itself, some courtiers kept such names as Ahmose ("child of the moon god", the owner of tomb 3), and the sculptor's workshop where the famous Nefertiti bust, and other works of royal portraiture, were found, is associated with an artist known to have been called Thutmose ("child of Thoth"). An overwhelmingly large number of faience amulets at Amarna also show that talismans of the household-and-childbirth gods Bes and Taweret, the eye of Horus, and amulets of other traditional deities, were openly worn by its citizens. Indeed, a cache of royal jewelry found buried near the Amarna royal tombs (now in the National Museum of Scotland) includes a finger ring referring to Mut, the wife of Amun. Such evidence suggests that though Akhenaten shifted funding away from traditional temples, his policies were fairly tolerant until some point, perhaps a particular event as yet unknown, toward the end of the reign. Following Akhenaten's death, change was gradual at first. Within a decade a comprehensive political, religious and artistic reformation began promoting a return of Egyptian life to the norms it had followed during his father's reign. Much of the art and building infrastructure created during Akhenaten's reign was defaced or destroyed in the period following his death, particularly during the reigns of Horemheb and the early Nineteenth Dynasty kings. Stone building blocks from Akhenaten's construction projects were later used as foundation stones for subsequent rulers' temples and tombs. Pharaoh and family depictions Talatat blocks from Akhenaten's Aten temple in Karnak Styles of art that flourished during this short period are markedly different from other Egyptian art. In some cases, representations are more naturalistic, especially in depictions of animals and plants, of commoners, and in a sense of action and movement-for both nonroyal and royal people. However, depictions of members of the court, especially members of the royal family, are extremely stylized, with elongated heads protruding stomachs, heavy hips, thin arms and legs, and exaggerated facial features. Questions also remain whether the beauty of Nefertiti is portraiture or idealism. Significantly, and for the only time in the history of Egyptian royal art, Akhenaten's family are shown taking part in decidedly naturalistic activities, showing affection for each other, and being caught in mid-action (in traditional art, a pharaoh's divine nature was expressed by repose, even immobility). Small statue of Akhenaten wearing the Egyptian Blue Crown of War The depictions of action may correspond to the emphasis on the active creative and nurturing emphasized of the Aten in the "Great Hymn to the Aten" and elsewhere. Nefertiti also appears, both beside the king and alone (or with her daughters), in actions usually reserved for a Pharaoh, suggesting that she enjoyed unusual status for a queen. Early artistic representations of her tend to be indistinguishable from her husband's except by her regalia, but soon after the move to the new capital, Nefertiti begins to be depicted with features specific to her. Why Akhenaten had himself represented in the bizarre, strikingly androgynous way he did, remains a vigorously debated question. Religious reasons have been suggested, such as to emulate the creative nature of the Aten, who is called in Amarna tomb texts, "mother and father" of all that is. Or, it has been suggested, Akhenaten's (and his family's) portraiture exaggerates his distinctive physical traits. Until Akhenaten's mummy is positively identified, such theories remain speculative. Some scholars do identify Mummy 61074, found in KV55, an unfinished tomb in the Valley of the Kings, as Akhenaten's.[8] If so-or if the KV 55 mummy is that of his close relative, Smenkhkare-its measurements tend to support the theory that Akhenaten's depictions exaggerate his actual appearance. Though the "mummy" consists only in disarticulated bones, the skull is long and has a prominent chin and the limbs are light and long. However, in 2007, Zahi Hawass and a team of researchers made CT Scan images of the KV 55 mummy. They have concluded that the elongated skull, cheek bones, cleft palate, and impacted wisdom tooth suggest that the mummy is the father of Tutankhamun, also commonly known as Akhenaten...

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Smenkhkare (Ankhkheperure) in Tour Egypt

SMENKHKARE, AN OBSCURE PHARAOH OF THE 18TH DYMASTY by Jimmy Dunn - We list Smenkhkare as the eleventh pharaoh of Egypt's famous 18th Dynasty, ruling from 1336 until about 1334 BC. In point of fact, he may never have ruled on his own, though in the later years of Akhenaten reign, he was probably a co-regent. His birth name was Smenkh-ka-re (or Djeser-kheperu, meaning "Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Manifestations"). His name can also be found as Smenkhkara. His Throne name was Ankh-khepery-re, meaning "Living are the Manifestations of Re". Smenkhkare is a study in the difficulties of Egyptology, and why the list of kings of Egypt vary from scholar to scholar. While there are many times we are able to determine the factual history of Egypt in some great detail, at other times, even in otherwise well documented eras, darkness suddenly surrounds events due to an absolute lack of good evidence. Sometimes this evidence has simply not been discovered, but at other times, the evidence would exist, had it not been hacked away by the ancient Egyptians themselves. Such is the case with Smenkhkare. We know very little of Smenkhkare's life, or even where he was buried, though he is entwined with the mysteries of tomb KV 55 on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes). If the mummy found in that tomb was indeed Smenkhkare, then he probably died at around the age of 20 to 25. However, because of the heresy of the Amarna kings, the cartouches and much other evidence within KV 55 were mostly destroyed. One of the factors that has led scholars to believe that the mummy is in fact Smenkhkare is a process of elimination. At first the mummy was thought to be that of Queen Tiye, but subsequent examination of the remains indicate that instead, it is the mummy of a young man. It was also speculated that the mummy could have been non other then Akhenaten, who we think was Smenkhkare's father, but Akhenaten ruled Egypt for 17 years and it seems difficult to believe he could therefore have died at such an early age. Hence, the plausibility that the mummy is that of Smenkhkare. Further analysis has also revealed that the mummy's blood type and that of Tutankhamun are the same, and that the skull dimensions are very similar, leading scholars to believe that not only is this Smenkhkare, but that he was indeed Tutankhamun's older brother. He was probably either a younger brother or older son of Akhenaten, but if a son, he would not have probably been also a son of Nefertiti. We believe she had only daughters. He would have therefore probably been the son of some minor wife, perhaps even Kiya, who we also believe to be the mother of Tutankhaman. Most Egyptologists believe that if he ruled at all after the death of Akhenaten, it would probably only have been for a few months, but there is also a strong possibility that he did not survive Akhenaten's reign.. He was succeeded by the famous Tutankhamun. He was married to Merytaten who was probably his eldest sister, the senior heiress of the royal blood line, but she seems to have died early, leaving her sister, Ankhesenpaten in this position. It was Ankhesenpaten who married a somewhat younger Tutankhamun. Smenkhkare and Merytaten are pictured in the tomb of Meryre ii at Amarna, and were once shown on a relief at Memphis. Yet there has, over time, been a great deal of controversy on all these facts. It would seem that Smenkhkare became co-regent shortly after the death of Ankhenaten's principle wife, Nefertiti. Speculation at times have run rampant, including one theory that Nefertiti herself had actually disguised herself as a male in the custom of Hatahepsut, becoming co-regent. Lending some credence to this is the "Co-regency Stela, a fragment of which was found in Amarna. Originally, the stele depicted three figures, identified as Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and princess Merytaten. In later years, however, the name of Nefertiti had been excised and replaced with the name of King Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten, and the name of the princess had been replaced with that of Akhenaten and Nefertiti's third daughter, Ankhesenpaaten. It is curious that Nefertiti's figure, clearly that of a female, would be relabled with the name of a king. Second, the erasure of Merytaten's name and the usurpation by Ankhesenpaaten suggests that Merytaten died before the end of Akhenaten's reign. There is even controversy surrounding Smenkhkare's wife, Merytaten. It has been suggested that rather then dying early, she outlived her husband and served as a nominal co-regent under the name of Ankhetkheperure, a feminization of her late husband's throne name. However, the dominant theory today seems to place Smenkhkare as an older son of Ankhenaten, though there is almost an equal likelihood that he was Ankhenten's brother, and that he was likely made co- regent at about the age of 16. For his coronation, a huge brick hall was added to the Great Palace at Amarna, with no fewer than 544 square columns in its main room. He most probably had differences with Ankhenaten's religious philosophies early on. The funerary equipment that he had made for a possible unfinished tomb at Amarna had almost no sign of the sun cult of Akhenaten. Yet he seems to have wavered, perhaps out of respect to his father or brother. Inscriptions on elements of his funerary equipment also show that he altered his name to Neferneferuaten, the -aten indicating an acquiescence to Akhenaten's religious beliefs. However, this is another area of confusion about Smenkhkare among scholar. We are also told by authoritative sources that Neferneferuaten was perhaps one of Nefertiti names, and thus the continued controversy surrounding the possibility that Smenkhkare was non other than Nefertiti herself. However, the name of Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten are actually never used together, suggesting that they were two different people. Later still, we read of the existence of a "priest and scribe of divine offerings of Amun in the "House of Ankh-khepery-re" at Thebes", suggesting that he intended to not be buried at Amarna, but rather in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes. This information comes from a stele dating from Smenkhkare's third year of rule, and partly states that: Regnal year 3, third month of Inundation, day 10. The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands Ankhkheperure Beloved of Aten, the Son of Re Neferneferuaten Beloved of Waenre. Giving worship to Amun, kissing the ground to Wenennefer by the lay priest, scribe of the divine offerings of Amun in the Mansion of Ankhkheperure in Thebes, Pawah, born to Yotefseneb. He says: "My wish is to see you, O lord of persea trees! May your throat take the north wind, that you may give satiety without eating and drunkenness without drinking. My wish is to look at you, that my heart might rejoice, O Amun, protector of the poor man: you are the father of the one who has no mother and the husband of the widow. Pleasant is the utterance of your name: it islike the taste of life . . . [etc.] "Come back to us, O lord of continuity. You were here before anything had come into being, and you will be here when they are gone. As you caused me to see the darkness that is yours to give, make light for me so that I can see you . . . "O Amun, O great lord who can be found by seeking him, may you drive off fear! Set rejoicing in people's heart(s). Joyful is the one who sees you, O Amun: he is in festival every day!" For the Ka of the lay priest and scribe of the temple of Amun in the Mansion of Ankhkheperure, Pawah, born to Yotefseneb: "For your Ka! Spend a nice day amongst your townsmen." His brother, the outline draftsman Batchay of the Mansion of Ankhkheperure. (Murnane, 1995). It is likely that Smenkhkare tired of the religious heresy of Akhenaten's reign, and late in his life, possibly moved to Memphis, the old secular capital of Egypt. Perhaps over time his role in Egypt's history will become clearer to us, but for now, his existence is one of the great mysteries of Egypt's past.

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Smenkhkare in Wikipedia

Smenkhkare (sometimes erroneously spelled Smenkhare or Smenkare and meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was an ephemeral Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh of the late Eighteenth Dynasty, of whom very little is known for certain. Believed by a growing number of experts to be the mummy from KV55, he is believed to be a younger son of Amenhotep III and queen Tiye, and therefore a younger brother of Akhenaten. Traditionally he is seen as Akhenaten's co-regent and immediate successor and predecessor of Tutankhamun and is assumed to be a close, male relative of those two kings (either by blood or marriage). More recent scholarly work has cast serious doubts on this traditional view and most aspects of this individual's life and position. His relation to the Amarna royal family, the nature and importance of his reign, and even "his" gender are up for debate. Related to this is the ongoing question whether Akhenaten's co-regent and successor are in fact the same person. Historical context The scenes in the tombs of Meryre II and Huya (located in the Amarna Northern tombs necropolis) depicting the "reception of foreign tribute" are the last clear view we have of the Amarna period[2]. The events depicted are, in the tomb of Meryre II, dated to the second month of Akhenaten's regnal year 12 (in the tomb of Huya they are interestingly enough dated to year 12 of the Aten)[3] and show the last securely dated appearance of the royal family as a whole (that is: Akhenaten and his chief-queen Nefertiti, together with their six daughters). These scenes are also the first dated occurrence of the latter name-forms of the Aten[2]. After this date the events at Amarna and their chronology become far less clear. It is only with the accession of Tutankhamun, and the restoration early in this king's reign, that matters become clearer again. A scene from the tomb of Meryre II, depicts pharaoh Smenkhkare and his Great Royal Wife, Meritaten handing out tribute from the window of appearances. the inscription was recorded upon discovery, but has since been lost. It is precisely in this shadowy late Amarna period that Akhenaten's co-regent and probable immediate successor comes to the fore. Akhenaten is generally assumed to have died in the late autumn of his 17th regnal year (after the bottling of wine in that year). Nefertiti disappears from view somewhat earlier (around regnal year 14); the reasons for this are at present still unclear and under debate (see below). Around the same time a new co-regent is first attested...

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Tutankhamun (Nebkheperure) in Tour Egypt

TUTANKHAMUN (KING TUT) BY JIMMY DUNN - At this point, it almost seems to be repetitive to remind readers that Tutankhamun (King Tut) was not a major player in Egypt Pharaonic history, or at least, in comparison with other pharaohs. In fact, prior to Howard Carter's discovery of his tomb, almost nothing was known of him and interestingly, the one disappointment in Carter's discover was that there was little in the way of documentation found within his tomb. Therefore, we still know relatively little about Tutankhamun. For example, even who is father was remains a topic of some debate. That has not prevented writers from producing volumes of material on the Pharaoh. We believe Tutankhamun ruled Egypt between 1334 and 1325 BC. He was probably the 12th ruler of Egypt's 18th Dynasty. Tutankamun was not given this name at birth, but rather Tutankhaten (meaning "Living Image of the Aten), squarely placing him in the line of pharaohs following Akhenaten, the heretic pharaoh, who was most likely his father. His mother was probably Kiya, though this too is in question. He changed his name in year two of his rule to Tutankhamun (or heqa-iunu-shema, which means "Living Image of Amun, Ruler of Upper Egyptian Heliopolis", which is actually a reference to Karnak) as re reverted to the old religion prior to Akhenaten's upheaval. Even so, this did not prevent his name from being omitted from the classic kings lists of Abydos and Karnak. We may also find his named spelled Tutankhamen or Tutankhamon, among other variations. His throne name was Neb-Kheperu-re, which means "Lord of Manifestations is Re. We do know that he spent his early years in Amarna, and probably in the North Palace. He evidently even started a tomb at Amarna. At age nine he was married to Ankhesenpaaten, his half sister, and later Ankhesenamun. We believe Ankhesenpaaten was older then Tutankhamun because she was probably of child bearing age, seemingly already having had a child by her father, Akhenaten. It is possible also that Ankhesenamun had been married to Tutankhamun's predecessor. It seems he did not succeed Akhenaten directly as ruler of Egypt, but either an older brother or his uncle, Smenkhkare (keeping in mind that there is much controversy surrounding this king). We believe Tutankhamun probably had two daughters later, but no sons. At the end of Akhenaten's reign, Ay and Horemheb, both senior members of that kings court, probably came to the realization that the heresy of their king could not continue. Upon the death of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare, they had the young king who was nine years old crowned in the old secular capital of Memphis. And since the young pharaoh had no living female relatives old enough, he was probably under the care of Ay or Horemheb or both, who would have actually been the factual ruler of Egypt. We know of a number of other officials during the reign of Tutankhamun, two of which include Nakhtmin, who was a military officer under Horemheb and a relative of Ay (perhaps his son) and Maya, who was Tutankhamun's Treasurer and Overseer of the Place of Eternity (the royal necropolis). Others included Usermontju and Pentu, his to viziers of upper and lower Egypt, as well as Huy, the Viceroy of Nubia. Immediately after becoming king, and probably under the direction of Ay and Horemheb, a move was made to return to Egypt's traditional ancient religion. By year two of his reign, he changed his, as well as Ankhesenpaaten's name, removing the "aten" replacing it with "amun". Again, he may have had nothing to do with this decision, though after two years perhaps Ay's and Horemheb's influence had effected the boy-king's impressionable young mind. One reason why Tutankhamun was not listed on the classical king lists is probably because Horemheb, the last ruler of the 18th Dynasty, usurped most of the boy-king's work, including a restoration stele that records the reinstallation of the old religion of Amun and the reopening and rebuilding of the temples. The ownership inscriptions of other reliefs and statues were likewise changed to that of Horemheb, though the image of the young king himself remains obvious. Even Tutankhamun's extensive building carried out at the temples of Karnak and Luxor were claimed by Horemheb. Of course, we must also remember that little of the statues, reliefs and building projects were actually ordered by Tutankhamun himself, but rather his caretakers, Ay and Horemheb. His building work at Karnak and Luxor included the continuation of the entrance colonnades of the Amenhotep III temple at Luxor, including associated statues, and his embellishment of the Karnak temple with images of Amun, Amunet and Khonsu. There were also a whole range of statues and sphinxes depicting Tutankhamun himself, as well as a small temple in the king's name. We also know, mostly from fragments, that he built at Memphis. At Kawa, in the far south, he built a temple. A pair of granite lions from that temple today flank the entrance to the Egyptian Sculpture Gallery at the British Museum. Militarily, little happened during the reign of Tutankhamun, a surprising fact considering that Horemheb was a well known general. Apparently there were campaigns in Nubia and Palestine/Syria, but this is only known from a brightly painted gesso box found in Tutankhamun's tomb. It portrays scenes of the king hunting lions in the desert and gazelles, while in the fourth scene he is smiting Nubians and then Syrians. There are paintings in the tomb of Horemheb and as well as the tomb of Huy that seem to confirm these campaigns, though it is unlikely that the young Tutankhamun actually took part in the military actions directly. The campaigns in Palestine/Syria met with little success, but those in Nubia appear to have gone much better. Though we know that Tutankhamun died young, we are not certain about how he died until very recently. Both forensic analysis of his mummy and clay seals dated with his regnal year support his demise at the age of 17 or no later then 18. As to how he died, a small sliver of bone within the upper cranial cavity of his mummy was discovered from X-ray analysis, suggesting that his death was not due to illness. It has been suggested that he was possibly murdered, but it is also just as likely the result of an accident. In fact, a recent medical examination now seems to indicate that he may very well have died from infection brought about by a broken leg. Yet it is clear that others certainly had eyes on the throne. After Tutankhamun's death, Ankhesenamun was a young woman surrounded by powerful men, and it is altogether obvious that she had little interest or love for any of them. She wrote to the King of the Hittites, Suppiluliumas I, explaining her problems and asking for one of his sons as a husband. Suspicious of this good fortune, Suppiluliumas I first sent a messanger to make inquiries on the truth of the young queen's story. After reporting her plight back to Suppilulumas I, he sent his son, Zannanza, accepting her offer. However, he got no further than the border before he was murdered, probably at the orders of Horemheb or Ay, who, both had both the opportunity and the motive. So instead, Ankhesenamun married Ay, probably under force, and shortly afterwards, disappeared from recorded history. It should be remembered that both Ay and Horemheb were military men, but Ay was much older then Horemheb, and was probably the brother of Tiy who was the wife of Amenhotep III. Amenhotep III was most likely Tutankham un's grandfather. He was also probably the father of Nefertiti, the wife of Akhenaten. Therefore, he got to go first, as king, followed a short time later by Horemheb. Tutankhamun's famous tomb is located in the Valley of the Kings on the West bank across from modern Luxor (ancient Thebes). It is certainly less magnificent then other pharaohs of Egypt, yet, because of it, Tutankhamun has remained in our memory for many years, and will probably continue to do so for many years to come. Regardless of all the myths surrounding his tomb's discovery, including the "curse of the mummy" and other media hype, it is all a blessing to the boy-king. The ancient pharaohs believed that if their name was remembered, their soul would live on, so not even the powerful Rameses the Great's soul can be as healthy as King Tut's.

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Tutankhamun in Wikipedia

Tutankhamun (alternately spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon), Egyptian twt-ˁnḫ-ı͗mn, approx. [təwaːt ʕaːnəx ʔaˈmaːn]; 1341 BC – 1323 BC) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c.1333 BC – 1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". In hieroglyphs the name Tutankhamun was typically written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence.[3] He is possibly also the Nibhurrereya of the Amarna letters. He was likely the 18th dynasty king 'Rathotis' who, according to Manetho, an ancient historian, had reigned for nine years - a figure which conforms with Flavius Josephus's version of Manetho's Epitome.[4] The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb received worldwide press coverage. It sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamun's burial mask remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world. In February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten (mummy KV55) and his sister/wife (mummy KV35YL), whose name is unknown but whose remains are positively identified as "The Younger Lady" mummy found in KV35.[5] Life Tutankhamun was born in 1341 BC, the son of Akhenaten (formerly Amenhotep IV) and one of his sisters.[6] As a prince he was known as Tutankhaten.[7] He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine, taking the reign name of Tutankhamun. His wet-nurse was a certain woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara. When he became king, he married his half sister, Ankhesenepatan, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters, both stillborn.[5] Reign Given his age, the king must have had very powerful advisers, presumably including General Horemheb, the Vizier Ay, and Maya the "Overseer of the Treasury". Horemheb records that the king appointed him lord of the land as hereditary prince to maintain law. He also noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared.[8] Domestic policy In his third regnal year, Tutankhamun reversed several changes made during his father's reign. He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy. The ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood. The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhenaten abandoned.[9] This is also when he changed his name to Tutankhamun. As part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Thebes and Karnak, where he dedicated a temple to Amun. Many monuments were erected, and an inscription on his tomb door declares the king had "spent his life in fashioning the images of the gods". The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the Apis Bull, Horemakhet and Opet. His restoration stela says: Foreign policy The country was economically weak and in turmoil following the reign of Akhenaten. Diplomatic relations with other kingdoms had been neglected, and Tutankhamun sought to restore them, in particular with the Mitanni. Evidence of his success is suggested by the gifts from various countries found in his tomb. Despite his efforts for improved relations, battles with Nubians and Asiatics were recorded in his mortuary temple at Thebes. His tomb contained body armour and folding stools appropriate for military campaigns. However, given his youth and physical disabilities, which seemed to require the use of a cane in order to walk, historians speculate that he did not take part personally in these battles.[5][10] Health and appearance Tutankhamun was slight of build, and was roughly 170 cm (5 ft 7 in) tall. He had large front incisors and the overbite characteristic of the Thutmosid royal line to which he belonged. He also had a pronounced dolichocephalic (elongated) skull, although it was within normal bounds and highly unlikely to have been pathological. Given the fact that many of the royal depictions of Akhenaten often featured such an elongated head, it is likely an exaggeration of a family trait, rather than a distinct abnormality. The research also showed that the Tutankhamun had "a slightly cleft palate"[11] and possibly a mild case of scoliosis. Cause of death There are no surviving records of Tutankhamun's final days. What caused Tutankhamun's death has been the subject of considerable debate. Major studies have been conducted in an effort to establish the cause of death. Although there is some speculation that Tutankhamun was assassinated, the general consensus is that his death was accidental. CT scan taken in 2005 shows that he had badly broken his leg shortly before his death, and that the leg had become infected. DNA analysis, conducted in 2010 showed the presence of malaria in his system. It is believed that these two conditions, combined, led to his death.[12]...

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Ay (Kheperkheperure) in Tour Egypt

AY, SUCCESSOR TO TUTANKHAMUN The 18th dynasty is one of the most interesting periods in Egypt's history, having such notable kings as Akhenaten, the heretic king, and such well known kings as Tutankhamun. Ay, who was probably an old man (at least 70) when he inherited the thrown from Tutankhamun, apparently inherited the thrown by marrying Tutankhamun's widow, Ankhesenamun. There seems to have been considerable intrigue to this marriage. This she likely did against her wishes, as Ay was probably her grandfather. Further, is would seem that she was not even regarded as a dominant wife, as paintings in his tomb usually showed Ay accompanied by Tiy, an older wife. In fact, we learn from Hittite archives that Ankhesenamun wrote to Suppiliumas, the Hittite king, requesting one of this sons for her to marry and make pharaoh. After some investigation by Suppiliumas, this request was granted, but his son, Zannanza was killed en-rout while traveling through Syria. But evidence of Ankhesenamun's marriage to Ay was noted by Professor Percy Newberry, who recorded a ring he found in Cairo in the 1920s with he cartouches of Ay and Ankhesenamun inscribed side by side, a typical way of indicating marriage. This wedding must have happened rapidly, for Ay officiated at Tutankhamun's funeral as a king wearing the Blue Crown, thus enhancing his claim to the thrown. His reign was brief, believed to only have been four years. It is likely that Ankhensenamun died very shortly afterwards, for there is no mention of her beyond the Cairo ring. In fact, her image has been hacked out on several monuments, and it has been suggested that her dealings with the Hittites may have disgraced her, resulting in her death. Ay (it-netjer) means "Father of God. His Throne name was Kheperkheperu-re, meaning "Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re". He is first documented as a Master of Horses at the court of Akhenaten, though he was probably originally from Akhmin, where was responsible for the rock chapel to the local god, Min. His career is fairly well documented during the reign of Akhenaten, when he rose to the position of Vizier and royal chancellor. He probably never held any priestly office prior to becoming king, however, but was instead a military man like most of the men of power during this period. He may have been related to Yuya, the father of Queen Tiye, making him the brother-in-law of Amenophis III. We believe Ay reigned in Egypt between 1325 and 1321 BC, and was burred in Tomb KV 23 in the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes), though his mummy has never been positively identified. It has been suggested that the mummy from the 1881 cache originally identified as Amenhotep III might rather be that of Ay, but this is probably doubtful. This tomb was probably originally meant for Tutankhamun. Ay's sarcophagus was very similar to Tutankhamun's with winged goddesses at each corner. Also present, as in Tutankhamun's tomb, were decorative designs featuring the representation of the twelve monkeys, symbolizing the night hours on one of the burial chamber walls. Totally unique to any royal tomb are beautiful bird hunting scenes. The tomb was discovered by Belzoni in 1816. It was probably Horenheb who succeeded Ay and who wrecked havoc in Ay's tomb in the Valley of the Kings. When Belzoni found the tomb, the sarcophagus was in fragments and his figure was hacked out and his name excised in the wall paintings and text. Likewise, little of Ay's building projects can be identified probably because Horenheb probably usurped these as well. In Ay's mortuary temple near Medinet Habu, he had his name inscribed on two quartzite colossi of Tutankhamun, but these too were modified by Horenheb when he took over Ay's temple complex. Ay had nominally carried on the heretic religious practices of Akhenaten, and it would be Horemheb who would put an end to this. It should also be noted that early on, Ay began construction of one of the largest tombs at El-Amarna, containing the longer of the two surviving versions of the Hymn to the Aten. The last decoration in Ay's el-Amarna tomb was probably created in the ninth year of Akenaten's reign. However, this tomb was later abandoned in favor of the tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

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Ay in Wikipedia

Ay was the penultimate Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty. He held the throne of Egypt for a brief four-year period (probably 1323–1319 BCE[1] or 1327–1323 BCE, depending on which chronology is followed), although he was a close advisor to two and perhaps three of the pharaohs who ruled before him and was the power behind the throne during Tutankhamun's reign. Ay's prenomen or royal name- Kheperkheperure-means "Everlasting are the Manifestations of Ra" while his birth name Ay it-netjer reads as 'Ay, Father of the God.'[2] Records and monuments that can be clearly attributed to Ay are rare, not only due to his short length, but also because his successor, Horemheb, instigated a campaign of damnatio memoriae against him and other pharaohs associated with the unpopular Amarna Period. Origins Ay is usually believed to be a native Egyptian from Akhmim. During his short reign, he built a rock cut chapel in Akhmim and dedicated it to the local deity there: Min. He may have been the son of Yuya, who served as a member of the priesthood of Min at Akhmin as well as superintendent of herds in this city, and wife Tjuyu.[3] If so, Ay could have been of partial non-Egyptian, perhaps Syrian blood since the name Yuya was uncommon in Egypt and is suggestive of a foreign background.[4] Yuya was an influential nobleman at the royal court of Amenhotep III who was given the rare privilege of having a tomb built for his use in the royal Valley of the Kings presumably because he was the father of Tiye, Amenhotep's chief Queen. There are also noted similarities in the physical likenesses of monuments attributed to Ay and those of the mummy of Yuya, and both held similar names and titles.[5] Amarna Period All that is known for certain was that by the time he was permitted to build a tomb for himself (Southern Tomb 25) at Amarna during the reign of Akhenaten, he had achieved the title of "Overseer of All the Horses of His Majesty", the highest rank in the elite charioteering division of the army, which was just below the rank of General.[6] Prior to this promotion he appears to have been first a Troop Commander and then a "regular" Overseer of Horses, titles which were found on a box thought to have been part of the original furnishings for his tomb.[7] Other titles listed in this tomb include Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King, Acting Scribe of the King, beloved by him, and God's Father. The 'Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King' was a very important position, and is viewed as showing that the bearer had the 'ear' of the ruler. The final God's Father title is the one most associated with Ay, and was later incorporated into his royal name when he became pharaoh.[7] This title could mean that he was the father-in-law of the pharaoh, suggesting that he was the son of Yuya and Tjuyu, thus being a brother or half-brother of Tiye, brother-in-law to Amenhotep III and the maternal uncle of Akhenaten. If Ay was the son of Yuya, who was a senior military officer during the reign of Amenhotep III, then he likely followed in his father's footsteps, finally inheriting his father's military functions upon his death. Alternately, it could also mean that he may have had a daughter that married the pharaoh Akhenaten, possibly the father of Akhenaten's chief wife Nefertiti. Ultimately there is no evidence to definitively prove either hypothesis.[8] The two theories are not mutually exclusive, but either relationship would explain the exalted status to which Ay rose during Akhenaten's Amarna interlude, when the royal family turned their backs on Egypt's traditional gods and experimented, for a dozen years or so, with monotheism; an experiment that, whether out of conviction or convenience, Ay appears to have followed under the reign of Akhenaten. The Great Hymn to the Aten is also found in his Amarna tomb which was built during his service under Akhenaten. It is likely that this was required by Akhenaten, though not evidence that Ay agreed with Akhenaten's decision to promote the Aten above all other gods [9] it is strongly suggestive that he did believe in Akhenaten's religious revolution.[10] His wife Tey was born a commoner but was given the title Nurse of the Pharaoh's Great Wife.[8] If she were the mother of Nefertiti she would be expected to have the royal title Mother of the Pharaoh's Great Wife instead, so if Ay was the father of Nefertiti, then Tey would have been her stepmother.[8] In several Amarna tomb chapels there is a woman whose name began with "Mut" who had the title Sister of the Pharaoh's Great Wife. This could also be a daughter of Ay's by his wife Tey, and it is known that his successor Horemheb married a woman with the name Mutnodjimet.[11]...

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Horemheb in Wikipedia

Horemheb (sometimes spelled Horemhab or Haremhab and meaning Horus is in Jubilation) was the last Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty from 1319 BC to late 1292 BC[1], although he was not related to the preceding royal family and is believed to have been of common birth. Before he became pharaoh, Horemheb was the commander in chief of the army under the reigns of Tutankamun and Ay. After his accession to the throne he reformed the state and it was under his reign that official action against the preceding Amarna rulers began. Horemheb demolished monuments of Akhenaten, reusing their remains in his own building projects, and usurped monuments of Tutankhamun and Ay. Horemheb presumably remained childless and he appointed his vizier Paramesse as his successor, who would assume the throne as Ramesses I. Early career Horemheb is believed to have originated from Herakleopolis Magna or ancient Hnes (modern Ihnasya el-Medina) on the west bank of the Nile near the entrance to the Fayum since his coronation text formally credits the God Horus of Hnes for establishing him on the throne.[2] His parentage is unknown but he is universally believed to be a commoner. According to the French (Sorbonne) Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal, Horemheb does not appear to be the same person as Paatenemheb (Aten Is Present In Jubilation) who was the Commander-in- chief of Akhenaten's army.[3] Grimal notes that Horemheb's political career first began under Tutankhamun where he "is depicted at this king's side in his own tomb chapel at Memphis."[4]. In the earliest known stage of his life, Horemheb served as "the royal spokesman for [Egypt's] foreign affairs" and personally led a diplomatic mission to visit the Nubian governors.[5] This resulted in a reciprocal visit by "the Prince of Miam (Aniba)" to Tutankhamun's court, "an event [that is] depicted in the tomb of the Viceroy Huy."[6] Horemheb quickly rose to prominence under Tutankhamun, becoming Commander-in-Chief of the Army, and advisor to the Pharaoh. Horemheb's specific titles are outlined from his Saqqara tomb which was built while he was still only an official: "Hereditary Prince, Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King, and Chief Commander of the Army"; the "attendant of the King in his footsteps in the foreign countries of the south and the north"; the "King's Messenger in front of his army to the foreign countries to the south and the north"; and the "Sole Companion, he who is by the feet of his lord on the battlefield on that day of killing Asiatics."[7] When Tutankhamun died while still a teenager, Horemheb had actually been designated as rpat ("Crown Prince") and idnw (King's "Deputy") which meant that Horemheb was the officially recognised heir to Tutankhamun's throne. However, the aged Vizier Ay managed to sideline Horemheb's claim to the throne and instead succeed Tutankhamun. Having pushed Horemheb aside, Ay proceeded to nominate a military officer named Nakhtmin who was possibly Ay's son or adopted son, to succeed him rather than Horemheb.[8] After Ay's brief reign of four years and one month, however, Horemheb managed to seize power presumably from his position as Commander of the Army to assume what he must have perceived to be his just reward for having ably served Egypt under Tutankhamun and Ay. Horemheb quickly removed Naktmin's rival claim to the throne and arranged to have Ay's WV23 tomb desecrated by smashing the latter's sarcophagus into several pieces, systematically chiselling out Ay's name and figure out of the tomb walls and probably destroying Ay's mummy.[9] However, he spared Tutankhamun's tomb from vandalism presumably because it was the Boy King who had promoted his sudden rise to power and chosen him to be this king's successor. Horemheb also usurped and enlarged Ay's mortuary temple at Medinet Habu for his own use and erased Ay's titulary on the back of a 17 foot colossal statue by carving his own titulary in its place. Internal reform Horemheb with Amun at the Museo Egizio Upon his accession, Horemheb initiated a comprehensive series of internal reforms meant to curb the gross abuses of power and privileges that had begun under Akhenaten's reign, due to the overcentralization of state power and privileges in the hands of a few officials. He "appointed judges and regional tribunes...reintroduced local religious authorities" and divided legal power "between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt" between "the Viziers of Thebes and Memphis respectively." [10] These deeds are recorded in a stela which the king erected at the foot of his Tenth Pylon at Karnak. Occasionally called The Great Edict of Horemheb[11], it is a copy of the actual text of the king's decree to re-establish order to the Two Lands and curb abuses of state authority. The stela's creation and prominent location emphasizes the great importance which Horemheb placed upon domestic reform. Horemheb also reformed the Army and reorganized the Deir el-Medinah workforce in his 7th Year while Horemheb's official, Maya, renewed the tomb of Thutmose IV, which had been disturbed by tomb robbers in his 8th Year. While the king restored the priesthood of Amun, he did not permit the Amun priests from forming a stranglehold on power by deliberately reappointing priests who mostly came from the Egyptian army since he could rely on their personal loyalty.[12] Horemheb was a prolific builder who erected numerous temples and buildings throughout Egypt during his life-time. He constructed the Second, Ninth and Tenth Pylons of the Great Hypostyle Hall, in the Temple at Karnak using recycled talatat blocks from Akhenaten's own monuments here, as building material for the first two Pylons.[13] Because of his unexpected rise to the throne, Horemheb had had two tombs constructed for himself: the first – when he was a mere nobleman – at Saqqara near Memphis, and the other – in the Valley of the Kings, in Thebes, in tomb KV57, as king. His chief wife was Queen Mutnedjmet, who may have been Nefertiti's younger sister, but she failed to bear him a successor.[14] He is not known to have any children by his first wife Amenia who died before Horemheb assumed power.[15] Reign length This pharaoh's reign length is a matter of debate among scholars. Horemheb's highest clearly known dates are a pair of Year 13 and Year 14 wine labels from this king's wine estates which were found in his royal tomb in the Valley of the Kings. It is traditionally believed that Horemheb's highest year-date is likely attested in an anonymous hieratic graffito written on the shoulder of a now fragmented statue from his mortuary temple in Karnak which mentions the appearance of the king himself, or a royal cult statue representing the king, for a religious feast. The ink graffito reads "Year 27, first Month of Shemu day 9, the day on which Horemheb, who loves Amun and hates his enemies entered" the temple for this event. (JNES 25[1966], p. 123) Donald Redford, in a BASOR 211(1973) No.37 footnote observes that the use of Horemheb's name and the addition of a long "Meryamun" (Beloved of Amun) epithet in the graffito suggests a living, eulogised king rather than a long deceased one. The Egyptologist Rolf Krauss, in a DE 30(1994) paper, has argued that this date may well reflect Horemheb's accession where a Feast or public holiday was traditionally proclaimed to honour the accession date of a deceased or a current king. Krauss supports his hypothesis with evidence from Ostraca IFAO 1254 which was initially published by Jac Janssen in a BIFAO 84(1984) paper under the title "A Curious Error."[16] The ostraca records the number of days on which an unknown Deir el-Medinah workman was absent from work and covers the period from Year 26 III Peret day 11 to Year 27 II Akhet day 12 before breaking off.[17] The significant fact here is that a Year change occurred in the ostraca from Year 26 to Year 27 around the interval IV Peret day 28 and I Shemu day 13. The Year 27 date of Horemheb is located within this interval and would reflect Horemheb's accession date, Krauss suggests. Ay's accession date occurred somewhere in the month of III Peret.[18] Since Manetho gives Ay reign of 4 years and 1 month, this ruler would have died sometime around the month of IV Peret or the first half of I Shemu at the very latest. This is precisely the time period noted in Ostraca IFAO 1254. The fact that the ostraca records the case of only one worker rather than an entire group of workmen means the necropolis scribe cannot be presumed – at first glance – to have committed a dating error in altering the unknown king's Year date in the interval between IV Peret 28 and I Shemu 13. Janssen, in his original BIFAO paper, noted the curious fact that no known New Kingdom pharaohs who reigned for a quarter of a century including Ramesses II and Ramesses III had their accession date in this time frame and suggests the Year change was an error committed on behalf of the scribe. He then attributed the ostraca to Ramesses III, whose accession date was I Shemu day 26 and expressed his view that the scribe may have inadvertently implemented the Year change two weeks early instead. Janssen also observed that the palaeography of the ostraca suggests a date in the 20th Dynasty partly because it followed the later New Kingdom form of writing and due to its provenance in the Grand Putit region, which features numerous Dynasty 20 ostracas. However, this form of writing is also attested in monuments of Ramesses II and it would, therefore, not be unexpected to find it in a document from the very late 18th Dynasty since the transition from the Early New Kingdom to the Late New Kingdom Form of writing had already occurred prior to the end of Horemheb's reign, as Frank Yurco once noted. Indeed, Janssen's palaeographical reference for his paper–Prof. Georges Posener–himself suggested a date in the 19th Dynasty due to the form of the wsf (absent) and akhet (inundation) text. As Janssen himself writes, a few 19th Dynasty ostracas have been found in the Grand Putit area prior to the 20th Dynasty's intensive exploitation of this region.[19] This does not exclude some late 18th Dynasty work here either. Secondly, both Janssen and Krauss stress in their papers that the relative scarcity of the hieratic text in Ostraca IFAO 1254 precludes a clear dating of the document to Ramesses III's reign and that palaeography, in general, does not give a precise date for a document's creation. Hence, a dating of the ostraca to Horemheb's reign on the basis of the Year change is eminently plausible. On other matters, a damaged wall fragment painting from the Petrie Collection mentions Horemheb's 15th or 25th Year. Another important text, The Inscription of Mes, records that a court case decision was rendered in favour by a rival branch of Mes' family in Year 59 of Horemheb.[20] Since the Mes inscription was composed during the reign of Ramesses II when the Amarna-era Pharaohs were struck from the official king-lists, the Year 59 Horemheb date certainly includes the nearly 17 year long reign of Akhenaten, the 2 year independent reign of Neferneferuaten, the 9 year reign of Tutankhamun and the 4 year reign of Ay. Once all these rulers reigns are deducted from the Year 59 date, Horemheb would still have easily enjoyed a reign of 26-27 years. At a well known 1987 Conference from Gothenburg Sweden, Kenneth Kitchen astutely noted that any attempt to explain away the Year 59 Horemheb date as a "scribal error" fails to consider the long and volumnious listed series of court trials and legal setbacks which Mes' family endured in order to win back control over certain valuable lands which had been stolen from his family's line. Indeed, Mes likely ordered the protracted legal dispute, which is presented as a series of court depositions and testimonies of various plaintiffs and witnesses, to be inscribed on his tomb walls in order to create a permanent ('carved in stone') record of his family's ultimately victorious struggle to win back these lands. Mes, hence, could hardly be expected to forget the beginning of his family's legal tribulations in Year 59 of Horemheb. Kitchen also observes in his paper that Horemheb's extensive building projects at Karnak supported the theory of a long reign for this Pharaoh and stressed that "a good number of the undated 'late 18th Dynasty' private monuments that are in both Egypt and the world's Museums must, in fact, belong to his reign." Horemheb, hence, probably died after a minimum reign of 27 or, at most, 28 years. Succession Under Horemheb, Egypt's power and confidence was once again restored after the internal chaos of the Amarna period; this situation set the stage for the rise of the 19th Dynasty under such ambitious Pharaohs like Seti I and Ramesses II. Horemheb is believed to have unsuccessfully attempted to father an heir to the throne since the mummy of his second wife was found with a fetus in it. Geoffrey Martin in his excavation work at Saqqara states that the burial of Horemheb's second wife Mutnedjmet was located at the bottom of a shaft to the rooms of Horemheb's Saqqara tomb. He notes that "a fragment of an alabaster vase inscribed with a funerary text for the chantress of Amun and King's Wife Mutnodjmet, as well as pieces of a statuette of her [was found here]...The funerary vase in particular, since it bears her name and titles would hardly have been used for the burial of some other person."[21] Expert analysis subsequently showed that the bones represented part of the skull and other portions of the body, including the pelvis, of an adult female who had given birth several times. Furthermore, she had lost all her teeth early in life, and was therefore only able to eat soft foods for much of the time. She died in her mid-forties, perhaps in childbirth, for with her bones were those of a foetus or newborn child. The [tomb] plunderers had evidently dragged the two mummies, mother and child, from the burial chamber below, and broken them open in the pillared hall above. The balance of probability, taking into account the evidence of the objects inscribed for Mutnodjmet, is that the adult bones are those of the queen herself and that she died in attempting to provide her husband the Pharaoh with an heir to the throne.[22] Since Horemheb remained childless, he appointed his Vizier, Paramesse as his chosen successor before his death both to reward Paramesse's loyalty and because the latter had both a son and grandson to secure Egypt's royal succession. Paramesse employed the name Ramesses I upon assuming power and founded the 19th Dynasty of the New Kingdom. While the decorations of Horemheb's KV57 tomb walls was still unfinished upon his death, this situation is not unprecedented: Amenhotep II's tomb was also not fully completed when he was buried but this ruler enjoyed a reign of 26 Years. Fictional representations Horemheb appears as a major character in P. C. Doherty's trilogy of historical novels, "An Evil Spirit Out of the West", "The Season of the Hyaena" and "The Year of the Cobra". Horemheb appears as a major character in Pauline Gedge's historical novel "The Twelfth Transforming". Horemheb was also a major character in Mika Waltari's historical fiction international bestseller, "Sinuhe, The Egyptian". He was portrayed by Victor Mature in the film adaptation "The Egyptian" (1954). He is a minor character in Lucile Morrison's 1937 teen novel The Lost Queen of Egypt. He is portrayed as Tutankhamon's mentor, whose first concern is holding the kingdom together, although he supports Akhenaten and his religion while Akhenaten is alive.

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Horemheb (Djeserkheperure) in Tour Egypt

HOREMHEB (DJESERKHEPERURE) 1323-1295 B.C. 18TH DYNASTY The fourteenth king of the 18th Dynasty was chief of the army during Tutankhamun’s reign. When Tutankhamun died, Ay succeeded the throne. Ay favored Horemheb and kept him on as a military leader. When Ay died without an heir, Horemheb was made king. Restoring order was his main objective. Once accomplished, Horemheb moved to Memphis and began work on internal affairs. He returned properties of the temples to the rightful priests and lands to the rightful owners. He had restoration projects and building additions in Karnak. He erected shrines and a temple to Ptah. He built tombs at Thebes, in the Valley of the Kings, and Memphis. He was noted for admonishing high ranking officials against cheating the poor and misappropriating the use of slaves and properties. He promised the death penalty for such offenses. Horemheb had no heir so he appointed a military leader to succeed him. That leader was Ramesses I.

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Ramesses I (Menpehtyre) in Tour Egypt

KING RAMESSES I, FOUNDER OF THE 19TH DYNASTY BY JIMMY DUNN - Ramesses I was the founder of the 19th Dynasty (though there is some evidence to suggest that they themselves saw Horemheb as he dynastic founder) and the grandfather of the great and famous pharaoh, Ramesses II. Though he began a Dynasty that would actually see several powerful kings, his reign was really somewhat of a low point during the New Kingdom. A vizier under the last king of the 18th Dynasty, Horemheb, Ramesses I appears to have come to the throne as an appointment of his predecessor, who seems to have produced no heir. Ramesses had been a colleague of Horemheb while the earlier king was still serving as an army commander, and he may even be depicted in Horemheb's Saqqara tomb being rewarded by the King's Deputy. Ramesses rose in army rank, holding a number of military titles including that of commander of the fortress of Sile, an important stronghold on the land-bridge connecting the Egyptian Delta with Syria-Palestine, before ultimately receiving the civil title of (presumably Northern) vizier. His high status was further confirmed by the office of Overseer of Priests of Upper and Lower Egypt, thus placing him at the head of the civil and religious communities. Ramesses I, who may have even served as a co-regent of Horemheb, took the throne rather late during Ramesses I's life, when he was perhaps around fifty years of age. His birth name, Ramesses (Ramses, Paramessu) means "Re has Fashioned him". His throne name was Menpehtyre, which means "Eternal is the Strength of Re". Horemheb's selection of Ramesses as his successor seems to have been well thought out, for Ramesses I chose the Golden Horus name of "He who confirms Ma'at throughout the Two Lands", indicating his desire to carry on the work of Horemheb in re-establishing religious order after the heretic rule of Akhenaten. His names and titles also stresses the privileged nature of his relationship with Re, the sun god. Ramesses was not of royal blood, but rather a career army officer who was the son of a troop commander and judge named Seti. His mother is unknown. His family came from the north-eastern Delta area of Avaris (probably modern Tell el-Dab'a), which had been the capital of the Hyksos invaders some 400 years earlier. We do know of one of his wives named Sitre, who's parentage is unknown but who was probably the daughter of another army officer. Together, Ramesses I and Sitre had one son, Seti I, who held the titles vizier and Troop Commander under his father prior to succeeding him. He also may have served as a co-regent with his father. During the last few months of Ramesses I's life, Seti may have led an expedition to Palestine, which would be the only military action we are aware of during his father's reign. Early on in the reign of Ramesses I, Seti was appointed vizier and commander of Sile, but also held a number of priestly titles linking him with various gods worshipped in the Delta, including that of high priest of Seth. Ramesses I probably only ruled Egypt for about two years, which hardly gave him the time needed to make his mark in Egyptian history. This is evidenced by the fact that Ramesses I's son, and perhaps even his grandson had been borne before his accession. However, there were a few reliefs added to the Second Pylon in the Temple of Amun at Karnak that was completed by Ramesses I during his reign, and a stele dated early in his second regnal year found at Wadi Halfa. Otherwise, he focused mot of his building efforts on the construction of a chapel and a temple at Abydos, which had to be finished by Seti I after Ramesses I's death. After his death, Ramesses I was buried in his small tomb (KV 16) in the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank of Thebes (modern Luxor). Around October 10th of 1817, the strongman of Egyptology, Belzoni, discovered his tomb, which showed to have been a hasty interment. In fact, the burial chamber was unfinished, and had been intended to be merely an antechamber in a much larger tomb. The decorative theme of this tomb was modeled on that of Horemheb, and featured the Book of Gates. Though some of the burial provisions were left behind, including a large granite sarcophagus, a pair of almost two meter high wooden statues of the king once covered with gold foil and a number of wooden statuettes of underworld deities and curious animal heads, the tomb had been robbed during antiquity. However, these funerary goods seem stylistically similar to those at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty. Though the mummy of Ramesses I has remained unidentified from many years, some scientists now believe that a mummy discovered in the Niagra Falls Museum and Daredevil Hall of Fame is none other then that of Ramesses I. In 1999, this facility closed its doors and sold off its antiquities, which were purchased by the Carlos Museum. After careful analysis of a number of different factors related to this mummy, such as the care with which the mummification took place, its general appearance in relationship to others of the 19th Dynasty kings, and other factors, these scientists have concluded that this must have been Ramesses I. In light of all this evidence, Egyptian authorities have accepted the return of the mummy in a spirit of cooperation. The burial of Queen Sitre broke with earlier tradition where the queen was apparently buried in her husband's tomb at a later date if she outlived him. Sitre's tomb set a new precedent by being situated in the Valley of the Queens on the West Bank. However, her tomb was also unfinished, with only a few paintings on the walls of the first chamber.

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Ramesses I in Wikipedia

Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Ramses) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's 19th dynasty. The dates for his short reign are not completely known but the time-line of late 1292-1290 BC is frequently cited[3] as well as 1295-1294 BC.[4] While Ramesses I was the founder of the 19th Dynasty, in reality his brief reign marked the transition between the reign of Horemheb who had stabilised Egypt and the rule of the powerful Pharaohs of this dynasty, in particular his son Seti I and grandson Ramesses II, who would bring Egypt up to new heights of imperial power. Origins Originally called Pa-ra-mes-su, Ramesses I was of non-royal birth, being born into a noble military family from the Nile delta region, perhaps near the former Hyksos capital of Avaris, or from Tanis. He was a son of a troop commander called Seti. His uncle Khaemwaset, an army officer married Tamwadjesy, the matron of the Harem of Amun, who was a relative of Huy, the Viceroy of Kush, an important state post.[5] This shows the high status of Ramesses' family. Ramesses I found favor with Horemheb, the last pharaoh of the tumultuous Eighteenth dynasty, who appointed the former as his Vizier. Ramesses also served as the High Priest of Amun[citation needed] – as such, he would have played an important role in the restoration of the old religion following the Amarna heresy of a generation earlier, under Akhenaten. Horemheb himself had been a nobleman from outside the immediate royal family, who rose through the ranks of the Egyptian army to serve as the royal advisor to Tutankhamun and Ay and, ultimately, Pharaoh. Since Horemheb was childless, he ultimately chose Ramesses to be his heir in the final years of his reign presumably because Ramesses I was both an able administrator and had a son (Seti I) and a grandson (the future Ramesses II) to succeed him and thus avoid any succession difficulties! Upon his accession, Ramesses assumed a prenomen, or royal name, which is written in Egyptian hieroglyphs to the right. When transliterated, the name is mn-pḥty-r‘, which is usually interpreted as Menpehtyre, meaning "Established by the strength of Ra". However, he is better known by his nomen, or personal name. This is transliterated as r‘-ms-sw, and is usually realised as Ramessu or Ramesses, meaning 'Ra bore him'. Already an old man when he was crowned, Ramesses appointed his son, the later pharaoh Seti I, to serve as the Crown Prince and chosen successor. Seti was charged with undertaking several military operations during this time– in particular, an attempt to recoup some of Egypt's lost possessions in Syria. Ramesses appears to have taken charge of domestic matters: most memorably, he completed the second pylon at Karnak Temple, begun under Horemheb. Death Ramesses I enjoyed a very brief reign, as evidenced by the general paucity of contemporary monuments mentioning him: the king had little time to build any major buildings in his reign and was hurriedly buried in a small and hastily finished tomb.[6] The Egyptian priest Manetho assigns him a reign of 16 months but this pharaoh certainly ruled Egypt for a minimum of 17 months based on his highest known date which is a Year 2 II Peret day 20 (Louvre C57) stela which ordered the provision of new endowments of food and priests for the Temple of Ptah within the Egyptian fortress of Buhen.[7] Jürgen von Beckerath observes that Ramesses I died just 5 months later-in June 1290 BC-since his son Seti I succeeded to power on III Shemu day 24.[8] Ramesses I's only known action was to order the provision of endowments for the aforementioned Nubian temple at Buhen and "the construction of a chapel and a temple (which was to be finished by his son) at Abydos."[9] The aged Ramesses was buried in the Valley of the Kings. His tomb, discovered by Giovanni Belzoni in 1817 and designated KV16, is small in size and gives the impression of having been completed with haste. Joyce Tyldesley states that Ramesses I's tomb consisted of a single corridor and one unfinished room whose " walls, after a hurried coat of plaster, were painted to show the king with his gods, with Osiris allowed a prominent position. The red granite sarcophagus too was painted rather than carved with inscriptions which, due to their hasty preparation, included a number of unfortunate errors."[10] " Seti I, his son, and successor, later built a small chapel (or temple) with fine reliefs in memory of his deceased father Ramesses I at Abydos. In 1911, John Pierpont Morgan donated several exquisite reliefs from this chapel to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.[11] Rediscovery and repatriation According to current theory, his mummy was stolen by the Abu-Rassul family of grave robbers and brought to North America around 1860 by Dr. James Douglas. It was then placed in the Niagara Museum and Daredevil Hall of Fame in Ontario, Canada. Ramesses I remained there, his identity unknown, next to other curiosities and so-called freaks of nature for more than 130 years. When the owner of the museum decided to sell his property, Canadian businessman William Jamieson purchased the contents of the museum. In 1999, Jamieson sold the Egyptian artifacts in the collection, including the various mummies, to the Michael C. Carlos Museum at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia for US $2 million. His identity cannot be conclusively determined, but is persuasively deduced from CT scans, X-rays, skull measurements and radio-carbon dating tests by researchers at the University, as well as aesthetic interpretations of family resemblance. Moreover, the mummy's arms were found crossed high across his chest which was a position reserved solely for Egyptian royalty until 600 BC.[12] His mummy was returned to Egypt on October 24, 2003 with full official honors and is on display at the Luxor Museum.[13]

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Seti I (Menmaatre) in Tour Egypt

SETI I BY JIMMY DUNN Seti I was the father of perhaps Egypt's greatest rulers, Ramesses II, and was in his own right also a great leader. His birth name is Seti Mery-en-ptah, meaning "He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah. To the Greeks, he was Sethos I, and his throne name was Men-maat-re, meaning "Eternal is the Justice of Re". He ruled Egypt for 13 years (though some Egyptologists differ on this matter, giving him a reign of between 15 and 20 years) from 1291 through 1278 BC. In order to rectify the instability under the Amarna kings, he early on set a policy of major building at home and a committed foreign policy. Seti was the son of Ramesses I and his queen, Sitre. He probably ruled as co-regent, evidenced by an inscription on a statue from Medamud. Seti married into his own military caste. His first wife was Tuya, who was the daughter of a lieutenant of charioteers. His first son died young, but his second son was Ramesses II. There was also a daughter, Tia, and a second daughter named Henutmire, who would become a minor queen of Ramesses II. This was truly a great period in Egypt, and perhaps the greatest in regards to art and culture. In the building projects that Seti I undertook, the quality of the reliefs and other designs were probably never surpassed by later rulers. He is responsible for beginning the great Hypostyle Hall in the Temple of Amun at Karnak, which his son Ramesses II later finished. Seti's reliefs are on the north side and their fine style is evident when compared to later additions. However, at Abydos, he built perhaps the most remarkable temple ever constructed in Egypt. It has seven sanctuaries, dedicated to himself, Ptah, Re-Harakhte, Amun-Re, Osiris, Isis and Horus. Interestingly, in this temple a part called the Hall of Records or sometimes the Gallery of Lists, Seti is shown with his son before a long official list of the pharaohs beginning with the earliest times. However, the names of the Amarna pharaohs are omitted, as if they never existed, and the list jumps from Amenhotep III directly to Horemheb. Behind the temple at Abydos Seti build another remarkable structure known as the Osireion. Completely underground, originally a long tunnel decorated with painted scenes from the Book of Gates led to a huge hall. This whole structure with a central mound surrounded by canal water was symbolic of the origins of life from the primeval waters. It was here that Seti rested after his death and before being taken to his tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Other building projects included a small temple at Abydos dedicated to Seti's father, Ramesses I, his own mortuary temple at Thebes, and his best building project of all, his tomb in the Valley of the Kings. This tomb, one of the few actually completed, was without doubt the finest in the Valley of the Kings, as well as the longest and deepest. Militarily, Seti let an expedition to Syria as early as his first year as king. This was probably understandable, as he had also led campaigns to Palestine during the last months of his father, Ramesses I's rule. This, and other campaign during his first six years of rule are documented on the outer north and east wall of the great temple of Amun at Karnak. There is also a stele from Beth-Shan, for some time a major Egyptian center in Palestine, that records his early campaign. The attack was up the coast of Gaza, where he secured wells along the main trade route, and then taking the town, before pressing on further north. He took the area up to Tyre before returning to the fortress of Tjel in the north east Delta. There was a latter attack on Syria and Lebanon where he (and the Egyptians) fought the Hittites for the first time. One scene at Karnak shows the capture of Kadesh, which would also be attacked later by Ramesses II. He also fought campaigns against the Libyans of the western desert. We further learn that in year eight of Seti's reign, he had to crush a rebellion in Nubia in the region of Irem, where he carried off over six hundred prisoners. However, apparently this was a minor problem as the campaign only lasted for seven days. Seti's mummy is said to be the finest of all surviving royal mummies, though it was not found in his tomb. Rather, it was found in the Deir el-Bahari cache in 1881. Dockets on the mummy show that it had been restored during the reign of the High Priest of Amun, Heribor (1080-1074 BC) and again in year 15 of Smendes (about 1054 BC).

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Seti I in Wikipedia

Menmaatre Seti I (also called Sethos I after the Greeks) was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt), the son of Ramesses I and Queen Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II. As with all dates in Ancient Egypt, the actual dates of his reign are unclear, and various historians claim different dates, with 1294 BC – 1279 BC[4] and 1290 BC to 1279 BC[5] being the most commonly used by scholars today. The name Seti means "of Set", which indicates that he was consecrated to the god Set (commonly "Seth"). As with most Pharaohs, Seti had several names. Upon his ascension, he took the prenomen mn-m3‘t-r‘, which translates as Menmaatre in Egyptian, meaning "Eternal is the Justice of Re."[1] His better known nomen, or birth name is technically transliterated as sty mry-n-ptḥ, or Sety Merenptah, meaning "Man of Set, beloved of Ptah". Manetho incorrectly considered him to be the founder of the 19th dynasty. The alleged coregency of Seti I Around Year 9 of his reign, Seti appointed his son Ramesses II as the Crown Prince and his chosen successor, but the evidence for a coregency between the two kings is likely illusory. Peter J. Brand who has published an extensive biography on this Pharaoh and his numerous works, stresses in his thesis[6] that relief decorations at various temple sites at Karnak, Qurna and Abydos which associate Ramesses II with Seti I, were actually carved after Seti's death by Ramesses II himself and, hence, cannot be used as source material to support a co-regency between the two monarchs. In addition, the late William Murnane who first endorsed the theory of a co-regency between Seti I and Ramesses II[7] later revised his view of the proposed co-regency and rejected the idea that Ramesses II had begun to count his own regnal years while Seti I was still alive.[8] Finally, Kenneth Kitchen rejects the term co-regency to describe the relationship between Seti I and Ramesses II; he describes the earliest phase of Ramesses II's career as a "prince regency" where the young Ramesses enjoyed all the trappings of royalty including the use of a royal titulary and harem but did not count his regnal years until after his father's death.[9] This is due to the fact that the evidence for a co-regency between the two kings is vague and highly ambiguous. Two important inscriptions from the first decade of Ramesses' reign, namely the Abydos Dedicatory Inscription and the Kuban Stela of Ramesses II, consistently give the latter titles associated with those of a Crown Prince only, namely the "king's eldest son and hereditary prince" or "child-heir" to the throne "along with some military titles."[10] Hence, no clear evidence supports the hypothesis that Ramesses II was already a co-regent under his father. Brand stresses that: " Ramesses' claim that he was crowned king by Seti, even as a child in his arms [in the Dedicatory Inscription], is highly self-serving and open to question although his description of his role as crown prince is more accurate...The most reliable and concrete portion of this statement is the enumeration of Ramesses' titles as eldest king's son and heir apparent, well attested in sources contemporary with Seti's reign."[11]...

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Ramesses II (Usermaatresetepenre)

(USERMAATRESETEPENRE) 1279-1213 B.C. 19TH DYNASTY The son of Seti I and Queen Tuya was the third king of the 19th Dynasty. Called Ramesses the Great, he lived to be 96 years old, had 200 wives and concubines, 96 sons and 60 daughters. One son, Prince Khaemwese, was a high priest of Ptah, governor of Memphis, and was in charge of the restoration of the Pyramid of Unas. This son was buried in The Serapeum. Ramesses II outlived the first thirteen of his heirs. Ramesses was named co-ruler with his father, Seti I, early in his life. He accompanied his father on numerous campaigns in Libya and Nubia. At the age of 22 Ramesses went on a campaign in Nubia with two of his own sons. Seti I and Ramesses built a palace in Avaris where Ramesses I had started a new capital. When Seti I died in 1290 B.C., Ramesses assumed the throne and began a series of wars against the Syrians. The famous Battle of Kadesh is inscribed on the walls of Ramesses temple. Ramesses' building accomplishments are two temples at Abu Simbel, the hypostyle hall at Karnak, a mortuary complex at Abydos, the Colossus of Ramesses at Memphis, a vast tomb at Thebes, additions at the Luxor Temple, and the famous Ramesseum. Among Ramesses' wives were Nefertari, Queen Istnofret, his two daughters, Binthanath and Merytamon, and the Hittite princess, Maathornefrure. Ramesses was originally buried in his tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Because of the widespread looting of tombs during the 21st Dynasty the priests removed Ramesses body and took it to a holding area where the valuable materials such, as gold-leaf and semi- precious inlays, were removed. The body was then rewrapped and taken to the tomb of an 18th Dynasty queen, Inhapi. The bodies of Ramesses I and Seti I were done in like fashion and all ended up at the same place. Amenhotep I's body had been placed there as well at an earlier time. Seventy-two hours later, all of the bodies were again moved, this time to the Royal Cache that was inside the tomb of High Priest Pinudjem II. The priests documented all of this on the linen that covered the bodies. This "systematic" looting by the priests was done in the guise of protecting the bodies from the "common" thieves. Ramesses was followed to the throne by his thirteenth son, with his queen Istnofret, Merenptah.

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Ramesses II in Wikipedia

Ramesses II (reigned 1279 BCE to 1213 BCE - also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses *Riʕmīsisu; also known as Ozymandias in the Greek sources, from a transliteration into Greek of a part of Ramesses' throne name, User- maat-re Setep-en-re)[5] was the third Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth dynasty. He is often regarded as Egypt's greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh.[6] His successors and later Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor". At age fourteen, Ramesses was appointed Prince Regent by his father Seti I.[6] He is believed to have taken the throne in his early 20s and is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC[7] for a total of 66 years and 2 months, according to both Manetho and Egypt's contemporary historical records. He was once said to have lived to be 99 years old, but it is more likely that he died in his 90th or 91st year. If he became Pharaoh in 1279 BC as most Egyptologists today believe, he would have assumed the throne on May 31, 1279 BC, based on his known accession date of III Shemu day 27.[8][9] Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented 14 sed festivals during his reign- more than any other pharaoh.[10] On his death, he was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings;[11] his body was later moved to a royal cache where it was discovered in 1881, and is now on display in the Cairo Museum.[12] Ramesses II led several expeditions north into the lands east of the Mediterranean (the location of the modern Israel, Lebanon and Syria). He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein. The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples and monuments. He established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and main base for his campaigns in Syria. This city was built on the remains of the city of Avaris, the capital of the Hyksos when they took over, and was the location of the main Temple of Set. Campaigns and battles Early in his life, Ramesses II embarked on numerous campaigns to return previously held territories back from Nubian and Hittite hands and to secure Egypt's borders. He was also responsible for suppressing some Nubian revolts and carrying out a campaign in Libya. Although the famous Battle of Kadesh often dominates the scholarly view of Ramesses II's military prowess and power, he nevertheless enjoyed more than a few outright victories over the enemies of Egypt. During Ramesses II's reign, the Egyptian army is estimated to have totaled about 100,000 men; a formidable force that he used to strengthen Egyptian influence.[13] [edit]Battle against Sherden sea pirates In his second year, Ramesses II decisively defeated the Shardana or Sherden sea pirates who were wreaking havoc along Egypt's Mediterranean coast by attacking cargo-laden vessels travelling the sea routes to Egypt.[14] The Sherden people probably came from the coast of Ionia or possibly south-west Turkey. Ramesses posted troops and ships at strategic points along the coast and patiently allowed the pirates to attack their prey before skillfully catching them by surprise in a sea battle and capturing them all in a single action.[15] A stele from Tanis speaks of their having come "in their war-ships from the midst of the sea, and none were able to stand before them". There must have been a naval battle somewhere near the mouth of the Nile, as shortly afterwards many Sherden are seen in the Pharaoh's body-guard where they are conspicuous by their horned helmets with a ball projecting from the middle, their round shields and the great Naue II swords with which they are depicted in inscriptions of the Battle of Kadesh.[16] In that sea battle, together with the Shardana, the pharaoh also defeated the Lukka (L'kkw, possibly the later Lycians), and the Šqrsšw (Shekelesh) peoples. First Syrian campaign The immediate antecedents to the Battle of Kadesh were the early campaigns of Ramesses II into Canaan and Palestine. His first campaign seems to have taken place in the fourth year of his reign and was commemorated by the erection of a stele near modern Beirut. The inscription is almost totally illegible due to weathering. His records tell us that he was forced to fight a Palestinian prince who was mortally wounded by an Egyptian archer, and whose army was subsequently routed. Ramesses carried off the princes of Palestine as live prisoners to Egypt. Ramesses then plundered the chiefs of the Asiatics in their own lands, returning every year to his headquarters at Riblah to exact tribute. In the fourth year of his reign, he captured the Hittite vassal state of Amurru during his campaign in Syria.[17] Second Syrian campaign The Battle of Kadesh in his fifth regnal year was the climactic engagement in a campaign that Ramesses fought in Syria, against the resurgent Hittite forces of Muwatallis. The pharaoh wanted a victory at Kadesh both to expand Egypt's frontiers into Syria and to emulate his father Seti I's triumphal entry into the city just a decade or so earlier. He also constructed his new capital, Pi-Ramesses where he built factories to manufacture weapons, chariots, and shields. Of course, they followed his wishes and manufactured some 1,000 weapons in a week, about 250 chariots in 2 weeks, and 1,000 shields in a week and a half. After these preparations, Ramesses moved to attack territory in the Levant which belonged to a more substantial enemy than any he had ever faced before: the Hittite Empire.[18] Although Ramesses's forces were caught in a Hittite ambush and outnumbered at Kadesh, the pharaoh fought the battle to a stalemate and returned home a hero. Ramesses II's forces suffered major losses particularly among the 'Ra' division which was routed by the initial charge of the Hittite chariots during the battle. Once back in Egypt, Ramesses proclaimed that he had won a great victory.[19] He had amazed everybody by almost winning a lost battle. The Battle of Kadesh was a personal triumph for Ramesses, as after blundering into a devastating Hittite ambush, the young king courageously rallied his scattered troops to fight on the battlefield while escaping death or capture. Still, many historians regard the battle as a strategic defeat for the Egyptians as they were unable to occupy the city or territory around Kadesh. Ramesses decorated his monuments with reliefs and inscriptions describing the campaign as a whole, and the battle in particular as a major victory. Inscriptions of his victory decorate the Ramesseum,[20] Abydos, Karnak, Luxor and Abu Simbel. For example, on the temple walls of Luxor the near catastrophe was turned into an act of heroism: His majesty slaughtered the armed forces of the Hittites in their entirety, their great rulers and all their brothers ... their infantry and chariot troops fell prostrate, one on top of the other. His majesty killed them ... and they lay stretched out in front of their horses. But his majesty was alone, nobody accompanied him ...

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Merenptah (Baenrehotephirmaat) in Tour Egypt

MERENPTAH, THE 4TH KING OF EGYPT'S 19TH DYNASTY by Jimmy Dunn By the time that Ramesses II died, he had apparently outlived twelve of his sons, so it was his 13th son, Merenptah who ascended the throne of Egypt. Merenptah was old himself by this time, probably nearly sixty years old, and his reign was rather dull, as well as short lived (perhaps only nine or ten years) in comparison with that of his father's reign. According to the Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, he ruled from 1213 until 1203 BC, while Clayton provides a reign from 1212 until 1202 BC. Merenptah (also hetep-her-maat, and commonly also called Merneptah) was the king's birth name, meaning "Beloved of Ptah, Joyous is Truth). His throne name was Ba-en-re Mery-netjeru, which means "The Soul of Re, Beloved of the Gods". Merenptah was probably the fourth child of Ramesses II's second principle wife, Istnofret (Isisnofret). He was married to queens Istnofret (Isisnofret), who must have surely been his sister, and possibly a queen Takhat. His son was Seti-Merenptah, who probably ascended the throne sometime after his father as Seti II. However, Seti II's reign may have been initially usurped by a Amenmesse who may have been a son of Takhat, though Takhat's marriage to Merenptah is far from certain. Merenptah is almost completely unknown until the 40th year of Ramesses II's reign. In fact he may have been heir to the throne of Egypt for about twelve years prior to Ramesses II's death, but in Ramesses II's year 40, we known the prince was made General of the Army. Perhaps it is not surprising that what we know of Merenptah's rule is mostly about his military activities. However, he appears not to have become the heir to the throne until Ramesses II's 55th regnal year, when Ramesses II was celebrating his 80th birthday, and Merenptah his 48th. In fact, in the last decade of Ramesses II's life, Merenptah was probably the real power behind the throne, as Ramesses II was well advanced in age. In fact, he is mainly attested to by three great inscriptions, including 80 lines on a wall in the Temple of Amun at Karnak, a large stele with 35 readable lines from Athribis in the Delta and the great Victory Stele from his ruined mortuary temple at Thebes, with 28 lines. All of these text refer to his military campaigns. The Victory Stele is unique. It was usurped by Merenptah from the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III at Thebes, and is dated to the third day of the third month of the third season so it may have been written around the summer of 1207. In it, Merenptah lists enemy conquests, but the most interesting reference is a very rare mention of Israel. It may be the oldest non biblical reference to that country. Because of this, Merenptah has often been thought to be the pharaoh of the Exodus, though modern opinion leans against such an identification. In part, the stele states that: "The princes are prostrate saying: "Shalom!" Not one of the Nine Bows lifts his head: Tjehenu is vanquished, Khatti at peace, Canaan is captive with all woe. Ashkelon is conquered, Gezer seized, Yanoam made nonexistent; Israel is wasted, bare of seed, Khor is become a widow for Egypt. All who roamed have been subdued. By the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Banere-meramun, Son of Re, Merenptah, Content with Maat, Given life like Re every day." Merenptah apparently did face a number of military problems. These included a "flash" revolt in Syria, which was quickly crushed. There were also problems on Egypt's western borders involving the southern Libyans and the Sea People, who apparently had silently infiltrated the Delta, and around year five of Merenptah's rule, attempted an invasion. However, with rapid mobilization of his forces and a pre-emptive strike, Merenptah was able to vanquish these enemies, apparently slaughtering many of them. Also, the Libyans apparently inspired the Nubians to the south to also revolt, but Merenptah's quick response to the Libyans allowed him to immediately turn south and inflict a crushing blow on those rebels as well. However, Merenptah did attempt to maintain the peaceful relations of his father. The Hittite King in Syria faced a possible invasion from the north and widespread famine, so under the term of the treaty they had made with Ramesses II, they requested assistance from Merenptah, who provided them with much needed grain. One interesting facet to Merenptah's reign was that he moved the administrative center for Egypt from Piramesse (Pi- Ramesse), his fathers capital, back to Memphis, where he constructed a royal palace next to the temple of Ptah. This palace was excavated in 1915 by the University of Pennsylvania Museum led by Clarence Fischer, and yielded fine architectural elements. Merenptah's tomb is number KV 8 located in the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank of Luxor (ancient Thebes). The king probably died around 1202 BC, but his mummy was not found within his tomb. In the 19th century, this apparently added to the speculation about him being the Pharaoh of the Exodus, since that king's body would have probably been washed away in the Red Sea. However, that theory was confounded when, in 1898, his mummy was discovered among 18 others in the mummy cache discovered in the tomb of Amenhotep II (KV 35). He also built a mortuary temple that lies behind the Colossi of Memnon on the West Bank at Luxor. Much of it was built with stone robbed from the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III. The structure is currently being studied by Horst Jartz with the Swiss Institute in Cairo. Reports indicate that some of the fragments discovered include well preserved reliefs, perhaps some of the finest to be found in any temple at Thebes. The Egyptian Ministry of Culture has now decided to turn this complex into an open museum. In addition to his tomb and temple we also know that he added to the Osireion at Abydos and also built at Dendera. Merenptah is further attested to by a "wall stele" at Amada, four almost identical stele from Nubia (at Amada, Amarah West, Wadi Sebua, Aksha), blocks from Elephantine, a decree from West Silsila, an inscription in the small temple of Medinet Habu, stele from Kom el-Ahmar and Hermopolis (along with other inscriptions), a victory column at Heliopolis, and several monument remains at Piramesse.

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Merneptah in Wikipedia

Merneptah (or Merenptah) was the fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He ruled Egypt for almost ten years between late July or early August 1213 to May 2, 1203 BC, according to contemporary historical records.[2] He was the thirteenth son of Ramesses II[3] and only came to power because all his older brothers, including his full brother Khaemwaset or Khaemwase, had predeceased him, by which time he was almost sixty years old. His throne name was Ba-en-re Mery-netjeru, which means "The Soul of Ra, Beloved of the Gods". Merneptah probably was the fourth child of Isetnofret, the second wife of Ramesses II, and he was married to Queen Isetnofret, his royal wife, who was likely his full sister bearing the name of their mother. It is presumed that Merneptah also was married to Queen Takhat and one of their sons would become the later nineteenth dynasty pharaoh, Seti II. They also were the parents of prince Merenptah and possibly the usurper, Amenmesse, and Queen Twosret, wife of Seti II and later pharaoh in her own right. Campaigns Merneptah had to carry out several military campaigns during his reign, in year 5 he fought against the Libyans, who-with the assistance of the Sea Peoples-were threatening Egypt from the West. Merneptah led a victorious six-hour battle against a combined Libyan and Sea People force at the city of Perire, probably located on the western edge of the Delta. His account of this campaign against the Sea Peoples and Libu is described in prose on a wall beside the sixth pylon at Karnak, which states: "[Beginning of the victory that his majesty achieved in the land of Libya] -i, Ekwesh, Teresh, Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Northerners coming from all lands." Later in the inscription Merneptah receives news of the attack: "... the third season, saying: 'The wretched, fallen chief of Libya, Meryre, son of Ded, has fallen upon the country of Tehenu with his bowmen--Sherden, Shekelesh, Ekwesh, Lukka, Teresh, Taking the best of every warrior and every man of war of his country. He has brought his wife and his children--leaders of the camp, and he has reached the western boundary in the fields of Perire.'"[4] In the Athribis Stele, in the garden of Cairo Museum, it states "His majesty was enraged at their report, like a lion", assembled his court and gave a rousing speech. Later he dreamed he saw Ptah handing him a sword and saying "Take thou (it) and banish thou the fearful heart from thee." When the bowmen went forth, says the inscription, "Amun was with them as a shield." After six hours the surviving Nine Bows threw down their weapons, abandoned their baggage and dependents, and ran for their lives. Merneptah states that he defeated the invasion, killing 6,000 soldiers and taking 9,000 prisoners. To be sure of the numbers, among other things, he took the penises of all uncircumcised enemy dead and the hands of all the circumcised, from which history learns that the Ekwesh were circumcised, a fact causing some to doubt they were Greek. There is also an account of the same events in the form of a poem from the Merneptah Stele, widely known as the Israel Stele, which makes reference to the supposed utter destruction of Israel in a campaign prior to his 5th year in Canaan: "Israel has been wiped out...its seed is no more." This is the first recognised ancient Egyptian record of the existence of Israel--"not as a country or city, but as a tribe" or people.[5] Succession Merneptah was already an elderly man in his late 60s if not early 70s when he assumed the throne.[6] Merneptah moved the administrative center of Egypt from Piramesse (Pi-Ramesses), his father's capital, back to Memphis, where he constructed a royal palace next to the temple of Ptah. This palace was excavated in 1915 by the University of Pennsylvania Museum led by Clarence Fischer. Naneferkaptah was the royal heir, being the son of Merneptah's royal wife, Queen Istnofret (Isisnofret), but he, his wife, and their heir died before the death of Merneptah, and their story survives in text.[7] Merneptah's successor, Seti II, was another son of Queen Isisnofret. However, Seti II's accession to the throne was not unchallenged: a rival king named Amenmesse, who was either another son of Merneptah by Takhat or, much less likely, of Ramesses II, seized control over Upper Egypt and Kush during the middle of Seti II's reign. Seti was able to reassert his authority over Thebes in his fifth year, only after he overcame Amenmesse. It is possible that before seizing Upper Egypt Amenmesse had been known as Messui and had been viceroy of Kush. Mummy Merneptah suffered from arthritis and arteriosclerosis in old age and died after a reign which lasted for nearly a decade. Merneptah was originally buried within tomb KV8 in the Valley of the Kings, but his mummy was not found there. In 1898 it was located along with eighteen other mummies in the mummy cache found in the tomb of Amenhotep II (KV35) by Victor Loret. Merneptah's mummy was taken to Cairo and eventually unwrapped by Dr. G. Elliott Smith on July 8, 1907. Dr Smith notes that: The body is that of an old man and is 1 meter 714 millimeters in height. Merenptah was almost completely bald, only a narrow fringe of white hair (now cut so close as to be seen only with difficulty) remaining on the temples and occiput. A few short (about 2 mill) black hairs were found on the upper lip and scattered, closely clipped hairs on the cheeks and chin. The general aspect of the face recalls that of Ramesses II, but the form of the cranium and the measurements of the face much more nearly agree with those of his [grand]father, Seti the Great.[8]

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Amenmesse (Menmire) in Tour Egypt

KING AMENMESSES AND HIS TOMB IN THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS BY JIMMY DUNN AND MARK ANDREWS Amenmesses is generally considered to be the 5th ruler of Egypt's 19th Dynasty, though most Egyptologists believe he was probably not the legitimate heir to the throne. He succeeded Merneptah as pharaoh, but it was probably Merneptah's son, prince Seti-Merneptah who should have ascended the throne on his father's death. Various theories exist about why he did not. It is very possible that Merenptah may have died suddenly while the crown prince was away, and Amenmesses simply took advantage of the situation. Interesting, but not unpredictable, is that this disorder came only a generation after the strong, but long rule of Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great). However, it is also very likely that Seti-Merneptah was no other then Seti II, who ruled Egypt just after Amenmesses. It was probably Seti II who scraped the images and inscriptions from that kings monuments, and otherwise usurped Amenmesses' building projects. Therefore, very little is known about this king, who apparently ruled for three or four years. Various Egyptologists give him a reign from between 1202 - 1199 BC and 1203 - 1200 BC. Amenmesses would have been his birth name, but a Greek version. Manetho called him Ammenemes and assigned five years to his rule, though we may also find his named as Amenmeses. His Egyptian name was probably Heqa-waset, which means "Fashioned by Amun, Ruler of Thebes". His throne name was Men-mi-re Setep-en-re, meaning "Eternal like Re, Chosen by Re. It was long believed that Amenmesses was a son of Merneptah by a queen Takhat, though really his origins are unknown, and that he probably married a woman named Baktwerel. However, some Egyptologists have suggested that Takhat and Baktwerel were actually the mother and wife of Ramesses IX. Originally, his parentage was based on the fact that there were scenes and inscriptions related to these two women in Amenmesses tomb, but recent excavations seem to indicate that the tomb, originally meant for Amenmesses was actually usurped for these women. If so, this would probably negate any argument of them being his mother and wife. There is enough confusion surrounding Amenmesses that some Egyptologists actually place his rule after that of Seti II. Yet, Seti II's name has been written over the name of Amenmesses in several Theban locations, it is generally believed that Seti II succeeded him. Still others believe that Amenmesses usurped Seti II in the middle of Seti II's reign, sometime between years three and five of his rule, which would seem more probable then him ruling after Seti II. It is also possible that Amenmesses only ruled the southern parts of Egypt during Seti IIs reign. If this is true, he may have been a vizier over Nubia named Messui during the time of Merneptah, but this theory has recently been called into question. There has even been speculation that a queen Ti'a, supposed mother of Saptah, the penultimate ruler of the dynasty, may have been a wife of Amenmeses, thus making him the father of the successor to Sety II as part of a rival dynastic branch. It should also be noted that Amenmesses usurped a number of preexisting monuments himself, and though we now believe that tomb KV 10 in the Valley of the Kings was originally began by this king, little other building work exists. Inscriptions bearing his name are mostly only found in Upper Egyptian sites, primarily in the Theban region and in Nubia. These include inscriptions at Karnak, a dedication inscription at the small temple at Medinet Habu, an inscriptions at a chapel at Deir el-Medine and a stela found at Buhen. Perhaps as many as six quartzite statues originally placed along the axis of the hypostyle hall in the Amun Temple at Karnak are thought to be his, though these were also usurped (in the name of Seti II). However, one of these statues thought to belong to Amenmesses has an inscription bearing the title, "the Great Royal Wife" Takhat, lending support to the argument that she actually was his wife. Amenmesses was also, among others, responsible for restoration work on a barque shrine dating from Tuthmosis III that stands before a small temple at Tod. The Tomb of Amenmesses (KV 10) Amenmesses' tomb cannot be visited as it is being excavated, and unless some sort of amazing recovery process is discovered, it may never be a popular tourist attraction. The tomb, located in the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes) is mostly incomplete, and much of its decorations have been destroyed. The tomb has been known since antiquity, and there are signs that it has been visited from classical times. Pococke noted it on hs map of the area in 1743 and it was examined by Burton and Hays, Champollion, Lepsius and Wilkinson during the early 19th century. The decorations of the tomb were mostly recorded and published by Edgene Lefebure in 1883. In the excavation season of 1907 Edward Ayrton used the tomb's corridor as a dinning or work room. However, full scale investigation of the tomb is currently underway by Otto Schaden as a project of the University of Arizona and the University of Memphis. There is little doubt that the results will shed light on this dim corner of Egyptian history. It would seem though, at the moment, that we still do not know whether Amenmesses was ever interred here, or the actual relationship he might have had with Takhat and Baketwerel, for whom part of the tomb was redecorated. The tomb is a fairly simple affair, and as stated, unfinished. Three descending corridors lead down to a room where the ritual shaft was to be dug, but never was. Within these corridors, we find scenes of king Amenmesses (destroyed) before Re-Horakhty, passages (scenes) from the Litany of Re, the Amduat and in the well room, a scene of Takhat making offerings before deities. After the shaft room, where the tomb becomes level, is the first four pillared hall, with several more scenes. They include Baketwerel making offerings before the gods, and scenes from the Book of the Dead. To the west of the four pillared hall is an unfinished annex. The ceiling of this chamber has been penetrated by the tomb of Ramesses III (KV 11). The original decorative program of the tomb never reached beyond the four pillared hall, though up to that point it was almost identical to that found in the tomb of Merenptah (KV 8). Later, the outer corridors, shaft room and four pillared hall were plastered over and redecorated for Takhat and Baketwere, who we know were royal women. We just do not know their exact position in regards to their son and husband, because the redecoration calls into question their relationship to Amenmesses. Some of this later decoration has fallen off, so that now we find some of the original and some of the later decorations. After the four pillared hall there is another corridor leading to the burial chamber. However, the burial chamber is in reality another corridor that was adapted as for this purpose. There were three mummies found within the tomb including those of two women and a man. They have never been identified. However, fragments of canopic jars and part of a red granite sarcophagus lid, usurped itself from someone named Anketemheb, both inscribed with the name of Takhat, probably indicate that at least she was buried here, so one of the mummies may be hers. Little else has been found (and at least reported at this time). Much of what was found within the tomb was actually intrusive, including fragmentary shabti figures from Seti I, sarcophagus fragments of Ramesses VI and a few other items.

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Amenmesse in Wikipedia

Amenmesse (also Amenmesses or Amenmose) was the 5th ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt, possibly the son of Merneptah and Queen Takhat. Others consider him to be one of the innumerable sons of Ramesses II. Very little is known about this king, who ruled Egypt for only three to four years. Various Egyptologists date his reign between 1202 BC–1199 BC[4] or 1203 BC–1200 BC[5] with others giving an accession date of 1200 BC[6]. Amenmesse means "born of or fashioned by Amun" in Egyptian. Additionally, his nomen can be found with the epithet Heqa-waset, which means "Ruler of Thebes".[7] His royal name was Menmire Setepenre. Usurper - It is likely that he was not Merneptah's intended heir. Some scholars such as Kenneth Kitchen and Jürgen von Beckerath follow the traditional view that Amenmesse usurped the throne from Seti-Merneptah, Merneptah's son and Crown Prince who should have been next in line to the royal succession. It is unclear why this should have happened. Kitchen has written that Amenmesse may have taken advantage of a momentary weakness of Seti-Merneptah or seized power while the crown prince was away in Asia. Seti-Merneptah was most likely the same man as king Seti II, whose reign was traditionally thought to have followed upon Amenmesse's reign. The cartouches of Seti II's tomb in Upper Egypt were deliberately erased and then repainted, suggesting that Seti's rule in Upper Egypt was temporarily interrupted by agents of his half-brother. Confusion generally clouds Amenmesse's reign and location within the Egyptian 19th Dynasty. However, an increasing number of Egyptologists today such as Rolf Krauss and Aidan Dodson maintain that Seti II was in fact the immediate successor of Merneptah "without any intervening rule by Amenmesse."[8] Under this scenario, Amenmesse did not succeed Merneptah on the throne of Egypt and was rather a rival king who usurped power sometime during Years 2 to 4 of Seti II's reign in Upper Egypt and Nubia where his authority is monumentally attested.[9] Amenmesse was documented in power at Thebes during his third and fourth year(and perhaps earlier in Nubia) where Seti II's Year 3 and Year 4 are noticeably unaccounted for.[10] The treatment of Amenmesse as a rival king also best explains the pattern of destruction to Seti II's tomb which was initially ransacked and later restored again by Seti II's officials. This implies that the respective reigns of Amenmesse and Seti II were parallel to one another; Seti II must have initially controlled Thebes in his first and second years during which time his tomb was excavated and partly decorated. Then Seti was ousted from power in Upper Egypt by Amenmesse whose agents desecrated Seti II's tomb. Seti would finally defeat his rival Amenmesse and return to Thebes in triumph whereupon he ordered the restoration of his damaged tomb. Rolf Krauss, followed by Aidan Dodson, suggests that Amenmesse was once a Kushite Viceroy called Messuwy.[11] In particular, two representations of Messuwy on the temple of Amida allegedly shows that a royal uraeus had been added to his brows in a way consistent with other pharaohs such as Horemheb, Merenptah and some of the sons of Rameses III. Also an inscription at the temple of Amada also calls him "the king's son himself" but this may be merely a figure of speech to emphasize Messuwy's high stature as Viceroy under Merneptah. However, Frank Yurco notes that various depictions of Messuwy in several Nubian temples were never deliberately defaced by Seti II's agents compared to the damnatio memoriae meted out to all depictions of another Viceroy of Kush, Kha-em-ter, who had served as Amenmesse's Vizier.[12] This strongly implies that Seti II held no grudge against Messuwy which would be improbable if Messuwy was indeed Amenmesse.[13] Yurco also observes that the only objects from Messuwy's tomb which identified a Pharaoh all named only Merneptah, Seti II's father which leads to the conclusion that Messuwy died and was buried in his tomb at Aniba, Nubia during Merneptah's reign, and could not be Amenmesse.[14] There has also been a suggestion that the story of the "Tale of Two Brothers", first attested during the reign of Seti II, may contain a veiled reference to the struggle between Amenmesse and Seti II. The records of a court case early in the reign of Seti II also throw some light on the matter. Papyrus Salt 124 records that Neferhotep, one of the two chief workmen of the Deir el-Medina necropolis, had been killed during the reign of Amenmesse (the king's name is written as 'Msy' in the document).[15] Neferhotep was replaced by Paneb his adopted son, against whom many crimes were alleged by Neferhotep's brother Amennakhte in a strongly worded indictment preserved on a papyrus in the British Museum. If Amennakhte's allegations can be trusted, Paneb had stolen stone for the embellishment of his own tomb from that of Seti II in the course of its completion, besides purloining or damaging other property belonging to that monarch. Also he had allegedly tried to kill Neferhotep in spite of having been educated by him, and after the chief workman had been killed by 'the enemy' had bribed the vizier Pra'emhab in order to usurp his place. Whatever the truth of these accusations, it is clear that Thebes was going through very troubled times. There are references elsewhere to a 'war' that had occurred during these years, but it is obscure to what this word alludes, perhaps to no more than internal disturbances and discontent. Neferhotep had complained of the attacks upon himself to the vizier Amenmose, presumably a predecessor of Pra'emhab, whereupon Amenmose had Paneb punished. Paneb, however, then successfully brought a complaint before 'Mose'/'Msy' whereupon the latter decided to dismiss Amenmose from office. Evidently this 'Mose'/'Msy' was a person of the highest importance here who most probably should be identified with king Amenmesse himself.[16] Family - His mother is known to be Queen Takhat, who was either a minor wife of Merneptah or a later royal wife of Ramesses II or both. Some have assumed that Twosret, wife of Seti II, was his sister, making him half-brother to Seti II. Amenmesse's wife was once thought to be a woman named Baktwerel but more recent analysis of his royal tomb proves that she was not a contemporary of this Pharaoh. As Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton state: "Contrary to what has often been asserted, the Queen Baketwerel depicted in the tomb of Amenmesse, KV10, cannot have been a wife of his. The reliefs [of the Queen] in question are secondary, carved in plaster over the mutilated decoration of the king, reflecting later usurpation of the sepulchure, probably in the 20th Dynasty."[17] Dodson suggests that Baktwerel was perhaps the wife of Ramesses IX, and that this lady later usurped Amenmesse's tomb and added her own scenes and inscriptions there (Dodson 1987). Six quartzite statues originally placed along the axis of the hypostyle hall in the Amun Temple at Karnak are thought to be his, although these were defaced and overwritten with the name of Seti II [18]. One of these statues, with the inscription, "the Great Royal Wife Takhat", lends credence to the argument that a Takhat was Amenmesse's wife. Amenmesse was also responsible for restoring a shrine dating from Thutmose III that stands before a temple at Tod. There is confusion about the events surrounding his death. His mummy was not amongst those found in the cache at Deir el Bahri, and from the destruction of his tomb in the Valley of the Kings, it is assumed that Seti II took revenge upon his usurping half-brother. Aftermath - Amenmesse was buried in a rock-cut tomb in the Valley of the Kings which is now identified as Tomb KV10. However, almost all of its texts and scenes were either erased or usurped by Seti II's agents. No mention of Amenmesse was spared.[19][20] A number of officials associated with Amenmesse were also attacked or replaced, chief among them being the Theban High Priest of Amun, Roma-Roy, and Kha-em-ter, a former viceroy of Kush.[21] Amenmmesse's tomb was also opened in antiquity. While the remains of three mummies were found in this tomb, two women and one man, it is uncertain if any of these remains belong to Amenmesse, Takhat or the later Baketwerel without further testing or whether they were later intrusions. It seems more likely, however, that Seti II had Amenmesse's remains desecrated since his mummy was never found "in either of the two great caches of royal mummies found in 1881 and 1901" [22] Surviving inscriptions mentioning Takhat's name along with the wall inscriptions suggest she was buried in Amenmesse's tomb. Artifacts from the tombs of Seti I and Rameses VI were also found in the KV10 tomb adding to the uncertainty. After his death, Seti II also conducted a damnatio memoriae campaign against the memory of Amenmesse's Vizier, Kha-em-ter. Egyptologist Frank Yurco notes that Seti II's agents erased all of Kha-em-ter's depictions and inscriptions – even those that Kha-em-ter had inscribed when he served as a Viceroy in Nubia.[23] It is possible that Siptah, the Pharaoh who succeeded Seti II was the son of Amenmesse and not of Seti II. A statue of Siptah in Munich shows the Pharaoh seated in the lap of another, clearly his father. The statue of the father, however, has been completely destroyed. Dodson writes: "The only ruler of the period who could have promoted such destruction was Amenmesse, and likewise he is the only king whose offspring required such explicit promotion. The destruction of this figure is likely to have closely followed the fall of Bay or the death of Siptah himself, when any short-lived rehabilitation of Amenmesse will have ended"[24]. Rolf Krauss[25] finds that there are a number of points between the story of Amenmesse and Biblical story of Moses in Egypt.

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Seti II (Userkheperuresetepenre) in Tour Egypt

SETI II AND HIS TOMB (KV15) IN THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS by Mark Andrews & Jimmy Dunn King Seti II Seti II was probably the fifth or sixth king of Egypt's 19th Dynasty, depending on the treatment we give Amenmessses who may have ruled before, concurrently or even after him (though that is less likely). Seti (mer-en-ptah) was this king's birth name, meaning "He of the god Seti, Beloved of Ptah". He is also sometimes referred to by his Greek name, Sethos II. His throne name was User-kheperu-re Setep-en-re, meaning "Powerful are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re" It was not unusual in ancient Egypt for the successful, long reign of a king to be followed by succession problems. Of course, few kings had a longer, more successful reign than Ramesses II, and when he died, he left a son who was now old himself as the new King. This was Merneptah, who was almost certainly the father of Seti II. We believe that an usurper named Amenemesses probably ruled either before him, or concurrently with Seti II during the early part of his rule. It may have been Amenemesses who erased the name of Seti II in his tomb and elsewhere, but it was likewise Seti II who probably did likewise to the names and images of Amenemesses after taking complete control of Egypt. We believe that Seti may have only reigned for about six years, from about 1199 until 1193 BC. We do know that Seti II took at least three wives, consisting of Takhat II, Tausret and Tiaa (Sutailja??). Tausret apparently was the mother of his oldest son and heir named Seti-Merenptah, but that child did not live to inherit the throne. Instead, it was Siptah, a younger son who replaced the king, though probably only as a child under Tausret's regency even though his mother is considered to have been Queen Tiaa. In fact, Tausret appears to have outlived this young king, taking full possession of the throne herself with full royal titles much as Hatshepsut had done some 300 years earlier. Seti II's reign was apparently relatively peaceful. We have no evidence of foreign policy during his reign, though there was probably activity at the mines around Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai. He made a number of claims regarding building projects, though there is little indication that his words translate into physical accomplishments. We find surviving trances of his work at Hermopolis, where he apparently finished some decorations in his grandfather's, Ramesses II, temple. He also did some work in Karnak, where he was probably responsible for a new way station of the sacred barks in the First Court of the temple of Amun-Re, and he probably also completed some work in the temple of Mut. KV15, the Tomb of Seti II KV15, the tomb of Seti II, has been known since antiquity and must have lied open during most of the classical period, judging from the 59 Greek and Latin graffiti found on its walls. The tomb was investigated superficially by Pococke, along with others who followed after him. However, it was Howard Carter who cleared most of the tomb between 1903 and 1904,though apparently the ritual well was never excavated. One may find the entrance to KV15, rather than having steps cut below a retaining wall, directly quarried into the base of an almost vertical cliff face at the head of the wadi running south west from the main Valley of the Kings on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes). However, at present the tomb has been temporarily closed to allow the installation of new flooring, hand rails and lighting. It is expected to soon. The history of the tomb is really unknown at this time. It is very likely that Seti II may have originally been buried with his wife, Tausret, in her tomb and later moved to this tomb which appears to have been hastily and incompletely finished, by Sethnakht (Setakht). In fact, the tomb may have originally been started for Seti II but the work interrupted at some point. This may have had to do with the reign of Amenmeses, if that king ruled concurrently with Seti II rather than before him. It appears that within the tomb, Seti's name was carved, erased, and then carved out once again. The erasure may be attributable to Amenmeses, or possibly to Saptah. It has been suggested that his wife Tausert then had her husband's name restored. The tomb, which takes a Northwest to Southeast axis, consists of a short entryway corridor followed by three long corridors in turn followed by a well room. The well room then communicates with a four pillared hall and then a makeshift burial chamber, formed from what would have been another corridor, where the king's sarcophagus was located. This tomb is literally a straight shot leading 75.38 meters into the cliff face with only a mild descent for the most part leading about 6.53 meters deep, and with no lateral rooms. However, a rectangular niche on the right side of the pillared hall may mark the location where the usual annex would have been cut. Missing also is the high trapezoidal niches often found at the beginning of the third corridor. Much of the painted decoration is intact and the plaster appears to be relatively stable. None of the well-preserved relief was ever painted. Breaks in the surface of the walls have recently been filled in by Antiquities Inspectorate restorers. Due to the hurried completion of the tomb, decorations in clearly take two forms. While those in the initial part of the tomb are well formed using both sunk and raised reliefs, they give way to less accomplished work executed in paint only deeper within the tomb, with the four pillared hall being the only exception. There, the decorations again revert to sunk reliefs, though paint was not always applied. In some of the deepest corridors, only preliminary sketches were made on the plaster surface. Throughout the tomb, even including the first corridor where we find the raised and sunk reliefs, there are stylistic differences within the craftsmanship of the work that might suggest the use of different artisans. While the tomb may have been unfinished, unusually, the walls of the entrance were carefully smoothed and covered with a layer of white plaster, as elsewhere within the tomb. However, no decorative theme was applied to the entrance and entrance corridor walls. However, in the next, longer corridor (Corridor One) on the doorway lintel is depicted the kneeling goddesses Isis and Nephthys, and between them a sun disk with a scarab and a ram headed god. Inscribed on the jambs of the doorway are the names of Seti II with an image of Ma'at, also shown kneeling. Within this corridor, are depictions of Seti II making offerings to Re-Horakhty and offering vases to Nefertem followed by the initial passages of the Litany of Re on the east wall. The scene of Seti II and Nefertem were cut over the original opening vignette of the Litany of Ray which was then reinscribed further down the corridor. On the west wall are scenes of Sokar and Seti II making offerings of incense and libations to Re-Horakhty. The remainder of the corridor continues with the tests of the Litany of Re. On the ceiling of this corridor we find painted flying vultures, some with the head of a cobra and not completely painted. Between the vultures the king's name is inscribed, and along the edges of the ceiling are texts relating to Osiris and Re-Horakhty. The scenes on the next two corridors are oriented towards the rear of the tomb on the eastern walls, while on the west they run towards the tomb's entrance. Over the outer lintel of the second corridor is found a winged disk, while on the doorjambs the Litany of Re is continued. On the walls within this corridor, the decorative theme is executed in red, preliminary sketches only. On the east wall we find Seti II making offerings to Re-Horakhty, while on the west wall he makes an offering to Sokar. The remainder of this corridor continues with sections of the Litany of Re, including the 75 forms of the sun god. Further on, we also find the second and third hours of the Amduat on both the east and west walls. In this corridor, the ceiling once again portrays Isis and Nephthys, this time as kites, on either side of a sun disk containing the ram headed bird representing the ba (soul) of Re. This scene is followed by more text from the Litany of Re. Stars were to have filled the remainder of the ceiling, but were never completely rendered. The outer lintel of the third corridor is decorated with a winged disk, while on the door jams we find the names and a depiction of Seti II. Within this corridor, the east wall is inscribed with representations from the fourth hour of the Amduat, while the west wall depicts the fifth hour. Within the well room (ritual shaft) the niches at the entrance are, for the first time, fully cut. Here, an innovation is the depiction of various divine statues, many imitations of actual wooden figures similar to those found in the tomb of Tutankhamun. Normally we would find the depiction of protective deities such as the Four Sons of Horus and the related goddesses, but for unexplained reasons these figures have been omitted. Left: Double scene of Seti II making offerings The walls within the four pillared chamber are rendered with the fourth and fifth divisions of the Book of Gates. On the rear wall is a double scene of Seti II offering an image of Ma'at and two vases to Osiris. Here, the pillars depict Seti II, Horus-Iwn-mutef, Ptah, who is in a shrine, along with other deities. The innovative decorations on the pillars, which have only one figure on each side and two adjacent sides forming a "scene, was a development used consistently from this time forward.Finally, in the makeshift burial chamber are several registers. The upper of these contain images of Anubis the jackal on a shrine and two rows of deities representing the followers of Re and Osiris. On the lower registers are scenes of mummified figures on snake style beds representing the fifth division of the Book of Gates. Along the length of the ceiling is Nut, with down swept wings, and above her head perhaps the remains of depictions of ba of Re. James Burton tells us that: "It seems they bought in the body before the tomb was finished and then went on working - a large figure of a Deity with outspread wings painted on the ceiling of above the sarcophagus - very rough. Some beautifully drawn figures of the king in red lines." Not much in the way of funerary equipment was discovered within this tomb, and the body of Seti II had been removed during antiquity to the tomb of Amenhotep II (KV35), along with the mummies of other royalty, for safe keeping. Fragments of his red granite sarcophagus lid were present within this tomb, but no trance of the actual box was ever discovered. These fragments remain in the tomb, and have been restored and placed on supports so as to suggest the original appearance of the sarcophagus. On the top of this sarcophagus is an Osirian depiction of Seti II, while the goddess Nut stretches across the reverse side. Unfortunately, the top of the lid is missing, along with the face of the king. However, the head of the goddess Nut is now in the Egyptian collection at the Louvre in Paris. Because this is the smallest of any New Kingdom sarcophagus ever discovered, it has been suggested by Aidan Dodson that it might in fact have been meant to nest within a larger sarcophagus, similar to that of Ramesses III.

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Seti II in Wikipedia

Seti II (or Sethos II), was the fifth ruler of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt and reigned from 1203 BC - 1197 BC. His throne name, Userkheperure Setepenre, meant "Powerful are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen by Re.'[3] He was the son of Merneptah and wife Isisnofret and sat on the throne during a period known for dynastic intrigue and short reigns, and his rule was no different. Seti II had to deal with many serious plots, most significantly being the accession of a rival king named Amenmesse, possibly a half brother, who seized control over Thebes and Nubia in Upper Egypt during his second to fourth regnal years. Contest for the throne - Evidence that Amenmesse was a direct contemporary with Seti II's rule-rather than Seti II's immediate predecessor-includes the fact that Seti II's royal KV13 tomb at Thebes was deliberately vandalised with many of Seti's royal names being carefully erased here during his reign.[4] The erasures were subsequently repaired by Seti II's agents. This suggests that Seti II's reign at Thebes was interrupted by the rise of a rival: king Amenmesse in Upper Egypt.[5] Secondly, the German scholar Wolfgang Helck has shown that Amenmesse is only attested in Upper Egypt by several Year 3 and a single Year 4 ostracas here; Helck also noted that no Year 1 or Year 2 ostracas from Deir El Medina could legitimately be assigned to Amenmesse's reign.[6] This conforms well with the clear evidence of Seti II's control over Thebes in his first two years which is documented by various documents and papyri. In contrast, Seti II is absent from Upper Egypt during his third and fourth years which are notably unattested here-presumably because Amenmesse controlled this region during this time.[7] Finally, and most importantly, it is well known that the chief foreman of Deir el-Medina, a certain Neferhotep, was killed in the reign of king Amenmesse on the orders of a certain 'Msy' who was either Amenmesse himself or one of this king's agents, according to Papyrus Salt 124.[8] However, the chief workman Neferhotep is attested in office in the work register list of Ostraca MMA 14.6.217 which also recorded Seti II's accession to the throne and was later reused to register worker's absence from work under this king's reign.[9] If Seti II's 6 year reign followed that of the usurper Amenmesse, then this chief foreman would not have been mentioned in a document which dated to the start of Seti II's reign since Neferhotep was already dead.[10] This indicates that the reigns of Amenmesse and Seti II must have partly overlapped with one another and suggests that both rulers were rivals who were fighting each another for the throne of Egypt. During the second to fourth years of Amenmesse/Seti II's parallel reigns, Amenmesse gained the upper hand and seized control over Upper Egypt and Nubia; he ordered Seti II's tomb in the Valley of the Kings to be vandalised. Prior to his fifth year, however, Amenmesse was finally defeated by his rival, Seti II who was the legitimate successor to the throne since he was Merneptah's son. Seti II, in turn, launched a damnatio memoriae campaign against all inscriptions and monuments belonging to both Amenmesse and this king's chief supporters in Thebes and Nubia which included a certain Khaemter, a former Viceroy of Kush, who had served as Amenmesse's Vizier. Seti II's agents completely erased both scenes and texts from KV10, the royal tomb of Amenmesse.[11] Vizier Khaemter's scenes in Nubia which were carved when he served as the Viceroy of Kush were so thoroughly erased that until Rolf Krauss' and Labib Habachi's articles were published in the 1970s[12], his career here as viceroy was almost unknown notes Frank J. Yurco.[13] Reign - Seti II promoted Chancellor Bay to become his most important state official and built 3 tombs – KV13, KV14, and KV15 – for himself, his Senior Queen Twosret and Bay in the Valley of the Kings. This was an unprecedented act on his part for Bay, who was of Syrian descent and was not connected by marriage or blood ties to the royal family. Due to the relative brevity of his reign, Seti's tomb was unfinished at the time of his death. Twosret later rose to power herself after the death of Siptah, Seti II's successor. According to a graffito written in the first corridor of Twosret's KV14 tomb, Seti II was buried in his KV15 tomb on "Year 1, IV Peret day 11" of Siptah.[14] Seti II's earliest prenomen in his First Year was 'Userkheperure Setepenre'[15] which is written above an inscription of Messuwy, a Viceroy of Nubia under Merneptah, on a rock outcropping at Bigeh Island. However, Messuwy's burial in Tomb S90 in Nubia has been discovered to contain only funerary objects naming Merneptah which suggests that 1) Messuwy may have died during Merneptah's reign and 2) Seti II merely associated himself with an official who had actively served his father as Viceroy of Kush. Seti II soon changed his royal name to 'Userkheperure Meryamun', which was the most common form of his prenomen. Two important papyri date from the reign of Seti II. The first of these is the Tale of Two Brothers, a fabulous story of troubles within a family on the death of their father, which may have been intended in part as political satire on the situation of the two half brothers. The second is the records of the trial of Paneb. Neferhotep, one of the two chief workmen of the Deir el Medina necropolis, had been replaced by Paneb, his troublesome son-in-law. Many crimes were alleged by Neferhotep's brother-Amennakhte-against Paneb in a violently worded indictment preserved in papyrus now in the British Museum. If Amennakhte's testimony can be trusted, Paneb had allegedly stolen stone from the tomb of Seti II while still working on its completion-for the embellishment of his own tomb-besides purloining or damaging other property belonging to that monarch. Paneb was also accused of trying to kill Neferhotep, his adopted father-in-law, despite being educated by the latter and after the murder of Neferhotep by 'the enemy,' Paneb had reportedly bribed the Vizier Pra'emhab in order to usurp his father's office. Whatever the truth of these accusations, it is clear that Thebes was going through very troubled times. There are references elsewhere to a 'war' that had occurred during these years, but it is obscure to what this word alludes, perhaps to no more than internal disturbances and discontent. Neferhotep had complained of Paneb's attacks on himself to the vizier Amenmose, presumably a predecessor of Pra'emhab, whereupon Amenmose had punished Paneb. This trouble-maker had then brought a complaint before 'Mose' (ie: 'Msy'), who then acted to remove Pra'emhab from his office. Evidently this 'Mose' must have been a person of the highest importance, perhaps the king Amenmesse himself or a senior ally of the king. Seti II also expanded the copper mining at Timna in Edom, building an important temple to Hathor the cow goddess in the region. Abandoned in the late Bronze Age collapse, where a part of the temple seems to have been used by Midianite nomads, linked to the worship of a bronze serpent discovered in the area.[16] Seti II also founded a station for a barge on the courtyard in front of the pylon II at Karnak, and chapels of Theban triad – Amun, Mut and Khonsu. Wives and Treasure - Seti II had three Queens in all: Twosret, possibly his half sister, Takhat and Tiaa, his third wife. Twosret is known to have survived him since she later served as Siptah's queen regent before she succeeded to the throne in her own right. Her name is recorded in Manetho's Epitome as a certain 'Thuoris' who is assigned a reign of 7 years. In January 1908, the Egyptologist Edward R. Ayrton, in an excavation conducted for Theodore M. Davis, discovered a small burial in tomb KV56 which Davis referred to as 'The Gold Tomb' in his publication of the discovery in the Valley of the Kings; it proved to contain a small cache of jewellry that featured the name of Seti II.[17] A sets of "earrings, finger-rings, bracelets, a series of necklace ornaments and amulets, a pair of silver 'gloves' and a tiny silver sandal" were found within this tomb.[18]

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Siptah (Akhenresetepenre) in Tour Egypt

KING SIPTAH AND HIS TOMB IN THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS by Mark Andrews King Siptah Siptah (mer-en-ptah), who's name means "Son of Ptah, Beloved of Ptah, was the son of Seti II and Queen Tiaa. This throne name was Akh-en-re Setep-en-re, meaning Beautiful for Re, Chosen by Re. Apparently he was not very chosen, for he suffered the deformity of a club foot. His reign lasted from about 1193 until 1187 BC. Like his father we know precious little about Siptah, though perhaps, there is little for us to know. He was probably the seventh ruler of Egypt's 19th Dynasty, though in fact he may have never actually ruled at all. He was questionably the second son of Seti II, by Tiaa, a relatively minor queen, and came to the throne because his older brother, Seti-Merenptah, died prior to the death of Seti II. However, he apparently inherited the throne while still a minor and it was his stepmother, Tausret, along with her Chancellor ("kingmaker" Bay) who actually controlled Egypt during the kings short life. Siptah seems to have died in the 6th year of his reign, after which his stepmother took full royal titles. Like his father, or perhaps even because of his father, his tomb was entered shortly after his death and his cartouches were erased, though they were subsequently restored, possibly by Chancellor Bay but that is by no means proven. Besides his tomb number KV47 in the Valley of the Kings, Siptah is also attested to by the Bilgar stele, the burial of an Apis bull dated to the king, and an inscription at Buhen. KV47, the Tomb of Siptah KV47 was discovered by Edward Ayrton on December 18th, 1905 while working for Theodore Davis. However, he noted that the debris in the entrance had been partially dug out, creating a passage that subsequently filled back up. In addition, he felt, because of the bad condition of the rock, that the likelihood of finding anything of interest would be slim. Therefore, he only excavated partially down to the antechamber. Later, beginning in 1912, Harry Burton excavated the tomb for Davis, mostly working between the four pillared chamber and up to and including the the burial chamber. Yet the tomb was never really completely cleared until 1994. In addition, Howard Carter cleared the area around the tomb in 1922, discovering a few objects belonging to this tomb. In the summer of 1994, the local Antiquities Inspectorate cleared what Burton left behind, as well as performing restoration and repair work so that the tomb could be opened for tourists. This work included cleaning and repairing reliefs, filling in gaps with plaster, fixing damaged doorways and the lintels in several chambers, as well as replacing substantially damaged pillars with limestone blocks. They laid down wood floors for walkways, and erected glass panels over painted decorations, and also installed a lighting system. From these excavations it would appear that Siptah and possibly his mother, Queen Tiaa, a minor wife of Seti II, were both originally buried in the tomb. The evidence suggesting his mother was also buried in this tomb mostly consists of fragmentary calcite canopic equipment, along with a model coffin inscribed with the name of Tiaa and several ostraca found by Carter. The tomb is found on the north face of a hill that divides the southeast and southwest branches of the central wadi within the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes). It is oriented north-south running fairly straight for a distance of 114.04 meters into the hill, reaching a depth of about 13.12 meters. Though the first part of this tomb structure closely follows that of his father, Seti II, the rear sections are somewhat unusual. The initial opening corridor leading into the tomb is in the open air, and consists of a central ramp with two stairways of cut stone blocks imbedded into the bedrock to either side of the ramp. The first true corridor descends, leading to a second level corridor. Here, we find a pair of beam slots used for lowering the sarcophagus. This corridor gives way to a third corridor that, like the first, descends once more. At the rear of this corridor are a pair of rectangular niches. Afterwards, we find the well room that lacks a shaft, followed by a four pillared chamber The tomb continues through the pillared chamber with a descending passage that leads into the first of two more level corridors before communicating with an antechamber. Normally, we might expect to find a corridor followed by a stairway before the antechamber. A final wider corridor leads past two abandoned lateral corridors before giving way into the unfinished, transverse burial chamber. Here, a granite sarcophagus is set into an roughly finished rectangular niche in the floor just behind a transverse row of four pillars. The abandoned lateral corridors may have been meant to give into a burial chamber or storage annexes, but this work was stopped after the a corridor broke into the nearby tomb, KV32. The openings were then sealed with limestone slabs. Do to successive floods, no decorations remain beyond the first four pillared chamber, and little exist beyond the second, level corridor. In addition, this tomb also suffered the fate of KV15, having the cartocuhes of the tomb owner removed, and later re- carved. However, here, we have little idea who originally destroyed the cartouches, or for that matter, who later restored them, though the process probably revolved around the rivalry of Ramesses II's descendents and their quest for the throne after the death of Merenptah. On the lintel above the doorway to the first true corridor we find the usual scene depicting a scarab and ram headed god flanked by Isis and Nephthys. On the outer thickness and reveals of the door jambs are found the name of the deceased king, along with inscribed prayers to the sun god and Osiris. On the inner thickness of the door jambs is a depiction of the goddess Ma'at, winged and kneeling on baskets supported by the heraldic plants of Upper and Lower Egypt. Inside this corridor on the northeast wall is a fairly well preserved depiction of Siptah addressing Re-Horakhty followed by the opening lines of the Litany of Re. Further text and scenes from these passages, including a scene of Anubis before the bier of Osiris, fill the remainder of this wall, the opposite wall, and then flow into the next corridor. On the ceiling of this first corridor we also find representations of a series of flying vultures. Within the next (second), level corridor, along with the text from the Litany of Re, are found the 74 forms of Re giving way to two scenes from spell 151 of the Book of the Dead. On the ceiling of this corridor is found the best preserved depiction of Isis and Nephthys as kites to either side of the soul of Re. Beyond this, mostly only traces of decorations exist. For example, on the inner thickness of the door jamb into the next descending passage appears the winged figure of Ma'at, but few details are visible. Only fragmentary painted plaster reveal that the forth and fifth hours of the Amduat were once painted upon this corridor's walls. After the well room on the back wall of the four pillared chamber, we can just barely make out a fragment of plaster that once portrayed the god Osiris in a shrine. This was probably once a double scene of Siptah making offerings to the god of the underworld, as found in other tombs in the Valley. While no other decorations survive in this tomb, there are a few red painted mason's guidelines indicating a doorway that was never cut into the west wall of the pillared chamber. It would have probably led to an annex. In addition, we may also make out four pairs of vertical red lines that would have marked the location for a second row of pillars within the burial chamber. The only material item of funerary equipment found within KV47 was the red granite outer sarcophagus of Siptah. It is shaped like a cartouche, with the image of the king carved into the upper surface of the lid. He is flanked by figures of Isis and Nephthys and surrounded by a crocodile, a snake and a pair of cobras with human heads and arms. The sarcophagus box is decorated with alternating triple khekher-ornaments and recumbent jackals surmounting a register of underworld demons. This was a new composition that subsequently was used by other kings on their sarcophagi through the reign of Ramesses VI. Interestingly, there was no destruction of Siptah's name on his sarcophagus. Otherwise, only fragmentary funerary equipment was discovered, including a calcite inner mummform sarcophagus decorated with passages from the Book of Gates and the Amduat, along with calcite canopic equipment for Siptah and his mother, calcite shabtis figures for Siiptah, and possibly a sarcophagus for queen Tiaa. All of these calcite fragments are now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in the US. Burton discovered bones within Siptah's sarcophagus, but it is now believed that this was an intrusive burial, probably of the Third Intermediate Period. In fact, Siptah's mummy has been identified as one of those moved to the cache in tomb KV35 belonging to Amenhotep II. This tomb is currently open to the public.

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Siptah in Wikipedia

Akhenre Setepenre Siptah or Merneptah Siptah was the penultimate ruler of the 19th Dynasty and the son of an obscure Queen named Sutailja, of Asiatic origin. His father's identity is currently unknown. Both Seti II and Amenmesse have been suggested. He was not the crown prince, but succeeded to the throne as a child after the death of Seti II. His accession date occurred on II Peret day 2 around the month of December. Origins - Historically, it was believed that Queen Tiaa, a wife of Seti II, was the mother of Siptah.[3] This view persisted until it was eventually realized that a relief in the Louvre Museum (E 26901) "pairs Siptah's name together with the name of his mother" a certain Sutailja or Shoteraja.[4] Sutailja was a Canaanite rather than a native Egyptian name which means that she was almost certainly a king's concubine from Canaan.[5] However, Dodson/Hilton assert that this is not correct and that the lady was, instead, the mother of Ramesses- Siptah and a wife of Ramesses II.[6] The identity of his father is currently unknown; some Egyptologists speculate it may have been Amenmesse rather than Seti II since both Siptah and Amenmesse spent their youth in Chemmis[7] and both are specifically excluded from Ramesses III's Medinet Habu procession of statues of ancestral kings unlike Merneptah or Seti II. This suggests that Amenmesse and Siptah were inter-related in such a way that they were "regarded as illegitimate rulers and that therefore they were probably father and son."[8]. A headless statue of Siptah now in Munich shows him seated on the lap of another Pharaoh, presumably his father. The British Egyptologist Aidan Dodson states "The only ruler of the period who could have promoted such destruction was Amenmesse, and likewise he was the only king whose offspring would have required such explicit promotion. The demolition of this figure is likely to have closely followed the fall of Bay or the death of Siptah himself, when any shortlived rehabilitation of Amenmesse would have ended"[9]. If Siptah was a son of Seti II, it is unlikely that he would have been considered as an illegitimate king by later 20th Dynasty New Kingdom pharaohs. Due to his youth and perhaps his problematic parentage, he was placed under the guidance of his stepmother-the queen regent Twosret.[10] Siptah ruled Egypt for almost 6 years as a young man. His stepmother and Seti II's Chief Queen, Twosret, became the Queen Regent at the Royal Court because of his relative youth. Siptah was only a child of ten or eleven years when he assumed power since a medical examination of his mummy reveals the king to have been a teenager of about 16 years old at death.[11] He was tall at 1.6 metres and had curly reddish brown hair while his left foot was severely deformed presumably from polio[12] Reign - Chancellor Bay publicly boasts that he was instrumental in installing Siptah on the throne in several inscriptions including an Aswan stela set up by Seti, the Viceroy of Kush[13] and at Gebel el-Silsila.[14][15] Bay, however, later fell out of favour at Court and last appears in public in a dated Year 4 inscription from Siptah's reign. He was executed in the fifth Year of Siptah's reign, on orders of the king himself. News of his execution was passed to the Workmen of Deir el-Medina in Ostraca IFAO 1254. This ostraca was translated and published in 2000 by Pierre Grandet in a French Egyptological journal.[16] Callendar notes that the reason for the king's message to the workmen was to notify them to cease all work on decorating Bay's tomb since Bay had now been deemed a traitor to the state.[17] Siptah himself died sometime in his 6th regnal Year. After his death, Twosret simply assumed his Regnal Years and ruled Egypt as a Queen for a brief while. Siptah was buried in the Valley of the Kings, in tomb KV47[18], but his mummy was not found there. In 1898, it was discovered along with 18 others in a mummy cache within the (KV35) tomb of Amenhotep II. An examination of Siptah's mummy reveals that he died around the age of 16 and likely suffered from polio with a severely deformed and crippled left foot.[19] The study of his tomb shows that it was conceived and planned in the same style as those of Twosret and Bay, clearly part of the same architectural design.

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Tausert (Sitremeritamun) in Tour Egypt

TAUSERT, QUEEN AND LAST PHARAOH OF THE 19TH DYNASTY BY JIMMY DUNN - As one of the few queens who ruled Egypt as Pharaoh (between 1187 and 1185 BC), it is regrettable that we have so little information on Tausert, traditionally the last ruler of Egypt's 19th Dynasty. Her name appears even in modern works in many different forms, including Twosre, Twore, Tawosret and Twosret. Her birth name appears to have been Two-sret (setep-en-mut) which means "Might Lady, Chosen of Mut". Her Throne name was Sit-re Mery-amun which means "Daughter of Re, Beloved of Amun". Tausert becomes known to us as the wife of Seti II, and apparently a very beloved wife at that, even though she was not his first. That was an honor given to a lady named Takhat II, though she apparently did not supply him with an heir. Tausert gave birth to his first born sun, Sethos Merneptah, but unfortunately he died young. It was Seti II who initially ordered her tomb to be built in the Valley of the Kings, an honor given to few queens. Upon Seti II's death, a son by what appears to be a Syrian wife, his third, named Tiaa, ascended to the throne of Egypt. His name was Ramesses-Siptah (Siptah Merenptah), but he was very young, probably in his early teens. He also suffered from a deformed left leg. It was Tausert who assumed the role of regent as the "Great Royal Wife", though it appears that for the remainder of her life, another powerful non-royal personage would perhaps be the power behind the throne. In effect, Siptah was under the double supervision of his stepmother and a certain chancellor Bay. Bay was originally the royal scribe of Seti II, and is thought to have also been of Syrian decent. If tradition is to be believed, Bay seduced the pharaoh's widow, who then gave him total control of Egypt's treasury. Siptah held the throne of Egypt for approximately six years before his death, when Tausert formally ascended the throne of Egypt herself. In fact, in the fifth year of Siptah's rule, Tausert elevated herself considerably, taking full royal titles as Hatshepsut had done several hundred years in the past. However, it is believed that Bay continued to largely rule in the background. Her reign was short, lasting perhaps two years. While little is known of this time, we do believe that campaigns were waged in the Sinai and Palestine, and there is evidence of her building work at Heliopolis, where a statue of the queen was found as well as at Thebes. At Thebes, she constructed a mortuary temple discovered by William Petrie to the south of the Ramesseum, and of course, continued work on her tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Her name also appears at Abydos, Hermopolis and Memphis. She was probably originally buried in her tomb in the Valley of the Kings, but this tomb was later taken by Ramesses III for his father, Setnakht. Her mummy has not been positively identified, though it has been suggested that the remains of an "Unknown Woman D" form KV 35 is that of Tausert.

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Twosret in Wikipedia

Queen Twosret (Tawosret, Tausret) was the last known ruler and the final Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty. She is recorded in Manetho's Epitome as a certain Thuoris, who in Homer is called Polybus, husband of Alcandara, and in whose time Troy was taken[2]. She was said to have ruled Egypt for seven years, but this figure included the nearly six year reign of Siptah, her predecessor.[3] Consequently, her sole independent reign would have lasted for slightly more than one full year from 1191 to 1190 BC. Her royal name, Sitre Meryamun, means "Daughter of Re, beloved of Amun."[4] Family Nothing is known about the ancestry of Queen Twosret. She was thought to be the second royal wife of Seti II, his other wife being queen Takhat. There are no known children for Twosret and Seti II, unless KV56 represents the burial of their daughter. [5] Queen, Regent and Pharaoh Theodore Davis identified the Queen and her husband in a cache of jewelry found in tomb KV56 in the Valley of the Kings. This tomb also contained objects bearing the name of Rameses II. There is no consensus about the nature of this tomb. Some (Aldred) thought this was the tomb of a daughter of Seti II and Tawosret, but others (Maspero) thought this was a cache of objects originally belonging with the tomb of Tawosret herself.[6] After her husband's death, she became first regent to Seti's heir Siptah jointly with Chancellor Bay, whom some have identified as the Irsu mentioned in the Harris Papyrus. Siptah was likely a stepson of Twosret since his mother is now known to be a certain Sutailja or Shoteraja from Louvre Relief E 26901.[7] When Siptah died, Twosret officially assumed the throne for herself, as the "Daughter of Re, Lady of Ta-merit, Twosret of Mut"[8], and assumed the role of a Pharaoh. While it was commonly believed that she ruled Egypt with the aid of Chancellor Bay, a recently published document by Pierre Grandet in a BIFAO 100(2000) paper shows that Bay was executed on Siptah's orders during Year 5 of this king's reign. The document is a hieratic ostracon or inscribed potshard and contains an announcement to the workmen of Deir El-Medina of the king's actions. No immediate reason was given to show what caused Siptah to turn against "the great enemy Bay," as the ostracon states. The recto of the document reads thus: Year 5 III Shemu the 27th. On this day, the scribe of the tomb Paser came announcing 'Pharaoh, life, prosperity, and health!, has killed the great enemy Bay'.[9] This date accords well with Bay's last known public appearance in Year 4 of Siptah. The ostraca's information was essentially a royal order for the workmen to stop all further work on Bay's tomb since the latter had now been deemed a traitor to the state.[10] Twosret's reign ended in a civil war which is documented in the Elephantine stela of her successor Setnakhte who became the founder of the Twentieth dynasty. It is not known if she was overthrown by Setnakhte or whether she died peacefully in her short reign; if the latter is the case, then a struggle must have ensued among various factions at court for the throne in which Setnakhte emerged victorious. Monuments and Inscriptions It is believed that expeditions were conducted during her reign to the turquoise mines in Sinai and in Palestine and statues have been found of her at Heliopolis and Thebes. Her name is also found at Abydos, Hermopolis, Memphis, and in Nubia. Inscriptions with Twosret's name appear in several locations: The Bilgai Stela belonged to Twosret. It records the ersection of a monument in the area of Sebennytos.[11] A pair statue of Tawosret and Siptah is now in the Munich Glyptotek (no 122). Siptah is shown seated on Twosret's lap.[11] In the temple at Amada, Twosret is depicted as a Great Royal Wife and God's Wife. [11] A statue from Heliopolis depicts Twosret and her names are inscribed with a mixture of male and female epithets. Twosret herself is depicted as a woman. [11] A cartouche of hers believed to come from Qantir in the Delta has been found Twosret and Siptah's names has been found associated with the turquoise mines at Serabit el Khadim and Timna (in the Sinai).[12] A faience vase bearing a cartouche of Twosret was found at Tell Deir Alla in Jordan.[12] Twosret constructed a Mortuary temple next to the Ramesseum, but it was never finished and was only partially excavated (by Flinders Petrie in 1897), although recent re-excavation by Richard H. Wilkinson shows it is more complex than first thought. The temple is being excavated by the Tausert Temple Project (2004 to present) . Tomb Twosret's KV14 tomb in the Valley of the Kings has a complicated history; it was started in the reign of Seti II. Scenes show Tawosret accompanying Siptah, but Siptah's name had later been replaced by that of Seti II. The tomb was then usurped by Setnakht, and extended to become the deepest royal tomb in the valley while Tawosret's sarcophagus was reused by Amenherkhepeshef in KV13. Altenmuller believes that Seti II was buried in one of the rooms in KV14 and later reburied in KV15. Others question this scenario.[13] A mummy found in KV35 and known as Unknown Woman D has been identified by some scholars as possibly belonging to Twosret, but there is no other evidence for this other than the correct Nineteenth Dynasty period of mummification. [14]

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Setakht (Userkhauremeryamun) in Tour Egypt

SETNAKHTE, THE FIRST KING OF EGYPT'S 20TH DYNASTY by Jimmy Dunn -- Setnakhte was the first king of Egypt's 20th Dynasty, the last dynasty of the New Kingdom. This is the king's birth name that, together with his epithet, mereramunre, means "Victorious is Set, Beloved of Amun Re". He is sometimes also known as Setnakht and Sethnakht. His throne name was Userkhaure Setepenre, meaning "Powerful are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen by Re". The cloud that surrounds the end of the 19th Dynasty swirls about a character known as Bay. He was a chancellor who has been referred to as the "kingmaker", for he made the claim that it was he who "established the king on the throne of his father", referring to Siptah. Indeed, he probably assisted Tausert as she ruled Egypt in the name of her stepson, Siptah. In fact, as Tausert eventually took on the full regalia of rulership after Siptah's death, it is certainly possible that Bay may have effectively ruled Egypt. Originally a scribe to Seti II, we believe that he could have been of foreign blood, perhaps Syrian. After the death of Tausert, Chancellor Bay may have even ruled Egypt for a brief period, for many Egyptologists believe that it was he who is referred to in the Papyrus Harris I as Iarsu (Irsu): "The land of Egypt was overthrown from without and every man was thrown out of his right; they had no chief for many years formerly until other times. The land of Egypt was in the hands of chiefs and of rulers of towns; one slew his neighbor great and small. Other times having come after it, with empty years, Iarsu, a certain Syrian was with them as chief. He set the whole land tributary before him together; he united his companions and plundered their possessions. They made the gods like men and no offerings were presented in the temples." Actually, the name Iarsu has the meaning, "self-made man", which would have been a derogatory way of referring to him as an usurper of the throne, and irregardless of whether Chancellor bay is one and the same as Iarsu, he had an evil reputation. However, it is interesting that he was apparently allowed a burial in the Valley of the Kings, (KV13). One way or the other though, is is very clear that Egypt suffered some amount of turmoil at the end of the 19th Dynasty. It was Setnakhte, who ended the confusion and reestablished ma'at in the Two Lands, though we know very little about him. Almost all of our information about the king is either from the Papyrus Harris I, which was written some 65 years after his death, or from a stela he had erected on the island of Elephantine dated to the second year of his reign (though it may have been the first year he was in complete control of Egypt after having settled the earlier confusion). In fact, we really have no information about how Setnakhte came to the throne, though it has been suggested that he may have been a grandson of the great king, Ramesses II. That may have been reason enough, considering that every other king of the 20th Dynasty took Ramesses as part of their names, wishing to emulate the success of their notable predecessor. However, whether he was Ramesses II's grandson or not, judging by his birth name (Setnakhte), which makes reference to Seth who was revered by the 19th Dynasty kings, there must surely have been some family connection with that earlier period. The last four pages of the Papyrus Harris I tell us that Senakhte rose to power and put down the rebellions fermented by Asiatics, telling us that it was he would relieved the besieged cities of Egypt, bought back those who had gone into hiding and reopened the temples and restored their revenue. His stela at Elephantine also relates that he expelled rebels who, on their flight, left behind the gold, silver and copper they had stolen from Egypt, and with which they had intended to hire reinforcements among the Asiatics. In reality, the dynastic change between the 19th and 20th Dynasties may not have been as much of a problem as the Papyrus Harris makes out. Setnakhte seems to have kept Hori son of Kama in office as Viceroy of Kush (a kingdom in Nubia), who was originally appointed to that position during the reign of Siptah. Another Hori, who was a vizier, was also apparently allowed to remain in office. Setnakhte's reign was short, perhaps only two or three years and he may have come to the throne fairly late in life. He was the father of Egypt's last great Egyptian King, Ramesses III by his wife, Tiymerenese. Ramesses III may have held a short co-regency with his father. Upon his death, Setnakhte was buried with full royal honors. According to the Papyrus Harris I, "he was rowed in his king's barge upon the river (crossed the Nile to the west bank), and rested in his eternal house west of Thebes". Though we are not sure of the actual reason, he was buried in the tomb that was originally excavated for Queen Twosret (KV14) on the West bank at Thebes (modern Luxor) in the Valley of the Kings. He may have usurped this tomb himself because the tomb that he had originally begun to construct for himself, KV11, had been abandoned after workers excavating it broke through into the adjacent tomb of Ameenmesses (KV10). Another possibility is that his son, Ramesses III, usurped KV14 for his father, with the intention of realigning and finishing KV11, where he was buried, for himself. Alas, Setnakhte's body was not discovered in KV14, but his coffin was found during 1898 in the royal cache in the tomb of Amenhotep II (KV35). It is possible that his body was that of an unwrapped and unidentified man discovered on a wooden boat in that tomb.

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Setnakhte in Wikipedia

Userkhaure-setepenre Setnakhte (or Setnakht) was the first Pharaoh (1190 BC–1186 BC) of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt and the father of Ramesses III. Setnakhte was not the son, brother or a direct descendant of the previous Pharaoh, Merneptah Siptah, nor of his predecessor Seti II, whom Setnakht formally considered the last legitimate ruler. It is possible that he was an usurper who seized the throne during a time of crisis and political unrest, or he could have been a member of a minor line of the Ramesside royal family who emerged as Pharaoh. He married Queen Tiy-merenese, perhaps a daughter of Merenptah. A connection between Setnakhte's successors and the preceding 19th dynasty is suggested by the fact that one of Ramesses II's children also bore this name and that similar names are shared by Setnakhte's descendants such as Ramesses, Amun-her-khepshef, Seth-her-khepshef and Monthu-her-khepshef.[2] Reign Length Setnakhte was originally believed to have enjoyed a reign of only 2 Years based upon his Year 2 Elephantine stela but his third regnal year is now attested in Inscription No.271 on Mount Sinai[3] If his theoretical accession date is assumed to be II Shemu 10 based on the date of his Elephantine stela, Setnakhte would have ruled Egypt for at least 2 Years and 11 Months before he died, or nearly 3 Full Years. This date is only 3 months removed from Twosret's Highest known date of Year 8, III Peret 5 and is based upon a calculation of Ramesses III's known accession date of I Shemu 26.[4] Peter Clayton also assigned Setnakhte a reign of 3 years in his 1994 book on the Egyptian Pharaohs.[5] In a mid-January 2007 issue of the Egyptian weekly Al-Ahram, however, Egyptian antiquity officials announced that a recently discovered and well preserved quartz stela belonging to the High Priest of Amun Bakenkhunsu was explicitly dated to Year 4 of Setnakhte's reign. The Al-Ahram article notes that this data: "contradicts...the official record, which says Setnakhte ruled Egypt for only three years. According to the new information provided by the stela, Setnakhte's reign certainly lasted for four years, and may have continued for [a little] longer."[6] Consequently, Setnakhte likely ruled Egypt for around 4 years. Zahi Hawass, the current Secretary general of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities declared the discovery to be one of the most important finds of 2006 because "it adjusts the history of the 20th dynasty and reveals more about the life of Bakenkhunsu."[6] As Setnakhte's reign was short, he may have come to the throne fairly late in life. Monuments Reliefs of Horus and Geb from tomb KV14 While Setnakhte's reign was still comparatively brief, it was just long enough for him to stabilize the political situation in Egypt and establish his son, Rameses III, as his successor to the throne of Egypt. The Bakenkhunsu stela reveals that it was Setnakhte who began the construction of a Temple of Amun-Re in Karnak which was eventually completed by his son, Ramesses III. Setnakhte also started work on a tomb, KV11, in the Valley of the Kings, but stopped it when the tombcarvers accidentally broke into the tomb of the Nineteenth Dynasty Pharaoh Amenmesse. Setnakhte then appropriated the tomb of Queen Twosret (KV14), his predecessor, for his own use. Setnakhte's origins are unknown, and he may have been a commoner, although many Egyptologists believe he was related to the previous dynasty, the Nineteenth, through his mother and may thus have been a grandson of Ramesses II. Setnakhte's son and successor, Ramesses III, is regarded as the last great king of the New Kingdom. Papyrus Harris The beginning of the Great Harris Papyrus or Papyrus Harris I, which documents the reign of Ramesses III, provides some details about Setnakhte's rise to power. An excerpt of James Henry Breasted's 1906 translation of this document is provided below: "The land of Egypt was overthrown from without, and every man was thrown out of his right; they had no "chief mouth" for many years formerly until other times. The land of Egypt was in the hands of chiefs and of rulers of towns; one slew his neighbour, great and small. Other times having come after it, with empty years, Irsu ('a self- made man'), a certain Syrian (Kharu) was with them as chief (wr). He set plundering their (i.e.: the people's) possessions. They made gods like men, and no offerings were presented in the temples. "But when the gods inclined themselves to peace, to set the land in its rights according to its accustomed manner, they established their son, who came forth from their limbs, to be ruler, LPH, of every land, upon their great throne, Userkhaure-setepenre-meryamun, LPH, the son of Re, Setnakht-merire-meryamun, LPH. He was Khepri-Set, when he is enraged; he set in order the entire land which had been rebellious; he slew the rebels who were in the land of Egypt; he cleansed the great throne of Egypt; he was ruler of the Two Lands, on the throne of Atum. He gave ready faces to those who had been turned away. Every man knew his brother who had been walled in. He established the temples in possession of divine offerings, to offer to the gods according to their customary stipulations."[7] Until 2000, Chancellor Bay was considered the only plausible candidate for this Irsu. However, an IFAO Ostracon no. 1864 found at Deir el-Medina dated to Year 5 records that 'Pharaoh (Siptah) LPH has killed the great enemy, Bay'.[8] Because Chancellor Bay died at least 3 years before this 'Irsu', he can no longer be considered a plausible candidate for this historical figure. Setnakhte's stela from Elephantine touches on this chaotic period and refers explicitly to the expulsion of certain Asiatics, who fled, abandoning the gold which they looted from Egyptian temples behind. It is uncertain the degree to which this inscription referred to contemporary events or rather repeated anti-Asiatic sentiment from the reign of Pharaoh Ahmose I. Setnakhte identified with the God Atum or Temu, and built a temple to this God at Per-Atum. Setnakhte may have been the first Pharaoh mentioned in Greek mythology. Marianne Luban[9] quotes Diodorus Siculus: "A man of obscure origin was chosen king, whom the Egyptians call 'Ketes', but who among the Greeks is thought to be that Proteus who lived at the time of the war about Ilium." Ketes, from Egyptian Khenti, means the same as Proteios, meaning "first". King Setnakht may have been a commoner or a prince of royal blood who was somehow connected to the 19th Dynasty. After his death, Setnakhte was buried in KV14 which was originally designed to be Twosret's royal tomb.

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Ramesses III (Usermaatremeryamun) in Tour Egypt

RAMESSES III, EGYPT'S LAST, GREAT PHARAOH BY JIMMY DUNN Over the some three thousand years of Egyptian history during the Pharaonic Period only a handful of the several hundred who ruled Egypt (or part of Egypt) can be considered truly great kings. Of these, Ramesses III, who was the second ruler of Egypt's 20th Dynasty, was the last of great pharaohs on the throne. His reign was a time of considerable turmoil throughout the Mediterranean that saw the Trojan War, the fall of Mycenae and a great surge of displaced people from all over the region that was to reek havoc; even toppling some empires. Ramesses was this king's birth name, as it was for most of the 20th Dynasty rulers who appear to have wished to emulate the great Ramesses II of the 19th Dynasty. Ramesses means, "Re has fashioned him" A second (epithet) part of his birth name was heqaiunu, which means "Ruler of Heliopolis" There are any number of ways that Egyptologists spell his birth name, such as "Ramses". His throne name was Usermaatre Meryamun, which means "Powerful is the Justice of Re, Beloved of Amun. The Family of Ramesses III Ramesses III's father was his immediate predecessor, a relatively unknown king named Setnakhte. However, though the originator of what Egyptologists refer to as the 20th Dynasty, he may actually have been a grandson of the famous Ramesses II. Ramesses III probably served a short co-regency with him, we believe, because of a rock-chapel near Deir el-Medina that was dedicated to both his father and Ramesses III. Ramesses III's mother was Queen Tiy-merenese. He had a number of wives, including Isis, Titi and Tiy, as well as a number of sons including the next three rulers of Egypt, Ramesses IV, V and VI. We only know of one possible daughter named Titi. However, despite his apparently long reign lasting some 31 years and 41 days according to the Great Harris Papyrus, little is known about the royal family. We know that the mother of his wife, Isis, named, Habadjilat, was probably a foreigner, most likely of Asiatic extraction. She was buried in tomb QV51 in the Valley of the Queens, though here name was omitted from the cartouches in the Medinet Habu temple where the queen's name would normally have appeared. However, one of her sons would eventually rule Egypt as Ramesses VI Another possible queen of Ramesses III was Queen Titi, who was buried in QV52 in the Valley of the Queens. Though this tomb is large, it lacks any proper indication of her exact royal status. However, her titles suggest that she was possibly a daughter, and later a wife of Ramesses III who probably outlived him. Her title as "Mistress of the Two Lands" appears some 43 times within this tomb, and she is listed as "Chief Royal Wife" 33 times. Other titles include "King's Daughter, "King's Beloved Daughter of his Body", "His Beloved Daughter" and "King's Sister". She is also called "King's Mother" eight times and her son might have been Ramesses IV. Ramesses III had as many if not more than ten sons, many of whom predeceased him. A number of them were buried in the Valley of the Queens. These include the tombs of Amenhirkhopshef (QV55), Khaemwaset (QV44), Parahirenemef (QV42) and Sethirkhopshef (QV43). Each of these sons held high positions, as might be expected, prior to their deaths. Apparently devoted to Ramesses II, Ramesses III gave his sons names that followed those of the earlier king's sons. An especially noteworthy example was his son, Khaemwaset C, named for Ramesses II's famous child. Like the earlier Khaemwaset, he took the same office as sem-priest of Ptah at Memphis. However, Khaemwasret C. never achieved the glory of Ramesses II's son, who rose to the position of High Priest. We also know that Amenhirkhopshef, named for Ramesses II's oldest son, and Sethirkhopshef held the office of Master of Horse. A number of other tombs in the Valley of the Queens, which appear to date from the reign of Ramesses III, appear to belong to unnamed princes and princesses, though we have virtually no information on these individuals. The Conspiracy Another of Ramesses III's queens was Tiy, but in a several noteworthy papyrus from his reign, particularly one known today as the Harem Conspiracy Papyrus, we learn of an assassination attempt upon the king in which she was at least a part of the plot. Her name is provided in the text, but the other conspirators are called by names that indicate the great evil of their crime, such as Mesedsure, meaning "Re hates him". Tiy apparently wished for her son, called in this papyrus, Pentewere, to ascend to the throne of Egypt. At some point during the latter part of Ramesses III's reign, there were economic problems that became most visible when the Deir el- Medina workmen failed to be paid, leading to a general strike, the first in recorded history, in the 29th year of the king's reign. Against this background was hatched a plot against the king's life. This was no simple conspiracy, considering that at least 40 people were implicated and tried as a group. Amongst their numbers were harem officials many of whom were close to the king. Not only had they intended to kill the king, but also to incite a revolt outside of the palace in order to facilitate their coup. The plot was seemingly hatched in Piramesses where one of the conspirators had a house. The plan called for the murder of the king during the annual Opet Festival at Thebes. Preparations for this included magical spells and wax figurines which were smuggled into the harem. This conspiracy is thought to have failed, and the guilty were charged and brought before a court consisting of a panel of fourteen officials including seven royal butlers (a respectably high office), two treasury overseers, two army standard bearers, two scribes and a herald. Ramesses III himself most likely commissioned the prosecution, but according to the language of the papyrus, probably died during the trial, though not necessarily from the effects of the plot. Curiously, this court was given authority to deliver and carry out whatever penalty they deemed fair, including the death penalty, which normally only the king could inflict. It should be noted, however, that scholars are in disagreement over the events of this conspiracy. Some maintain that Ramesses III was in fact killed by the conspirators, and that his son, Ramesses IV, set up the tribunal, but others maintain that the mummy of the king shows no acts of violence. All of those involved in the plot were apparently condemned to death, as was certainly the fate of Queen Tiy herself. Though the record of the actual trial is lost, there were apparently three different prosecutions. The first consisted of twenty eight people, who included the major ringleaders, who were found guilty and (almost certainly) put to death. In the next prosecution six people were condemned and forced to commit suicide within the court itself. In the final trial, four additional individuals, including the son of Queen Tiy, were likewise condemned to suicide, though they were presumably allowed to carry out the act in their prison. Interestingly, there was also a fourth trial, but this one did not involve the actual conspirators, but instead three of the judges and two officers. It would seem that the curious affair resulted from accusations that, after their appointment to the conspiracy commission, they knowingly entertained several of the women involved in the plot, as well as consorted with a general referred to as Peyes. Though one of the judges was found innocent, the remainder of the group was condemned to have their ears and noses amputated. One of the judges called Pebes committed suicide before the sentence could be carried out. The Military Affairs Ramesses III's reign began quietly enough as he attempted to consolidate his empire begun by his father after problems arose in the late 19th Dynasty. Nubia seems at this time to have been nothing more than a subdued colony to the south. However, in his fifth year as ruler, Egypt was attacked by Libyans for apparently the first time since Merenptah had to deal with them in the 19th Dynasty. The Libyan invasion forces included two other groups of people known as the Mshwesh and the Seped. Ramesses III easily dealt with this threat, annihilating many, and making slaves of the rest. Though the Libyan population of the western Delta continued to increase by peaceful infiltration (as they had actually done before the invasion), and would later form the basis for a line of kings that would ultimately rule Egypt, for a time at least, this firm action kept other enemies at bay. By his eighth year as ruler, Ramesses III had to contend with a force of such great magnitude, that it destroyed at least the Hittite empire, and devastated the entire region, though we really do not know of its source. We read that: "The foreign countries conspired in their islands, and the lands were dislodged and scattered in battle together; no land could stand before their arms: the land of the Hittites, Qode, Carchemesh, Arzawa and Cyprus were wasted, and they set up a camp in southern Syria. They desolated its people and made its land as if non-existent. They bore fore before them as they came forward towards Egypt." Indeed, Cyprus had been overwhelmed and its capital, Enkomi, ransacked. They destroyed the Hittite capital, Hattusas, as well as many other empires. They conquered Tarsus and then settled on the plains of Cilicia in northern Syria, razing Alalakh and Ugarit to the ground. This upheaval was caused by a group of people collectively known as the Sea People, who were displaced from their homes by events that are as of yet unknown to us. However, this apparently took place over an extended period of time, and involved massive numbers of humans, consisting of the Peleset (Philistines), Tjeker, Shekelesh (possibly Sikels from Sicily), Weshesh and the Denyen or Dardany, who could have been the Danaoi of Homer's Iliad. The invasion of these people into various regions of the Middle East apparently came in waves, as a number of Ramesses III's predecessors (perhaps most notably Merenptah) had to deal with similar bands of people. Ramesses III had his fight against the Sea People documented on the outer wall of the Second Pylon, north side, of his mortuary temple at Medinet Habu. It is the longest hieroglyphic inscription known to us. On the outer north wall of the temple proper he had carved the illustrations of the battle. After having stayed for a time in Syria, the Sea People apparently traveled over land to the Egyptian border. This was not simply a military campaign. The Sea People had with them their women and children, together with their possessions piled high on ox-carts. They also employed a sea fleet that apparently stayed in tract with those on land. Their intention was to settle in Egypt. Ramesses reacted swiftly to this threat, and in doing so, saved Egypt from the fate that would befall other empires, at least for a while. He dispatched squads of soldiers at once to the eastern Egyptian frontier at Djahy (southern Palestine, perhaps the Egyptian garrison in the Gaza strip) with orders to stand firm at any cost until the main Egyptian army arrived. Once deployed, the Egyptian army then had little problem in slaying these enemies, as was depicted in the reliefs at Medinet Habu. However, there was still the sea fleet to consider. Egypt was never particularly known for their navy, which was made up principally of infantry, including archers, who were given special marine training. Yet they hated the sea, known as wdj wr, the "Great Green", as they called the Mediterranean. However, as the Sea Peoples' fleet headed for the mouth of one of the eastern arms of the Nile, they were indeed met by the Egyptian fleet. In an inspired tactical maneuver, the Egyptian fleet worked the Sea Peoples' boats towards shore, where land based Egyptian archers were waiting to pour volley after volley of arrows into the enemy ships, while the Egyptian marine archers, calmly standing on the decks of their ships, fired in unison. As the Egyptian ships threw grappling hooks into the Sea People's vessels, by the grace of the god Amun, the enemies fell dead into the water from the onslaught of the combined Egyptian forces. In fact, this victory provided considerable respect for the priesthood of Amun at Thebes. We have no documentation of any pursuit of the fleeing Sea People as they returned to the Levant, but it is reasonable that there was such a campaign. Hence, for some three years, all was well and Egypt was for the most part at peace. Then, after a gradual infiltration by immigrants into the area west of the Canopic arm of the Nile from Egypt's western border, the Libyans, together with the Meshwesh and five other tribes, launched another full scale invasion during Ramesses III's eleventh year as ruler. Once again, Ramesses III countered the attack, crushing these opponents as well. Apparently some 2,000 of the enemy dead were left on the killing fields, while the captured leaders were executed. The booty of the enemy captured during the battle, consisting of cattle and other possession's were sent south to the treasury of Amun. The details of this battle are found on the inner, north wall of the First Pylon at Medinet Habu. There were apparently other campaigns during the reign of Ramesses III, as recorded on the walls of his mortuary temple, though some of these scenes are questionable. Many of these depictions record events that probably took place in bygone years, a common practice of many kings in order to elevate their reputations. In fact, some of these scenes from Medinet Habu clearly seem to be copies of earlier battles fought by his illustrious predecessor, Ramesses II. However, it does seem that there were some other minor conflicts, particularly from the desert around the latitude of Thebes, but these were rather minor in nature. Non-Military Actions Ramesses III established a number of foreign contacts for trade, most notably with its old trading partner, Punt. This may have been Egypt's first contact with that land since the famous ventures in the days of Hatshepsut of the 18th Dynasty. He also seems to have sent an expedition to Atika, where the copper mines of Timna were located. The king is well known for his domestic building program, a consolidation of law and order (as well as a tree-planting program). The end of the 19th Dynasty saw considerable corruption and various abuses, and Ramesses III was forced to inspect and reorganize the various temples throughout the country. The Great Harris Papyrus provides that Ramesses III made huge donations of land to the most important temples in Thebes, Memphis and Heliopolis. In fact, by the end of his reign, a third of the cultivatable land belonged to the temples and of this, three quarters belonged to the temple of Amun at Thebes. Though Ramesses III's foremost construct was his mortuary temple at Medinet Habu, which was finished in about the 12th year of his reign, at Karnak he provided numerous relief decorations and two new, small temples including one dedicated to Khonsu, the moon god. Additional building work was carried out in a number of centers, including Piramesses (or Pi-Ramesses, modern Qantir), Athribis (Tell Atrib), Heliopolis, Memphis, Hermopolis (Ashmunein), Syut (Greek Lycopolis, modern Asyut), Abydos and Edfu. For many generations, Egypt had two viziers, one governing Upper Egypt and anther official who oversaw Lower Egypt. Apparently there was a problem; perhaps even a rebellion involving the unnamed Lower Egyptian vizier and so Ramesses III unified this high office under a single person named To (Ta). The Death of Ramesses III While we know that Ramesses III likely died during the trial of the harem conspirators, we really do not know how he died, though some scholars believe it was at the hands of the conspirators while others believe it was not related to the plot. Irregardless, his death signaled the coming end of the New Kingdom, and even the lofty position that Egypt held on the world stage. He was buried in a large tomb (KV11) in the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank at ancient Thebes (modern Luxor). His is most famous for having some secular scenes that were unusual among royal tombs, including a painting of two blind male harpists. Hence, though sometimes called "Bruce's Tomb after its discoverer, James Bruce in 1769, in literature it is more well known as "The Tomb of the Harper". Presumably, he was succeeded by his son, Ramesses IV in about the year 1151 BC.

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Semenenre in Wikipedia

Semenre was a poorly attested 16th dynasty Theban king during the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt who succeeded the equally obscure Nebiriau II. His sole contemporary attestation is an axe inscribed with his prenomen. Semenre was succeeded by Seuserenre Bebiankh who left behind more traces of building projects and mining activity in his reign than most kings of this dynasty with the exception of Djehuti. His prenomen "Semenre" means "The One who establishes Re."[1]

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Intef VI in Wikipedia

Sekhemrewepmaat Intef VI (or Antef VI) was an Egyptian king of the Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt, who lived during the Second Intermediate Period, when Egypt was ruled by multiple kings. He ruled from Thebes, and was probably buried in a tomb in the necropolis. His royal coffin, Louvre E 3019, was discovered in the 19th century and found to preserve an inscription which reveals that this king's brother Nebkheperre Intef VII buried – and thus succeeded – him.[1] Both Intef VI and Intef VII were sons of a king called Sobekemsaf, most probably Sobekemsaf I based on an inscription from a door jamb from a 17th dynasty temple at Gebel Antef.[2] While his own tomb has not been located, it was likely located in the area of Dra' Abu el-Naga' where the pyramid tomb of his brother Intef VII was found in 2001.

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Intef VII in Wikipedia

Nubkheperre Intef VII (or Antef) was an Egyptian king of the Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt at Thebes during the Second Intermediate Period, when Egypt was divided by rival dynasties including the Hyksos in Lower Egypt. He is known to be the brother of Intef VI and perhaps the son of Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf I. Intef VII is one of the best attested kings of this Dynasty who restored numerous damaged temples in Upper Egypt as well as constructing a new temple at Gebel Antef. Intef VII ruled from Thebes, and was buried in a tomb in the necropolis of Dra' Abu el-Naga'. The grave was originally covered with a small pyramid (approximately 11 m at the base, rising to a height of approx. 13 m.) Auguste Mariette found two broken obelisks with complete Fivefold Titulary, which was then subsequently lost when being transported to the Cairo Museum. Intef VII's wife was Sobekemsaf, who perhaps came from a local family based at Edfu. On an Abydos stela mentioning a building of the king are the words king's son, head of the bowmen Nakht. He might be a son of Intef VII although this is far from certain.[1] Building program The best preserved building from Intef VII's reign is the remains of a small chapel at Koptos. Four walls that have been reconstructed show the king in front of Min and show him crowned by Horus and by another god. The reliefs are executed in raised and sunken relief.[2]. Also at Koptos, a decree was found on a stela referring to the actions of Intef VII against an unnamed enemy.[3] At Abydos several stone fragments were found, including columns which attest to some kind of restoration work.[4] Finally, a block was found near Luxor with the king's name on it. On this block Intef VII is called the son of king Sobekemsaf, who was perhaps Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf I. On a stela found at Abydos, mention is made of a House of Intef. This most likely refers to a building belonging to Intef VII.[5] Tomb discovery Nebkheperre Intef's wooden coffin Intef VII's tomb was rediscovered by Daniel Polz, the deputy director of the German Archaeological Institute in 2001. A Reuters report dated 29 June 2001 concerning the discovery of his royal tomb (see 'Egyptian royal tomb discovered.') states: "In a [historic] first, a joint team of German and Egyptian archaeologists has unearthed a royal tomb dating back to the 17th Dynasty which likely belonged to a king whose great-grandsons swept out foreign rulers and paved the way for the New Kingdom - Ancient Egypt's "Golden Age". The German Institute of Archaeology in Cairo (DAI), in announcing the find, said they are convinced the 3500-year-old tomb belonged to Nub-Kheper-Ra Intef, a monarch of the late 17th Dynasty. A time of political turmoil and confusion, the 17th Dynasty has failed to provide archaeologists with a royal tomb for study-until now....The tomb is located across the Nile from modern-day Luxor in the northern portion of the Theban necropolis, at the entrance to the Valley of the Kings. The area, referred to as Dra' Abu el-Naga', has long been felt to be the burial place of kings and private individuals of the 17th and early 18th dynasties. According to archaeologists, the "remnants of the tomb consist of the lower part of a small mud-brick pyramid surrounded by an enclosure wall, also built of mud bricks." In front of the pyramid lies a burial shaft where the toppled head of a life-size royal sandstone statue of the pharaoh was found. The pyramid-complex and the burial shaft is unequivocally that of Nub-Kheper-Ra Intef, according to Dr Daniel Polz, the lead excavator and deputy director of DAI. Other discoveries included "a small funerary chapel of a private individual" adjacent to the pyramid, but outside the enclosure wall. The inner walls of the chapel were decorated with depictions of its owner, as well as his name and titles. According to these inscriptions the tomb owner, Teti, was a "treasurer" or "chancellor" of the king. On one of the walls, there remains a large cartouche (the royal name-ring) showing the name of king Nub- Kheper-Ra Intef. The 17th Dynasty at the end of the Second Intermediate Period - the era between the Middle and New Kingdoms - was characterized by the rule of the Hyksos, foreign invaders of an Asiatic origin who ruled in the northern part of Egypt contemporaneously with the kings of the 17th Dynasty in Thebes. Following numerous military campaigns against them, the Hyksos rulers were eventually expelled from Egypt by Kamose, the last king of the 17th Dynasty and his brother, Ahmose, the first king of the 18th Dynasty which saw a unified Egypt rise to unprecedented wealth and power. It is believed that Nub- Kheper-Ra Intef, one of the immediate predecessors of Kamose and Ahmose, could actually have been their great-grandfather. Experts said the discovery of King Nub-Kheper-Ra Intef's tomb, the first find of a royal tomb from the 17th Dynasty, along with its location, architecture and contents, could shed new light on the hitherto unknown burials of those Egyptian kings who laid the foundations of Egypt's "Golden Age" - the New Kingdom. [The] German archaeologist Polz and his team were led to the tomb by information obtained from a 3000-year-old papyrus and the works of an American archaeologist who made reference to the tomb, but never found it himself. The papyrus mentioned an attempt by robbers to plunder the royal tomb by digging a tunnel from another tomb belonging to a private individual. The robbers, however, failed to reach the royal tomb. Then in the 19th Century, another group of robbers found the royal tomb, removed the golden casket and sold it without disclosing where they found it-the casket eventually ended up in the British Museum in London. Polz and his team also found what appeared to be evidence of the removal of two obelisks from the tomb of King Nub-Kheper-Ra Intef. The obelisks were reportedly removed from the tomb in 1881 on orders of the then French director of the Council of Antiquities in Cairo, who wanted them transferred to old Cairo Museum. Unfortunately, the boat with the heavy obelisks sank in the Nile, some 10 kilometres from Luxor. Polz and his team plan to continue excavation work on the tomb in October to discover what lies in another room believed to be located below the burial shaft. Literature Kim Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C. by Museum Tuscalanum Press. ISBN 87-7289-421-0, 394-95 File 17/2 (list of sources)

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Senakhtenre Tao I in Wikipedia

Senakhtenre Tao I was a Pharaoh of Egypt of the Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt based in Upper Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. He was born c.1605 BC and died c.1560 or 1558 BC at the latest. His prenomen Senakhtenre means "Perpetuated like Re." [2] He may or may not have been the son of Intef VII, the successor of Nebkheperre Intef VI. The Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt observes that "since Senaktenre was remembered as one of the Lords of the West alongside Seqenenre and Kamose, he is generally believed to have been a member of the family of Ahmose and as such identified with the otherwise unidentified spouse" of Queen Tetisheri, Ahmose's grandmother.[3] He was succeeded by his son, Seqenenre Tao II. Unlike his two successors Tao II, and Kamose, Senakhtenre is a relatively obscure king who is not attested "by [any] contemporary sources (by his prenomen) but exclusively by sources dating from the New Kingdom: the Karnak Canon [of Tuthmose III] and [in] two Theban tombs." [4] Donald Redford's book mentions these 2 Theban tombs.[5] The archaeological evidence suggest that his reign was very brief and lasted only several months or 1 year at the most. Ryholt observes that Senakhtenre's nomen may have been Siamun rather than Tao since: "this nomen is inscribed on one of two stamp-seals found together in a tomb at Dra Abu el-Naga, the other being inscribed with the prenomen Seqenenre [whose nomen was Tao]. It has been suggested that Siamun here was used as an epithet. In that case, it would stand in the place of a nomen since it follows immediatedly upon the title 'Son of Re.' However apart from the fact that Kamose sometimes replaced his with the epithet 'the mighty ruler'...for political reasons during the war with Apophis, the title 'Son of Re' is always followed by a proper nomen during the Second Intermediate Period. Since Siamun was a popular name during this period and the New Kingdom, it seems more likely that we are dealing with a name than an epithet. The fact that the two seals were found together and are virtually identical in workmanship suggests that they were produced at about the same time and given to the official from whose tomb they come. Siamun must therefore be more or less contemporary with Seqenenre, and since it is not possible to identify Siamun with his successor (this being Kamose), it may be suggested that Siamun was the nomen of his predecessor Senakhtenre."[6]

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Tao II (Sekenenre) in Tour Egypt

TAO II (DJEHUTIO)(SEKENENRE) 17TH DYNASTY The fourteenth king of the Theban Dynasty, ruling Egypt contemporaneously with the Hyksos 15th and 16th Dynasties, was the son of Tao I and Queen Tetisheri. When Tao received word from Apophis, ruler of the Hyksos capital in Avaris, that the hippopotami in the sacred pool at Thebes kept him awake with their snoring, Tao regarded it as an insult. The hippopotami were 400 miles from Apophis sleeping chambers! Tao declared war but was soon killed. His mummy shows evidence of blows by battle-axes, spears and lances. His ribs, vertebrae and skull were fractured. His heir, Kamose, assumed the throne and the war, and was victorious.

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Seqenenre Tao II in Wikipedia

Seqenenre Tao II, (also Sekenenra Taa), called The Brave, ruled over the last of the local kingdoms of the Theban region of Egypt in the Seventeenth Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. He probably was the son and successor to Senaktenre Tao I the Elder and Queen Tetisheri. The dates of his reign are uncertain, but he may have risen to power in the decade ending in 1560 BC or in 1558 BC (based on the probable accession date of Ahmose I, the first ruler of the eighteenth dynasty). (see Egyptian chronology). With his queen, Ahhotep I, Seqenenre Tao II fathered two pharaohs, Kamose, his immediate successor who was the last pharaoh of the seventeenth dynasty and Ahmose I who, following a regency by his mother, was the first pharaoh of the eighteenth. Seqenenre Tao II is credited with starting the opening moves in the war of liberation against the Hyksos, which was ended by his son Ahmose. Later New Kingdom literary tradition states that Seqenenre Tao II came into contact with his Hyksos contemporary in the north, Aawoserra Apopi. The tradition took the form of a tale in which the Hyksos king Apopi sent a messenger to Seqenenre in Thebes to demand that the Theban hippopotamus pool be done away with, for the noise of these beasts was such, that he was unable sleep in far-away Avaris. Perhaps the only historical information that can be gleaned from the tale is that Egypt was a divided land, the area of direct Hyksos control being in the north, but the whole of Egypt paying tribute to the Hyksos kings. Seqenenre Tao II participated in active diplomatic posturing, which consisted of more than simply exchanging insults with the Asiatic ruler in the North. He seems to have led military skirmishes against the Hyksos and, judging from the vicious head wound on his mummy in the Cairo Museum, may have died during one of them. His son and successor Wadj-kheper-re Kamose, the last ruler of the seventeenth dynasty at Thebes, is credited with launching a successful campaign in the Theban war of liberation against the Hyksos, although he is thought to have died in the campaign. His mother, Ahhotep I, is thought to have ruled as regent after the death of Kamose and continued the warfare against the Hyksos until Ahmose I, the second son of Seqenenre Tao II and Ahhotep I, was old enough to assume the throne and complete the expulsion of the Hyksos and the unification of Egypt. Monumental construction The relatively short length of the reign of Seqenenre Tao II did not allow for the construction of many monumental structures, but it is known that he built a new palace made of mud brick at Deir el-Ballas. On an adjacent hillside overlooking the river, the foundations of a building were found that almost certainly was a military observation post.[2] Interestingly, a relatively large amount of pottery known as Kerma-ware was found at the site, indicating that a large number of Kerma Nubians were resident at the site. It is thought that they were there as allies of the pharaoh in his wars against the Hyksos.[3] Mummy Mummified head of Seqenenre depicting his battlewounds Seqenenre's mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri cache, revealed in 1881. He was interred along with those of later, eighteenth and nineteenth dynasty leaders, Ahmose I (his second son to be pharaoh), Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX, as well as the twenty-first dynasty pharaohs Psusennes I, Psusennes II, and Siamun. The mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on June 9, 1886. A vivid description by Gaston Maspero provides an account of the injury that was done to the pharaoh at his death: " ...it is not known whether he fell upon the field of battle or was the victim of some plot; the appearance of his mummy proves that he died a violent death when about forty years of age. Two or three men, whether assassins or soldiers, must have surrounded and despatched him before help was available. A blow from an axe must have severed part of his left cheek, exposed the teeth, fractured the jaw, and sent him senseless to the ground; another blow must have seriously injured the skull, and a dagger or javelin has cut open the forehead on the right side, a little above the eye. His body must have remained lying where it fell for some time: when found, decomposition had set in, and the embalming had to be hastily performed as best it might. The hair is thick, rough, and matted; the face had been shaved on the morning of his death, but by touching the cheek we can ascertain how harsh and abundant the hair must have been. The mummy is that of a fine, vigorous man, who might have lived to a hundred years, and he must have defended himself resolutely against his assailants; his features bear even now an expression of fury. A flattened patch of exuded brain appears above one eye, the forehead is wrinkled, and the lips, which are drawn back in a circle about the gums, reveal the teeth still biting into the tongue.[4] " It has been convincingly argued that the wound across the forehead of Seqenenre Tao II w