Images & Art

Ivory Panel Carving of Winged Sphinxes

Small ivory panel carved with figures of winged sphinxes in relief. There was an intimate connection between Egypt and Assyria during this time period. These ivory carvings are probably the work of phoenician artists.

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/assy...

Winged Being Carrying an Ibex

Bas-relief from the palace of Ashur-nasir-pal, king of Assyria from B.c. 885 to 860, at Calah (Nimrud), sculptured with a figure of a winged mythological being carrying an ibex.

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/assy...

Sacred Tree Ivory Carving

Small block of ivory carved with a representation of a sacred tree.

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Ivory Panel Carving of Egyptian Woman in Window

Ivory panel carved to represent a window at which is the face of an Egyptian woman. There was an intimate connection between Egypt and Assyria during this time period. These ivory carvings are probably the work of phoenician artists.

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/assy...

Eagle Headed Winged Being

Bas-relief sculptured with a winged and eagle-headed mythological being, from the palace of Ashir-nasir-pal, king of Assyria from B.c. 885 to 860.

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Sphinx Ivory Carving

Portion of an ivory panel or ornament carved with the figure of a sphinx. These ivory carvings are probably the work of phoenician artists.

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/assy...

Statue of Ashurnasirpal

Statue of Ashur-nasir-pal, king of Assyria from B.C. 885 to 860. The statue stands upon its original limestone pedestal. The inscription of 8 lines on the breast records the names, titles, and genealogy. This is the only extant perfect Assyrian royal statue in the round. From the small Temple of Adar.

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The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II

The "Black Obelisk," inscribed with an account of the campaigns of Shalmaneser II., king of Assyria from B.C. 860 to 825. The sculptured scenes illustrate the text, and among the vanquished princes is " Jehu, the son of Omri"

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Sennacherib Seated on his Throne

Sennacherib, king of Assyria from B.C. 705 to 681, seated upon his throne before the city of Lachish in northern Israel, and receiving tribute.

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Ashurbanipal Making Libation Over Dead Lions

Ashur-bani-pal, king of Assyria from B.C. 668 to 626, pouring out a libation over dead lions.

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Bronze Band Showing Shalmaneser and Chariots

Portion of one of the bronze bands from the gates of Shalmaneser II., king of Assyria from B.c. 860 to 825, representing the army on the march. On the right of the upper register is a figure of the king; in the lower register is a representation of chariots crossing a river by a bridge of boats.

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Babylonian Account of the Creation

Fragments of baked clay tablets inscribed with the Babylonian account of the Creation. Excavated at Nineveh.

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Babylonian Account of the Creation

Fragments of baked clay tablets inscribed with the Babylonian account of the Creation. Excavated at Nineveh.

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/assy...

Battle Between Marduk and Tiamat Clay Tablet

Portion of a tablet inscribed with the legend of the fight between Marduk and Tiamat.

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Babylonian Account of the Flood Clay Tablet

Fragment of a baked clay tablet inscribed with the Babylonian account of the Deluge. Excavated at Nineveh.

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/assy...

Babylonian Account of the Flood Clay Tablet

Fragment of a baked clay tablet inscribed with the Babylonian account of the Deluge. Excavated at Nineveh.

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/assy...

Lists of Cuneiform Signs

Assyrian scribes made lists of the ancient Babylonian characters, after which they added simpler Assyrian equivalents.

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Inscribed Brick of Eannatum King of Lagash

Inscribed brick or memorial tablet of Eannatum, king of Lagash, recording the sinking of a well in the forecourt of Ningirsu's temple at Lagash.

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Brick of Gudea Governor of Lagash

Brick of Gudea, governor of Lagash about B.C. 2500.

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Nebuchadnezzar I Stele

Stele engraved with a charter of Nebuchadnezzar I., king of Babylonia about BC. 1120

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Clay Brick of Shalmaneser II

Brick of Shalmaneser II., king of Assyria from B.C. 860 to 825.

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Stele of Ashurnasirpal

Stele with inscription and figure, sculptured in relief, of Ashur-bani-pal, king of Assyria from B.C. 668 to 626.

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Deciphered Cuneiform with Name Nebuchadnezzar

This translated Cuneiform contains the name and titles of Nebuchadnezzar II, the king of Babylon who took the hebrews out of their land into captivity.

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Bronze Doorstep of Nebuchadnezzar II

Bronze doorstep inscribed with the name and titles of Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon from B.C. 604 to 561

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Bronze Doorstep Inscription and Translation

Translation of the inscription on the Bronze Doorstep of Nebuchadnezzar II.

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Nebuchadnezzar II Brick

Brick inscribed with the name and titles of Nebuchadnezzar II., king of Babylon from B.C. 604 to 561

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Foreigners Bringing Gifts (Apes) to King Ashurnasirpal

Bas-relief from a wall of the palace of Ashur-nasir-pal, king of Assyria from B.C. 885 to 860, at Calah (Nimrud), sculptured with figures of foreigners bringing apes as a present to the king.

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/assy...

Map of Excavations in Babylonia and Assyria

This map illustrates excavations in ancient Babylonia and Assyria.

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Colossal Lion of Assyria

Colossal lion, inscribed with the name and titles of Ashur-nasir-pal, king of Assyria from B.C. 885 to 860, from the Temple of Ninib at Calah (Nimrud).

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Part of a Bronze Band from the Gate of Shalmaneser II

Portion of one of the bronze bands from the gates of Shalmaneser II, king of Assyria from B.C. 860 to 825, representing the king seated in his camp; in the lower register may be seen an Assyrian battering-ram in action.

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Colossal Winged and Human-Headed Lion

Colossal winged and human-headed lion from the palace of Ashur-nasir-pal, king of Assyria from B.C. 885 to 860, at Calah (Nimrud).

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/assy...

Winged Being Attending Ashurnasirpal

Bas relief sculptured with a figure of Ashur-nasir-pal, king of Assyria from B.C. 885 to 860, carrying a bow and arrows, and attended by a winged mythological being. From the North-west palace at Nimrud (Calah).

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Drawing of the Palace Mound at Nimrud

Map of Ashurnasirpal's palace at Nimrud, revealing the palace, buildings, tombs, vaulted chambers and the Temple of Nanib or Adar. The walls encompassed an area that was 7000 feet long by 5500 feet wide.

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Mound of Babylon

View of Babil, one of the principal mounds which mark the site of Babylon and contain the ruins of the palaces of the kings of the last Babylonian Empire.

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Plan of Nineveh

This plan shows Nineveh on the Tigris River, the palaces of sennacherib and Ashurbanipal, and their relationship to Mosul.

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Remains of the Temple of Nabu (Tower of Babel)

View of Birs Nimrud (Borsippa), showing the remains of the great temple of Nabu, the traditional site of the Tower of Babel

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/assy...

Map of Babylon and Borsippa

Shows Babylon and Borsippa including Kalat, Babil, El Kasr, Hillah, and Nebuchadnezzar's Palace along the River Euphrates.

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/baby...

Map of Excavations in Babylonia and Assyria

This map illustrates excavations in ancient Babylonia and Assyria.

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/baby...

Colossal Winged Bull and Deity at Sargon's Palace

Colossal winged and human-headed bull and mythological being, from a doorway in the palace of Sargon, king of Assyria from B.c. 722 to 705, at Dur-Sharrukm (Khorsabad).

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/assy...

Ashurnasirpal and Winged Beings Worshipping Ashur

Bas-relief sculptured with two figures of Ashur-nasir-pal, king of Assyria from B.C. 885 to 860, attended by winged mythological beings, and worshipping Ashur, the national god of Assyria, who appears within a winged circle above the sacred tree

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/assy...

Assyrian Egyptian Personages Carved Ivory Panel

Small inlaid ivory panel carved with representations of two Egyptian personages seated upon thrones before a cartouche. There was a definite connection between Egypt and Assyria during this time period.

Link: https://bible-history.com/imagesart/assy...

British antique Dealer's Association w/ online galleries

A unique resource of items of antique art that are being displayed by UK Antique Dealers.

Link: https://coursebible.com/...

oil paintings and picture frames

oil paintings and picture frames manufacturer,you can purchase our product from the distributor of your area immediacy!!

Link: http://www.art98.com...

Art History Resources

Ancient Section. Contains many categories, including reference sites and resources. Chris Witcombe

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Images and Art

Until this section is finished being indexed into the main database you can click here to see a list of links including the Bible History Online general resources on this subject, although many of these links are outdated. [Images and Art]

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/image...

Athena Review Image Archive

Collection of Images covering a wide range of subjects.

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The North Carolina Museum of Art

"The North Carolina Museum of Art and Design Research Lab at North Carolina State University have brought to the web a unique on-line presentation that features over 130 works of art, a Quicktime VR tour, and Shockwave presentations of some 3D pieces."

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AICT: Art Images for College Teaching

Art Images for College Teaching (AICT) began as a personal project dedicated to the principle of free exchange of image resources for and among members of the educational community. While the AICT site is maintained and distributed under the general auspices of the Minneapolis College of Art & Design (MCAD), this institution is not responsible for content or use thereof. All work on the AICT project has been voluntary, and MCAD-affiliated personnel have contributed innumerable hours of research, clerical, and design effort on a pro-bono basis. Use of the images displayed on this website has also been contributed on a non-royalty basis for the public good.

Link: https://quod.lib.umich.edu/a/aict/...

AICT: Art Images for College Teaching

"AICT is a royalty-free image exchange resource for the educational community." "Art Images for College Teaching (AICT) began as a personal project dedicated to the principle of free exchange of image resources for and among members of the educational community. While the AICT site is maintained and distributed under the general auspices of the Minneapolis College of Art & Design (MCAD), this institution is not responsible for content or use thereof. All work on the AICT project has been voluntary, and MCAD-affiliated personnel have contributed innumerable hours of research, clerical, and design effort on a pro-bono basis. Use of the images displayed on this website has also been contributed on a non-royalty basis for the public good."

Link: https://quod.lib.umich.edu/a/aict/...

ANTEFIX, with some original paint

Parthenon Acropolis, Athens 447-432 B.C. Acropolis Museum, Athens Antefixes are placed along the bottom edges of the roof. This example retains some of its original paint. Color was an important decorative element on the Parthenon and on Greek buildings in general. All the ornamentation, except the nude figures, was heavily painted.

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Detail, ENTABLATURE

Southwest corner of Parthenon Acropolis, Athens 447-440 B.C. The entablature covers the area above the capital up to the pediment. At the corner between the architrave and the cornice are the channeled blocks known as triglyphs. They alternate with ninety-two sculptured metopes around the entire building. The stone pegs under the triglyphs are remnants of earlier Greek temple constructions in wood.

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LAPITH AND CENTAUR

South Metope Southwest corner of Parthenon Acropolis, Athens 447-440 B.C. A Lapith is held in a headlock by a centaur. The action and energy of the metope contrast and form a harmonious balance with the surrounding triglyphs.

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LAPITH AND CENTAUR

South Metope 30 Parthenon Acropolis, Athens 447-440 B.C. British Museum, London In this metope another centaur overcomes a fallen Lapith. Both figures are treated with deep respect by the sculptor. Originally the background of the metopes was painted bright red and the triglyphs on each side were painted bright blue.

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FRIEZE

Parthenon, west facade Acropolis, Athens 442-438 B.C. Inside the outer colonnade, at the top of the outside wall of the cella, is the great frieze, a unique sculptural procession 525 feet long which is a homage to the goddess Athena and a celebration in her name. This is the first Doric frieze to go around a building. Previously such friezes were limited to Ionic constructions. Starting in the southwest, the idealized figures of Athenian men, women, children, and animals travel east and west to meet Athena at the eastern front of the temple.

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FRIEZE

Parthenon, west facade Acropolis, Athens 442-438 B.C. The frieze is in low relief, about one and one half inches deep and three feet four inches high.

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REARING HORSE AND RIDER

Parthenon frieze Southwest portion Acropolis, Athens 442-438 B.C. Acropolis Museum, Athens The frieze is in low relief, about one and one half inches deep and three feet four inches high. In the beginning of the procession at the west end of the south side, as some men mount their horses and prepare to move, one horse rears its legs in wild fear and a man tries to control it.

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YOUNG MEN AND ANIMALS

Parthenon frieze North side Acropolis, Athens 442-438 B.C. Acropolis Museum, Athens At a moment of great delicacy, young men dressed in full-length himatia walk beside these massive animals. Perhaps this relief was executed by Phidias himself.

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YOUNG WOMEN AND OFFICIALS

Parthenon frieze East portion Acropolis, Athens 442-438 B.C. Louvre, Paris Near the end of the Parthenon on the east frieze, young women stand stately and quietly beside officials.

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GODS OF OLYMPUS

Parthenon frieze East side Acropolis, Athens 442-438 B.C. Acropolis Museum, Athens Perhaps also executed by Phidias or a close collaborator, the gods Poseidon, Apollo and Artemis sit on diphros, four-legged stools which originated in Egypt.

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ERECHTHEUM

Mnesicles (?) From the southeast Acropolis, Athens 421-405 B.C. The Erechtheum is an irregularly shaped Ionic temple which was built to house several sacred objects. Standing opposite the north side of the Parthenon, it counterbalances the heavy weight of the Parthenon on the Acropolis. The Erechtheum sits on uneven ground. Very different porches on the north and south sides balance each other.

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ERECHTHEUM

Mnesicles (?) From the southeast Acropolis, Athens 421-405 B.C. The cella floor was higher than the stylobate. Underneath was a basement. Notice the windows on the far wall which were originally covered with bronze lattices.

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Detail, IONIC COLUMN BASE

Mnesicles (?) Erechtheum Acropolis, Athens 421-405 B.C. Decoration throughout the Erechtheum is elaborate and formal. The carving is on a very high level. These are excellent examples of the bases of Ionic columns.

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SOUTH PORCH

Erechtheum Mnesicles (?) Acropolis, Athens c. 413 B.C. The famous maidens or Caryatids support the entablature of the south porch. The slim rods between the Figures are modern structural additions.

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Detail, CELLA WALL

Erechtheum Mnesicles (?) Acropolis, Athens 421-405 B.C. This ornamental frieze runs along the cella wall. The pattern consists of stylized lotus blooms, palmettes, and finishing tendrils as well as egg-and-dart and leaf-and-dart carvings.

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Detail, ORNAMENT

Erechtheum Mnesicles (?) Acropolis, Athens 421-405 B.C. A detail of above.

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NORTH PORCH DOOR

Erechtheum Mnesicles (?) Acropolis, Athens 421-405 B.C. The large door in the north porch, sixteen feet high and eight feet wide, is richly ornamented throughout its frame and cornice.

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THEATRE OF DIONYSUS

Acropolis, Athens The theatre of Dionysus was built into the natural hollow of the south slope of the Acropolis. Originally a place to honor the god Dionysus in dance and song, in the fifth century the plays of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides were performed on the orchestra floor for 30,000 Athenians. By the middle of the fifth century there was scenery in the background, usually in the form of a building. The theatre changed many times over the years and was largely rebuilt by the Romans.

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MARBLE SEATS OF HONOR

Theatre of Dionysus Acropolis, Athens c. Beginning 1st century B.C. These marble seats of honor (proderia) were placed in the theatre between the third and the beginning of the first century B.C.

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SEAT OF HONOR

Theatre of Dionysus Acropolis, Athens 1st century B.C. The carved marble seat or throne of the priest of Dionysus became a part of the theatre in the first century B.C. Notice the lion claw legs.

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THEATRE

by Polyclitus the Younger Epidaurus c. 350 B.C. The best preserved Greek theatre is at Epidaurus.

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THEATRE

by Polyclitus the Younger Epidaurus c. 350 B.C. Stone benches and steps of the theatre.

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CHORAGIC MONUMENT

Athens 334 B.C. The earliest surviving Greek building with Corinthian columns on the exterior, the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates was built in 334 B.C. Lysicrates, a choragus at the theatre, was someone who was chosen to have the honor of paying for a chorus. The building commemorated the winning of the prize for the best play.

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DORIC COLUMNS: Temple of Apollo, Corinth 540 B.C.

The column is the basic element in Greek architecture. It is both structural and sculptural. There are three types or orders of column. The oldest, dating to about 600 B.C., is the Doric. Normally standing right on the floor, the shaft is made of a series of drums which are rounded, doweled together, tapered up--ward and fluted, usually twenty times. On top of the shaft sits a two part capital carved in a single block. The bottom is the cushion or echinus and the top is a flat square slab called the abacus. There is a natural ring where the capital and shaft meet and this is emphasized by the addition of several carved rings. The column height is four to six and one half times the diameter at the base of the shaft. These seven Doric columns, the oldest to survive intact, are from the temple of Apollo at Corinth. Each shaft, over twenty feet high, is cut from a solid limestone block which was surfaced with a stucco made of marble dust. While the columns seem simple and stumpy, the sharp ridged fluting is evidence of a high degree of mastery of stone carving. Further they are bellied slightly at the center which keeps them from seeming too dumpy. What isn't evident today as a result of the action of wind, rain, and man-made destruction is that these temples were generally brightly painted in white, gold, reds and blues.

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DORIC COLUMNS: Temple of Apollo, Corinth 540 B.C.

The column is the basic element in Greek architecture. It is both structural and sculptural. There are three types or orders of column. The oldest, dating to about 600 B.C., is the Doric. Normally standing right on the floor, the shaft is made of a series of drums which are rounded, doweled together, tapered up--ward and fluted, usually twenty times. On top of the shaft sits a two part capital carved in a single block. The bottom is the cushion or echinus and the top is a flat square slab called the abacus. There is a natural ring where the capital and shaft meet and this is emphasized by the addition of several carved rings. The column height is four to six and one half times the diameter at the base of the shaft. These seven Doric columns, the oldest to survive intact, are from the temple of Apollo at Corinth. Each shaft, over twenty feet high, is cut from a solid limestone block which was surfaced with a stucco made of marble dust. While the columns seem simple and stumpy, the sharp ridged fluting is evidence of a high degree of mastery of stone carving. Further they are bellied slightly at the center which keeps them from seeming too dumpy. What isn't evident today as a result of the action of wind, rain, and man-made destruction is that these temples were generally brightly painted in white, gold, reds and blues.

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SCHEMATIC OF DORIC: Entablature

Resting on the slab like abacus, the Doric entablature is made up of three parts. The lowest portion, the architrave (A) is generally a stright cut supporting member composed of blocks of stone which meet over the abacus. Above the architrave is the frieze (B). In Doric entablatures, this frieze generally is a series of sculpted metopes, separated by a carved triglyphs. Some early temples have plain metopes between the triglyphs. Above the frieze is the cornice (C) which serves to join the entablature to the overhanging eave of the roof.

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IONIC COLUMNS: Temple of Artemis, Sardis 330 B.C.

The Ionic column is distinguished by its volute or scroll capital. More slender than the Doric column, its height is eight or nine times the diameter of the shaft. Normally the Ionic column has twenty-four flutes which are separated by fillets or soft edges; some examples have as many as forty-eight flutes. There is a column base, the most notable type consisting of a torus or convex molding above, a three part concave molding, and a torus below. All the carving is on a high level. These Ionic columns from the temple of Artemis were left unfluted when work on the temple stopped. Fluting ordinarily takes place after the column is assembled.

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IONIC CAPITAL DRAWING

Ionic Capital and Entablature.

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CORINTHIAN COLUMNS: Temple of Olympian Zeus Athens 170 B.C.

The Corinthian column is similar to the Ionic column in its shaft and base. Only the capital differs, with its distinctive acanthus leaf, foliage, or flower carvings.

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CORINTHIAN COLUMN: Tholos, Epidaurus 360 B.C.

Museum, Epidaurus. A beautifully carved Corinthian column from the inner colonnade of the tholos. A portion of the entablature rests on the column.

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SANCTUARY OF APOLLO: Delphi 6th century B.C.

The sanctuary of the god Apollo is laid out on the slopes of Mount Parnassos, under the craggy Rocks of Phaedriades and the overlooking Pleistos Gorge. The temple is on the bottom left and diagonally above it are the theatre and stadium.

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EXAMPLES OF TEMPLE STYLES

The basic model of the Greek temple is the four sided cella. To the simplest cella was added a porch or pronaos: the simple megarons shown at the right. The extension of the cella walls are the antae. As temples grew in size, columns were added between the antae to support the roof as illustrated in the drawing of a megaron with columns. In the prostyle temple the antae do not extend to the line of columns suppoting the roof over the pronaos. While there was only one entrance to the cella, the addition of a second porch with a double antis provided a more balanced and symetrical structure when view from the side. Temples like Athena Nike are amphiprostyle in they have no antae. Eventually, a colonnade was added to the sides of the temple. While the Parthenon is more sophisticated in structure. It is of this later, peripteral style temple.

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SACRED WAY AND TEMPLE OF APOLLO

Sanctuary of Apollo Delphi 6th century B.C. The sacred way passes by the supporting wall and ends at the temple entrance. The first temple was built around 600 B.C. This was replaced after a fire by a stone temple in 530-510 B.C. To the left of the picture is the theatre. Another temple was constructed on the same spot by Spintharos of Corinth about 320 B.C.

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ATHENIAN TREASURY ON THE SACRED WAY

Sanctuary of Apollo Delphi c. 500-485 B.C. The sacred way leads up to the temple past statues of dedication and treasuries built by many city-states. Originally there were twenty-three treasuries. They housed the gifts donated in honor of Apollo. The Athenian treasury was re-erected in 1906.

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SUPPORTING TERRACE WALL

Sanctuary of Apollo Delphi Third quarter 6th century B.C. Under the temple is a supporting terrace wall built in polygonal masonry.

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THEATRE AND TEMPLE OF APOLLO

Sanctuary of Apollo Delphi 3rd century B.C. and 4th century B.C. The theatre is cut into the slope above the temple and overlooks the valley and the mountains beyond. The six temple columns were reconstructed.

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STADIUM

Sanctuary of Apollo Delphi c. 180 B.C. The stadium is higher up on the slopes above the sacred precinct. Built in Roman times, the site was used by the Greeks for games.

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THOLOS AT DELPHI

Sanctuary of Apollo Delphi Beginning 4th century B.C. The tholos on the Mamaria or marbleyard. Its purpose unknown, it is a Doric circular temple made of marble, standing in what formerly was the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia. Twenty Doric columns were on the outside and Corinthian half-columns surrounded the cella.

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ACROPOLIS

Athens Second half 5th century B.C. The Acropolis means the highest city. Originally it was a fortress, a place of protection. During a peaceful period in the second half of the fifth century B.C., under the leadership of Pericles and the artistic supervision of Phidias,the Athenians built their sanctuary to Athena on the old acropolis site, high up on an isolated mountain cliff. In luminous Pentelic marble silhouetted against the sky, they created in a brief thirty-year period perhaps the greatest architectural achievement in the world.

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THE ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS

As reconstructed according to Leo von Klenze This line drawing, from Architectual Styles by Herbert Pothorn, provides us with a more complete view of the Acropolis as it must have looked before the ravages of time and weather. The following drawing from the same source provides a plan of the major elements of the area.

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PLAN VIEW OF THE ACROPOLIS

A reconstruction according to Leo von Krenze. A: The Parthenon is the large structure in the center of the sacred area. B: The Propylaea, the entrance into the Sacred area. C: The Temple of Athena Nike, directly below the Propylaea in the drawing. D: Roman fortifications added later. E: Foundations of minor temples. F: Upper center of the sacred area, is the Erechtheion. G: Foundations of a temple predating the Persian Wars. H: Foundation of a house dating back to the Mycenaean. J: Askelpieon. K: Smaller theatre to the left of the drawing, The theatre of Herodes Atticus. L: Stoa of Eumenes. M: Larger theatre to the right, Theatre and Altar of Dionysus.

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APPROACH TO THE ACROPOLIS

Athens The Acropolis is approached from the west. High on the man-made bastion at the right sits the delicate Ionic temple of Athena Nike. The center columns are surviving elements of the Propylaea

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PROPYLAEA

Designed by Mnesicles Acropolis, Athens 437-432 B.C. The propylaea, a roofed entrance structure into the sacred precincts, was designed and built between 437 and 432 B.C. A Doric facade on the west is linked to a Doric facade on the east by a passageway lined with tall Ionic columns. It had five doors, one large center door and two smaller doors on each side.

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PROPYLAEA

Designed by Mnesicles Acropolis, Athens 437-432 B.C. The eastern inner facade and porch of the propylaea. We are looking back toward Athens. A portion of the entablature and a small piece of the pediment survive. Notice that the metopes are unsculptured.

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TEMPLE OF ATHENA NIKE

Designed by Callicrates Acropolis, Athens c. 425 B.C. The temple of Athena Nike, the goddess of victory, is built on a small ledge outside the sacred precinct. Designed by Callicrates, it has Ionic porticos of four columns on the front and back of the cella. The entire building is surrounded with a frieze. You will note that the front columns are not engaged or in line with the walls of the cella. Also one can clearly see one of the rear columns of the rear porch. It is a wonderful example of a amphiprostyle temple.

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ATHENA TYING HER SANDAL

Balustrade relief Temple of Athena Nike c. 410-407 B.C. Acropolis Museum, Athens This beautiful relief figure of Athena is from the balustrade surrounding three sides of the temple.

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PARTHENON

By Ictinus and Callicrates From the northwest Acropolis, Athens 447-432 B.C. Dedicated to the virgin Athena Parthenos, the great Parthenon was designed by the architects Ictinus and Callicrates and built over the years 447-432 B.C. Basically it is a simple rectangular building, 237 feet long by 110 1/2 feet wide, with Doric columns around its four sides, supporting an architrave, frieze, and cornice. A pediment on each end rises to a slanting roof. With the exception of the roof frame and parts of the ceiling, the entire temple is constructed in marble. To this day the Parthenon remains the masterpiece of consummate proportions.

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SUBSTRUCTURE

Parthenon Acropolis, Athens 447-432 B.C. The substructure is made of finely cut unpolished marble blocks.

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STYLOBATE

Parthenon Acropolis, Athens 447-432 B.C. The stylobate is the three-step base on which the Parthenon stands. In order to correct the distortions naturally made by the eye, the stylobate is curved upward toward the center of the colonnades on each side of the temple. The architrave also is similarly curved.

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MILVIAN BRIDGE

Rome 109 B.C. The Milvian Bridge (Pons Mulvius) was the crossing for two of the most important roads in Rome. Still used today, its arches are set over massive piers.

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Gaius Julius Lacer

Roman bridge Alcántara, Spain 106 Built of square hewn granite stones, this handsome bridge uses six arches to cross the river. The two central arches are 157 feet high and almost 100 feet across. A triumphal arch is over the central pillar.

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SERVIAN WALL

Rome 390 B.C. Part of the ancient sixth century wall which surrounded Rome at the foot of the Aventine Hill, this section was erected in 390 B.C. The arch, a later addition, is from the second or first century B.C.

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TEMPLE OF FORTUNA VIRILIS

On the Tiber Rome 2nd century B.C. While the Greek temple is a sculptural building on all sides, Roman rectangular temples are built to be seen from the front. Normally they sit high on a raised platform, with a long stairway leading up to the portico. The side walls have attached half-columns which are called pseudo-peripteral. Primarily used as a treasury, the celIa is the width of the building. In general Roman, architecture employs columns for decoration instead of support.

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TEMPLE OF VESTA

Forum Romanum Rome 205 The circular temple of Vesta was founded in 715 B.C. and rebuilt many times over the centuries. It was last rebuilt in 205 by Septimius Severus. A ten foot high podium supported a circular celIa thirty feet across, which was surrounded by Corinthian columns. One ring of columns is engaged to the wall and an outer ring supports the entablature.

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TEMPLE OF VESTA

Tivoli c. 100 B.C. The cement cella of this circular temple has two windows. Corinthian capitals are handsomely carved and the entablature is elegantly decorated.

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TEMPLE OF VESTA

On the Tiber Rome 1st century B.C. More directly influenced by Greek architecture, this circular temple has marble Corinthian columns nearly thirty-five feet high. Originally the roof was probably covered with bronze tiles.

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TEMPLE OF ROMULUS

Forum Romanum Rome Early 4th century Like many other buildings, the marble facing over the brick of this octagonal temple was removed long ago. This temple has many elements which are brought to fruition in the Pantheon. The octagonal nature of the space will be an influence in the Early Christian and Romanesque temples.

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BRONZE DOORS

Temple of Romulus Forum Romanum Rome Early 4th century The bronze doors are original. They are framed by two columns and a decorated lintel. Notice the partial columns sitting on pedestals. This is typical throughout Roman architecture.

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TEMPLE OF HERCULES

Cori Late 2nd century B.C. A small Doric temple with columns fluted on the upper two-thirds. The bottom part was probably stuccoed red, a common feature in Pompeian columns. The depth of the porch is equal to its width. Notice the platform made of cement and stone.

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TEMPLE OF MARS ULTOR

Forum of Augustus Rome 2 B.C. Dedicated by Augustus to Mars the Avenger for the death of Caesar's assassins, the Temple of Mars Ultor was a very large temple with Corinthian columns fifty-eight feet high. The marble-faced steps and three large columns survive.

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MAISON CARRÉE

Nîmes c. 19 B.C. The Maison Carrée is the best-preserved Roman temple. It has a high podium and six Corinthian columns support the entablature. Also typical is the height of the porch, in this case: 16 steps high.

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Hadrian

TEMPLE OF VENUS AND ROME Forum Romanum Rome 123-135 Designed by Hadrian, the barrel-vaulted Temple of Venus and Rome is one of the most significant architectural achievements of the age. It was an immense temple with a platform 540 by 340 feet. Workmen from Asia Minor did most of the construction and their decorative contribution influenced subsequent buildings. This is one of the two back-to-back cellas. It was extensively restored by Maxentius in 307-312, when it was given rich flooring and columns.

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PANTHEON

Rome c. 118-128 The Pantheon is one of the most important buildings in architectural history. Built by Hadrian, the greatness of this temple to the gods is difficult to appreciate from the exterior. A large Corinthian portico, 110 feet wide by 60 feet deep, is attached to a circular drum, with a small section of a dome appearing above. In fact the mass of the building was even more concealed in its original state, when a spacious colonnaded forecourt jutted out into the street.

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PANTHEON

Rome c. 118-128 Its interior space is awesome. Proportioned like a circle within a square, a hemispherical dome sits on a cylindrical drum. The diameter of the dome is 141 feet and it rises 141 feet from the floor to the top of the ceiling.

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NICHE

Pantheon Rome c. 118-128 Cut into the twenty foot thick walls and screened with columns are semicircular and rectangular niches. The niches held statues of the heavenly gods. This is the main niche at the end of the central axis, the only niche to stand out.

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COFFERED DOME

Pantheon Rome c. 118-128 The coffered dome rises to a twenty-seven foot circular opening called the oculus. It is the one light source for the interior. In five steps, and recessed four times, the coffering diminishes in size. This lightens the load on the dome and enhances its appearance of height. Originally the coffers were decorated, possibly with gold stars against a blue background.

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Giovanni Paolo Panini

PANTHEON c. 1750 National Gallery of Art, Washington This eighteenth century painting captures the full magnificence of the Pantheon's interior space, the first such open interior in architectural history. The sun lights up the space and as it travels across the sky casts an intense glow on the walls. Notice how the building's simple design of circle within a square is reflected in the same pattern on the floor.

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BASILICA OF CONSTANTINE

Forum Romanum Rome 312-327 The Roman barrel vault reaches its highest expression in the Basilica of Constantine. Begun by Maxentius in 306-310, the building was completed by Constantine in 312-337. Three huge vaults on the north side remain. Each is pierced by six large windows which bring light into the building (though the center bay was closed off by Constantine and made into an apse with a huge statue of himself). The original entrance was from the arcade on the right. An apse was at the far end. A 1 20 foot groined vault supported by the aisle vaults covered the central nave. Constantine moved the entrance and shifted the axis to the center of the south wall, opposite his statue. A simple rectangular structure given monumentality through its vaulting and supporting piers, the basilica later became a model for Christian architecture. For the Romans it was a center of justice and civic affairs.

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NORTHERN AISLE

Basilica of Constantine Forum Romanum Rome 312-327 The northern aisle with coffering in two vaults. Marble originally covered the walls.

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BASILICA

Trier c. 310 The basilica at Trier, the capital of Constantius in northern Gaul, is a plain rectangular hall, approximately 95 by 190 feet, with a sizable projecting semicircular apse, which held the emperor's throne. A narthex was in the front of the building and porticoed courtyards were on the sides. Two rows of windows bring in light from the sides and around the apse. The apse is emphasized by all aspects of the design. The exterior walls, once faced with stucco, are broken up by tall sup porting Greek columns which end in arches. Originally a wooden gallery ran along the building under each row of windows, breaking up the vertical thrust of the arches.

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FRIGIDARIUM

Baths of Caracalla Rome 212-216 The thermae or baths were a social center of Roman life. Used daily as a place to bathe and refresh the body, they also contained swimming pools, parks, stadiums for sports, libraries, lecture rooms, and occasionally small theatres. This is part of the frigidarium, the largest space in the bath and probably unroofed. It is the room for cooling off and swimming. The two other main areas were the calidarium, the hot room, and the tepidarium, the warm room. The baths of Caracalla could accommodate 3,000 bathers.

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PALAESTRA

Baths of Caracalla Rome 212-216 The palaestra is a large circular room for wrestling and other gymnastic activities.

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BATHS OF CARACALLA

Rome 212-216 Massive cement and brick structures support a roof with a semicircular intersecting vault. The frigidarium is in this area.

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BATHS

Baia Early 1st century This is a portion of the baths at Baia, a famous resort near Naples.

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IMPERIAL BATHS

Trier c. 300 Natural light from windows is a primary element in Roman architecture. This is especially so of the buildings which house the baths, where sunlight is that much more desirable. These arched windows almost filling up the wall are from the southern apse of the Imperial Baths at Trier.

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BATHS IN THE FORUM

Ostia 2nd century In the baths at Ostia an entire wall is used for windows. The Romans invented an inexpensive way to manufacture glass.

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BATHS IN THE FORUM

Ostia 2nd century This view of the baths at Ostia shows the black and white mosaic floor. The color and figure pattern is typical of the second century.

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THEATRE OF MARCELLUS

Rome 11 or 13 The one ancient theatre to survive in Rome, the Theatre of Marcellus, was started by Caesar and completed by Augustus in the year 11 or 13. It stands on level ground and is supported by radiating walls and concrete vaulting. An arcade with attached half-columns runs around the building. The columns are Doric and Ionic.

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THEATRE AT ORANGE

c. 50 In the Roman theatre the orchestra is a place to sit, instead of a performing area as the Greeks had used it. The stage grows in importance and is brought into direct contact with the audience. The auditorium is a semicircle, often partially supported by a hill underneath as well as concrete vaulting. Corridors under the tiers were used in case of rain. This is the best-preserved Roman theatre.

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THEATRE AT TAORMINA

Sicily Built on a hillside by the Greeks in the third century B.C., the theatre at Taormina was remodeled and decorated by the Romans. New entrances were added, also a scaenae frons and the versurae or side buildings which connected the stage to the auditorium.

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SCAENAE FRONS

Theatre at Taormina Sicily The scaenae frons, one of the best preserved, was richly decorated with groups of four columns on a high podium which separate the regia or central royal door from the hospitalia or side doors. Behind the columns are niches for statues.

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THEATRE OF SABRATHA

Tripolitana c. 200 The theatre of Sabratha has a three-story scaenae frons with ninety-six columns decreasing in height from the first to the third story. The scaenae frons is divided into seven sections, which gave the actors many entrances. This was the largest Roman theatre in Africa.

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COLOSSEUM

Rome 70-82 The Coliseum is an elliptical building made to hold 50,000 spectators for sporting and theatrical events. It is four stories high with rings of arcades on the first three levels. The arches have attached three-quarter columns, Doric on the first level, Ionic on the second, and Corinthian on the third. The top story has Corinthian pilasters. From here a large awning, the vlarium, could be stretched across the entire amphitheatre. The Coliseum was constructed under three Flavian em perors, Vespasian, Titus, and Dominitan. More than any other single building, its construction details, engineering, and sense of power and authority speak to the Roman culture.

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COLOSSEUM FACADE

Rome 70-82 A detail of the facade. Originally statues stood in the arches on the second and third stories. People entered through the ground floor arches according to where they sat.

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Interior, COLOSSEUM

Rome 70-82 In the center is the substructure beneath the arena floor. Almost forty feet deep, it contained a system of corridors for slaves, caged animals, and machinery for performances. It also held the plumbing to flood the arena for water events. The tiers of seats were strictly divided by social strata. The emperor and his family and court sat in the first tier; patricians and gentry were in the second tier; ladies were in the third tier; and common people sat on the top. Barrel vaults were the main supports of the heavy tiers.

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COLOSSEUM SUBSTRUCTURE

Rome 70-82 The main corridor of the substructure.

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Detail, LINTEL ARCH

Colosseum Substructure Rome 70-82 Horizontal lintel arches supported the heavy amphitheatre columns which were underground. These arches were made with wedge-shaped blocks or voussoirs.

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VAULTED WALKWAY

Colosseum Rome 70-82 The large cross-vaulted ambulatory on the second level. Covered stairways and ramps also were used to get to seats.

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TOMB OF CAECILIA METELLA

Via Appia Rome c. 30 B.C. A development of the tumulus, the tomb of Caecilia Metella is a travertine-faced cylinder which stands on a square podium. A small inner chamber has a high-vaulted roof in the center. The entrance into the chamber is a small passage cut into the cylinder. On top there was a planted mound. The present top is an addition from the Middle Ages.

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STOA OF ATTALOS II

Athens 150 B.C. Modern Reconstruction This stoa was originally built along the Athenian Agora, a marketplace in 150 B.C., as a place of business and a shelter for well-to-do Athenians. The two-story colonnaded facade has a Doric order on the ground level and the Ionic order above. This stoa is a modern reconstruction.

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SPHINX OF THE NAXIANS

From the sanctuary at Delphi c. 560 B.C. Museum, Delphi The sphinx of the Naxians, a wealthy Cyc1adic island people, sits on an elegant Ionic column which stood not far from the temple of Apollo at Delphi. This was the Naxians' gift to the sanctuary.

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STELE OF ARISTION

by Aristokles c. 510 B.C. National Archaeological Museum, Athens A stele is a gravestone. This example is one of the finest from the archaic period. It is much more of a silhouette, shallow freize. Well defined but lacking the motion to be found in later sculpture.

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Detail, Bottom Drum of an IONIC COLUMN

From the Temple of Artemis Ephesus c. 350 B.C. British Museum, London Figures are sculptured into the bottom drum of the shaft of the large Ionic columns from the temple of Artemis.

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CARVED BASE

From the theatre of Dionysus, Athens c. After 150 B.C. A round base carved with a satyr's mask and garlands.

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ALEXANDER SARCOPHAGUS

From the necropolis at Sidion After 330 B.C. Archaeological Museum Istanbul Notice the classical Greek ornamentation surrounding this battle scene from the life of Alexander. The bright painted colors have faded.

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STOA OF ATTALOS II

Athens 150 B.C. Modern Reconstruction Small shops along the right hand wall were rented by the state to businessmen. The large promenade offered space both for business and relaxation.

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TEMPLE MODEL

From Sabucina Early 6th century B.C. National Archaeological Museum, Gela An early sixth century clay model of an archaic temple.

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PEDIMENT DECORATION

Archaic Shrine Molino a Vento From L. Bernabo-Brea L'Athenaion de Gela Rome, 1952 Modern Reconstruction A reconstruction of terra-cotta pediment decoration on an archaic late sixth century shrine at Molino a Vento, Gela.

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FRAGMENT OF A MIXING BOWL

From Tarentum Mid-4th century B.C. Martin von Wagner Museum Wurzberg Acroderia or ornamental figures adorn the roof above the center and the two ends of the pediment. Mask like faces cover the tile ends along the gutter of the roof. A dentil ornament is above the architrave. The porch ceiling is coffered. This shard of pottery gives a clear indication of the amount of painted decoration which was to be found on all of the buildings.

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Detail, COFFERED CEILING

by Polyclitus the Younger Tholos, Epidaurus c. 360 B.C. Museum, Epidaurus Greek ceilings are typically coffered. Less common is this coffered ceiling from the tholos at Epidaurus which has delicate flowers growing out of the center of each panel.

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FUNERARY KOUROS OF VOLOMANDRA

Mid-6th century B.C. National Archaeological Museum, Athens During the mid-sixth century the figure is erect, poised, and yet immobile, an image of energy at rest. One leg stands slightly in front of the other. The arms are attached to the body. The kouros often stood in a sanctuary or marked a grave. Like the Stele of Aristion it lacks motion.

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KRITIOS BOY

by Kritios c. 485 B.C. Acropolis Museum, Athens By the 5th century B.C., sculpture moves into the classical age. With the slight bend in the right knee of the Kritios Boy, the figure is liberated from the formal, flat plane.

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DISCUS THROWER

by Myron 460-450 B.C. Museo Nazionale, Rome Created about a decade or so before work started on the Acropolis, Myron's Discus Thrower was revolutionary. The figure still retains an inner poise and an overall balance. But the energy has opened up, moving with a new sense of the world. This is a marble copy of the bronze original.

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HERMES AND THE INFANT DIONYSUS

by Praxiteles From the temple of Hera, Olympia c. 330 B.C. Museum, Olympia This Hermes of Praxiteles captures the contained and thoughtful spirit of the fourth century.

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ZEUS SEATED ON A CHAIR

Vase painting 550-525 B.C. British Museum, London In this sixth century B.C. chair there is a slight curve in the legs and back. The back turns and ends in the head of a swan. The legs retain the earlier clawed feet. Between the seat and stretcher is an ornamental carved animal. There is a low arm-rail and a seat cushion.

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Detail, APHRODITE AND EROTES

White-ground cup Lyandros Painter c. 460 B.C. Museo Archeologico Florence The straight legs are decorated with volutes at the seat and smaller volutes near the floor. The angular back ends in volutes too. Probably the seat was woven.

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CHAIR AND SMALL TABLE

Vase painting 475-450 B.C. Torno Collection, Milan In the klismos, the classic chair, the legs swing outward and the back swings upward in a continuous line. Early in the fifth century the leg has no foot. A broad horizontal slat is added to the top of the back which encircles the shoulders. The three legs of the small table curve in the same line as the chair.

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KLISMOS

Funerary Stele from the Eridanos cemetary, Hegeso c. 400 B.C. National Archaeological Museum, Athens A klismos of perfect proportions. Undecorated, it is simple, graceful, and elegant. Notice the low footstool.

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KLISMOS

Detail, white lekythoi Achilles Painter c. 440 B.C. National Archaeological Museum, Athens On this klismos the back is fairly straight. There are many variations of the style.

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THRONE

Terra-cotta statue from Granmichele c. 470 B.C. Museum of Syracuse The dignified thrones are for gods, heroes, and important people. Influenced by the Egyptian throne, the Greek throne develops many variations over the years. They have animal legs, turned legs, and rectangular legs. This example has a straight back, an arm-rail with a knob, and lion-paw feet. (see also C. 52 and C.53 in the Theatre of Dionysus.)

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FOLDING STOOL

Interior, White kylix c. 470 B.C. Museum, Delphi A folding stool or diphros okladias with crossed, turned-in lion's legs and paws. Seats are made of leather or cloth.

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COUCHES AND TABLES

Corinthian column-krater End of 7th century B.C. Louvre, Paris The couch or kline serves as both bed and sofa and is commonly used during meals. These couches or beds from the archaic period have turned legs, mattresses, covers, and pillows. Next to the beds are simple serving tables with turned clawed feet and stretchers.

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COUCH AND TABLE

Bilingual amphora Andokides Painter c. 525 B.C. Antikensammlungen, Munich Herakles greets Athena from his beautifully decorated couch, mattress, and pillows. The couch is higher on the sides of the pillow. The rectangular legs rest on bases. After the meal, tables were stored under the bed.

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TABLES

Campanian bell-krater C.A. Painter Symposion c. 350 B.C. Museo Nazionale, Naples The Greek table has a limited use, primarily holding food and dishes during meals. Consequently they are small and light. The circular table on the left has three plain legs with stretchers. The simple rectangular table on the right also has three legs.

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CARVED WOODEN TABLE

Found at Luxor 2nd or 3rd century B.C. Musees Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, Brussels A Hellenistic three-legged table, one of the four pieces of Greek furniture to survive. It has carved antelope legs, ending with the heads of swans as they come out of acanthus leaves.

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FORUM ROMANUM

From the west Rome The forum is the meeting place for Romans, the center of political, religious, business, and social life. Built up over many years on an ancient site, the Forum Romanum is the oldest and most important forum. It is laid out on an axial plan and everything is organized within defined boundaries. At its peak during the days of the Republic and the Empire, the forum held the main public buildings, temples, basilicas, shops, colonnades, triumphal arches, pillars and statues.

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TEMPLE OF SATURN

Forum Romanum Rome Restored 320 One of the oldest sacred buildings, the Temple of Saturn in the foreground was rebuilt many times after its dedication around 500 B.C. These eight surviving Ionic columns are from the temple facade, restored in 320 A.D. Romans frequently omitted the fluting from the column shaft. Other temples are in the background. The Coliseum is across the forum in the distance.

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TEMPLE OF CASTOR AND POLLUX AND ARCH OF SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS

Forum Romanum Rome The monumental character of Roman architecture is apparent in three columns from the Temple of Castor and Pollux, rebuilt between 7 B.C. and 6 A.D. They are over forty-eight feet high and the entablature is nearly thirteen feet. Beyond is the triumphal arch of Septimius Severus, built in 203 A.D., with its three passageways.

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ARCH OF TITUS

Forum Romanum Rome 81 At the eastern end of the forum is the Arch of Titus, built to commemorate the capture of Jerusalem. It is the oldest extant triumphal archway in Rome with a single passage. To the right in the distance one can see a potion of the walls of the Coliseum.

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ANATOMY OF A ROMAN ARCH

from "Empires Ascendant" Time frame 400 BC - AD 200 Time Life Books To support the tremendous weight of the arches, it was necessary to provide a way of transmitting the force to massive piers to the foundation of the arch. The Romans achieved this feat through the use of the Keystone block. The force was directed down onto the top of the keystone. Because of its shape the force was translated to the voussoir blocks of the arch which in turn translated the force through the impost to the piers. During construction, the voussoir's were supported by a temporary wooden frame until the keystone was inserted.

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TABULARIUM

Forum Romanum Rome 78 B.C. The Tabularium or Hall of Records on the west end of the forum housed the state archives. The side of the building has an arcade with tall arches which are framed by pilasters. This type of facade became common by the first century B.C.

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OPUS RETICULATUM

From Hadrian's Villa Tivoli Early 2nd century The Romans discovered concrete and with this material developed entirely new ways of building. Concrete is sturdy, inexpensive, and quick and easy to use. Invariably the concrete is faced. In this example it is faced with opus reticulatum. Stones are pounded into the cement and at the joints they run in diagonal lines forming a diamond-shaped net.

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OPUS TESTACEUM

Forum Romanum Rome In opus testaceum the cement is faced with triangular bricks, about one and one-half inches thick. There are other much used facings.

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ARCADE OF THE TEMPLE OF JUPITER ANXUR

Terracina c. 80 B.C. The arch is the central revolutionary concept of Roman architecture. With its development the Romans bypass the earlier building concept of verticals and horizontals, support and load. The arch makes possible a new idea of space. It becomes the basis of Roman monumentality. Above these powerful supporting arches is a terrace which held the Temple of Jupiter Anxur. The arches are constructed of opus incertum, concrete faced with irregular-shaped stones.

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ARCHES ON THE VIA NOVA

Palatine Hill Rome 2nd century Arches in the Via Nova supported a street above. Notice how the thin bricks are put into the cement at an angle. This adds strength to the arch.

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WEST FACADE

Parthenon Acropolis, Athens 447-432 B.C. Battered and chipped over the centuries, these columns from the west facade still retain their strength and elegance.

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Detail, EAST PEDIMENT

Parthenon Acropolis, Athens 437-432 B.C. The pediments are the triangular areas above the architrave on the east and west ends of the temple. Devoted to Athena, the goddess of the temple, the east pediment represented her birth and the west pediment her peaceful contest with Poseidon over who would be god of Athens. A few magnificent parts of the pediment sculpture survive. In this southern corner of the east pediment are the reclining figure of Dionysus and the heads of horses that pulled the chariot of the sun-god Helios.

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HEAD OF SELENE'S LEADING HORSE

Parthenon, East Pediment Acropolis, Athens 437-432 B.C. British Museum, London This intense head of the horse of the moon-god Selene is in the northern corner of the east pediment. It counterbalances the horse of Helios on the southern corner.

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CELLA, From the east

Parthenon Acropolis, Athens 447-432 B.C. The inner room of the temple is called the cella. It housed the great statue of Athena which was lit by the sun rising in the east. Behind the sanctuary wall was a much smaller room used as a treasury. Only the western portion of the cella wall has survived with two small segments of the north and south walls. The great west doorway is in the center.

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CELLA

Parthenon Acropolis, Athens 447-432 B.C. In spite of the heavy damage to the cella wall, it is still possible to imagine what the original marble looked like, with the carefully cut and polished blocks. The entire temple was polished to catch the light. Notice the large lintel block over the doorway. The statue of Athena stood on the platform on the bottom right.

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THE VARVAKEION STATUETTE

Roman copy after Phidias' Athena Parthenos National Museum, Athens This is an inadequate Roman miniature of Phidias's immense and extravagantly rich statue of the goddess Athena. The cost of building the Parthenon, the propylaea and other buildings on the Acropolis was 2,012 talents. The statue of Athena alone cost 700 talents. About fifty feet tall, she was made out of ivory and gold. The statue was dedicated in 438 B.C.

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WEST PTEROMA

From the southwest corner Parthenon Acropolis, Athens 447-432 B.C. The walk space between the exterior columns on the left and the walled-in columns on the right is called the pteroma.

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Detail, COLUMNS AND ENTABLATURE

Parthenon Acropolis, Athens 447-432 B.C. Notice how the marble blocks sit in perfect balance on the abacus of the Doric columns. The masonry throughout the temple is so refined that no mortar is required at all. In this case the frieze has been stripped of both the finely sculptured marble metopes as well as the triglyphs.

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Detail, COLUMN

Parthenon Acropolis, Athens 447-432 B.C. The workmanship in the carving of these Doric columns, like everything else, is at a very high level. There are twenty flutes, each brought to a precisely pointed line. This emphasizes the height and thrust of the columns.

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Detail, COLUMN

Parthenon Acropolis, Athens 447-432 B.C. The Doric columns sits directly on the floor.

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PARTHENON

From the east Acropolis, Athens 447-432 B.C. The principal temple entrance is at the east end.

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THE RIVER GOD ILISSOS

From the West Pediment Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens 437-432 B.C. British Museum, London This supple figure from the northwest corner of the west pediment represents the god of the river Ilissos which flows through the Attica plains. These are all part of that fine collection of sculptured marbles referred to as the Elgin Marbles. They were "collected" by Lord Elgin to preserve them from the heathen. Although there have been years of negotiations between Greece and England, their return has still not been resolved.

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IRIS

Parthenon, West pediment Acropolis, Athens 437-432 B.C. British Museum, London The divine winged messenger Iris stood by Athena's side on the west pediment. Her wings gone, the wind still blows through and against the fabric of her tunic. Her energy, expansive yet in balance, typifies the classic Greek ideal and the standard maintained throughout the temple.

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DIONE AND APHRODITE

Parthenon, East Pediment Acropolis, Athens 437-432 B.C. British Museum, London Two of the three so-called Fates. These breathtaking female figures are sometimes identified as Dione and Aphrodite, the goddesses.

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CENTRAL PASSAGEWAY

Great Hypostyle Hall Temple of Amon, Karnak Dynasty XIX, 1318-1237 B.C. The central aisle of the great hypostyle hall at Karnak. It is lined on each side with six enormous columns seventy-eight feet high with lotus-blossom capitals. The passageway continues directly along the east-west axis.

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SIDE COLUMNS

Great Hypostyle Hall Temple of Amon, Karnak Dynasty XIX, 1318-1237 B.C. There are side columns with lotus-bud capitals south and north of the central passage. They are shorter than the main columns and set at closer intervals. Light comes in through windows above the taller columns.

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Detail, GREAT WINDOW GRILLE

Great Hypostyle Hall Temple of Amon, Karnak Dynasty XIX, 1318-l237 B.C. The windows are covered with stone grilles which severely limit the amount of light, leaving much of the columned hall in darkness.

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Detail, OVERHEAD WINDOWS

Great Hypostyle Hall Temple of Amon, Karnak Dynasty XIX, 1318-1237 B.C. Only narrow rays of light can enter through these little openings cut into the seventy-eight foot high ceiling at Karnak. It is typically Egyptian to place windows high on the wall or to make them overhead slits like this in order to keep the buildings in near-darkness.

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Detail, STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

Festival Hall of Tuthmosis III Dynasty XVIII, 1504-1450 B.C. The festival hall of Tuthmosis III also has light-slits high up in the wall which control and limit the entering light.

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OBELISK OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT

Temple of Amon, Karnak Dynasty XVIII, 1503-1482 B.C. The rose granite obelisk of Queen Hatshepsut is more than ninety-seven feet high. It is one of two built in front of Pylon V. Normally obelisks stand in pairs at the entrance to a temple. The top part which slopes to a point is called a pyramidion.

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PILLARS OF TUTHMOSIS III

Temple of Amon, Karnak Dynasty XVIII, 1504-1450 B.C. These two pillars stand outside the sanctuary of Amon. The papyrus decoration on the left pillar symbolizes Lower Egypt and the lotus on the right symbolizes Upper Egypt.

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AVENUE OF SPHINXES

Temple of Amon, Luxor Dynasty XXX, 380-363 B.C. This avenue of sphinxes connects the temple at Karnak with the temple at Luxor. Ahead is the pylon of Ramesses II.

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PYLON OF RAMESSES II

Temple of Amon, Luxor Dynasty XIX, c. 1250 B.C. One of the original two obelisks in front of the pylon (the second was taken in the nineteenth century to the Place de la Concorde, Paris). Colossal statues of Ramesses II flank the entrance. The reliefs and hieroglyphics have mostly worn away.

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MAIN PYLON RELIEFS

Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III Medinet Habu Dynasty XX, c. 1175 B.C. These brilliant pylon reliefs portray Ramesses III on a chariot drawn by horses as he and his archers hunt bulls at the edge of the river. Notice the contrasting scales between the king and his men and the fish carved at the bottom right.

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PYLON II OF THE REMEDIES

From "Description de l'Æ'gypte" Paris, 1809-22 This aquatint from a twentieth dynasty relief shows the tall flagpoles which ordinarily stand in front of the pylon. They are wrapped in colorful cloth. The flagpoles next to the obelisks and statues constitute the third essential symbolic element at the entrance to the sacred precinct.

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HYPOSTYLE COLONNADE

Temple of Amon, Luxor Dynasty XVIII, c. 1400-1360 B.C. The central colonnade of the long and narrow hypostyle of the temple at Luxor. It was started by Amenhotep III fifty years before the Karnak hypostyle and completed by Tutankhamon.

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HYPOSTYLE COLONNADE

Temple of Amon, Luxor Dynasty XVIII, c. 1400-1360 B.C. There are seven papyrus-bundle columns fifty-two feet high on each side of the passage.

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COLONNADE AND COURTYARD

Temple of Amon, Luxor Dynasty XVIII, c. 1400-1360 B.C. The hypostyle leads into a large court which is surrounded by columned halls open on the inner courtyard. In the distance is the pylon of Ramesses II. The columns on the left are bundled papyrus columns

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PERISTYLE AND COURTYARD Temple of Amon, Luxor

Dynasty XVIII, c. 1400-1360 B.C. On three sides of the court the columns are in rows of two. On the fourth (the south side) is a vestibule which leads on to the sanctuary. Where the light begins to be cut off again the columns are in rows of four. Originally there was a roof over the columns and an enclosing wall on the outside.

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Detail, COLUMNS FROM THE COURT

Temple of Amon, Luxor Dynasty XVIII, c. 1400-1360 B.C. These columns are among the finest achievements of Egyptian architecture. Known as papyrus-bundle columns, they represent bound stalks of the sacred papyrus plant which are capped with a cluster of papyrus buds.

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COLOSSI OF MEMNON

Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, c. 1360 B.C. Egyptian sculpture is as monumental as its architecture. These two sculptures, each carved out of a single block of stone, are about seventy feet high. They represent Amenhotep III and were placed at the entrance to his mortuary temple. Notice the small figure of his wife on the left-hand statue; his mother has a similar place on the right-hand statue. The juxtaposition of different scales is a common practice in Egyptian art.

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ROCK TEMPLE OF RAMESSES II

Formerly at Abu Simbel Dynasty XIX, 1304-1237 B.C. Ramesses II cuts this temple out of the rock mountain at Abu Simbel. Four huge sixty-five foot statues of the king overpower the facade. Little statues of his family are cut between the legs.

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HYPOSTYLE HALL

Rock Temple of Ramesses II Formerly at Abu Simbel Dynasty XIX, 1304-1237 B.C. Inside the unique temple are the usual complex of rooms. These are two of eight large Osiris sculptures lined up four by four against the pillars in the hypostyle hall. They are placed to catch the morning sunlight coming through the main entrance. The great hall is fifty-eight feet long by fifty-four feet wide. Deeper into the rock is a pillared hall, a transverse hall, and the sanctuary. To the side of these main rooms are the eight small ones used primarily to store ceremonial articles.

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SMALLER ROCK TEMPLE

Formerly at Abu Simbel Dynasty XIX, 1304-1237 B.C. The smaller temple at Abu Simbel is dedicated to Nefertari, Ramesses' wife and the goddess Hathor. Sculptures of the king and queen as Hathor alternate between incised pilasters in the form of buttresses. The carved areas of the facade were originally covered with painted stucco.

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AURELIAN WALL

Rome c. 270 A defensive brick wall built around 270 A.D.

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WALL NICHE

Horrea Epagathiana Ostia c. 145-150 This lovely niche with decorative brickwork held a small statue of a god.

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CEILING RELIEF

Temple of Bel Palmyra 32 A high relief pattern on a ceiling.

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FRIEZE AND ORNAMENTAL PATTERN

Ara Pacis Augustae Rome 9 B.C. The processional frieze and ornamental pattern on the southern side of the Ara Pacis Augustae, the Altar of Peace.

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CELLA FRIEZE

Temple of Apollo Sosianus Rome c. 20 B.C. An elaborately carved scene and leaf pattern from the interior cella wall.

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RELIEF

Forum Romanum Rome Decorative relief.

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APPIAN WAY

Rome 312 B.C. Original stone work on the famous Appian Way.

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GRIMINI ALTAR

Museo Archeologico Venice 1st century B.C. Known as the Grimini Altar, mythological figures decorate the four sides and the borders are ornamented with abstract designs. A Greek artist probably created these scenes of satyrs and maenads.

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FRIEZE

Temple of Minerva Forum of Nerva Rome c. 100 Roman architectural emphasis is structural. Decorative motifs are largely influenced by the Greeks, but the Romans developed some of their own decorative forms. This frieze depicts stories from the life of Minerva.

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COMPOSITE COLUMN

Horrea Epagathiana Ostia c. 145-150 A composite capital in stucco and brick on a warehouse in Ostia.

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BASE OF A COLUMN

Forum Romanum Rome 285-305 A column base which supported the statue of the Tetrarchy. The relief represents the sacrifice on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of Diocletian's rise to power.

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ORNAMENTATION

Provenance unknown 4th century (?) Cornice ornamentation.

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TOMB OF THE BAKER EURYSACES

Rome 40-30 B.C. For this baker's tomb, the cylinders are typical bread ovens and the frieze depicts stages in bread making. Plebeian art was typical at the close of the Republic and at the beginning of the Empire.

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SARCOPHAGUS OF CORNELIUS SCIPIO BARBATUS

From the sepulcher of the Scipio family Appian Way Early 3rd century B.C. Vatican Museum, Rome A sarcophagus ornamented with triglyphs and rosettes and other carvings.

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SARCOPHAGUS

4th century Louvre, Paris A late Roman sarcophagus with the Good Shepherd, lions' heads, and feet. The waving line pattern is fairly common.

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PORTRAIT OF A ROMAN PATRICIAN

First half of 1st century BC. Museo Torlonia, Rome Realism is the hallmark of Roman sculpture though it goes through many phases. This aging and dignified patrician bears the lines of a long hard life.

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MARIUS GRATIDUS LIBANUS AND HIS WIFE

End of 1st century B.C. Vatican Museum, Rome Husband and wife are united in this funerary monument.

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EMPEROR AUGUSTUS

From Prima Porta Early 1st century Vatican Museum, Rome Based on a classical sculpture of Polykleitos, Augustus is in military dress and represented in an idealized manner, both godlike and human. The idealized portrait came into fashion in the time of Augustus and lasted many years. This statue was copied from a bronze original and was gilded and painted.

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EQUESTRIAN STATUE OF EMPEROR MARCUS AURELIUS

Piazza del Campidoglio Rome c. 104 In this great equestrian statue, Marcus Aurelius is portrayed as an emperor and a military leader more concerned about peace than war.

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LAOCOON

by Hagesandro, Polydoros and Athanodoros c. 80 Vatican Museum, Rome The Laocoon is one of the most well-known works of Roman art. It presents Laocoon, the priest of Apollo, and his two sons being overcome by two large snakes. The sculpture is a work of brilliant and frightening energy.

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THRONE WITH TURNED LEGS

From a wall painting in a Villa at Boscoreale Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Roman furniture is largely based on Greek models. In many instances, it is hard to tell if a piece is Roman or Hellenistic. But there are variations and some original forms. In this throne of a woman playing the kithara, the form is predominantly Greek, though the more elaborate leg turnings, arm-rails, and paneled back are Roman. The painted pattern on the back of the throne is also a typical Roman embellishment. Notice the cushion embroidered in gold.

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THRONE WITH TURNED LEGS

Mars and Venus From a wall painting in Pompeii Museo Nazionale, Naples Another throne with heavy-set turned legs. A carved figure at the top of the leg supports the arm rest. The straight back ends in a small filial volute. Soft fabric hangs over the back and arms.

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STOOL WITH PERPENDICULAR LEGS

Girl Decanting Perfume From a wall painting in Villa Farnesina, Rome c. 20 B.C. Museo dell Terme, Rome A copy of a Greek diphros of the fourth or third century B.C., this stool with four perpendicular legs has been changed by cutting down the lower portion of the leg and by elaborating the turnings. There are heavier, almost throne like versions of this stool.

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FOLDING STOOL

Detail, Centaur with Apollo and Aesculapius From a wall painting in Pompeii Museo Nazionale, Naples This folding stool, probably in bronze, has thin, curving, unadorned legs. It is based on a Hellenistic model.

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FOLDING STOOL

Detail, wall painting from Herculaneum Museo Nazionale, Naples Another variation of a folding stool with double cushions.

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BRONZE COUCH

From a villa at Boscoreale Staatliche Museen, Berlin Most Roman couches have turned legs. This bronze example from Boscoreale is typical of the late Republican and early Imperial couch. A simple carved headboard ends in a swan's head; a rosette medallion is at the lower end. The legs have a variety of turnings and are supported by stretchers.

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COUCH AND FOOTSTOOL

From a villa at Boscoreale Metropolitan Museum of Art New York This more elaborate couch is made of bone and glass inlay. Notice the matching footstool.

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COVERED COUCH

Detail, The Aldobrandini Wedding From a villa in Rome Vatican Library, Rome The bride and Venus sit on this high bed which requires a footstool. It has a mattress and tasseled coverlet.

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COUCH

Courtship of Venus and Mars House of Marcus Lucretius Fronto Pompeii c. 30 Venus sits on a covered klismos with curved legs, her feet on a footstool. The high couch dominates the picture. Mattress and pillow are covered. The pillow is supported by a scrolled headpiece.

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MARBLE TABLE

From a house in Pompeii 1st century The Roman table, unlike the Greek, is used as a permanent piece of furniture. This traditional marble table or cartibulum stands in the atrium of a house in Pompeii. The thick marble top is precisely shaped as a rectangle and supported by four legs. The tapered legs are elegantly carved with volutes at the top. Three flutes run down the side to a lion's paw which rests on a high base. The grain of the marble is employed throughout for its decorative value.

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MARBLE TABLE SUPPORT

From the House of Cornelius Rufus Pompeii The rectangular table with highly decorated slabs at each end is an original Roman table form. Typical are the two winged monsters (lions with rams' horns) carved in the table support. The uncovered table was also found in an atrium in Pompeii.

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BRONZE TABLE

From the House of Julia Flex Pompeii National Museum Naples The round-top table with three animal legs is a form the Romans adopted from the Greeks. This elaborate example in bronze has clawed feet and animal legs which are connected with fancy scroll braces. Winged sphinxes support the decorated top.

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STEP PYRAMID OF KING ZOSER Saqqara

Dynasty III, 2780-2680 B.C. The step pyramid of King Zoser was built by Inhotep, chancellor of the king, high priest, healer, and architect. This is the first pyramid and the first building in stone. In six stages or steps, it rises to a height of 204 feet. The original limestone facing is gone. Zoser's burial chamber is at the bottom of a shaft more than ninety feet under the base of the pyramid. Even in this initial form the pyramid reaches out to link man with eternity.

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MORTUARY COMPLEX OF KING ZOSER

Saqqara Dynasty III, 2780-2680 B.C. A thirty-five acre mortuary complex contains the pyramid, a small temple, courtyards, a palace, shrines, altars, storehouses, and tombs. The complex is surrounded by an enclosing or perimeter wall. There is one entrance, a simple doorway.

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ENCLOSING WALL AND ENTRANCE

Mortuary Complex of King Zoser Saqqara Dynasty III, 2780-2680 B.C. The entrance to the complex. Like the pyramid, the enclosing wall is made of small stones and the surface is broken up and textured.

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COLONNADED PROCESSIONAL HALL

Mortuary Complex of King Zoser Saqqara Dynasty III, 2780-2680 B.C. The processional way through the large stone hall is lined with engaged columns. The great court lies ahead.

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MAUSOLEUM OF AUGUSTUS

Rome c. 28 The monumental Mausoleum of Augustus was built by the emperor for himself and his family. It is 220 feet in diameter and over 150 feet high. A cylinder rose through the center, with the ashes of the emperor at the bottom and the emperor's statue standing out on top. Most of the upper part is now missing.

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MAUSOLEUM OF HADRIAN

Rome c. 135 The culmination of the development of the tumulus, Hadrian's grand mausoleum followed the model of the tomb of Caecilia Metella. In its day it was elaborately ornamented. Later it was altered and changed into the Castle of S. Angelo.

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ARCH OF TITUS

Forum Romanum Rome 81 Roman soldiers marched through the triumphal archway and entered the forum on their way back from war. This ritual procession cleansed them of the blood of the enemy. Beautifully proportioned to minimize its weight, the Arch of Titus has many Greek details. The outside columns are the earliest examples of the Composite order.

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ARCH OF TITUS

Forum Romanum Rome l The ceiling of the arch is coffered and the famous reliefs of the victory in Jerusalem line the inside of the passages.

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ARCH OF HADRIAN

Athens Shortly after 138 This unusual commemorative arch, built shortly after the death of Hadrian, combines Roman elements on the bottom with Greek elements on the top. Missing are the original sculptures which helped tie the arch together.

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ARCH OF CONSTANTINE

Rome 315 The Arch of Constantine, like several arches before it, has three passageways. It is unusually large and highly decorated. Much of the sculpture was taken from earlier monuments.

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Detail, CIRCULAR RELIEF

Arch of Constantine Rome 315 The tondi or circular reliefs are from the time of Hadrian. This relief depicts a sacrifice to Diana.

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PORTA DEI BORSARI

Verona Probably third quarter of the 1st century This simple city gate with two entrances is decorated in an elaborate Baroque manner. The levels are contrasted and the details alternate throughout. Originally the gate had projecting towers at each end.

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PORTA NIGRA

Trier Probably early 4th century Part of the city wall, the arches of the imposing gateway were usually closed by portcullises. The corner tower, over ninety-five feet high, overlooks the countryside. Tuscan orders line the walls.

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PORTA SAN SEBASTIANO

Rome Porta San Sebastiano was built into the Aurelian walls in Rome. Notice the large keystone in the arch.

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TRAJAN'S COLUMN

Rome 114 The pillar of victory is a memorial for military triumphs. Trajan's column, based on the Doric order, illustrates Trajan's war with the Dacians. The 116-foot shaft contains a spiral staircase.

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Detail, RELIEFS

Trajan's Column Rome 114 The continuous three and a half foot spiral band of reliefs is more than 600 feet long. Carved on it are over 2,500 figures.

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MARKET OF TRAJAN

Rome c. 100-112 The market of Trajan (Mercatus Traiani) was a shopping center integrated into the flow of city life. The building had six levels, with entrances from the street below and from roadways above. Built onto a hill, the first two stories form a semicircle right next to the Forum of Trajan. Up to the nineteenth century, the market was a unique commercial space.

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MARKET OF TRAJAN

Rome c. 100-112 On the third level is the Via Biberatica which had shops on both sides of the street.

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VIA BIBERATICA

Market of Trajan Rome c. 100-112 Shops on the Via Biberatica. Above was a large market hall.

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SHOP FRONTS

Market of Trajan Rome c. 100-112 On the second level, facing the forum, is an arcade of shops.

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MARKET SPACE

Market of Trajan Rome c. 100-112 The largest market space is the aula coperta on the Via Biberatica. Two stories high and cross vaulted, it is lit by windows and large openings above. Throughout the market there were many windows to light the shops, stairways, and arcades.

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DOMUS AUGUSTANA

Palatine, Rome 81-92 The emperors built great palaces in the center of Rome. By the time of Domitian the sumptuous public and more modest private rooms were separated. These are the remains of the courtyard of the private quarters on the lower level, opening on to a large water basin.

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DOMUS AUGUSTANA

Palatine, Rome 81-96 Four-story arches on the side of Domitian's private garden court. A passage behind its arches leads to the private quarters.

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MARITIME THEATRE

Hadrian's Villa Tivoli 118-125 The Maritime Theatre (Teatro Marittimo) was Hadrian's circular island retreat. It was surrounded by a canal and a colonnaded portico and a high wall screened it off from the rest of the villa. The land was connected to the villa by two drawbridges. In the Theatre full scale miltary battles could be faught as a form of entertainment.

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CANOPUS

Hadrian's Villa Tivoli After 130 Hadrian's immense country house was laid out over seven square miles. This small part of the Canopus, the long water basin in the public section of the villa, indicates the Greek sources for the architecture. Hadrian had a great affinity for Greek art and he had copies made of Greek statues to line the canal.

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SERAPEUM

Hadrian's Villa Tivoli 118-134 At the far end of the Canopus is the Serapeum, a semicircular half dome. Water ran through a long central corridor, curved in front of dining couches under the dome, then passed into the main canal. From the time of the late Republic, water is a regular part of Roman domestic architecture.

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PORTA AUREA

North gate of the palace of Diocletian Split c. 300 Diocletian's palace at Split looks like a fortress on the outside. The so-called golden gateway on the north end of the palace is the entrance for official visitors. Its facade was richly decorated. Statues originally stood in the niches. Also missing are the columns between the arches.

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PERISTYLE

Palace of Diocletian Split c. 300 The peristyle is a ceremonial courtyard in front of the main residential entrance. The arches lead directly to the entrance-way. This is in the form of a triumphal arch capped with a temple pediment. The entire design enhances the lofty and solemn powers of the imperial throne.

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VILLA OF MARCUS FABIUS RUFUS

Pompeii 77-79 A suburban villa outside of Pompeii, originally situated next to the sea. Almost modern in appearance, it has six large windows in the projecting bay of its dining rooms. Dining close to nature is a Roman ideal.

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HOUSE OF THE FISH

Ostia 4th century Located at the mouth of the Tiber, Ostia was the port of Rome and an important commercial center. In the third century, its economy failed and it became a resort for the well-to-do. These are remains from the House of the Fish. The marble wall facing is gone. Notice the checkerboard floor pattern.

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GROTTO OF LOVE

Ostia 4th century This is another residence known as the Grotto of Love.

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HOUSE OF CUPID AND PSYCHE

Ostia c. 300 A statue of Amour and Psyche in a cubiculum or bedroom with a rich beautiful marble pattern. The house triclinium (dining room) was centrally heated.

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BATHS OF NEPTUNE

Ostia c. 120 The black and white mosaic dominates through the first and second centuries. In the second century compositions are freer and more lively, such as this marine mosaic.

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FLOOR MOSAIC

Corinth Museum 1st or 2nd century Mosaics with geometric patterns are typical in the first and second centuries.

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FLOOR MOSAIC

Baths of Caracalla 212-217 This interesting floor mosaic of the early third century is from the Baths of Caracalla.

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PONT DU GARD

Nîmes Late 1st century B.C. The familiar aqueduct provided water throughout the Empire. The three-tiered Pont du Gard transported water in its upper channel or specus for more than twenty-five miles. In building the 160-foot high aqueduct, no mortar was used in the masonry.

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AQUEDUCT

Segovia Early 1st to early 2nd century The double-arched aqueduct in Segovia is constructed of large shaped stones. Notice the way the arch is laid.

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ACQUA ALEXANDRIANA

Campagna 222-235 The Acqua Alexandriana, set in the Campagna, has one high arch. This is one of eleven great aqueducts which supplied the many hundreds of millions of gallons of water consumed daily in Rome.

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CHAIR OF PRINCESS SITAMUN

From the tomb of Yuis and Thuiu Valley of the Kings Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1400 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo Similar to the preceding Old Kingdom chair, this New Kingdom chair has significant features of its own. The backrest is slanted and shaped, forming an open triangle with the straight back and the seat. The curved shape of the arms, leg stretchers, woven seat, an the elaborate gold decorations and carving are all distinctive. (This particular chair is a copy of the original.)

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STELE OF WEPEMNEFERT

From Giza Dynasty IV, C. 2590 B.C. Museum of Anthropology University of California, Berkeley The stool with animal legs and a papyrus flower terminal is common in the Old Kingdom and earlier. This seat has a cushion.

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Detail, BANQUETING SCENE

From the tomb of Nebamun and Ipuky Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1400 B.C. The three stools on the left are made with straight wooden legs and are supported by straight and diagonal braces. The folding stool on the right has animal legs and a seat covered with hide.

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PAINTED AND GILDED STOOL

From the tomb of Tutankhamon Valley of the Kings Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1352 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo This ornate stool has a deep double cove seat and intertwined grillwork between the legs.

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MERERUKA AND HIS WIFE SEATED ON A BED

From the Mastaba of Vizier Mereruka Saqqara Dynasty VI, C. 2325 B.C. An early bed with heavy lion-claw legs, a high board at one end and a foot-board and cushion at the other, and with a thick mattress. Underneath the bed are tables and vases.

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BED

From the tomb of Tutankhamon Valley of the Kings Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1350 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo Covered in a heavy sheet of gold, this bed has a slightly curved frame with woven mesh. The legs are shaped like the fore and hind legs of a lion. The footboard (which is away from us) is carved with papyrus and lotus patterns. It is divided into three panels by binding rods which are also designed based on the papyrus.

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GILDED LIONESS COUCH

From the tomb of Tutankhamon Valley of the Kings Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1350 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo A lioness couch with carved heads and long curving tails.

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THRONE OF KING TUTANKHAMON

From the tomb of Tutankhamon Valley of the Kings Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1352 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo The golden throne of Tutankhamon. Sheet gold is worked around a wooden base and inlaid with faience, colored glass, lapis lazuli and calcite. The king and queen are sensitively portrayed on the shaped back. The arms are filled with winged cobras.

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WOODEN CHAIR WITH GOLD-COVERED DECORATION

From the tomb of Tutankhamon Valley of the Kings Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1352 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo The back panel has beautiful open carving. The seat curves up at the edges and down in the center. This is called a double cove. The lion's claws are carved in ivory.

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THE QUEEN PLAYING SENMUT

From the tomb of Nefertari Valley of the Queens Western Thebes Dynasty XIX, 1298-1235 B.C. The profile of this chair shows the shape of the lion leg and the straight outer back and curved inner backrest. The top of the back ends with a turn. The queen plays senmut, a game somewhat like chess, on a low table.

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CHAIR OF SENNEDJEM

From the tomb of Sennedjem Deir el M?dineh Western Thebes Dynasty XIX, C. 1250 B.C. This chair is painted all over. The craftsmanship is crude.

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HEADREST

From the tomb of Tutankhamon Valley of the Kings Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1350 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo This headrest is made of turquoise blue glass. The engraved gold band covers the joint between the top and bottom pieces. Its height is seven and one-quarter inches.

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WOODEN TABLE

From Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1450 British Museum, London A three-legged table. The most common Egyptian table has four legs and is low and lightweight.

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GAME TABLE

From the tomb of Tutankhamon Valley of the Kings Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1350 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo A game table of ebony and ivory. The game played is called senmut. When not in use, the pieces are stored inside the table.

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CASKET

Dynasty IV, C. 2590 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Turin This wooden casket held a woman's toiletries. It is decorated with ivory and blue and black enamel. The height is eleven inches.

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PAINTED CHEST

From the tomb of Tutankhamon Valley of the Kings Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1350 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo This simple chest on four short legs is elaborately painted, showing Tutankhamon in victorious battle against the Syrians. It was made to hold the king's sandals.

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CHEST ON LEGS

From the tomb of Tutankhamon Valley of the Kings Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1350 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo An ebony and cedar chest on long slender legs. The form is emphasized by the gilded hieroglyphics.

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ALABASTER BOX AND BOAT

From the tomb of Tutankhamon Valley of the Kings Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1350 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo The purpose of this carved alabaster box and boat is uncertain; perhaps it was used to hold perfume. Its value to us is that it is probably a replica of the funerary barge. It is inlaid with colored glass-paste and semiprecious stones and highlighted with gold leaf. Notice the columns with double capitals which support the awning or canopy over the cabin on the boat. The height is fourteen inches.

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SHRINE OF THE ROYAL COUPLE

From the tomb of Tutankhamon Valley of the Kings Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1350 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo The golden shrine held golden statues of the king and queen. The panels show the king and queen at different moments of intimacy.

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SMALL PERFUME JARS

Provenance unknown Dynasty XVIII British Museum, London Perfume jars made of colored glass less than four inches high.

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FLORAL LAMP

From the tomb of Tutankhamon Valley of the Kings Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1350 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo The graceful design of this lamp is based on the lotus plant and rendered in transparent alabaster. In use each vase held oil and had a wick.

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INNERMOST COFFIN OF TUTANKHAMON

From the tomb of Tutankhamon Valley of the Kings Western Thebes Dynasty XVIII, c. 1350 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo Tutankhamon's inner coffin highlights many qualities found throughout Egyptian art. A remarkably simple and sophisticated form is realized in very rich and refined materials. In this combination of form and materials, the Egyptian spirit strives to face the eternal world with dignity and peace.

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COLUMN WITH CLOSED LOTUS CAPITAL

From the Middle Kingdom Found in Benihasan Horizontal section is also given (Lepsius, Tagebuch.) Like all lotus columns, this one has neither foliage nor entasis. From the stone base, on which the column is raised, rise 4 main stalks. These, and the 4 intermediate stalks, are held together by means of 5 chaplets. The capital is made up of 4 lotus-buds with longitudinal convex bands. The abacus is small and square.

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CLOSED LOTUS CAPITAL

Dating from the Ancient Egyptian Kingdom Found by de Morgan in the tomb of the Ptah-schep-ses near Aboukir Horizontal section of the column is also given Revue arch. 1894. The column consists of 6 principal and 6 intermediate stalks, held together by 5 neck-bands. The capital consists of very sharp-pointed buds. The Intermediate stalks end above in open lotus-flowers. The whole column is painted over in a naturalistic manner.

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THOTHMES PILLAR OF GRANITE

Dating from the New Kingdom Found in the sanctuary in Karnak (Lepsius, Tagebuch)

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PALM-LEAF CAPITAL OF A COLUMN IN BERSCHE

Dating from the Middle Kingdom (Borchardt)

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PAPYRUS COLUMN WITH OPEN FLOWER CAPITAL

From the granite pilasters in front of the Sanctuary in Karnac (Lepsius)

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OPEN PAPYRUS FLOWER CAPITAL AT KARNAC

Dating from the Middle Kingdom (Prisse) Pictures and inscriptions are worked in between the painted flower stalks.

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SOUTHERN TOMB OF ZOSER

Saqqara Dynasty III, c. 2660 B.C. From the earliest dynasties Egyptian interiors are decorated with great care for content, design, and beauty. In the second Southern tomb in King Zoser's complex at Saggara, a relief depicts the king as he runs a ritual course during his Heb-Sed festival or jubilee. Blue faience tiles imitate reed matting around the low-relief panel and throughout the tomb. The delicate hieroglyphics symbolize eternal duration.

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Painting detail, BURIAL VAULT OF SENNOFER

Sheikh Abd 1 Gurna, Thebes Dynasty XVIII, c. 1448-1422, B.C. A detail of the vine. The painting is on plaster.

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FLOOR PAINTING

From Tell el Amarna Dynasty XVIII, 1379-1362 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo This is a portion of a floor painting with ducks, papyrus, and lotus flowers from the palace at Tell el Amarna. It was intended to be walked on.

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Detail, PAINTED CEILING IN THE TOMB OF THE PAINTER MAY

Thebes Dynasty XVIII, c. 1320 B.C. Detail of a painted ceiling in the tomb of the painter May. A funerary text is inscribed on the center yellow band.

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CEILING IN THE TOMB OF NEFERHOTEP

Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1345-1320 B.C. A richly decorative painted ceiling.

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TOMB OF RAMESSES I

Valley of the Kings, Western Thebes Dynasty XIX, 1320-1318 B.C. Ramesses I is surrounded by gods on the walls of his tomb.

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PYRAMID OF UNAS

Saqqara Dynasty V, c. 2350 B.C. The oldest known Egyptian religious text is meticulously cut into the walls of King Unas's tomb. The pyramid which stood above the tombs no longer exists.

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Interior, MASTABA OF MERERUKA

Saqqara Dynasty V, c. 2500 B.C. The mastaba is a tomb for court functionaries. Ordinarily a burial chamber is cut into rock below ground level. Built above the chamber is a simple rectangular flat-topped brick structure with sloping sides. By the fifth dynasty the tomb chamber develops into a network of corridors and rooms. In the chapel of the Mastaba of Mereruka, a statue of the nobleman stands in a false door. He also is represented in the painted wall reliefs.

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Interior detail, MASTABA OF TI

Saqqara Dynasty V, c. 2500 B.C. Scenes from daily life are portrayed throughout the tombs. Here a herdsman leads his cattle through a canal. The calf being carried in the front looks anxiously at its mother.

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HATHOR CHAPEL

From Temple of Hatshepsut Deir el Bahari Dynasty XVIII, c. 1480 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo A variety of painted borders in orange, gold, and blue surround and enhance the large pictorial areas. The chapel roof is covered with a flat barrel vault, an unusual feature in Egyptian architecture, which is painted to look like a night teeming with stars.

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BURIAL VAULT OF SENNOFER

Sheikh Abd el Gurna, Thebes Dynasty XVIII, c. 1448-1422 B.C. The normal effects of the unfinished and unsquared walls of this tomb are minimized by the painting. Notice the beautiful patterns juxtaposed on the ceiling.

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TOMB PILLAR

Tomb of Sety I Valley of the Kings, Western Thebes Dynasty XIX, 1318-1304 B.C. A pillar in the hall of six pillars in the tomb of Sety I. It is painted on all sides. This side shows the king facing Osiris in the shape of a mummy.

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ANTECHAMBER AND ENTRANCE

TO A SIDE CHAMBER Tomb of Nefetari Valley of the Queens, Western Thebes Dynasty XIX, 1304-1237 B.C. The decoration is elaborate, elegant, and mysterious. Prior to painting, the walls in the rock tomb are prepared with a thick coat of plaster and slightly modeled in relief.

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LIMESTONE STATUE OF KING ZOSER

Zoser Mortuary Complex Saqqara Dynasty IV, C. 2667-2648 B.C. Egyptian sculpture is closely tied to its architectural surroundings. This is the first known portrait statue. It was buried in the ground at the foot of the kings step pyramid. Two holes were cut into the wall at eye level, linking the king with the outside world. Zoser is portrayed in the ritual garments of the Heb-Sed festival.

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STATUE OF KING CHEPHREN

Dynasty IV, Egyptian Museum, Cairo One of the statues of King Chephren which stood in the hall of his valley temple at Giza. The pose is formal and the features are abstracted. He is protected by the falcon Horus. Originally the rich diorite stone was painted. Egyptian sculpture was not meant to be seen in the round. It stood up against a wall almost as if it were part of the wall.

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STATUE OF KING MYCERINUS AND HIS QUEEN

From the Valley Temple of Mycerinus Giza Dynasty IV, 2680-2565 B.C. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Regal and human, the hard-stone sculpture of Mycerinus and his wife is the first known work of a couple. It stood in the valley temple of the king's pyramid at Giza.

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STATUE OF KING NEB-HETEP-RA MENTUHOTEP

Dynasty XI, 2060-2010 B.C. Egyptian Museum Cairo A massive painted sandstone statue from a funerary niche in the king's mortuary temple at Dier el Bahari.

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BLOCK STATUE OF SENMUT AND NEFERU-RA

Dynasty XVIII, C. 1500 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo The architect Senmut and Neferu-ra, daughter of Queen Hatshepsut, cut in granite.

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GEESE OF MEIDUM

From the Mastaba of Itel, Meidum Early Dynasty IV, C. 2700 B.C. Cairo Museum Painted in sharp flat colors, these geese stand out against a neutral ground. In formal symmetry they face another group of three geese. They are a small part of a panel which is five feet long and only nine inches high. This is the oldest Egyptian painting to survive.

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WILD LIFE IN THE PAPYRUS MARSHES

From the Mastaba of Mereruka Saqqara Dynasty VI, C. 2300 B.C. Another small scene from nature on the walls of a mastaba. Originally this strong relief was brightly painted.

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DANCING GIRLS

From the tomb of Antefoker Thebes Dynasty XII, C. 1950 B.C. In this Middle Kingdom painting the figures are rigid and symmetrical. Everything is simplified, including the dress.

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PAINTED WALL

From the tomb of an unknown person Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1500 B.C. Scenes from daily life are painted one on top of another and can be read like a comic book, although in Egyptian scenes, it is generally one "reads" it from the bottom up.

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QUEEN AHMOSE

Bas-relief from the Temple of Queen Hatshepsut Deir el Bahari Dynasty XVIII, C. 1500 B.C. Painters and sculptors work hand in hand. During the eighteenth dynasty this collaboration achieves some of the great masterpieces of Egyptian art. The paint has faded on this small portion of a bas-relief of Queen Ahmose, mother of Hatshepsut. But the portrait that survives is delicate, moving and powerful.

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BANQUETING SCENE WITH FOUR LADIES

From the tomb of Neferronpet Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1450-1425 B.C. Four formal figures move in a musical rhythm. This is achieved through color as well as line.

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HIEROGLYPHICS

From the tomb of Thanuny Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1422-1411 B.C. In this small hieroglyphic section of a wall the two main portions are balanced through subtle variations. Notice how some brush strokes have been applied quickly, almost casually.

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FOWLING IN THE MARSHES

From the tomb of Nebamun Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1417-1379 B.C. The hunt is frequently represented on tomb walls. This exquisite example presents the hunt in a magical way. While retaining the typical formalities, it overflows with energy.

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Detail, HUNTING AND FISHING

From the tomb of Menna Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1422-1411 B.C. Depth in space is two-dimensional. Objects in the distance are kept the same size as those nearby and placed on top of them.

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FEMALE MOURNERS

From the tomb of Ramose Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1411-1374 B.C. The mourners are controlled. Their gestures are calculated and impassive. These restrained qualities are typical of Egyptian art at this time.

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THE PREFECT OF MEMPHIS, AMENHOTEP AND HIS WIFE

From the tomb of Ramose Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1411-1375 B.C. In the same tomb is this classical limestone relief.

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THE DAUGHTERS OF AKHENATEN

From Tell el Amarna Dynasty XVIII, C. 1375-1358 B.C. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford The Amarna style developed briefly under the rule of King Akhenaten. One example of the style is this painting of orange-brown casual figures against a brightly decorated orange ground. While the heads seem unnatural in shape there is speculation that this is a realistic portrait of the two sisters who suffered from a genetic deformation of the skull.

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ISIS, SETY I AS OSIRIS, AND THE PRIEST XUN-MUTEF

From a chapel dedicated to Osiris Temple of Sety I Abydos Dynasty XIX, C. 1304-1290 B.C. Some of the warm subtle color tones remain on this painted tomb relief of King Sety I.

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LADIES IN THE SHADE OF THE SYCAMORE

From the tomb of Userhet Thebes Dynasty XIX, C. 1298-1235 B.C. Typical of the nineteenth dynasty, this painting is elegant, precise, rich and elaborate.

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FUNERAL PROCESSION

From the tomb of Ramose Thebes Dynasty XVIII, C. 1411-1375 B.C. In the funeral procession the furniture-bearers carry most of the key pieces of Egyptian furniture: stools, a chair, boxes, a bed, and headrest. What one requires in the present world is necessary in the afterlife.

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CHAIR OF HETEPHERES

From the tomb of Queen Hetepheres Giza Dynasty IV, C. 2600 B.C. Egyptian Museum, Cairo This low chair of Queen Hetepheres has a wide seat that slopes toward the back. In the side panels of the high arms are three carved papyrus flowers bound together. The front and back legs are shaped like the legs of a lion. They are supported by beaded drums. The oldest existing chair, it was carefully reconstructed with parts of the original.

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Detail, ENGAGED COLUMN WITH PAPYRUS CAPITAL

Mortuary Complex of King Zoser Saqqara Dynasty III, 2780-2680 B.C. This beautiful form is introduced in Zoser's complex and lasts in variations throughout Egyptian architecture.

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THE GREAT SPHINX

Giza Dynasty IV, c. 2540 B.C. The sphinx has the body of a lion and the head of a man. It reclines next to the causeway between the pyramid or mortuary temple and the valley temple of Chephren. Its meaning remains a mystery.

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VALLEY TEMPLE OF CHEPHREN

Giza Dynasty IV, 2680-2565 B.C. In the valley temple the priests purify the body of the dead king on its way from the earth to eternity. The temple is a square building of massive limestone blocks which are faced with polished red granite. Light filters through small openings at the top of the wall. A flat roof is made of granite, the floors of alabaster. Against the walls stand statues of King Chephren (see A56).

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SHRINE OF KING SESOSTRIS

Karnak Dynasty XII, c. 1940 B.C. This shrine or repository chapel is a resting place for the sacred barge which contains the figure of the god Amon as it moves along the processional journey in celebration of the king's jubilee. There are ramps at both ends of the shrine.

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Detail, SHRINE OF KING SESOSTRIS I

Karnak Dynasty XII, c. 1940 B.C. The limestone pillars are decorated with relief and hieroglyphics.

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Sen-Mut

TEMPLE OF HATSHEPSUT Deir el Bahari, Thebes Dynasty XVII, c. 1480 B.C. The Unique temple of Queen Hatshep is built upward in three stage against the towering mountain cliffs. It is dedicated to the God Amon with parts also dedicated to the goddess Hathor and the god Anubis. In spite of the temple's setting and its very different open feeling, it follows the ancient sequence. There is a valley temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple and, cut deep into the mountain rock, a funerary chapel. The Architect was Sen-mut, who was also chancellor to the queen.

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BENT PYRAMID OF SNEFERU

Dahshur Dynasty IV, 2680-2565 B.C. The bent pyramid is transitional.

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Detail, BENT PYRAMID OF SNEFERU

Dahshur Dynasty IV, 2680-2565 B.C. The casing gives a polished solid surface to the pyramid

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PLAN OF TYPICAL FUNERARY COMPLEX

This diagram, while not of any specific funerary complex, shows the basic parts found at most of the sites. The body of the king was brought to the valley temple for the beginning of the burial process. In the valley temple it was "mummyfied" and prepared for burial over a period of two to three months. Next it was moved in a wooden coffin on a ceremonial barge, which was moved up the causeway to the mortuary temple. There after prayers and rituals it was placed on a more ceremonial barge which was moved by priests up a temporary ramp to the entrance of the pyramid. There it was carried to the tomb within the pyramid where it was placed into the sarchophagus, which was sealed with a heavy granite cover. After placing food and other objects for the use of the kings spirit within the tomb chamber, it was then closed and the pyramid sealed.

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PYRAMIDS AT GIZA

Dynasty IV, 2680-2565 B.C. The three great pyramids at Giza. The largest, the pyramid of King Cheops, is in the rear. To build it required over two million large limestone blocks. The pyramid of King Chephren is in the center and the pyramid of King Mycerinus is in front. The three small pyramids are of Mycerinus's queens. These monumental pyramids are precisely oriented to the four cardinal points. Cheops' pyramid is a square, 756 feet on each side. Its height is over 481 feet and the slope of the sides is 552'.

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COLONNADE

Temple of Hatshepsut Deir el Bahari, Thebes Dynasty XVIII, c. 1480 B.C. This colonnade is on the south side of the second terrace. Like all the colonnades throughout the temple complex, it is decorated with reliefs.

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Detail, SCULPTURED PILLAR

Deir el Bahari, Thebes Dynasty XVIII, c. 1480 B.C. The goddess Hathor, protectress of the city of the dead, is carved on this pillar from the Hathor shrine on the south side of the first terrace. She is portrayed as a beautiful woman with the ears of a cow.

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SACRED LAKE AND MIDDLE PORTION OF THE TEMPLE

Temple of Amon, Karnak Beyond the sacred lake, a significant part of the temple complex, is the hypostyle hall and to the left Pylon I. Pylon VII is on the far left, part of the processional avenue between the temple of Amon and the temple of Mut. On the far right are the obelisks of Tuthmosis I and Queen Hatshepsut.

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AVENUE OF SPHINXES

Karnak Dynasty XIX, c. 1275 B.C. Ram-headed sphinxes line the processional way from the river to the entrance of the temple of Amon-Ra. The route is laid out on a direct east-west axis.

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PYLON I

Temple of Amon, Karnak Ptolomaic Dynasty The pylon functions both as barricade and entrance to the sacred precincts. Beyond Pylon I, which was started during the Ptolomaic Period (304-30 B.C.) but never completed, is a series of pylons along the sacred way leading to the sanctuary.

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VIA DI MERCURIO

Pompeii The wide Via di Mercurio passed through the most well-to-do residential area and was open only to pedestrians.

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PLAN OF THE HOUSE OF PANSA

Pompeii 2nd Century B.C. Based on drawing of Sir Banister Fletcher Redrawn by Douglas A. Russell The floor plan of a typical upper-class home of the Roman Republic. Showing the rather sophisticated living arrangements of the period. Shops surround the house with separate entrances to the surrounding streets. The main entrance leads into the atrium, the most public area of the house, which has a number of small cubiculla. In the center is the impluvium which collected rain which entered through an opening in the roof above. At the inner-most end of the atrium was the tabliunum in which family busts and statuary were kept. This area could be closed off or left open to the more private peristyle, or colonnaded courtyard. Off of the peristyle were the families' private appartments, the triclinium (dinning room), a reception room (the Oecus), which lead to a portico and the ususal kitchen garden.

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SECTION THRU A HOME WITH CELLAR

Pompeii 2nd century This sectional view through a tradesman's home in Pompeii shows a cellar beneath the peristyle. The inwardly sloped roof and the roof opening (compluvium) can be clearly seen above the impluvium of the atrium.

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TETRASTYLE ATRIUM

House of the Silver Wedding Pompeii End of 2nd century B.C. This large atrium or central hall is from a house of the Samnite era. Four Corinthian columns support the open roof which is sloped inward to collect the rain below. The opening is called the compluvium. Behind the atrium is the peristyle.

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IMPLUVIUM

House of the Silver Wedding Pompeii End of 2nd century B.C. The impluvium or shallow pool which caught the rain falling through the compluvium. The walls were altered and redecorated in a later period.

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IMPLUVIUM

House of the Faun Pompeii 2nd century B.C. The famous House of the Faun was named after this little dancing figure in the square impluvium. Nothing else of the atrium remains. A second atrium was adjacent to this one and beyond the two atriums were the columns of the peristyle.

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ARTIST'S IMPRESSION OF THE FAUN ATRIUM

from Professor Barbette Spaeth, Tulane University This artist's impression gives us an indication of the Atrium with the Impluvium and statue of Faun as it might have looked. The Peristyle is visible through in the rear.

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FLOOR PLAN OF THE HOUSE OF THE FAUN

Pompeii 2nd Century Courtesy of Professor Barbette Spaeth, Tulane University (Excerpted from Professor Spaeth's accompanying text) This house was among the largest and most elegant of the houses of Pompeii. It took up an entire city block (c. 80 m. long by 35 m. wide or 315 by 115 ft.) and was filled with beautiful works of art, including the famous mosaic depicting Alexander the Great at the Battle of Issus, and wall paintings of the First, Second and Fourth Styles. The decoration of the house is heavily influenced by Hellenistic models. The House of the Faun was originally built in the early second century. In this period, the house was focused around two atria, one a large Tuscan atrium (3), and the other a smaller tetrastyle atrium (10), while the back of the house had a large kitchen garden. The two-atria plan represented an attempt to separate the formal functions of the atrium, i.e., the reception of clients and conduct of business by the patron of the house, from its private functions, i.e., the course of everyday family life. This type of plan is an intermediate step between the simple atrium house, with a single atrium complex, and the atrium and peristyle house. Apparently, the two-atria plan did not prove ultimately satisfactory for the owners of the House of the Faun. In the late second century B.C. they added a peristyle (8) to the north of the original two-atria nucleus, along with a service quarter to the eastern side (12-16), and reception rooms to the north. The rear of the house contained the kitchen garden. To this later period of the house belong its wall decorations in First Style and its famous mosaics. Finally, another peristyle was added around the time of the Early Roman Colony (20), that is, in the early first century B.C. This peristyle included more reception rooms along the south side (17 & 18), and smaller rooms, perhaps for servants, to the north (22) . The center of the new peristyle was occupied by the kitchen garden (19). With these renovations, the house acquired a new focus around the peristyles. The peristyles represented a private retreat for the family, a place where they could relax and entertain special guests. The front part of the house was kept for more formal occasions. The addition of service quarters reflects a further differentiation of function in the house, again separating the daily life of the family from the more public reception areas. The House of the Faun, with its elaborate decoration and extensive plan, represents one of the most important examples of Roman domus architecture of the second to first century B.C.

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PERISTYLE

House of Pansa Pompeii 2nd century B.C. Large columns from an early peristyle or inner colonnaded garden court. The peristyle is a private area in the house.

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VESTIBULE

House of the Samnite Herculaneum 2nd century B.C. Four styles are generally used to designate the major periods in Pompeian and Roman painting and decoration. The first style covers the period from about 175 B.C. to 80 B.C. The second style dates from about 80 B.C. until 1 A.D. The third style begins around 1 A.D. or somewhat earlier and lasts until the earthquake in 62. And the fourth style develops after 62 up to the end of the city in 79. This vestibule from the House of the Samnite is in the first style, also referred to as the incrustation style. Decoration attempts to be costly. These stucco-covered columns are an imitation of marble. Notice the beautiful stone wall which originally was covered and painted too.

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PAINTED WALL PANEL

House of the Samnite Herculaneum 2nd century B.C. Typical of the first style is the wall panel painted in different colors to look like different kinds of marble.

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TABLINUM WALL PANEL

House of Sallust Pompeii Another wall panel in the first style. The tablinum, originally the main bedroom, is the central room at the far end of the atrium.

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VILLA OF THE MYSTERIES

Pompeii c. 200 B.C. The Villa of the Mysteries was a suburban house on the edge of Pompeii. Originally a simple farm building, around 200 B.C. it began to develop into a fifty-five room elegant patrician villa. This is a restored section at the entrance. In the foreground is the top of the arched basis villae or platform on which the villa is built.

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PRIMARY ATRIUM

Villa of the Mysteries Pompeii c. 70 B.C. The atrium is reached through a central axis from the entrance. Two corner doors lead to the tablinum. Beyond the main opening is the peristyle corridor.

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SECOND STYLE ROOM

Villa of the Mysteries Pompeii c. 60 B.C. A room painted in an early and simple version of the second style. In general the second style divides a wall into three horizontal areas: a base at the foot of the wall; a middle area of broad and narrow fields; and a narrow top area. Painted columns divide the wall vertically. Rooms are made to appear larger than their size.

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VIEW OF POMPEII

After 80 B.C. Pompeii lay undisturbed under volcanic ash until the middle of the 18th century. It was discovered by accident in 1748. We are looking at a panorama of the city after it was excavated. Like so many Roman cities, it has organized main streets stretching through the city. Note the archway in the distance.

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FORUM OF POMPEII

After 80 B.C. The Forum of Pompeii has a central rectangular space, 466 feet long by 124 feet wide, surrounded by the most important public buildings in the city. Like other forums, it is set up on an axial plan. A colonnade lines three sides. In the center of the fourth side, visible in the distance, is the Temple of Jupiter, known as the Capitolium. The forum was paved with travertine stone and only pedestrians were permitted in its precinct. Situated on an old site, it was largely rebuilt after 80 B.C. when Pompeii became a Roman colony. The forum was again in the process of rebuilding after the earthquake of 62 AD. It was buried under the eruption of Vesuvius seen in the distance in 79.

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ENTRANCE TO THE FORUM

Forum of Pompeii After 80 B.C. One of the two arches originally covered with marble which flank the Temple of Jupiter and are the main entrances to the forum. The temple was built under the Samnites in the second century B.C.

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COLONNADE

Forum of Pompeii After 80 B.C. The two-tiered colonnade has columns in the Doric style on the bottom and slender Ionic columns on top of a cross beam. In Pompeii many columns were made of brick and covered with stucco.

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BASILICA

Forum of Pompeii c. 120 B.C. These more massive columns are from the basilica, the most important public building in Pompeii. Constructed prior to the Roman period, the basilica had three aisles and five entrance doors onto the forum. In the rear we see a two-tiered colonnade which has columns in the Doric style on the bottom and slender Ionic columns on top of a cross beam. In Pompeii many columns were made of brick and covered with stucco.

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CORNER ENTRANCE

Forum of Pompeii After 80 B.C. A corner entrance to the forum. The marble-covered arch was dedicated to Tiberius and the niches held statues of Nero and Drusus. The columns faced the macellum, the meat and fish market.

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BUILDING OF EUMACHIA

Forum of Pompeii Under reconstruction in 79 Headquarters of the guild of fabric washers and dyers, known as fullones. Fabrics also were sold and stored here. To be located on the forum the guild had clearly achieved a prominence in city life. Here we see the brick columns faced with stucco. The doorway in the rear is decorated with spiral acanthus leaves. The building was badly damaged in 62 and was still not rebuilt in 79.

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TEMPLE OF APOLLO

Forum of Pompeii 120 B.C. The temple sits on a platform built on ground sacred since the sixth century B.C.

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ALTAR

Temple of Vespasian Forum of Pompeii 69-79 A marble altar with a relief of a sacrifice.

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TEMPLE OF ISIS

Triangular Forum Pompeii Rebuilt after 62 The Temple of Isis, influenced by Egyptian beliefs, sits on the triangular forum constructed during the Samnite period. The temple cella held images of the gods and sacred water from the Nile. It too was rebuilt after the earthquake of 62.

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Famulus

FOURTH STYLE ROOM Golden House of Nero Rome c. 66 Famulus is credited with creating the fourth style in his decoration of the Golden House of Nero in Rome. The house was built after 64. In this elegantly painted early example of the style, large panels in the middle area contain landscapes and waterscapes; adjacent painted windows open onto simple but in-depth architectural views; and the top area introduces architectural fantasy.

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FOURTH STYLE HALL

House of Fabius Rufus Pompeii c. 70 The large hall has a black ground and the architectural forms break through the middle area into the top area. The large panel of Apollo, Bacchus, and Venus floats out from the wall, while small figures shimmer in space behind them. Space recedes even further through the rectangular boxlike shapes. The overall effect is an opening into the infinite.

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FOURTH STYLE WALL

House with Large Portal Herculaneum The grisaille creates another beautiful example of dimensional space in the fourth style.

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WALL MOSAIC OF POSEIDON AND AMPHITRITE

House of Poseidon and Amphitrite Herculaneum c. 70 The wall mosiac, known as opus musivum, became popular in the first century A.D. and primarily decorates grottoes and fountains. The brilliant mosaic of Poseidon and Amphitrite is on the wall of the nymphaeum. A formal architectural setting surrounds the figures.

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CUBICULUM 16

Villa of the Mysteries Pompeii c. 60 B.C. A more elaborate example of the second style with molding and arches in perspective. The architectural perspectives of the second style create illusions of space. By extending the wall surface beyond a single plane, the style radically changes the nature and feeling of the room.

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FRIEZE OF THE DIONYSIAC MYSTERIES

Villa of the Mysteries Pompeii c. 50 B.C. The great Dionysiac frieze in a living room or parlor. This monumental work, the largest to survive from antiquity, is in a simplified second style. The figures are framed on top and bottom of the frieze, with vertical framing panels which are broken in two. The flat red background limits the sense of depth.

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CUBICULUM 11

Villa Oplontis Pompeii Mid-lst century B.C. A cubiculum or bedroom next to the atrium. This is decorated in a fully developed second style. The wall and ceiling are divided by cornices of stucco.

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TRICLINIUM

Villa Oplontis Pompeii Mid-lst century B.C. An elegant second style wall painting in the triclinium or dining room. The architectural painting creates an entirely new space out of the wall.

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CALDARIUM

Villa Oplontis Pompeii c. 1 A.D. This is the caldarium or hot room in the villa's private bath. It is painted in the flat early third style.

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CUBICULUM 38

Villa Oplontis Pompeii 62-79 A beautifully painted ceiling typical of early Imperial times. The space is divided geometrically and delicately decorated.

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PERISTYLE

House of the Vettii Pompeii 1st century A.D. The peristyle or inner colonnaded garden court in the House of the Vettii. The peristyle is at the center of the house with the private quarters built around it. Typically the garden has bronze and marble statues, busts, and water fountains. The entire arrangement indicates the Roman love of nature.

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ALA

House of the Vettii Pompeii c. 60 The ala is a small room normally next to a large room. This ala has transitional decoration between the third and fourth styles.

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FRIEZE OF THE DIONYSIAC MYSTERIES

Villa of the Mysteries Pompeii c. 50 B.C. Near the end of the frieze the initiate kneels for the ritual flagellation. The beautiful nude figure of Bacchante dances willy.

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OUTDOOR BALCONY

Villa of the Mysteries Pompeii c. 50 B.C. The villa opens up to the countryside. In contrast to the enclosed city home or domus, this balcony is attached to one of the two central buildings. Notice the decorative brickwork in the exterior columns.

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Detail, BALCONY COLUMNS

Villa of the Mysteries Pompeii c. 50 B.C. Notice the decorative brickwork in these columns.

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PORTICO AND GARDEN

Villa Oplontis Pompeii Mid-lst century B.C. A handsome portico surrounds this large villa which was built in the mid-first century B.C. The garden entrance to the great salon is supported by two large columns.

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OECUS

House of the Vettii Pompeii After 62 This early fourth style oecus or small dining room has a predominantly white ground. Its architectural space is not as deep or as complicated as the more developed fourth style. Attention is focused on the delicate ornamentation.

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LARGE GARDEN ROOM

House of the Vettii Pompeii c. 62 The large garden hall off the peristyle contains some of the most refined painting of the early fourth style. Black bands break up the large red areas and these bands are delicately decorated. For the first time figures are introduced to the band at the base of the wall. In the upper area above the middle zone, a more complicated architectural space is enriched with mythological figures.

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Detail, LARGE GARDEN ROOM

House of the Vettii Pompeii c. 62 A small portion of the black band elegantly ornamented.

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IXION ROOM

House of the Vettii Pompeii After 70 This complicated fourth style dining room, possibly a reception room, has large mythological paintings set within the middle panels as well as small mythological figures dancing within white panels with delicate ornamentation. Alternating window scenes create another dimenion. The base is made to appear like marble. The upper portion contains architectural fantasies and figures of the gods.

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PENTHEUS ROOM

House of the Vettii Pompeii c. 70 These side panels have airy architectural scenes set into elaborately painted borders. The dining room is named after a large painting of Pentheus as he is being torn apart by maenads. Other mythological scenes are in panels adjacent to architectural views.

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LARARIUM

House of the Vettii Pompeii The lararium is a shrine to the spirits of the house, also associated with ancestors, household gods, and the emperor. The serpent, frequently represented, approaches a small altar as three young men drink and dance above.

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PRIAPUS

House of the Vettii Pompeii In the entrance hall fresco the fertility god Priapus, protector of the household, weighs his enormous phallus, a symbol of good fortune.

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HALL OR WAITING ROOM

House of Menander Pompeii A portion of the rectangular exedra in the House of Menander. The hall or waiting room was furnished with seats.

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ATRIUM AND TRICLINIUM

House of the Ara Maxima Pompeii 47 On the left are the atrium and triclinium. Beautiful remnants of the fourth style painting still enrich and transform the architectural space.

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CALDARIUM

House of Menander Pompeii After 62 An elegant small private bath. The painting is fourth style. The mosaic floors are from earlier Republican times.

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GARDEN PORTICO

House of Julia Flex Pompeii The portico along this garden consists of unusual rectangular and fluted marble pillars.

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PERISTYLE

House of Venus Pompeii After 62 This peristyle was built after the earthquake in 62. Decoration is in the fourth style.

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VENUS

House of Venus Pompeii After 62 In this garden fresco, the goddess Venus floats on a shell and two Cupids ride dolphins. Combined with other paintings of garden scenes, the garden is made to appear larger.

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GARDEN MURALS

House of Venus Pompeii After 62 Painted garden scenes with a statue of Mars.

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PERISTYLE

House of the Golden Cupids Pompeii c. 64 The elegant peristyle of the House of the Golden Cupids, built during the reign of Nero.

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SUMMER TRICLINIUM

House of the Mosaic of Neptune and Amphitrite Herculaneum After 62 An open court for summer dining and cooling by a fountain. The sunken floor with marble facing is used as dining couches. This also serves as a pool for the small fountain. The partially visible mosaic on the right gives the house its name.

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SUMMER TRICLINIUM

House of Aulus Trebius Valens Pompeii c. 70 This summer triclinium with stone couches and a round table is beside a garden and fountain. Behind is a beautiful checkered mural.

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GARDEN NYMPHAEUM

House of Lorelus Tiburinus Pompeii After 62 A great outdoor nymphaeum with water channels, pools, fountains, overhanging vines, and decorative murals.

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FOUNTAIN

House of the Great Fountain Pompeii After 62 Based on Oriental designs, the fountain niche is covered with a vivid and elaborate mosaic. Water came out of the center slit and flowed down the six steps.

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FOUNTAIN

House of the Small Fountain Pompeii Another fountain with mosaic decorations, including abstract and geometric designs, fish, shells, and other sea life.

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SECOND STYLE WALL

House of the Griffins Palatine, Rome c. 80 B.C. This is one of the first known paintings in the second style. The column bases are rendered in perspective, giving depth to the wall and added size to the room. In this early example the wall is divided horizontally into three areas, a characteristic element lasting throughout the style.

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SECOND STYLE MURAL

Villa of P. Fannius Synistor Boscoreale c. 60 B.C. Museo Nazionale, Naples There are three visual planes here: the colonnade in front of the door; the wall and door; and the world beyond the door. The masks are guardians of the beyond. The style creates a mysterious world, where tangible and intangible elements live side by side and yet blend into each other.

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SECOND STYLE PAINTING

Villa of P. Fannius Synistor Boscoreale c. 60 B.C. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York A painting of comic scenery for the stage uses the theme of the closed door but penetrates deep into an architecturally sound space.

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THIRD STYLE WALL

House of the Ceii Pompeii The wall surface is closed in the third style. A balanced and refined geometric pattern like this one is a major characteristic of the style. Efforts to achieve depth are abandoned in favor of pure ornament and finally soft amorphous and airy architectural form.

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THIRD STYLE WALL

From the Red Cubiculum Villa of Boscotrecase c. 11 B.C. Museo Nazionale, Naples This red which encloses and gives weight to the wall is a favorite color of the third style. The other dominant color is black. Typically the landscape panel is incoporated into the wall as a separate composition. It is delicate and dreamy and not as prominant as the large flat areas. The thin columns are a common feature of the style.

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THIRD STYLE MURAL

From a Cubiculum House of the Fruit Orchard Pompeii First quarter of 1st century The cool green-blue is another frequently used color of the third style. The delicacy of the bottom portion of the wall is more in keeping with the style than the garden trees between the slender columns of the large middle area.

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CALIDARIUM IN THE MEN'S BATH

Forum of Pompeii 63-79 The public baths in the forum were a central part of Pompeian life. This is the calidarium or hot room with a hot bath in the men's section. The room was heated by hot air which passed through an opening between double walls and floors. The marble basin held cold water for sponging. The windows were for light. Notice the decorative fluting on the stucco vault.

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TEPIDARIUM IN THE MEN'S BATH

Forum of Pompeii 63-79 The tepidarium or warm lounge in the bath. The elaborate stucco wall decoration was added in the last years before the catastrophe of 79.

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WINE SHOP

Via dell'Abbondanza Pompeii The interior of the small food and wine shop with a wall painting of its guardian deities.

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BAKERY

Strada Stabiana Pompeii These are some mill-wheels which ground the flour in the bakery or pistrinum. The top part rotates around the bottom stationary stone.

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THE BREAD SELLER

Fresco from the House of the Baker c. 70 Museo Nazionale, Naples Freshly baked breads are sold from a counter on the baker's stand.

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FOOD STOREHOUSE

Pompeii Food supplies were often stored in large terra-cotta jars buried in the ground. This system provided a way of keeping the stored foodstuffs at a relatively constant temperature.

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FULLONICA STEPHANI

Pompeii The largest laundry in Pompeii. The pressorium in the center was used for ironing. Living quarters were on the upper floor.

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WOMEN'S DRESSING ROOM IN BATH

Herculaneum The apodyterium or dressing room in the women's section of the baths in Herculaneum.

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VIA DELL'ABBONDANZA

Pompeii The Via dell'Abbondanza was the most important street in Pompeii. It held the commercial shops and private homes of merchants. A long street, it began at the forum and stretched to the Porta Sarno at the edge of the city. The stepping stones are for pedestrians in bad weather.

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FOOD AND WINE SHOP

Via dell'Abbondanza Pompeii The thermopolium was a shop selling wine and warm food. At this busy corner on the Via dell'Abbondanza, the food was kept in terra-cotta pots sunk in the serving counter. It could be eaten at the shop or taken out.

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FICO DEL SUPRANARE

Pompeii A small winding street. The house on the left with its jutting upper floor balcony was a brothel.

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Interior, BROTHEL

Pompeii Doorways to the cubicles in the brothel. Above are remnants of frescoes.

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BROTHEL FRESCO

Pompeii Fresco of a man and woman in bed.

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DECORATIVE BRICKWORK

Pompeii This decorative brickwork is from a house in Pompeii. The phallus was a common symbol which was believed to give protection against evil.

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AMPHITHEATRE

Pompeii 89-75 The oldest known amphitheatre, this arena was built in 89-75 B.C. and held 20,000 spectators, almost the entire population of the city. Tall supporting arches surround the amphitheatre and a large two-sided staircase leads to the third level. It had no underground facilities.

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Interior, AMPHITHEATRE

Pompeii 89-75 B.C. The shape of the amphitheatre is oval. Large stone sockets above the highest gallery were used to support the awning or velum (also velarium).

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RIOT IN THE AMPHITHEATRE

59 Museo Nazionale, Naples This third style painting gives a bird's eye view of the amphitheatre on the day of a bloody riot.

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COVERED THEATRE

Pompeii c. 80-20 B.C. The covered theatre or odeon is an excellent example of a Hellenistic theatre.

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PORTICO OF THE GREAT THEATRE

Pompeii 2nd century B.C. The rear portico of the Great Theatre, later used as barracks for gladiators.

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PALESTRA AT THE STABIAN BATHS

Pompeii 2nd century B.C. The palestra or gymnasium at the Stabian baths. A portico surrounded the area on three sides. Young athletes exercised in the center, swam and relaxed under the shady trees.

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INTERSECTION

Pompeii After 80 B.C. This is a typical intersection. Wheeled traffic passed over and around the pedestrian stepping stones.

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THIRD STYLE MYTHOLOGICAL SCENE

From the triclinium House of Sacerdos Amandus Pompeii The mythological scene of the chained Andromeda being freed by Perseus tends to emphasize the landscape and cool atmosphere instead of the people. This characteristic is also typical of the third style.

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FOURTH STYLE DECORATION

From a house in Herculaneum c. 70 Museo Nazionale, Naples The eye travels in and around, over and under, and further and further into the indefinable distance.

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WALL PAINTING

Portrait of a Young Woman From a House in Pompeii c. 50 Museo Nazionale, Naples A wall painting less than a foot in diameter, this delicate portrait (probably of the lady or daughter of the house) was worked into the wall decoration.

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THE STREET MUSICIANS

Dioskourides of Samos Villa of Cicero Pompeii c. 100 B.C. Museo Nazionale, Naples Mosaic has an important decorative role in the Roman household as well as in public buildings. This floor mosaic of street musicians, apparently based on a well-known third century B.C. painting, was made by a Greek artist, Dioskourides of Samos.

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ALEXANDER MOSAIC

From the House of the Faun Pompeii c. 80 B.C. Museo Nazionale, Naples One of the most famous pictures from the ancient world, probably a copy of a late classical painting, this mosaic of Alexander conquering Darius was laid into the floor of an open exedra between two peristyles in the House of the Faun. The floor mosaic was called tessallatum and is composed of tiny stones. This mosaic measures about nine by seventeen feet.

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ALEXANDER MOSAIC

From the House of the Faun Pompeii c. 80 B.C. Museo Nazionale, Naples Alexander is portrayed realistically and all the details of his costume are carefully in place.

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ALEXANDER MOSAIC

The House of the Faun Pompeii c. 80 B.C. Museo Nazionale, Naples Darius on his chariot.

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LATE THIRD STYLE WALL

From the tablinum House of Marcus Lucretius Fronto Pompeii Between 50 and 60 In this late third style wall the once restrained decorative elements are becoming excessive and architectural depth is reintroduced.

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Lachish

Identified first as Lachish by Albright in 1929, the tell was excavated by James Leslie Starkey 1932-38 and by Tel Aviv University 1973-87. Lachish is generally regarded as the second most important city in the southern kingdom of Judah. It enters the biblical narrative in the battle accounts of Joshua, Sennacherib and Nebuchadnezzar. [Bible Places]

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Masada

160 feet above sea level and 1307 feet above Dead Sea. 1950 feet long, 650 feet wide at widest place, 4250 feet in circumference. Snake path climb: 900 feet. From west, difference in height is 225 feet. [Bible Places]

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Tabernacle Model

At Timna Park, 20 miles north of Eilat in the Arabah, a lifesize replica of the biblical tabernacle has been constructed. While no original materials (e.g., gold, silver, bronze) have been used, the model is accurate in every other way based upon the biblical description. The model is located at the base of Solomon's Pillars but will be moved soon.[Bible Places]

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Amman

Tons and Tons of pictures including Temples, theater, palaces and much, much more...[Bible Places]

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Gerasa

Gerasa architrave stones, Gerasa Cardo from theater, Gerasa Cardo manhole ...[Bible Places]

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Gilead

Ajlun castle, Fields near Ramoth Gilead, Gilead flowers, Gilead goats...[Bible Places]

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Jabbok, Penuel and Mahanaim

Fords of Jabbok from Penuel, Jabbok Fords and Penuel from Mahanaim, Jabbok Fords from Penuel...[Bible Places]

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Jordan Rift

Acacia trees in wadi in Aravah near Petra, Bab edh Dhra Early Bronze shaft tomb entrance, Bab edh Dhra Early Bronze tombs...[Bible Places]

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Medeba Map

Dead Sea area, Jerusalem and Dead Sea, Jerusalem area... [Bible Places]

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Medeba Plateau

Mt Nebo church, Mt Nebo looking at Jordan Rift, Mt Nebo looking northwest at Jordan Rift...[Bible Places]

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Moab and Edom

Aqaba Turkish Fort Arched Entry, Aqaba Turkish Fort, Bozrah from north...[Bible Places]

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Petra

Bronze coins of Nabatean king Aretas IV, Bronze statue of Artemis from 2nd c Petra, Camel at Petra...[Bible Places]

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Abu Simbel

Abu Simbel temples on edge of Lake Nasser, Abu Simbel temples on edge of Lake Nasser, Queen Nefertiti temple on edge of Lake Nasser...[Bible Places]

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Aswan

Aswan High Dam with Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam with view of Nile looking north, Aswan market at night...[Bible Places]

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Dashur Pyramids

Bent Pyramid casing, Bent Pyramid closeup of outer casing, Bent Pyramid closeup...[Bible Places]

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Giza Puramids

Cairo stables at base of pyramids, Cairo stables at base of pyramids, Causeway from Chefren's Pyramid...[Bible Places]

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Jebel Musa

Church of the Holy Trinity atop Jebel Musa, Elijah's Hollow from above, Elijah's Hollow with Jebel Musa behind...[Bible Places]

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Karnak Temple

Bird in Botanical Garden of Thutmose III, Botanical Garden of Thutmose III, Botanical Garden of Thutmose III...[Bible Places]

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Luxor Temple

Avenue of Sphinxes with Luxor Temple, Luxor Temple and Avenue of Sphinxes at night, Luxor Temple at night from west...[Bible Places]

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Medinet Habu

Counting tongues at Medinet Habu, Medinet Habu colonnade, Medinet Habu colored columns...[Bible Places]

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Philae Island

Philae Island, now submerged, Philae outer temple court and first pylon, Philae outer temple court to south...[Bible Places]

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Amphipolis

Amphipolis Byzantine basilica mosaics, Amphipolis Byzantine basilica, Amphipolis Byzantine basilica2...[Bible Places]

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Athens

Most scholars believe that Paul traveled to Athens by boat from Berea and thus it is likely that he entered the city through its large port of Piraeus. The port was originally built in the 5th c. B.C. and still thrives today. In ancient times Piraeus was connected to Athens (6 mi. distant) by the Long Walls, two parallel walls 600 feet apart. [Bible Places]

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Corinth

One of the great crossroads of the ancient world because of its location on the isthmus linking the Peloponnese to mainland Greece, Corinth was a thriving Roman colony from the time of Julius Caesar. The city is always described as "wealthy" in the ancient sources and this prosperity was due in part to the city's taxation of the north-south and east-west trade routes.[Bible Places]

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Philippi

Philippi apparently had only a small number of Jewish inhabitants and no synagogue. Consequently Shabbat worship was held outside the city on the Gangitis River. Here Paul met a group of women to whom he preached the gospel. Lydia, a merchant trading purple cloth, believed Paul's message and was baptized with members of her household. Subsequently Paul went and lived at her home. [Bible Places]

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Thessalonica

Thessalonica Church of St Demetrios Roman street, Thessalonica Church of St Demetrios, Thessalonica Church of St Demetrios2...[Bible Places][Greece]

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Bethsaida

The northeastern shore of the Sea of Galilee is a fertile plain where the feeding of the 5,000 likely took place. There is good reason to doubt the current belief that et-Tell is Bethsaida, and a better candidate for the fishing village may be el-Araj near the shoreline. [Bible Places]

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Caesarea Philippi

Situated 25 miles north of the Sea of Galilee and at the base of Mt. Hermon, Caesarea Philippi is the location of one of the largest springs feeding the Jordan River. This abundant water supply has made the area very fertile and attractive for religious worship. Numerous temples were built at this city in the Hellenistic and Roman periods. [Bible Places]

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Capernaum

In existence from the 2nd c. B.C. to the 7th c. A.D., Capernaum was built along the edge of the Sea of Galilee and had up to 1500 residents. Today the ruins are owned by two churches: the Franciscans control the western portion with the synagogue and the Greek Orthodox's property is marked by the white church with red domes. [Bible Places]

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Cove of the Sower

Located mid-way between Capernaum and Tabgha, major centers of Jesus' ministry, this cove has been noted for its acoustical properties. Mark 4 records a time when Jesus was teaching to a large crowd and pushed out in a boat in order to teach them. Some suggest this cove is an ideal location for teaching the crowds. [Bible Places]

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Chorazin

One of the "Galilean" type of synagogues with typical characteristics: Basilica shape - three hallways separated by two rows of pillars Three doorways; central one is largest Benches around side; not much remains of the benches here. Stylobate - to support weight of arches [Bible Places]

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Dan

The largest of four sources of the Jordan River, the Dan Spring emerges at the base of Mt. Hermon next to Tel Dan. It flows for four miles before joining the second largest source of the Jordan River, the Banias Spring. Together the four sources (also the Iyon and Hasbani) of the Jordan River drain a total area of more than 2700 sq. kilometers. [Bible Places]

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Gamla

Known sometimes as the "Masada of the North," Gamla is most famous for its strong defense against the Romans in the Jewish Revolt in 66 A.D. The site is bordered on all sides by deep wadis of the Golan Heights and is approachable by only one footpath from the northeast. The earliest settlement was in the Early Bronze Age and the site was reinhabited by returning exiles from Babylon. Herod the Great settled Jews here to populate his border cities.[Bible Places]

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Hazor

Known in Joshua's day as "the head of all those kingdoms," the tell of Hazor is today the largest in Israel at 200 acres. At its height in the Canaanite period, the city encompassed the entire tell. Later when it was inhabited by Israelites, the fortified city included only the Upper City. [Bible Places]

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Mount Hermon

Mt. Hermon is the southern tip of the anti-Lebanon mountain range. Its highest peak is 9230 feet and the highest point inside Israel's borders today is Mizpe Shelagim at 7295 feet. The mountain is the only place with snow skiing in the country. [Bible Places]

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Mount of Beatitudes

The so-called "Sermon on the Mount" is recorded in Matthew 5-7 and Luke 6. The alleged discrepancy between Matthew's version being on a hill and Luke's being on a level place is easily reconciled with observation of many level places on the Galilean hillsides. Scripture gives no indication of the exact location of this event, but the Byzantines built a church to commemorate it at the bottom of the hill. Some of Napoleon's men placed it on the nearby Arbel mountain. [Bible Places]

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Nazareth

Situated inside a bowl atop the Nazareth ridge north of the Jezreel valley, Nazareth was a relatively isolated village in the time of Jesus with a population less than two hundred. Today Nazareth is home to more than 60,000 Israeli Arabs, and Upper Nazareth is home to thousands more Jewish residents. [Bible Places]

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Sea of Galilee

The Plain of Gennesaret spreads out below the Arbel cliffs. About five miles long and two miles wide, this stretch of land alongside Galilee's northwest shore was renowned for its fertility. Josephus wrote that it was "wonderful in its characteristics and in its beauty. Thanks to the rich soil there is not a plant that does not flourish there, and the inhabitants grow everything: the air is so temperate that it suits the most diverse species." [Bible Places]

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Tabgha

Two miles west of Capernaum is what Josephus referred to as the "well of Capernaum." Undoubtedly a popular fishing spot of the locals because of its famous "seven springs," Heptapegon (today the name has been corrupted to Tabgha) is the traditional location for several episodes in Jesus' ministry. [Bible Places]

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Ai - Et-Tell

The site of et-Tell is a prominent ruin that is usually identified as biblical Ai. Archaeological excavations though have shown that Ai was inhabited from 3000-2400 B.C. and again after 1200 B.C., but not during the time of Joshua's Conquest (1400 B.C.). Resorting to a "late date" theory of the Conquest does not solve the problem. [Bible Places]

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Khirbet el-Maqatir

One mile due west of traditional Ai (et-Tell) is Kh. el-Maqatir, an alternate location for Ai. Its location fits the approximate area one would expect to find the city that Joshua destroyed in the Conquest. Furthermore, the absence of any evidence of inhabitation at et-Tell should compel the honest historian to look elsewhere for Ai.[Bible Places]

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Gibeon

The Arab village of el-Jib sits on the north side of the hill and preserves the biblical name of the city inhabited by the Gibeonites. These people tricked Joshua into making a treaty with them; later the Israelites would be forced to defend their ill-made ally and in the process would defeat a five-king Canaanite coalition. The city of Gibeon sits on the west side of the Central Benjamin Plateau.[Bible Places]

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Jericho

The "City of Palms" spreads out on the west side of the Jordan River at 825 feet below sea level. The Old Testament site of Tell es-Sultan is in the distance and is the city Joshua destroyed. In Jesus' day a new center had been constructed on the wadi banks in the foreground by the Hasmonean rulers and Herod the Great.[Bible Places]

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Megiddo

Inhabited from the Chalcolithic period, Megiddo has approximately 26 levels of occupation. American excavators from the Oriental Institute worked from 1925 with the ambitious goal of excavating every level in its entirety. The made it through the first three levels before concentrating the work on certain areas. [Bible Places]

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Nebi Samwil

Though its name identifies it as the home of the prophet Samuel and the tomb of Samuel is here venerated by Muslims and Jews, scholars are agreed that Samuel's home and place of burial are at Ramah, about five miles away. Excavations around the modern building which houses a mosque and a synagogue have revealed significant remains from the Crusader period. [Bible Places]

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Qumran

10 miles south of Jericho, Qumran was on a "dead-end street" and provided a perfect location for the isolationist sect of the Essenes to live. The site was excavated by Catholic priest Roland deVaux from 1953-56. More recent excavations of the site have taken place under the direction of Hanan Eshel. [Bible Places]

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Qumran Caves

Allegedly discovered by a Bedouin shepherd chasing a stray, the initial Dead Sea Scrolls found here changed the study of the Old Testament. The seven scrolls were the Manual of Discipline, War of Sons of Light, Thanksgiving Scroll, Isaiah A and B, Genesis Apocryphon and Habakkuk Commentary. [Bible Places]

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Shechem

Located between Mt. Gerizim and Mt. Ebal Shechem is preeminent in the biblical record, beginning with God's promise of the land to Abraham. Later Jacob would return here with his family and settle shortly. During the Conquest, the twelve tribes gathered on these two hills to recite God's Law and the blessings and curses that accompanied obedience and disobedience. [Bible Places]

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Shiloh

The portable shrine that Moses built in the wilderness was stationed at Shiloh from the time of the Conquest until the city's apparent destruction by the Philistines in 1104 B.C. Psalm 78:60 (NIV) "He abandoned the tabernacle of Shiloh, the tent he had set up among men." [Bible Places]

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Yad HaShmonah

Nestled in the Judean hills about ten miles west of Jerusalem, Yad HaShmonah is a thriving moshav (communal settlement) composed of Israeli and Finnish believers in Jesus Christ. The hill the moshav was founded on in 1971 was apparently sparsely occupied in the Arab periods, based on archaeological remains found at the site. The hill is a kilometer away from biblical Kiriath Jearim and likely closer to the Camp of Dan mentioned in Judges 18:12. [Bible Places]

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Jerusalem Area G

The City of David was very narrow; about 80-100m wide. The east side has a steep slope of about 60 degrees. Though smaller, steeper and more difficult for construction than the Western Hill, the City of David was chosen because of its water source, the Gihon Spring.[Bible Places]

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Cardo

A 6th c. church floor in Medeba, Jordan has a mosaic map of the land of Israel with numerous place names in Greek. The center of the map is an open-faced depiction of Jerusalem with the city walls, gates, churches (with red roofs), and the Cardo. This main street of the city is depicted with two rows of colonnades running the length of the city from north to south. [Bible Places]

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Dome of the Rock

Built atop the earlier location of the Temple, the Dome of the Rock was built by the Muslim ruler Abd el-Malik in 688-691. Because of its situation on bedrock, the numerous earthquakes over the centuries have not caused significant damage to the structure (unlike its neighbor Al Aqsa mosque). This shrine was covered by a lead dome from 691 until it was replaced with a gold-colored covering in 1965. Because of rust, the anodized aluminum cover was again replaced in 1993 with a gold covering. [Bible Places]

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Garden Tomb

In Jerusalem for a visit in 1884, General Charles Gordon spied a prominent rocky crag which looked to him like it could be the "place of the skull" mentioned in the Bible as where Jesus was crucified. Around the corner Gordon identified an ancient tomb and putting the two together he located the hill of crucifixion and the nearby burial place. [Bible Places]

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Hezekiah's Tunnel

A 1750-foot (530m) tunnel carved during the reign of Hezekiah to bring water from one side of the city to the other, Hezekiah's Tunnel together with the 6th c. tunnel of Euphalios in Greece are considered the greatest works of water engineering technology in the pre-Classical period. Had it followed a straight line, the length would have been 1070 ft (335m) or 40% shorter.[Bible Places]

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Church of the Holy Sepulcher

Originally built by the mother of Emperor Constantine in 330 A.D., the Church of the Holy Sepulcher commemorates the hill of crucifixion and the tomb of Christ's burial. On grounds of tradition alone, this church is the best candidate for the location of these events. The Garden Tomb was not identified as such until the 19th century. [Bible Places]

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Jewish Quarter

The southeast corner of the Old City, the Jewish Quarter occupies about 15 acres and has been inhabited by Jews for centuries. Following the capture of the Old City by the Arabs in 1948, all Jews were expelled and their buildings destroyed. When Israel regained the Old City in 1967 work began to reconstruct the quarter and today hundreds of people live and study here. [Bible Places]

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Mount of Olives

Separated from the Eastern Hill (the Temple Mount and the City of David) by the Kidron Valley, the Mt. of Olives has always been an important feature in Jerusalem's landscape. From the 3rd millennium until the present, this 2900-foot hill has served as one of the main burial grounds for the city. The two-mile long ridge has three summits each of which has a tower built on it.[Bible Places]

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Mt. Zion

The modern Mt. Zion is a misnomer applied by Byzantine pilgrims who thought that the larger, flatter Western Hill must be the original City of David. Archaeological evidence has shown that this hill was only incorporated within the city's fortifications in the 8th century B.C. but the name has stuck. The Hinnom Valley borders this hill on its western and southern sides.[Bible Places]

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Old City Gates

So named because the road leading from it goes to the port city of Jaffa (Joppa), this gate is the only one on the western side of the Old City. A low part of the city wall was torn down and the Crusader moat of the Citadel filled in 1898 for the visit of the German Kaiser Wilhelm II. This gate was also the famous scene of the English General Allenby's entrance in 1917. [Bible Places]

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Southern Temple Mount

These excavations begun by Benjamin Mazar in 1968 were the largest earth-moving archaeological projects in Israel. Work continued until 1978 but has since resumed in the 1990s under the direction of Ronny Reich. These excavations are the most important for understanding the Temple Mount because of the impossibility of excavating on the mount itself.[Bible Places]

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Temple Mount

Often visitors wonder why the Temple Mount isn't the highest point in the city when the Bible seems to describe it as such. The answer is that the city today (including the "Old City") has grown and shifted from its original location. The earliest city of Jerusalem is the "City of David," a smaller hill south of, and lower than, the Temple Mount.[Bible Places]

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Tomb of the Kings

Generally regarded as the largest and most beautiful tomb in Jerusalem, the so-called "Tomb of the Kings" was the final resting place for the family of Queen Helene of Adiabene in the first century A.D. Located 820 m north of the Old City walls, the tomb got its name from early explorers who believed that this magnificent tomb housed members of the dynasty of David.[Bible Places]

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Warren's Shaft

Discovered by Charles Warren in his investigations of the city in the 1860s, this underground tunnel system has become known as "Warren's Shaft." The system by this name consists of four parts: the stepped tunnel, the horizontal curved tunnel, the 14 meter vertical shaft and the feeding tunnel. Scholars have long debated the date and function of this system. [Bible Places]

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Western Wall

Formerly known as the Wailing Wall, the Western Wall is now so known because of the desire to remove the negative associations that the Wall had before its recapture in 1967. The plaza was created as an area for prayer (technically it is a synagogue) beginning in 1967 and thousands of people sometimes gather here for prayer. [Bible Places]

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Ashkelon

The Philistines who migrated to the coastal plain of Israel about 1200 B.C. settled in five major cities. Three of these were along the coastal branch of the International Highway leading from Egypt, but because of the presence of sand dunes, only Ashkelon was built on the shore. At 150 acres, the tell of Ashkelon is the largest Philistine city and one of the largest tells in all of ancient Israel. [Bible Places]

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Beersheba

Near the outer gate of the city is a well and a tamarisk tree. Both are later than the time of the patriarchs, but they remind one of the well Abraham dug and the tree he planted (Gen 21). The tamarisk tree is well suited to life in the Negev with its deep root system and its ability to survive on brackish water. It secretes salt on its leaves and drips water in the morning.[Bible Places]

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Beth Shemesh

A border city between Judah and Dan, Beth Shemesh was given to the Levites. Beth Shemesh was the most important Israelite city in the Sorek Valley as it watched both east-west traffic through the Sorek Valley and north-south traffic along the "Diagonal Route." Recent excavations have shown a thriving city here from the Middle Bronze Age through the Iron II period.[Bible Places]

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Dead Sea

Known in the Bible as the "Salt Sea" or the "Sea of the Arabah," this inland body of water is appropriately named because its high mineral content allows nothing to live in its waters. Other post-biblical names for the Dead Sea include the "Sea of Sodom," the "Sea of Lot," the "Sea of Asphalt" and the "Stinking Sea." In the Crusader period, it was sometimes called the "Devil's Sea." All of these names reflect something of the nature of this lake.[Bible Places]

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Elath

The southern tip of modern Israel, ancient Elath was outside the prescribed boundaries of the Promised Land for the children of Israel. It was one of the stops on the wilderness travels (Deut 2:8). The relationship of Elath to Ezion Geber is unclear; the Bible says that these two places were near each other by the Red Sea but the exact location of these ancient sites is still uncertain. [Bible Places]

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Gezer

Situated near the International Coastal Highway and guarding the primary route into the Israelite hill country, Gezer was one of the most strategic cities in the Canaanite and Israelite periods. Gezer is a prominent 33-acre site that overlooked the Aijalon Valley and the road leading through it to Jerusalem. The tell was identified as biblical Gezer in 1871 by C. Clermont-Ganneau who two years later found the first of many boundary stones inscribed with the city's name.[Bible Places]

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Hebron

Genesis 23 records the purchase by Abraham of a plot of ground in Hebron for a burial cave for his wife Sarah. In a deal that foreshadows many such other Middle Eastern deals, Abraham paid an outrageous 400 shekels of silver to Ephron the Hittite. Later Abraham, Isaac, Rebekah, Jacob and Leah would be buried here. [Bible Places]

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Herodium

Herodium is 3 miles southeast of Bethlehem and 8 miles south of Jerusalem. Its summit is 2460 feet above sea level. Herod built or re-built eleven fortresses. This one he constructed on the location of his victory over Antigonus in 40 B.C.[Bible Places]

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Dr. K. C. Hanson's Photo Galleries

Photo Gallery of Ancient Mesopotamia, Syria & Israel, Greece & Rome, By Dr. K. C. Hanson "Many of the photographs included here were taken at European museums in June, 1997"

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/...

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago

The directory contains a TABLE OF CONTENTS (Website Query/Search), ABZU (Index to Ancient Near Eastern Resources on the Internet), THE MUSEUM, MUSEUM EDUCATION, & STORE (SUQ), ELECTRONIC, RESOURCES, RESEARCH & PROJECTS, DEPARTMENTS, and PUBLICATIONS.

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Holyland Model of ancient Jerusalem

From Holyland Turism. A Virtual Tour of Ancient Jerusalem: Holyland Hotel Model. The scale of the Holyland Model is 1:50 (2 cm. = 1m., 1/4 in. = 1 ft.). The model was produced using the same materials that were used in the times of the original construction, such as marble, stone, wood, copper and iron. The model was completed in 1969. The sources used in planning the model were the Mishna, the Tosephtha, the Talmud, the writings of Jesephus and the New Testament. The construction of the model is due to the initiative and resources of Mr. Hans Kroch. The archaeological and topographical data were supplied by Prof. M. Avi-Yonah, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, one of the foremost authorities on the subject. Since construction, the site is continuously updated according to the latest archaeological findings.

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The Detroit Institute of Arts

The Detroit Institute of Arts is the fifth-largest fine arts museum in the United States with holdings of over 60,000 works. Within its more than one hundred galleries are paintings, sculpture, and graphic and decorative arts that reveal the scope and depth of human experience, imagination and emotion.

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Metropolitan Museum of Art is one of the largest and finest art museums in the world. Its collections include more than two million works of art""several hundred thousand of which are on view at any given time""spanning more than 5,000 years of world culture, from prehistory to the present.

Link: http://www.metmuseum.org/...

The Michael C, Carlos Museum

The Michael C. Carlos Museum is located within Emory University and serves its community as well the general public. Its permanent collection of over 15,000 objects spans nearly 9,000 years from the prehistoric cultures of seventh millennium B.C. to the twentieth century.

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Bible History Online Images From the Past

Coins, statues, busts, places, Reliefs and more

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/...

1 Bible History Online "Images From The Past"

Coins, statues, busts, places, Reliefs and more

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/...

1 Bible History Online "Images From The Past"

Coins, statues, busts, places, Reliefs and more

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/...

1 Bible History Online "Images From The Past"

Coins, statues, busts, places, Reliefs and more

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/...

1 Bible History Online "Images From The Past"

Coins, statues, busts, places, Reliefs and more

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/...

1 Bible History Online "Images From The Past"

Coins, statues, busts, places, Reliefs and more

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/...

1 Bible History Online "Images From The Past"

Coins, statues, busts, places, Reliefs and more

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/...

1 Bible History Online "Images From The Past"

Coins, statues, busts, places, Reliefs and more

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/...

EIKON Image Database for Biblical Studies

The EIKON Image Database for Biblical Studies is a faculty-library initiative at Yale Divinity School that provides digital resources for teaching and research in the field of Biblical studies.

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Mayan Acropolis at Copan

This sketch is a reconstruction of the ancient multi-plaza "acropolis" at Copan which was a major Maya Classic settlement and religious center. Bible History Online

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/mayan-acr...

Reconstruction Sketch of the Ziggurat at Ur

Ur of the Chaldees was the original home of Abraham, the first Hebrew.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/art/ur_zi...

Oval Temple at Khafaje

This sketch is a reconstruction of the ancient Sumerian "Oval Temple" at Khafaje from around 2500 BC. Archaeologists unearthed this site in the 1930`s.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/oval-temp...

Karnak - Temple of Amun

This sketch is a reconstruction of the great ancient temple of Amun at Karnak, the ram-headed god of Thebes. His union was with the sun-god Re and thus Amun-Re.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/karnak-te...

Luxor - Amun Cult Center

This sketch is a reconstruction of Luxor, near Karnak which was another cult center of the Amun.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/luxor-amu...

Dagon the Fish-God

Dagon was the god of the Philistines. This image shows that the idol was represented in the combination of both man and fish. The name "Dagon" is derived from "dag" which means "fish." Although there was a deep affection from Dagon`s worshippers to their deity, the symbol of a fish in human form was really meant to represent fertility and the vivifying powers of nature and reproduction.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/dagon-the...

Assyrian King Trods the Neck of His Enemy

This Assyrian king places his foot upon the neck of his enemy to symbolize complete subjugation and possession of the captured king.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/assyrian-...

Prisoners Under an Egyptian Kings Footstool

This sketch is from a larger one where Pharaoh (Amenhotep II 1448-1420 BC) places his feet upon his enemies, in this case his enemies were Negroes and Semites, who were caught in a snare. Notice that the subjugated persons have their arms tied behind their backs and "have now been made his footstool." The "footstool" is mentioned in Scripture as apart of the throne of the king and symbolizes God`s throne.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/prisoners...

Assyrian Fetters

Fetters were used to fasten prisoners. They were made of various shapes and materials. The ones that were put on Zedekiah and Samson were made of brass or copper. The sketch on top is from a pair of Fetters found in Nineveh. They weigh 8 lbs, 11 oz. and are 16 ½ inches long. The part which enclosed the ankles is thinner so that they could be hammered small after the feet were placed in them. The Egyptians enclosed the hands of their prisoners in an elongated shackle of wood, made of two opposite segments nailed together at each end.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/assyrian-...

Egyptians Counting Enemy Hands

This sketch represents how the Egyptians would count the severed hands of enemy corpses after a battle. They would usually cut off the hands or the genitals of the dead and make a heap before their king. In one case 12,535 of these "battle trophies" were counted and assembled into a mound after a victory of Ramsees III over the Libyans.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/egyptians...

Assyrian Death Penalty

This sketch represents the usual death penalty given by the Assyrians which was hoisting on poles. The victims were tied with their stomachs or throats on the point of a stake so that their own weight thrust them downwards. There are many examples revealing Assyrian severity. A captured king was taken to the capital and compelled to pull the royal chariot of triumph. Rings were put through their lips or noses and sometimes hands, feet, noses and ears were cut off, they were blinded and their tongues were torn from their mouths. Prisoners were skinned alive and set on fire. Their skins were also hung near enemy city gates in order to collect tribute. The Lord allowed the ruthless Assyrians to capture the northern kingdom of Israel in 722 BC because of Israel`s rebellion against Him. They were never seen again.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/assyrian-...

Assyrians Blinding Their Prisoners

This sketch represents part of a scene from a marble slab discovered at Khorsabad. The Assyrian king is using a spear to blind one of his many prisoners. In his left hand he holds a cord with a hook attached at the opposite end which are inserted into the prisoners lips. The Assyrians would thrust the point of a dagger or spear into the eye. Their are many representations that have been discovered revealing that the Babylonians, Assyrians and Persians made use of the same cruel punishment.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/assyrians...

Israelites Forced to Labor

This sketch is taken from a marble relief found in the palace of Sennacherib. It illustrates how the Israelite prisoners were assembled into gangs and forced to perform heavy labor. They are clothed in short skirted garments and are carrying heavy loads of rocks.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/israelite...

The Roman Scourge

The Romans would, according to custom, scourge a condemned criminal before he was put to death. The Roman scourge, also called the "flagrum" or "flagellum" was a short whip made of two or three leather (ox-hide) thongs or ropes connected to a handle as in the sketch above. The leather thongs were knotted with a number of small pieces of metal, usually zinc and iron, attached at various intervals. According to history the punishment of a slave was particularly dreadful. The leather was knotted with bones, or heavy indented pieces of bronze. Sometimes the Roman scourge contained a hook at the end and was given the terrifying name "scorpion."

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/flagrum...

The Egyptian Staff of Inheritance

This engraving reveals the staff of inheritance in the left hand. If it were in the right hand it would be a scepter. This Egyptian was from the time of Amunmai Thori II, around two hundred years or so before Moses. Ancient Egyptian Tomb Walls contain pictures of important men represented with a long staff which marks his rank, head of a family and great landowner. Fragments have been discovered revealing these rods with hieroglyphic inscriptions. It is interesting that God anointed the staff or rod of Moses to lead the people of Israel to the promised land.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/egyptian-...

Philistine Ships

Philistine ships were sailing ships and had no oars. In the front and rear was a vertical prow and sternpost. In this image they were carved in the shape of a swans neck. At the top of the mast was a crows nest. Notice the ship below contains two Philistine warriors carrying their round army shields and the warrior on the right is also holding a special dagger in his right hand.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/philistin...

Phoenician Ships

Phoenician ships had a curved shape with similar stems and sternposts. The masts had two large yardarms. Notice all the ropes used in the yard rigging. The ships also had high washboards with strakes around the deck to prevent cargo from falling off during heavy seas. The prophet Ezekiel describes the building of these ships: "They made all your planks of fir trees from Senir; They took a cedar from Lebanon to make you a mast. Of oaks from Bashan they made your oars; The company of Ashurites have inlaid your planks With ivory from the coasts of Cyprus. Fine embroidered linen from Egypt was what you spread for your sail; Blue and purple from the coasts of Elishah was what covered you." - Ezek 27:5-7

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/phoenicia...

Pompeii Illustration Rolling Up a Sail

A mural found in the ruins of ancient Pompeii reveals how sails were furled (rolled up). The mainmast was in the center, made of one piece and held by strong ropes running from the sides of the ship to the main top. The large yard was fixed to the mainmast which enabled it to carry the sail. Four-inch strips of leather was sewn across the sail to reinforce it..

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/pompeii-s...

Paul`s Ship Traveling to Malta

It was actually a grain ship like the image above. It was of enormous size and the corn ship that Paul traveled on carried 276 men. Ships of this size had a tonnage of 2,600 tons. The hull ran up to a bird`s-head carving above the bows and a bird`s-tail at the stern. In the midst was a high mast, usually of cedar wood and near the prow was a smaller one for hoisting a small sail. Two large oars were used to steer. On the deck was a wooden hut for the helmsman which was also used as a temple of worship containing an idol.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/pauls-shi...

Ancient Assyrian Images

Photos of Assyrian reliefs and maps. Browsable directory. Bible History Online

Link: https://bible-history.com/people/assyria...

2. Images of Roman Emperors

Photos, coins, busts, etc. from around the net. Browsable Directory of Images. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/people/roman_e...

1. Images of Herod and Family

Photos and items from around the net. Browsable Directory of Images. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/people/herod/...

2. Ancient Art

Photos of ancient art from various museums and personal Collections.

Link: https://bible-history.com/ancient_art...