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Biblical Archaeology

What is Biblical Archaeology?

WHAT IS ARCHAEOLOGY? Archaeology is the science of antiquities, or the study of the relics of early races in order in understand as much as possible about the life they lived. Bible archaeology limits the study to Bible lands and to those discoveries that have definite bearing upon the Scriptures. Much of the work of Bible archaeology, we shall see, has to do with the excavating of mounds of ancient cities of Bible lands. [ARCHAEOLOGY IN BIBLE LANDS]

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The Value of Studying Biblical Archaeology

The value of the study of Bible archaeology. Numerous critics of the Bible who have boasted of using so-called scientific methods have challenged the accuracy and the historicity of many statements in the Scriptures. The early narratives of the Bible have been declared to be legendary or mythical. A late date has been suggested for certain books of Scripture, and thus certain expressions in those books have been said to be anachronistic. Archaeology is of value to the Bible student in demonstrating scientifically that the Bible is correct and historically accurate, thus proving again and again that its critics are wrong. Dr. W. F. Albright, a recognized authority in the field of archaeology, has made the following statement about the results of the excavator`s work: "Nothing tending to disturb the religious faith of Jew or Christian has been discovered . . . Discovery after discovery has established the accuracy of innumerable details, and has brought increased recognition of the value of the Bible as a source book of history." Nor is this the only value of the study of Bible archaeology. In addition to proving the Bible to be true, the findings of the excavators have made it possible for the Bible student to have a better background for a study of Bible times. Because of these findings, we have a clearer understanding of the manners and customs of the Hebrew people of Bible days, and also those of other nations living in Bible lands. This knowledge is a great asset in the study of the Scriptures. It brings to us new light on the meaning of many Bible passages. There is, then, a twofold value in the study of Bible archaeology: Bible corroboration, and Bible illumination. [ARCHAEOLOGY IN BIBLE LANDS]

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Buried Cities, Mounds, and Tells

How cities have become buried, and why they are in the form of a mound (or tell). When the ancients would build a new city, they often chose a hill located near a spring. They would build a wall around the city to protect it against an enemy. The city thus built might be occupied for several centuries and then be destroyed by an enemy, or by earthquake, or fire. The site of the city might lie unoccupied for an indefinite time. Then another people would decide to build a new city on the site of the old one without clearing away all the debris of the old city. And many years later this city would also be destroyed. So it has happened that a mound, after being excavated, has been found to be the site for as many as twelve or thirteen cities built one right on top of the preceding one. Archaeologists call the plane or level of each successive city an occupational levels. [ARCHAEOLOGY IN BIBLE LANDS]

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Excavations and Documentation

The science of uncovering a buried city. The early pioneers in archaeology had not developed the scientific methods that have been used by the twentieth- century excavators. Now it is customary for each occupational level of earth to be removed and everything found in it recorded before the next deepest level is uncovered. Everything found is always studied in relation to where it is found. Thus the value of the discoveries is not lost. [ARCHAEOLOGY IN BIBLE LANDS]

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Dating Every Level of Occupation

Dating a city-level. The giving of a date to each occupational level is largely determined by the remnants of pottery found there. It was Sir Flinders Petrie, about the turn of the century, who discovered that each archaeological period had its own typical pottery. Thus he was the first to state the principle that the successive levels of occupation in a mound could be recognized through the broken pieces of pottery that were found in those layers. [ARCHAEOLOGY IN BIBLE LANDS]

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Careful Examination of a Site

Evaluating discoveries. Since excavators seldom, if ever, find a building in a perfect state of preservation, it becomes necessary for them to make a very careful study of what remains they do find in relation to the vicinity where they were found in order to "reconstruct" a picture of the building as it once appeared. Such "reconstructions" of ancient temples, palaces, or ordinary houses, are of great value in the knowledge we secure of the life of people in Bible times. [ARCHAEOLOGY IN BIBLE LANDS]

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Archaeological Periods in Ancient Israel

Archaeological periods in Palestine. There is not exact agreement among archaeologists regarding the various datings of archaeological ages in the Holy Land. The following dates are suggested. Details concerning the Stone Age have not been included because there has been so much speculation regarding many of the early dates. New discoveries cause former dates to be changed. But the student of archaeology needs to know approximate dates of archaeological periods referred to in the writings on the subject.

I. THE STONE AGE Prior to 3000 B.C.
II. THE BRONZE AGE 3000-1200 B.C.
Early Bronze 3000-2000 B.C.
Middle Bronze 2000-1500 B.C.
Late Bronze 1500-1200 B.C.
III. THE IRON AGE 1200- 300 B.C.
Early Iron 1200- 900 B.C.
Middle Iron 900- 600 B.C.
Late Iron 600-300 B.C.
IV. HELLENISTIC AGE 300 B.C- 63 B.C.
V. ROMAN AGE 63 B.C.-A.D. 323.
[ARCHAEOLOGY IN BIBLE LANDS]

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Glossary of Biblical Archaeology Terms

Cartouche - An oval figure on an Egyptian monument containing the signature of a king.
Cuneiform - Babylonian wedge-shaped writing done by use of a stylus, and not alphabetic but rather syllabic in character.
Graffiti - Wall scribbling.
Hieroglyphics - The word means "sacred engraving," because the Egyptian priests used them on monuments, and the priests or those initiated were the only ones supposed to be able to read them. It is used now of any picture form of writing.
Lapis lazuli - Sapphire.
Ostraca - Fragment of pottery containing writing.
Pyramid - The tomb of certain Egyptian kings.
Scarab - A seal made in the form of a beetle and worn as a charm by the ancient Egyptians.
Squeeze - A copy of an inscription made by forcing plastic material into the depressions.
Stele - An inscribed monument made of stone in the form of an upright slab.
Tell - Mound of an ancient city. Most of the names of these mounds are in the Arabic language.
Terra cotta - Clay and sand material used for statues.
Ziggurat - Babylonian shrine for a god or goddess.
[ARCHAEOLOGY IN BIBLE LANDS]

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Related Bibliography

1. For interesting introduction to study of archaeology, see Edward Chiera, They Wrote on Clay.
2. William F. Albright, The Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible (New York: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1933), pp. 127-128.
3. Joseph Free, Archaeology and Bible History, p. 1.
4. Albright, The Archaeology of Palestine, pp. 16-18; Adams, Ancient Records and the Bible, pp. 25-29.
5. Adams, ibid., pp. 33-37.
6. George A. Barton, Archaeology and the Bible, rev. ed. 1937, p. 182; Albright, The Archaeology of Palestine, p. 29.
7. Sir Leonard Woolley, Digging up the Past, pp. 53-80.
8. For dates, see Albright, Archaeology of Palestine, also Jack Finegan, Light from the Ancient Past; also Adams, Ancient Records and the Bible.
9. Suggestions were derived from T. Christie Innes, Thrilling Voices of the Past, pp. 147-148.
[ARCHAEOLOGY IN BIBLE LANDS]

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The Discovery of the Rosetta Stone

The discovery of the stone. For many centuries travelers to Egypt saw on the ruins of ancient temples, palaces, or tombs, or on the walls, pillars, or ceilings of old buildings, many inscriptions which were in the old hieroglyphic or pictorial language of old Egypt, which no scholar knew how to read. When Napoleon invaded the land of Egypt in 1798, he took with him scholars who were assigned the task of investigating the ancient Egyptian monuments. In 1799 Boussard, his French engineer who was excavating near Rosetta, at the mouth of the Nile River, uncovered a black granite stone 3`9" high, by 2`4 ½" Wide, by 11" thick. At the top of the rock were 14 lines of the Egyptian hieroglyphic language seen so often on ruins of ancient buildings. Below this were 32 lines of another script, and at the bottom of the stone were 54 lines in Greek letters. The Greek words were read and understood, and it was surmised that the other languages told the same story as did the Greek. Eventually the stone found its way to the British Museum, and scholars set to work to decipher the two unknown languages.

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Deciphering the Rosetta Stone

Deciphering of the stone. A young Frenchman by the name of Champollion, using the method of comparing the known (Greek) with the unknown (Egyptian), succeeded in the year 1818 in deciphering the Egyptian languages. The middle writing on the stone was a cursive type, and was the vernacular of the common people. The top language was the picture writing, or hieroglyphic (sacred) language of Egypt. Following this discovery, scholars were able to read hundreds and thousands of old Egyptian inscriptions hitherto a mystery. Much of the history of ancient Egypt was suddenly made known to the world.

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Discovery of the Behistun Rock

The discovery and copying of the inscription. Shortly before the middle of the nineteenth century, when archaeologists were beginning to uncover ancient Assyrian palaces and many inscriptions were made available to scholars in the old cuneiform language of Babylonia and Assyria, it was providential that an important discovery led to the deciphering of this formerly unknown tongue. In the year 1835 Henry Rawlinson, a young English army officer who was traveling in the region of the Zagros Mountains of Persia, saw a great bas-relief and inscription located high up on a cliff. The almost perpendicular side of the hill had been smoothed, and the inscription stood 350 feet above the base of the hill. Other travelers had seen this remarkable work of man, but Rawlinson proceeded to copy the inscription. Natives of the land helped him to reach the 14-inch ledge which extended along the bottom of the inscription, although it was now broken in places. By the help of a ladder held steady on the ledge by an attendant, he managed to copy the columns of writing.

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Deciphering the Inscription on the Behistun Rock

Deciphering the inscription. Rawlinson found that it was actually a threefold inscription, like the Rosetta Stone. The one language was old Persian, the second was Median, and the third, Babylonian. Rawlinson began a long and earnest attempt in solve the riddle of the unknown Babylonian language. His knowledge of modern Persian was a great help to him in coming to understand the old Persian. Then he worked on the Median language, and finally deciphered the Babylonian. He discovered that the inscription and relief were ordered done by King Darius I of Persia around 515 B.C. The bas-relief pictured the king leading his army in triumph over a revolt which he put down, and the writing tells the story of his success. The results of Rawlinson`s discovery were printed in Europe in 1847. Ten years later authorities of the British Museum gave copies of a cuneiform inscription to four scholars, including Rawlinson, for them to read. The translation work done by all four agreed so substantially that all doubt was removed that the old Babylonian language had been certainly unlocked.

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Further Expeditions to Analyze the Behistun Rock

Perfecting the text of the inscription. The text of King Darius` mountainside writing has been perfected by several more recent efforts to climb the precipitous cliffs. In 1903 Professor A. V. Williams Jackson, of Columbia University, climbed the rock to check the passages that were in doubt by scholars, and he for the first time took pictures of the relief and inscription. In 1904 the British Museum sent an expedition to the rock under the direction of Leonard William King and Reginald Campbell Thompson. They made use of a rock shelf above the inscription to enable them to get closer to it. Their copy of the text became the standard of publication for many years. But in the year 1948 the Baghdad School of the American Schools of Oriental Research sponsored another expedition to the Behistun Rock. Professor George G. Cameron, of the University of Michigan, was director. The purpose was to check portions of the inscriptions about which uncertainties and difficulties still remained; to attempt to read sections of the inscription which had never been copied because the ledge below it was broken at those places; to photograph both the relief and inscription and make molds of the former; and to determine, if possible, how the ancient Persians reached the place on the rock to do their work. Cameron had at his disposal the modern skill and engineering methods of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, whose riggers reached the shelf located two hundred feet above the inscription. There steel pins were cemented into holes that had been drilled in the rock. Then by means of cables and a scaffolding the professor was able to begin the tasks of examining and copying the inscription and of taking pictures. He was able to check various disputed places in the text, and thus he was able to settle longstanding difficulties. He also succeeded in copying the hitherto uncopied portions of the inscription. Some of these were identical with the known parts. He made a mold of a portion of the relief in order that a cast could be made and a representation of old King Darius be presented to the English-speaking world. An oblique gash was discovered providing a pathway around the mountain, and below the end of the path was a platform with two steps leading down from it. Holes in the top step indicated rails of wood had been used. But below these two steps there had doubtless been a further stairway that was chiseled away after the completion of the work. Thus was revealed how the old-time workers reached the scene of their operations.

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Some Bibliographic Resources for the Behistun Rock

Ira M. Price, The Monuments and the Old Testament, ed. 1925, pp. 15-17;
J. A. Hammerton, ed., The Wonders of the Past, ed. 1937, pp. 250, 251.
George G. Cameron, "Darius Carved History on Ageless Rock," The National Geographic Magazine, Dec. 1950, pp. 825-844.

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Some Bibliographic Resources for the Rosetta Stone

Ira M. Price, The Monuments and the Old Testament, ed. 1925, pp. 15-17;
J. A. Hammerton, ed., The Wonders of the Past, ed. 1937, pp. 250, 251.
George G. Cameron, "Darius Carved History on Ageless Rock," The National Geographic Magazine, Dec. 1950, pp. 825-844.

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Biblical History

The Northern Kingdom (Israel) The Northern Kingdom of Israel consisted of 10 of the tribes (excluding Judah and Benjamin). It lasted for about 210 years until it was destroyed by Assyria in 722 BC. Its capital was Samaria. Every king of Israel was evil. In the northern kingdom there were 9 dynasties (family lines of kings) and 19 kings in all. An average of 11 years to a reign. 8 of these kings met death by violence. The epitaph written over every one of its kings was: I Kings 15:34 "And he did evil in the sight of the LORD, and walked in the way of Jeroboam, and in his sin by which he had made Israel to sin. " It was king Ahab who introduced Baal worship to them. I Kings 16:30-33 "Now Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the sight of the LORD, more than all who were before him. And it came to pass, as though it had been a trivial thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, that he took as wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Sidonians; and he went and served Baal and worshiped him. Then he set up an altar for Baal in the temple of Baal, which he had built in Samaria. And Ahab made a wooden image. Ahab did more to provoke the LORD God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel who were before him." God attempted to save the northern kingdom of Israel by sending them Elijah and Elisha who were his prophets "mouthpieces", they lived during the period from 875-800 BC.

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Paraphrased Biblical History

Events Surrounding the Time Period of Jehu Elijah and Elisha. Elijah's ministry was nearing its end and so he anointed the young Elisha to be a prophet in Israel for the Lord. It was at this time that Ahab was king over the northern kingdom of Israel. he time period was around 850 B.C. Naboth's Vineyard. King Ahab lusted after Naboth's beautiful Vineyard, but Naboth would not sell it for any price. Queen Jezebel rebuked Ahab and took the vineyard by force by having Naboth killed. Ahab was glad that he finally got the great vineyard, and at no cost. Elijah came and told Ahab that God was going to judge him, his house, and Jezebel. Elijah is Taken Up in a Fiery Chariot Elijah received a word from the Lord, and Elisha came with him on his last journey. They came to the Jordan River, Elijah struck it with his cloak and the waters parted, and both of them walked across on dry land. Elijah asked Elisha if he had any requests before the Lord took him away. Elisha asked to be doubly anointed as a prophet like Elijah so he could continue doing the work for the Lord. Elijah promised him, "if you see me when I'm taken from you, it will be a sign that God has granted your request." Suddenly a chariot of fire came down and took Elijah up in a whirlwind. Elisha stood staring for some time, then he reached down and picked up Elijah's cloak, turned and headed back. He struck the waters of the Jordan River with the Elijah's cloak and the waters parted again. The Prophet Elisha. News that Elijah was gone spread quickly even to the palace of Queen Jezebel in Samaria, and she was very happy. She began to rule Israel with an iron fist, severely oppressing the people, even the poor. Elisha helped many including one poor woman by doing a miracle, he asked her to collect all the jars that she could, and the Lord filled every jar with the finest oil in order for her to pay the moneylender. Elisha's fame spread everywhere and especially his generosity and kindness. He did other great miracles: He raised the Shunammites son from the dead, the poisonous pottage was healed, the loaves of bread were multiplied, the axe head was made to float, water for the armies of Israel and Judah, the cleansing of the Syrian leper, and others mentioned below. Naaman the Syrian General. One day Syrian raiders kidnapped an Israeli girl, she became a servant for the wife of the general of the Syrian army, his name was Naaman. It turned out that one day the servant girl saw the wife weeping, the Israeli girl asked her why, she told her that her husband Naaman was a leper. The Israeli girl said that she knew of a prophet in Israel named Elisha who can heal him of his leprosy. When Naaman heard of this he asked the King of Syria to contact the King of Israel asking him for permission to go to the prophet Elisha to be healed. The King of Syria sent a letter to the King of Israel asking him to cure his general When king Jehoram read the letter, he thought it was a trap, "how can I cure his general of an incurable disease?" Elisha heard about the Kings dilemma and sent his servant to tell the King that the Syrian general will learn that power is with God's prophet. Naaman, the Syrian general, received the word and came to the house of Elisha. Elisha greeted him and heard his request. Elisha told him to go wash seven times in the Jordan River and he will be cured. Naaman considered that foolish and thought the waters in his own country were better than Israel's, and he became outraged and drove away in his chariot. But Naaman's servant said to him, "if Elisha had asked you to do something hard you would have done it, why not do this easy thing that he asks?" So the general came back, went to the Jordan River, stripped down and washed seven times. At once his leprosy was cured. He returned to Elisha's house and confessed that there is no God except the God of Israel. The King of Syria's Plot to Ambush Jehoram. But the Lord's punishment upon the house of Ahab, and Queen Jezebel was still lingering. The King of Syria devised a plan to ambush Jehoram. A few days later on the road to Samaria Elisha warned the King of Israel about the ambush. The Syrian soldiers lie in wait but Jehoram never comes, they set another trap but Elisha also helps the King escape that trap as well. The King of Syria becomes so outraged that he accuses his own men of treason. They tell him that it is because of Elisha that they are failing. The King of Syria gathers his army to come to the house of Elisha in Dothan, and he surrounds the whole city. Elisha's servant reports to Elisha that the whole Syrian army is here, and Elisha says, "do not fear, there is more on our side than there is on theirs." Elisha asks the Lord to open his servants eyes so that he can see the chariots of fire that are surrounding Elisha's house. As they walk out to meet the army the Syrian soldiers rushed on them and at once they were stricken with blindness. Elisha at that time led them to Samaria, the capital of Israel, and asked the Lord to open their blind eyes. The King of Israel was amazed and was ready to slay them all when Elisha told him to feed them and send them home. Death by Starvation. For a period of time there was peace between Syria and Israel, but the King of Syria finally lost patience and cut off all the food supply into Samaria and began to was with Israel. The The Israelites fled into the high hill walled fortress of Samaria. The Syrian army came and surrounded the city. After a long siege the Israelites within the gates began to die of starvation to the point that they were eating human flesh. The King of Israel realized that his army was not strong enough to fight against Syria and he and Jezebel his Queen were constantly blaming the God of Israel, and his prophet Elisha for the problems. She finally convinced Jehoram to murder Elisha and to call on Baal for help. At that time Elisha was visiting friends and told them to open the door because the King is sending a soldier to kill him. At that exact moment they opened the door and a soldier came falling in before Elisha. At the last minute the King becomes worried about killing Elisha, and he comes into the house himself. He began accusing God and accusing Elisha about the Syrian siege, saying that it would be better to surrender rather than starve to death. Elijah said to trust in God and that their would be plenty of food by tomorrow, but because the servant of the king did not believe God, Elisha said the servant would hear about the food but would not eat of it. The Four Lepers. Meanwhile there were four lepers starving within the city, and they came to the conclusion that there was no hope for them in getting any food whatsoever. They decided to go over to the Syrian camp and beg for food, "perhaps they will give us something to eat, for even if they kill us it would be better than staying here and starving to death." So they decide to do it and on their way a miracle happens, God causes their footsteps to sound like the greatest armies of the earth with horses and chariots. The Syrians were so frightened that they quickly ran in terror, leaving everything, even their clothes, weapons and food and even the gold in their tents. When the four lepers arrived they were amazed that no one was there, and food was so plentiful and still warm in the pots. The four lepers ate their fill, and began to feel guilty about everybody starving within the gate of Samaria. They came back to the gate and told the people and yelled "the Syrians are gone, they left their camp, their food, their horses, their tents, they left everything and are gone." The King of Israel heard this and thought it was an ambush, he sent some scouts and found out it was just as they said. The scouts found the camp deserted and when they had caught up to a Syrian soldier they asked him what happened, the soldier said, "we were in our camp and suddenly heard the sound of thousands of horses and chariots, the Hittites from the North, and the Egyptians from the South, all were coming upon us and we ran in fear." The scouts realized it was a miracle, and they remembered Elisha's word "by tomorrow there be food for all." And when the king ordered the city gate to be opened the king's servant who did not believe Elisha was trampled to death, the same servant to whom Elisha had said "you will hear about the food but you will not eat of it." Hazael King of Syria. During this time Elisha journeyed over 100 miles northeast to Damascus in Syria. King Benhadad was very sick and when he learned that Elisha was in Damascus he asked one of his court officials named Hazael to have Elisha "inquire of the Lord" whether he was going to recover or die. Little did Benhadad realize that Hazael had planned to suffocate him that night in his bed and seize the throne. Later that day he found Elisha, the prophet told Hazael to tell the king that he may recover, but he told Hazael that the king was going to die. Then Elisha looked at Hazael and became very disturbed and broke into tears, Hazael wondered why he wept and Elisha replied: "Because I know the evil that thou wilt do unto the children of Israel: their strong holds wilt thou set on fire, and their young men wilt thou slay with the sword, and wilt dash their children, and rip up their women with child. And Hazael said, But what, is thy servant a dog, that he should do this great thing? And Elisha answered, The LORD hath shewed me that thou shalt be king over Syria." II Kings 8:7-13 King Ahab Dies. The Syrians begin attacking Israel, so Judah in the south comes to help fight the Syrians. Ahab is scared of Elijah's prophecy and disguises himself as a normal soldier, in the midst of the battle a stray arrow hits him, and later he dies. Jehoram Becomes King. Ahab's kingdom passes on to their son Jehoram (or Joram), but Jezebel was still the real power behind the throne. Jehu is Anointed King by Elisha. God had done many miracles to show Israel that he is their true God. But King Jehoram and his wife Jezebel continued to worshiped Baal and built temples to Baal throughout Israel. The Syrians began attacking Israel again and Jehoram came to the battle and got wounded. It was at this time that he put his commander Jehu in charge, and returned to Samaria. Jehu also was approached by a young prophet of God, sent by Elisha, the prophet anointed him with oil and said to him "thus says the Lord, I have anointed you to be king over Israel to fight for those who worship me and to fight against those who worship Baal." Jehu took this responsibility very seriously and went to kill Jezebel and her son Jehoram. He asked the army of Israel if they were with him, and they got excited saying "we are with you to a man". Jehu Comes to Kill Jehoram. Jehoram was in Jezreel when he saw the army approaching, he noticed Jehu driving very swiftly, and thought he is bringing him news of the war. He said to Jehu when he arrived, "are you bring me news of peace?", Jehu replied "how can there be peace in Israel while you and your mother are worshiping Baal?"Jehoram tried to escape but was killed by Jehu. Jehu Comes to Kill Jezebel. When Jezebel heard the news about her son, and also that Jehu was coming for her next, she looked out the window and noticed Jehu riding swiftly through the gate. At once Jehu cried "who is on the Lord side", the servants inside the palace pushed Jezebel out the window and she died. Elijah's prophecy had come true and Baal worship was removed from Israel. Idols were broken, and heathen temples were destroyed, and made a place to dump refuse. Jehu Comes to Judah. Next Jehu came and killed Ahaziah, the king of Judah (son-in-law of Ahab) and his brothers, Ahab’s 70 sons, and all friends of Ahab’s house. He destroyed all the temples of Baal and any worshippers and priests. But king Jehu "did not depart from the sins of Jeroboam, and took no heed to walk in the law of God." God used a wicked man to destroy wicked people. 2 Kings 10:31 "But Jehu took no heed to walk in the law of the LORD God of Israel with all his heart; for he did not depart from the sins of Jeroboam, who had made Israel sin." Assyria Conquers Syria. During this time Hazael king of Syria took over Gilead and Bashan of the land of Israel in the east of the Jordan River. Assyria was starting to move westward in their war campaigns and collecting tribute from anyone un-submissive. Jehu Pays Tribute to Shalmaneser. When Jehu heard that Hazael and Syria had been defeated by Shalmaneser III of Assyria, he immediately came and brought tribute, as seen on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser. Assyria is the Lord's Instrument. The Lord called for a nation far away, a ruthless nation, a conquering nation, to come and destroy the northern kingdom of Israel and put an end to their idolatry. Isaiah 10. 5 - O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, and the staff in their hand is mine indignation. 6 - I will send him (Assyria) against a hypocritical nation (Israel), and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets. 7 - Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few. 8 - For he saith, Are not my princes altogether kings? 9 - [Is] not Calno as Carchemish? [is] not Hamath as Arpad? [is] not Samaria as Damascus? 10 - As my hand hath found the kingdoms of the idols, and whose graven images did excel them of Jerusalem and of Samaria; 11 - Shall I not, as I have done unto Samaria and her idols, so do to Jerusalem and her idols? Afterward the Lord Will Destroy Assyria. The Lord also predicted the total destruction of Assyria which would be carried out by Babylon in 612 BC. Isaiah 10. 12 - Wherefore it shall come to pass, that when the Lord hath performed his whole work upon mount Zion and on Jerusalem, I will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his high looks.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/biblical-history.html

Assyrian History

(1) Background. Shalmaneser III came to the throne of Assyria in 859 BC. To understand the time period we need to go back several hundred years. During the time of Abraham, Babylonia was the dominant power in the East. The great Hammurabi ruled Babylon around 1700 BC. A few hundred years later, around the time of the Hebrew Exodus from Egypt, Assyria overcame Babylon. For about the next 700 years, Assyria was the dominant power in the East. (2) Tiglath-pileser I. During the 12th century BC King Tiglath-pileser I greatly expanded the boundaries of the Assyrian Empire. He led great war campaigns against the Hittites who dwelt in the upper Euphrates Valley. He defeated the Arameans (Syrians) to the West, and made his presence known all the way to the Mediterranean. In fact he became so powerful that the Pharaoh of Egypt was forced to pay tribute to Assyria, the same way previous Pharaohs had exacted tribute from Assyria. (3) Assurnasirpal II. It was not until 883 BC that the Assyrians began their great war campaigns again. The great king who ascended the throne of Assyria at that time was Assurnasirpal II. He was a brilliant military strategist, relentless, and ruthless. Every land he conquered went up in flames, and the people were forced to pay heavy tribute. Assurnasirpal was also a great builder, and during the 24 years that he ruled there were magnificent palaces erected, as well as temples, a ziggurat, and other buildings. He also built a huge library with carefully kept records, all inscribed in cuneiform. He made Calah his capital, one of the most powerful and beautiful cities in the history of the world. It was Assurnasirpal's chief objective to conquer the peoples between Assyria and Egypt. He wanted a pathway to their greatest threat, the Egyptians. This is the reason that the Assyrians were constantly at war with the nations directly to the North and to the West of Assyria. In Assurnasirpal's records of his war campaigns he boasts: "From Aleppo (Syria) I launched the attack and crossed the Orontes...I marched from the Orontes...I conquered other cities...I caused much slaughter, I destroyed, I devastated, I burned. I took their fighting men prisoners and impaled them on sharpened stakes in full view of their cities. I settled Assyrians in place of them...I bathed my weapons in the Great Sea." - Assurnasirpal II Inscription Assurnasirpal was a plunderer, as the Bible describes of the Assyrians, collecting huge amounts of gold, silver, copper, lead them whatever they could. Every city in the West paid huge tribute to Assyria. Cities like Damascus in Syria, and coastal cities like Tyre and Sidon of the Phoenicians. King Omri of Israel also paid tribute to the King of Assyria, but at the same time he was fortifying a stronghold in his rich and powerful capital, Samaria. (4) Shalmanessar III. Assurnasirpal's son Shalmaneser became King of Assyria in 859 BC. His reign lasted a long 35 years, and almost all of them were filled with war campaigns. He violently attacked Syria and Israel in 853 BC at Qarqar, where he claimed a great victory. It was at this time that the Syrians, the Phoenicians, and the Israelites formed a Confederacy to oppose Shalmaneser, as recorded in the Bible. Shalmaneser also mentions this in his records, including Ahab the Israelite who fought against him in this war. I Kings 16:30-33 "Now Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the sight of the LORD, more than all who were before him. And it came to pass, as though it had been a trivial thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, that he took as wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Sidonians; and he went and served Baal and worshiped him. Then he set up an altar for Baal in the temple of Baal, which he had built in Samaria. And Ahab made a wooden image. Ahab did more to provoke the LORD God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel who were before him." (5) Assyria Conquers Syria. During this time Hazael king of Syria took over Gilead and Bashan of the land of Israel in the east of the Jordan River. Assyria was starting to move westward in their war campaigns and collecting tribute from anyone un-submissive. (6) Jehu Pays Tribute to Shalmaneser. Jehu became the next king over Israel. When Jehu heard that Hazael and Syria had been defeated by Shalmaneser III of Assyria, he immediately came and brought tribute, as seen on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser. (7) Assyria is the Lord's Instrument. The Lord called for a nation far away, a ruthless nation, a conquering nation, to come and destroy the northern kingdom of Israel and put an end to their idolatry. Isaiah 10 5 - O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, and the staff in their hand is mine indignation. 6 - I will send him (Assyria) against a hypocritical nation (Israel), and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets. 7 - Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few. 8 - For he saith, Are not my princes altogether kings? 9 - [Is] not Calno as Carchemish? [is] not Hamath as Arpad? [is] not Samaria as Damascus? 10 - As my hand hath found the kingdoms of the idols, and whose graven images did excel them of Jerusalem and of Samaria; 11 - Shall I not, as I have done unto Samaria and her idols, so do to Jerusalem and her idols? Afterward the Lord Will Destroy Assyria The Lord also predicted the total destruction of Assyria which would be carried out by Babylon in 612 BC. Isaiah 10 12 - Wherefore it shall come to pass, that when the Lord hath performed his whole work upon mount Zion and on Jerusalem, I will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his high looks.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/assyrian-history.html

Chart of the Kings of Israel and Judah

Assyrian annals mention contacts with some nine Hebrew kings: Omri, Ahab, Jehu, Menahem, Pekah, Uzziah, Ahaz, Hezekiah, and Manasseh. During the reign of Hoshea, king of Israel, Shalmaneser V, king of Assyria, invaded Israel (2 Kings 17:3,5) the kingdom that remained. His successor Sargon II finally took Samaria in 722 BC, carrying away 27,290 of the population as he tells in his Khorsabad Annals. Later Assyrian kings, particularly Esarhaddon (681 BC - 668 BC), completed the task.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/list-bible-kings.html

Map of Ancient Assyria

Geography of Ancient Assyria. Ancient Assyria was generally the northern half of Mesopotamia, while the southern half was generally referred to as Babylonia. The word "Mesopotamia" comes to us from ancient Greece and means the land "between the rivers", referring to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The region around ancient Assyria was filled with hills and valleys. The land was very fertile for farming because it had an abundance of rains throughout the seasons, with lots of water in the nearby rivers and flowing down from the mountains. The mountains also brought plenty of timber, metals, and limestone.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/map-of-ancient-assyria.html

Map of Modern Iraq

Geography of Modern Iraq LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: Iraq is located in the Middle East. It is bound by Iran to the east, Turkey to the north, Syria to the northwest, Jordan to the west, Saudi Arabia to the southwest and south as well as Kuwait and the Persian Gulf to the southeast. The country can be divided into four main topographical regions. (1.) The northeastern highlands which include the Zagros Mountains. (2.) The upland between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, which is mostly desert. (3.) A marshland region just above the convergence of the two rivers and (4.) the extensive barren, rock and sand desert region in the south and west which constitute part of the Great Arabian and Syrian Deserts.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/map-of-modern-iraq.html

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, The Discovery of the Black Obelisk, Archaeology in the Area of Ancient Assyria, Paul Emile Botta , Austen Henry Layard, The Jehu Relief, World Empires and Assyria, Assyrian & Bible Timeline, Shalmaneser III and Assyria, Ancient Calah, King Jehu and Israel, Text on the Black Obelisk, Biblical History, Assyrian History, Kings of Israel and Judah, List of Assyrian Kings, Chart of Hebrew Prophets, Map of Ancient Assyria, Map of Modern Iraq

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/

What is The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser?

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III is a four-sided monument or pillar made of black limestone. It stands about 6 1/2 feet tall. It was discovered in 1846 by A.H. Layard in the Central Palace of Shalmaneser III at the ruins of Nimrud, known in the Bible as Calah, and known in ancient Assyrian inscriptions as Kalhu. It is now on display in the British Museum. The Obelisk contains 5 rows of bas-relief (carved) panels on each of the 4 sides, 20 panels in all. Directly above each panel are cuneiform inscriptions describing tribute offered by submissive kings during Shalmaneser's war campaigns with Syria and the West. The "Jehu Relief" is the most significant panel because it reveals a bearded Semite in royal attire bowing with his face to the ground before king Shalmaneser III, with Hebrew servants standing behind him bearing gifts. The cuneiform text around it reveals the tribute bearer and his gifts, it says: "The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears." The Assyrians referred to a northern Israel king as a "son of Omri", whether they were a direct son of Omri or not. Other Assyrian inscriptions reveal Israel's southern kings from Judah, as recorded on Sennacherib's Clay Prism (also known as the Taylor Prism) which reads "Hezekiah the Judahite". The Black Obelisk has been precisely dated to 841 BC, due to the accurate Assyrian dating methods. One modern scholar refers to the accuracy of Assyrian records: "Assyrian records were carefully kept. The Assyrians coordinated their records with the solar year. They adopted a system of assigning to each year the name of an official, who was known as the "limmu." In addition, notation was made of outstanding political events in each year, and in some cases reference was made to an eclipse of the sun which astronomers calculate occured on June 15, 763 B.C. Assyriologists have been able to compile a list of these named years, which they designate "eponyms," and which cover 244 years (892-648 B.C.). These records are highly dependable and have been used by Old Testament scholars to establish dates in Hebrew History, particularly during the period of the monarchy." Walter G. Williams, "Archaeology in Biblical Research" (Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdon Press, 1965) p. 121. Shalmaneser III ruled ancient Assyria from 858-824 BC., and was the son of Assurnasirpal II.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/what-is-the-black-obelisk.html

British Museum Excerpt on The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III. Neo-Assyrian, 858-824 BC From Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), northern Iraq The military achievements of an Assyrian king The archaeologist Henry Layard discovered this black limestone obelisk in 1846 during his excavations of the site of Kalhu, the ancient Assyrian capital. It was erected as a public monument in 825 BC at a time of civil war. The relief sculptures glorify the achievements of King Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC) and his chief minister. It lists their military campaigns of thirty-one years and the tribute they exacted from their neighbours: including camels, monkeys, an elephant and a rhinoceros. Assyrian kings often collected exotic animals and plants as an expression of their power. There are five scenes of tribute, each of which occupies four panels round the face of the obelisk and is identified by a line of cuneiform script above the panel. From top to bottom they are: Sua of Gilzanu (in north-west Iran) Jehu of Bit Omri (ancient northern Israel) An unnamed ruler of Musri (probably Egypt) Marduk-apil-usur of Suhi (middle Euphrates, Syria and Iraq) Qalparunda of Patin (Antakya region of Turkey) The second register from the top includes the earliest surviving picture of an Israelite: the Biblical Jehu, king of Israel, brought or sent his tribute in around 841 BC. Ahab, son of Omri, king of Israel, had lost his life in battle a few years previously, fighting against the king of Damascus at Ramoth-Gilead (I Kings xxii. 29-36). His second son (Joram) was succeeded by Jehu, a usurper, who broke the alliances with Phoenicia and Judah, and submitted to Assyria. The caption above the scene, written in Assyrian cuneiform, can be translated The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears. Height: 197.85 cm Width: 45.08 cm Excavated by A.H. Layard ANE 118885 Room 6, Assyrian sculpture

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/what-is-the-black-obelisk.html

The Discovery of the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser

In 1846 an English traveler and artist named Austen Henry Layard was digging around the ruins of ancient Nimrud (known as Calah) in northern Iraq. He discovered something amazing, a black limestone obelisk now referred to as "The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III". Sketch of the Black Obelisk. When Layard discovered this wonderful obelisk he had no idea what it really was that he had found. He had no way of deciphering the cuneiform writing, but he did notice that it had beautifully carved images on all four sides. He also knew that obelisks were stone monuments or pillars in the ancient world, and they were usually created for public display to honor someone very important. When one scholar investigated the discovery he determined that it was a monument of one of the greatest kings in the ancient world, Shalmaneser III. Shalmaneser ruled ancient Assyria around 850 BC. They also determined that one of the carved images revealed Jehu, the king of Israel bowing before the powerful monarch with his face to the ground. It was the same Jehu that is mentioned in the Bible. The Black Obelisk actually has 20 hand-carved relief panels, 5 on each side from top to bottom with cuneiform writing all around. The cuneiform inscriptions contain detail about Shalmaneser's war campaigns and the tribute of submissive kings. Each panel contains the carved images of 5 kings bringing tribute to the king of Assyria, Shalmaneser III. Sketch of the Jehu Panel. The panel that depicts king Jehu and the inscriptions around it make it clear that it is the same Jehu that is mentioned in the Bible, the King of Israel in 850 BC. Layard's discovery would be the first and only image of a real Hebrew king that is mentioned in the Bible in all archaeological discoveries. The cuneiform inscriptions reads: "The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears."

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/the-discovery.html

Austen Henry Layard's Account of the Black Obelisk Discovery

"I mounted my horse; but had scarcely left the mound when the corner of a monument in black marble was uncovered, which proved to be an obelisk, about six feet six inches in height, lying on its side, ten feet below the surface. An Arab was sent after me without delay, to announce the discovery; and on my return I found, completely exposed to view, an obelisk terminated by three steps or gradines and flat at the top. I descended eagerly into the trench, and was immediately struck by the singular appearance, and evident antiquity, of the remarkable monument before me. We raised it and speedily dragged it out of the ruins. On each side were five small bas-reliefs, and above, below, and between them was carved an inscription 2l0 lines in length. The whole was in the best preservation. The king was twice represented followed by his attendants; a prisoner was at his feet, and his vizier and eunuchs were introducing captives and tributaries carrying vases, shawls, bundles of rare wood, elephant's tusks, and other objects of tribute, and leading various animals, among which were the elephant, the rhinoceros, the Bactrian or two humped camel, the wild bull, and several kinds of monkeys. In one bas-relief were two lions hunting a stag in a wood, probably to denote the nature of one of the countries conquered by the king. From the animals portrayed, particularly the double-humped camel, and the elephant, which is of the Indian and not of the African species, it is natural to conjecture that the obelisk was sculptured to commemorate the conquest of nations far to the east of Assyria, on the confines of the Indian peninsula. The name of the king, whose deeds it records, was the same as that on the center bulls." - Austen Henry Layard . (A Popular Account of Discoveries at Nineveh. Austen Henry Layard. J. C. Derby. New York. 1854).

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/the-discovery.html

Archaeology in the Area of Ancient Assyria

Travelers for many centuries noticed many strange mounds scattered along the Tigris and Euphrates Valley all the way to the Persian Gulf. Some of the mounds were shaped like a box and many stories were told. In 1811 Claude James Rich, A British businessman was living in Baghdad, 50 miles NE of ancient Babylon. He became aware of some interesting bricks that were found and visited the site of Babylon. He located and documented several mounds in the area of ancient Babylon. He also dug into some of them and found several bricks, tablets and other things with strange inscriptions on them. In 1820 he visited Mosul in the north and found several mounds which he thought to be the site of ancient Nineveh. He did some digging and found some cuneiform tablets which he could not get deciphered. He donated his discoveries to the British Museum, and word began to circulate in Europe that the remains of Babylon and Nineveh had been located. Mounds often contained ruins of ancient cities, built on top of another. In the Near East these sites are called "tells", the Arabic word for "mounds". Some of these mounds reached 100 feet or more in height. Cities were often rebuilt on the same site. In 1842 Paul Emile Botta, a man sent from France to be consul at Mosul, a city on the upper Tigris River, began excavating some peculiar looking mounds across the Tigris River about 10 miles SE of Mosul. He believed them to be the ruins of ancient Nineveh. Botta's excavations were considered illegal according to Ottoman laws. His excavations led to an astounding discovery, one of the mounds turned out to be ancient Khorsabad, one of the capitals of the great Assyrian Empire. Within 10 years he had unearthed the greatest palace ever discovered, the palace of Sargon (722-705 BC) with all its monuments and winged bulls covering an area of nearly 1 square mile. France finally received permission from the Ottoman government and his discoveries were brought to the Louvre Museum in France, which are still there today. The Louvre's Assyrian display opened to the public in the presence of King Louis-Philippe on May 1, 1847. In 1845 Austen Henry Layard, a young English scholar visited some of the mounds and also began digging without formal permission from the Ottoman government. He ended up discovering the ruins of Calah and Nineveh, two more mighty cities of the ancient Assyrian empire. Layard first discovered ancient Calah or Nimrud, a mound located around 20 miles SE of Mosul and nearly 2 miles east of the Tigris River. He first discovered the palace of Assurnasirpal (884-860 BC), who reigned the same time as king Omri of Israel. He began transporting large colossal items to the British Museum. Two years later he uncovered the ruins of the famous and evil Nineveh, to which the Bible spoke so much about. The long lost civilization had been buried under the dust for over 25 centuries. He discovered the grand palace of king Sennacherib (705-681 BC). "As the sun went down, I saw for the first time the great conical mound of Nimrud rising against the clear evening sky. It was on the opposite side of the river and not very distant, and the impression that it made upon me was one never to he forgotten. After my visit to Küyünjik and Nebi Yunus, opposite Mosul, and the distant view of Nimrud, my thought ran constantly upon the possibility of thoroughly exploring with the spade those great ruins." - Austen Henry Layard

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/archaeology-assyria.html

Description of the Area of Assyria in the 1800's

A missionary named James Fletcher visited Mesopotamia in the 1800's, and this is how he described the area: "Yet what a moral might be derived from the present condition of the capital of Assur. In lieu of lofty palaces and gorgeous temples, the eye surveys only the mounds composed of their dust, or the miserable huts which have arisen on their site. The gardens where Sardanapalus revelled are wasted and desolate, the sounds of soft and luxurious music that once floated on the soft Assyrian breezes have yielded to the silence of devastation or decay" - James Phillips Fletcher, Notes from Nineveh, and Travels in Mesopotamia, Assyria and Syria, 9 vols. (London: Colburn, 1850), vol. 1, 206

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/archaeology-assyria.html

The British Museum and Shalmaneser III Artifacts

The British Museum in London contains much of the world's artifacts from ancient Assyria. The museum was originally founded in 1753 to provide a resting place for the great collection of Sir Hans Sloane, which was left to the care of the British nation. Over time it became one of the most famous museums in the world. The Biblical and ancient world artifacts are in great quantity. The main Biblical artifacts related to Shalmaneser III are: The Black Obelisk, which reveals King Jehu of Israel bowing. The Monolith from Kurkh, which mentions Ahab the Israelite. The Bronze Gate from Balawat, which reveals Assyrian assaults and captives. The Statue of Shalmaneser III, revealing an image of the monarch seated. There are many other Assyrian items in the British Museum, including numerous artifacts from each of the Assyrian kings who lived and reigned during the period of the kings of Israel and Judah in the Bible. There are also numerous items from Babylon, Egypt, Persia, Judah, Israel, Moab, the ancient Levant, Sumer, Rome, Greece, and many more areas of the ancient world bringing a wealth of knowledge of the antiquities of the ancient world as well as scientific evidence of people, places, and events mentioned in the Bible.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/archaeology-assyria.html

Paul Emil Botta on Sargon's Ruins

"What can all this mean? Who built this structure? In what century did he live? To what nation did he belong? Are these walls telling me their tales of joy and woe? Is this beautiful cuneiformed character a language? I know not. I can read their glory and their victories in their figures, but their story, their age, their blood, is to me a mystery. Their remains mark the fall of a glorious and a brilliant past, but of a past known not to a living man." "I had the first revelation of a new world of antiquities.- P.E. Botta

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/archaeology-assyria.html

Mounds in the 1800's

Mounds often contained ruins of ancient cities, built on top of another. In the Near East these sites are called "tells", the Arabic word for "mounds". Some of these mounds reached 100 feet or more in height. Cities were often rebuilt on the same site.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/archaeology-assyria.html

Paul Emile Botta and Assyria

In 1841 Paul Emile Botta became famous for his discovery of Sargon's Palace in the ruins of ancient Khorsabad. He was appointed the Consular Agent in the city of Mosul, which was an Ottoman province in Mesopotamia. He was part of a secret project to discover the ruins of ancient Nineveh. Botta began excavating at the mounds of Kuyunjik, and later moved the excavators to another mound which he thought to be Nineveh, but turned out to be ancient Khorsabad, the capital of king Sargon II. He found Sargon's magnificent palace which was over 25 acres square (Nearly 1 mile square). His Assyrian shipments were brought to the Louvre in France. One large shipment sunk at sea and was lost after several attempts to recover it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/paul-emil-botta.html

Quote about Paul Emile Botta

"Botta's discoveries aroused the whole archaeological and historical world with enthusiasm. A tremendous impulse was given to the study of the Orient. The French government, highly gratified at the surprising success of its consul, supplied him with ample means for further research. With enthusiastic efforts and energy Botta prosecuted his discoveries until he succeeded in revealing what afterward proved to be the palace of the great Sargon (722-705 B. C.), probably the most magnificent palace the world has ever seen, covering an area of more than twenty-five acres." - The Monuments and the Old Testament: Oriental Light on Holy Writ by Ira Maurice Price - 1907

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/paul-emil-botta.html

Paul Emile Botta and Assyria

In 1841 Paul Emile Botta became famous for his discovery of Sargon's Palace in the ruins of ancient Khorsabad. He was appointed the Consular Agent in the city of Mosul, which was an Ottoman province in Mesopotamia. He was part of a secret project to discover the ruins of ancient Nineveh. Botta began excavating at the mounds of Kuyunjik, and later moved the excavators to another mound which he thought to be Nineveh, but turned out to be ancient Khorsabad, the capital of king Sargon II. He found Sargon's magnificent palace which was over 25 acres square (Nearly 1 mile square). His Assyrian shipments were brought to the Louvre in France. One large shipment sunk at sea and was lost after several attempts to recover it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/paul-emil-botta.html

Austen Henry Layard and Assyria

British archaeologist named Austen Henry Layard was the most famous of the archaeologists who uncovered the ruins of ancient Assyria. In fact many referred to him as the "Father of Assyriology". From 1845-1851 he discovered two major capitals of the Assyrian empire, Nineveh and Calah. Among the ruins were uncovered the palaces of five Assyrian kings, all five were mentioned by name in the Bible. He began excavating at the tell of Nimrud (ancient Calah) on November 8th, 1845. He discovered the palaces of Assurnasirpal, Shalmaneser III, Tiglath Pileser, Adadnirari, and Esarhaddon. The Black Obelisk was found in the palace of Shalmaneser III. It was an amazing feat to transport the vast statutory to the British Museum. At Koujunjik in 1849 Layard discovered Sennacherib's palace, the most notable discoveries were from the siege of Lachish. He also discovered the great library of Assurbanipal, where there were excavated over 30,000 cuneiform tablets and clay cylinders. Assurbanipal (668-626 BC) was the last great king of Assyria, he was a contemporary of Manasseh of Israel and Josiah of Judah. The tablets had been arranged by topics similar to our modern day libraries. Baked bricks are durable enough to withstand the ravages of time. Austen Henry Layard finished his work in April 1851. He died July 5, 1894. His work was followed by his right hand man Rassam, Taylor, Loftus, and Henry C. Rawlinson and other archaeologists from Britain, France, Germany and the United States. These and others excavated hundreds of thousands of tablets and monuments in the Tigris Euphrates Valley. These marvelous discoveries fill the worlds biggest museums like the Louvre in France, and the British Museum in England. Many of the inscriptions are still being deciphered to the present day.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/austen-henry-layard.html

Austen Henry Layard Quote

"These huge mounds of Assyria made a deeper impression on me, gave rise to more serious thoughts and more earnest reflection than the temples of Balbec, and the theatres of Ionia…. A deep mystery hangs over Assyria, Babylonia and Chaldaea…. With these names are linked great nations and great cities dimly shadowed forth in history; mighty ruins in the midst of deserts, defying, by their very desolation and lack of definite form, the description of the traveller; the remnants of the mighty races still roving over the land; the fulfilling and fulfilment of prophecies; the plains to which the Jew and the Gentile alike look as the cradle of their race." - Austen Henry Layard

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/austen-henry-layard.html

The Jehu Relief

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser stands nearly 7 feet tall and 2 feet thick. On each of the 4 sides there are 5 panels with carvings of various kings bringing tribute to king Shalmaneser III. The second panel from the top of the obelisk reveals king Jehu of Israel bowing at the feet of Shalmaneser of Assyria. This is the same Jehu who is mentioned in Scripture, and this carved relief is the only image in all history of one of the Hebrew kings. On the panel Shalmaneser is offering a libation to his god. The cuneiform text around the panel reads: "The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears."

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/the-jehu-relief.html

Examining the Jehu Panel

1. It reveals how King Jehu paid tribute to Shalmaneser III. 2. King Jehu grovels in the dust before the Assyrian king. 3. Shalmaneser is making a libation to his god. 4. Behind Shalmaneser III stand two officers, one holds a parasol (a royal umbrella) and the other a club. 5. Opposite the monarch two grooms-in-waiting have taken up their stance, one waves a fan and a censer, the other, carrying a scepter under his arm, has his hands respectfully clasped in front of him. 6. There is a bearded officer with an attendant, leading a procession of 13 Israelites laden with precious gifts for the Assyrian king. 7. All the Israelites have beards, and wear peaked caps and bandeaux. A long robe with fringes round the hem and a girdle, a long cloak with a fringed end thrown over the shoulder, and pointed shoes. 8. Shalmaneser beneath a parasol, accepts "the tribute of Iaua of the House of Humri" in 841 BC. This is King Jehu of Israel (2Ki 9-10). 9. The inscription reads: "The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears." 10. The symbols of the gods Assur (winged sun disc) and Ishtar (star) hover overhead.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/the-jehu-relief.html

Shalmaneser Fragment Mentioning Jehu

Jehu is also mentioned on another fragment from the annals of Shalmaneser III that was discovered which says, "Then I took tribute of the Tyrians, of the Sidonians, and of Jehu, of the house of Omri." "In the 18th year of my reign I crossed the Euphrates for the sixteenth time. Hazael of Damascus trusted in the power of his forces, marshalled his troops in full strength. He made Senir (Mt. Hermon), the summit of the mountain opposite Lebanon, his stronghold. With him I fought, and defeated him. Six thousand of his soldiers I brought down with weapons; 1121 of his chariots, 470 of his horses, together with his camp, I took from him. To save his life he fled; I pursued him; in Damascus, his royal city, I shut him up. His plantations I destroyed. As far as the mountains of Hauran I marched. Towns without number I laid waste, razed, and burnt with fire. There innumerable spoil I carried away. As far as to the mountains of Baal-rasi situated close to the sea (the head land at Dog River), I marched. My royal image I set up in that place. At that time I received the tribute of the Tyrians and Sidonians, and of Jehu the son of Omri." - Shalmaneser III Annals 841 B.C.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/the-jehu-relief.html

British Museum Excerpt Jehu Relief

"The archaeologist Henry Layard discovered this black limestone obelisk in 1846 during his excavations of the site of Kalhu, the ancient Assyrian capital. It was erected as a public monument in 825 BC at a time of civil war. The relief sculptures glorify the achievements of King Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC) and his chief minister. It lists their military campaigns of thirty-one years and the tribute they exacted from their neighbours: including camels, monkeys, an elephant and a rhinoceros. Assyrian kings often collected exotic animals and plants as an expression of their power. There are five scenes of tribute, each of which occupies four panels round the face of the obelisk and is identified by a line of cuneiform script above the panel. From top to bottom they are: Sua of Gilzanu (in north-west Iran) Jehu of Bit Omri (ancient northern Israel) An unnamed ruler of Musri (probably Egypt) Marduk-apil-usur of Suhi (middle Euphrates, Syria and Iraq) Qalparunda of Patin (Antakya region of Turkey) The second register from the top includes the earliest surviving picture of an Israelite: the Biblical Jehu, king of Israel, brought or sent his tribute in around 841 BC. Ahab, son of Omri, king of Israel, had lost his life in battle a few years previously, fighting against the king of Damascus at Ramoth-Gilead (I Kings xxii. 29-36). His second son (Joram) was succeeded by Jehu, a usurper, who broke the alliances with Phoenicia and Judah, and submitted to Assyria. The caption above the scene, written in Assyrian cuneiform, can be translated The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/the-jehu-relief.html

Jehu or One of His Messengers?

The fragment mentioned above, the royal garments, Hazael's defeat, and the fact that Shalmaneser mentions Jehu bringing tribute leaves little doubt that the panel on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III reveals king Jehu himself. This cannot be proven with certainty but is a logical conclusion.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/the-jehu-relief.html

Maps of World Empires

Egyptian Empire – 1600-1200 BC., Assyrian Empire – 900-607 BC., Babylonian Empire – 606-536 BC., Persian Empire – 536-336 BC., Greek Empire – 332-146 BC., Roman Empire – 146 BC-476 AD

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/world-empires-assyria.html

Map of the Assyrian Empire at its Greatest Extant (900-607 BC.)

This map reveals the Assyrian Empire in 671 BC under its greatest rulers: Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 BC), Sargon II (722-705 BC), Sennacherib (705-681 BC), Esarhaddon (680-669 BC), and Ashurbanipal (669-627 BC). After Ashurbanipal died in 627 BC the Assyrian Empire was doomed and it was not long before Babylon would set its sights for world domination.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/world-empires-assyria.html

Zephaniah's Prophecy About the Destruction of Assyria

"And He will stretch out His hand against the north, Destroy Assyria, And make Nineveh a desolation, As dry as the wilderness." Zephaniah 2:13

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/world-empires-assyria.html

Isaiah's Prophecy of God Calling Assyria to Destroy Israel

"He will raise a signal for a nation from afar off, and whistle for it from the ends of the earth; and lo, swiftly, speedily it comes." Isaiah 5:26

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/the-jehu-relief.html

Isaiah's Prophecy About God Punishing the King of Assyria

"When the Lord has finished all His work...he will punish the arrogant boasting of the king of Assyria and his haughty pride." Isaiah 10:12

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/black-obelisk-text.html

Assyrian Timeline from 1000 BC - 609 BC

Timeline of events from the time of king David of Israel to the fall of Assyria in 609 BC.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/assyria-timeline.html

Shalmaneser III

Shalmaneser III came to the throne of Assyria in 859 BC and reigned until 824 BC. He was the son of the mighty conqueror Ashurnasirpal II and the first Assyrian king to go to war with Israel. In fact his nearly 35 year reign was filled with almost continual warfare in the north and to the west (Syria-Israel), as recorded on stele’s, statues, and cuneiform tablets of clay and stone…which record 34 war campaigns. In 853 BC he attacked Syria and Israel at Qarqar, and it was at this time that king Ahab of Israel allied with the Syrians, Arabs, Egyptians and Phoenicians to oppose Shalmaneser at the banks of the Tigris River. The alliance of 11 kings was led by king Hadad-ezer of Damascus and Irhuleni of Hamath. Shalmaneser claimed victory in his Monolith Inscription having put "25,000 men to the sword." He also claimed that the opposing army was 63,000 men strong and mentions the very name of Ahab of Israel who provided 10,000 foot soldiers and 2,000 chariots. Shalmaneser left the area and did not return for another 8 years, in 845 BC he came with a massive army of 115,000 men and defeated the king of Damascus at Mount Hermon. In 841 BC many kings brought great tribute to Shalmaneser to show their submissiveness, including the kings of Tyre, Sidon, and Jehu, the king of Israel. In fact the first to pay tribute were the kings of Israel and Judah. The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser shows king Jehu groveling in the dust before king Shalmaneser. From 839-828 BC Shalmaneser wreaked havoc in northwest Syria and in 835 BC he carved his name and image into a giant cliff beside a river called the Dog River, north of Beirut, Lebanon. He also records some of his mighty exploits during this time on the Balawat Gates. No king of Assyria left more royal inscriptions and annals than Shalmaneser III. The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser shows king Jehu of Israel offering tribute to Shalmaneser III in 841 BC. Shalmaneser made campaigns to the west, north and south, even plundering Babylon. Shalmaneser’s capital was Nimrud (ancient Kalhu). His buildings were numerous, he built a huge walls, gates including Balawat, a great Ziggurat, temples and a huge fortress named Fort Shalmaneser by the excavators.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/shalmaneser-assyria.html

The Balawat Gates

Shalmaneser's massive wooden Gates of Balawat (858-824 BC) held together by their detailed bronze bands inform us of his methods of waging war and the bloodshed involved in his campaigns. The bands contain 16 registers total (with two continuous battle narratives on each band), scenes of Shalmaneser's campaigns were carved into 10.6 inch bronze strips which were then nailed to the wooden palace gates.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/shalmaneser-assyria.html

Statue of Shalmaneser III

In the statue of Shalmaneser III he is holding a mace which is a symbol of kingship. He also holds a curved club, with two daggers under his belt. In an archaic sort of way his robe is similar to that of Ashurnasirpal II. Notice the symbols of his most important Assyrian deities (Adad, Shamash, Ishtar and Sin) which are placed around his neck. The lower half of the statue is covered with inscriptions which mention his mighty deeds, and also record the building of the town wall of Ashur.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/shalmaneser-assyria.html

Shalmaneser III Writes about King Jehu

Shalmaneser III also mentions Jehu on another fragment from his annals: "In the 18th year of my reign I crossed the Euphrates for the sixteenth time. Hazael of Damascus trusted in the power of his forces, marshalled his troops in full strength. He made Senir (Mt. Hermon), the summit of the mountain opposite Lebanon, his stronghold. With him I fought, and defeated him. Six thousand of his soldiers I brought down with weapons; 1121 of his chariots, 470 of his horses, together with his camp, I took from him. To save his life he fled; I pursued him; in Damascus, his royal city, I shut him up. His plantations I destroyed. As far as the mountains of Hauran I marched. Towns without number I laid waste, razed, and burnt with fire. There innumerable spoil I carried away. As far as to the mountains of Baal-rasi situated close to the sea (the head land at Dog River), I marched. My royal image I set up in that place. At that time I received the tribute of the Tyrians and Sidonians, and of Jehu the son of Omri." - Shalmaneser III

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/shalmaneser-assyria.html

Shalmaneser III Inscription

"Shalmaneser, the great king, strong king, king of the world, king of Assyria, son of Ashurnasirpal, the great king, strong king, king of the world, king of Assyria, son of Tukulti-Ninurta, king of the world, king of Assyria, construction of the ziggurat of Kalhu,"

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/shalmaneser-assyria.html

Ancient Calah (Nimrud)

Nimrud was the capital of ancient Assyria It was a famous city in the ancient world that sat on the banks of the Tigris River. It first became populated in about 2500 BC. Around 1250 BC Shalmaneser I, king of Assyria, mentions himself as the founder of Nimrud. Assurnasirpal II built great walls and ruled in Nimrud from 884-859 BC. The later Assyrian kings also ruled in Nimrud until the latter part of the 8th century BC when the capital was moved to Khorsabad and then to Nineveh. Nimrud was mainly abandoned after Assyria's destruction in 612 BC. The city was about 1 1/4 square miles. There were temples, palaces, a great ziggurat (140 feet high), and many monuments in the ruins of ancient Nimrud, many of which were removed and brought to the British Museum in the 1800's. One relic records a feast in the palace numbering 63,000 people. Near the great Nabu Temple a gate was discovered which led to the mighty imperial arsenal of king Shalmaneser III. Nimrud and some of its kings were mentioned in the Bible, the famous city mentioned in the Book of Genesis which was located about 20 miles south of ancient Mosul.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/nimrud.html

King Jehu and the Northern Kingdom of Israel

The Bible mentions that king Jehu was an evil king, he did not seek God with all his heart, he was an idolater, he made Israel to sin. He reigned for 28 years. King Jehu was an officer in Ahab’s bodyguard. It was Elisha who anointed him to be king and to cut off Baal worship in Israel, and to cut off the house of Ahab. Jehu was the man for the task, he was devoted to this bloodshed showing no mercy. He slew Jehoram king of Israel, Jezebel, Ahaziah king of Judah (son-in-law of Ahab) and his brothers, Ahab’s 70 sons, and all friends of Ahab’s house. He destroyed all the temples of Baal and any worshippers and priests. But king Jehu "did not depart from the sins of Jeroboam, and took no heed to walk in the law of God." God used a wicked man to destroy wicked people. Read more about king Jehu in: 2 Kings Chapter 9 2 Kings Chapter 10 During this time Hazael king of Syria took over Gilead and Bashan of the land of Israel in the east of the Jordan River. Assyria was starting to move westward in their war campaigns and collecting tribute from anyone un-submissive. Assyrian annals mention contacts with some ten Hebrew kings: Omri, Ahab, Jehu, Menahem, Hoshea, Pekah, Uzziah, Ahaz, Hezekiah, and Manasseh. During the reign of Hoshea, king of Israel, Shalmaneser V, king of Assyria, invaded Israel (2 Kings 17:3,5) and attempted to destroy the kingdom that remained. In 722 BC Shalmaneser V died and his successor Sargon II besieged and took Samaria, carrying away 27,290 of the population as he tells in his Khorsabad Annals. Later Assyrian kings, particularly Esarhaddon (681 BC - 668 BC), completed the task. 2 Kings 10:31 But Jehu took no heed to walk in the law of the LORD God of Israel with all his heart; for he did not depart from the sins of Jeroboam, who had made Israel sin. Kings 10:36 "And the period that Jehu reigned over Israel in Samaria was twenty-eight years."

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/king-jehu-israel.html

The Text on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

Face A [1] Assur, the great Lord, the King of all [2] the great gods; Anu, King of the spirits of heaven [3] and the spirits of earth, the god, Lord of the world; Bel [4] the Supreme, Father of the gods, the Creator; [5] Hea, King of the deep, determiner of destinies, [6] the King of crowns, drinking in brilliance; [7] Rimmon, the crowned hero, Lord of canals; the Sun-god [8] the Judge of heaven and earth, the urger on of all; [9] (Merodach), Prince of the gods, Lord of battles; Adar, the terrible, [10] (Lord) of the spirits of heaven and the spirits of earth, the exceeding strong god; Nergal, [11] the powerful (god), King of the battle; Nebo, the bearer of the high sceptre, [12] the god, the Father above; Beltis, the wife of Bel, mother of the (great) gods; [13] Istar, sovereign of heaven and earth, who the face of heroism perfectest; [14] the great (gods), determining destinies, making great my kingdom. [15] (I am) Shalmaneser, King of multitudes of men, prince (and) hero of Assur, the strong King, [16] King of all the four zones of the Sun (and) of multitudes of men, the marcher over [17] the whole world; Son of Assur-natsir-pal, the supreme hero, who his heroism over the gods [18] has made good and has caused all the world to kiss his feet;

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/black-obelisk-text.html

Arch of Titus

Which Roman Emperor Erected the Arch of Titus? A triumphal monument with scenes in history depicting Titus as the Roman conqueror of the Jews, who some believe are seen here carrying the Roman spoils of the Jewish Wars under the view of their cruel conquerors. Most scholars believe that it was actually soldiers carrying the ornaments of the Jerusalem Temple. The destruction of Jerusalem happened in 70 AD when the Roman legions sacked Jerusalem and returned to Rome with the booty of the Jerusalem Temple. The Arch of Titus was only completed and dedicated by Domitian after his brother's death (a. d. 81). The Arch of Titus is one of Rome's most famous monuments. It was built to commemorate the victories of Titus and Vespasian in the war against the Jews and their complete destruction in 70 AD. One wall relief inside the arch shows the spoils of the great Temple in Jerusalem before its annihilation. Another relief depicts the apotheosis of Titus who is carried to heaven on the wings of an eagle.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/1-arch-of-titus-bb.html

Ancient Roman Colosseum

The Colosseum in Rome. Was the Colosseum Built with Jewish Temple money? The Colosseum in Rome stands today as a symbol of the mighty Roman Empire. It is probably the most famous ancient ruin in the world along with the Pyramids of Egypt. The Colosseum was known in ancient Rome as the Flavian Amphitheatre, named after the 3 emperors who were all involved in its construction. Vespasian conceived the idea and began building in 72 AD and his son Titus dedicated it in 80 AD with a 100 day festival. This included bloody gladiator combats, wild animals, and huge naval battles with the arena filled with water. The Colosseum was totally finished during the reign of Domitian (81-96 AD). The Colosseum is a marvel of architectural engineering, it was built with giant travertine blocks, layered with soft stones and concrete. It was originally overlayed with marble but that was looted over the centuries. Its magnificent columns were made of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders. The mammoth Colosseum measures 620 feet by 513 feet, 1/3 of a mile around. The 6 acre building contained 3 tiers of seats, 80 entrances, seated 50,000 spectators, resembling the size and capacity of the Houston Astrodome.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/1-colosseum-bb.html

Marble Bust of Alexander the Great

This is the best depiction of the face of Alexander because it was dated back to the 4th Century BC. It is located at the Greek Ministry of Culture. In 336 BC When Darius II was king of Persia he battled against Alexander the Great and was defeated twice. The two famous battles were the Battle of Issus in 333 BC and the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC. This marked the end of the Archaemenid Empire and the rise of Greece as a world power. Alexander conquered the world and died in Babylon in 323 BC. This bust of Alexander the Great is an important discovery in Biblical Archaeology and the period of Greek history. Includes a Map of Alexander's Decisive battles. "And as I was considering, behold, an he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes." DANIEL 8:5 "And the he goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king." DANIEL 8:21

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/greece/alexander-the-great-bust.html

Antiochus IV Epiphanes Coin

Antiochus IV (175-164 BC), was the 8th ruler of the Seleucid empire. He gave himself the surname "Epiphanes" which means "the visible god" (that he and Jupiter were identical). He acted as though he really were Jupiter and the people called him "Epimanes" meaning "the madman". He was violently bitter against the Jews, and was determined to exterminate them and their religion. He devastated Jerusalem in 168 BC, defiled the Temple, offered a pig on its altar, erected an altar to Jupiter, prohibited Temple worship, forbade circumcision on pain of death, sold thousands of Jewish families into slavery, destroyed all copies of Scripture that could be found, and slaughtered everyone discovered in possession of such copies, and resorted to every conceivable torture to force Jews to renounce their religion. This led to the Maccabaean revolt, one of the most heroic feats in history.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/greece/1-antiochus-iv-epiphanes-bb.html

Parthenon Ruins

The Parthenon is the most important and characteristic monument of the ancient Greek civilization and still remains its international symbol. It was dedicated to Athena Parthenos, the patron goddess of Athens. It was built between 447 and 438 BC. and its sculptural decoration was completed in 432 BC. The parthenon in Nashville is the world's only full-size replica of the ancient Parthenon in Athens. Biblical Archaeology

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/greece/1-parthenon-old-bb.html

Ancient Parthenon

In ancient Greece the Parthenon was dedicated to Athena Parthenos, the patron goddess of Athens. It was built between 447 and 438 BC. and its sculptural decoration was completed in 432 BC. Biblical Archaeology

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/greece/1-parthenon-bb.html

Antiochus IV Epiphanes Bust

Bust of Antiochus Epiphanes. Antiochus IV usurped the throne of his brother Seleucus IV who died. Antiochus was determined to hellenize Israel and make them a people who were worthy of bordering Egypt, he needed a loyal hellenized population there. The Jews were quickly becoming more Greek than any other time in history. A group of Jews came to Antiochus with a plan. They proposed that the high priest Onias III should be removed and his hellenized brother Jason should take his place. They should set up a Greek Constitution and coin Greek money. The plan was followed and all the Jews were outraged. It was the first time since the Babylonian Captivity that a non-Jewish government had interfered with the priesthood (treating the sacred office as though it were nothing other than a governmental office). But the worst was yet to come. Now the hellenizers had full control of the government in Jerusalem and they began to build gymnasiums within the city and encouraged the young to spent all their time there. The young priests engaged in sports, Jerusalem was filled with Greek styles, Greek clothes, Greek names, Greek language and worst of all, Greek religion and Greek morals. The most radical hellenizers felt that things were not moving fast enough so they convinced Antiochus to remove Jason and replace him with Menelaus who was not even a member of the priestly family. Menelaus had no sympathy for the Jewish traditions whatsoever and was only concerned about his own power. The Temple treasury did not contain enough money to pay Antiochus what he had promised so he sold some of the holy vessels of the Temple to raise the money he needed. It was now the goal that Judaism was to be destroyed. In the mind of Antiochus to be un-hellenized was stiff-necked nonsense. If Judaism stood in the way then Judaism was to be destroyed so he gave the orders. The Syrian army marched into Jerusalem and many of the people were killed and others escaped to the hills. Only the known Hellenists were allowed to remain. Orders were given: NO Sabbath, NO Holy Days, and NO Circumcision. A Statue of Zeus/Antiochus was placed in the Temple above the altar. The most detestable animals (the pig) were brought and sacrificed on the altar. An abominable act was perpetrated on Kislev 25, 168 BC according to the Book of Maccabees that "left the Jewish people desolate." (They call this the Abomination of Desolation in Daniel) but Jesus taught that this was a preliminary occurrence of a greater fulfillment coming in the last days, during the seventieth week of Daniel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/greece/2-antiochus-iv-bust-bb.html

Alexander the Great Coin

This coin reveals scenes of Alexander the Great's life. The top image depicts Alexander being crowned by Nike, the goddess of victory. The bottom image depicts Alexander on his horse Busephalus at the Jhelum River attacking Porus on his war elephant. Porus was trying to stop Alexander from crossing the river until the monsoon, which would delay him until after the summer months. In 336 BC when Darius II was king of Persia he battled against Alexander the Great and was defeated twice. The two famous battles were the Battle of Issus in 333 BC and the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC. This marked the end of the Archaemenid Empire and the rise of Greece as a world power. Alexander conquered the world and died in Babylon in 323 BC. This coin depicting Alexander the Great is an important discovery in Biblical Archaeology and the period of Greek history. Biblical Archaeology

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/greece/2-alexander-coin-bb.html

Alexander the Great Coin

This coin reveals scenes of Alexander the Great's life. The top image depicts Alexander being crowned by Nike, the goddess of victory. The bottom image depicts Alexander on his horse Busephalus at the Jhelum River attacking Porus on his war elephant. Porus was trying to stop Alexander from crossing the river until the monsoon, which would delay him until after the summer months. In 336 BC when Darius II was king of Persia he battled against Alexander the Great and was defeated twice. The two famous battles were the Battle of Issus in 333 BC and the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC. This marked the end of the Archaemenid Empire and the rise of Greece as a world power. Alexander conquered the world and died in Babylon in 323 BC. This coin depicting Alexander the Great is an important discovery in Biblical Archaeology and the period of Greek history. Biblical Archaeology

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/greece/2-alexander-coin-bb.html

Macedonian Infantry Helmet

Greek Macedonian Infantry Helmet in Biblical Archaeology

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/greece/2-greek-helmet-bb.html

Immortal Guard Warriors

These ancient Persian archers were from the immortal guard at the Palace of Darius I "the Great" at ancient Susa (Sushan). In one ancient battle the Persian king surrounded himself by a picked body of Persian warriors called, "the immortals," consisting of 10,000 foot soldiers, the best and the bravest of his own native army. The Ten Thousand Immortals were known in history as the royal bodyguard of ancient Persia. These 5 foot tall archers were the royal Immortal Guard from the palace of Darius at Susa (ancient Shushan). These archers are seen wearing colorful ceremonial clothing decorated with tiny stars, from their woven and twisted headbands, hair and beards, even to their shoes. Their clothes are decorated with tiny stars. Their bows, arrows and spears were gold and silver. The bright colored enameled tiles used to line the entire walls, bringing to life the illustrious and lavish celebrations that existed at the palace of the kings of ancient Persia. All the colors seen here are reminiscent of the lavish banquet mentioned in the Book of Esther in the Bible (white, green, blue, purple, silver, gold), when the king of Persia invited nobles and princes from all over his empire to a feast at his palace. Guests would ascend a wide stone staircase entering a gate into the courtyard. All along the path there were the elaborate carvings along the walls, of nobles and princes, royal guards, horses and chariots. Representatives from the lands and provinces of the Persian Empire bringing tribute to the ruler of the world, king Darius (522-486 B.C.). Their destination was the great audience hall and palace of the king, a place of tremendous wealth and luxury. According to history when Alexander the Great marched into Susa he took 40,000 talents of gold which was about 1200 tons. Alexander the Great faced hordes of soldiers like the archers shown here when he conquered the world of the Persians. The Persian Empire was vast, extending from India to Greece, and down to Ethiopia. These archers of the royal guard revealed on these brilliantly glazed ceramic tiles of blue and gold discovered at Susa are important discovery in the study of Biblical archaeology. It shows us the enemies of Alexander the Great who is alluded to in the Book of Daniel, and the luxurious wealth of the Persians as mentioned in the Book of Esther regarding the royal banquet of the king of Persia.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/greece/2-persian-soldiers-bb.html

Bust of Vespasian

Bust of Titus Flavius Vespasian. Was this Emperor who "Destroyed Jerusalem" famous for his kindness? The face of the Roman Emperor, Vespasian who began the construction of the Collosseum, the most famous of all Roman architecture. The bust of Vespasian is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the image of the Roman general who Nero sent to put down the Jewish revolt. In 70 AD. after Nero's suicide he set sail for Rome and left the final siege of Jerusalem in the hands of his son Titus. The destruction of Jerusalem was dreadfully foreseen and predicted by Jesus 40 years prior: "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the one who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing! See! Your house is left to you desolate; for I say to you, you shall see Me no more till you say, 'Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord!'" - Matthew 23:37-39

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/vespasian-bust.html

Bust of Titus

Bust of Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus. Was this the man who Destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD? The face of the Roman Emperor, Titus. To Vespasian (a.d. 70) we are indebted for the foundation of the Coliseum, or the Flavian amphitheatre, the noblest ruin in existence. It was dedicated by Titus in 79 AD), 10 years after the taking of Jerusalem, but not finally completed until the reign of his successor, Domitian. The bust of Titus is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the image of the Roman commander who destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. The destruction of Jerusalem was dreadfully foreseen and predicted by Jesus 40 years prior.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/titus-bust.html

Bust of Nero

Bust of Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. The face of the Roman Emperor, Nero. During his reign were the great fire of Rome which he blamed the Christians for, Paul and Peter were martyred at this time. Nero initiated the attack on Jerusalem which ended in the destruction of the city and Temple under Vespasian and finally Titus in 70 AD. Titus became Emperor of Rome in 79 AD when his father Vespasian died and he completed and dedicated the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum). The bust of Nero is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the image of the Emperor who heavily persecuted the Christians and originally ordered the destruction of Jerusalem in 68 AD just before his suicide. The destruction of Jerusalem was dreadfully foreseen and predicted by Jesus. It reveals the image of the Roman Emperor who gave the original order to destroy Jerusalem which resulted in her destruction in 70 AD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/1-nero-bb.html

Roman Legionary Camp

Roman Legion Camp at Masada. How Long Until the Legion Captured Masada? The Jewish Zealots held out for three long years after the Temple was destroyed and Jerusalem was brought down to rubble and burned to ashes. Masada was the last fortress of the Jews and every other Jewish stronghold was captured. It was just a matter of time, so the Jewish Zealots committed suicide, after deciding that death was better for them than capture by the Romans. This Roman Legionary encampment which can be seen today is a testimony in Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the encampment of the ones who destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. The destruction of Jerusalem was dreadfully foreseen and predicted by Jesus. "As the flames shot up, a cry, as poignant as the tragedy, arose from the Jews, who flock to the rescue," - Josephus, he also added: "lost to all thought of self-preservation, all husbanding of strength, now that the object of all their past vigilance was vanishing." - Flavius Josephus

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/legion-camp.html

Legio X Fretensis Stamped Bricks

These bricks contain an inscribed stamp from the Roman legion which destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. They are stamped with the inscription "Legio X Fretensis." The legionary bricks is an important discovery in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the legion which destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. The destruction of Jerusalem was dreadfully foreseen and predicted by Jesus.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/roman-legion-bricks.html

Roman Eagle Standard

Did Eagles Carry Emperors Into Heaven? The eagle (aquila) was the bird of Jupiter. In ancient times the eagle was a symbol of strength and courage, and immortality. The eagle was believed to be the king of the birds that could ascend above the storm, and become the messenger of the gods. According to ancient mythology the eagle would carry the soul into the presence of the gods, Zeus to the Greeks, Jupiter to the Roman, and Odin to the tribes of Germania. The silver eagle was the ensign of the Roman Legion and the symbol of its power. The legatus was the officer in charge, and he would assign an aquilifer who was the soldier that would carry the aquila (eagle) into battle. If the eagle was captured the legion would disband. It is interesting that Julius Caesar personally sanctified the eagle when the legion was brought forth. On one of the legion standards the powerful talons of the eagle are gripping golden thunderbolts, as the eagle stands ready for flight against all enemies of Rome. At the very top of the standard above the eagle is a gold bar with the inscription SPQR (Senatus Populus Romanus) honoring the Senate and the People. The ancient Roman eagle is important in the study of Biblical archaeology.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/2-roman-eagle-bb.html

Ancient Roman Aqueduct

Painting of the Caesarea Aqueduct. Did the Romans Invent the Aqueduct? This painting is of a section of an ancient Roman aqueduct on the outskirts of Caesarea Maritima to the south. The Romans used aqueducts to bring water into a city, they consisted of a cement-lined rectangular pipe supported on arches. The Romans built their first aqueduct in 312 BC. During the time of Augustus aqueducts brought nearly 300 million gallons of water per day to the city of Rome. Aqueducts became one of Rome's greatest architectural marvels. They usually were constructed as arches, bridges, or siphons. This particular arched aqueduct was built by Herod to bring water from springs in the Carmel mountains in north Israel into the important city of Caesarea. The remains of this Ancient Roman Aqueduct is important in the study of Biblical archaeology. It corresponds exactly with what the Bible says concerning Herod, and concerning the achievements of the ancient Romans, and concerning the importance of ancient Caesarea during Biblical times.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/3-ancient-aqueduct-bb.html

Ancient Roman Legions

How Many Soldiers are in a Legion? Legionaries were infantry soldiers who were the major armed forces of the Roman army. They were recruited from Roman citizens, usually as young as 19 but many as early as 14 years old. 4 foot 11 inches was the minimum height. Augustus had 25 legions of approximately 6,000 soldiers each. A legion was formed of 10 Cohorts (540 men in each Cohort). Each Cohort was subdivided into 6 Centuries (90 men formed a Century), and each legion had a wing of 120 cavalry. This discovery of a wall relief depicting ancient Roman Legionaries is important in the study of Biblical archaeology. "Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword. Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels?" - Matthew 26:52-53

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/3-legions-bb.html

Ancient Roman Milestones

Did All Roads Lead to Rome in the Roman Empire? This painting of the ruins of a "milliarium" or Roman milestone attests to the fact that in the ancient world "all roads lead to Rome". The famous maxim was correct, and what was even more precise was that to a Roman all roads lead from Rome. According to the Roman system, a gilded pillar was placed by the Emperor Augustus in the Forum Romanum to mark the beginning point of the vast network of Roads that extended out throughout the whole Empire. Milestones were to mark every mile from the Eternal City. No traveler would mistake the fact that he was on a Roman road and upon imperial domain. The legions created these roads and used them for quick maneuvering among Provinces. There were Roadside Inns, Taverns, and Hotels. The Emperor Augustus believed strongly that International Trade was important to the prosperity and peace of the Empire and his Pax Romana. The Ancient Roman Milestone ruins are important in the study of Biblical archaeology. They reveal accurately what the Bible describes about Rome and the Emperor Augustus.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/3-milestone-bb.html

Statue of Pharaoh Merneptah

Does the Bible mention Pharaoh Merneptah? This painting is of a granite statue of Pharaoh Merneptah with his royal head-dress now in the Egyptian Museum. Merneptah reigned in Egypt during the 19th dynasty (1213-1203 BC), and he was the son of the great Rameses II. His name is inscribed on the cartouche on his right shoulder. It is this Pharaoh who mentions the people of Israel in his monument called "The Merneptah Stela", where he boasts of a decisive victory over "Israel". The Merneptah Statue discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it shows an image of the Pharaoh of Egypt who mentions the Israelites dwelling in the land of Canaan during the time of Joshua and the Judges. Joshua 15:9 "And the border was drawn from the top of the hill unto the fountain of the water of Nephtoah, and went out to the cities of mount Ephron; and the border was drawn to Baalah, which [is] Kirjathjearim" In Hebrew the name Nephtoah is Mei Neftoah which is derived from Pharaoh Merneptah. Judges 10:6 - And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim, and Ashtaroth, and the gods of Syria, and the gods of Zidon, and the gods of Moab, and the gods of the children of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines, and forsook the LORD, and served not him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/2-merneptah-bb.html

The Great Sphinx of Giza

Did the Great Sphinx of Giza survive the Flood of Noah? Painting of the famous Sphinx at Giza, Egypt. The great Sphinx faces east, toward the rising of the sun and guards the entrance to the Nile Valley. It has the body of a lion with the head of a pharaoh or the god Horus. Over the centuries the body of the Sphinx has been buried under the sand and later dug back up. In 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte visited the Sphinx, and many others attempted to remove the sand and failed. In 1905 the sand was finally completely cleared away to reveal the awesomeness of the Sphinx at Giza in its fullness. The Sphinx is over 150 feet long, 70 feet high and 38 feet from shoulder to shoulder. This monstrous figure was carved from one piece of stone weighing hundreds of tons and the largest rock-carved sculpture on earth. There are no records regarding the construction of the Sphinx and there is no way to know how it originally looked when it was created. One archaeological discovery called the Sphinx Stela reveals that the Sphinx at Giza was restored during the reign of Pharaoh Thutmosis IV of the 18th Dynasty in Egypt, about 1400 B.C. To this day archaeologists cannot tell exactly what types of tools were originally used to carve the Sphinx. They also cannot tell when it was originally carved, but that it was carved by a highly advanced style of engineering is certain. It is interesting that the geological erosion on the Sphinx is due to water rather than sand and other desert elements. This would allow for the possibility of the Biblical account of the Flood and a highly advanced civilization living in the world before the Flood covered the whole world. The discovery of the Weld-Blundell Prism from ancient Sumer, indicates an extraordinary long life span of the kings of ancient Mesopotamia before the Flood. The subject of the Sphinx can only be left to speculation. The ancient Egyptian Sphinx is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. It reveals the immense power and wealth of the ancient Egyptians mentioned so often in the Bible, as well as the possibility of a great flood in ancient times. The history of ancient Egypt has been divided into three periods. The oldest of these is known as the "Old Kingdom," which consists of the first ten dynasties, beginning around 3500 BC and ending about 2400 BC. Although the Bible never mentions the Pyramids of Egypt or the Great Sphinx, they stand as a testimony of what the Bible says about ancient Egypt. The fact that they are still standing is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. Genesis 7:17 - And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth. Genesis 9:15 - And I will remember my covenant, which [is] between me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. Jeremiah 46:8 "Egypt riseth up like a flood, and [his] waters are moved like the rivers; and he saith, I will go up, [and] will cover the earth; I will destroy the city and the inhabitants thereof." Jeremiah 46:25 "The LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, saith; Behold, I will punish the multitude of No, and Pharaoh, and Egypt, with their gods, and their kings; even Pharaoh, and [all] them that trust in him"

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/2-sphinx-bb.html

Obelisk of Rameses II

Was this Obelisk one of the idols of wrath mentioned in the Bible? This painting is of an ancient Egyptian Obelisk which was discovered standing at the place known as the Horizon of the sun god Re. Rameses II built this as the primary entrance to his temple at Luxor in Thebes. The obelisk describes his achievements, it stands 82 feet tall and weighs about 250 tons. The top was capped with a pyramidion which flashed first with the early morning rays of the sun. Obelisks were considered idols of jealousy in the Bible and were cursed by God. This Ancient Egyptian Obelisk confirms the Bible and is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. Isaiah 19:1-3 "The burden of Egypt. Behold, the LORD rideth upon a swift cloud, and shall come into Egypt: and the idols of Egypt shall be moved at his presence, and the heart of Egypt shall melt in the midst of it. And I will set the Egyptians against the Egyptians: and they shall fight every one against his brother, and every one against his neighbour; city against city, [and] kingdom against kingdom. And the spirit of Egypt shall fail in the midst thereof; and I will destroy the counsel thereof: and they shall seek to the idols, and to the charmers, and to them that have familiar spirits, and to the wizards." Jeremiah 46:25 - "The LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, saith; Behold, I will punish the multitude of No, and Pharaoh, and Egypt, with their gods, and their kings; even Pharaoh, and [all] them that trust in him." Isaiah 19:1 - The burden of Egypt. Behold, the LORD rideth upon a swift cloud, and shall come into Egypt: and the idols of Egypt shall be moved at his presence, and the heart of Egypt shall melt in the midst of it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/3-obelisk-bb.html

Julius Caesar Bust

Was Julius Caesar a Friend of the Jews? The face of the Roman dictator, Julius Caesar. When Julius Caesar served as proconsul of Gaul (ancient France), he conquered countless Celtic and Belgic armies in the hundreds of thousands. He invaded Britain twice before it became a province in 43 A.D. under the Emperor Claudius. Later Pompey persuaded the Senate to force Caesar to retire as proconsul of Gaul when his term was up. Caesar immediately rebelled against them and crossed the Rubicon River in 49 B.C., and started a civil war. Though Pompey had a much larger army he was easily defeated by Julius Caesar on the plains of Pharsalus in northern Greece. Pompey fled to the great port of Alexandria, Egypt but he was murdered as he landed. Julius Caesar arrived a short time later and met Queen Cleopatra, the last of the Ptolemaic rulers in Egypt, whom he became infatuated with. He actually met with great opposition in Alexandria and defeated them with the help of the Jews.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/julius-caesar-bust.html

Arch of Titus Chariot Relief

Was Titus an instrument of God in destroying Jerusalem in 70 A.D.? This second scene on the Arch of Titus reveals the actual triumphal procession of Roman soldiers who conquered Jerusalem in 70 AD. Titus is in his chariot with the winged Victory riding beside him who places a wreathe on his head, the goddess Roma or Virtus is leading the horses, along with the semi-nude Genius of the People. Because the reliefs were carved so deeply, some of the heads have broken off. The Arch of Titus with its reliefs are high on the list of importance in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it reveals a scene in history that testifies to the events predicted by Jesus regarding Jerusalem. "If you had known, even you, especially in this your day, the things that make for your peace! But now they are hidden from your eyes. For days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment around you, surround you and close you in on every side, and level you, and your children within you, to the ground; and they will not leave in you one stone upon another, because you did not know the time of your visitation." - Luke 19:41-44

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/arch-titus-menorah-2.html

Augustus Caesar Bronze Bust

Did God put the thought in Augustus' mind to tax the whole world? This bronze head of the Emperor Augustus is a bit larger than the real size of his head. It was excavated at Meroe (Modern Sudan) and is currently in the British Museum. The exact meaning of its presence in this distant land can only be speculation. Rome's influence in the whole area in northern Africa was continually growing until they became Roman provinces under Augustus. The Bronze Bust of Augustus is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the image and reality of a person mentioned in the Bible at the time of Christ's birth. "And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed. (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city. And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child." Luke 2:1-5 The Bible says that Caesar Augustus made a decree that the whole world should be taxed and this included the Jews. This happened when Jesus was about to be born. Joseph and Mary were required to travel to their ancestral cities which would have been Bethlehem for both of them. Since they were living in Nazareth it would have been an extremely long and difficult journey, about 80-90 miles depending on which route they took. It was also mainly an uphill journey seeing that Bethlehem is about 2500 feet above sea level, in the hill country of Judea. When they arrived at bethlehem there was no room for them at the Inn because of the large crowd coming to Jerusalem for the Passover, and that night Mary gave birth to Jesus, in a stable in Bethlehem. Map of Israel During the Time of Jesus Micah 5:2 - But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, [though] thou be little among the thousands of Judah, [yet] out of thee shall he come forth unto me [that is] to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth [have been] from of old, from everlasting.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/bronze-augustus.html

Augustus Caesar Bust

How did Caesar fulfill the prophecy that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem? The face of Caesar Augustus from the Prima Porta Statue at the Vatican Museum. This marble statue was discovered in 1863 about 9 miles outside of Rome, at Prima Porta, a Villa of Livia Drisilla (Augustus' wife). Prima Porta was the visitors gateway to Rome, once a traveler saw it he knew he had reached Rome. Augustus was not only the first emperor, he was also the greatest. He definitely deserved the title 'father of his country'. He exercised authority concerning both Rome and the provinces with great wisdom. He boasted that he had transformed Rome from a city of brick into a city of marble. The face on the statue of Augustus is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the image and reality of a person mentioned in the Bible at the time of Christ's birth. "And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed. (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city. And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child." Luke 2:1-5 The Bible says that Caesar Augustus made a decree that the whole world should be taxed and this included the Jews. This happened when Jesus was about to be born. Joseph and Mary were required to travel to their ancestral cities which would have been Bethlehem for both of them. Since they were living in Nazareth it would have been an extremely long and difficult journey, about 80-90 miles depending on which route they took. It was also mainly an uphill journey seeing that Bethlehem is about 2500 feet above sea level, in the hill country of Judea. When they arrived at Bethlehem there was no room for them at the Inn because of the large crowd coming to Jerusalem for the Passover, and that night Mary gave birth to Jesus, in a stable in Bethlehem. Micah 5:2 - But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, [though] thou be little among the thousands of Judah, [yet] out of thee shall he come forth unto me [that is] to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth [have been] from of old, from everlasting. Luke 2:1 - And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/augustus-caesar-bust.html

Tiberius Caesar Bust

Did Tiberius Caesar know Jesus was being crucified? The face of the Roman Emperor, Tiberius from the statue now in the Museo Nazionale, Naples. Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus and the oldest son of Livia, wife of Augustus. Augustus adopted Tiberius in 4 A.D. because he lacked a male heir. He had first adopted his younger stepson Drusus, but he died in 9 B.C. after falling from his horse. In 14 A.D. Tiberius became Emperor of Rome. Whether Tiberius had heard of Jesus, or knew about the crucifixion of Jesus is a matter of speculation. There is no doubt that word about Jesus and his miracles spread quickly throughout the Roman Empire, even to the Imperial Palace on Palatine Hill, but Tiberius had retired to his palace on the Island of Capri in 26 A.D. while all sorts of corruption was happening in Rome. He left Sejanus in charge of Rome who eventually betrayed him and was later tried by the Senate upon orders by Tiberius, and then executed. Meanwhile there were many rumors about Tiberius on Capri involving homosexuality and sexual perversity with young boys, which included all sorts of inhumane cruelty. In this picture it shows the "Tiberius Leap" (Salto di Tiberio) which is a giant 1000 foot cliff that, according to the historians Suetonius and Tacitus, Tiberius hurled his discarded young sexual conquests and victims into the sea to their deaths for orgasmic pleasure. The bust of Tiberius Caesar is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the image and reality of a person mentioned in the Bible, who was the emperor of Rome during the time of Christ's life. "Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness." Luke 3:1-2

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/tiberius-caesar-bust.html

Arch of Titus Menorah and Table

Could this be the greatest testimony to the words of Jesus in all of Biblical archaeology? This wall relief on the Arch of Titus reveals one of the most troubling scenes in all history, Roman soldiers carrying spoils from the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. The Temple Menorah* and the Table** of the Shewbread shown at an angle, both of solid gold, and the silver trumpets which called the Jews to the festivals. The Romans are in triumphal procession wearing laurel crowns and the ones carrying the Menorah have pillows on their shoulders. The soldiers carry signs commemorating the victories which Titus had won. This group of soldiers is just a few of the hundreds in the actual triumphal procession down Rome's Sacred Way. The whole procession is about to enter the carved arch on the right which reveals the quadriga at the top, Titus on his 4-horsed chariot with soldiers. The Arch of Titus with its Menorah Relief are high on the list of importance in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it stands today as a testimony that the words of Jesus miraculously came true.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/rome/arch-titus-menorah-1.html

Royal Bodyguards of King Sennacherib

Could these bodyguards of king Sennacherib have faced the Angel of the Lord mentioned in Isaiah 37:36? This stone panel was excavated from the South-West Palace of king Sennacherib of Assyria. It dates about 700 BC. It depicts soldiers who were the royal bodyguard of the mighty Sennacherib, the same king who ordered the attack on Jerusalem in 2 Kings 19.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/assyrian-royal-guard-soldiers.html

Hebrew Prisoners Flayed Alive

Could these be Hebrews that the Assyrians were skinning alive? This alabaster wall panel was part of a series of panels that decorated the walls of the mighty king Sennacherib of Assyria, who's capital was Nineveh. It shows the Assyrian soldiers brutally abusing the captives of the conquered city of Lachish in 701 BC. The prisoners are being skinned alive. Lachish was a strongly fortified city located about 25 miles SE of Jerusalem. The amazing discovery of this panel is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it reveals the horrifying cruelty of the Assyrians and the brutal treatment of their prisoners. The Assyrians were raised up by God to punish Israel for their rebellion against Him. Never in history were a people so brutal. Their awesome warfare tactics are still studied today. "Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah that Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah and took them." - Isaiah 36:1-2

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/capture-lachish-flaying.html

Jewish Captives

Could these be two Jewish captives? This sculptured wall relief was excavated at ancient Nineveh and illustrates the fall of Lachish by the army of king Sennacherib of Assyria. He drove the inhabitants into captivity. Sennacherib was later routed at Jerusalem by the Angel of the Lord, he had captured 36 cities. This real historical picture of the Hebrew Captives from Lachish is an amazing discovery in Biblical Archaeology because it is a clear testimony that God does not show partiality and when His people rebelled against Him, He allowed them to be taken away from His presence and deported to Assyria. This wall relief is now in the British Museum. "Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah that Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah and took them." Isaiah 36:1-2

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/jewish-captives-lachish.html

Clay Prism of Sennacherib

Does this record of Sennacherib's war campaigns mention Hezekiah the Judahite? This beautifully preserved six-sided hexagonal prism of baked clay, commonly known as the Taylor Prism, was discovered among the ruins of Nineveh, the ancient capital of the Assyrian Empire. It contains the victories of Sennacherib himself, the Assyrian king who had besieged Jerusalem in 701 BC during the reign of king Hezekiah, it never mentions any defeats. On the prism Sennacherib boasts that he shut up "Hezekiah the Judahite" within Jerusalem his own royal city "like a caged bird." This prism is among the three accounts discovered so far which have been left by the Assyrian king Sennacherib of his campaign against Israel and Judah. British Museum. The Taylor Prism discovery remains one of the most important discoveries in Biblical Archaeology. Interesting note: Egyptian sources make mention of Sennacherib's defeat in the conflict with Judah, but gives the credit for the victory to an Egyptian god who sent field mice into the camp of the Assyrians to eat their bowstrings and thus they fled from battle. (See 2 Kings 19; 2 Chronicles 32 and Isaiah 37) "Therefore thus says the LORD concerning the king of Assyria: 'He shall not come into this city, Nor shoot an arrow there, Nor come before it with shield, Nor build a siege mound against it. By the way that he came, By the same shall he return; And he shall not come into this city,' Says the LORD. 'For I will defend this city, to save it For My own sake and for My servant David's sake.'" Then the angel of the LORD went out, and killed in the camp of the Assyrians one hundred and eighty-five thousand; and when people arose early in the morning, there were the corpses--all dead. So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed and went away, returned home, and remained at Nineveh." Isaiah 37:33-38

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/taylor-prism.html

King Ashurbanipal Stele

Could this relief be reminiscent of king Solomon who was personally involved in the dedication of the Temple in Jerusalem? This relief of Ashurbanipal (668-626 B.C.) from Nineveh reveals the king carrying a basket on his head, symbolizing the kings personal involvement in the restoration of the temple of Esagila in Babylon. King Ashurbanipal is reminiscent of king Solomon who was personally involved in the construction of the Temple of Yahweh in Jerusalem. One generation later the Babylonians came and destroyed proud Assyria and the Assyrian Empire passed into history. The Stela of Ashurbanipal discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. "Woe to Assyria, the rod of My anger And the staff in whose hand is My indignation. I will send him against an ungodly nation, And against the people of My wrath I will give him charge, To seize the spoil, to take the prey, And to tread them down like the mire of the streets. Yet he does not mean so, Nor does his heart think so; But it is in his heart to destroy, And cut off not a few nations. For he says, "Are not my princes altogether kings? Is not Calno like Carchemish? Is not Hamath like Arpad? Is not Samaria like Damascus? As my hand has found the kingdoms of the idols, Whose carved images excelled those of Jerusalem and Samaria, As I have done to Samaria and her idols, Shall I not do also to Jerusalem and her idols?"' Therefore it shall come to pass, when the Lord has performed all His work on Mount Zion and on Jerusalem, that He will say, "I will punish the fruit of the arrogant heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his haughty looks." For he says: "By the strength of my hand I have done it, And by my wisdom, for I am prudent; Also I have removed the boundaries of the people, And have robbed their treasuries; So I have put down the inhabitants like a valiant man." Isaiah 10:5-13

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/Stela-of-Ashurbanipal.html

Mound of Ancient Nineveh

Could this deserted mound be all that is left of the once mighty Nineveh? This mound is all that is left of the once mighty city of Nineveh, the capital of ancient Assyria. This is where there once stood the magnificent palaces of mighty kings like Sennacherib and Esarhaddon. When the Babylonians and the Medes destroyed Assyria in 612 BC., the city of Nineveh was utterly destroyed. The discovery of this mound is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the promise of God and the fulfillment of His Word. " And he will stretch out his hand against the north, and destroy Assyria; and will make Nineveh a desolation, [and] dry like a wilderness." - Zephaniah 2:13

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/2-assyria-mound-bb.html

Painting of Ancient Assur

The once proud city of Assur This painting reveals the awesome city of Ashur on the west bank of the Tigris River. When the Babylonians and the Medes destroyed Assyria in 612 BC., the city of Ashur was the first to fall. The discovery of the ruins of ancient Ashur is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it reveals the promise of God and the fulfillment of His Word. "And he will stretch out his hand against the north, and destroy Assyria" - Zephaniah 2:13

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/2-assyria-sketch-bb.html

The Striding Lion

Could the Hebrews have seen this lion when they were brought as captives to Babylon? The striding lion of Babylon was made of molded brick with polychrome glaze and appeared along the side of the 'Processional Way' in ancient Babylon in 604-562 B.C. The 'Processional Way' led out of the city through the massive Ishtar Gate, the lion was the symbol of the goddess Ishtar. There were some 120 lions such as this one decorated along the walls. This painting is from a wall relief at the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. It is 90.3 cm high and 230.5 cm wide. It was purchased in Berlin in 1931. "For I will rise up against them," says the LORD of hosts, "And cut off from Babylon the name and remnant, And offspring and posterity," says the LORD. "I will also make it a possession for the porcupine, And marshes of muddy water; I will sweep it with the broom of destruction," says the LORD of hosts. Isaiah 14:22-23

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/babylon/striding-lion.html

Cylinder of Nebuchadnezzar

Does this artifact reveal that king Nebuchadnezzar had more than one lush palace in Babylon? This clay cylinder is one of three cylinders found in the ruins of ancient Babylon that describe Nebuchadnezzar's royal palace that he built for himself in Babylon. He actually built 3 palaces and his summer palace was on the Euphrates River. The Nebuchadnezzar II Clay Cylinder is an important discovery in Biblical Archaeology, it mentions Nebuchadnezzar by name and confirms the Biblical account. "Is this not Babylon that I have built""" ""Daniel 4:30

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/babylon/nebuchadnezzar-cylinder.html

Cuneiform Tablet

Did this cuneiform tablet come from the oldest and largest city in the ancient world? This cuneiform tablet reveals how the ancient Babylonians wrote. It was discovered among the 30,000 or more cuneiform tablets at the site of ancient Lagash, one of the oldest cities in ancient Sumer and later became part of Babylonia. According to scholars some believe that Lagash was the largest city in the world during the third millennium BC. Cuneiform was the script of the Sumerians and all the other inhabitants of Mesopotamia all the way up to the first century BC. The name cuneiform comes from the Latin word "cuneus", meaning wedge. Cuneiform was originally written with a reed or stick stylus but this was quickly developed into a precision tool. We have derived virtually all our knowledge of the Babylonians from texts written in cuneiform on clay tablets. From these tablets we have been able to learn their law, business, administration, religion and all other aspects of Babylonian civilization. Without these texts we would know little about the Babylonians. The Lagash Rations Tablet is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it shows us a clear text written in ancient cuneiform script. "Is this not Babylon that I have built""" ""Daniel 4:30

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/babylon/lagash-rations-tablet.html

The Ishtar Gate

Did the Jewish captives pass through this gate after the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B.C.? The Ishtar Gate was built and dedicated to the goddess Ishtar around 575 BC. It was awesome in appearance and one of the most impressive monuments of the ancient Near East. It was decorated with glazed brick reliefs, in tiers, of dragons and young bulls. The gate was a double gate, and it was the starting point for the half mile Processional Way to the Temple of Marduk. This gate was built by Nebuchadnezzar II, the same monarch who conquered Jerusalem in 586 BC. The Ishtar Gate foundations were discovered in 1899, and were reconstructed in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin, from the glazed bricks and other material excavated by the Robert Koldeway expedition in the early 1900's. This discovery was monumental in the study of Biblical Archaeology, the very Gate which the Jewish captives must have passed through, including Daniel and Ezekiel. It shows the might and glory of the Babylonian Empire. "Is not this the great Babylon I have built as the royal residence, by my mighty power and for the glory of my majesty?" The words were still on his lips when a voice came from heaven, "This is what is decreed for you, King Nebuchadnezzar: Your royal authority has been taken from you." Daniel 4:30-31

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/babylon/ishtar-gate.html

Brick of Nebuchadnezzar

Was every brick in ancient Babylon inscribed with the name of Nebuchadnezzar? Bricks like this Nebuchadnezzar II Brick are very common around the ruins of ancient Babylon. King Nebuchadnezzar used them in all of his official building projects and they were made in the millions and every one of them was stamped or inscribed in cuneiform. The discovery of this Nebuchadnezzar II inscribed brick is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it contains a declaration by king Nebuchadnezzar II, the monarch who is mentioned so often in the Bible and is the one who destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem in 586 BC and carried the Jews away into exile. "Modern research has shown that Nebuchadnezzar was the greatest monarch that Babylon, or perhaps the East generally, ever produced. He must have possessed an enormous command of human labor, nine-tenths of Babylon itself, and nineteen-twentieths of all the other ruins that in almost countless profusion cover the land, are composed of bricks stamped with his name. He appears to have built or restored almost every city and temple in the whole country. His inscriptions give an elaborate account of the immense works which he constructed in and about Babylon itself, abundantly illustrating the boast, 'Is not this great Babylon which I have built?'" - George Rawlinson, Historical Illustrations of the Old Testament "And in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month, which is the nineteenth year of king Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, came Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, unto Jerusalem: And he burnt the house of the LORD, and the king's house, and all the houses of Jerusalem, and every great man's house burnt he with fire." 2 Kings 25:8

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/babylon/nebuchadnezzar-brick.html

The Babylonian Chronicle

Are the events in Babylonian inscriptions in harmony with the events in the Bible? The Babylonian Chronicle records events in ancient Babylon dating from about 750 BC to 280 BC. This tablet is part of that chronicle and records events from 605-594 BC including Nebuchadnezzar II's campaigns in the west, where Jerusalem is. It also records the defeat of the Assyrians and the fall of the Assyrian Empire and the rising threat of Egypt. It records the Battle of Carchemish where Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon defeated Pharaoh Necho of Egypt in 605 BC. It records Nebuchadnezzar's rise to power, it records the removing of Jehoiachin, king of Judah and inserting Zedekiah as king in his place, as recorded in Scripture, and it records the capture of Jerusalem on the 16th of March, 598 BC. The discovery of this part of the Babylonian Chronicle is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it contains several events mentioned in the Bible that are in harmony with one another. "And in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month, which is the nineteenth year of king Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, came Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, unto Jerusalem: And he burnt the house of the LORD, and the king's house, and all the houses of Jerusalem, and every great man's house burnt he with fire." 2 Kings 25:8

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/babylon/babylonian-chronicle.html

Snake Dragon of Marduk

Could the principal deity of ancient Babylon have been reminiscent of the serpent in the Bible? This Striding Snake Dragon of Marduk at one time decorated the Ishtar Gate which began the procession to the great temple of Marduk for about half a mile. The dragon is decorated in molded glazed bricks, with its scaly body of a dragon, head of a snake, hind feet claws of a large bird of prey, front paws of a lion and the tail of a deadly scorpion. It is interesting that the serpent in the Garden of Eden was apparently standing upright before it became cursed in the fall. The Hebrew word for serpent is "nachash" and in Isaiah 27:1 the dragon is also referred to as the "nachash". Marduk was the chief god of the Babylonians and Nebuchadnezzar is the king during this time period when the awesome Ishtar Gate was standing at the entrance to the great city of Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar was famous in history and one of the most power monarchs of all time and his city was called in the Bible a city of gold. It was so impressive that Herodotus wrote of its grandeur. The Dragon of Marduk is extremely important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. "And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life:" Genesis 3:14 And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season. Revelation 20:2-3

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/babylon/dragon-marduk.html

The Lion of Ishtar

Did the Jews believe that this Lion defeated their God? The ancient lion of Babylon on the Ishtar Gate was made of molded brick with polychrome glaze and appeared along the side of the 'Processional Way' in Babylon around 604-562 B.C. The 'Processional Way' led out of the city through the massive Ishtar Gate, the lion was the symbol of Ishtar, the goddess of war and fertility. There were some 120 lions such as this one decorated along the walls. This painting is from a wall relief at the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. It is 90.3 cm high and 230.5 cm wide. It was purchased in Berlin in 1931. The Hebrew captives entered Babylon, the city of idols, and as they saw this lion deity there is no doubt that many of them believed that God had forsaken them, or perhaps God had been defeated by this war deity. But God had forewarned the Jews continually through His prophets. He spoke through Jeremiah that they would only be captives in Babylon for 70 years. Ezekiel spoke about Israel's future and Isaiah spoke about the ultimate defeat of Babylon. "For I will rise up against them," says the LORD of hosts, "And cut off from Babylon the name and remnant, And offspring and posterity," says the LORD. "I will also make it a possession for the porcupine, And marshes of muddy water; I will sweep it with the broom of destruction," says the LORD of hosts. Isaiah 14:22-23

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/babylon/1-lion-babylon-bb.html

The Striding Lion Up Close

What did the Jews think when they saw this lion? When Jerusalem was conquered by king Nebuchadnezzar, the Jewish prisoners were led to Babylon, the land of idolatry. They must of had many thoughts when they saw all these lions in their approach into the city. The lion represented Ishtar, the warfare-deity. It was believed in ancient Babylon that Ishtar, the queen of heaven was not only the giver of life but the goddess of warfare. In one myth she forced her way through the gates of the underworld: "If thou openest not the gate to let me enter, I will break the door, I will wrench the lock, I will smash the door-posts, I will force the doors. I will bring up the dead to eat the living. And the dead will outnumber the living." - Ishtar, Babylonian Myth The ancient lion of Babylon on the Ishtar Gate was made of molded brick with polychrome glaze and appeared along the side of the 'Processional Way' in Babylon around 604-562 B.C. The 'Processional Way' led out of the city through the massive Ishtar Gate, the lion was the symbol of the goddess Ishtar. There were some 120 lions such as this one decorated along the walls. This painting is from a wall relief at the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. It is 90.3 cm high and 230.5 cm wide. It was purchased in Berlin in 1931. "For I will rise up against them," says the LORD of hosts, "And cut off from Babylon the name and remnant, And offspring and posterity," says the LORD. "I will also make it a possession for the porcupine, And marshes of muddy water; I will sweep it with the broom of destruction," says the LORD of hosts. Isaiah 14:22-23

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/babylon/1-lion-babylon-close-bb.html

Standard of Ur

Does this artifact give evidence of the original home of Abraham, Ur of the Chaldees? This military standard is from the ruins of the royal tombs at Ur of the Chaldees in ancient Mesopotamia. The standard is about 4500 years old and one of the earliest representations of an ancient Sumerian army. It has two sides, one depicting war and the other depicting peace. The excavator was the brilliant Sir Leonard Woolley, the archaeologist who uncovered the ruins of a highly advanced civilization, whose ruins can be traced before the flood of Noah. The royal standard of Ur is important in the study of Biblical archaeology, it reveals the fact that the original home of Abraham, the city of Ur really existed. Genesis 15:5-7 - "And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and he said unto him, So shall thy seed be. And he believed in the LORD; and he counted it to him for righteousness. And he said unto him, I [am] the LORD that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land to inherit it."

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/babylon/standard-of-ur-bb.html

The Mesha Stele

Does the Moabite Stone contain the same record of king Mesha's war with Israel in the Bible? The Moabite Stone also known as the Mesha Stele is an interesting story. The Bible says in 2 Kings 3:5 that Mesha the king of Moab stopped paying tribute to Israel and rebelled and fought against Israel and later he recorded this event. This record from Mesha has been discovered. The Moabite Stone was discovered in 1868 in Moab, at Dibon, 20 miles east of the Dead Sea. It was actually discovered by a German Missionary named F.A. Klein. It is a black and blue basalt stone standing 4 feet high, 2 feet wide and 14 inches thick. It was purchased for a large sum of money by the French Consulate in Jerusalem. It is interesting that the local Arabs believed that it contained a treasure and therefore broke it in large pieces by lighting it on fire and then pouring cold water over it. The inscription is summarized with these words: "I Mesha, king of Moab, made this monument to Chemosh, to commemorate deliverance from Israel. My father reigned over Moab 30 years, and I reigned after my father. Omri, king of Israel oppressed Moab many days, and his son (Ahab) after him. But I made war against the king of Israel and drove him out, and took his cities, Medeba, Ataroth, Nebo, and Jahaz, which he built while he waged war against me. I destroyed his cities, and devoted the spoil to Chemosh, and the women and girls to Ashtar. I built Qorhah with prisoners from Israel." The Moabite Stone discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. It is the actual record of Mesha, king of Moab rebelling against the king of Israel. This stone is one of the places where Israel is mentioned in ancient times outside of the Bible. "And Mesha king of Moab was a sheepmaster, and rendered unto the king of Israel an hundred thousand lambs, and an hundred thousand rams, with the wool. But it came to pass, when Ahab was dead, that the king of Moab rebelled against the king of Israel." - 2 Kings 3:4-5

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/moabite-stone.html

Ancient Hebrew Altar

Was this ancient altar found at Beersheba used by the Hebrews? This dismantled altar was discovered at the ruins of ancient Beersheba and was most likely destroyed during a revival, possibly by king Hezekiah. The Bible records one revival by king Hezekiah about 715 BC and another by Josiah about 621 BC. The Bible says that Hezekiah, "removed the high places and broke down the sacred pillars and cut down the Asherah. He also broke in pieces the bronze serpent that Moses had made, for until those days the sons of Israel burned incense to it." (2 Kings 18:4). It is interesting that one of the stones has an engraving of a serpent!

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/beersheba-altar-hezekiah.html

Ivory Pomegranate Fraud

This ivory pomegranate was on the staff of the ancient high priest in Jerusalem. It was discovered in 1979 by French paleographer André Lemaire. It contains an inscription in Hebrew script that says, "Belonging to the Temp[le of Yahw]eh, holy to the priests." This artifact proved recently to be a forgery: "The Israel Museum removed the ivory pomegranate, touted as the only existing relic from Solomon's temple, from public exhibition last week." CBC Dec 29, 2004.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/ivory-pomegranate.html

Caiaphas Ossuary

Did this ossuary contain the bones of Caiaphas, high priest during the time of Jesus? This beautifully decorated ossuary found in the ruins of Jerusalem, contained the bones of Caiaphas, the first century AD. high priest during the time of Jesus. On the side (as seen above) and the back of the ossuary is inscribed Caiaphas' name ("Yosef bar Caifa"). (see Matt 26:3, 57; Luke 3:2; John 11:49; 18:13-14, 24, 28; Acts 4:6; Josephus, Ant. 23.25, 39). It was a custom in ancient Israel to store the bones of the dead in ossuaries. They gathered the bones about a year after burial.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/ossuary-caiaphas.html

Temple of Solomon Column Capital

Could this capital have decorated the temple of Solomon? This beautifully decorated capital of a pillar was found in the Citadel of the Kings of Judah in Jerusalem. It was made during the time of the First Temple. Similar Greek Capitals have been found at Tel Dan, Hazor, Megiddo, Samaria, Jerusalem, and Ramat Rahel in Israel; and Ain Sara/Karak, and Mudaybi in Jordan. Scholars agree that this may be the palm design which decorated the First Temple in Jerusalem. 1 Kings 6:35 - "And he carved on them cherubims and palm trees and open flowers: and covered them with gold fitted upon the carved work."

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/proto-ionic-capital.html

El Amarna Tablets

Could these tablets contain records of Joshua and the Hebrews conquering the land of Canaan? Tel el Amarna was in ancient Egypt near the Nile River about halfway between Memphis and Thebes. In 1988 there were about 400 cuneiform tablets discovered at this site which were part of the royal archives of Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) who reigned about 1400 BC. Among them were letters written in Babylonian cuneiform script to these Pharaohs of Egypt by various kings dwelling in the land of Canaan and Syria, they were written during the time of Moses. They provide the first evidence of the Hebrew tribes entering into the land of Canaan in ancient times. Some of the tablets were anxious letters written from Jerusalem (Urusalim), warning the pharaoh an invasion by the 'Habiru [Khabiru]', who were approaching from Trans-Jordan. It is interesting that Akhenaten's new capital, Akhetaton, which he built with his queen Nefertiti was at the same place as modern Amarna (Tell el Amarna). The Amarna Letters discovery is highly important in the study of Biblical Archaeology because they refer to events in the middle east in the 15th and 14th centuries BC. They refer to the Hebrews, they give evidence of the trustworthiness of the book of Judges. They mention a lot about Canaan, the half of Israel to the west of the Jordan. This name "Canaan" has been found in Egyptian inscriptions of the New Kingdom. The king of Babylon used the word Canaan to designate the entire Egyptian province of Canaan when he wrote to Pharaoh: "Canaan is thy land and its kings are thy servants" (El-Amarna 8, 25) The Tablets are from 3 inches wide and anywhere from 3 to 9 inches in length, and they are inscribed on both sides. The letters were written in Akkadian, which had been the language of international relations for some time. Today the Tell el Amarna Tablets are mainly in the British, Berlin and Cairo museums. The original name of Jerusalem was Babylonian, Uru-Salim, "the city of Salim," shortened into Salem in Gen 14:18 and in the inscriptions of the Egyptian kings Ramses II and Ramses III. In the Tell el-Amarna Letters (1400 BC) Jerusalem is still known as Uru-Salim, and its king bears a Hittite name, implying that it was at the time in the possession of the Hittites. His enemies, however, were closing around him, and one of the tablets shows that the city was eventually captured and its king slain. These enemies would seem to have been the Jebusites, since it is after this period that the name "Jebus" makes its appearance for the first time in the Old Testament (Judges 19:10,11). "But the man would not tarry that night, but he rose up and departed, and came over against Jebus, which is Jerusalem; and there were with him two asses saddled, his concubine also was with him. And when they were by Jebus, the day was far spent; and the servant said unto his master, Come, I pray thee, and let us turn in into this city of the Jebusites, and lodge in it." Judges 19:10-11

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/el-amarna-letters.html

Tel Dan Stele

Was king David's name inscribed on this black stone slab? An inscription containing the words "house of David" was found on a black basalt stone slab called the Tel Dan Stele, from Tel Dan, Israel, 9th Century B.C. It was a victory stele erected by an Aramaean king north of Israel. The inscription contains an Aramaic writing commemorating his victory over Israel. The author is most likely Hazael or his son, Ben Hadad II or III, who were kings of Damascus, and enemies of the kingdom of Israel. The stele was discovered at Tel Dan, previously named Tell el-Qadi, a mound where a city once stood at the northern tip of Israel. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem House of David Inscription, Biblical Archaeology

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/house-of-david-inscription.html

Corban Inscription

Does this stone vessel contain an inscription with the same word used by Jesus "Corban"? This Korban Inscription is a fragment of a stone vessel excavated at the ruins of the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem. On the fragment are the 4 Hebrew consonants KRBN (kaph, resh, beth, nun), which spell the Hebrew word "korban" meaning "sacrifice." The inscribed word is the same word used by Jesus in Mark 7. With the inscription are two inscribed doves or pigeons. The Korban Inscription is from the time of Jesus and kept at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. The Korban Inscription discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology because the word is mentioned by Jesus in the New Testament. "But ye say, If a man shall say to his father or mother, It is Corban, that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; he shall be free. And ye suffer him no more to do ought for his father or his mother; Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which ye have delivered: and many such like things do ye." Mark 7:11-13

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/korban-inscription.html

The Lachish Letters

Did the Lachish letters reveal the turmoil in Judah just before the Babylonian captivity? The discovery of the Lachish Letters in 1935 of eighteen ostraca (clay tablets with writing in ink) written in an ancient Hebrew script, from the 7th century BC reveal important information concerning the last days of the southern kingdom of Judah. They were discovered at Lachish (Tell ed-Duweir) among the ruins of an ancient guard room just outside the Lachish city gate. Then a few years later three inscribed potsherds were also found at the site, and like the others, they contained names and lists from the period just before the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC. Most of the letters were dispatches from a Jewish commander named Hoshaiah who was stationed at an outpost north of Lachish, who apparently was responsible for interpreting the signals from Azekah and Lachish during the time when the Babylonians came against Jerusalem: Jer 34:7 "when the king of Babylon's army fought against Jerusalem and all the cities of Judah that were left, against Lachish and Azekah; for only these fortified cities remained of the cities of Judah." The ostraca read: "To my lord Ya'osh. May Yahweh cause my lord to hear the news of peace, even now, even now. Who is your servant but a dog that my lord should remember his servant?'" These final communications which mentioned the political and religious turmoil of the last days of Judah reveal the intensity of this time period and confirm that which was written in the Bible by the prophet Jeremiah. The Lachish Letters are an important discovery in the study of Biblical Archaeology and shed much light on the last days of Judah.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/lachish-letters.html

The Jeroboam Inscription

Does this jasper seal actually mention the name of king Jeroboam? The Megiddo Seal was discovered in 1904 by an archaeological team led by Gottlieb Schumacher. The discovery was determined to be a seal belonging to a royal minister in the 8th century BC. It is engraved with the figure of a roaring lion (symbol of the kingdom of Judah) with a beautiful curved tail with beautiful workmanship. The Hebrew inscription on it reads "Shema" on top, and "Servant of Jeroboam" on the bottom. "Shema servant of Yarob'oam" The inscription actually proclaims the name and rank of its owner, one of the ministers of King Jeroboam II who reigned from 787-747 BC. The word "servant" is the Hebrew word "ebed" and is mentioned in the Bible as one of high dignity in the government. Many seals have been discovered with similar inscriptions like "the servant of the king." The Megiddo Seal with the Jeroboam Inscription is of great importance in Biblical Archaeology, it mentions one of the kings of the northern kingdom of Israel. 2 Kings 14:23-25 In the fifteenth year of Amaziah the son of Joash, king of Judah, Jeroboam the son of Joash, king of Israel, became king in Samaria, and reigned forty-one years. And he did evil in the sight of the LORD; he did not depart from all the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who had made Israel sin.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/megiddo-seal-jeroboam.html

The Pontius Pilate Inscription

Does this stone contain an inscription from Pontius Pilate? In June 1961 Italian archaeologists led by Dr. Frova were excavating an ancient Roman theater near Caesarea Maritima and uncovered this interesting limestone block. On the face is an inscription which is part of a larger dedication to Tiberius Caesar which clearly says that it was from "Pontius Pilate, Prefect of Judea." It reads like this:
Line One: TIBERIEUM,
Line Two: (PON) TIUS
Line Three: (PRAEF) ECTUS IUDA (EAE)
The Pilate Inscription is the only known occurrence of the name Pontius Pilate in any ancient inscription. Visitors to the Caesarea theater today see a replica, the original is in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. There have been a few bronze coins found that were struck form 29-32 AD by Pontius Pilate. The Pontius Pilate Inscription is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology and confirms the Scriptures found in the Bible as historical.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/pilate-inscription.html

The Place of Trumpeting Inscription

Does this stone provide evidence that the Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 AD? The stone containing the Place of Trumpeting Inscription was discovered by archaeologists excavating the Temple Mount area. It is inscribed with the words "To the place of trumpeting." The Place of Trumpeting Inscription is a remarkable discovery in Biblical Archaeology and an awesome testimony of what once was, the Temple in Jerusalem. "Then Jesus went out and departed from the temple, and His disciples came up to show Him the buildings of the temple. And Jesus said to them, "Do you not see all these things? Assuredly, I say to you, not one stone shall be left here upon another, that shall not be thrown down." Matthew 24:1-2

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/place-of-trumpeting.html

Dead Sea Scrolls Jar

Did the Dead Sea Scrolls actually contain Old Testament scrolls written hundreds of years before the time of Jesus? This Qumran Jar contained the Scroll of Isaiah, one of the hundreds of scrolls discovered in caves around the area of Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. The discovery which began in 1948 became known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. What is most significant about these scrolls is that they contain many of the Jewish documents known to Christians as the Old Testament. Before this discovery the oldest copies of Biblical documents of the Old Testament were from the Masoretic time, around the 9th century A.D., because the Jewish scribes took careful measures in copying documents, numbering them, and destroying the originals. The Dead Sea Scrolls date back to at least the 2nd century B.C. making them important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. This is especially important to Christians because it puts hundreds of Old Testament prophecies about Jesus, at least 2 centuries before the events took place.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/qumran-jar.html

The Siloam Inscription

Does this inscription reveal God's protection of Jerusalem and a miracle? The Siloam Inscription is a description in ancient Hebrew of the cutting and completion of the Siloam Tunnel built by king Hezekiah (727-698 BC). King Hezekiah desiring to protect Jerusalem from the Assyrians had a tunnel cut through solid rock to bring water from the Spring of Gihon within the cities walls, after which the Spring was sealed off. The carving was found in the tunnel itself in 1880 by a boy accidently. It records how two groups of workers started from opposite ends, digging through the solid rock underground and meeting in the middle. The Hebrew inscription talks about how one group miraculously heard sounds of pick-axes so they would know which way to go through the windy tunnel. The tunnel now channels water to the Pool of Siloam and can be seen in Jerusalem. The Siloam Inscription is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. 2 Kings 20:20 "And the rest of the acts of Hezekiah, and all his might, and how he made a pool, and a conduit, and brought water into the city, [are] they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah?" 2 Chronicles 32:2-4 "And when Hezekiah saw that Sennacherib was come, and that he was purposed to fight against Jerusalem, He took counsel with his princes and his mighty men to stop the waters of the fountains which [were] without the city: and they did help him. So there was gathered much people together, who stopped all the fountains, and the brook that ran through the midst of the land, saying, Why should the kings of Assyria come, and find much water?"

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/siloam-inscription.html

The House of David Inscription

Was the house and kingdom of David a Biblical myth or did they really exist? The "House of David" is inscribed on this victory stele excavated at Tel Dan, in the Galilee region of Israel. It is dated from the 9th Century BC. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. The Tel Dan Stele is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it mentions the House of David in an Inscription. With this important discovery it is clear that King David is a real figure in ancient history, as Jesus confirmed.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/tel-dan-stele.html

The Temple Warning Inscription

What did Jesus think when he saw this stone? Josephus the Jewish historian of the first century A.D. wrote about the warning signs in Greek and Latin that were placed on the barrier wall that separated the court of the gentiles from the other courts in the Temple. Not until 1871 did archaeologists actually discover one written in Greek. Its seven line inscription reads as follows: NO FOREIGNER IS TO GO BEYOND THE BALUSTRADE AND THE PLAZA OF THE TEMPLE ZONE WHOEVER IS CAUGHT DOING SO WILL HAVE HIMSELF TO BLAME FOR HIS DEATH WHICH WILL FOLLOW When king Herod had rebuilt the Temple in Jerusalem between 19 and 9 B.C. he enclosed the outer court with colonnades. The large separated area was referred to as the Court of the Gentiles because the "gentiles" (non-Jews from any race or religion) were permitted to enter this great open courtyard of the Temple area. They could walk within in it but they were forbidden to go any further than the outer court. They were excluded from entering into any of the inner courts, and warning signs in Greek and Latin were placed giving strict warning that the penalty for such trespass was death. The Romans permitted the Jewish authorities to carry out the death penalty for this offence, even if the offender were a Roman citizen. The engraved block of limestone was discovered in Jerusalem in 1871. It's dimensions are about 22 inches high by 33 inches long. Each letter was nearly 1 1/2 inches high and originally painted with red ink against the white limestone. Part of another sign was unearthed in 1936. It's current location is in the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul, Turkey. Jerusalem was part of the Ottoman Empire in Turkey when the stone was found. The Temple Warning Inscription is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology and confirms events outlined in Scripture. When Jesus saw this inscription he knew that his own life would be the cost for the gentiles to go past this barrier. Ephesians 2:13-14 "But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ. For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us" Matthew 23:13 "But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you shut off the kingdom of heaven from people; for you do not enter in yourselves, nor do you allow those who are entering to go in." Isaiah 56:7 "These I will bring to my holy mountain and give them joy in my house of prayer. Their burnt offerings and sacrifices will be accepted on my altar; for my house will be called a house of prayer for all nations." Mark 11:17-18 "And he taught, saying unto them, Is it not written, My house shall be called of all nations the house of prayer? but ye have made it a den of thieves. And the scribes and chief priests heard it, and sought how they might destroy him: for they feared him, because all the people was astonished at his doctrine."

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/temple-warning.html

Uzziah Inscription

Could this tablet mention the name of one of Jerusalem's most famous kings...Uzziah? The Bible mentions Uzziah or Azariah as the king of the southern kingdom of Judah in 2 Kings 15. The Uzziah Tablet Inscription is a stone tablet (35 cm high x 34 cm wide x 6 cm deep) with letters inscribed in ancient Hebrew text with an Aramaic style of writing, which dates to around 30-70 AD. The text reveals the burial site of Uzziah of Judah, who died in 747 BC. The inscription on the ossuary tombstone reads: "The bones of Uzziah, King of Judah, rest here ... Do not open!" The Uzziah Tablet Inscription was discovered in Jerusalem in 1931 by Professor. E. I. Sukenik of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and is now in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. The Uzziah Tablet is an important discovery in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it mentions one of the kings of Judah, and the Jewish authorities would not have crafted such a piece unless there was an original work to draw from. It is interesting that the Tiglath-pileser inscription mentions Uzziah four times (Azariah the Judean). Tiglath-pileser was the Assyrian ruler who deported the Jews of the northern kingdom of Israel away into captivity. Isaiah 6:1 "In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple."

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/uzziah-tablet.html

Baal Stele

Could this stone monument of Baal have been the same image that many Israelites worshipped? Baal, the storm god, is seen on this Stele unleashing a storm. He is holding a club in his right hand and a spear in his left like a lightning bolt, which extends upward in the form of a tree. It was found in 1932 at the site of ancient Ugarit, known today as Ras Shamra. Baal the was supreme male deity that was worshipped by the ancient Canaanites and Phoenicians, just as Ashtoreth was their supreme female deity. In many cases Baal was identified with the sun and Ashtoreth with the moon. Baal worship was prevalent during the time of Moses, especially among the Moabites, the Midianites, and eventually spread to the Israelites. During the time of the Kings, the northern Kingdom of Israel were Baal worshippers as were many of the kings of Judah. Many Temples were erected to Baal and have been discovered by archaeologists. Places for worship of Baal were often high places in the hills consisting of an altar and a sacred tree, stone, or pillar. 1 Kings 16:30-33 "And Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the sight of the LORD above all that were before him. And it came to pass, as if it had been a light thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, that he took to wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal king of the Zidonians, and went and served Baal, and worshipped him. And he reared up an altar for Baal in the house of Baal, which he had built in Samaria. And Ahab made a grove; and Ahab did more to provoke the LORD God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel that were before him." "At Ugarit, El was sovereign, but another god ran things on earth for El as his vizier. That god's name was Baal. At Ugarit Baal was known by several titles: "king of the gods," "the Most High," "Prince Baal" (baal zbl), and""most importantly for our discussion"""the Rider on the Clouds."" - Wikipedia

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/2-baal-bb.html

Gold of Ophir Inscription

Does this inscription mention king Solomon's gold? This fragment of an ancient pottery jar was discovered at Tel Qasile near Jaffa in Israel. It contains an inscription which mentions "Ophir gold" and the temple of Horon, a Canaanite deity. The Gold of Ophir Inscription is important in the study of Biblical archaeology. It corresponds with what the Bible says about the gold at Solomon's Temple. "Gold of Ophir to Beth-Horon...30 shekels" "Moreover, because I have set my affection to the house of my God, I have of mine own proper good, of gold and silver, which I have given to the house of my God, over and above all that I have prepared for the holy house, Even three thousand talents of gold, of the gold of Ophir, and seven thousand talents of refined silver, to overlay the walls of the houses withal." - I Chronicles 29:3-4

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/2-gold-of-ophir-bb.html

King Hazael Statue

Could Hazael seen here be the same man who was anointed by Elijah? This Ivory Statuette standing nearly 7 inches tall represents Hazael, ancient King of Aram Damascus (Syria) who fought against Israel. In the Bible the Lord sent the prophet Elijah to anoint Hazael to be king over Syria in the future. Many years later the Syrian king Hadadezer became very sick and Hazael suffocated him and seized the throne. Hazael reigned for about 37 years (842-805 B.C.). He went to war with Israel in the north and Judah in the south. Assyrian records indicate wars with Syria, and an inscription by Shalmaneser III mention Hazael and his son Ben-hadad by name: "I fought with Ben-hadad. I accomplished his defeat. Hazael, son of a nobody, seized his throne." "In the 18th year of my reign for the 16th time I crossed the Euphrates. Hazael of Damascus trusted to the strength of his armies and mustered his troops in full force. Senir (Mount Hermon), a mountain summit which is in front of Lebanon, he made his stronghold. I fought with him; his defeat I accomplished; 600 of his soldiers with weapons I laid low; 1,121 of his chariots, 470 of his horses, with his camp I took from him. To save his life, he retreated; I pursued him; in Damascus, his royal city, I shut him up. His plantations I cut down. As far as the mountains of the Hauran I marched. Cities without number I wrecked, razed, and burnt with fire. Their spoil beyond count I carried away. As far as the mountains of Baal-Rosh, which is a headland of the sea (at the mouth of the Nahr el-Kelb, Dog River), I marched; my royal likeness I there set up. At that time I received the tribute of the Syrians and Sidonians and of Yahua (Jehu) the son of Khumri (Omri)" - Shalmaneser III 842 B.C. "Ben-Hadad II (Heb.), was the king of Aram Damascus at the time of the battle of Qarqar at 853 BC. He, along with Irhuleni of Hamath, led a coalition of eleven kings (listed as twelve) against the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III, at Qarqar, and fought Shalmaneser six times with the aid of Irhuleni twice more and possibly the rest of the coalition that fought at Qarqar. He appears again in the Tel Dan Stele as most likely the unknown author's father. " - Wikipedia This ivory statuette came from the palace of Hazael the ancient king of Damascus. It was discovered in the ruins of Arslan Tash in north Syria (ancient Hadatu) and is important in the study of Biblical archaeology. Several artifacts from the palace of Hazael are now in the Aleppo Museum in Syria. 2 Kings 13:1-3 "And the anger of The Lord was kindled against Israel, and he delivered them into the hand of Hazael king of Syria, and into the hand of Benhadad the son of Hazael, all their days." Note: The Stele of Zakkur also mentions "Bar Hadad, son of Hazael".

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/2-hazael-king-of-syria-bb.html

Caesarea Ruins

Did King Herod build the most magnificent harbor in the ancient world? In 10 B.C. Augustus Caesar decided to rebuild a small coastal station called Strato's Tower into a new city, which would be renamed Caesarea Maritima, in honor of Augustus. He allotted the task to the architectural mastermind Herod the Great. Herod built a harbor at Caesarea that would become one of the wonders of the ancient world. He built a massive breakwater which formed a horseshoe of protection around the whole bay. On the coast he built some of the most impressive works of architecture in the Roman world. He built an amphitheater, a citadel, a palace, a hippodrome, city walls and gates, paved squares with huge statues, and other marvels of Graeco-Roman civilization. It was here in Caesarea where the prefect Pontius Pilate lived, the foundation of his house was on a rock in the middle of the harbor and is still there to this day. Caesarea was also a spectacular location to build a city, because it was right in the center of the Plain of Sharon, one of the most fertile areas in the world. Centuries of rains from the clouds formed by the nearby Mediterranean Sea showered the Judean hills, and brought plenty of rich soil to irrigate the plain where Caesarea was situated. The climate was always fairly warm and never out of control. Oranges, figs, lemons, grapes, almonds, and even olives in the hills, grew in abundance. Anyone coming into Judea from anywhere in the Graeco-Roman world would marvel at this awesome Jewish city with all the spectacles of Hellenistic art, architecture and culture. It became the administrative center of the Roman procurators of the province of Judea, and also became the headquarters of the Roman legions. Caesarea was indeed a thriving place during the first century A.D., during the time of Jesus and the apostle Paul. Acts 21:8 - And the next [day] we that were of Paul's company departed, and came unto Caesarea: and we entered into the house of Philip the evangelist, which was [one] of the seven; and abode with him. Acts 25:6 - And when he had tarried among them more than ten days, he went down unto Caesarea; and the next day sitting on the judgment seat commanded Paul to be brought. Acts 8:40 - But Philip was found at Azotus: and passing through he preached in all the cities, till he came to Caesarea.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/3-caesarea-ancient-bb.html

Caesarea Ruins Painting

Ancient Caesarea Harbor ruins in Biblical archaeology.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/3-caesarea-ruins-bb.html

Hittite Ruins

Were the Hittites a Bible myth or did they really exist? These ancient Hittite ruins date back to Biblical times. The stone lions guarded the gateway of the ancient Hittite capital city of Hattusha which is located in modern Turkey. The Hittite ruins are important in the study of Biblical archaeology, they reveal that the Hittites of the Bible really existed and were important in ancient times. 2 Kings 7:6 "For the Lord had made the host of the Syrians to hear a noise of chariots, and a noise of horses, [even] the noise of a great host: and they said one to another, Lo, the king of Israel hath hired against us the kings of the Hittites, and the kings of the Egyptians, to come upon us."

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/3-hittite-lions.html

Tomb of Cyrus the Great

Was this king most famous because of his kind treatment to the Jews? Cyrus II also known as "Cyrus the Great" was one of the greatest monarchs of all time. He conquered in 539 B.C. and ruled Persia until his death in 530 B.C. His wisdom and generosity was known throughout the ancient world. His capital was at Pasargadae in the land of Parsa (ancient Iran). He was chosen by the Lord to release the Jews from their captivity and allow them to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their city and their Temple. Cyrus was slain in battle in 530 B.C. and buried in this tomb which lies at the site of ancient Pasargadae (SW Iran). Inside was placed a golden sarcophagus and according to the historian Plutarch who wrote of it in 90 A.D. the tomb bore this inscription by Cyrus himself, "O man, whoever you are and wherever you come from, for I know that you will come--I am Cyrus, son of Cambyses, who founded the Empire of the Persians and was king of the East. Do not grudge me this spot of earth which covers my body." The Tomb of Cyrus at Pasargadae, Persia, from the 6th century B.C. is important in the subject of Biblical Archaeology because it reveals the existence of Cyrus, who made the decree for the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their city. This decree was prophesied by Daniel and began the countdown for the 69 weeks when Messiah would be cut off. "Thus saith the LORD to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings, to open before him the two leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut." Isaiah 45:1

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/persia/tomb-of-cyrus.html

The Cyrus Cylinder

Did Cyrus the Persian praise the Jewish God? The Cyrus Cylinder is an important discovery in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it speaks of Cyrus the Persian and his conquest of Babylon in 539 BC. as mentioned in Scripture. Cyrus II, the Great was the founder and ruler of the vast Persian Empire from 539 B.C. until his death in 530 B.C. Once Cyrus had defeated the Median king, Astyages and took Ecbatana he expanded his kingdom defeating Croesus, king of Lydia in 546 BC, and then conquered Babylon in 539 BC overthrowing Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon. The Persian Empire was formed. Cyrus was a generous ruler allowing various captives to return to their homelands, as recorded on the Cyrus Cylinder. Xenophon, Nabonidus and many others gave Cyrus praise for his generous leadership. Judea had remained a Persian province for the next two hundred years until the time that the Bible records "the decree of Cyrus" giving permission to the Hebrew captives to go back to Jerusalem to rebuild their Temple. Cyrus also restored the vessels of the House of the Lord which Nebuchadnezzar II had taken to Babylon, and provided the funds to bring cedar trees from Lebanon. "Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, so that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and also put it in writing, saying, Thus says Cyrus king of Persia: All the kingdoms of the earth the LORD God of heaven has given me. And He has commanded me to build Him a house at Jerusalem which is in Judah. Who is among you of all His people? May the LORD his God be with him, and let him go up!" - 2 Chronicles 36:22-23 "Who says of Cyrus, 'He is My shepherd, And he shall perform all My pleasure, Saying to Jerusalem, "You shall be built," And to the temple, "Your foundation shall be laid." ' - Isaiah 44:28 "King Cyrus also brought out the articles of the house of the LORD, which Nebuchadnezzar had taken from Jerusalem and put in the temple of his gods; and Cyrus king of Persia brought them out by the hand of Mithredath the treasurer, and counted them out to Sheshbazzar the prince of Judah. This is the number of them: thirty gold platters, one thousand silver platters, twenty-nine knives, thirty gold basins, four hundred and ten silver basins of a similar kind, and one thousand other articles. All the articles of gold and silver were five thousand four hundred. All these Sheshbazzar took with the captives who were brought from Babylon to Jerusalem." - Ezra 1:7-11

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/persia/cyrus-cylinder.html

Persian Guards

Could these Persian soldiers have served Queen Esther of the Bible? Here we see a group of Persian soldiers on a wall relief armed with spears and shields from a stairway at the ruins of ancient Persepolis. It reveals soldiers of the Achaemenid Empire (From Xerxes to Darius II) which was composed of two great groups: the Persians and the Medes. This relief depicts Persian warriors because they wear a grooved tiara as their head covering. Medes wore a big round felt hat. This scene is part of a wall relief discovered at the Apadana which was the largest and most magnificent building of the Achaemenid Empire. The Apadana was originally started by Darius and it was Xerxes who finished it. There is a scene on two monumental stairways adorned with awesome reliefs of the New Year's festival with processions of delegates from 23 subject nations within the empire, all uniquely dressed. They are bringing tribute and gifts to the Persian king as a token of their loyalty, gifts of silver, gold, jewelry, weapons and many other things. The Ancient Persian Soldiers discovery at Persepolis is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology and the age of the Persian Empire. Esther 1:2-4 "In the third year of his reign, he made a feast unto all his princes and his servants; the power of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes of the provinces, being before him: When he shewed the riches of his glorious kingdom and the honour of his excellent majesty many days, even an hundred and fourscore days."

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/persia/persian-soldiers.html

Lion and Bull Battle Relief

Could this ancient battle symbolize Darius the Persian mentioned in the Bible? This relief of a lion battling a bull is seen at the ancient throne room of Darius in his palace at Persepolis, the seat of his vast Achaemenid Empire. The lion is seen in Persepolis as the symbol of absolute power and heroic triumph. The bull is also a symbol of power in ancient Persia and is seen throughout Persepolis on top of columns and guarding gates. The magnificent palace complex at Persepolis was founded by Darius the Great around 518 BC., although more than a century passed before it was finally completed. Persepolis was called by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus "the richest city under the sun, with storehouses filled with gold, silver, and all kinds of riches." When Alexander the Great and his army looted and burned Persepolis in 331 B.C. they did a very thorough job. According to the Greek historian Plutarch Alexander carried away the treasures of Persepolis on "20,000 mules and 5,000 camels." The Persepolis Lion and Bull Combat is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology and the Persian Period. "And Ahuramazda was of such a mind, together with all the other gods, that this fortress be built, and then I built it, and I built it secure and beautiful and adequate, just as I was intending to." - Darius Inscription "The Levites in the days of Eliashib, Joiada, and Johanan, and Jaddua, were recorded chief of the fathers: also the priests, to the reign of Darius the Persian." Nehemiah 12:22

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/persia/persepolis-lion.html

Darius the Great Relief

Could Queen Esther have touched this same golden scepter held by Darius? Darius the Great is seated on his throne in his reception chamber while an audience of delegates from provinces around his mighty empire approach him to bring him tribute. This particular dignitary is raising one hand to his mouth as a token of respect and honor and with the other hand he holds his staff of office showing that he was a commander and prime minister of the Medes, as seen by his round cap and uniform. Behind him are two Persian attendants holding a spear and a container of incense. Notice Darius the Great is holding his scepter of authority in his right hand and a budding flower in his left. Behind Darius stands the crown-prince Xerxes. This relief of king Darius I Seated is an important discovery in Biblical Archaeology and confirms what the Bible says regarding Darius and the Persian Empire. "They sent a letter unto him, wherein was written thus; Unto Darius the king, all peace." Ezra 5:7 Esther 4:11 "All the king's servants, and the people of the king's provinces, do know, that whosoever, whether man or women, shall come unto the king into the inner court, who is not called, there is one law of his to put him to death, except such to whom the king shall hold out the golden sceptre, that he may live: but I have not been called to come in unto the king these thirty days." Esther 5:2 "And it was so, when the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, that she obtained favour in his sight: and the king held out to Esther the golden sceptre that was in his hand. So Esther drew near, and touched the top of the sceptre."

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/persia/darius-seated.html

Darius the Great at Persepolis

Is this stone carving a portrait of Darius the King mentioned in the Book of Ezra? Darius the Great is seated on his throne in his reception chamber while an audience of delegates from provinces around his mighty empire approach him to bring him tribute. This particular dignitary is raising one hand to his mouth as a token of respect and honor and with the other hand he holds his staff of office showing that he was a commander and prime minister of the Medes, as seen by his round cap and uniform. Behind him are two Persian attendants holding a spear and a container of incense. Notice Darius the Great is holding his sceptre of authority in his right hand and a budding flower in his left. Behind Darius is standing the crown-prince Xerxes. This relief of king Darius I Seated is an important discovery in Biblical Archaeology and confirms what the Bible says regarding Darius and the Persian Empire. "They sent a letter unto him, wherein was written thus; Unto Darius the king, all peace." Ezra 5:7 Esther 4:11 "All the king's servants, and the people of the king's provinces, do know, that whosoever, whether man or women, shall come unto the king into the inner court, who is not called, there is one law of his to put him to death, except such to whom the king shall hold out the golden sceptre, that he may live: but I have not been called to come in unto the king these thirty days." Esther 5:2 "And it was so, when the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, that she obtained favour in his sight: and the king held out to Esther the golden sceptre that was in his hand. So Esther drew near, and touched the top of the sceptre."

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/persia/darius-seated-close.html

Two Royal Persian Servants

Did these ancient Persian servants protect the harem of Xerxes? These two royal Persian attendants are depicted in a relief scene at the great hall of Xerxes from the Harem of Xerxes at Persepolis. This discovery of ancient Persian servants of Xerxes from the 5th century BC is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology and the Persian Period. "Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus, (this is Ahasuerus which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, over an hundred and seven and twenty provinces:) That in those days, when the king Ahasuerus sat on the throne of his kingdom, which was in Shushan the palace, In the third year of his reign, he made a feast unto all his princes and his servants; the power of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes of the provinces, being before him: When he shewed the riches of his glorious kingdom and the honour of his excellent majesty many days, even an hundred and fourscore days." ESTHER 1:1-4

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/persia/persians.html

Immortal Guard

Were these soldiers part of the 10,000 Immortals faced by Alexander the Great? These 5 foot tall archers were the royal Immortal Guard from the palace of Darius at Susa (ancient Shushan). These archers are seen wearing colorful ceremonial clothing decorated with tiny stars, from their woven and twisted headbands, hair and beards, even to their shoes. Their clothes are decorated with tiny stars. Their bows, arrows and spears were gold and silver. The bright colored enameled tiles used to line the entire walls, bringing to life the illustrious and lavish celebrations that existed at the palace of the kings of ancient Persia. All the colors seen here are reminiscent of the lavish banquet mentioned in the Book of Esther in the Bible (white, green, blue, purple, silver, gold), when the king of Persia invited nobles and princes from all over his empire to a feast at his palace. Guests would ascend a wide stone staircase entering a gate into the courtyard. All along the path there were the elaborate carvings along the walls, of nobles and princes, royal guards, horses and chariots. Representatives from the lands and provinces of the Persian Empire bringing tribute to the ruler of the world, king Darius (522-486 B.C.). Their destination was the great audience hall and palace of the king, a place of tremendous wealth and luxury. According to history when Alexander the Great marched into Susa he took 40,000 talents of gold which was about 1200 tons. Alexander the Great faced hordes of soldiers like the archers shown here when he conquered the world of the Persians. The Persian Empire was vast, extending from India to Greece, and down to Ethiopia. These archers of the royal guard revealed on these brilliantly glazed ceramic tiles of blue and gold discovered at Susa are important discovery in the study of Biblical archaeology. It shows us the enemies of Alexander the Great who is alluded to in the Book of Daniel, and the luxurious wealth of the Persians as mentioned in the Book of Esther regarding the royal banquet of the king of Persia. Esther 1:6-7 "Where were white, green, and blue, hangings, fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of marble: the beds were of gold and silver, upon a pavement of red, and blue, and white, and black, marble. And they gave them drink in vessels of gold, (the vessels being diverse one from another,) and royal wine in abundance, according to the state of the king." Ezra 5:7 "They sent a letter unto him, wherein was written thus; Unto Darius the king, all peace." Esther 1:2-5 "in those days, when the king Ahasuerus sat on the throne of his kingdom, which was in Shushan the palace, In the third year of his reign, he made a feast unto all his princes and his servants; the power of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes of the provinces, being before him: When he shewed the riches of his glorious kingdom and the honour of his excellent majesty many days, even an hundred and fourscore days. And when these days were expired, the king made a feast unto all the people that were present in Shushan the palace, both unto great and small, seven days, in the court of the garden of the king's palace;

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/greece/2-persian-soldiers-bb.html

Pharaoh Kneeling Before the Bull God

Was this the Golden Calf of the Exodus? The ancient Egyptians believed that Apis, the sacred bull of Memphis was a manifestation of Ptah upon the earth. Whenever an Apis bull died in Memphis it was embalmed and mummified. Each bull had its own huge sarcophagus and its birth and death were recorded, carved onto the walls. The Pharaoh Kneeling Before the Bull Deity discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. After the Israelites were delivered from Egypt, Moses came down from the mountain and found Aaron had set up a golden calf or young bull, that the people might worship God in this form. When the northern kingdom of Israel divided from their brothers in the south, Jeroboam introduced bull worship and set up two idols (calves of gold), one at Bethel and the other at Dan. "The Apis is the calf of a cow which is never afterwards able to have another. The Egyptian belief is that a flash of light descends upon the cow from heaven, and this causes her to conceive Apis. The Apis-calf has distinctive marks: it is black, with a white square on its forehead, the image of an eagle on its back, the hair on its tail double, and a scarab under its tongue. Herodotus, Histories 3.28 Exodus 32:3,4 "And all the people brake off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron. And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt." 1 Kings 12:28-29 "Whereupon the king took counsel, and made two calves of gold, and said unto them, It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem: behold thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. And he set the one in Bethel, and the other put he in Dan."

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/king-kneeling-before-bull.html

Amenhotep II Statue

Was this the Pharaoh of the Exodus? This granite statue of an Egyptian king has been identified as Amenophis II who was the son of Thutmose-III). This statue of Amenophis II is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology because many scholars believe that the most evidence points to him as being the Pharaoh of the Exodus. There are two main opinions among scholars as to who the Pharaoh was during the time of the Exodus in Egypt by the Hebrews. Amenhotep II (1427-1392 B.C.), and Rameses II (1279 - 1213 B.C.). Amenophis II: Amenhotep II was also known as Amenophis II and he was the son of Thutmose III. If Moses led the children of Israel out of Egypt during the reign of Amenophis II, then the main oppressor of Israel would have been his father Thutmose III who was also the greatest conqueror in Egyptian history. His sister Queen Hatshepsut would have rescued Moses and brought him up. Rameses II: If the Exodus from Egypt happened during the reign of Rameses II, then his father Seti I would have been the main oppressor of Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/Amenophis-II-Thutmose-III.html

Colossal Statue of Ramesses II

Is this the same Ramesses mentioned in the Bible? This colossal statue of Ramesses II weighs over 7 tons and is one of the largest pieces in the British Museum. Some believe Rameses II was the greatest of all of Egypt's Pharaoh's. The Ramesses II Bust discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. Ra'amses name is mentioned in the Bible. Some believe Rameses II was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Genesis 47:11 - And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded. Exodus 1:11 - Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/ramesses-II.html

Shishak Relief

Did Shishak invade Israel as a punishment from God over their civil war? Shishak was the first king of Egypt mentioned by name in the Bible. Egypt knew him as Pharaoh Shoshenq I, founder of the 22nd Dynasty of Egypt and he reigned from 944-924 B.C. After Solomon died the Kingdom of Israel divided in half and 5 years later during the reign of Rehoboam, king of Judah, Pharaoh Shishak invaded Jerusalem. Shishak did not utterly destroy Jerusalem because he was paid an enormous ransom. The Bible mentions that Shishak marched his troops into the land of Judah and plundered a host of cities including Jerusalem, this has been confirmed by archaeologists. Shishak's own record of his campaign is inscribed on the south wall of the Great Temple of Amon at Karnak in Egypt. In his campaign he presents 156 cities of Judea to his god Amon. "Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, and took away the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king's house; he took all: he carried away also the shields of gold which Solomon had made." 2 Chronicles 12:9 Jeroboam fled to the court of Shishak before he was king, during the reign of Solomon. (1 Kings 11:40). The Bible reveals details in 1 Kings 14 and 2 Chronicles 12 about the campaign by Pharoah Shoshenq (referred to as Shishak in the Bible) against King Rehoboam of Judea. During his campaign, Shishak marched though Judea, then he went north through the Valley of Jezreel. He then moved north to Beth Shean and finally across the Jordan River eastward. A list of the cities he sacked during his campaign is preserved in the Karnak Temple in Thebes including the Israelite and Judean cities of Jerusalem, Gibeon, Megiddo, Beth Shean, Aijalon, and more. "In the fifth year of Kign Rehoboam, King Shishak of Egypt marched against Jerusalem""for they had trespassed against the Lord""with 1,200 chariots, 60,000 horsemen and innumerable troops who came with him from Egypt: Lybians, Sukkites, and Kushites. He too the fortified towns of Judah and advanced on Jerusalem." - 2 Chronicles 12:2-4 Shishak smiting his prisoners discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. The movie Raiders of the Lost Ark created the fictional idea that Shishak had stolen the Ark of the Covenant when he conquered Jerusalem and brought it back to Tanis, Egypt in 980 B.C. 1 Kings 11:40 - Solomon sought therefore to kill Jeroboam. And Jeroboam arose, and fled into Egypt, unto Shishak king of Egypt, and was in Egypt until the death of Solomon. 2 Chronicles 12:9 - So Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, and took away the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king's house; he took all: he carried away also the shields of gold which Solomon had made

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/shishak-smiting-prisoners.html

Apis The Sacred Bull of Memphis

Did Israel sacrifice their children to this idol? This small bronze statue was a votive offering and was an expression of devotion from the worshipper who was hoping for a blessing. The sun disk between the horns represent divinity. The ancient Egyptians believed that Apis, the sacred bull of Memphis was a manifestation of Ptah upon the earth. Whenever an Apis bull died in Memphis it was embalmed and mummified. Each bull had its own huge sarcophagus and its birth and death were recorded, carved onto the walls. After the Israelites were delivered from Egypt, Moses came down from the mountain and found Aaron had set up a golden calf or young bull, that the people might worship God in this form. When the northern kingdom of Israel divided from their brothers in the south, Jeroboam introduced bull worship and set up two idols, one at Bethel and the other at Dan. "And all the people brake off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron. And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt." - Exodus 32:3,4 The Apis Bull God discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. It confirms that bull/calf worship was prevalent in the ancient Near East and these little statues were the idols used in ancient Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/apis-the-bull-god.html

The Rosetta Stone

Was this stone the key to deciphering the hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt? This black basalt stone slab was found in 1798 by French soldiers in the rubble of a wall near the Egyptian town of Rosetta. The writing on it appeared very ancient, at the top of the stone were hieroglyphs reading right to left. In the middle there was shorthand demotic script, and at the bottom was Greek reading left to right. The soldiers realized that it might be an important discovery and they brought it to their authorities. Napoleon Bonaparte became immediately interested in the stone and he had ink impressions made and sent to scholars in Europe. No one understood the meaning of the inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone until French scholar Jean Francois Champollion. He spent a good portion of his life studying the hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt and the Rosetta Stone. He finally solved the mystery in 1822 when he deciphered the text by matching the name of Ptolemy in the Greek with a hieroglyph found on an ancient Egyptian ring with a stamp which bore the name of Ptolemy. He did the same with the royal name Cleopatra which was from a cartouche of Cleopatra found on an obelisk from Philae. Champollion determined the phonetic values of the inscriptions and of the signs. Ezekiel 20:5 - And say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; In the day when I chose Israel, and lifted up mine hand unto the seed of the house of Jacob, and made myself known unto them in the land of Egypt, when I lifted up mine hand unto them, saying, I [am] the LORD your God; "And all the people brake off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron. And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt." - Exodus 32:3,4 The discovery of the Rosetta Stone is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it ushered in the era of modern Egyptology and opened our eyes to 3000 years of peculiar pictures inscribed on Egyptian temples, statues, and monuments, and a wealth of information verifying and never contradicting the Scriptures.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/rosetta-stone.html

The Pyramids at Gizeh

Are the Pyramids mentioned in the Bible? The pyramids of Egypt have always been a marvel. There are around 75 pyramids in Egypt. The 3 main pyramids were built as tombs for 3 Egyptian Pharaohs who were considered to be gods on earth. The first and largest pyramid, known as the Great Pyramid of Gizeh was a tomb for Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops to the Greeks), who ruled the 4th dynasty around 2575 BC, which would have been centuries before Abraham, the first Hebrew. But the real marvel of this Great Pyramid was its massive size. The Great Pyramid stands 480 feet tall with a base of 750 feet in each direction forming a square at the bottom. The pyramid contains around 2,300,000 individual blocks of stones each weighing over 2.5 tons on the average, with some weighing over 16 tons and the granite roof slabs of Khufu's burial chamber weigh over 50 tons. Khufu is perhaps the greatest single building ever erected by mankind. Its sides rise at an angle of 51°52' and are accurately oriented to the four points of the compass. The Great Pyramid is a masterpiece of technical skill and engineering ability. The geometric precision of its layout and the accuracy of its stonecutting are truly amazing, especially when you consider the colossal proportions of its massive size and the weight of the blocks used in it. The history of ancient Egypt has been divided into three periods. The oldest of these is known as the "Old Kingdom," which consists of the first ten dynasties, beginning around 3500 BC and ending about 2400 BC. Although the Bible never mentions the Pyramids of Egypt or the Great Sphinx, they stand as a testimony of what the Bible says about ancient Egypt. The fact that they are still standing is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/1-pyramids-bb.html

Moving the Colossal Statue of Ramesses II

Did Napoleon try to bring this statue to France? This painting is from a sketch depicting the dragging of a massive colossal statue of Ramesses II. It weighs over 7 tons and is one of the largest pieces in the British Museum. In the 19th century many discoveries were brought from Egypt to Europe. This enormous statue of Rameses II was dragged on rollers for almost 3 miles to the Nile River where it was shipped to the British Museum. Napoleon tried to remove this statue and failed. The Ramesses II Bust discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology.

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/2-egypt-pharaoh-sketch-bb.html

Ancient Hieroglyphs of Egypt

Did the Egyptians believe that the Hieroglyphs were the God's words? Hieroglyphs were used as far back as the First Dynasty of Egypt about 3000 B.C. Hieroglyphs were characters used by priests and scribes in a system of pictorial writing (phonetic) on ancient Egyptian monuments to record the nation's historical and religious texts. There were several hundred signs and hieroglyphic symbols which may have represented objects but usually stood for particular sounds or groups of sounds. Hieroglyph literally means "holy or sacred carving", which is a Greek translation of the Egyptian phrase "the god's words". This was used at the time of the early Greek contacts with Egypt to distinguish the older hieroglyphs from the handwriting of the day (demotic). Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs are important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. They reveal accounts in history that confirm the accuracy of the Biblical account. Ezekiel 20:5 - And say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; In the day when I chose Israel, and lifted up mine hand unto the seed of the house of Jacob, and made myself known unto them in the land of Egypt, when I lifted up mine hand unto them, saying, I [am] the LORD your God;

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/2-hieroglyphs-bb.html

The Merneptah Stele

Does this stone mention a decisive victory over "Israel" around 1215 B.C.? The Israel Stela also known as the Merneptah Stele is a slab of rock which was found in 1896 at Thebes, Egypt. The monument was found where it had once stood in ancient Egypt, at the temple that honored Pharaoh Merneptah. Some refer to the stone as the "Victory Stele" because it records the military campaigns and victories of Pharaoh Merneptah, the son of the mighty Ramesses II who reigned in Egypt around 1215 BC., during the time of the Judges in Israel. The writing on the stele is in hieroglyphs and very clearly mentions the name of Israel on it. Israel was considered by the Pharaoh of Egypt important enough to mention as a significant victory. The Hebrews had conquered the land of Canaan around 1400 B.C. The period of the Judges was a dark time in Israel's history because they had continually forsaken the Lord and served other gods, and there was continual turmoil in the land of Israel. Judges 10:6 - And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim, and Ashtaroth, and the gods of Syria, and the gods of Zidon, and the gods of Moab, and the gods of the children of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines, and forsook the LORD, and served not him. The discovery of the Israel Stela is very important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. It is the oldest evidence for the existence of Israel in the land of Canaan in ancient times outside of the Bible. The text on the stone reads: "Canaan is plundered with every evil way. Ashkelon is conquered and brought away captive, Gezer seized, Yanoam made nonexistent; Israel is wasted, bare of seed." - Merneptah Stele [Read the Full Text.]

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/2-israel-stela-bb.html

The Weld Blundell Prism

Could these Pre-Flood records of long life spans confirm superhuman longevity before the flood? The Weld-Blundell Prism is the most extensive surviving list of the rulers of ancient Iraq for the period from 3200 - 1800 BC. It contains an outlined history of the world written by a scribe named Nur-Ninsubur. He provides a list of the kings that reigned from the beginning of his race to the present time. Among the kings listed are 10 kings with extraordinary long life spans, and they existed before the flood. Other kings listed on the tablet have decreased ages after the flood. The Weld Prism discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it confirms the Biblical account of longevity before the flood, and contains other similarities in its list of kings as well. "And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years: and he died." Genesis 5:27

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/weld-prism.html

Bust of Sargon I of Akkad

Could this be Nimrod of the Bible? Sargon I king of Akkade/Agade (2467-2412 BC). Sargon I was the founder of the Akkadian Dynasty and first king of Accad in the land of Shinar. His name Sargon "Sharru-ken" means "the legitimate king." Many identify him as the Nimrod of the Bible (Genesis 10:10). This Sargon I head discovery, if it is indeed him, is one of the great discoveries in Biblical Archaeology. "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the LORD: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar." Genesis 10:8-10

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/sargon-bust.html

Stele of Hammurabi

Was this monument of ancient laws written by one of the kings who captured Abraham's nephew Lot? This shining black diorite pillar called the Hammurabi Stele, was discovered in 1901 at the acropolis of ancient Susa by a French archaeological expedition under M. J. de Morgan. The stele is decorated with a bas-relief of Hammurabi being commissioned by the sun god Shamash to inscribe the laws. The code contains nearly 4,000 lines of text containing around 282 laws, a historical prologue, and a literary and religious epilogue. Hammurabi was the king of Babylon around 1800 BC and a contemporary of Abraham, the first Hebrew and he is identified by scholars as the "Amraphel" of the Bible (Genesis 14) who was one of the kings who captured Abraham's nephew Lot. The discovery of the Hammurabi Stele was one of the most important discoveries in Biblical Archaeology. It is an original document from the time of Abraham, bearing testimony of a highly advanced system of law and a remarkably advanced time period. "And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations; That these made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar. All these were joined together in the vale of Siddim, which is the salt sea." - Genesis 14:1-3

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/hammurabi-stele.html

Colossal Statue of a Lion

Could this 15-ton Lion of War have been carved with the destruction of Israel in mind? This gigantic roaring lion, once stood as part of a pair of lions at the entrance of an Assyrian temple dedicated to Ishtar, the goddess of warfare, and fertility. The temple was adjoining the palace of King Ashurnasirpal II (reigned 883-859 BC). The temple was excavated by Henry Layard in 1849. "...Where can we flee for help to be delivered from the king of Assyria: and how shall we escape?" Isaiah 20:6

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/colossal-lion-assyria.html

Statue of King Ashurnasirpal II

Is this the king who made Assyria into a great empire? This sandstone statue of King Ashurnasirpal II is from the ninth century BC. The eight lines of cuneiform text on his chest reveal his name, titles, and exploits. The statue was placed in the Temple of Ishtar to remind the goddess Ishtar of the king's piety. It was actually made of magnesite, and stands on a pedestal of a reddish stone. These unusual stones were probably brought back from a foreign campaign. Kings often boasted of the exotic things they acquired from abroad, not only raw materials and finished goods but also plants and animals. The king's hair and beard are shown worn long in the fashion of the Assyrian court at this time. It has been suggested that the Assyrians used false hair and beards, as the Egyptians sometimes did, but there is no evidence for this. Ashurnasirpal with his long hair and beard holds a sickle in his right hand. The mace in his left hand shows his authority as vice-regent of the supreme god Ashur. The carved cuneiform inscription across his chest proclaims the king's titles and genealogy, and mentions his expedition westward to the Mediterranean Sea. In 612 BC the Babylonians and Medes came and destroyed proud Assyria and the Assyrian Empire passed into history. The statue of King Ashurnasirpal II discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology. "Woe to Assyria, the rod of My anger And the staff in whose hand is My indignation. I will send him against an ungodly nation, And against the people of My wrath I will give him charge, To seize the spoil, to take the prey, And to tread them down like the mire of the streets. Yet he does not mean so, Nor does his heart think so; But it is in his heart to destroy, And cut off not a few nations. For he says, "Are not my princes altogether kings? Is not Calno like Carchemish? Is not Hamath like Arpad? Is not Samaria like Damascus? As my hand has found the kingdoms of the idols, Whose carved images excelled those of Jerusalem and Samaria, As I have done to Samaria and her idols, Shall I not do also to Jerusalem and her idols?"' Therefore it shall come to pass, when the Lord has performed all His work on Mount Zion and on Jerusalem, that He will say, "I will punish the fruit of the arrogant heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his haughty looks." For he says: "By the strength of my hand I have done it, And by my wisdom, for I am prudent; Also I have removed the boundaries of the people, And have robbed their treasuries; So I have put down the inhabitants like a valiant man." Isaiah 10:5-13

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/statue-of-ashurnasirpal.html

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser

Could this Assyrian monument contain the only image of an ancient Hebrew king? The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III was discovered by the late Henry Layard in 1845. The 7 foot black limestone monument was found in the ruins of the palace of Shalmaneser III at ancient Calah, near Nineveh. It contains many panels displaying the Assyrian kings exploits. The Black Obelisk is one of the most important discoveries in Biblical Archaeology because one of the panels depicts the Hebrew king Jehu, or possibly one of his servants, bringing gifts to Shalmaneser and kneeling at his feet. The inscription above it reads: "The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri, silver, gold, bowls of gold, chalices of gold, cups of gold, vases of gold, lead, a sceptre for the king, and spear-shafts, I have received."

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/black-obelisk.html

King Jehu Bowing To Shalmaneser

Could this stone-carved relief be Jehu, the same king who is mentioned in the Bible? This image reveals a close up of Jehu doing homage to Shalmaneser III - The Black Obelisk is one of the most important discoveries in Biblical Archaeology because of this panel which depicts the Hebrew king Jehu, or possibly one of his servants, bringing gifts to Shalmaneser III and kneeling at his feet. "The time that Jehu reigned over Israel in Samaria was twenty-eight years." 2 Kings 10:36

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/obelisk-jehu-close-up.html

Tiglathpileser Relief

Could this be the same Tiglathpileser mentioned in the Bible who carried captives of Israel into captivity? Tiglath Pileser III (Pul) is seen here in this sculptured tablet from ancient Nimrud, the capital of ancient Assyria during his time. When Tiglath Pileser III ascended the throne of Assyria it was the beginning of the end for the northern kingdom of Israel. The Tiglath Pileser III tablet is an important discovery in Biblical Archaeology because it shows us a portrait of the Assyrian monarch who formed the Assyrian Empire and confirms the Biblical account. "In the days of Pekah king of Israel came Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, and took Ijon, and Abelbethmaachah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria." 2 Kings 15:29

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/Tiglath-Pileser-III.html

Foot on Neck Relief

Could this rock-carved image be similar to Joshua's words in the Bible? In this wall relief the Assyrian king places his foot upon the neck of his enemy to symbolize complete submission and defeat of the captured king. This discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology because it confirms the Biblical account to put the neck of an enemy under foot. This custom long prevailed in the East. In the rock sculpture of Behistun, Darius is seen with his foot upon the neck of Gometes, the rebellious Magian, who declared himself to be Bardius, the son of Cyrus. When inferior prisoners were captured, their hands were tied behind, or their arms and feet were bound by iron manacles. They were urged onward by blows from the spears or swords of the warriors to whom they were entrusted. In a bas-relief from Khorsabad, captives are led before the king by a rope fastened to rings passed through the lip and nose. "So it was, when they brought out those kings to Joshua, that Joshua called for all the men of Israel, and said to the captains of the men of war who went with him, "Come near, put your feet on the necks of these kings." And they drew near and put their feet on their necks." - Josh 10:24 "The LORD said to my Lord, "Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool." - Ps 110:1

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/enemy-trod-under-foot.html

Sargon with Tartan Relief

Could this staff of Sargon have been the very object of the Lord's words of anger? Sargon II with his Staff in Hand is seen here with a high official which could be Sennacherib. Sargon is easily recognized with his truncated cone headdress. This 10 foot tall wall relief was discovered in the ruins of ancient Khorsabad by the French archaeologist Paul Emil Botta in 1842. It is considered an important discovery in Biblical Archaeology confirming the Biblical account. "Woe to Assyria, the rod of My anger And the staff in whose hand is My indignation. Isaiah 10:5 "In the year that Tartan came unto Ashdod, (when Sargon the king of Assyria sent him,) and fought against Ashdod, and took it;" Isaiah 20:1

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/sargon-II-staff.html

King Sargon Relief

Could this be the same Sargon who is mentioned in the Bible? Sargon II relief. This wall relief was discovered in the ruins of ancient Khorsabad by the French archaeologist Paul Emil Botta in 1842. It is considered an important discovery in Biblical Archaeology confirming the Biblical account. The Sargon Inscription The Sargon Inscription says "In my first year I captured Samaria. I took captive 27,290 people. People of other lands who never paid tribute, I settled in Samaria." "Woe to Assyria, the rod of My anger And the staff in whose hand is My indignation. Isaiah 10:5 "In the year that Tartan came unto Ashdod, (when Sargon the king of Assyria sent him,) and fought against Ashdod, and took it;" Isaiah 20:1 "I will punish the fruit of the arrogant heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his haughty looks."

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/sargon-II-relief.html

Human Headed Winged Bull

Could this winged bull guardian have been seen by Israelite captives captured by Sargon? A colossal human-headed winged bull standing over 16 feet tall and weighing 40 tons guarded the entrance to the palace of king Sargon II of Assyria at his capital city, Khorsabad. The winged bull was called a "lamassu," which was believed to be a spiritual being with the head of a human, the body and ears of a bull, and the wings of an angel or bird. The lamassu was placed on each side of palace entrances to guard against evil spirits. The Winged Bull discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology and confirms the Biblical text. Sargon is not mentioned by name in any literature outside of the Bible and was considered a biblical myth by many scholars. In 1842 the French archaeologist Paul Emil Botta uncovered the ruins of Sargon's palace in Khorsabad revealing him as one of the most powerful monarchs of all time. "In the year that Tartan came unto Ashdod, (when Sargon the king of Assyria sent him,) and fought against Ashdod, and took it" Isaiah 20:1 One of Sargon's inscriptions reads "In my first year I captured Samaria. I took captive 27,290 people. People of other lands, who never paid tribute, I settled in Samaria." "...Where can we flee for help to be delivered from the king of Assyria: and how shall we escape?" Isaiah 20:6

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/winged-bull-1-sided.html

Giant Winged Bull with 5 Legs

Could this 5-legged winged bull guardian of Sargon the Great have been seen by Hebrew captives? A colossal human-headed winged bull standing over 14 feet tall and weighing over 16 tons guarded the entrance to the palace of king Sargon II of Assyria in about 710 BC at his capital city, Khorsabad. The winged bull was called a "lamassu," which was believed to be a spiritual being with the head of a human, the body and ears of a bull, and the wings of an angel or bird. This winged bull has 5 legs to supposedly make it appear balanced from any angle. The mythical creatures were placed on each side of palace entrances to give magical protection against evil spirits. The Winged Bull discovery is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology and confirms the Biblical text. Sargon is not mentioned by name in any literature outside of the Bible and was considered a biblical myth by many scholars. In 1843 the French archaeologist Paul Emil Botta uncovered the ruins of Sargon's palace in Khorsabad revealing him as one of the most powerful monarchs of all time. "In the year that Tartan came unto Ashdod, (when Sargon the king of Assyria sent him,) and fought against Ashdod, and took it" Isaiah 20:1 One of Sargon's inscriptions reads "In my first year I captured Samaria. I took captive 27,290 people. People of other lands, who never paid tribute, I settled in Samaria." "...Where can we flee for help to be delivered from the king of Assyria: and how shall we escape?" Isaiah 20:6

Link: https://bible-history.com/archaeology/assyria/winged-bull-2-sided.html