Ancient Greece

Women in Athens

All ancient societies drew a distinction between the free and the slave, even if slaves were few in number. Ancient Egypt saw very little difference in law between men and women, while Athens (and most other societies) did. Athens also drew a sharp distinction between citizen and resident alien, between legitimate born and the illegitimate, and between the woman who was a wife and the one who was not wife. We lack information on the non-citizen but presumably they tried to copy what they would have perceived as the ideal.

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Women And Property In Ancient Athens

Athenian law would not allow a woman to participate in a business transaction involving anything whose value exceeded a sum of money roughly equivalent to that needed to feed a family for five or six days. She could buy groceries at the local market but needed the approval of a male guardian to do anything more.

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Women In Sparta

By 600 BCE Sparta had conquered her neighbors in the southern half of the Peloponnese. The vanquished people, called Helots, were required to do all of the agricultural work on land owned by the victors, making Sparta self-sufficient in food and ruler of a slave population seven or eight times as large. Not needing to import anything allowed Sparta to isolate herself from the culture of the rest of the world; fearing revolt by such a large number of slaves forced the country to become an armed camp: thus was determined the character of one of the oddest societies in the ancient world.

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Greek Approach To Women's Illness, Pregnancy And Childbirth

It is tempting to credit the medicine we are taking when an illness is cleared up, forgetting that the condition might have gone away by itself regardless of what we did. This is undoubtedly the key to the popularity even today of so many "folk medicines" that researchers insist do nothing at all except make money for the manufacturers, and there were certainly many medical procedures in the ancient world that did very little good and some that did considerable harm.

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The Women of Athens

Compared to the women of Sparta, the status of an Athenian woman in Greek society was minimal. By comparison to present day standards, Athenian women were only a small step above slaves by the 5th century BC. From birth a girl was not expected to learn how to read or write, nor was she expected to earn an education. On reading and writing, Menander wrote, "Teaching a woman to read and write? What a terrible thing to do! Like feeding a vile snake on more poison." Other authors and philosophers had similar quips about women.

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Burial Rituals and the Afterlife of Ancient Greece

As seen in the literature of ancient Greece, tombs and rituals of the wealthy were extravagant. Gold and jewels were essential grave offerings of respectable and honored tombs, perhaps used as a way to display wealth and status. It seems the wealthier you were the more elaborate your final resting place. The ancient Greeks had distinct methods of burial, and it was often believed if you were not provided a proper burial along with the appropriate rituals, you were destined to suffer between worlds until your rites of passage into the underworld were completed. In this essay we will see how exactly a tomb of Greece looked, the rituals followed at the time of death and also what was believed to happen if these elements were not fulfilled. Examining the tombs and rituals from the archaic period through classical Greece shows the continuity of the traditions throughout the years.

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Death and Funeral in Ancient Greece

The Funerals. An Athenian's Will.--All Menon's patient's are to-day set out upon the road to recovery. Hipponax, his rival, has been less fortunate. A wealthy and elderly patient, Lycophron, died the day before yesterday. As the latter felt his end approaching, he did what most Athenians may put off until close to the inevitable hour--he made his will, and called in his friends to witness it; and one must hope there can be no doubt about the validity, the signets attached, etc., for otherwise the heirs may find themselves in a pretty lawsuit.

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Ancient Greece Daily Life

How would you have behaved if you had lived in ancient Sparta? (Lie, cheat, steal, because that is the Sparta way!) Or in ancient Athens? Or in Corinth, Argos or Megara? The ancient Greeks were very proud of their city-state! They were also proud of being Greek. The ancient Greeks were thinkers. They loved to talk. They honored their gods and respected honor. They loved beauty, music, literature, drama, philosophy, politics and art.

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Roles of Men, Women, and Children

Men, women, and children in ancient Greece had different roles and responsibilities. Let's look at the roles you and your friends and family would have had if you had lived in ancient Greece. Men in Greece wore special clothes. Every Greek man owned several chitons, long, rectangular pieces of cloth with holes for the head and arms. The chitons were decorated based on the man's status in society. The richest men had the fanciest chitons, made out of the most expensive cloth and with the most decorations.

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Ancient Greek Medicine

Medicine was very important to the Ancient Greek. Ancient Greek Culture was such that a high priority was placed upon healthy lifestyles, this despite Ancient Greece being much different to the Greece of the modern World.

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Greek Medicine and Disease

Disease was a very serious problem for the Greeks, as for all other people in the ancient and medieval worlds. One out of three babies died before they were a year old. Half of all children died before they were ten. And even most people who grew up died in their forties and fifties.

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Architecture and Women in Ancient Greece

Architecture relates to the design and construction of buildings, temples, houses and other structures used for human habitation. In Ancient Greece public buildings were made of marble. They used post and lintel construction so the roof was supported on tall columns. This was the same method of construction that was used in ancient Egypt. Walls were kept to a minimum because they shut out light from the sun. Heating was done on open fires and chimneys were not used. The structure was built up of smaller blocks of marble joined with metal pins. No mortar was used. The size of a room was limited by the length of the lintel. Wood was used for larger lintels while stone was used in longer lasting lintel. On surviving buildings some are missing their roofs because the wood has rotted away. Water was provided to public fountains that could be in such a room.

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Lifestyle of the Ordinary Ancient Greek

by Christopher Xenopoulos Janus. The daily Lifestyle of the anient Greek - just the ordinary people men and women, children and the elderly, slaves and foreigners, rich and poor - has always been of special interest to me. Not more so, of course, than the philosophers, artists and dramatists who have contributed so enormously to our culture and ways of life but the study of the ordinary Greek in ancient times tells us so much, or puzzles us so much about what ordinary people are like in extraordinary times, namely the Golden Age of Greece.

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Everyday Life in Ancient Greece

Centered within a loose collection of city-states (often at war with one another), ancient Greek culture reached its pinnacle during the fourth century BC - an era described as its "Golden Age." Art, theater, music, poetry, philosophy, and political experiments such as democracy flourished. Greek influence stretched along the northern rim of the Mediterranean from the shores of Asia Minor to the Italian peninsula. In Athens, society was male-dominated - only men could be citizens and only upper-class males enjoyed a formal education. Women had few political rights and were expected to remain in the home and bear children. Fully one quarter of the population was made up of slaves, usually prisoners captured during the many clashes that extended Greek influence overseas. These slaves provided much of the manpower that fueled the burgeoning economy, working in shipyards, quarries, mines, and as domestic servants.

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Children of Ancient Greece

Babies born in ancient Greece often had a difficult time surviving. Many died in the first couple days of life; therefore, babies did not receive names until the seventh or tenth day of life. If a baby was born deformed, it might have been abandoned on a mountain (female babies were abandoned more often than males). Sometimes abandoned babies were rescued and brought up as slaves by another family.

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Marriages in Ancient Greece

Marriages in ancient Greece were arranged by the parents of the intended bride and groom. A financial arrangement was made between the families in the form of a dowry. Girls married between the ages of fourteen to eighteen, while typically men married in their twenties or even thirties. Spartan men continued to live in the barracks, even after the wedding, until they reached the age of thirty when they could move home with their wives.

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Women and Marriage in Ancient Greece

The Greeks thought that Cecrops, one of the early kings of Athens -- one who wasn't entirely human, was responsible for civilizing mankind and establishing monogamous marriage. Men were still free to establish relations with courtesans and prostitutes, but with the institution of matrimony, lines of heredity could be established, and marriage established who was in charge of the woman.

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Ancient Greek Wedding

Weddings in ancient Greece were a major part of a person's life, especially for the bride-to-be. The weddings were usually arranged by the bride's parents (Kitto 220). In ancient Greece, there usually was a certain time when couples decided to marry. According to Flacelière (62), Greeks married during the winter. However, various superstitions say that Greeks were married during the time of a full moon. A common month in which couples married was the monthGamelion (January) which is sacred to Hera and means "the wedding month."

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Marriage in Ancient Greece

In the ancient Greek society, marriage was regarded as an auspicious relationship. Marriage was very important to carry family chain.n the Greek culture, every respectable woman became a wife if she could. In marriage, there was hardly room for choice. Destiny played an important role in solemnizing marriage.

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Marriage (Gamos) in Ancient Greece

How Athenian Marriages are Arranged.--Over this typical Athenian home reigns the wife of the master. Public opinion frowns upon celibacy, and there are relatively few unmarried men in Athens. An Athenian girl is brought up with the distinct expectation of matrimony.[*] Opportunities for a romance almost never will come her way; but it is the business of her parents to find her a suitable husband. If they are kindly people of good breeding, their choice is not likely to be a very bad one. If they have difficulties, they can engage a professional "matchmaker," a shrewd old woman who, for a fee, will hunt out an eligible young man. Marriage is contracted primarily that there may be legitimate children to keep up the state and to perpetuate the family. That the girl should have any will of her own in the matter is almost never thought of. Very probably she has never seen "Him," save when they both were marching in a public religious procession, or at some rare family gathering (a marriage or a funeral) when there were outside guests. Besides she will be "given away" when only about fifteen, and probably has formed no intelligent opinion or even prejudices on the subject.

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Culture of Athens

The class system in Athens was made up of two distinct classes- slaves and citizens. These classes were rarely open to any of the other classes; citizenship alone was given only to male Athenians. The same hierarchy of classes existed within other Greek city states as well (an even finer division can be drawn when looking at the social structure of Sparta). At the core of each class was a specific list of duties and responsibilities given to a member of it. Thus, citizens were expected to have attended the gymnasium, and palaistrai, where as slaves were relegated to house chores and could never attain citizenship.

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Oddysey Online: Greece

Michael C. Carlos Museum presents Odyssey Online's Greece

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Ancient Greek Family

Most Greeks, like most other people throughout history, lived in families with a mother and a father and their children. Usually men got married when they were about twenty-five or thirty years old (as they do today), but women got married much younger, between twelve and sixteen years old.

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Marriage and Funeral Rites in Classical Athens

In the ancient Mediterranean world there was hardly room for choice: not only was marriage destiny, but so was death. The identity of the Classical Greek world is established through the traditional sacrifices and rituals that were practiced in these times of bliss and mourning. The sacred wedding and the dramatic funeral compliment each other in character and content, for the ceremonies are both interwoven with ritual meaning and overlapping rites. Evidence for these formalities, both literary and artistic, help to provide a complete account of Greek customs in order to form the general picture of the wedding, the funeral, the parallels, the writings, and the vase paintings.

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Daily Life

Children lived with their mothers in the women's quarter until they were 7 years old. They slept in wicker baskets or wooden cradles.The children played with balls, miniature chariots, rattles, yo-yos, rocking horses, and dolls and animals made from clay. Many had pets. They especially liked dogs. Other pets included ducks, quail, birds, goats, tortoises, mice, weasels, and grasshoppers. At age 7 the boys went to school.

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Home Life in Ancient Greece

In Athens, wives of citizens enjoyed no more political or legal rights than slaves. Yet, though a married Athenian woman might be confined to her house, here at least she enjoyed absolute authority subject to the consent of her lord and master. To slaves, she was the mistress. Young girls rarely left the women's quarters - the gynaikeon. While married women seldom went out of doors, adolescent girls rarely even went out of the courtyard - they had to be unseen even by male members of their own family. This is in contrast to Sparta where young girls trained openly at sports with young men, dressed in short tunics. All a young girl learnt was domestic skills (such as cooking, spinning and weaving), a little reading, music and arithmetic. They would be taught either by their mother, grandmother or a family slave. Girls only went out for certain religious festivals where they assisted at the sacrifice and took part in the procession.

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Ancient Athenian Women

What was the role of women in Athens? To live, controlled by the men in their lives. Their father controlled them before they were married. Their spouse controlled them once they were married . What did girls do? They learnt to read- in school or at home. They learnt important household skills-spinning, weaving, sewing, cooking and other household jobs. Learnt simple facts on mythology, religion and occasionally musical instruments. Spent most of their time in her household with other women- only leaving the house to perform religious duties.

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Ancient Greek Education

The Greek Gods were much more down-to-earth and much less awesome than the remote gods of the East. Because they were endowed with human qualities and often represented aspects of the physical world--such as the sun, the moon, and the sea--they were closer to man and to the world he lived in. The Greeks, therefore, could find spiritual satisfaction in the ordinary, everyday world. They could develop a secular life free from the domination of a priesthood that exacted homage to gods remote from everyday life. The goal of education in the Greek city-states was to prepare the child for adult activities as a citizen.

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Ancient Greece for Kids - Education

Both daily life and education were very different in Sparta, than in Athens or in the other ancient Greek city-states. ATHENS: In ancient Athens, the purpose of education was to produce citizens trained in the arts, to prepare citizens for both peace and war. Girls were not educated at school, but many learned to read and write at home, in the comfort of their courtyard. Until age 6 or 7, boys were taught at home by their mother or by a male slave. From age 6 to 14, they went to a neighborhood primary school or to a private school. Books were very expensive and rare, so subjects were read out-loud, and the boys had to memorize everything. To help them learn, they used writing tablets and rulers.

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Education in Ancient Greece

Both education and daily life were very different in Sparta, than in Athens or in the other ancient Greek city-states. With the exception of the Athenians (who thought Athens was the best!), Greeks from other city-states had a grudging admiration for the Spartans. They wouldn't want to be Spartans, but in times of war, they most certainly wanted Sparta to be on their side. The Spartans were tough, and the ancient Greeks admired strength.

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Education of Women in Ancient Greece

Women were educated at home except for music and dance lessons. Often they were educated by their husbands, brothers, or fathers and some greek women were very well educated. Hetaera had special schools where they learned entertaining, conversation, and rhetoric. Slaves were not educated. If they were educated before they became slaves, they could work for their freedom.

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Greek Culture

The ancient Greeks were a deeply religious people. They worshipped many gods whom they believed appeared in human form and yet were endowed with superhuman strength and ageless beauty. The Iliad and the Odyssey, our earliest surviving examples of Greek literature, record men's interactions with various gods and goddesses whose characters and appearances underwent little change in the centuries that followed. While many sanctuaries honored more than a single god, usually one deity such as Zeus at Olympia or a closely linked pair of deities like Demeter and her daughter Persephone at Eleusis dominated the cult place.

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Ancient Greece

Politics, Heroes, Language, Education, Science and Medicine, etc. Facts about Ancient Greece from Discovery Channel

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The Acropolis

The Acropolis was both the fortified citadel and state sanctuary of the ancient city of Athens. Although the great building programs of the 5th century B.C. have disturbed or covered many of the earlier remains, there is still a great deal of archaeological evidence attesting to the importance of the Acropolis in all periods of time. In the Late Bronze Age, the Acropolis was surrounded by a massive fortification wall like those at Mycenae and Tiryns in southern Greece. This wall remained in use long after the collapse of Mycenaean civilization, and functioned as the fortifications of the Acropolis for several centuries.

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Parthenon, Athens

The Parthenon (Greek: Ãáñèåíùí) in Athens is the most famous surviving building of Ancient Greece and one of the most famous buildings in the world. The Parthenon has stood atop the Acropolis of Athens for nearly 2,500 years and was built to give thanks to Athena, the city's patron goddess, for the salvation of Athens and Greece in the Persian Wars. The building was officially called the Temple of Athena the Virgin; "Parthenon" comes from the Greek word parthenos, "virgin." Throughout its long life, the Parthenon has functioned most importantly as a Greek temple, but has also been a treasury, a fortress, a church, and a mosque. Today, it is one of the most recognizable icons and popular tourist attractions in the world.

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Temple of Athena Nike

The Temple of Athena Nike ("Victorious Athena") in Athens was the earliest Ionic building to be built on the Acropolis. The temple was begun around 427 BC and completed during the unrest of the Peloponnesian war. It was built over the remains of an earlier sixth century temple to Athena, demolished by the Persians in 480 BC. The decision to build Athena Nike was an expression of Athens' ambitions to be a world power as opposed to Sparta. Constructed from white marble, it was built in stages as wartime funding allowed. The temple's small size was compensated for in its position, resting on a rocky outcrop, positioned so the Athenian people could worship the goddess of victory in hope of prosperous outcomes in the war's endeavours. Once the temple was completed the Athenians added a protective parapet to express their determination and hope for final victory.

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Erechtheum of Acropolis

The Erechtheion, is a temple of Ionic style on the Acropolis in Athens, it was built between 420 to 406 BC . The design probably goes back to Pericles,who died atthe beginning of the construction . Builders of the temple was the architects Philokles and Archilochos under whose supervision the temple was completed around 406.

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The Acropolis - The Propylaea

The Propylaea was (and still is) the formal entrance to the top of the Acropolis. Through this gateway, the Parthenon finally comes into full view. On the right side of the Propylaea is the Temple of Athena Nike. Both the Propylaea and the temple are currently undergoing significant renovation and repair. Both buildings are from the 5th century BC.

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Artemis Temple - Sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron

The sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron (Ancient Greek Âñáõñþí; Modern Greek Âñáõñþíá - Vravrona or Vravronas) is an early sacred site on the eastern coast of Attica near the Aegean Sea in a small inlet. The inlet has silted up since ancient times, pushing the current shoreline farther from the site. A nearby hill, c. 24m high and 220m to the southeast, was inhabited during the Neolithic era, c. 2000 BCE, and flourished particularly from Middle Helladic to early Mycenaean times (2000-1600 BC) as a fortified site (acropolis) . Occupation ceased in the LHIIIb period, and the acropolis was never significantly resettled after this time. There is a gap in the occupation of the site from LHIIIb until the 8th century BCE.Brauron was one of the twelve ancient settlements of Attica prior to the synoikismos of Theseus, who unified them with Athens.

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Asklepieion of Kos

The Asklepieia were sacred hospitals where the methods of Asklepieios were used for the treatment of the patients. To understand this better, we'll take a detour into the origin, life and studies of Asklepieios. Asklepieios was the son of Apollo and Koronis. Koronis was later unfaithful to Apollo and he had her thrown into the flames in his anger. She was holding their son Asklepieios at the time and Apollo snatched him from her to save him and appointed the centaur Hiron to care for him. Hiron taught medicine to many people but Asklepieios was his favourite student. Together they studied the medical properties of herbs and discovered miraculous cures for various ailments. Asklepieios thus became the god of medicine and was worshipped as such as he was able to cure both men and gods. To honour Asklepieios, people built the Asklepieia which were originally places of worship. As people flocked to these centres in hope of a cure from the god, it was natural that they would gradually progress to centres of healing and treatment...

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Theatre of Dionysus

Located on the southeast slope of Athens' acropolis as part of the precinct of Dionysus, the Theatre of Dionysus Eleutheris is the oldest theatre in Greece. In addition to being the oldest, it was also the most prolific, for most tragedies were written for performance at the theatre at Athens. Due to additions and reconstructions to the theatre since its original building around 500 BC, though, not much is known about the theatre in its early years

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The Temple of Epicurean Apollo

at Vasses of Figaleia. In the region of Arcadia there are places of great beauty, equally charged with history, both classical and more recent. The most extraordinary monument of the area is the very well preserved temple of Epicurean Apollo, at Vasses of Figaleia. Figaleia, the ancient town of Arcadia, it was built, according to the tradition, by Figalos, the son of Lykaonas, near the banks of Neda river. The town flourished but it was also conquered by Spartans in 659 B.C., Aetolians in 220-217 B.C. and Philip V of Macedonia.

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Theater at Epidauros

"Theatre, Epidaurus, built during the last quarter of the fourth century B.C....The harmony of its cavea, the way it 'sits' in the landscape with the semicircle hollowed out of the side of the hill, and the quality of its acoustics make the Epidaurus theatre one of the great architectural achievements of the fourth century. The circular orchestra provides the link with the stage buildings."

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Minoan Fountain, Delos

A rectangular cistern situated between the stoa of Antigonos and the Agora of Italians. It was constructed in the third quarter of the 6th century BC. There is a stepped-access from one side. Now we can see only the fountain and the foundation, but it used to be a covered building. There was a passage go around three sides of the fountain.

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The Temple of the Delians

The Temple of the Delians or Grand Temple is the latest and largest of the three temples dedicated to Apollo. It is a "peripteral" Doric temple with six columns on each of the narrow sides and thirteen on each of the long ones. Its construction began in 478 B.C. but stopped around the middle of the 5th century B.C., when the League' s treasury was transferred to Athens. Work was resumed later on, during the period of Delian independence, but was never actually finished.

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Terrace of the Lions

The island of Delos, recognized as the birthplace of the god Apollo, has been a sacred area used for various reasons throughout history. Today it is one of the most important archaeological sights in Greece and is covered in excavations, one of which is the famous Terrace of the Lions. This terrace was erected and dedicated to Apollo by the people of Naxos just before 600 BCE. The terrace consisted of a row of nine to twelve marble carved lions that faced eastward towards the Sacred Lake of Delos along the Sacred Way from Skardana Bay to the temples. The lions, with their mouths open as if roaring or snarling, were both meant to guard the sanctuaries and to inspire a feeling of divine fear among the worshippers. The way in which they were positioned is similar to the way sphinxes were set up along avenues in ancient Egypt. Today, only five of the original lions remain with remnants of three others and the headless body of another has been transported and put over the main gate of a Venetian arsenal.

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The Stoivadeion, Delos Greece

A platform to the northwest of the Sanctuary, containing a statue of Dionysos flanked by two actors impersonating Paposilenoi (now in the Museum). On either side of the platform, a pillar supports a huge phallus, the symbol of Dionysos. The southern pillar, which is decorated with relief scenes from the Dionysiac circle, was erected in ca. 300 B.C. by a Delian named Karystios in order to celebrate a victorious theatrical performance sponsored by him.

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Delos - Temple of Isis

The reconstruction of the distyle Doric temple in antis was built by the Athenians in honor of Isis in 135 BC and still holds its cult statue of the goddess, which is unfortunately headless.

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The Temple of Hera

The temple of Hera, one of the oldest monumental temples in Greece, stands in the north-west corner of the sacred precinct of the Altis, on the south slopes of Kronios hill, protected by a powerful terrace wall. It was dedicated to the Olympian sanctuary by the inhabitants of Skillous, an ancient city of Eleia. Pausanias relates that the temple was built approximately eight years after Oxylos ascended to the throne of Elis, that is c. 1096 BC, but in reality it is much later. According to some scholars, the first Heraion, built around 650 BC, was a small Doric temple with only a cella and pronaos, to which the opisthodomos and ptero were added later, around 600 BC. However, the theory that the entire temple was built around 600 BC prevails today. The temple was refurbished on many occasions, and the Romans transformed it into a kind of museum for the sanctuary's choicest treasures, such as the famous Hermes by Praxiteles.

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The Temple of Olympian Zeus

The building of the Temple of Olympian Zeus actually began in the 6th Century by Peisistratos but work was stopped either because of a lack of money or because Pisistratus's son, Hippias, was overthrown in 510 BC. The temple was not finished until the Emperor Hadrian completed in 131 AD, seven hundred years later. There were other attempts to continue the building. The Classical Greeks (487-379)left it unfinished because they believed it was too big and symbolized the arrogance of people who believed they were equal to the Gods. During the Third Century when the Macedonians ruled Athens work was begun again by Antiochus the IV of Syria who wanted to build the world's largest temple and hired the Roman architect Cossotius to complete the job, but this ended when Antiochus died. In 86 BC, during Roman rule the general Sulla took two columns from the unfinished temple to Rome for the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill which influenced the development of the Corinthian style in Rome.

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The Statue of Zeus at Olympia

In ancient times the Greeks held one of their most important festivals, The Olympic Games, in honor of the King of their gods, Zeus. Like our modern Olympics, athletes traveled from distant lands, including Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt and Sicily, to compete in the games. The Olympics were first started in 776 B.C. and held at a shrine to Zeus located on the western coast of Greece in a region called Peloponnesus. The games, held every four years, helped to unify the Greek city-states. Sacred truce was declared during the games and wars were stopped. Safe passage was given to all traveling to the site, called Olympia, for the season of the games.

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Olympia Stadium

The stadium of Olympia was built in the 4th c BCE to the East of the sanctuary. It is 212.54 meters (600 Olympic feet) long, and 28.50m wide. It was never lined with seats and the spectators watched the games from the embankments. Today the starting and finishing lines are visible, along with the stone seats of the Hellanodikes (the judges).

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Pheidias' Workshop at Olympia

Pheidias' workshop was located to the west of the temple of Zeus, outside the boundary of the Altis. The workshop was 32.15 meters long and 14.5 meters wide. It is interesting to note that these are the approximate dimensions of the naos of the temple of Zeus. The thickness of the walls (over one meter wide) suggest that the workshop was also very tall (likely up to 14 meters in height). The studio was divided into two rooms, the smaller was likely used for storage, and the larger for the construction of the statue of Zeus (P. Valavanis). Inside the larger room was found evidence of scaffolding and pulleys, and the remains of two rows of four columns that mimicked the pillars in the temple naos. The general construction of the workshop suggests that it was built as a replica of the naos; the workshop would have given the artist a sense of the how the statue would look in the temple itself (E. Gardiner). Outside the workshop were found pits containing tools, bits of bronze, iron, lead, amber and ivory, and remnants of clay moulds (B. Ashmole). Although most of the remains date later than the statue of Zeus, they provide important evidence for the style of chryselephantine statues. One of the most interesting finds at the site was a clay drinking-cup with an inscription on the base that read "I belong to Pheidias." Although some have criticized the cup as a hoax, recent analysis of the encrustation within the inscription dates both the mug and writing to ancient times (J. Swaddling). Pheidias' workshop was later turned into a Christian church, which accounts for the building's remarkable preservation.

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Temple of Zeus

Visitors to Greece looking for the Temple of Zeus will find two different temples of significance built to honor the king of all Greek mythology gods. There are the ruins of the once great Temple of Zeus at Olympia, and the remnants of the Temple of the Olympian Zeus in Athens. The Temple of Zeus in Olympia was built between 470 BC and 456 BC, while the Temple of Zeus in Athens took much longer to finish, with construction beginning in the 6th century BC and lasting until the 2nd century AD. Although both of these temples are reduced to the parts more than the whole, they offer intriguing insight into the glory of ancient Athens architecture.

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Philippeion

The Philippeion was erected near the west wall of the Altis in 338 BC. The circular monument was commissioned by Philip II of Macedon in celebration of both athletic and military victories. Philip had already won several chariot races at Olympia, and his victory over the Thebans and Athenians at the battle of Chaeronea presented the opportunity for a lavish dedication at the Greek sanctuary. The Philippeion stood on a marble base 15.3 meters in diameter and was comprised of 18 ionic columns covered with a carved marble roof and topped with a bronze poppy head (E. Gardiner). Inside the Philippeon stood 8 Corinthian half columns and 5 statues of the Macedonian royal family that depicted Philip, his wife, his parents, and his son, Alexander. The statues were created by the sculptor Leochares, and composed of gold and ivory (J. Swaddling). Like his other dedications at Olympia, the Philippeon was constructed to portray Philip not as a conqueror, but as a champion of the panhellenic ideal (P. Valavanis). Philip lived only two years after the Philippeion was commissioned. Therefore it is likely the monument was completed by Alexander after the king's death (J. Swaddling).

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Leonidaion

The Leonidaion, situated at the south-west corner of the sanctuary, outside the sacred precinct of the Altis, was a large and luxurious hostel for distinguished visitors to the Olympic Games. It was built in approximately 330 BC and was remodeled twice in Roman times.

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Palaestra

Pompeii palaestra seen from the top of the stadium wall. The depression center left was filled with water and used for swimming practice and mock naval battles. To the right (partially obscured by a tree trunk) is a line of carbonized tree stumps, the remains of the trees (each one hundreds of years old) of the palaestra burned in the volcanic eruption of 79. Between them and the colonnade, a line of saplings recently planted as replacement.

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Gymnasium at Olympia

The gymnasium at Olympia was constructed adjacent to the Palaistra in the 2nd century BC. The large rectangular building (120 x 222 m) was built around a courtyard, and surrounded on at least three sides by colonnades. Like the Palaistra, the building contained arenas for athletes to practice their sport. Under the eastern colonnade was a two-lane track for athletes to practice running events in hot or rainy weather: the track measured 192...28 meters: the exact length of the stadium. The dimensions of the courtyard were quite large, and provided space for javelin and discus practice (N. Yalouris). Nothing remains of the western half of the building, which was destroyed by flood. However, it is likely that the western gymnasium contained living quarters for the athletes during the games (E. Gardiner).

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The Remains of the Treasury of Sikyon

One of the two best preserved Treasuries at Olympia is the Sikyonian Treasury. It was build by Orthagoras brother, Myron, in the 33rd Olympiad at 648 BC to commemorate his victory in the chariot race. Pausanias tell us that he saw two chambers, one Dorian and one Ionic, which were made out of bronze, and their weight was 500 talents, according to the inscription in the smaller chamber. Inside the chambers they were offerings, such as the sword of Pelops with its hilt of gold, the ivory horn of Amaltheia, a box-wood image of Apollo whose head was plated with gold, a bronze shield decorated with paintings, etc.

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Prytaneion

Behind the basilica is the Prytaneion, where religious ceremonies , official receptions and banquets were held. The sacred flame symbolizing the heart of Ephesus was kept constantly alight in the Prytaneion. The construction of the building dates to the 3rd century B.C, during the reign of Lysimachos, but the ruins of the complex dates to the Augustan age. The four-cornered pit in which the sacred fire is burned is a relic from the reign of Lysimachos. The front of the building is four columns, beyond the columns is a courtyard surrounded by a portico, and on the north is the center of the building, the ceremonial hall, and its side rooms. The eternal flame was here in the center of the ceremonial hall, the red color on the floor determined the location of the flame. Towards the back, there was a large area with wooden roof, the base of an altar is still recognizable today.

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Temple of Athena Polias and Zeus Polieus

The Acropolis of Rhodes dominated the western and highest part of the city of Rhodes, Greece. It was not fortified like most ancient acropolis. It consisted of a monumental zone with Sanctuaries, large Temples, public buildings and underground cult places. The buildings were built on stepped terraces supported by strong retaining walls. It was full of fields and groves, in the words of the 2nd c. CE orator Ailios Aristides. The style of the Hellenistic architecture on the Acropolis of Rhodes was perfectly conveyed by the combination of natural beauty and artificial transformations. The buildings on the Acropolis date to the Hellenistic and Late Hellenistic periods (3rd-2nd c. BCE).

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The Lion's Gate at Mykenae

The Lions Gate at Mykenae. It was the main entrance to the Acropolis and its opening was closed by a double door with sheets of bronze. The relief consists of two confronting lions, their heads made from different material. The structure is dated to 1250 BC.

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Palace of Mykenae

The courtyard of the palace of Mykenae, with the palace in the background.

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The Treasury of Atreus, Mykenae

Also known as Tomb of Agamemnon. It was constructed in 1250 BC.

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Ancient Greek Wreck Found in Black Sea

Sean Markey. National Geographic News. Researchers announced today their discovery of the shipwrecked remains of an ancient trading vessel over 2,300 years old that sank in the Black Sea off the coast of present-day Bulgaria. The vessel dates to the 5th to 3rd century B.C., an era known to scholars as the classical period of ancient Greece""the time of Plato when Athens reached the height of power and Zeus was believed to rule the celestial firmament.

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Deep-sea Robot Photographs Ancient Greek Shipwreck

Deborah Halber, News Office Correspondent. Sometime in the fourth century B.C., a Greek merchant ship sank off Chios and the Oinoussai islands in the eastern Aegean Sea. The wooden vessel may have succumbed to a storm or a fire, or maybe rough weather caused the cargo of 400 ceramic jars filled with wine and olive oil to shift without warning. The ship went down in 60 meters (about 200 feet) of water, where it remained unnoticed for centuries.

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Tektas Shipwreck Excavation

During the summer of 1999, INA began the excavation of a ship that sank between 450 and 425 B.C., the Golden Age of Classical Greece, the time when the Parthenon was being built, the time of Pericles, Thucydides, Sophocles, Socrates, Herodotus, Pheidias, and others whose names remain well known. It lies about 130 feet deep off a cape known as Tektas Burnu, north of ancient Teos on the western coast of Turkey.

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Ancient Greek Shipwreck Found; Cargo was Fine Wine

Many others were from the island Skopelos, or ancient Peparethos, probably the last port of call before disaster struck. The ship's intended destination is not known, but Dr. Hadjidaki noted that the shape of the mound suggested that one end of the ship points to the southeast. Further excavations may produce more clues. Four amphoras were brought to the surface for detailed analysis, which enabled experts to date the wreck between 400 and 380 B.C. The entire site was meticulously mapped, and then one exploratory trench was dug. Beneath two layers of amphoras the archeologists uncovered a rich assortment of black-glazed ceramic wine cups and bowls, a small wine jar known as a kyathion, a cooking pot and a bronze bucket and ladle. 'More Marvelous Finds'

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Ancient Wreck - Concept Paper - Wreck Site

Nauticos "" Ancient Wreck "" Ships of Ancient Greece. The shipwreck is Hellinistic in origin, most probably dating from the end of the third century BC or the beginning of the second century BC. The cargo was largely amphora that contained wine. Two Rhodian amphoras are clearly present near the anchor stocks at what would have been the bow of the ship (Fig. 2). There are very few known wrecks from this time period and none of these are in such an excellent state of preservation.

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Ingredients for Salad Dressing Found in Shipwreck

Ingredients for Salad Dressing Found in 2,400-year old Shipwreck By Charles Q. Choi, Special to LiveScience. Genetic analysis has revealed the contents of an ancient shipwreck dating back to the era of the Roman Republic and Athenian Empire. The cargo was olive oil flavored with oregano. Beyond discovering ingredients for Italian salad dressing on the sea floor, such research could provide a wealth of insights concerning the everyday life of ancient seafaring civilizations that would otherwise be lost at sea. An international team of U.S. and Greek researchers investigated the remains of a 2,400-year-old shipwreck that lies 230 feet (70 meters) deep, roughly a half-mile (1 kilometer) off the coast of the Greek island of Chios in the Aegean Sea.

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Underwater Archaeology - The British Museum

Ancient Greece "" Underwater Archaeology "" The British Museum Interactive Game. In a mountainous land like mainland Greece, travel and transport by sea was often much easier than by land. However it held many dangers too: sudden storms and attacks by pirates could result in death or slavery for a ship's crew. The many ancient Greek shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea have given marine archaeologists a lot of information about the sort of goods that were traded. In the following challenge you can explore a shipwreck and try to find out where the ship may have visited.

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2500 Year Old Shipwreck Raised Off Sicillian Coast

An ancient Greek ship recently raised off the coast of southern Sicily, Italy, is the biggest and best maintained vessel of its kind ever found, archaeologists say. At a length of nearly 70 feet (21 meters) and a width of 21 feet (6.5 meters), the 2,500-year-old craft is the largest recovered ship built in a manner first depicted in Homer's Iliad, which is believed to date back several centuries earlier.

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Ancient Shipwreck Museum - Kyrenia, North Cyprus

This Museum houses the oldest trading ship known to us with her cargo, which was raised from the bottom of the sea. The ship sailed in the Mediterranean during the life time of Alexander the Great and his successors. She sank in open waters less than a mile from the anchorage of Kyrenia. The evidence point to her being taken by rough seas around the year 300 B.C, when she was rather old.

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Antikythera Wreck

Wikipedia. The Antikythera wreck is a shipwreck that was discovered by sponge divers off the coast of the Greek island, Antikythera. Its approximate location is 35° 53' 23" (35.8897)N and 23° 18' 28" (23.3078)E, "20m off Point Glyphadia".

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The Internet Classics Archive

441 works of classical literature by 59 different authors.

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The Olympian Gods

Extensive collection of images and texts concerning the major figures of Greek and Roman mythology.

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Greek Mythology Link

The Greek Mythology Link is a collection of the Greek myths written online by Carlos Parada.

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The Barrington Atlas

The Barrington Atlas, created by the Classical Atlas Project (now, the Ancient World Mapping Center), is a reference work of permanent value. It has an exceptionally broad appeal to everyone worldwide with an interest in ancient Greeks and Romans, the lands they penetrated, and the peoples and cultures they encountered in Europe, North Africa and Western Asia. Scholars and libraries should all find it essential, although it is not just for them. It is also for students, travelers and lovers of fine cartography.

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Ancient Greek Ship

Image from Bible History Online

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Ancient Greece - War - The British Museum

An Interactive game made by the British Museum. You will play as the commander of a triremes during the wars with Persia in a huge sea battle near the island of Salamis. The Greek navy won with ships called triremes, let's see how many ships you can ram.

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Ancient Greek Ships - Part 1

Michael Lahanas. Greece has a very rich tradition in maritime trade. Under Greek or foreign flags Greek owners with their ships control around 16% of the world trade. The information about ancient Greek ships is very limited. The problem is that the wood with which these ships are built does not survive long enough in the sea. The lifetime of wooden ships is very limited as we for example know from various stories such as that of Columbus and his last voyage to America where he had problems that his ships after the long time in sea water were so much destroyed (eaten up by worms) that there was always a danger of sinking. After a few centuries sunken ships are eaten up by various organisms in the sea and therefore it is not surprising that almost none of the ancient Greek ships survived. We know what we know from literature sources such as from Homer describing Odysseus building a ship or from pottery images or from fresco paintings. Here the problem is how much these images (or text) are artistic and how much they represent the reality.

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Ancient Greek Ships - Part 2

Stories: In his time, as Hesiod says, """Work was a shame to none," nor was any distinction made with respect to trade, but merchandise was a noble calling, which brought home the good things which the barbarous nations enjoyed, was the occasion of friendship with their kings, and a great source of experience. Some merchants have built great cities, as Protis, the founder of Massilia, to whom the Gauls near the Rhine were much attached. Some report also that Thales and Hippocrates the mathematician traded; and that Plato defrayed the charges of his travels by selling oil in Egypt. Plutarch Solon., He [Corobius] was relieved, however, after a while by a Samian vessel, under the command of a man named Colaeus, which, on its way to Egypt, was forced to put in at Platea. The crew, informed by Corobius of all the circumstances, left him sufficient food for a year.

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Argo and the Argonautic Expedition.

Greek Mythology. The purpose of the Argonautic expedition was to fetch the golden fleece from Colchis (Aea), which lied at the end of the Black sea. The golden fleece belonged to the ram, which Phrixus used to flee from his father, the king of Orchomenos in Boeotia, and his stepmother, when they were preparing to sacrifice him. Phrixus reached the palace of king Aetes, who received him with honors and gave him his daughter. When Phrixus sacrificed the lamp to Zeus, he gave the fleece to Aetes and he hung it up in an oak, in the grove of Ares and put a sleepless dragon to guard it, day and night.

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Giant Hellenistic Warships

Michael Lahanas. The super-galleys of the Hellenistic Age. Today ships are still very important for the military. Giant US airplane carriers are like small cities. Often they are compared with the small triremes showing the advance in technology. Of course the fire power has increased dramatic the last 2300 years. The small 200 crew triremes cannot be compared to the biggest US warships. But if we consider the Hellenistic period we have to consider the larger warships which are not so well known today as maybe the triremes. In the Hellenistic period the Greeks produced ships of incredible dimensions for that time. In some cases the crew was larger than that of modern US warships (crew size but not the ship dimension) ! It is not clear how such ships could be produced using wood and not steel and special metallic alloys.

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Kyrenia II Ship

In the winter of 1967 a Greek-Cypriot diver, Andreas Kariolou, accidentally discovered, in the depths of the sea outside the town of Kyrenia, the trails of a unique relic of antiquity, a ship later known as the "Kyrenia Ship". Michael Katzev of the American Institute of Nautical Archaeology subsequently excavated it. The Kyrenia ship was built in the early 4th century B.C. and is the oldest Greek vessel ever discovered. Ancient shipwrecks have been found elsewhere in the Mediterranean Sea and the few parts of them studied have yielded valuable, but yet, incomplete information about the methods used by our ancestors in ancient shipbuilding. In this context the importance of the Kyrenia Ship is significant, as it is the best-preserved ship of the Classical period of Greek civilisation ever found to date. It is important to note that, 75% of the ship, that measures 15 metres in length, has been preserved as it was safeguarded under a protective layer of sand.

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The Trireme - Part 1

Homer describes in the second book of the Iliad how 1186 Greek ships were used for the transport of the Greek army to Troy or Ilios which was probably derived from Wilusa. The reason for this expedition was not the beautiful Helena but probably to obtain the control of the passage to the black sea from Troy (a city that now is known as Troy VIIa and which was destroyed by the Greeks in 1180 BC ) . Among the ships Homer describes that each of the 50 Boetian Ships carried 120 warriors. The ships were probably covered by a black paint (probably pitch for the protection of the wood) and had a single sail. When the Greek Ships arrived in Troy they were drawn on land and were surrounded by a wall for their protection, a procedure used later as described also by Julius Caesar. The anchor was a simple heavy stone. Homer describes how Odysseus built his own Ship by cutting 20 trees. Navigation at that time was probably mostly limited close to the land and not on the open sea without sight of the land.

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The Trireme - Part 2

The Crew, Tactics, Stories, Discoveries, References, Links

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Perseus: Image: Part of the Hull

Part of the Hull of an Homeric Ship. [a, meso/dmh, mast-box; b, beams parallel to c, the gunwale; d, klhi_des, rowlocks; e, bed of the oar; f, zu/ga, thwarts (should cross the hold); g, qrh_nus, braces for the feet; h, i)/kria, ribs; i, tro/pis, keel; k, a(rmoniai/, slabs sustaining the floor; l, e)/dafos, floor; m, keelson.]

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Pentekoter

Before the invention of the trireme the standard warship was a single-banked ship with a crew of 50 rowers (25 a side), called a pentekonter...

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Bireme

To increase momentum meant more rowers, to reduce extra size and weight meant putting oars and oarsmen over one another. This leads to the bireme (or dieres) (probably introduced by the Erythraeans).

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The Pharos of Alexandria

By Michael Lahanas. Sostratus, the son of Dexiphanes, the Cnidian, dedicated this to the Saviour Gods, on behalf of those who sail the seas. Dedicatory inscription of the Lighthouse, completed around 280-279 BC. The first lighthouse of the World, the "Pharos of Alexandria", lasted for over 1500 years in the harbor of Alexandria. It is one of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World described by the poet Antipater of Sidon around 130 BC.The Pharos was built to warn sailors of the treacherous sandbars off Alexandria, one of the busiest ports of the ancient world. It consisted of a three-stage tower, decorated with sculptures of Greek deities and mythical creatures, atop which stood a lantern with a giant bonfire whose light may have been focused by mirrors, perhaps made of polished bronze, into a beam visible 35 miles out to sea. 300 Slaves worked on the Pharos that was build in 17 years.

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Ancient Greek Naval Warfare

Before 800BC there was no dominant ship type used in the navies of the Aegean Sea. Most ships were little more than long boats of a primitive design. In war they were mainly used to transport troops and naval battles were boarding actions. In 800BC the ram was invented and this changed naval battles to a contest of speed and maneuver. At first this led to the development of the Penteconter (meaning 50-oared), a sleek ram-armed and fast war galley power by fifty oars, with twenty-five to a side and manned by fifty oarsmen. A large Penteconter could range up to 37-38 meters, the beam would be four meters to allow room for the rowers to work the oars. These ships would have a top speed of 9-10 knots. There was also a smaller war galley, the Triaconter (meaning 30-oared) used in the navies of the Aegean Sea.

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Ancient Greek Trade

Greece has a very rich tradition in maritime trade. The introduction of trade into the Greek culture was one of the most defining points in the history of ancient Greece. Simple transactions set the stage for larger scale trade to come. As trade the Greek city states (especially Athens) began to export many goods, including beautiful decorative items , and ships. The most common ship in ancient Greece was the cargo ship ,only second to the Greek warship. These cargo ships were used to transport goods which made ancient Greece prosperous.

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Trireme

Ancient Greece, wooden sailing boat with two large sails. Jonothan Potter (c) Dorling Kindersley

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Merchant Vessels and Pleasure Craft

Ancient Ships in Art History: Merchant Vessels and Pleasure Craft of the Greek Islands as Depicted in Ancient Greek Art Merchant Vessels and Pleasure Craft of the 2nd and 1st Millennia BCE as shown in ancient art. At the time when ancient histories were not recorded in the written word it is archeology and art history that give us insight into the nature of the ancient world. Artifacts found in situ their characteristics and the comparative analysis of these items along with the scientific clues they give us are the threads of evidence that lead us to new conclusions about the times and places where these items were made and used ... Both archeology and art history are disciplines that lead to powers of observation, records keeping , memory banks of comparative data and the art of deductive reasoning. As a prime example of this concept we are fortunate to have a moment frozen in time on the island of Santorini, which was covered by the volcanic eruption of Thera in approximately 1625 BCE.

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Perseus Image: Merchant and War Ships

Merchant and War ships as depicted in ancient pottery. Photograph courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum, London, March 1990 (Maria Daniels)

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War Ships of the Greeks

Ancient Ships: The Ship of Antiquity "" War Ships of the Greeks Legend has it, that for ten long years the Greeks laid siege to the ancient city of Troy but could not take it. Then one night they sailed away leaving only a large Wooden Horse. Thinking that the Greeks had given up and returned home the Trojans took what they thought was a large idol into the city as war booty. That night ten brave men crawled out of the belly of the horse. They opened the gates of the city allowing the returning Greek soldiers to pour in and defeat the mighty city of Troy. The Bireme was the warship used at the time of the Trojan wars. It had a broad bottom with a shallow draft. Biremes were propelled by two banks of oars and virtually skimmed over the seas. The bow had a portion that protruded out at water level. It is thought that this configuration was intended for ramming and piercing the enemy's ships hull.

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2500 Year Old Greek Ship

2,500-Year-Old Greek Ship Raised off Sicilian Coast Maria Cristina Valsecchi in Rome for National Geographic News August 11, 2008. An ancient Greek ship recently raised off the coast of southern Sicily, Italy, is the biggest and best maintained vessel of its kind ever found, archaeologists say. At a length of nearly 70 feet (21 meters) and a width of 21 feet (6.5 meters), the 2,500-year-old craft is the largest recovered ship built in a manner first depicted in Homer's Iliad, which is believed to date back several centuries earlier. The ship's outer shell was built first, and the inner framework was added later. The wooden planks of the hull were sewn together with ropes, with pitch and resin used as sealant to keep out water.

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Relief of a Dorian Ship

Relief of a Rhodian ship cut into the rock at the foot of the steps leading to the Acropolis. On the bow stood a statue of General Hagesander Mikkion, the work of the sculptor Pythokritos, who carved the Winged Victory of Samothrace, according to the inscription. The ship bears traces of paint. The relief (180-170 BC) is separated by a barrier.

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Discovery Channel - Ancient Greek Ships

The Greeks have been sailing for 10,000 years and have one of the strongest maritime traditions in the world. Archaeological finds - combined with pottery, art and poems of the period - have led experts to believe that the ancient Greeks used oared ships with large crews, as well as sailing boats of differing designs. A fresco uncovered on the Greek island of Santorini, in the excavated town of Ancient Akrotiri, depicts the variety of ships used by the Minoan civilisation 3,500 years ago. These include trading and working ships, while other more ornate barges carry a small number of important passengers.

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Ancient Greek Boating and Sailing

Ancient Greek Methods of Boating and Sailing by Kenny McMahon and Nick Chadha. Boating and sailing became very important to the Greek way of life. The Greeks needed ways to import and export trade goods both within Greece and to other countries. The mountainous terrain of Greece made sailing the easiest way. Wars also caused countries to learn about sailing. Navies became a must in these wars. For instance, the battle of Salamis (480 B.C.) was won because the Athenian navy was superior to the Persian navy.

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Travel and Transportation in Ancient Greece

It has been suggested that the first ships of Egypt were reed boats. In ancient China ships were modeled after swimming ducks and were even made to look like them. In northern Europe the first ships were modeled after skin boats. But none of these environments provided the motive for building ships that the Aegean did. In that sea were inviting crystal clear waters and green islands that could be seen from shore. Oared ships were described in many stories of ancient times. These seem to have been modeled after the dugout canoe. But a sailing ship was also developed along different lines... Danaus is given in one myth as the first to sail such a ship as he seemed to feel his daughters were unfit for oars. But the sailing ship seems to have been based on the first ships made of lumber boards. Early on these ships were literally sewn together while the later ships were mortised and tenoned. Joining wood edge to edge is quite old as the following passage suggests:

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The Trireme

How was a trireme built? By E.J. de Meester. For many centuries people have speculated about the way the warships of the ancient Greeks and Romans were built. Most controversial is the trireme (Greek trièrès, Latin triremis) in which three rowers sat next to each other on each side (six in a row in total). Two attempts have been made to build a full-size replica of a trireme: in the 19th century under Napoleon III and in 1985-7 by the English professor John Morrison and the ship designer John Coates. The second attempt was undoubtedly more successful than the first, but many aspects are still controversial. It seems that there are plans in the Netherlands to build a third replica. I became interested because I was building little ship models as a hobby, and also because of two exhibitions: Greece and the Sea in the New Church in Amsterdam in l987 and Ancient Ships and Seafaring in the Allard Pierson Museum in Amsterdam in l995-6. At the latter exhibition there was a test section that was used to design the Olympias, the trireme of Morrison and Coates. One was allowed to sit in it, which I did, after much hesitation, when there was nobody around (apart from the surveillance cameras). The Olympias itself was scheduled to come to Amsterdam too, but unfortunately this was cancelled because the hull was too worm-eaten.

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Greek Warships - History for Kids

People called the earliest Greek warships pentekontors. Pentekontors were long, narrow ships, designed to go fast so they could overtake other ships and attack them. They had 25 rowers, or oarsmen, on each side. By the 500's BC, in the Archaic period, though, Greek carpenters were building even faster ships. These new ships had more oars, and more oarsmen to pull them. And they had bronze points on the front, called rams, so they could smash into enemy ships and break them up. People called these new ships triremes, meaning "three oars". Instead of twenty-five oarsmen, triremes carried seventy-five on each side, three times as many. They had three sets of oars, one on top of the other, so they could go very fast. Archaeologists think that triremes could go as fast as 14 knots in good weather. Triremes didn't carry very many soldiers though - they were weapons themselves, for naval warfare, not troop carriers.

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Ancient Ships in Art History

Ancient Ships in Art History: Illustrations of the history of Ancient Greece, the Greek Epic Poems, the Trojan War and Greek History Ancient Ships in art history: Illustrations from Greek Pottery of the History of Ancient Greece, the Greek Epic Poems and the Trojan War. It is fortunate for sake of Greek history that verbal descriptions of Bronze Age ships from ancient Greece abound in the stories of Homer. However the identity of Homer is not entirely certain and the stories which make up the Iliad and the Odyssey may be the products of a long oral tradition of story telling in the ancient Greek culture which were not committed to written text until as late as the 6th Century BCE, however it is Homer who is criedited to have committed these stories to their first written copies.

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Greek Ships

The naval Greek history does not have a concrete point of beginning. Roots are lost in depths of centuries of history of human gender. In a geographic space within 150 km. from the sea, the Greeks from the prehistoric years developed societies as a rule coastal. As most of the interior land is mountainous and difficult to farm, Greeks have to explore the marine resources and love the sea.

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Trireme - Hellenic sailors

The masterpiece of ancient greek shipbuilding was, undoubtedly, the trireme. According to Thucydides it was created by Corinthians at the 7th century BC and at the 6th century BC it was used widely as a war ship. According to another opinion, it was created in the Aegean area at around 530 BC, and its design was influenced by the Phoenicians' ships. Terminally, other scientists claim that Corinthians and particularly Ameinocles, where those who designed this ship and probably Polycrates was the first who used the trireme on behalf of the Pentekonters.

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Battle of Salamis

After the Battle of Thermopylae, Athens was in despair. The Athenians knew that their city would surely be destroyed by the Persians. There was simply no place between the Persians and Athens where the Greeks dared to risk battle. Most of the Athenians fled to the island of Salamis where they watched their city burn and placed their trust in the fleet. Knowing that winter would soon be arriving, Xerxes decided on a naval assault on the remaining Athenians and their naval forces stationed at Salamis. This great naval battle was fought between the Greeks and Persians in 480 BC in the narrow straight between Salamis and Attica. The Persian fleet was lessened somewhat because of a storm but it was still a vastly larger force than the Greeks. The Persians had around seven hundred ships, the Greeks around three hundred. The Spartans and other allies were encamped in the Isthmus of Corinth, awaiting the outcome of the sea battle.

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Wood model of a Greek Trireme.

Part of the collection of the National Atomic Museum in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

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Olympias Museum

The museum of Ancient Greek Trireme "Olympias" (Replica)

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Greek Trireme Model Ship

The Greek Trireme was the "state of the art" fighting ship designed to be able to cover long distances quickly under oar and sail, and in battle to ram enemy ships with devastating effect. Money from the new vein of silver in Laurion enabled Athens to buy timber from Italy to increase her fleet from 40 in 489 BC to 200 in 480. The polis paid for the ship and its crew. Equipment and repairs were paid for by a rich citizen as one of the liturgies.

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Online Medieval and Classical Library (OMACL)

The Online Medieval and Classical Library (OMACL) is a collection of some of the most important literary works of Classical and Medieval civilization. Get your OMACL gear and let your love of classical and medieval literature show!

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The Suda Online Project (SOL).

The Suda On Line project engages the efforts of scholars world-wide in the translation and annotation of a substantial text that is being made available exclusively through the internet. Beginning with the Byzantine encyclopedia known as the Suda, a 10th century CE compilation of material on ancient literature, history, and biography. A massive work of about 30,000 entries, and written in sometimes dense Byzantine Greek prose, the Suda is an invaluable source for many details that would otherwise be unknown to us about Greek and Roman antiquity, as well as an important text for the study of Byzantine intellectual history.

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EAWC: Ancient Greece

Exploring Ancient World Cultures. Aristophanes' Lysistrata, Plato's Euthyphro, Plato's Apology, Plato's Crito, Selections from Aristotle's Politics, Plato and His Dialogues, Greek Mythology Quiz, Chronology, Essays, Images, Internet Sites, Texts

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GreekTexts in Perseus

Primary Texts: Aeschines | Aeschylus | Andocides | Antiphon | Apollodorus | Aristophanes | Aristotle | Bacchylides | Demades | Demosthenes | Dinarchus | Diodorus Siculus | Euclid | Euripides | Herodotus | Hesiod | Homer | Homeric Hymns | Hyperides | Isaeus | Isocrates | Josephus | Lycurgus | Lysias | Pausanias | Pindar | Plato | Plutarch | Pseudo-Xenophon | Sophocles | Strabo | Thucydides | Xenophon

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Greek Mythic History

A Euhemerist Analysis of the Greek Myths as part of a historical record.
PREFACE: Euhemerus and Euhemerism
Chapter 1: The Heroes and their Deeds
Chapter 2: Women in Various Roles
Chapter 3: Domestication of Animals
Chapter 4: The Development of Agriculture
Chapter 5: Medicine and Pharmacopoeia
Chapter 6: The Discovery and Use of Metals
Chapter 7: Homo Faber: Man the Inventor
Chapter 8: The Beginnings of Trade and Economics
Chapter 9: Influences From the Near East
Chapter 10: Cult, Belief and Religion
Chapter 11: Psychology and the Inner Mind
Chapter 12: Land and Climate

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Greek Literature

The Greek Word - Three Millennia of Greek Literature. Before Plato (12? - 5th c. B.C.) Homer ; Hesiod ; Orphica ; Archilochus ; Sappho ; Alcaeus ; Anaximander ; Xenophanes ; Heraclitus ; Parmenides ; Empedocles ; Anaxagoras Classical Era (5Th - 4Th C. B.C.) Aeschylus ; Sophocles ; Euripides ; Thucydides ; Herodotus ; Aristophanes ; Plato ; Aristotle Hellenistic Era (4Th - 1St C. B.C.) The Greek Old Testament (Septuagint) New Testament Era (1St - 3Rd C. A.D.) The New Testament ; Epistle To Diognetus ; Ignatius Theophorus ; Clement Of Alexandria ; Origen ; Plotinus Byzantium (4Th - 15Th C. A.D.) Athanasius The Great ; Gregory The Theologian ; Basil The Great ; Gregory Of Nyssa ; Macarius The Great ; Ecumenical Synods : The Symbol Of Faith ; Cyril Of Alexandria ; Proclus ; Romanos Melodos ; Dionysius The Areopagite ; Maximus Confessor ; Peter Damascene ; Symeon The New Theologian ; Gregory Palamas ; Nicholas Cabasilas ; Manuel Ii Palaeologus ; Gennadius Scholarius Modern Era (18Th - 20Th C. A.D.) Dionysios Solomos ; Cavafy ; Papatsonis

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Lives of the Ten Orators

1. Antiphon 2. Andocides 3. Lysias 4. Isocrates 5. Isaeus 6. Aeschines 7. Lycurgus 8. Demosthenes 9. Hyperides 10. Dinarchus; Decrees Proposed to the Athenians. Scanned by Agathon (RSB) from the University of Washington's copy of Plutarch's Lives and Writings, ed. by A.H. Clough and William W. Goodwin, with an introd. by Ralph Waldo Emerson. London: Simpkin, Hamilton, Kent & Co., Ltd. [1914?], vol. 5.

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Greek Music and Lyrical Poetry

Music of Ancient Greeks - Early Epic and Lyrical Poetry. Audio, original Greek texts, and English translations. Anacreon: My lyre sings only songs of love; Simonides: Danae and Perseus; Alcman: Bucolic; Simonides: There is a saying about virtue; Tyrtaeus: Spartan march; Homer: Iliad-Sing oh goddess the perilous wrath of Achilles; Archilochos: Oh soul; Orphic hymn: In praise of Justice; Sappho: Ode to Aphrodite; Alcaeus: Winter; Mimnermos: Short-lived is treasured youth; Homer: Odyssey - Calypso and Ulysses; Hesiod: Rough is the road to happiness; Bacchylides: Great gifts, peace brings to mortals; Solon: Eunomia

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The Ancient Greek World

The Ancient Greek World virtual gallery at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

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Ancient Greece

As part of the larger textbook, World Cultures, Ancient Greece is a learning module on ancient Greek history, philosophy and culture. It is designed as a research textbook, that is, it is designed for students to approach general problems in a research oriented manner rather than as a straight line textbook. This module is currently part of the course, General Education 110: World Civilizations to 1500, taught at Washington State University by Richard Hooker.

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Tony's Classic Page

Greek History, Classical Texts, and links of Military and Historical Interest.

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The International Plutarch Society

The Society exists to further the study of Plutarch and his various writings and to encourage scholarly communication between those working on Plutarchan studies.

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Perseus Project

Comprehensive ancient Greek website with over 15,000 images.

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Was Alexander the Great Bisexual?

Does it matter? by Dr. Craig Johnson. In short, regardless of the sexual mores of Alexander's time, coupled with the clear evidence of homoerotic relationships on the part of his father Philip II, at end the question of whether there is evidence in the ancient historians to suggest that Alexander was homosexual, bisexual, homoerotic, or anything else of the sort, just isn't there.

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The Archaeology of Ancient Greece

When most people think of Greece, visions of the Acropolis towering over the city of Athens come to mind. The Acropolis, while one of the most important and beautiful archaeological sites in Greece, is by no means the only archaeological site in Greece. A wealth of other locations exists throughout the Mainland, the Peloponnesos, the Cyclades, Crete, and Ionia (the western shore of modern Turkey). The purpose of this site is to familiarize viewers with those other, less visited archaeological sites, as well as provide them with information on the history and culture of ancient Greek civilization.

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Perseus Art and Archaeology

Look through a massive library of art objects, sites, and buildings. The library's catalogs document 523 coins, 1548 vases, over 1400 sculptures, 179 sites and 381 buildings. Each catalog entry has a description of the object and its context; most have images. This web site currently publishes over 33,000 pictures! Descriptions and images have been produced in collaboration with many museums, institutions and scholars.

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Metis Catalog

3 dimensional perspectives of these sites: Actium (Ambracian Gulf) Aegina (Temple of Aphaia) Amphiaraion Amyklai Argos (Larissa "Castle") Argos (Theater and Agora) Athens (Acropolis) Athens (Agora) Athens (Kerameikos) Athens (Olympieion) Athens (Pnyx and Philopappus Hill) Athens (Roman Agora) Athens (South Slope) Bassae Brauron Corinth Delphi Didyma Dimini Eleusis Epidauros (Sanctuary of Asklepios) Epidauros (Theater) Gerga* Helicon (Valley of the Muses) Herakleia under Latmos Karphi Kithairon Laurion Lefkandi Lerna Mallia Miletos Mycenae Myrtos (Phournou) Myrtos (Pyrgos) Nemea (Stadium) Nemea (Temple of Zeus) Olympia Orchomenos (Treasury of Minyas) Pellana Perachora Phaistos Plataea Priene Pylos (Cave of Nestor) Pylos (Epano Englianos) Pyramid of Kenkreai Rhamnous Sardis Sesklo Smyrna (Bayrakli) Sounion Sparta (Menelaion) Sparta (Theater Area) Thebes ("3 Roads") Thebes ("7 Gates") Thermopylae Tiryns Troy Tylissos Vaphio (Tholos Tombs) Vasiliki Zakros

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Greek Museums Monuments and Archaeology

including an Alphabetical List of Archaeological Sites. The Cultural Map Alphabetical List of State Museums Alphabetical List of non State Museums List of Museums (according to subject) Museums under construction List of Monuments List of Archaeological Sites Organizations Archaeological activity Educational Programmes Archaeological Exhibitions [Hellenic Ministry of Culture]

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Art History: Ancient Greece

Well maintained site with topis such as: Ancient Art: General Cycladic, Minoan & Mycenaean [Ancient Greece]

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British Museum: Ancient Greece

The Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities of the British Museum has one of the most comprehensive collections of antiquities from the Classical world, with over 100,000 objects. These mostly range in date from the beginning of the Greek Bronze Age (about 3200BC) to the reign of the Roman emperor Constantine in the 4th century AD, with some pagan survivals.

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Alexander & Macedonian Conquests 338 - 322 BC

Philip II ruled Macedonia from 359 to 336 bc. During this time he battled and subdued the Greeks (the major victory was at Chaeroea in 338.) After his assassination in 336 bc his son Alexander at the age 20 became King of Macedonia. In 334 Alexander began his invasion of Persia in order to fulfill his father's plan to punish Persia for its dominance of Greece. Alexanders campaigns took him through Persia, Syria, Egypt, Afghanistan and finally India. In 323 he died while preparing a campaign to the Arabian peninsula.

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Battle of Chaeronea

Philip II defeated the allied force of Thebes and Athens. Fought August B.C. 338 between the Macedonians under Philip, and the Athenians and Thebans under Chares and Theagenes respectively. Philip had 30,000 foot and 2,000 horse, the latter led by Alexander, then a lad of eighteen ; the allies were slightly fewer in number. Philip reinforced his right wing, which was opposed by the Athenians, and sent his heavy cavalry against the Thebans, on the allied right. Their charge brokethe Theban ranks, and they then attacked the Athenians in flank and rear. A hopeless rout ensued, the Theban " Sacred Band " dying where they stood. The Athenians lost 6,000 killed and 2,000 prisoners. The Thebans were almost annihilated.

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Battle of Thebes

This city was captured by the Macedonians, under Alexander the Great, in September, 335 B.C. The Thebans were blockading the Macedonian garrison, which held the citadel, and the Cadmea ; Perdiccas, one of Alexander's captains, without orders, broke through the earthworks outside the city. Before the Thebans could shut the gates, Perdiccas effected an entrance into the city, and being joined by the garrison of the Cadmea, soon overcame the resistance of the Thebans. Six thousand of the inhabitants were massacred, and the city was razed to the ground.

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Battle of Granicus

First major victory of Alexander over the Persians. Fought May, 334 B.C., between 35,000 Macedonians, under Alexander the Great, and 40,000 Persians and Greek mercenaries, under Memnon of Rhodes, and various Persian satraps. Alexander crossed the Granicus in the face of the Persian army, leading the way himself at the head of the heavy cavalry, and having dispersed the Persian light horse, he brought up the phalanx, which fell upon and routed the Greek mercenaries. The Persians lost heavily, while the Macedonians' loss was very slight. {Granicus River, Near the Dardanelles]

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Battle of Issus

Alexander defeated the Persian army with many times more men at the ancient city of Issus about 50 miles west of modern day Adana. While Darius, King of Persia, fled after the battle, Alexander captured Darius family. [Adana, Turkey] 333 B.C.

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Siege of Tyre

This strongly fortified city, built on an island separated from the mainland by a channel 1,000 yards wide, was besieged by the Macedonians under Alexander the Great, B.C., 332. Alexander at once commenced the construction of a mole across the channel but was much hampered by the Phoenician galleys, which issued from the two fortified harbours, and destroyed his military engines. He therefore collected in Sidon a fleet of 250 ships from the captured Phoenician cities, and holding the Tyrian galleys in check, completed his mole. It was some time, however, before a breach could be effected, but in August, 332, an assault was delivered, headed by Alexander in person, and the city was stormed and taken. Eight thousand Tyrians fell in the storm, and about 30,000 were sold into slavery.

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Siege of Gaza

This city, defended by a Persian garrison, under Batis, was besieged by Alexander the Great October, 332 B. C. Utilizing the engines he had employed against Tyre, he succeeded, after some weeks, in breaching the walls, and, after three unsuccessful assaults, carried the city by storm, the garrison being put to the sword.

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Battle of Megalopolis

Fought B.C. 331, in the attempt of the Spartans, aided by the Arcadians, Achieans and Eleians, to shake off the Macedonian yoke, during Alexander's absence in Asia. The allies, under Agis, King of Sparta, were besieging Megalopolis, which had declined to join the league, when they were attacked by the Macedonians, under Antipater, and completely routed, Agis falling in the battle. [Megalopolis, Greece]

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Battle of Gaugamela

About 47,000 Macedonians led by Alexander defeated 120,000 Persians led by Darius. Fought October 31, 331 B. C., between 47,000 Macedonians under Alexander the Great, and the Persian army, three or four times as numerous, under Darius Codomannus. Alexander, who led the Macedonian right wing, forced a passage between the Persian left and centre, and attacked the centre on the flank. After a stubborn resistance, and though meanwhile the Macedonian left had been hard pressed, the Persians gave way, and Darius taking to flight, the whole army fled in confusion, and was routed with enormous loss, especially at the passage of the Lycas, which barred their retreat. This victory made Alexander master of Asia. [Al Mawsil, Iraq]

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Battle of Hydaspes

Fought B.C. 326, between 65,000 Macedonians and 70,000 Asiatics, under Alexander the Great, and the army of the Indian king Porus, numbering 30,000 infantry, with 200 elephants and 300 war chariots. Alexander crossed the river- a few miles above Porus' entrenchments, and utterly routed him, with a loss of 12,000 killed and 9,000 prisoners, including Porus himself. The Macedonians lost 1,000 only. [India]

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Alexander III The Great 356 - 323 BC

King of Macedonia who conquered the Persian Empire. Deified as one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. Son of Philip II of Macedonia and Princess Olympias of Epirus. Alexander, a student of Aristotle, commanded the Macedonian cavalry during the battle at Chaeroea in 338 B.C. while still in his teens. At 20, he succeeded his father as King of Macedonia upon the elder's assassination. After quieting a rebellion in Thebes, Alexander's powerful army conquered Darius III's inferior Persian troops before moving into Egypt to free the Egyptians from Persian rule. Alexander met with Persian resistance again and at the Battle of Gaugamela he forced Darius's army eastward before capturing Babylon, then Susa and Persepolis. In 326 B.C. he defeated Porus, the prince of India. Alexander died from malaria at the height of his reign and his plan to combine Asia and Europe into one country was never realized.

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Antipater 397 - 319 BC

Macedonian general and supporter of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. Appointed by Alexander as regent in Macedonia during Alexander's invasion of Persia; left in control of Macedonia and Greece after Alexander's death. Antipater, a trusted lieutenant of Philip II and a supporter of Alexander the Great, held the positions of governor of Macedonia and general of Europe after Philip's death. He successfully led the army when the tribes in Thrace rebelled in 332 B.C. and again during the revolt of Agis III of Sparta. When Alexander died, Antipater effectively quelled revolts in Athens, Aetolia, and Thessaly, in the Lamian War. He imposed a more aristocratic government on Athens and drove Greek orator Demosthenes to suicide. He became a leading opponent of the regent Perdiccas, and after Perdiccas' defeat by Ptolemy I, Antigonus I, and Craterus, Antipater fiercely held the kingdom together. After his death in 319 B.C., his empire fell apart in the wars of the Diadochi.

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Parmenio 400 - 330 BC

Macedonian general under Philip II and Alexander the Great. Mathematician, architect, and inventor. Parmenio, known for his contributions in the construction of the city of Alexandria, was victorious over the Illyrians in 356 B.C. In 346 B.C. he was appointed a Macedonian delegate with the task of bringing about peace with Athens. He led an army in Euboea to uphold Macedonian influence and was later sent with Attalus and Amyntas to prepare for the reduction of Asia. At the battles of Granicus, Issus, and Gaugamela, he successfully led the left wing of the army. After the conquest of Drangiana, Alexander the Great called for his execution after learning that Parmenio's son Philotas was plotting Alexander's murder. Although Parmenio was never implicated in the assassin plot, his execution was carried out.

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King Philip II 382 - 336 BC

King of Macedonia (359 B.C.-336 B.C.) and father of Alexander the Great and Philip III of Macedon. Philip II came to the throne in 359 B.C. after the death of two elder brothers and although initially tapped regent, he soon appointed himself king. His visions of expansion and his military prowess led him gradually to rule of all Greece unchallenged; it wasn't until Thermopylae in 352 B.C. that he met his first real Athenian opposition. When Thebes and Pocis started a war, he effectively intervened; yet the discord with Athens continued. In 338 B.C. he made a victorious stand against Thebans and Athenians at Chaeronea. He went on to form the League of Corinth, a federation of Greek states, with an agenda that included war against Persia. Before he could carry out the league's vision, he was assassinated by servant Pausanias in 336 B.C. He was succeeded by his son Alexander the Great.

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Darius III, King of Persia 381 - 330 BC

King of ancient Persia. Ruled from 336 to 330; he abandoned his mother, wife, and children at the battle of Issus where he was defeated by Alexander; fought and lost again at Gaugamela. Darius inherited the throne after the death of his cousin Artaxerxes III who was murdered by the eunuch Bagoas. In turn, Darius murdered Bagoas. His short rule proved unstable when he underestimated the strength of Alexander the Great who invaded Persia. Darius suffered defeat in the Battle of Issus in 333 B.C. and again at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 B.C. Darius' lack of military prowess forced him to flee to Ecbatana and then to Bactria where he was murdered by the satrap of Bactria, This brought and end to the Persian Empire.

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Death and Burial in Ancient Greece

It was very important to the Greeks to be buried in their homeland by their close family. (4) The rituals accompanying death were often expensive, and over time laws were enacted that limited the cost of funerals. Although women were a crucial element of the rituals, only women who were closely related to the deceased or over the age of sixty were allowed to participate. The burial rites began on the day after death. The eyes and mouth of the dead person were closed, the body was washed and anointed, with a laurel branch used to sprinkle sanctified water. A coin for Charon was fixed between the teeth (though later this was substituted with a fake coin called "ghost money" which was left in the mouth, hand or loose in the grave). The body was then wrapped in a linen shroud and crowned with garlands, and sometimes it was laid on vine branches. Oregano was put on the body to ward off evil spirits. Finally, the body was laid on a bier, with its feet facing the door, in the house for a whole day; this was called prothesis. Women lamented, and men came to pay their respects. On the third day after death, before sunrise, the corpse was brought out in a procession to the cemetery; this was called ekphora. The women displayed violent exhibitions of grief to please the dead spirit and sang a funeral dirge; but in some places laws limited the noise during the procession. Vase paintings show female mourners in a particular ritual position, with their hands placed on their heads. Sometimes the mourners made themselves physically unclean as an expression of their grief.

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The Greek House

Greek city houses of the 6th and 5th century b.c. were usually modest in scale and built of relatively inexpensive materials. They varied from two or three rooms clustered around a small court to a dozen or so rooms. City house exteriors presented a plain facade to the street, broken only by the door and a few small windows set high. In larger houses the main rooms included a kitchen, a small room for bathing, several bedrooms which usually occupied a second floor, the men's andron for dining, and perhaps a separate suite of rooms known as the gynaikonitis for the use of women. [Daily Life]

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Women's Life in Ancient Greece

Greek women had virtually no political rights of any kind and were controlled by men at nearly every stage of their lives. The most important duties for a city-dwelling woman were to bear children--preferably male--and to run the household. Duties of a rural woman included some of the agricultural work: the harvesting of olives and fruit was their responsibility, as may have been the gathering of vegetables. Since men spent most of their time away from their houses, Greek home life was dominated by women. The wife was in charge of raising the children, spinning, weaving and sewing the family´s clothes. She supervised the daily running of the household. In a totally slave-based economy, plentiful numbers of female slaves were available to cook, clean, and carry water from the fountain. Only in the poorest homes was the wife expected to carry out all these duties by herself. A male slave´s responsibilities were for the most part limited to being door-keeper and tutor to the male children. Click here for women's dress. Daily Life (Univ. Penn.)

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Schooling in Ancient Greece

Education in schools in ancient Athens was at first limited to aristocratic boys. By the 4th century b.c. all 18-year-old males spent two years in a gymnasion, a state school devoted to the overall physical and intellectual development of a young man. More advanced education in philosophy, mathematics, logic and rhetoric was available to the aristocracy in highly select gymnasia like the Academy of Plato and the Lycaeum of Aristotle. Although girls in ancient Greece received no formal education in the literary arts, many of them were taught to read and write informally, in the home. [Daily Life] (Univ. Penn.)

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Trade

Economy, (Includes map of Mediterranean). When Mycenaean society broke up around 1100 BC, the commercial routes that had linked mainland Greece with the rest of the Mediterranean were severed. After a period of prolonged recovery, the Greeks began colonizing the shore regions of the Mediterranean and Black seas. This movement (ca. 750-550 BC) was propelled by the need for living space for a rapidly expanding population and for new markets. The colonies had access to unrestricted native markets and were able to supply Greece with wheat, meat, dried fish, hides, wool, timber and basic metals in exchange for mainland finished products, olive oil and wine. Trade exposed Greek domestic markets to imported luxury products from Egypt, the Levant, Asia Minor and elsewhere. These had an important impact on Greek art during its formative years (750-600 BC). By 300 BC Greek manufactured goods were freely circulating to North Africa, Spain, the Rhone valley, the Balkans, and as far east as India. (Univ. Penn.)

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Bronze Manufacturing

Manufacturing absorbed small numbers of workers who operated with little mechanical assistance. Of these, a significant number must have been slaves, since no free man worked for wages unless driven to it by poverty. It has been estimated that only about 500 potters and painters were active in 5th century Athens at a time when the city supplied most of the luxury tableware for the entire Greek world. Manufacturing, transport and food production demanded a broad range of skills. The stone, clay and metal trades needed quarrymen, masons, sculptors, potters, painters and foundry workers; the clothing industry, weavers, dyers and fullers; the leather trade, tanners and cobblers; construction, stone cutters, carpenters and architects; maritime transport, ship-builders, dock-loaders and sailors; food production, anything from farmers, herdsmen, bee-keepers and fishermen to bakers and cooks. Economy, (Univ. Penn.)

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Pottery in the Ancient Greek World

Pottery provides the best archaeological evidence for the movements of the Greeks and the distribution of their trade around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins. Central and northern Italian Etruscan cemeteries are particularly informative as their tombs have yielded thousands of Greek vases. It is difficult to estimate what percentage of these vases were bought to serve as grave gifts; some may have been purchased initially for use in Etruscan homes. Because relatively few Etruscan manufactured goods turn up in Greek sites, it is widely assumed that Etruria traded lump iron, lead and bronze in exchange for Greek pottery and other finished commodities. Corinth dominated the pottery export trade up to the mid 6th century BC By around 525 BC Athens had established a monopoly in luxury wares with Attic Black Figure pottery and in time effectively drove Corinthian and all other regional styles from the marketplace. Attic Red Figure appeared around 530 BC and effectively replaced Black Figure by 480 BC. Trade, (Univ. Penn.)

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Greek Culture to 500 BC

Crete, Mycenae and Dorians, Iliad, Odyssey, Hesiod and Homeric Hymns, Aristocrats, Tyrants, and Poets, Spartan Military Laws, Athenian Political Laws, Aesop`s Fables, Pythagoras and Early Philosophy. Sanderson Beck

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Ancient Athenian Women

Once a woman was married her husband controlled all property. Any property that she might have inherited would go directly to her husband. She had no rights to wander about the town, without a just cause. Any respectable woman would not be seen in public. Greek women had virtually no political rights of any kind and were controlled by men at all stages of their lives. Since men spent most of their time away from their houses, women dominated Greek home life. The wife was in charge of raising the children and making the families clothes. She supervised the daily running of the household.

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Furniture and the Greek House

General information about the rooms is rather clear, but the furniture in the house made each room unique. The Greeks used practicality to furnish their houses and they also borrowed some Egyptian techniques to build the furniture. Their home furnishings consisted of countless stools and chairs, some of which borrowed the folding X-frame from the Egyptians; a bed was made out of a thick board on four legs with a blanket, or by weaving string across of wooden frame, and chests were used in place of cupboards. Mattresses were made of sacks filled with leaves, which was actually comfortable to the people at the time. By today's standards, many would say this method is unbearable, compared to the spring mattress.

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Sites for the Study of Ancient History

[General] [Prehistory] [Egypt] [Mesopotamia and Syria-Israel] [Greece and Rome - Art and Archaeology] [Greece and Rome - History and Literature] [Return to Syllabus] Ronald Legon University of Baltimore [Greece] [Resources]

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American Classical League

Devoted to the study of Greek and Latin classical literature. Univ. of Michigan [Greece] [Resources]

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Classical Mythology

Classical Mythology, Sixth Edition, continues to build on its best-selling tradition of focusing on the literary tradition of Greek and Roman mythology through extensive translations of original mythological sources. Morford and Lenardon, Longman Publishing [Greece] [Resources]

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Ancient Theatre

(meta-index) Malaspina Univ. [Greece] [Resources]

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The Internet Classics Archive

Select from a list of 441 works of classical literature by 59 different authors, including user-driven commentary and "reader's choice" Web sites. Mainly Greco-Roman works (some Chinese and Persian), all in English translation, and more from Daniel C. Stevenson [Greece] [Resources]

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Poseidon: Hellas and the Sea

Poseidon Project [Greece] [Resources]

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Voice of the Shuttle: Classical Studies

GENERAL CLASSICS RESOURCES, Alan Liu [Greece] [Resources]

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Tour to Greece

Democritus, Univ. of Thrace [Greece] [Resources]

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Internet Resources: Ancient Greece

General Resources Cretan and Aegean Palace Civilizations Mycenae and Pre-Homeric Greece Greek History Greek Archaeology Greek Art Greek Architecture Greek Philosophy Greek Religion Greek Literature Greek Drama Greek Music Greek Science and Mathematics Greek Language Bibliographies On-line Courses with Resources Newsgroups Search the Web Richard Hooker, Washington State Univ. [Greece] [Resources]

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The Classics Pages

Andrew Wilson [Greece] [Resources]

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Hellenistic Greek Linguistics

Focus on Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics For the study of Ancient Greek, you have come to the right place. From dictionaries to grammatical aids, you can find it here, where the Greek language and the field of Linguistics meet. Hellenic, Hellenistic, and Modern Demotic Greek While our focus is on Ancient Greek from both the Hellenic and Hellenistic (koine) periods, we are expanding. Slowly more and more resources for the study of Modern Demotic Greek are also being included. [Greece] [Resources]

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Software Directory for the Classics

Rob Latousek [Greece] [Resources]

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Foundation of the Hellenic World

Greek Cultural Institution [Greece] [Resources]

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Mythweb

(illustrated adaptations of Greek myths) Shotwell Studios [Greece] [Resources]

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History of Ancient Greek Music

The Greeks loved music, and made it an important part of their lives. They thought of music as a way of honoring the gods, and making the world a more human, civilized place. Unfortunately we really have no idea what Greek music sounded like, because there were no tape recorders or anything like that then, and they had no way of writing down music either. [Greece] [Resources]

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Ancient Anatolia

[Greece] [Resources]

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Look It Up (Greece)

Ross Scaife, Univ. of Kentucky [Greece] [Resources]

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Greek Science

Final Course Papers, Classics 189, Tufts University [Greece] [Resources]

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The Great Home Page of Alexander

Kossuth, Kelsey, and Untereker, Williams College [Greece] [Resources]

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Antiqua Medicina

Aspects in Ancient Medicine, Univ. of Virginia [Greece] [Resources]

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Classics Web Site of Pomoerium

Excellent resource. Ryszard Pankiewicz [Greece] [Resources]

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The Glory That Was Greece

Foothill College [Greece] [Resources]

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Genealogical Guide to Greek Mythology

Carlos Parada, Brown Univ. [Greece] [Resources]

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Warfare in the Greek World

Links from about.com [Greece] [Resources]

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Archimedes

Chris Rorres, Drexel Univ. [Greece] [Resources]

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Construction and Use of Ancient Greek Poppets

Apollonius Sophistes [Greece] [Resources]

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Daughters of Demeter

Demeter`s Olympian world was a patriarchal one, governed by Zeus, "father of gods and men." But in her myth, Demeter successfully resists the arbitrary and tyrannical exercise of patriarchal power, circumscribes her own areas of potency and authority, and celebrates her affinity with other female divinities. Similarly, the women of ancient Greece inhabited a polis ("city-state") which was governed by male authority, but in whose social, economic, and religious dimensions they participated actively. Marilyn A. Katz, Wesleyan Univ. [Greece] [Resources]

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Classics Gateway

John-Gabriel Bodard, Univ. of Reading [Greece] [Resources]

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Greek Mythology

GreekMythology.com has information on all subjects of Greek Mythology, including details on Greek Gods and Greek Goddesses, Greek Myths and Greek Heroes like Achilles and Hercules. It also has full text of Greek Mythology and Literature books. You can freely use all information in this site for term papers, research papers, college essays and homework papers. [Greece] [Resources]

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Bureaucrats and Barbarians

Richard Hooker, Washington State Univ. [Greece] [Resources]

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Trojan War Resources

a selection from Bulfinch's Mythology (Chapter XXVII, Part Two) which describes the Trojan War from the standpoint of Homer's Iliad. A list of resources is appended to the end of the document. [Greece] [Resources]

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PINAX ONLINE

An Annotated List of Web Bibliographies on the Ancient Greek World. The purpose of this site is to provide scholars and students interested in any aspect of the Ancient Greek World (language, literature, history, religion, mythology, art and archaeology) with useful and regularly updated links to online bibliographies in their specific domain. [Greece] [Resources]

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Alexander the Great on the Web

Small directory of links. [People in History] [Greece] [Resources]

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Barry Powell`s Classical Myth

gateway for Classical Myth [Greece] [Resources]

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Ancient Greek Music

Stefan Hagel, Austrian Academy of Sciences [Greece] [Resources]

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The World of Greek Vases

During those centuries immediately preceding the birth of Christ the Greeks contributed so much to our civilization that it is difficult to properly appraise the contribution. Their development of the arts was undeniably one of the greatest of their gifts to the world. In all aspects of art it was apparent that they not only had an appreciation of beautiful form but the ability to create it. No phase of their art better illustrates this than the great number of their vases which have been put back together from remaining fragments or have miraculously been found intact. Their preservation is in part attributable to the material from which they were made; it was lasting but it had no great intrinsic value. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Mythology in Western Art

This collection consists of scanned images from various periods of Western art which depict the deities, and heroes mentioned in Homer. The images are classified according to the names of the various deities and heroes. [Univ. of Haifa] [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Ancient Greek Art and Architecture

The Greeks developed three architectural systems, called orders, each with their own distinctive proportions and detailing. The Greek orders are: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Greek Art

Archaic Art The Archaic sculptures are silent witnesses to the extraordinary development western society was about to undertake. The Kouros and Kore statues stand before a cultural revolution, all muscles tense, like a spring about to burst with energy into an extraordinary wave of classical thought. They stand with smiles frozen with meaning as if they knew what was about to occur [ more ] The Classical Period At the National Museum of Athens: The ancient Greek Artist invented his own self and became the creator of god and man alike in a universe of perfect formal proportions, idealized aesthetic values and a newly found sense of freedom. This was a freedom from barbarism and tyranny Hellenistic Art Exclusive Gifts and apparel The subtle implications of greatness and humility of the high Classical era (see the Charioteer of Delphi) are replaced with bold expressions of energy and power during the moments of tension as evident in the Boy Jockey. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Classical Art and Architecture

Australian National Univ. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Visit Ancient Athens

Ancient Sites CyberSites, Inc. Ponder Athens as you explore our great and beautiful city. Walk with her philosophers, Plato and Socrates, two among many, as they discuss the benefits and failings of democratia. Then, follow your map to the Agora, where you can debate your own ideas on the foundation of democracy with the many Athenians anxiously waiting to argue democratia's merits. Complete your day with Aristophanes' latest comedy being performed at The Theatre of Dionysus, located on the south side of the Acropolis. Dear traveler, please stay awhile, there is much to see! [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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The Ambrose Collection

Univ. of Vermont (tons of slides) [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Art and Archaeology

Tufts Univ. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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ORIGIN OF MYTHOLOGY

Bulfinch's Mythology, ORIGIN OF MYTHOLOGY - STATUES OF GODS AND GODDESSES - POETS OF MYTHOLOGY [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Hellenic Museums

Alphabetical list of museums, descriptions and history. National Archaeological Museum Museum of Byzantine Culture Building for the protection of the royal tombs of Vergina Epigraphical Museum Numismatic Museum Herakleion Archaeological Museum Archaelogical Museum of Thessaloniki and more. Hellenic Ministry of Culture [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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National Archaeological Museum of Athens

A Visit to see some of the Archaeological Treasures of Ancient Greece in the Newly Renovated National Museum [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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The Ovid Project

Metamorphoses Images, Univ. of Vermont [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Vatican Museums

Christus Rex [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Images in Greek Iconography

Andrew Wiesner [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Ancient Greek and Roman Coins

An Educational Site by Doug Smith on Roman Coins, Greek Coins and other Ancient Coins. [Greece] [Rome] [Images and Art Collections]

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Antiquarian Maps of Greece, Cyprus, & the Middle East

(16th - 18th century) Riginos Aristotelous Antiquarian Books [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Atlas of the Greek and Roman World

Classical Atlas Project Univ. of North Carolina [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Maps of Greece

A world atlas of facts flags and maps including every continent, country, dependency, exotic destination, island, major city, ocean, province, state & territory on the planet! [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Colchis and the Golden Fleece

COLCHIS, THE LAND OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA. Ancient Greek legends told of a fabulously wealthy land where Jason and the Argonauts stole the Golden Fleece from King Aeetes with the help of his daughter Medea. It was a distant land that was reached by the Black Sea and down the River Phasis. The actual site of this legendary kingdom has never been found but the Greeks must have been greatly impressed by the Colchis region of Georgia, through which the River Phasis (currently the Rioni River) runs, for such stories to have been born. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Map of Greece, Crete, and the Aegean Islands

Holidays accommodation guide to the Greek islands with a focus on the island of Crete. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Maps of Ancient Greece

[Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Interactive Map of Modern Greece

Click on the map or choose from the list in order to zoom in on a location in Greece. Go ahead learn more about our country! Athens, Attica & Saronic Gulf Islands Central Greece Crete Cyclades Islands Dodecanese Islands Evia & The Sporades Islands Ionian Islands Ipiros Macedonia North Aegean Islands Peloponnese & Kithira Island Thessaly [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Greece Maps - Perry-Castañeda Map Collection

Greece Maps - Perry-Castañeda Map Collection - UT Library Online [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Historic Greece

Beginnings of Historic Greece 700 B.C.-600 B.C. From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923. (177K) [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Historical Maps

Perry-Castañeda Library, Univ. of Texas [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Cartographic Images: Ancient Maps

(with monographs) Jim Siebold [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Map of Homeric Geography

We are not sure where all of the places mentioned in the Iliad and Odyssey were located, but later tradition and modern archaeological excavations have helped us gain knowledge of the sites. Here is a map listing some of the more important sites and a few of the heroes and heroines who were associated with them. Names of Greek sites and people are in purple, Trojan in red. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Index Maps of Ancient Greek World: Plato

This page provides an index to the maps of Ancient Greece provided as background to the study of Plato and his dialogues. On all the maps, most names of locations are individually clickable to get to an entry providing information on the location (mythology, history, famous citizens, etc.) Map of Greek World, from Carthage and Sicily west to Asia Minor east ; Map of Eastern Mediterranean, from Lybia and Egypt south to Thracia and the Black Sea North ; Map of Greece and western Asia Minor , from Crete south to the shores of Thracia north ; Map of Central Greece and Peloponnese, from Boeotia north to the south of Peloponnese ; Map of Attica, from Thebes north to cap Sunium south, with a section on Attic tribes and demes ; Map of Athens and PirÃ"us in the time of Pericles. Map of Athens intra muros in the time of Pericles. Map of the Agora of Athens in the time of Pericles. Map of the Acropolis of Athens in the time of Pericles. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Cultural Map of Hellas

Hellenic Ministry of Culture [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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7 Wonders of the Ancient World

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World are widely considered the greatest monuments of all time. Of the original seven, the Great Pyramid of Giza (shown at right) is the only one of the group still standing today. COLOSSUS OF RHODES, GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA, HANGING GARDENS OF BABYLON, LIGHTHOUSE OF ALEXANDRIA, MAUSOLEUM AT HALICARNASSUS, STATUE OF ZEUS, TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS, [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Major Volcanoes of Greece

Map [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Hellas Map

Hellas map. All the islands. Map of Greece. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Maps of the Peloponnese

Peloponnese Map North (185 k) Peloponnese Map South (98 k) Peloponnese Satellite Picture Peloponnese Satellite Image [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Map of Greece

Greece achieved its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. Following the defeat of Communist rebels in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. A military dictatorship, which in 1967 suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country, lasted seven years. The 1974 democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy; Greece joined the European Community or EC in 1981 (which became the EU in 1992). [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Mathematicians Born in Greece

(clickable map) Univ. of St. Andrews [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Views of the Acropolis at Pergamon

3D drawing maps Univ. of Washington. The work of David Schulz, a student in the PhD program in 1992, illustrates how computing has assisted in understanding archaeological evidence from the ancient world. Pergamon was one of several ancient theatre sites re-examined in 1992 by PhD students in Theatre History at the University of Washington, working with Dr. Jack Wolcott in an attempt to understand how and why theatrical activity spread from its presumed birthplace in Athens across the Mediterranean world. In an effort to understand the evolution of the city over time, and to understand how the theatre site and the theatre institution related to activity in Pergamon, a portion of the original (1885) site plan of the acropolis was digitized and developed into a 3D model. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Ptolemy's Geography and Maps

He also was the first discoverer of the gnomon; and he placed some in Lacedaemon on the sun-dials there, as Favorinus says in his Universal History, and they showed the solstices and the equinoxes; he also made clocks. He was the first person, too, who drew a map of the earth and sea, and he also made a globe; Diogenes Laertius, Life of Anaximander [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Printable Maps of Greece

(in ZIP format) Elláda [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Locator Maps Myth and Greek Tragedy

5 High Resolution Mythological Maps [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Bouleuterion

(needs QuickTime VR for Miletus section) Foundation of the Hellenic World [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Maps of Greece

Dilos Holiday World [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Europe Map Archive

The Map Archive is a large collection of ancient and modern maps, maintained by a non profit organization, the maps are gathered and submitted by volunteers, mainly students and University teachers. This project goal is to create the largest online collection of maps. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Atlas historique de l'Antiquité tardive

Denis Bellemare [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Map: Focus on Greece

Greece, Map of all Prefectures and Regions of Greece[Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Maps of Greece

General map of Greece, maps of Greek islands and Athens, the capital of Greece. General information on archaeological Greek sites, beaches and other activities available at Greek islands and important mainland Greek areas worth of visiting. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Greece: Island Groups

Yahoo. Cyclades (Kyklades), Dodecanese, Ionian (Eptanese), Northeastern Aegean, Saronic Gulf, Sporades [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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More Maps of Greece

Contains Google maps and CIA world factbook. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Map of the Persian Wars

Series of wars fought between Persia and Greece. The conflict began when Persia occupied some Greek colonies in Asia Minor. Greece responded by defending the colonies; and Persia, commanded by Emperor Xerxes himself, responded by attacking Greece. The battles were fought on land and at sea. The battles of Marathon and Thermopylae are famous for the Greeks' heroism against overwhelming odds. The naval battle of Salamis almost wiped out the Persian fleet. The battle of Plataea was the final defeat. The Greek victories kept in check the growing Persian Empire. After the wars, Persia continued to meddle in Greek affairs. The answer came in the form of a reverse invasion, planned by Philip of Macedonia and carried out by his son, Alexander. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Perseus Atlas

(Map Plotter) Tufts Univ. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Modern Map of Greece

Univ. of Pennsylvania [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Achaeans and Trojans Map

Estimated homelands of Achaean and Trojan leaders. Genealogical Guide to Greek Mythology, Carlos Parada [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Returns of the Achaeans Map

Genealogical Guide to Greek Mythology, Carlos Parada. The returns of the ACHAEAN LEADERS after the destruction of Troy consisted mainly of dispersion, shipwreck, long wanderings and sedition at home. Short account of the returns of the ACHAEAN LEADERS (more details at The Aftermath of the Trojan War): [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Maps of Ancient Greek World

This page provides an index to the maps of Ancient Greece provided as background to the study of Plato and his dialogues. On all the maps, most names of locations are individually clickable to get to an entry providing information on the location (mythology, history, famous citizens, etc.) The available maps include : Map of Greek World, from Carthage and Sicily west to Asia Minor east ; Map of Eastern Mediterranean, from Lybia and Egypt south to Thracia and the Black Sea North ; Map of Greece and western Asia Minor , from Crete south to the shores of Thracia north ; Map of Central Greece and Peloponnese, from Boeotia north to the south of Peloponnese ; Map of Attica, from Thebes north to cap Sunium south, with a section on Attic tribes and demes ; Map of Athens and PirÃ"us in the time of Pericles. Map of Athens intra muros in the time of Pericles. Map of the Agora of Athens in the time of Pericles. Map of the Acropolis of Athens in the time of Pericles. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Map of the Empire of Alexander the Great

The territory controlled by a king or people varied from time to time, and was often disputed by other peoples. The coast-line has varied over the years, particularly in the Gulf of Persia. An approximation to the modern coast-line is generally used in the maps. Dr. Shirley's Web Courses Geography Pages [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Alexander the Great Empire Map

Maps concerning Alexander the Great. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Hercules Travel Page

Tufts Univ. Map 1: Some of the places in Europe mentioned in the stories of Hercules. Map 2: Some of the locations across Greece that Heracles visited. Map 3: A close-up view of the Pelopennese. This exhibit is a subset of materials from the Perseus Project [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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History of Magna Graecia

John E. van Wielink [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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The Madaba Mosaic Map

Franciscan Archaeological Institute [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Roman Rulers

Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families[Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Maps for Myth, Virgil, The Greek World

David Wilson-Okamura [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Atlas of Ancient Greece

Richard Hooker, Washington State Univ. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Locator Map for the Greek World

Bernard Suzanne, Univ. of Evansville. Click anywhere on the locator map, except on "area 5" or "area 8", to go to the map of Greek World ; areas 5 and 8 (red limits extending beyond the visible map) relate to the map of Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea : clicking on eiither vignette or text will get you to that map. Clicking on the red-bordered vignette of Peloponnese below the map gets you directly to the more detailed map of central Greece and Peloponnes. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Classical Mythology Geographic maps

also Constellation maps, Morford and Lenardon [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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The Aegean Clickable Map of Greece

Clickable map with photos and lots of goodies. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Maps: Before the Classical Age

Links and information on ancient Ancient Greece Geography. [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Map Room

Interactive Ancient Mediterranean [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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Classics Technology Center

(Quick Start) CTS/AbleMedia [Greece] [Resources]

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Classics Technology Center

(Teachers' Companions) CTS/AbleMedia [Greece] [Resources]

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Classics and Mediterranean Archaeology

This page collects links to internet resources of interest to classicists and Mediterranean archaeologists. [Greece] [Resources]

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Prehistoric Archaeology of the Aegean

Jeremy Rutter, Dartmouth College [Greece] [Resources]

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The Perseus Project

Tufts Univ. [Greece] [Resources]

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Greek Mythology and Heroic Legend

Micha Lindemans, Encyclopedia Mythica [Greece] [Resources]

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The Ancient Greek World

Univ. of Pennsylvania [Greece] [Resources]

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Electronic Resources for Classicists

Maria Pantelia, U.C., Irvine [Greece] [Resources]

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Greek Drama and Culture

A survey of ancient Greek drama and the society that produced it. The course will examine a representative sample of the major plays of the tragedians Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, as well as the comic playwright Aristophanes. Among the topics considered will be: the tragic and comic festivals, tragedy's relationship with Athenian democracy, the nature of Greek theaters and ancient theatrical production techniques, reeligion and drama, women and tragedy, tragic and comic heroism, myth and tragedy, and the legacy of Greek tragedy in the modern world. Plays to be read include the Oresteia, Bacchae, Medea, Frogs and Ajax. Dr. Robin Mitchell-Boyask, Associate Professor of Classics. [Greece] [Resources]

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Diotima (Women & Gender)

Univ. of Kentucky [Greece] [Resources]

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Hellenic Culture

Hellenic Ministry of Culture, Univ. of Patras [Greece] [Resources]

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Greek Alphabet Table

This table gives the Greek letters, their names, equivalent English letters, and tips for pronouncing those letters which are pronounced differently from the equivalent English letters. (There are actually several acceptable ways to pronounce New Testament Greek. [Greece] [Resources]

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From the Iliad to the Fall of the Last Tyrant

Greek Mythology: X.M. Stewart [Greece] [Resources]

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The Olympian Gods

Images and Texts, Univ. of Victoria [Greece] [Resources]

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Essays, Lectures, and Articles on Ancient Greece

Diotima archives [Greece] [Resources]

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silver Tetradrachm of Athens

A new style silver Tetradrachm of Athens, struck circa 137-110 BC, the obverse showing the helmeted head of Athena and the reverse the Owl, standing on an Amphora with legend, all within wreath. This is a Very Fine example with extremely high relief on the reverse. [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Silver Tetradrachm of Athens

British Museum. Greek, around 480 BC. From Athens, Greece. The two designs on the Athenian coins both allude to the patronage of the city by the goddess Athena. On the obverse (front) of the coin is the head of the goddess herself, and on the reverse is the bird of Athena, the owl. These designs remained unchanged on Athenian coinage for over three hundred years, and the 'owls' of Athens became familiar coins throughout the Greek world. [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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silver Tetradrachm of Athens (reverse)

A new style silver Tetradrachm of Athens, struck circa 137-110 BC, the obverse showing the helmeted head of Athena and the reverse the Owl, standing on an Amphora with legend, all within wreath. This is a Very Fine example with extremely high relief on the reverse. [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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The Tribute Penny

Tiberius Coin. Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Greek Bronze Coins Overview for beginners

History for Kids. Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Greek Fractional Silver Coins

Most popular among collectors of ancient coins are the Greek silver issues of the Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC). Among these issues are the most beautiful coins ever produced. Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Coin of Alexander

Alexander III, The Great, 336-323 B.C.. Coin, Tetradrachm, silver, Alexander III (The Great 336-323), Ake Mint, Phoenicia, Ancient Greek, Macedonia, 336-323 BC or posthumous. Silver disc, with designs in relief on both sides. Obverse: head of Herakles right with lionskin cap in a circle of dots, countermarks on face. Reverse: Zeus seated on throne left, with eagle in right hand and sceptre in left hand. Greek inscription "coin of Alexander" in field right, Phoenician legend "Ake" and "year 22" in field left. All in a circle of dots. Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Taras, the Boy on a Dolphin - A popular Greek silver coin

The entire Mediterranean was a Greek sea and colonies spread Greek civilization to each of its corners. One particularly successful colony was founded by refugees from Sparta at Taras (also called Tarentum - modern Taranto) in the South of Italy. The commercial success of Taras, added to the necessity to pay mercenary soldiers for the city`s defence, resulted in the production of millions of silver didrachms during the last two centuries before Rome destroyed Taras (c. 207 BC). Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Coins of the Macedonian Kingdom

Forum Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Athens, Attica

Ancient Coinage of Attica, Athens. Athens, in Attica, on the Saronic Gulf in southern Greece. Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Ancient Coinage of Corinth

Corinth, a great city-state of Southern Greece. Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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A Drachm of Larissa, Thessaly, 400-370 B.C.

Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Illyria and Central Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Istros Two heads, one inverted

Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Thrace An overview of the region

Thrace (including modern Bulgaria and parts of Greece and Turkey) was a wild region to the north of Greece and Macedonia inhabited by a number of different tribes. Greek colonies were established along the coasts of the Aegean, the Propontis and the Black Sea. Local silver resources and trade with the Greeks resulted in a thriving economy for some of the inland tribes. Coins were issued early in the archaic period of the 6th century BC. For the most part coins attributed to the tribes are scarce but many issues of the Greek colonies in Thrace are easily available to collectors. Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Ancient Coinage of Cilicia, Tarsos

Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Greek Coins

Lots of Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Widow's Mites - Biblical coin

Mark 12:42-44 and Luke 21:2-4 tell the story of the Widow who gave all she had, two "mites". A number of tiny copper coins circulated in Judaea during the time of Christ so there is no way to establish any particular design as "the" Widow`s Mite. The coins were produced in vast quantities through the first century BC and first century AD. The quality of workmanship employed in the production of these coins varied from rushed to misreable. It is rather unusual to find a single coin that shows all of the legends and design on both sides. Sizes of individual specimens also vary greatly (some were halves of the whole `prutah` which itself was worth half of a Roman quadrans, the smallest denomination then being produced at Rome). Whatever the exact coins, the gift of the Widow was certainly a small amount of money. Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Ancient Greek & Roman Coins

An Educational Site on Roman Coins, Greek Coins and other Ancient Coins. [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Greek & Roman cast coins

"Cast", to a collector of ancient coins, generally means "fake". Almost all genuine ancient coins were struck from dies. Counterfeiters often make a mold from a genuine coin and cast replicas. The practice is almost as old as the real coins and continues today as a way of fooling the foolish tourist and collector. This week`s Feature shows a few exceptions to the rule: Genuine ancient coins that were produced by casting rather than striking. Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Medusa (Thematic) Greek & Roman depictions

Numismatists most often refer to the snaky figure that appears on these coins using the words Gorgon (or the Gorgon), Gorgoneion, or Gorgo, but they sometimes use the name Medusa (the Greek spelling is Medousa), who was one of the three mythological Gorgon sisters, the others being Stheno and Euryale. Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Ancient Greek & Roman Coins - Overview for Beginners

Recommended reading for those who might be interested in collecting ancient coins [Rome] [Coin] [Greece]

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Greek Bronze Coins An Overview for Beginners

A recurring theme of this site is that it is possible to enjoy the hobby of collecting ancient coins without spending thousands of dollars to purchase each piece. This page examines the underappreciated area of Greek bronze coins. Produced by the same mints as the more popular silver, these coins provided small change for day to day transactions and are often quite attractive in their own way. Production deadlines, long periods of circulation and increased susceptibility of bronze to corrosion often make bronze coins available in low grade at low prices. Conversely, really excellent condition bronzes are rare and sell for high premiums.... [Greece][Coin Collecting]

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Greek Imperial Coins An Overview for Beginners

Good overview for beginners with many excellent photos.[Greece][Coin Collecting]

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Coin of Philip III, 323-317 B.C.

Ancient Coinage of Macedonia, Kings, Philip III. Philip III Arrhidaeus, half-brother of Alexander the Great, and King of Macedonia 323-317 BC. [Ancient Coins] [Greece]

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Gold Coin of Philip III, 323-317 B.C.

Macedonian Kings. Front: Helmeted head of Athena. Reverse: Nike std. hld. mast and wreath; monogram and torch [Ancient Coins] [Greece]

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Coins of Cyprus, Paphos

Ancient Coinage of Cyprus, Paphos [Ancient Coins] [Greece]

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Coin of Gorgon 525-500 B.C

[Ancient Coins] [Rome] [Mythology]

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Coin of Gorgon 525-500 B.C

[Ancient Coins] [Greece] [Mythology]

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Ancient Coinage of Ionia, Teos

Griffin seated and many others [Ancient Coins] [Greece] [Mythology]

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Coin of the Griffin Springing 410-386 B.C

Herophanes. Griffin springing l. Rv. Hd. of Hermes l. wearing petasus tied under chin [Ancient Coins] [Greece] [Mythology]

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Sparta - Ancient Greek Civilizations

Sparta (also known as Lacedaemeon) is situated on the southern Pelloponesus, and was originally founded during the Dorian invasions. Where the Dorians had in some cities managed to emmesh themselves into a place of aristocratic neutrality with the general populace, in other cities, the Dorians held tight rule which relegated the native citizens to the status of serfs. Sparta was one such a city, where strict dominion was held over the city, and its occupants. [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

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Athens

By 502 BC, Athens had pretty much established its culture and political structure, just as Sparta had pretty much established its culture and political structure by 550 BC. Athens was more or less a democracy; it had become primarily a trading and commercial center; a large part of the Athenian economy focussed on cash crops for export and crafts; it had become a center of art and literature; the city had become architecturally rich because of the building projects of Peisistratus""an architectural richness that far outshone other Greek city-states; and Athenian religious fesitivals were largely in place. The next one hundred years would be politically and culturally dominated by Athens; the event that would catapult Athens to the center of the Greek world was the invasion of the Persians in 490 BC. [Cities in History] [Tools and Searches]

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Greek and Roman History

Links, Documents, Notes, Images [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

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Roman Temple of Trajan

Turkey, Pergamum, Hellenistic Kingdom, Roman Temple of Trajan (Tony Stone Images)

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Roman Temple of Trajan

Turkey, Pergamum, Hellenistic Kingdom, (Tony Stone Images)

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Lycian rock tombs and head of Medusa Statue

Turkey, Myra, (Tony Stone Images)

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Western Wall (men praying on evening of new moon)

Turkey, Izmir, Ephesus, ruins of Library of Celsus, low angle view. Ephesus was one of the 12 cities of Ionia. (Tony Stone Images)

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The Acropolis at night

Greece, Athens, The Acropolis (meaning `high city`) is the most important ancient monument in the western hemisphere. The first temples were built in Mycenean times (1450-1200 BC), the ruins still standing date from the early 5th century BC. (Tony Stone Images)

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Acropolis at night

Greece, Athens, The Acropolis (meaning `high city`) is the most important ancient monument in the western hemisphere. The first temples were built in Mycenean times (1450-1200 BC), the ruins still standing date from the early 5th century BC. (Tony Stone Images)

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View over town to The Acropolis at dusk

Greece, Athens, (Tony Stone Images)

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Library of Celsus, two storey facade

Turkey, Ephesus, (Tony Stone Images)

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Acropolis, the Erechtheion

Greece, Athens, (Tony Stone Images)

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The Acropolis at Athens

Greece, Athens, (Tony Stone Images)

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Ancient street in front of Celsus Library

Turkey, Ephesus, tourists on (Tony Stone Images)

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Celsus Library

Turkey, Ephesus, (Tony Stone Images)

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Temple of Trajan (Turkey)

Turkey, Bergama, (Tony Stone Images)

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Temple of Poseidon, columns, low angle view

Greece, Attica, Sounion, (Tony Stone Images)

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Temple of Poseidon, columns

Greece, Attica, Sounion, (Tony Stone Images)

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Statue of Apollo

Turkey, Adiyaman, Nemrut Dagi. Antiochus (who ordered that the statues were made). Site discovered in 1881. (Tony Stone Images)

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Travertine pools - Hierapolis

Turkey, Denizli, Pamukkale (Hierapolis), Travertine pools are created by hot mineral springs leaving calcareous deposits. Hierapolis was the site of an ancient Roman spa town (Tony Stone Images)

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Travertine pools

Turkey, (Tony Stone Images)

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Ancient Theatre in Turkey

Turkey, Antalya, Perge, reliefs of river god Cestus. Greek & Roman Cultures, impt. Greek city, reached peak as Roman city 1-4c.AD (Tony Stone Images)

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Tomb of Antiochus Photo

Turkey, Nemrut Dag, mountain top shrine to gods, Heads are 8ft tall representations of ancient Greek gods. Left to right in foreground are Hercules, Apollo, and eagle Zeus. (Tony Stone Images)

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Varlaam Monastery, elevated view

Greece, Thessalay, Meteora, (Tony Stone Images)

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Parthenon

Greece, Athens, tourists in front of Parthenon (transfer image)(Tony Stone Images)

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Parthenon Image

Greece, Athens, tourists in front of Parthenon (transfer image)(Tony Stone Images)

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Library of Celsus

This library is one of the most beautiful structures in Ephesus. It was built in 117 A.D. It was a monumental tomb for Gaius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, the governor of the province of Asia; from his son Galius Julius Aquila. The grave of Celsus was beneath the ground floor, across the entrance and there was a statue of Athena over it. Because Athena was the goddess of the wisdom.

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Ancient Coinage of Rhodes

Rhodes, an island just off the coast of Caria, in the eastern Aegean Sea. [Coins] [Ancient Greece]]

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The Battle of Issus or Battle of Alexander and the Persians

A detail of a mosaic from Naples, Italy. It depicts a battle between Alexander the Great and Darius III, king of Persia. Yale [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Roman Ball Games

The ancient Romans played many ball games, but not all of them had specific names. Some of the games they described are difficult to reconcile with the games that we know of. A number of these games involved play around a circle or circles. There are few games that can be formulated with a ball and a circle, and the following game we call Roman Ball represents one of them. This game is so simple that Greek and Roman children may have played a game very much like it, if not exactly like it. First the rules, then the historical evidence. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Sketches of Greek Gods

[Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Greek Relief of a Ball Game

Olympian Athletes. Elaborate reproduction of an ancient Greek fresco relief which was part of the base of a Kouros statue. It depicts a group of young athletes playing some kind of a ball game in ancient Olympia. They are divided in two teams of three members each. The last athlete on the left is holding the ball ready to throw it to the opponent team.Dated to ca. 510 B.C. National Archaeological Museum in Athens, Greece. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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ArtLex on Greek art

Greek art defined with images of examples, especially from ancient Greece , great quotations, and links to other resources. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Images of Alexander the Great

An exhaustive catalogue of image thumbnails and links to art and images concerning Alexander the Great. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Temple of Poseidon, Sounion, Greece

Corbis Images [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Parthenon, Athens, Greece

Corbis Images [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Socrates, Academy of Science, Athens, Greece

Portrait Herm of Socrates. Corbis Images [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Parthenon, Athens, Greece

Corbis Images [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Parthenon, Athens, Greece (Close)

Corbis Images [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Parthenon, Athens, Greece (Full)

Corbis Images [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Acropolis, Greece (Model)

Corbis Images [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Parthenon, Athens, Greece (Model)

Corbis Images [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Greek Ionic column

Column Capital from Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Corbis Images [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Greek Ionic column (Full View)

Corbis Images [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Parthenon, Athens, Greece (Distance)

Corbis Images [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Athens, Greece (Architecture)

Corbis Images [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Ships Of The Ancient Greeks

A collection of images from various sources. Model of Greek Bireme of the Trojan War 1250 B.C. from Hobby World Of Montreal. Greek Bireme circa 500 BC. A Greek Ship Trireme full scale reconstruction circa 400-BCE in Dry Dock, Trireme Model A Greek Warship of Trireme Class, Vases, Coins. [Ships] [Ancient Greece]

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Ships Of The Ancient Greeks

The naval Greek history does not have a concrete point of beginning. Roots are lost in depths of centuries of history of human gender. In a geographic space within 150 km. from the sea, the Greeks from the prehistoric years developed societies as a rule coastal. As most of the interior land is mountainous and difficult to farm, Greeks have to explore the marine resources and love the sea. Greece is located near the center of the Mediterranean Sea, right at the crossroads of many ancient shipping paths. Automatically, was created the need for the protection and spread of cultures that they developed, with result the progressive constitution of first organized fleet. Argonauts and Trojan War, were the first Pan-Hellenic naval enterprises. [Ships] [Ancient Greece]

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Pictures of Ancient Greek Boats

Ancient Greek Methods of Boating and Sailing by Kenny McMahon, Nick Chadha, and Paul Hotchkiss. Boating and sailing became very important to the Greek way of life. The Greeks needed ways to import and export trade goods both within Greece and to other countries. The mountainous terrain of Greece made sailing the easiest way. Wars also caused countries to learn about sailing. Navies became a must in these wars. For instance, the battle of Salamis (480 B.C.) was won because the Athenian navy was superior to the Persian navy. There were three main types of boats during this time. One was the military ship, one was the cargo ship, and there were also small craft. The military and cargo ships played a major role in ancient Greek wars and shipping. Small craft were smaller boats for just a few passengers, somewhat like a modern rowing dinghy. The ships of Ancient Greece began as very basic, but there were a lot of improvements over time, so that the ships soon became very fast, and the Greeks became very efficient in their sailing techniques. This is one reason why the Greeks were so powerful in their time. [Ships] [Ancient Greece]

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Pictures of Ancient Greek Boats - Bireme 1

Ancient Greek Methods of Boating and Sailing by Kenny McMahon and Nick Chadha [Ships] [Ancient Greece]

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Pictures of Ancient Greek Boats - Construction/ Oarsmen

Ancient Greek Methods of Boating and Sailing by Kenny McMahon, Nick Chadha, and Paul Hotchkiss. [Ships] [Ancient Greece]

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The Battles of Salamis and Plataea

King Xerxes, upon seeing his great defeat at Salamis, headed back to Persia with what was left of his navy and part of his army. [Famous Battles] [Ancient Greece]

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Battle At Thermopylae

Despite their defeat by the Athenians at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC, the Persians were not finished with their determination to conquer mainland Greece. For the Persians, Marathon barely registered; the Persians after all controlled almost the entire world: Asia Minor, Lydia, Judah, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. The loss at Marathon was no more than an irritation to the Persians. Darius was unable to respond immediately to his defeat because of rebellions on the other end of his empire. While he was quelling these, he was killed in battle. King Xerxes, son of Darius, ascended to the throne of Persia after his father's death in 486 BC. After securing his throne, Xerxes began to muster forces to once again invade Greece. He was determined to avenge his father's defeat. By 480 BC, Xerxes had built up an enormous army of some one hundred fifty thousand men and a navy of six hundred ships. Peoples from many little-known nations in the vast empire of Xerxes joined in the army of the Great King to invade little Greece. [Famous Battles] [Ancient Greece]

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Xerxes Plans To Conquer Greece

King Xerxes` gathering of an army, and his march to conquer Greece. King Xerxes, son of Darius, ascended to the throne of Persia after his father's death in 486 BC. After securing the throne, Xerxes began to muster forces to invade Greece. By 480 BC, the army he assembled had approximately 100,000 to 180,000 men and a fleet of nearly 600 ships, quite a large army by Greek standards. This time, instead of an invasion by sea, this massive army would cross the Hellespont, and march around the Aegean sea and conquer Greece by land. An army this size would be too hard to ferry across the sea, anyway. Crossing the Hellespont proved to be troublesome to Xerxes and his army. They tried to cross the Hellespont with a bridge of boats, but alas, the sea became rough and the bridge broke apart. When King Xerxes heard of this, he was furious, and gave orders that the sea should receive 300 lashes with whips. The sea did calm down and the second attempt to build a bridge was successful. The Greeks heard of Xerxes' army amassing and were better prepared for the invasion than in the first Persian War. Athenians and Spartans combined with about 29 other city-states, under the leadership of Sparta to oppose this powerful army, and the Athenians contributed a fleet of 200 triremes for their navy. Themistocles, an Athenian general, urged the army to stop the invasion as far north as they could. Finally, a place was chosen for the first defence of Greece. This place was Thermopylae, a pass where it was only 60 feet wide! This is only wide enough so that a single chariot could fit though the pass. The Persian army arrived at Thermopylae and the Greeks were there waiting. This battle is known as The Battle at Thermopylae. [Famous Battles] [Ancient Greece]

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Hellespont

[Maps] [Ancient Near East]

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Empires and Cities (Greece)

Until this section is finished being indexed into the main database you can click here to see a list of links including the Bible History Online general resources on this subject, although many of these links are outdated. [Ancient Greece]

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The Parthenon

The Parthenon...enjoys the reputation of being the most perfect Doric temple ever built. Even in antiquity, its architectural refinements were legendary, especially the subtle correspondence between the curvature of the stylobate, the batter, or taper, of the naos walls and the entasis of the columns. The temple stands on the conventional three steps, below which the foundation platform originally created for its predecessor remained visible on the west, south and east sides of the building...The cella consisted of two rooms end to end with hexastyle prostyle porches...Inside the colonnades, towards the end, there stood the gold and ivory statue of Athena Parthenos, the work of Phidias, representing Athena fully armed with spear, helmet, aegis and, accompanied by a snake, and holding in her extended right arm a statue of victory. The ceiling was of wood, with painted and gilded decoration. Light was admitted, as normally in Greek temples, only through the doorway when the great doors were opened. (Photo)

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Greek Mythology Link Catalogue of Images

Lots of images and info. Document belongs to the Greek Mythology Link, a website created by Carlos Parada, author of Genealogical Guide to Greek Mythology. Includes Biographies "- GROUPS "- Places & Peoples "- Dictionary "- Images "- Albums "- Slides "- Topics "- Search "- Editions

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Flags Of The World - Greece

Modern Greek flags. Ellás - Hellenic Republic, Ellinikì Dhimokratìa. Origin and meaning of the flag. Unofficial alternative flag. Shade of the national flag. Jack. Coat of arms. The striped flag has been in use since 1822, and was approved in 1832. The nine stripes are said to stand for the nine syllables of the Greek patriots' motto: Eleutheria e Thanatos meaning "Freedom or Death". This motto is now the national motto of Greece. [Greek History Excerption]

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Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (Reconstructed Elevation)

Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (Reconstructed Elevation). Medium Architecture. Era or Culture Greek, Archaic Period. Site Aegina. Country Greece (Historic). Period Date c. 600-480 BCE. Object Date c. 500-490 BCE.

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Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (Close Side)

Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (View of East Facade). Medium Architecture. Era or Culture Greek, Archaic Period. Site Aegina. Country Greece (Historic). Period Date c. 600-480 BCE. Object Date c. 500-490 BCE.

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Temple of Aphaia at Aegina 2

Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (S.E. View). Medium Architecture. Era or Culture Greek, Archaic Period. Site Aegina. Country Greece (Historic). Period Date c. 600-480 BCE. Object Date c. 500-490 BCE.

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Theater at Epidauros (Aerial View)

Theater at Epidauros (Aerial View). Medium Architecture. Era or Culture Greek, Classical: 4th C. Site Epidauros. Country Greece (Historic). Period Date 399-300 BCE. Object Date c. 350 BCE.

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Theater at Epidauros (Plan)

Theater at Epidauros (Plan). Medium Architecture. Era or Culture Greek, Classical: 4th C. Site Epidauros. Country Greece (Historic). Period Date 399-300 BCE. Object Date c. 350 BCE. Architect: Polykleitos the Younger.

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Theater at Epidauros (Side-View)

Theater at Epidauros (Side-View). Medium Architecture. Era or Culture Greek, Classical: 4th C. Site Epidauros. Country Greece (Historic). Period Date 399-300 BCE. Object Date c. 350 BCE. Architect: Polykleitos the Younger.

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Temple of Apollo at Didyma (Reconstructed Section)

Temple of Apollo at Didyma (Reconstructed Section). Medium Architecture. Era or Culture Greek, Hellenistic. Site Didyma. Country Greece (Historic). Period Date 323-31 BCE. Object Date begun 313 BCE. Architects: Paionios of Ephesos and Daphnis of Miletos.

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Temple of Apollo at Didyma (Plan)

Temple of Apollo at Didyma (Plan). Medium Architecture. Era or Culture Greek, Hellenistic. Site Didyma. Country Greece (Historic). Period Date 323-31 BCE. Object Date begun 313 BCE. Architects: Paionios of Ephesos and Daphnis of Miletos.

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Temple of Apollo at Didyma (Interior-View)

Temple of Apollo at Didyma (Interior-View). Medium Architecture. Era or Culture Greek, Hellenistic. Site Didyma. Country Greece (Historic). Period Date 323-31 BCE. Object Date begun 313 BCE. Architects: Paionios of Ephesos and Daphnis of Miletos.

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Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (Restored Cutaway View)

Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (Restored Cutaway View). Medium Architecture. Era or Culture Greek, Archaic Period. Site Aegina. Country Greece (Historic). Period Date c. 600-480 BCE. Object Date c. 500-490 BCE.

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Photos of Temple of Aphaia, Aegina

Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (Reconstructed-Elevation). Medium Architecture. Era or Culture Greek, Archaic Period. Site Aegina. Country Greece (Historic). Period Date c. 600-480 BCE. Object Date c. 500-490 BCE.

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Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (east)

Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (View of East Facade). Medium Architecture. Era or Culture Greek, Archaic Period. Site Aegina. Country Greece (Historic). Period Date c. 600-480 BCE. Object Date c. 500-490 BCE. [Image from Trip Advisor]

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Temple of Aphaia at Aegina 2 a

Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (S.E. View). Medium Architecture. Era or Culture Greek, Archaic Period. Site Aegina. Country Greece (Historic). Period Date c. 600-480 BCE. Object Date c. 500-490 BCE.

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Bulls Head Rhyton

Minoan: Bulls Head Rhyton. c1600 BC. Palace of Minos. Steatite with inlaid shell and rock crystal. Approximately 12" high. [Image from Yale University]

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The Toreador Fresco

Minoan: The Toreador Fresco. c1500 BC. Palace of Minos. Archeological Museum, Heraklion. Approximately 32" high. [Image from Yale University]

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Map of Crete

Minoan: Map of Crete [Image from Yale University]

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Funeral Mask from the Royal Tombs of Mycenae

Funeral Mask from the royal tombs of Mycenae. c1500 BC. National Museum, Athens. Beaten gold. Approximately 15" high. [Image from Yale University]

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Vaphio Cups

Vaphio Cups. Standing Bulls. c1500 BC. Laconia, Greece. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Gold. 3 1/2" high. [Image from Yale University]

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Aphrodite of Cyrene

Roman, after Hellenistic original: Aphrodite of Cyrene, 1st Century. Marble, H. 67 1/2 in. (171.5 cm.). Purchased with funds from the State of North Carolina and from the North Carolina Art Society. The North Carolina Museum of Art at North Carolina State University.

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Herakles

Roman, after Hellenistic original: Herakles, 2nd Century Marble, H. 65 in. (165.1 cm.). The North Carolina Museum of Art at North Carolina State University.

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Neck Amphora

Greek, Attic, Attributed to the Three Line Group. Neck Amphora, c. 530-520 B.C. Black-figure ceramic with added red and white paint, H. 16 5/8 in. (42.cm.) The North Carolina Museum of Art at North Carolina State University.

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Doric and Ionic Orders

Doric and Ionic Orders [Image from Yale University]

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Doric and Corinthian Base and Entablature

Doric and Corinthian Base and Entablature [Image from Yale University]

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Wooden Prototype of Doric Temple

Wooden Prototype of Doric Temple [Image from Yale University]

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Delphi, Greece Plan

Delphi, Greece Plan. 5th century BC. [Image from Yale University]

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Tholos - Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia

Tholos - Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia, Marmaria, Delphi [Image from Yale University]

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Temple of Hera I

Temple of Hera I: c550-540 BC. Paestum, Italy. [Image from Yale University]

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Temple of Athena

Temple of Athena; c500-510 BC. Paestum, Italy. [Image from Yale University]

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Temple of Hera II

Temple of Hera II: c460 BC. Paestum, Italy. [Image from Yale University]

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Temple of Zeus at Olympia: (model)

Temple of Zeus at Olympia: Model. c462-457 BC. [Image from Yale University]

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Temple of Concord

Temple of Concord. Late 5th century BC. Agrigentum. [Image from Yale University]

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Acropolis at Lindos

Acropolis at Lindos. Temple and Cliff. c250-200 BC. Rhodes. [Image from Yale University]

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Miletus: Model of South Agora

Miletus. Model of South Agora. c170 BC. [Image from Yale University]

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Photos of the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina

Temple of Aphaia at Aegina (Restored Cutaway View). Medium Architecture. Era or Culture Greek, Archaic Period. Site Aegina. Country Greece (Historic). Period Date c. 600-480 BCE. Object Date c. 500-490 BCE.

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Treasury of the Siphnians, Delphi: Gigantomachy

Greek: Archaic: Treasury of the Siphnians, Delphi: Gigantomachy [L. portion] from N. frieze ca. 525 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Treasury of the Siphnians: Gigantomachy: Kybele's Chariot

Greek: Archaic: Treasury of the Siphnians, Delphi: Gigantomachy: Kybele's chariot, detail [L. portion] from N. frieze ca. 525 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Treasury of the Siphnians: Lion attacks a Giant

Greek: Archaic: Treasury of the Siphnians, Delphi: Gigantomachy: Kybele's lion attacks a Giant, detail [L. portion] from N. frieze ca. 525 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Apollo and Artemis with Dionysos

Greek: Archaic: Treasury of the Siphnians, Delphi: Gigantomachy: Apollo and Artemis with Dionysos(?), detail [L. portion] from N. frieze. ca. 525 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Helios Chariot, Dionysos, Demeter, Kore, and Artemis

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: E. pediment: [Figs. B-G] Helios Chariot, Dionysos (or Herakles?); Demeter, Kore, and Artemis (or Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite?). ca. 438-432 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Dionysos

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: E. pediment: [Fig. D] Dionysos (or Herakles?). ca. 438-432 B.C. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Demeter and Kore, and Artemis

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: E. pediment: E. pediment: [Figs. E, F, G] Demeter and Kore, Artemis (or Hestia, Dione, Aphrodite?). ca. 438-432 B.C. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Demeter and Kore

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: E. pediment: [Figs. E and F] Demeter and Kore (or Hestia and Dione?). ca. 438-432 B.C. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Running Goddess

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: E. pediment: [Figs. E and F] Running Goddess (Artemis, or Hebe?). ca. 438-432 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Running Goddess: Detail

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: E. pediment: [Figs. E and F] Running Goddess (Artemis, or Hebe?), detail showing drapery carving. ca. 438-432 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Three Goddesses

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: E. pediment: [Figs. K, L, M] Three Goddesses (Hestia, Dione and Aphrodite?). ca. 438-432 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Chariot Horse of Selene

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: E. pediment: [Fig. O] Chariot Horse of Selene. ca. 438-432 B.C. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Lapith and Centaur

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: Lapith and Centaur [metope XXVII from S. side]. ca. 447-438 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Young Lapith

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: Young Lapith [L. detail, metope XXVII from S. side]. ca. 447-438 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Centaur Abducting Lapith Woman with Fallen Lapith Man

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: Centaur abducting Lapith Woman with Fallen Lapith Man [metope XXVII from S. side]. ca. 447-438 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Centaur and Lapith: Parthenon

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: Centaur and Lapith [metope XXX from S. side]. ca. 447-438 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Horsemen in the Pan-Athenaic Procession

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: W. frieze: Horsemen in the Pan-Athenaic Procession [Figs. 2-3, section II]. ca. 438-432 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Horsemen in the Pan-Athenaic Procession 2

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: W. frieze: Horsemen in the Pan-Athenaic Procession [Figs. 2-3, section II]. ca. 438-432 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Horsemen in the Pan-Athenaic Procession 3

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: W. frieze: Horsemen in the Pan-Athenaic Procession [Figs. 2-3, section II]. ca. 438-432 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Pan-Athenaic Procession 3

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: N. frieze: Pan-Athenaic Procession [Figs. 130-134, section XLII]. ca. 438-432 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Athena and Hephaestus

Greek, Classical (Athens): Parthenon: E. frieze: Athena and Hephaestus [Figs. 36-37, section V]. ca. 438-432 B.C. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Temple of Athena Nike

Greek, Classical (Athens): Temple of Athena Nike: view from E.. ca. 427-424 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Caryatid

Greek, Classical (Athens): Caryatid: figure from S. portico of the Erechtheum (Acropolis, Athens). ca. 421-406 B.C.

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Caryatid: Detail

Greek, Classical (Athens): Caryatid: figure from S. portico of the Erechtheum (Acropolis, Athens). ca. 421-406 B.C. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Temple of Apollo Epikourios

Greek, Classical (Athens): Temple of Apollo Epikourios, Bassae (Phigaleia): Amazonomachy, detail of E. frieze (attributed to Skopas?). ca. 355-330 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

Greek, (Asia Minor): Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: Amazonomachy, detail of E. frieze (attributed to Skopas?)ca. 355-330 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: Detail of Greek and Amazon

Greek, Classical (Athens): Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: Amazonomachy, detail of Greek and Amazon from E. frieze (attributed to Skopas?) ca. 355-330 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: Greek Attacking Amazon

Greek, Classical (Athens): Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: Amazonomachy, detail of Greek attacking Amazon from E. frieze (attributed to Skopas?). ca. 355-330 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: Greek Attacking Amazon

Greek (Asia Minor): Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: Amazonomachy, detail of Greek attacking Amazon from E. frieze (attributed to Skopas?). ca. 355-330 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: Greek Attacking Amazon 2

Greek (Asia Minor): Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: Amazonomachy, detail of Greek attacking Amazon from E. frieze (attributed to Skopas?). ca. 355-330 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: Greeks Slaying an Amazon

Greek (Asia Minor): Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: Amazonomachy, detail of Greeks slaying an Amazon from S. frieze (attributed to Timotheus?) ca. 355-330 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Great Altar of Zeus, Pergamon

Greek Hellenistic: Great Altar of Zeus, Pergamon: Detail of N. wing, W. side. ca. 180-175 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Great Altar of Zeus, Pergamon 2

Greek Hellenistic: Great Altar of Zeus, Pergamon: detail of N. wing, W. side, Gigantomachy frieze. ca. 180-175 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Great Altar of Zeus: Zeus battling Three Giants

Greek Hellenistic: Great Altar of Zeus, Pergamon: Zeus battling Three Giants, detail of E. frieze. ca. 180-175 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Great Altar of Zeus: Zeus, Detail

Greek Hellenistic: Great Altar of Zeus, Pergamon: Zeus, detail of E. frieze. ca. 180-175 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Athena Seizing the Giant Alcyoneos by the Hair

Greek Hellenistic: Great Altar of Zeus, Pergamon: Athena seizing the Giant Alcyoneos by the hair, detail of E. frieze. ca. 180-175 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Athena Seizing the Giant Alcyoneos by the Hair: Detail

Greek Hellenistic: Great Altar of Zeus, Pergamon: Athena seizing the Giant Alcyoneos by the hair, detail of E. frieze. ca. 180-175 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Gaea, mother of the Giants

Greek Hellenistic: Great Altar of Zeus, Pergamon: Gaea, mother of the Giants, detail of E. frieze. ca. 180-175 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Choragic Monument of Lysicrates

Greek Late Classical: Choragic Monument of Lysicrates: ca. 334 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia: Tholos

Greek Late Classical: Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia: Tholos: ca. 380 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia: Tholos 2

Greek Late Classical: Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia: Tholos: view from SE. in the Marmarium. ca. 350 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Lady of Auxerre

Greek, Orientalizing (Crete?): "Lady of Auxerre" Kore figure: detail, head and torso. ca. 640-630 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Kouros from Cape Sounion

Greek, Archaic: Kouros from Cape Sounion: ca. 600-590 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Kouros from Cape Sounion: torso and head

Greek, Archaic: Kouros from Cape Sounion: detail, L. side. torso and head. ca. 600-590 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Kouros from Cape Sounion: torso and head

Greek, Archaic: Kouros from Cape Sounion: detail, L. side. torso and head. ca. 600-590 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Berlin Goddess

Greek, Archaic: "Berlin Goddess," Kore from Keratea: ca. 570-560 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Calf Bearer

Greek, Archaic: Calf-bearer (Moschophoros): detail, head and shoulders. ca. 560 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Rampin Horseman: Head

Greek, Archaic: Rampin Horseman: head. ca. 550 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Kore from Chios

Greek, Archaic: Kore from Chios: ca. 520-510 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Grave Stele of Aristion

Greek, Archaic: Grave stele of Aristion: ca. 510 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Ephebe Kritios Boy

Greek, Late Archaic: Ephebe ("Kritios Boy"): detail, head and torso ca. 480 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Charioteer of Delphi

Greek, "Severe style": "Charioteer of Delphi": detail, head and torso. ca. 478 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Charioteer of Delphi 2

Greek, "Severe style": "Charioteer of Delphi": detail, head and torso. ca. 478 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Birth of Aphrodite

Greek, Magna Graecia: Ludovisi Throne: back C. panel, the Birth of Aphrodite. ca. 470-460 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Zeus (or Poseidon) of Cape Artemision

Greek (Peloponnese): Zeus (or Poseidon) of Cape Artemision (Euboea): ca. 460-450 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Zeus (or Poseidon) of Cape Artemision: Deatil

Greek (Peloponnese): Zeus (or Poseidon) of Cape Artemision (Euboea): ca. 460-450 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Nike Unbinding Her Sandal

Greek (Classical): Nike unbinding her sandal: relief figure from parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike, Athens. ca. 415-410 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Wounded Amazon

Greek (Classical): Wounded Amazon: Roman copy after a Greek bronze original attributed to Kresilas or Polykleitos (?) for the Sanctuary of Artemis at Ephesus. ca. 450-425 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Grave Stele of Hegeso

Greek (Classical): Grave stele of Hegeso, daughter of Proxenos: ca. late-5th century B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Wounded Trumpeter, Called the Dying Gaul

Greek (Hellenistic): Wounded Trumpeter, called the "Dying Gaul": Roman marble copy after bronze original from Pergamum in Asia Minor. ca. 220 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Wounded Gallic Trumpeter, called the Dying Gaul

Greek (Hellenistic): Wounded Trumpeter, called the "Dying Gaul": Roman marble copy after bronze original from Pergamum in Asia Minor. ca. 220 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Wounded Trumpeter, Called the Dying Gaul (Head)

Greek (Hellenistic): Wounded Trumpeter, called the "Dying Gaul": detail of head showing Celtic-style torc; Roman marble copy after bronze original from Pergamum in Asia Minor. ca. 220 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Aphrodite of Melos (

Greek (Hellenistic): Aphrodite of Melos ("Venus di Milo"): detail, head in profile. ca. 150-100 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Boy Strangling a Goose

Boethos: Boy Strangling a Goose: ca. 2nd century B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Aphrodite, Eros and Pan

Greek, Hellenistic (Delos): Aphrodite, Eros and Pan: ca. 100 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Griffin Plaque

Israel: Megiddo, Stratum VIIA; Late Bronze Age II, 13th century B.C. Ivory. Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1936-7. "This plaque is one of a group of ivories discovered at Megiddo in a semi-subterranean chamber that archaeologists called the "treasury," within a large building that may have been a palace. It bears the figure of a reclining griffin-a composite creature with a lion's body and a bird's head and wings. This motif is borrowed from the art of the Mycenaeans, but it is uncertain whether the object itself was made by a Mycenaean craftsman settled in Asia, by a local ivory carver imitating Mycenaean prototypes, or was imported directly from Greece."

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Palace of Minos, Knossos 1

Crete, Minoan: "Palace of Minos", Knossos: N. Propylaea [view from SE.], orig. ca. 16th century B.C. [20th century reconstruction by Sir Arthur Evans] AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Palace of Minos, Knossos 2

Crete, Minoan: "Palace of Minos", Knossos: N. Propylaea [view from SE.], orig. ca. 16th century B.C. [20th century reconstruction by Sir Arthur Evans] AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Palace of Minos, Knossos 3

Crete, Minoan: "Palace of Minos", Knossos:S. Propylaea with bull's-horn altar [R. foreground], orig. ca. 16th century B.C. [20th century reconstruction by Sir Arthur Evans] AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Palace of Minos, Knossos 4

Crete, Minoan: "Palace of Minos", Knossos:West wing, underground magazine with storage pithoi, ca. 1700-1450 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Tholos (

Greek, Helladic (Mycenean): Tholos ("beehive") tomb (called the "Treasury of Atreus"): dromos and entrance, view from E., ca. 1300 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Tholos (

Greek, Helladic (Mycenean): Tholos ("beehive") tomb (called the "Treasury of Atreus"): detail, entrance showing post & lintel construction with relieving triangle above, ca. 1300 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Tholos (

Greek, Helladic (Mycenean): Tholos ("beehive") tomb (called the "Treasury of Atreus"): interior, detail of corbelled vault, ca. 1300 B.C.

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Citadel, Tiryns

Greek, Helladic (Mycenean): Citadel, Tiryns: interior, corbelled gallery in East ramparts, ca. 13th century B.C. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Citadel, Tiryns 2

Greek, Helladic (Mycenean): Citadel, Tiryns: interior, corbelled gallery in East ramparts, ca. 13th century B.C. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Basilica & Temple of Poseidon

Magna Graecia, Paestum: "Basilica" (Temple of Hera I): [L. foreground] ca. 550-530 B.C. Temple of Poseidon (Temple of Hera II):[R. background], view from SE.. ca. 460 B.C.

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Basilica (Temple of Hera I)

Magna Graecia, Paestum: "Basilica" (Temple of Hera I): view from NE.. ca. 550-530 B.C.

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Basilica (Temple of Hera I): E. Colonnade

Magna Graecia, Paestum: "Basilica" (Temple of Hera I): view from SE. (E.colonnade). ca. 550-530 B.C. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Basilica (Temple of Hera I): Detail of Entasis

Magna Graecia, Paestum: "Basilica" (Temple of Hera I): detail of entasis, wide echinus and abacus of Archaic-style Doric capital. ca. 550-530 B.C. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Temple of Poseidon: Detail of Capital

Magna Graecia, Paestum: Temple of Poseidon (Temple of Hera II): detail of Archaic-style Doric capital with wide echinus. ca. 550-530 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Temple of Poseidon

Magna Graecia, Paestum: Temple of Poseidon (Temple of Hera II): view from SE.. ca. 460 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Temple of Poseidon: E. facade

Magna Graecia, Paestum: Temple of Poseidon (Temple of Hera II): E. facade. ca. 460 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Temple of Poseidon: Interior

Magna Graecia, Paestum: Temple of Poseidon (Temple of Hera II): interior, detail of double colonnade of cella, view from SE. ca. 460 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Temple of Aphaia Aegina

Greek, Late Archaic: Temple of Aphaia Aegina: view from E. ca. 500-490 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Fallen Warrior

Greek, Late Archaic: Fallen Warrior: figure from R. angle of W. pediment, Temple of Aphaia, Aegina. ca. 500-490 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Fallen Warrior: Detail

Greek, Late Archaic: Fallen Warrior: detail, head of figure from R. angle of W. pediment, Temple of Aphaia, Aegina. ca. 500-490 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Fallen Warrior: Detail Head

Greek, Late Archaic: Fallen Warrior: detail, head of figure from R. angle of W. pediment, Temple of Aphaia, Aegina. ca. 500-490 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Herakles as Archer

Greek, Late Archaic: Herakles as Archer: figure from R. angle of E. pediment, Temple of Aphaia, Aegina. ca. 500-490 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Dying Warrior

Greek, Late Archaic: Dying Warrior: figure from L. angle of E. pediment, Temple of Aphaia, Aegina. ca. 500-490 B.C. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Dying Warrior: Detail

Greek, Late Archaic: Dying Warrior: figure from L. angle of E. pediment, Temple of Aphaia, Aegina. ca. 500-490 B.C. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Dying Warrior: Detail 2

Greek, Late Archaic: Dying Warrior: figure from L. angle of E. pediment, Temple of Aphaia, Aegina. ca. 500-490 B.C. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Dying Warrior: Detail 3

Greek, Late Archaic: Dying Warrior: figure from L. angle of E. pediment, Temple of Aphaia, Aegina. ca. 500-490 B.C. [Ancient Greece] [Images]

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Theatre of Apollo

Greek: Delphi: site view from NW.: Theatre of Apollo [foreground], ca. mid-4th century B.C. Temple of Apollo [C.], orig. mid-6th century B.C. (rebuilt 366-326 B.C.). AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Temple of Apollo, Delphi

Greek: Delphi: Temple of Apollo, Delphi: view from NW., (Alkmeionid E. front, 513-505 B.C.; rebuilt 366-326 B.C.). ca. orig. mid-6th century B.C. (rebuilt 366-326 B.C.) AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Temple of Apollo, Delphi 2

Greek: Delphi: Temple of Apollo, Delphi: view from NW., (Alkmeionid E. front, 513-505 B.C.; rebuilt 366-326 B.C.). ca. orig. mid-6th century B.C. (rebuilt 366-326 B.C.) AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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The Museion of Ancient Art

Images of Magna Mater Monuments and Wonders Goddess Images On Artifacts and Coins Sexuality in Ancient Times Cybele, Attis, and the Gallae Legacy of the Divine Feminine [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Dr. J's Illustrated Parthenon Marbles

There has been a disagreement about ownership of the marbles between Greece and Britain. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Ancient Greek Ships

All the pictures that you will find about Ancient Greek Ships, as well as the other images relating to Greece, are in the public domain. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Life in Ancient Greece Reflected in the Coinage of Corinth

Corinth, situated in the northeast corner of the Peloponnesus on the Isthmus of Corinth, was one of the largest cities in ancient Greece and a rival of Athens. The city controlled overland access to the Peloponnesus and to continental Greece, as well as the maritime ways to the East and West of the Mediterranean. In time, Corinth started to create a string of daughter cities, colonies such as Leukas, Ambrakia (Arta), Anactorium, Dyrrhachium (Durazzo) and even Terina in southern Italy and Syracuse in Sicily. All these cities followed Corinth`s monetary system. [Smithsonian Institution] [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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The Trojan War

Ora Zehavi, Sonia Klinger, Univ. of Haifa [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Art Search Report

Greek, The David and Alfred Smart Museum of Art, The University of Chicago [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Image Index: Greece

Univ. of Evansville [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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MythNet Picture Gallery

MythNET, your source for Mythological Information. Have questions about Greek Mythology? Then this is the site to visit. Please use MSIE 5.5 or higher for optimal viewing quality." Neil Jenkins, Sumair Mirza and Jason Tsang [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Iris (UC Classics Slide Collection)

Amy Martin [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Athenian Vase Painting

Black- and Red-Figure Techniques. Painted vases were often made in specific shapes for specific daily uses""storing and transporting wine and foodstuffs (amphora), drawing water (hydria), drinking wine or water (kantharos or kylix), and so on""and for special, often ritual occasions, such as pouring libations (lekythos) or carrying water for the bridal bath (loutrophoros). Their pictorial decorations provide insights into many aspects of Athenian life, and complement the literary texts and inscriptions from the Archaic and, especially, Classical periods... [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Ancient Greece Art History Resources

Chris Witcombe [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Greek Artifacts

David M. Robinson Collection, Univ. of Mississippi [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Classical Myth

The Olympian Gods: Images and Texts [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Reconstruction of the Polygnotos

painting. Glynnis Fawkes, Tufts Univ. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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The Amphoras Project

CG Koehler, PMW Matheson, Univ. of Toronto [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Exekias' Page: Greek Art

Andrew Wilson [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Images from Helladic Greece

[Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Artistic Pottery Styles

When thinking about art in a historical context, wherever it may have originated, there is an important factor to consider. This is the concept of art as being a visual history lesson. The decorative pottery of ancient Greece is an excellent example of this concept. Viewing ancient Greek pottery displays the growth of artistic culture in early Greece, and is both educational and enjoyable to learn about. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

In formation since 1870, the Metropolitan Museum's collection now contains more than two million works of art from all points of the compass, ancient through modern times. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Ancient Greece Research Links

Ancient Greek Art, Architecture and other resource links and sites created in 1999 by Horace Mann Middle School. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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The Beazley Archive

Faculty of Literae Humaniores, Oxford University [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Bearers of Meaning Ancient and Byzantine Coins

Carol Lawton et al Lawrence Univ. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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ART HISTORY RESOURCES: Part 3 Ancient Greece and Rome

Chris Witcombe [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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100 Greek Sculptors: Their Careers and Extant Works

Andrew Stewart, Tufts Univ. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Greek Mythology Catalogue of Images

Carlos Parada, Brown Univ. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Dr. J`s Illustrated Guide to the Classical World

Janice Siegel, Temple Univ. Lots of photos. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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The Best of the Achaeans & Pindar's Homer

Gregory Nagy, Johns Hopkins, Univ. Press [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Euripides' Medea

Tufts Univ. [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Euripides: Notes and Study Guides

[Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Euripides (meta-index)

Malaspina Univ. [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Resources for Greek Art & Archaeology

Forvm Antiqvvm [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Encyclopaedia Mythica

Great resouce for many various ancient mythologies. [Mythology and Religion]

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Greek Mythology

Basic introduction. [Mythology and Religion]

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Greek Mythology Links

Useful index. [Mythology and Religion]

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Greek Mythology Links

Useful index. [Mythology and Religion]

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Greek Mythology Today

Excellent resource [Mythology and Religion]

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Myths, Legends,and Folklore

Excellent resource for many cultures [Mythology and Religion]

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Christus Rex et Redemptor Mundi

Vast resource, scholarly, and devotional [Mythology and Religion]

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Aeon Journal

AEON is a journal of myth, science, and ancient history specializing in archaeoastronomy and.comparative mythology. [Mythology and Religion]

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Aeon Journal

AEON is a journal of myth, science, and ancient history specializing in archaeoastronomy and.comparative mythology. [Mythology and Religion]

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Greek Gods and Goddesses

astrology and religion [Mythology and Religion]

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Bullfinch's Mythology

BULFINCH'S MYTHOLOGY THE AGE OF FABLE OR STORIES OF GODS AND HEROES by Thomas Bulfinch [1855] [Mythology and Religion]

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Greek Myths and Prehistory

online book that looks at greek mythology as part of an older, lost historical tradition. [Mythology and Religion]

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Greek vs. Norse Mythology

Site that looks at greek mythology as part of an older, lost historical tradition. [Mythology and Religion]

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Mythography

Greek, Roman, and Celtic mythology in art and literature. [Mythology and Religion]

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Euripides (Biography)

Tufts Univ. [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Apollodorus (chapter on Jason and Medea)

Tufts Univ. [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Gender and Immortality

by Deborah Lyons, Princeton Univ. [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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The Medea Homepage

Criticism, background, Info [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Apollonius Rhodius

The Argonautica by Apollonius Rhodius - Full Text Free Book [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Bulfinch's Mythology

The Golden Fleece and Medea, ShowGate [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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The Argonauts

Jason is a hero of Greek mythology who lead a group called the Argonauts in the search of the Golden Fleece. His father was Aeson, the rightful king of Iolcus. Pelias, Aeson's half-brother, was power-hungry and wished to gain dominion over all of Thessaly. Pelias was the product of a union between their shared mother Tyro ("high born Tyro") daughter of Salmoneus, and the sea god Poseidon. In a bitter feud, he overthrew Aeson (the rightful king), killing him and hopefully his descendants, who might take revenge on him. [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Use of the Chorus in ... Medea

What Is the Role of the Chorus in Medea? Essay by Euripides | Student Essays Summary [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Modern Poetry with a Classical Basis

Selected List of Poetry with a Strongly Classical Basis, Mainly Thematic, or which may be of Other Interest to Classicophiles. Lisa Auanger [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Sources for Thucydides

Thucydides Rhetor: Selected Sources [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Primary Text Index: English Translations

Tufts Univ. [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Primary Text Index: English Translations

Tufts Univ. [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Hesiod, Homeric Hymns, and Homerica

U.C., Berkeley [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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The Greek World of Mary Renault

Ed Stephan [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Medea by Seneca

(in Latin), Ad Fontes Academy [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Greek & Latin Classics Texts

Library of Congress [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Great Books: Antiquity

(meta-index) Malaspina Univ. [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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The Argonautica

by Apollonius Rhodius, U.C., Berkeley [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Ancient Greece Research Links

[Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Classical Languages and Literature

Books On-line [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Plato`s Apology

Translated by Benjamin Jowett [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Bulfinch's Mythology, The Age of Fable

Bulfinch's Mythology The Age of Fable; or Stories of Gods and Heroes by Thomas Bulfinch eBook [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Online Medieval and Classical Library

U.C., Berkeley [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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The Last Days of Socrates

Kent Anderson, Norm Freund, Clarke College [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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The Odysseys of Homer

(George Chapman English verse) Columbia Univ. [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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HISTOS Electronic Journal of Ancient Historiography

Univ. of Durham [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Bulfinch's Mythology The Age of Fable

Bulfinch's Mythology THE AGE OF FABLE OR STORIES OF GODS AND HEROES by Thomas Bulfinch [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Synopsis of the Plot of Chariton's Chaireas and Callirhoe

Petronian Society [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Internet Classics Archive

Daniel C. Stevenson M.I.T. [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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War and Peace in Classical Antiquity

(Bibliography) Rob S. Rice, Univ. of Pennsylvania [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Fragment of a Greek Tragedy

(Parody by A.E. Housman) Univ. of Pennsylvania [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Online Resources for The Oresteia

Jeffrey Riegel, U.C., Berkeley [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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The Greek Myths and Prehistory

(on-line edition) William Harris, Middlebury College [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Ancient Greek Warfare

After the Dark Ages in ancient Greece, a new system of warfare evolved; weaponry, tactics, ideas and formations changed. Modified by Philip II and mainly by Alexander the Great after the Macedonians conquered Greece, this new age of warfare lasted until the rise of the Roman Empire, when new tactics and the legion formation became the general methods of battle. The new "breakthrough" in military affairs was due largely to a new type of formation of infantry men, or hoplites. This formation was called the phalanx. The hoplite was heavily armed; he was equipped with a round shield, a breastplate of metal and leather, a helmet, and metal shin protection called greaves. His two weapons were a double-bladed sword and an eight foot pike for thrusting. These men were much faster and more maneuverable then the old system of disorganized fighting, where heavily armed soldiers individually fought one-on-one with others (the leaders of opposing sides would search for the men with reputations to fight). The phalanx was held in solid ranks, and divided only by a center line and two flanking sections. The soldiers stood shoulder to shoulder in files about eight ranks deep. The men in the front line held their shield strapped to the left arm and the sword in their right hand, thus protecting the man on their left while being protected by the man on their right. [Greece] [Warfare]

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Gallery: Greek National Tourist Organization

Tons of images. Check it out. Adventure Travel Ancient Sites and Theaters Breathtaking scenes Churches and Monasteries Forest - Mountain Ecosystems People of Greece The Houses of Greece The People of Greece Wetlands Ecosystems Wildlife in Greece [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Classical Journals (search Greek)

Univ. of Toronto [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Summary of Apollodorus' Library

Tufts Univ. [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Plato

The son of wealthy and influential Athenian parents, Plato began his philosophical career as a student of Socrates. When the master died, Plato travelled to Egypt and Italy, studied with students of Pythagoras, and spent several years advising the ruling family of Syracuse. Eventually, he returned to Athens and established his own school of philosophy at the Academy. For students enrolled there, Plato tried both to pass on the heritage of a Socratic style of thinking and to guide their progress through mathematical learning to the achievement of abstract philosophical truth. The written dialogues on which his enduring reputation rests also serve both of these aims. [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Citing Sources in Research Papers

Why Cite Your Sources? The custom of citing references "" that is, providing a record of the sources you have used for your research "" is a form of professional honesty and courtesy that is based on a regard for the responsibilities that writers have to readers and to other writers to indicate when they have used someone else's ideas or words. Univ. of Oregon [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Images of the Trojan War

Temple Univ. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Greek Vase Catalog

Tufts Univ. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Greek Links

Many Links. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Ancient Greeks: Athletes, Warriors and Heroes Virtual Tour

British Museum. One of the largest selections of Greek artefacts ever loaned by the British Museum. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Alciato's Emblems from The Greek Anthology

Memorial Univ., Newfoundland [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Pergamon: The Telephos Frieze from the Great Altar

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Subject Resources for Greek and Roman Art

A guide to researching the arts of Greece (Archaic to Hellenistic) and Rome (Etruscan to Imperial art). This guide includes archaeology as well as art and architecture. The University of British Columbia Library. [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Net In Arcadia: Virtual Museum

Elsie Russell, Jeff Harrington [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Ancient Greek Female Costume

J. Moyr Smith's, Univ. of Kentucky [Greece] [Images and Art Collections]

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Cleopatra's Children

Check out this unique series brought to you by Bible History Online Includes Real Audio. Trace the interesting history of the children of the great Queen of Egypt [Ancient Egypt Rome] [People] [Cleopatra]

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Mythology in Western Art

Dr. Sonia Klinger of the Department of Art History, University of Haifa. [Mythology and Religion]

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Norse Mythology

The Norse Gods and Immortals [Mythology and Religion]

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The Myth of Ceres

also known as Demeter [Mythology and Religion]

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Good Ancient Warfare Book

The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare. Book. Greek and Roman warfare. Essays. Texts. Pictures [Weapons and Warfare]

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Warfare in Ancient Greece

As the economic resources of Greek city-states and individuals increased during the seventh century B.C., armies of foot soldiers were formed within the wealthier city-states. Known as hoplites, these soldiers were characteristically equipped with about seventy pounds of armor, most of which was made of bronze. The typical panoply included an eight- to ten-foot thrusting spear with an iron tip and butt, and bronze armor consisting of a helmet, cuirass (chest armor), greaves (shin guards), and a large shield about thirty inches in diameter. The heavy bronze shield, which was secured on the left arm and hand by a metal band on its inner rim, was the most important part of a hoplite's panoply, as it was his chief defense. Greek and Roman warfare. Essays. Texts. Pictures [Weapons and Warfare]

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Ancient Greek Infantry Divisions

Wikipedia: Ekdromoi, Hoplite, Peltast, Pezhetairoi, Prodromoi, Thorakites, Thureophoroi. [Weapons and Warfare]

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A Beginner`s Guide to Roman Arms and Armour

Museum of Antiquities in Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom A `virtual book` that provides an illustrated introduction to the arms and armour of Roman soldiers. [ancient weapons] [Weapons and Warfare]

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The Peloponnesian War

Ancient sources | Thucydides | The war in general | Particular points | Inscriptions | Reviews | Bibliographies | Discussions [Weapons and Warfare]

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War Ships of the Greeks

Ancient Greece: Ships of Antiquity [Weapons and Warfare]

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Ships of Ancient Greece

Wikipedia. Bireme, Holkos, Kyrenia ship, Olympias (trireme), Paralus (ship). [Weapons and Warfare]

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Brittanica: Ancient Greece

aegis - In ancient Greece, the leather cloak or breastplate associated with ... Olympus, Mount - Mountain peak, northeastern Greece. Arta, Gulf of - Inlet of the Ionian Sea, western Greece. Helios - Sun god of ancient Greece. Pythian Games - In ancient Greece, various athletic and musical competitions held in ... [Ancient History]

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Agnodice

Biography of a Greek woman (possible mythological) in the medical pofession [People in History]

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Internet Sites Related to Alexander

Sites Related to Alexander the Great [People in History]

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Alexander the Great

Information on the Macedonian conqueror. Alexander the Great was king of Macedonia and one of the greatest generals in history. He conquered much of what was then the civilized world. Alexander brought Greek ideas and the Greek way of doing things to all the countries he conquered. This great general and king made possible the broadly developed culture of the Hellenistic Age. [People in History]

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Alexander the Great on the Web

Alexander the Great of Macedon from history to eternity by John J. Popovic Introduction Alexander's Parents Prince Regent Alexander and Philip Philip's Reign Alexander becomes the King Alexander's European Campaigns Invasion of Persia The Battle of Granicus Asia Minor and the Battle of Issus Conquestof the Phoenicia AlexanderinEgypt Alexanderin Mesopotamia The Battle of Arbella Campaign eastward, to Central Asia Alexander's Death Hellenistic Era Epilogue [Formerly known as Alexanderama] [People in History]

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Archimedes

respective views [People in History]

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Plato and his Dialogues

A new interpretation of Plato`s dialogues as a progressive program of education for philosopher-kings, unfolding in seven tetralogies from Alcibiades to Laws, with the Republic as its logical center and the death of Socrates at the end of the Phaedo as its physical center. [People in History]

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Ovid's Metamorphoses

Written 1 A.C.E. Translated by Sir Samuel Garth, John Dryden, et al [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Thomas Bulfinch, His Life and Work

This web site has been established to allow the general reading public to learn the results of a lengthy scholarly investigation of the life and works of Thomas Bulfinch (1796 - 1867), author of The Age of Fable, popularly known as Bulfinch's Mythology. Marie Cleary [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Learn Greek Online

Learn Greek Online is currently composed of 105 real audio files (around 15 minutes each), online student notes, a collection of collaborative learning tools and an online greek dictionary and a greek spell checker. [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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The Xenophon Page

San Antonio College [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Ancient Greek texts

Ancient Greek texts from the epic and lyrical poetry of the 8th-6th century B.C Translated and set to music by IOANNIDIS NIKOLAOS [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Fifteen Greek Heroes from Plutarch's Lives

W. H. McCutchen [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Mythology, Classics, Ancient History Books

Bulfinch's Mythology [Greece] [Texts] [Authors]

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Gallery of the Muses

The Muses are the Greek goddesses who preside over the arts and sciences and inspire those who excel at these pursuits. This virtual gallery contains artwork representing the Greek Muses from ancient times to the modern era.

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The Delphic Oracle

The myth recounts that at a cetain moment Zeus released two eagles, one from the East, the other from the West, and at the point where they met, he threw the Sacred Stone, marking the centre of the earth - the navel of the world. At this point one of the most important oracles of antiquity was developed and cultivated - the Delphic Oracle.

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Amazons

It was the Greeks who named them "Amazon" from a-mazos, that is, "without a breast." And so the legend has come down to us of ferocious women warriors who cut off their right breast, that it not hinder their use of the bow; who fought and often defeated the greatest of the Greek heroes

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Amazons in Greek Mythology

According to Greek mythology, Amazons were a warlike tribe of women descended from the god of war, Ares and the naiad Harmonia. Historically, Amazons were portrayed as beautiful women in Amazonomachies, which was an artform showing battles between the Amazons and Greeks. Amazons were trained to use all weapons and especially in single combat. They were honorable, courageous, brave and represented rebellion against sexism. Their tales spread quickly and soon stories of the Amazons were everywhere, including Africa, Asia, Europe, South America (the Amazon River was named after the female warriors), and North America in the mid-1900s with the comic book hero, Wonder Woman. The following is a list of eighty-two Amazons from Greek myth.

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The Myths Surrounding the Olympic Games

The real story of the ancient Olympic Games. Were the ancient games better than ours? More fair and square? More about sports and less about money? Are modern games more sexist? More political? Have we strayed from the ancient Olympic ideal? [Ancient Olympics at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology]

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The Ancient Olympic Games Virtual Museum

Here you will find a plethora of information about these contests that are the forefathers of our modern Olympic Games.

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Time Line of Greek History and Literature

Population and centres. Non-Greek speakers. Middle Bronze Age.

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Ancient Greek Theater Timeline

Timeline of Greek Drama. Development of Greek Drama 7th century 6th century 5th century 4th century Although the origins of Greek Tragedy and Comedy are obscure and controversial, ancient sources allow us to construct a rough chronology of some of the steps in their development. Some of the names and events on the timeline have additional information to give additional

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Origins of Greek Drama

Ancient Greeks from the 5th century BC onwards were fascinated by the question of the origins of tragedy and comedy. They were unsure of their exact origins, but Aristotle and a number of other writers proposed theories of how tragedy and comedy developed, and told stories about the people thought to be responsible for their development. Here are some excerpts from Aristotle and other authors which show what the ancient Greeks thought about the origins of tragedy and comedy. [Ancient Greek Theater]

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Staging an ancient Greek play

Imagine you are a tragic poet named Agathocles and you want to put on a tragedy in Athens at the festival of the greater Dionysia (the end of March). Here are the steps you would follow to put on the play. [Ancient Greek Theater]

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Greek Theaters

Greek Theater pictures from the GreekLandscapes.com Collection [Ancient Greek Theaters]

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Structure of the Plays

The basic structure of a Greek tragedy is fairly simple. After a prologue spoken by one or more characters, the chorus enters, singing and dancing. Scenes then alternate between spoken sections (dialogue between characters, and between characters and chorus) and sung sections (during which the chorus danced). Here are the basic parts of a Greek Tragedy: a. Prologue: Spoken by one or two characters before the chorus appears. The prologue usually gives the mythological background necessary for understanding the events of the play. b. Parodos: This is the song sung by the chorus as it first enters the orchestra and dances. c. First Episode: This is the first of many "episodes", when the characters and chorus talk. d. First Stasimon: At the end of each episode, the other characters usually leave the stage and the chorus dances and sings a stasimon, or choral ode. The ode usually reflects on the things said and done in the episodes, and puts it into some kind of larger mythological framework. For the rest of the play, there is alternation between episodes and stasima, until the final scene, called the... e. Exodos: At the end of play, the chorus exits singing a processional song which usually offers words of wisdom related to the actions and outcome of the play. [Ancient Greek Theater]

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Images of Pottery

Because of the Greek painters' fondness for labeling individual characters in a legend, we are able in some instances to piece together parts of scenes from lost plays or obscure myths. Evidence for the way in which Greek tragedy and comedy was staged is also available through vase representations. Other depictions provide valuable information about dress and objects of everyday life. Click to see Pottery Images. In studying Greek painted pottery, specialists look for identifying characteristics of the potter or painter which might help to identify a body of works executed by the same artist or workshop. In Attica, the tendency for potters and painters to sign their works gives us a firm basis for the study of an artist's style or preferred subject matter. By studying which potters and painters worked together, specialists have been able to piece together information about the time period in which these artists worked, their workshops and social status. [From the University of Pennsylvania Museum's Ancient Greek World Collection.]

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Ancient Greek Theater

1. Timeline of Greek Drama 2. Origins of Greek Drama 3. Staging an ancient Greek play 4. Greek Theaters 5. Structure of the plays read in Humanities 110 6. English and Greek texts of the plays for word searching. 7. Bibliography and links to other on-line resources for Greek Tragedy

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Timeline of Ancient Greece

The timeline is meant to give you a brief summary of ancient Greek history from 2000 to 250 BC.

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A Detailed Chronology of Greek History

The following is a 28-page historical chronology of Greek history and is intended as a tool for quick historical reference for both the novice and student of Greek culture. [Collected and Compiled by Charlie Kyriacou]

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Timeline of Aegean Political History

Ancient Greece, 2000-80 B.C.

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Pelopennesian War (431-404 B.C.)

The war was a catastrophe for Athens. She lost her empire so thoroughly that she never regained it. Sparta won the war, but scarcely knew what to do with the fruits of victory. Her attempts to lead the Greeks were heavy-handed and soon called forth new champions of liberty. Wars and Military History

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Hellas Net : Warfare in Hellas

Wars and History of Warfare to the era of the Diadochs.

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Battle of Plataea and Mycale

In the spring of 479, the navy of 110 ships is at Egina. The Ionian Greeks are asking the Spartans and the navy to help them, but the Greeks are worried about sailing east of Delos, so they can't help the Ionian Greeks who have revolted. Next Mardonius consults the Greek oracles on his fortunes. Next he sends the Macedonian king Alexander to Athens to offer terms. From a military standpoint, they are quite fair, but the Athenians make it clear that they will never surrender to the Persians, which relieves the Spartan ambassadors. King Alexander leaves and the Spartans go home to begin to prepare for war. In Thessaly Mardonius isn't too impressed. He mobilizes and marches his army towards Athens. The Athenians evacuate, mostly to Salamis. The Persians enter a deserted Athens about July 5, 479. [Greek Wars and Military History]

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Warfare in Ancient Greece

As the economic resources of Greek city-states and individuals increased during the seventh century B.C., armies of foot soldiers were formed within the wealthier city-states. Known as hoplites, these soldiers were characteristically equipped with about seventy pounds of armor, most of which was made of bronze. The typical panoply included an eight- to ten-foot thrusting spear with an iron tip and butt, and bronze armor consisting of a helmet, cuirass (chest armor), greaves (shin guards), and a large shield about thirty inches in diameter. The heavy bronze shield, which was secured on the left arm and hand by a metal band on its inner rim, was the most important part of a hoplite's panoply, as it was his chief defense. [Military history of Greece and Rome]. [Met Museum]

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Peloponnesian War and History

Peloponnesian War [Greece Ancient War Links]

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Plague in Athens during the Peloponnesian War

Peloponnesian War [Greece Ancient War Links]

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Plague in Athens during the Peloponnesian War

Thucydides' himself suffered from the plague and recovered; thus he was an eyewitness to the catastrophe (might this have affected his reportage of it?). His expressed intention was not to suggest causes or to identify the illness, but to provide as complete and accurate a description as possible so that the illness could be recognized should it ever recur in the future (in this he showed the influence of the Hippocratic emphasis on prognosis). But the reader cannot be unaware of the dramatic contrast to the idealism that had just been expressed in the Funeral Oration. Thucydides lived in an era in which rhetoric was a highly praised and widely practiced skill, and its effect on his work can often be noticed. Unfortunately, none of our other sources mentions the outbreak, and we cannot confirm his account directly. While it is true that the lack of other notices in literature or archaeological evidence such as mass graves is somewhat puzzling, nevertheless, Thucydides was writing for an audience that included many who had lived through the events themselves, so that we cannot suspect outright invention on his part. [Greece Ancient Links]

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Peloponnesian War By Thucydides

The History of the Peloponnesian War By Thucydides Written 431 B.C.E Translated by Richard Crawley. [Greece Ancient War Links]

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Revolution at Corcyra: Thucydides

The History of the Peloponnesian War [Greece Ancient War Links]

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Revolution at Corcyra: Thucydides

The History of the Peloponnesian War [Greece Ancient War Links]

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Syracusan expedition: Background Information

The Syracusan Expedition was launched against the Spartan colony of Syracuse on the island of Sicily about 415 BC. This was the second and much larger Athenian attempt to force Sparta and her colonies (known as the Peloponnesian League) to its knees. A successful attack and capture of the colony of Syracuse would have certainly meant the eventual loss of the Spartan colonies on Sicily as well as much of the military capability of Sparta. The following is a summary of the events of the battle which changed the coarse of the Peloponnesian Wars, the power struggle between Athens and Sparta and history as well. [Greece Ancient War Links]

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Thucydides` The Peloponnesian War

The History of the Peloponnesian War [Greece Ancient War Links]

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The Olympian Gods: Images and Texts

Classical Myth: The Ancient Sources

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The Olympian Gods: Images and Texts

Aphrodite, Apollo, Ares, Artemis, Athene, Demeter, Dionysos, Hades, Hephaistos, Hera, Hermes, Hestia, Persephone, Poseidon, Zeus,

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The Olympian Gods: Images and Texts

Aphrodite, Apollo, Ares, Artemis, Athene, Demeter, Dionysos, Hades, Hephaistos, Hera, Hermes, Hestia, Persephone, Poseidon, Zeus [Classical Myth: The Ancient Sources]

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Hercules

The most popular of Greek heroes, Hercules (sometimes called "Herakles") was celebrated in stories, sculptures, paintings, and even in the geography of the ancient world.

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Hercules, Greece's Greatest Hero

The most popular of Greek heroes, Hercules (sometimes called "Herakles") was celebrated in stories, sculptures, paintings, and even in the geography of the ancient world. What stories did the ancient Greeks tell about his life? What were the Labors of Hercules, anyway? Who were the women, both goddesses and mortals, in his life? And where in the ancient world did he travel on his adventures? Read on, to find out more about Hercules, Greece's greatest hero. [Maps of places mentioned in the stories of Hercules]

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The Labors of Hercules

The most popular of Greek heroes, Hercules (sometimes called "Herakles") was celebrated in stories, sculptures, paintings, and even in the geography of the ancient world. [The Lion, the Hydra, etc.]

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The Labors of Hercules

The most popular of Greek heroes, Hercules (sometimes called "Herakles") was celebrated in stories, sculptures, paintings, and even in the geography of the ancient world. Lots of images. [The Lion, the Hydra, etc.]

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The Life and Times of Hercules

Stories about the gods, called myths, were made up thousands of years ago. Was there a real Hercules, a man behind the stories?

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Other Stories about Hercules

Hercules' adventures didn't begin and end with his 12 Labors. The hero's life was non-stop action, from start to finish. Like Superman or Xena, Hercules faced a never-ending cast of villains and difficult situations.

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Hercules and the Giants

The Giants were as tall as mountains and so strong as to be unbeatable. The Olympian gods were anthropomorphic, which means that they looked a lot like human men and women. But the Giants were frightening to look at. According to Apollodorus, their shaggy hair drooped from their heads and chins, and they had dragon scales on their feet.

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Heracles and the Rulers of Greece

Heracles: The Twelve Labors of the Hero in Ancient Art and Literature [J. P. Adams' Greek Mythology class handouts.]

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Heracles and the Rulers of Greece

Heracles: The Twelve Labors of the Hero in Ancient Art and Literature [J. P. Adams' Greek Mythology class handouts.]

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Hades - the God and the Place - The Underworld

Even though Thanatos was the literal god of death, Hades became better known as the God of Darkness and the Realm of the Dead, thus the ruler of the Underworld (also known as Hades).

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Song of the Sirens

Today, Sirens (Seirenes) are imagined as sweet, alluring singers in the shape of a woman or mermaid. In early Greek mythology, sirens were actually prophets and described as having bodies of a bird and beautiful human heads.

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Dionysis in Western Art

Dionysos. The son of Zeus and Semele. The god of wine, mystic ecstasy and fertility (especially of vegetation). Images included. University of Haifa Library [Mythmedia Homepage]

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Dionysis Images: Classical Myth

Dionysos is the god of wine, intoxication, and creative ecstasy. He is also known as Dionysus, Bacchus or Bakchos, and Liber (Roman).

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Dionysos texts: Classical Myth

Dionysos is the god of wine, intoxication, and creative ecstasy. He is also known as Dionysus, Bacchus or Bakchos, and Liber (Roman).

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Use of Chariots

Coins and vases. The Ancient Greek World

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Weapons and Armor

Headgear Photos from Univ. Penn.

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Bronze ´Piceno-Corinthian´ Helmet

ca. 550 BC Ascoli Piceno (ancient Asculum), Italy, Tomb of the Warrior MS 1534 This helmet originally carried a detachable horsehair crest. In perhaps a local modification by the Piceni, a tribe of central Italic people on the Adriatic coast northeast of Rome, the protective cheek and lower jaw pieces are formed from a single sheet of bronze. The nose piece has been restored from another helmet. Headgear Photos from Univ. Penn.

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Bronze ´Corinthian´ Helmet

ca. 600 BC Italy MS 1608 The most common type of helmet in use during the Archaic period. Beaten out of a single sheet of bronze, it provided good protection to the forehead, nose and cheek areas. The two cheek pieces are separated to leave a gap exposing the mouth. Its shape only approximates the contours of the human skull, necessitating a fur or felt lining. Headgear Photos from Univ. Penn.

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East Greek Hoplite Aryballos

ca. 600&endash;570 BC 31-9-1 This little container, intended to hold perfume or scented unguents, gives a naturalistic impression of a warrior´s face staring out from behind his protective helmet. Compare this Ionian helmet type, with its separately attached cheek pieces, with the bronze examples (MS 1608, MS 1534). H. 6.5; L. 6.0; W. 5.5 cm. Photo courtesy Public Information Office, Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum

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East Greek Hoplite Aryballos

ca. 600&endash;570 BC 31-9-1 This little container, intended to hold perfume or scented unguents, gives a naturalistic impression of a warrior´s face staring out from behind his protective helmet. Compare this Ionian helmet type, with its separately attached cheek pieces, with the bronze examples (MS 1608, MS 1534). H. 6.5; L. 6.0; W. 5.5 cm. Photo courtesy Public Information Office, Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum

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Silver Decadrachm

ca. 400&endash;375 BC Syracuse 29-126-41 "Racing four-horse chariot with a flying Nike personifying Victory crowning the driver. The space below is filled with captured Punic arms. This spectacular coin may commemorate the victory of Dionysius I over the Carthaginian general Himilcon and the deliverance of Syracuse from its Punic siege in 396 BC The reverse of the coin is signed by Euaenetus, one of the most renowned coin designers of antiquity. Commemorative types became especially popular in the Hellenistic period after Alexander´s death in 323 BC" Dia. 34.0 mm. Photo courtesy Public Information Office, Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum

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The Greek House

Greek city houses of the 6th and 5th century b.c. were usually modest in scale and built of relatively inexpensive materials. They varied from two or three rooms clustered around a small court to a dozen or so rooms. City house exteriors presented a plain facade to the street, broken only by the door and a few small windows set high. In larger houses the main rooms included a kitchen, a small room for bathing, several bedrooms which usually occupied a second floor, the men's andron for dining, and perhaps a separate suite of rooms known as the gynaikonitis for the use of women. [Daily Life]

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Women's Life in Ancient Greece

Greek women had virtually no political rights of any kind and were controlled by men at nearly every stage of their lives. The most important duties for a city-dwelling woman were to bear children--preferably male--and to run the household. Duties of a rural woman included some of the agricultural work: the harvesting of olives and fruit was their responsibility, as may have been the gathering of vegetables. Since men spent most of their time away from their houses, Greek home life was dominated by women. The wife was in charge of raising the children, spinning, weaving and sewing the family´s clothes. She supervised the daily running of the household. In a totally slave-based economy, plentiful numbers of female slaves were available to cook, clean, and carry water from the fountain. Only in the poorest homes was the wife expected to carry out all these duties by herself. A male slave´s responsibilities were for the most part limited to being door-keeper and tutor to the male children. Click here for women's dress. Daily Life (Univ. Penn.)

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Schooling in Ancient Greece

Education in schools in ancient Athens was at first limited to aristocratic boys. By the 4th century b.c. all 18-year-old males spent two years in a gymnasion, a state school devoted to the overall physical and intellectual development of a young man. More advanced education in philosophy, mathematics, logic and rhetoric was available to the aristocracy in highly select gymnasia like the Academy of Plato and the Lycaeum of Aristotle. Although girls in ancient Greece received no formal education in the literary arts, many of them were taught to read and write informally, in the home. [Daily Life] (Univ. Penn.)

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Coinage in Ancient Greece

Economy (Univ. Penn.)

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Silver Tetradracham 324 BC

Economy (Univ. Penn.)

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Trade

Economy, (Includes map of Mediterranean). When Mycenaean society broke up around 1100 BC, the commercial routes that had linked mainland Greece with the rest of the Mediterranean were severed. After a period of prolonged recovery, the Greeks began colonizing the shore regions of the Mediterranean and Black seas. This movement (ca. 750-550 BC) was propelled by the need for living space for a rapidly expanding population and for new markets. The colonies had access to unrestricted native markets and were able to supply Greece with wheat, meat, dried fish, hides, wool, timber and basic metals in exchange for mainland finished products, olive oil and wine. Trade exposed Greek domestic markets to imported luxury products from Egypt, the Levant, Asia Minor and elsewhere. These had an important impact on Greek art during its formative years (750-600 BC). By 300 BC Greek manufactured goods were freely circulating to North Africa, Spain, the Rhone valley, the Balkans, and as far east as India. (Univ. Penn.)

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Interactive Map of Greece

Moving the cursor over the State will highlight the region. Click on State to see Details State's Name appears on Status Bar.

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Bronze Manufacturing

Manufacturing absorbed small numbers of workers who operated with little mechanical assistance. Of these, a significant number must have been slaves, since no free man worked for wages unless driven to it by poverty. It has been estimated that only about 500 potters and painters were active in 5th century Athens at a time when the city supplied most of the luxury tableware for the entire Greek world. Manufacturing, transport and food production demanded a broad range of skills. The stone, clay and metal trades needed quarrymen, masons, sculptors, potters, painters and foundry workers; the clothing industry, weavers, dyers and fullers; the leather trade, tanners and cobblers; construction, stone cutters, carpenters and architects; maritime transport, ship-builders, dock-loaders and sailors; food production, anything from farmers, herdsmen, bee-keepers and fishermen to bakers and cooks. Economy, (Univ. Penn.)

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Attic Manufacturing in the ancient Greek World

Ceramic production in Athens was concentrated in the northwest corner of the city, the Kerameikos. Here artisans turned out architectural decorations, roof tiles, figurines, and even large sculptures, as well as fine and coarse-ware pottery. There is little evidence for mass production methods, although two painters could collaborate on a single large pot and certain potters specialized in creating particular shapes. Most pots were thrown on a manually driven potter's wheel. Large pots were made in several sections, and handles were added separately. Greek kilns were wood-fired. By controlling the oxygen flow the color of the clay pot and its glaze could be changed from red to black: an oxidizing or well-ventilated atmosphere produces red, a reducing or smoke-filled atmosphere, gray or black. Economy, (Univ. Penn.) Attic (pottery)Black Figure and Red Figure Manufacturing

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Pottery in the Ancient Greek World

Pottery provides the best archaeological evidence for the movements of the Greeks and the distribution of their trade around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins. Central and northern Italian Etruscan cemeteries are particularly informative as their tombs have yielded thousands of Greek vases. It is difficult to estimate what percentage of these vases were bought to serve as grave gifts; some may have been purchased initially for use in Etruscan homes. Because relatively few Etruscan manufactured goods turn up in Greek sites, it is widely assumed that Etruria traded lump iron, lead and bronze in exchange for Greek pottery and other finished commodities. Corinth dominated the pottery export trade up to the mid 6th century BC By around 525 BC Athens had established a monopoly in luxury wares with Attic Black Figure pottery and in time effectively drove Corinthian and all other regional styles from the marketplace. Attic Red Figure appeared around 530 BC and effectively replaced Black Figure by 480 BC. Trade, (Univ. Penn.)

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Precious Oils and Cosmetics in the ancient Greek World

Greek perfumes and cosmetics have long since evaporated or turned to dust, leaving behind only written references to their importance and the containers that once held them. From Homer's day forward, precious oils, perfumes, cosmetic powders, eye shadows, skin glosses and paints, beauty unguents, and even hair dyes seem to have been in near universal use. Export and sale of these items formed an important part of trade around the Mediterranean. During the 8th and 7th centuries BC, overseas markets were dominated by Corinthian, Rhodian and East Greek perfume flasks and cosmetic containers, including aryballoi, alabastra, pyxides and other small specialized shapes. Cosmetic unguents were imported into Greece in containers carved from the Red Sea Tridacna shell. In the 6th and 5th centuries, with the export market taken over by Attic products, toilet oil was dispensed in flasks called lekythoi. The pelike was used to store scented oils or perfumes in bulk. In the Classical period perfumes continued to be shipped abroad, probably in bulk containers, and then retailed in terracotta aryballoi and alabastra. Cored glass vessels began to make their appearance at the same time, in shapes adapted from terracotta containers. Trade, (Univ. Penn.)

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Greek Pottery and its Archaeological Importance

The classical archaeologist relies to a great extent on pottery as important evidence for reconstructing Greek life. In the study of all ceramic&endash;making cultures, pottery is used as a chronological indicator because pottery shapes and decoration change over time. The association of these changes with other cultural phenomena or, in the case of the ancient Greeks, with specific datable events allows the archaeologist to build a chronological framework of a culture. Greek pottery also provides important documentation for many aspects of ancient Greek life through painted scenes, especially on Attic Black and Red Figure vessels. A large number of these scenes illustrate the myths and legends of the ancient Greeks. Through these we find an ancient interpretation of the stories and a picture of how the ancient Greeks viewed their deities. (Univ. Penn.)

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The Muses from Greek Mythology

The Muses are the Greek goddesses who preside over the arts and sciences and inspire those who excel at these pursuits.

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Myths & Legends

Quite exhaustive Myths and Mythology

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Alexander the Great ...his first ever web site.

Alexander was born in 356 BC in Macedonia, the area around present day Thessaloniki in northern Greece. Though the Macedonians might have considered themselves part of the Greek cultural world, the other Greeks might have viewed them as half-barbarians. Alexander`s father, King Philip, was an energetic ruler who had started a systematic policy of expanding his kingdom. Philip`s main conquest was that of the Greek mainland, after his victory at Chaeronea in 338 BC. Alexander, still in his teens, commanded the Macedonian cavalry during this battle... [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

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Battle of Syme, 411 B.C

Peloponnesian War. In January 411 an unspecified number of Spartan ships defeated a squadron of Athenian vessels off the island of Syme in the south-eastern Aegean. Thucydides is the only source for this battle, apart from two possible allusions in Aristophanes. [Greece Ancient War Links]

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The History of the Peloponnesian War

By Thucydides Written 431 B.C. Translated by Richard Crawley [Greece Ancient War Links]

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The Peloponnesian War

The war between Athens and the Athenian empire versus Sparta, Thebes, Corinth, and other members of the Peloponnesian Confederacy 431 - 404 B.C.E. Large scale campaigns and heavy fighting took place from Sicily to the coast of Asia Minor and from the Hellespont and Thrace to Rhodes. It was the first war in history to be recorded by an eyewitness historian of the highest caliber. It has come down through history as the archetypal war between a commercial democracy and an agricultural aristocracy and a war between a maritime superpower and a continental military machine. Thycidides' history is itself a classic, which for generations was considered a foundation of a proper education. The war began on 4 April 431 B.C. with a Theban attempt to surprise Plataea, Athens' ally and outpost on the northern base of Cithaeron. It ended on 25 April 404 B.C., when Athens capitulated. The cities of the Boetian Confederacy under Theban leadership were Sparta's allies from the first. Syracuse and other Sicilian cities gave active help in the last part of the war. Argos, her hand tied by a treaty with Sparta, remained neutral during the first ten years, but as a democracy, was benevolently inclined towards Athens. Persia at first held aloof, waiting for an opportunity to regain her dominion over the Greek cities of the Asiatic seaboard, which Athens had liberated, but finally provided the crucial financial and logistic support required by Sparta to conduct a maritime offensive. Athens, was unpopular with many members of her own empire, but held most under control by her maritime supremacy. The war may be divided into three major periods or five phases: The Archidamian war: phase 1 431-427; phase 2 426-421 The Sicilian war: 421-413 The Ionian or Decelean War: phase 1 412-404; phase 2 407-404 [Greece Ancient War Links]

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Nicias By Plutarch

(legendary, died 413 B.C.) [Greece Ancient War Links]

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Overview of archaic and classical Greek history

An Overview of Classical Greek History from Mycenae to Alexander. Thomas R. Martin [Greece Ancient War Links]

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Peloponnesian War

Links [Greece Ancient War Links]

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Peloponnesian Wars

The Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League which included Sparta and Corinth. The war was documented by Thucydides, an Athenian general and historian, in his work History of the Peloponnesian War. Most of the extant comedies of Aristophanes were written during this war, and poke fun at the generals and events. The war lasted 27 years, with a 6-year truce in the middle, and ended with Athens' surrender in 404 BC. [Greece Ancient War Links]

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Greek Pottery - The Origins of Greek Pottery

When it comes to Greek pottery and vases, there is no disputing about tastes. The Greek was no less a man of taste than the American, though he preferred to drink wine at feasts from the pottery of a black earthen kylix decorated in red, or a red cup with paintings in black. He had glass, and plenty of thin and beautiful glass, in cups and goblets of varied form. He had wine equal to the best of the Cote d'Or or the Rhine banks. At his feasts poets, soldiers, statesmen gathered; jewels adorned their arms and fingers, rich garments made the assemblies gorgeous, flowers filled the balls with perfume; statues of snowy marble, the works of artists whose fame is enduring, paintings by Zeuxis and Apelles, looked down on the scene.

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Greek Vase Styles

The Greeks had around 20 different vase styles, each with its own function; each perfectly formed for its purpose, and with most of them exquisitely decorated. On its own, each and every kitchen, storage, funerary, cosmetic or wine vase was a unique work of art that must have embellished the everyday lives of the ordinary people of ancient Greece. [nice illustrations]

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List of ancient Greeks

From Wikipedia. This an alphabetical list of ancient Greeks. These include ethnic Greeks and Greek language speakers from Greece and the Mediterranean world up to about 200 AD.

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Greek Alphabet Table

Tables are based on material from Pocket Ref, 2nd ed. compiled by T. J. Glover (Sequoia Publishing, 1999) and the MathType help pages.

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Hypatia of Alexandria

Mathematician, Astronomer, and Platonic Philosopher (d. 415 AD).

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A Short History of Cryptography

Cryptography is one of the oldest fields of technical study we can find records of, going back at least 4,000 years. It is quite noteworthy that of all the cryptosystems developed in those 4,000 years of effort, only 3 systems in widespread serious use remain hard enough to break to be of real value. One of them takes too much space for most practical uses, another is too slow for most practical uses, and the third is widely believed to contain serious weaknesses. We begin with a classification scheme for ciphers given by Gary Knight in the first of a series of articles which posed ciphers to the reader, and after a given period of time demonstrated reader solutions along with explanations of how they solved the ciphers. Versions of the solutions attained by the author were also given along with many mathematical techniques for "attacking the unknown cipher".

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Eratosthenes of Cyrene (ca. 284-ca. 192 BC)

Eratosthenes was born in Cyrene which is now in Libya in North Africa. His teachers included the scholar Lysanias of Cyrene and the philosopher Ariston of Chios who had studied under Zeno, the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. Eratosthenes also studied under the poet and scholar Callimachus who had also been born in Cyrene. Eratosthenes then spent some years studying in Athens. University of St Andrews, Scotland

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THE GREEK, INDIAN, & CHINESE ELEMENTS

The four classical elements were independently proposed by early Presocratic philosophers: water (Thales), air (Anaximenes), earth (Xenophanes), and fire (Heraclitus).

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Religion and Death

The ancient Greeks were a deeply religious people. They worshipped many gods whom they believed appeared in human form and yet were endowed with superhuman strength and ageless beauty. The Iliad and the Odyssey, our earliest surviving examples of Greek literature, record men's interactions with various gods and goddesses whose characters and appearances underwent little change in the centuries that followed.

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The Greek Alphabet

The Greek alphabet came from the Phonecians around the year 900 B.C. When the Phonecians invented the alphabet there were 600 symbols. Those symbols took up too much room on the papyrus, so they narrowed it down to 22 symbols. The Greeks borrowed some of the symbols and then they made up some of their own. But the Phonecians, like other cultures, used their symbols to represent consonants and vowel sounds together. The Greeks were the first people to have separate symbols (or letters) to represent vowel sounds. Even the name "alphabet" comes from the first two letters of the Greek alphabet -- "alpha" and "beta." All later alphabets came from the Greek alphabet.

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The Ancient Greek World - Greek Burial

The ancient Greeks were a deeply religious people. They worshipped many gods whom they believed appeared in human form and yet were endowed with superhuman strength and ageless beauty. The Iliad and the Odyssey, our earliest surviving examples of Greek literature, record men's interactions with various gods and goddesses whose characters and appearances underwent little change in the centuries that followed.

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The Ancient Greek House

The typical ancient Greek house was a place where the man of the family was proud to live. Within the walls of the house, no one could treat him with any form of disrespect at any possible time. The house was the heart of the man, in which he had no choice but to protect it and its living and non-living contents.

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The Geography of Ancient Greece

Greece is located on a peninsula that extends into the Mediterranean Sea. As you can see in the map above, Greece is almost completely surrounded by water. Many islands can be found around the peninsula. The large island at the bottom of the map is Crete.

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The History of the Oracle of Delphi

Delphi owed its international prominence to the famous oracle of the god Apollo, who foretold the future through his priestess, known as the Pythia. She responded to the questions of visitors while in a trance; her inarticulate cries were interpreted and written down by an official interpreter, in earlier times in hexameter verse, then later in prose. These oracular responses were notoriously ambiguous, and their interpretation was often only 'deduced' after the event to which they referred. This, however, did not deter visitors from journeying to Delphi from all over the Mediterranean

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Daily Life Ancient Greece

We don't have a lot of information about everyday life in ancient Greece, because the routines and activities of ordinary people weren't written down. However, the objects that people used everday and representations of people in art, especially paintings on vases, give us a glimpse into what life was like in the ancient Greek world. Where did the Greeks live? What did they like to do? What foods did they eat? What did they wear? [Michael C. Carlos Museum of Emory University]

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Greek Family

Most Greeks, like most other people throughout history, lived in families with a mother and a father and their children. Usually men got married when they were about twenty-five or thirty years old (as they do today), but women got married much younger, between twelve and sixteen years old.

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Ancient Greek Artifacts - British Museum

The Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities of the British Museum has one of the most comprehensive collections of antiquities from the Classical world, with over 100,000 objects. These mostly range in date from the beginning of the Greek Bronze Age (about 3200BC) to the reign of the Roman emperor Constantine in the 4th century AD, with some pagan survivals.

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Ancient Roman and Greek Coins

This site is mostly for beginners, but has some advanced material too: FAQ

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Slavery In Ancient Greece

Slavery played a major role in ancient Greek civilization. Without it, the citizens wouldn`t have been able to devote so much time to other activities such as the government, art and thought.

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Ancient Greek Rulers

The following abridged list of rulers for the ancient Greek world is primarily for the rulers of the Hellenistic age (323""31 B.C.), after the time of Alexander the Great. In the preceding centuries, the dominant geopolitical unit was the polis or city-state. Greek city-states were governed by a variety of entities, including kings, oligarchies, tyrants, and, as in the case of Athens, a democracy.

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The New, Consolidated DRJCLASSICS.COM website

The Survey of Audio-Visual Resources for Classics: Roman, Latin, Greek history, mythology, art, archaeology, philosophy, religion, culture, language and literature on cd video slides maps posters more.

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The Ancient Greek World.

Virtual gallery at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Also explore the other classical galleries in the Worlds Intertwined exhibit. [University of Pennsylvania]

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The Horse in Ancient Greece

Examines the horse's role in Ancient Greek mythology, society and art. On this web site, you will find various examinations and summaries of works from Classical and contemporary sources, as well as several examples and interpretations of Ancient Greek art depicting the horse.

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Greeks on the Black Sea: Ancient Art from the Hermitage

Exhibition at the Getty Villa from the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg of objects from ancient Greek civilization on the northern Black Sea. [J. Paul Getty Museum]

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The Peloponnesian War

[Ancient Greece]

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The Real Story of the Ancient Olympic Games

The first Olympic Games were held in 776 BC. They began as a religious festival, were held every four years and continued for a thousand years. They were held in a sacred, fertile valley of Ancient Greece at a place called Olympia. Australian Sports Commission [The University of Pennsylvania Museum]

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The Myths Surrounding the Olympic Games

The real story of the ancient Olympic Games. Were the ancient games better than ours? More fair and square? More about sports and less about money? Are modern games more sexist? More political? Have we strayed from the ancient Olympic ideal? [Ancient Olympics at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology]

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The Ancient Greek World - Daily Life Index

The house, men's and women's lives. [Ancient Greece]

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The Ancient Olympic Games Virtual Museum

The Olympic idea was born in ancient Greece nearly 3,000 years ago. Sporting contests took place during the great festivals that the Greeks held in honour of their gods. The most important of these contests was the Olympic Games, dedicated to Zeus, the Father of the Gods. Every four years, free men from all over the Greek world gathered at the Games to demonstrate their sporting spirit in the sacred their sporting spirit in the sacred surroundings of Olympia, situated in the state of Elis.The first recorded Olympic Games took place in 776 BC. There was just one event, a race over a distance called a stade. A stade was about 180 metres, nearly the length of the stadium at Olympia. The race was won by a young cook, Coroebus, from Elis.

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Ancient Olympics FAQ

Frequently Asked Questions about the Ancient Olympic Games Where did the Olympic games come from? Why were they held at Olympia? Were there other contests like the Olympics? Who could compete in the Olympics? Were women allowed at the Olympics? How were the athletes trained? What prizes did Olympic victors get? Who were the Olympic judges? What was the penalty for cheating? Where did the marathon come from? [the Perseus Project database]

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The Ancient Greek World Index

University of Pennsylvania Museum [Images] [Ancient Greece]

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The Ancient Olympics

Ancient and Modern Olympic Sports, A Tour of Ancient Olympia, The Context of the Games and the Olympic Spirit, Athletes` Stories, Frequently Asked Questions About the Ancient Olympics, Related Sites About the Olympics, Further Reading. [Perseus Project Classics Department]

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European Cuisines: Greece

Recipes. Greece is a country of magnificent natural beauty, archeological treasures, warm, friendly people, and incredibly delicious food. As Europe`s oldest civilization, the Greek people began their culinary history 1,000 years b.c., and Greek recipes have since come to influence many other of the world`s cuisines. The ancient Romans called upon Greek cooks to prepare their famous banquets. The first cookbook in the world was created by Archestratus, a Greek so infamous that he was called the leader of the Epicureans. The high white hat called a toque that is worn by master chefs throughout the world was invented by Greek cooks. They wore these hats to distinguish themselves from the monks in the European monasteries where the Greeks had taken refuge to escape slavery during the Middle Ages. [Ancient Greece]

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A Tour of Ancient Olympia

There are three versions of the tour of Olympia. For those with fast connections to the Internet, the tour is available with Quicktime or with Shockwave movies. For others, including everyone with a dial-up connection, a tour with pictures is available. [Perseus Project].

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WINNING AT OLYMPIA

New studies challenge traditional notions about Greek Athletes and why they competed. BY DONALD G. KYLE

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Ancient Greek Education

The Greek Gods were much more down-to-earth and much less awesome than the remote gods of the East. Because they were endowed with human qualities and often represented aspects of the physical world--such as the sun, the moon, and the sea--they were closer to man and to the world he lived in. The Greeks, therefore, could find spiritual satisfaction in the ordinary, everyday world. They could develop a secular life free from the domination of a priesthood that exacted homage to gods remote from everyday life. The goal of education in the Greek city-states was to prepare the child for adult activities as a citizen. [Ancient Greece]

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Spartan Education

[Ancient Greece]

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The History of Animals by Aristotle

A 698k text-only version is available for download.

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Schooling

Education in schools in ancient Athens was at first limited to aristocratic boys. By the 4th century b.c. all 18-year-old males spent two years in a gymnasion, a state school devoted to the overall physical and intellectual development of a young man. More advanced education in philosophy, mathematics, logic and rhetoric was available to the aristocracy in highly select gymnasia like the Academy of Plato and the Lycaeum of Aristotle. [Ancient Greece]

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Plato: The Allegory of the Cave, from The Republic

Plato, the most creative and influential of Socrates` disciples, wrote dialogues, in which he frequently used the figure of Socrates to espouse his own (Plato`s) full-fledged philosophy. In "The Republic," Plato sums up his views in an image of ignorant humanity, trapped in the depths and not even aware of its own limited perspective.

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Greek Mathematics and its Modern Heirs

For over a thousand years--from the fifth century B.C. to the fifth century A.D.--Greek mathematicians maintained a splendid tradition of work in the exact sciences: mathematics, astronomy, and related fields. Though the early synthesis of Euclid and some of the supremely brilliant works of Archimedes were known in the medieval west, this tradition really survived elsewhere. In Byzantium, the capital of the Greek-speaking Eastern empire, the original Greek texts were copied and preserved. In the Islamic world, in locales that ranged from Spain to Persia, the texts were studied in Arabic translations and fundamental new work was done. The Vatican Library has one of the richest collections in the world of the products of this tradition, in all its languages and forms. Both the manuscripts that the Vatican collected and the work done on them in Rome proved vital to the recovery of ancient science--which, in turn, laid the foundation for the Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries. In the Roman Renaissance, science and humanistic scholarship were not only not enemies; they were natural allies. [Ancient Greece]

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Polis

[Ancient Greece]

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The Delian League

[Ancient Greece]

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Ancient Greece.com

Art & Architecture - Geography - History - Mythology - Olympics - People - Wars - Other Resources

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The Greek World of MARY RENAULT

Tour of the Greek World

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Classical and Hellenistic Greece

This portion of the web points to images and information about ancient Greece. Each subpage contains pointers to relevant websites, as well as student-authored descriptions of them. Archaeology, Art and Architecture, History, Literature, Mythology and Religion, Philosophy [Ancient Greece]

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Ancient Greek Trade

Trade and Barter in Ancient Greece. Commerce, Trade, & Economy. The period of the transition from monarchy to oligarchy (7th century. B.C.) is the period in which commerce begins to develop, and traderoutes to be organised. Greece had been the centre of an active trade in the Minoan and Mycenaean epochs. The products of Crete and of the Peloponnese had found their way to Egypt and Asia Minor. The overthrow of the older civilization put an end to commerce. The seas became insecure and intercourse with the East was interrupted. Our earliest glimpses of the Aegean after the period of the migrations disclose the raids of the pirate and the activity of the Phoenician trader. It is not till the 8th century has dawned that trade begins to thrive, and the Phoenician has to retire before his Greek competitor [Ancient Greece]

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Greek Culture to 500 BC

Crete, Mycenae and Dorians, Iliad, Odyssey, Hesiod and Homeric Hymns, Aristocrats, Tyrants, and Poets, Spartan Military Laws, Athenian Political Laws, Aesop`s Fables, Pythagoras and Early Philosophy. Sanderson Beck

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The Ecole Initiative: The Eleusinian Mysteries

The Eleusinian Mysteries, held annually in honor of Demeter and Persephone, were the most sacred and revered of all the ritual celebrations of ancient Greece. They were instituted in the city of Eleusis, some twenty-two kilometers west of Athens, possibly as far back as the early Mycenaean period, and continued for almost two thousand years. Large crowds of worshippers from all over Greece (and later, from throughout the Roman empire) would gather to make the holy pilgrimage between the two cities and and participate in the secret ceremonies, generally regarded as the high point of Greek religion. As Christianity began to spread, the Mysteries were condemned by the early Church fathers; yet the rites continued for hundreds of years more and exercised considerable influence on the formation of early Christian teachings and practices.

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Administrative Justice in Ancient Athens

Popular sovereignty has never been as completely in practice as in ancient Athens. The people didn't merely exercise their power at intervals, they wielded it at all times. The Assembly, which was composed of all citizens, decided and debated all questions of public policy. The legislation, executive, and judicial functions of government were exercised by commissions drawn from the citizen body by lot. This made it so the people actually administrated justice, interpreting and applying the law as they saw fit. A jurist on the bench would never balk the popular will by giving inconvenient precedents. Theoretically, a judicial decision rendered today could be reversed in a similar case tomorrow. [Ancient Greece]

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Ancient Greece: Greek Festivals

Greek Fashion Show and Feast.

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Sexuality in Fifth Century Athens

Brian Arkins. University College Dublin, Ireland

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Didaskalia: Introduction to Greek Stagecraft

Didaskalia: Ancient Theater Today / University of Warwick /edited by Sallie Goetsch and C.W. Marshall. The tragedies and comedies of the fifth and fourth centuries BC which remain to us today were all written for performance in the Theater of Dionysus at Athens. The TDA was first dug out of the slope beneath the south side of the Acropolis in the late 6th century BC, possibly while Athens was still under Peisistratid rule. It was rebuilt and expanded many times, and so it is difficult to tell exactly what its original shape was. The illustrations here are reconstructions based on existing evidence and the opinions of the editors.

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Ancient Athenian Women

Once a woman was married her husband controlled all property. Any property that she might have inherited would go directly to her husband. She had no rights to wander about the town, without a just cause. Any respectable woman would not be seen in public. Greek women had virtually no political rights of any kind and were controlled by men at all stages of their lives. Since men spent most of their time away from their houses, women dominated Greek home life. The wife was in charge of raising the children and making the families clothes. She supervised the daily running of the household.

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Introduction to Greek Tragedy

The first "tragedies" were myths which were danced and sung by a "chorus" at festivals in honour of Dionysius (God of Wine). At first these festivals were of a "satyric" nature (gaiety, drinking, burlesque, etc). [Early History, The Tragic Situation, The Nature of Tragedy]

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The Geography of Ancient Greece

Greece is located in the Mediterranean Sea. It is a peninsula, with water on three sides. There are also many Greek islands. Rhodes and Crete were two of the larger islands. Sparta and Athens were the major cities of ancient Greece. Central Greece is broken up by hills and mountains. It was hard for the ancient Greeks to travel through these areas. They depended on the sea for trade and it also helped the spread of ideas. [kids]

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A Taste of the Ancient World: Greco-Roman eating, drinking,

and farming. An exhibit about Greco-Roman eating and drinking, farming and starving presented by undergraduates in Classical Civilization 452: Food in the Ancient World. The Kelsey Museum of Archaeology

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Maps of Ancient Greece

List of maps from EmbassyWorld

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The Greek House

Greek city houses of the 6th and 5th century b.c. were usually modest in scale and built of relatively inexpensive materials. They varied from two or three rooms clustered around a small court to a dozen or so rooms. City house exteriors presented a plain facade to the street, broken only by the door and a few small windows set high. In larger houses the main rooms included a kitchen, a small room for bathing, several bedrooms which usually occupied a second floor, the men's andron for dining, and perhaps a separate suite of rooms known as the gynaikonitis for the use of women.

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Furniture and the Greek House

General information about the rooms is rather clear, but the furniture in the house made each room unique. The Greeks used practicality to furnish their houses and they also borrowed some Egyptian techniques to build the furniture. Their home furnishings consisted of countless stools and chairs, some of which borrowed the folding X-frame from the Egyptians; a bed was made out of a thick board on four legs with a blanket, or by weaving string across of wooden frame, and chests were used in place of cupboards. Mattresses were made of sacks filled with leaves, which was actually comfortable to the people at the time. By today's standards, many would say this method is unbearable, compared to the spring mattress.

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History House: Stories: Philip of Macedon (and Pausanias)

Philip of Macedon was good at what he did. The father of Alexander the Great, he managed to turn the backwater province of Macedon into a swelling power and conquered all of Greece to boot. This garnered him quite a hefty reputation in the ancient world, and as a result the Persian empire was forever trying to get him down. His son Alexander, not to be outdone, managed to conquer the entire known world by 324 BC.[1] Unfortunately for him, Philip met his maker at the hands of a disgruntled homosexual lover in the middle of a grand wedding celebration.

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Alexander the Great, John J. Popovic

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon, Alexander III of Macedon (356-323 B.C.)

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Alexander the Great, Synopsys

Parents Youth Philip's Kingdom Philip's Death Invasion of Persia River Granicus Asia Minor The Battle of Issus Phoenicia Egypt Mesopotamia Central Asia Invasion of India End of Expedition The Empire Alexander's Death Hellenistic Era

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Women's Dress and Toilet Articles

Women´s clothes underwent relatively few changes in style in the course of antiquity. Clothes were normally made at home from locally available wool or flax (used to make linen). The two most commonly worn garments were the chiton or tunic and the himation or cloak.

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Women's Life

Greek women had virtually no political rights of any kind and were controlled by men at nearly every stage of their lives. The most important duties for a city-dwelling woman were to bear children--preferably male--and to run the household. Duties of a rural woman included some of the agricultural work: the harvesting of olives and fruit was their responsibility, as may have been the gathering of vegetables.

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Dogs in Ancient Greece and Rome

Of the canine breeds mentioned by classical authors, the best known were the small, swift Laconian (Spartan) and the heavier Molossian, both of which were native to Greece and used by the Romans for hunting (canis venaticus) and to watch over the house and livestock (canis pastoralis). "Never, with them on guard," says Virgil, "need you fear for your stalls a midnight thief, or onslaught of wolves, or Iberian brigands at your back."

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Macedonia FAQ: Bucephalus

Contains Bronze statue of Alexander on Bucephalus Museo Nazionale di Villa Guilia, Rome, Italy. The legend begins with Philoneicus, a Thessalian, bringing a wild horse to Philip II for him to buy (Plutarch, Alexander 6.1.). Plutarch gives us the rest of the story as well. Nobody could tame down the gorgeous horse, and Philip grew upset at Philoneicus for bringing such an unstable horse to him. Alexander, however, publicly defied his father and claimed that he could handle the horse. Alexander's reaction was viewed by his father to be immature, in addition to being disrespectful to all the people that failed to tame down Bucephalus. For that reason, Philip proposed, and Alexander agreed instantly, that if Alexander could ride the the "wild" horse, Philip would buy it; on the other hand, if not Alexander failed at taming down Bucephalus, he would have to pay the price of the horse, which was 13 talents, an enormous sum for a boy of Alexander's age to have. (The 1994 World Almanac says that 1 talent was about 60 pounds. Sixty pounds of anything is a lot of money.)

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Greek Olympic Games

Once every four years, men from all over Greece came to compete in a great athletic festival in Elis, in western Greece (Women were not allowed to compete). This was called the Olympic games because the place was called Olympia. It was a religious festival to honor the Greek gods Zeus and Hera. We don't know when men first began celebrating the Olympic Games, but they were certainly already doing it in the time of Homer, by 776 BC.

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Drinking Parties

Party-goers sing and dance. [Ancient Greece]

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Art of Ancient Greece and Rome at Getty

This gallery installation examines the influence of Greek and Roman art on the art of later centuries. The Enduring Influence of Greek and Roman Art. Artsednet's exclusive presentation of selected works from the J. Paul Getty Museum. This virtual exhibition draws from art objects that appear in Beyond Beauty: Antiquities as Evidence, on display at the museum at the new Getty Center during its opening year. J. Paul Getty Trust

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The Persian War in ancient Greece

There can be no doubt that the Persian Wars form an essential part of Ancient Greek history. Had certain key battles gone in favour of the opposing side, it is highly likely that subsequently, the culture and status of the country would have reflected greatly the conquering nation, Persia. The Persians already controlled much of the known world at that time, so it would have been very difficult for any other nations to regain control of Greece.

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Bulfinch`s Mythology, The Trojan War

MINERVA (Athena) was the goddess of wisdom, but on one occasion she did a very foolish thing; she entered into competition with Juno (Hera) and Venus (Aphrodite) for the prize of beauty. FURTHER BROWSING AND SEARCHING; Browse THE OLYMPIAN GODS; Search ENCYLOPEDIA MYTHICA; Browse MYTHOLOGY IN WESTERN ART; Search PERSEUS; Browse HOMER`S ILIAD (Butler translation); Browse IMAGES OF THE TROJAN WAR; Ask THE ORACLE OF LOXIAS; Search LOOK IT UP.

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Coming of Age in Ancient Greece

Getty Kouros and Elgin Kore. Looking at Art of Ancient Greece and Rome: An Online Exhibition

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Trojan War: IMAGES

The Trojan War is the main issue of the Iliad by Homer, and its later sequence is described in the Aeneid by Virgil. The war took place between Achaeans and Trojans, and raged for ten years.

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CLASSICAL GREEK SCULPTURE

Classical Greek Sculpture for Kids - Polykleitos, Phidias, and more.

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The Odyssey and Antecedent Tales

The Historical Setting of the Odyssey and more. Homer's Odyssey: A Guide to Understanding the Voyage of Odysseus Through a Study of Greek Mythology

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The Hippocratic Oath

OATH AND LAW OF HIPPOCRATES

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History of Naval Warfare

Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. Mankind has fought battles on the sea for more than 3,000 years. The many sea battles through history also provide a reliable source for shipwrecks and underwater archaeology. A major example, albeit not very commonly known, is the exploration of the wrecks of various ships in the Pacific Ocean, namely Japanese warships that sank during the Battle of Midway. [Ancient Greece]

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Sfakian People and the Dorians

In actual fact, the origins of the Dorians, a pastoral people, are necessarily obscure, but it appears they originated in northern and northwestern Greece, i.e. Macedonia and Epirus. From there they apparently swept southward into central Greece and then into the southern Aegean area in successive migrations beginning about 1100 BC, at the end of the Bronze Age. This new people brought with it a new material, iron, which was of Balkan origin. World2C TM Multimedia.

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Battle of Thermopylae

The Battle of Thermopylae took place during the Greece-Persia war in roughly the 5th century BC. Some 30 city-states of central and southern Greece met in Corinth to devise a common defense (others, including the oracle at Delphi, sided with the Persians). They agreed on a combined army and navy under Spartan command, with the Athenian leader Themistokles providing the strategy. The Spartan king Leonidas led the army to the pass at Thermopylae, near present-day Lamia, the main passage from northern into central Greece. [Ancient Greece]

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The Dorians

Legends which survived among the Dorians and which have come down to us through Pindar, Herodotus and other ancient writers, say that the earliest ancestors of the Dorians were Makednoi (that is, Macedonians), who migrated to Doris from Pindos, more precisely from the Lakmos region.

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Battle of Marathon

After gaining control of the rebellious Ionian Greeks in 495 BC, Darius I of Persia realized that they would be a perpetual bother as long as they could gain help and encouragement from the Greek mainland so he determined to conquer Greece proper, secure his western frontier and lay the groundwork for Persia's expansion into Europe. He was also outraged that during the Ionian rebellion an obscure city-state (Athens) from mainland Greece had assisted in the expulsion of the Persians from Sardes, the capitol of the Ionian Greek city-states. His anger was such that he vowed to punish them and every night at dinner he had a servan repeat to him "Lord, don't forget the Athenians" [Ancient Greece]

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Greek Art and Architecture

Art and Architecture in Ancient Greece.

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The Parthenon

When work began on the Parthenon in 447 BC, the Athenian Empire was at the height of its power. Work on the temple continued until 432; the Parthenon, then, represents the tangible and visible efflorescence of Athenian imperial power, unencumbered by the depradations of the Peloponnesian War. Likewise, it symbolizes the power and influence of the Athenian politician, Perikles, who championed its construction.

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Greeks versus Persians

The organization of the mainland Greeks into cities inaugurated a period of stability, wealth, further population expansion, and social and economic experimentation which made of Greece a great force in the Mediterranean. Greek traders and colonists ranged over the entire Mediterranean basin in the late seventh century BC, spreading westward to Sicily, southern Italy, France and Spain; eastward to Asia Minor; southward to North Africa in the areas not already claimed by the Phoenicians; and northward to the Black Sea. Trade with the colonies allowed many of the cities in Hellas to transform themselves into manufacturing centers or to concentrate on the development of specialized crops such as the grape and the olive, products that could be traded for grain, minerals, and furs with the colonial frontiersmen. [Ancient Greece]

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WebAcropol : Acropolis : Guided Tour

The Acropolis has been in continuous use by the inhabitants of Athens, as a religious center, from the Mycenaean era until the end of the Byzantine period . Athenians still refer to the Acropolis as the ``holy rock'. The buildings which one brings to mind when talking about the Acropolis, are the most recent and most majestic in a succession of buildings. Having these edifices constructed was conceived by Perikles, the leader of the democratic faction and a friend of Sophocles and Anaxagoras. He dreamt of Athens as the leader of a panhellenic confederacy, as an ideal democracy, and above all as a city with magnificent edifices, temples and public buildings, theatres and odeia.

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Greek Architecture

Introduction to Greek Architecture. The Greek Orders: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian

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The Persian Wars

Like the Trojan War, the Persian Wars were a defining moment in Greek history. The Athenians, who would dominate Greece culturally and politically through the fifth century BC and through part of the fourth, regarded the wars against Persia as their greatest and most characteristic moment. For all their importance, though, the Persian Wars began inauspiciously. In the middle of the sixth century BC, the Greek city-states along the coast of Asia Minor came under the control of the Lydians and their king, Croesus (560-546 BC). However, when the Persians conquered the Lydians in 546 BC, all the states subject to the Lydians became subject to the Persians. The Persians controlled their new subject-states very closely; they appointed individuals to rule the states as tyrants. [Ancient Greece]

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The History of Plumbing - Greece

Until Philip of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great, rampaged through and destroyed the city in 432 B.C., Olynthus was a rich and flourishing metropolis, its people enjoying the luxury of the latest plumbing innovation-bathtubs. Excavations at Olynthus, in northern Greece, attest to tiled bathrooms and self-draining tubs. Several of the tubs have survived intact, shaped like present-day models though with one sloping end cut off. It is assumed that underground piping was made of since deteriorated clay, as there was no lead piping found.

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Architecture of Ancient Greece

Lots of Images. Architecture | Athens | Epidauros | Mycenae | Delphi | Olympia | Crete | Sculpture | Female Figure in Greek | Sculpture | Reliefs | Archaic | Classical | Late Classical | Hellenistic

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The Persian Wars

[Ancient Greece]

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Ancient Greece

Comprehensive to basic links about ancient Greece. A Brief Comparison of Greek and Roman Sculpture by Teacher Oz: When comparing Greek and Roman sculpture you need to know about the three distinct periods of Greek sculpture. The Greek Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic styles each represent different ideals. Archaic, best represented by the Kouros, evolved from Egyptian sculpture. Kouros characteristics were: rigidity, one foot forward stance, formal hair treatment, bilateral symmetry (same on left and right), and its frontality (block like). It differed from the Egyptian in that the sculpture was nude, there was no webbing between the arms and body, and there was attention to anatomical detail. The Archaic Kouros was the composite of the athletic ideal through mathematical formula(1:8). It was not realistic, but idealistic. [Ancient Greece]

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Ancient Greek Culture and Daily Life

The Greek culture began before the Roman. The Iliad, one of the earliest of the great written Greek works, appeared roughly 700 years before the Aeneid , an early Roman work. The Iliad in turn was based on a good 300 years of verbal story telling. Greek civilization was mostly conducted from small city states. The Greeks loved life and lived it with zest. They had little interest in the afterlife which, even for the greatest of men, was believed to be an eternal unpleasantness.

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Military Duty

Duty to the state and to the gods. Military duty in ancient Greece was perceived and practiced by citizens as an important component of civic duty as well as piety to the gods. The causes of war were usually political , naturally imbued with pious issues, and were also instigated by breaches in good faith between city-states. The citizen of ancient Greece was also a soldier, allowing him to engage in war and to become involved in civic duties. The predominant duty of the citizen was his participation in war, through which he was partaking in the act of defence of the values and honor of his city-state, regardless of whether the war was defensive or offensive. [Ancient Greece]

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Ancient Greek Infantry Table of Contents

I. Tactical Warfare: Formation of the phalanx; defensive and offensive fronts. II. Armor and Weapons: Hoplite armaments, shields, swords etc.; chariots. III. Military Hierarchy: Infrastructure from Generals to "packers". IV. Military Pay: Integration of monetary funds for military duties, mercenaries. V. Military Duty: Duty to the state and to the gods.

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Alexander the Great: the marriages at Susa

In February 324, Alexander forced many Macedonian officers to marry to native women. If it was intended as an attempt to unite the European and Asian elites, it was a sad failure: nearly all marriages ended in divorce. The Greek author Arrian of Nicomedia describes this event in section 7.4.4-5.6 of his Anabasis. The translation was made by M.M. Austen. [Ancient Greece]

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Military Hierarchy

The military hierarchy of ancient Greece could in retrospect be viewed as running parallel to its social hierarchy. The aristocratic class were the wealthiest and most politically powerful individuals of the populace. Their social position gave them an identical stature in the military hierarchy, for they assumed complete authority as trierarchs of both land and sea forces. Not only did they instigate wars but they also led them on the battle fields. Cavalry members were quite wealthy but were subordinates to the first census class. They supplied chariots and horses and equipped themselves handsomely with armaments; often they were commanders of small units. The hoplite soldiers who formed the phalanx were composed of third class members, and were capable of attaining the necessary skills and equipment to become heavy-infantry soldiers. The lowest class was conscripted into the light-infantry in which they were massed together under the leadership of the generals and commanders. Although the military hierachy was imbued with the same social hierarchy as in their city states the military was much more than an obligatory service. It was a unifying patriotic force that was shared between all social classes on the battle field where each citizen saw himself as a soldier equal to any other [Ancient Greece]

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The Ancient Greek World - Weapons and Armor

Hoplite armaments, shields, swords etc.; chariots. [Ancient Greece]

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Greek Warfare

Wars were very common in ancient Greece. The Greeks lived in little city-states, each one like a small town in the United States today, with no more than about 100,000 people in each city-state. These city-states - Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Thebes - were always fighting each other over their borders. Often they would get together in leagues, a lot of city-states together, to fight as allies. [Ancient Greece]

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Ancient Greek warfare

After the Dark Ages in ancient Greece, a new system of warfare evolved; weaponry, tactics, ideas and formations changed. Modified by Philip II and mainly by Alexander the Great after the Macedonians conquered Greece, this new age of warfare lasted until the rise of the Roman Empire, when new tactics and the legion formation became the general methods of battle. [Ancient Greece]

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Internet Resources: Ancient Greece

Many Links, General Resources Cretan and Aegean Palace Civilizations Mycenae and Pre-Homeric Greece Greek History Greek Archaeology Greek Art Greek Architecture Greek Philosophy Greek Religion Greek Literature Greek Drama Greek Music Greek Science and Mathematics Greek Language Bibliographies On-line Courses with Resources Newsgroups Search the Web Washington State University

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The Ancient City of Athens

Photographic archive of the archaeological and architectural remains of ancient Athens (Greece). It is intended primarily as a resource for students and teachers of classical art & archaeology, civilization, languages, and history as a supplement to their class lectures and reading assignments and as a source of images for use in term papers, projects, and presentations. We also hope that this site will be useful to all who have an interest in archaeological exploration and the recovery, interpretation, and preservation of the past. [Ancient Greece]

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Ancient Greece: The Archaic period, 800-500 BC

Article. During the Greek Dark Ages, the Greeks lived in small tribal units; some of these small tribes were sedentary and agricultural and some were certainly nomadic. They had abandoned their cities between 1200 and 1100 BC for reasons that remain shrouded in mystery; the Greeks believed that a cataclysmic and ferocious invasion of northern Greek barbarians, the Dorians, had wiped out the Mycenean civilization. In reality, the decline and abandonment of urbanization in Greece was probably due to a combination of economic collapse and pressure from northern migrations. Greek life during the "Dark Ages" wasn`t dark; it was, in fact, a culturally creative period. This period gave the Greeks the religion their religion, mythology, and foundational history in their final forms; the close of the Dark Ages would also gave the Greeks the rudiments of their greatest political achievement: the polis , or "city-state."

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Athens

[Ancient Greece]

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The Ancient Greek World - Land and Time Index

Greece is the southeasternmost region on the European continent. It is defined by a series of mountains, surrounded on all sides except the north by water, and endowed with countless large and small islands. The Ionian and Aegean seas and the many deep bays and natural harbors along the coastlines allowed the Greeks to prosper in maritime commerce and to develop a culture which drew inspiration from many sources, both foreign and indigenous.

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Chronology of Greek History After the Peloponnesian War

405 - 146 BC.
405 -- Annihilation of Athenian fleet at the battle of Aegospotami by Lysander; over 3,000 Athenians were executed. Athens was besieged by Sparta with the blockading of Piraeus. Dionysius I became tyrant of Syracuse.
146 -- Achaean War: Corinth was destroyed by Rome. Achaean Confederacy was dissolved.

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The Atrium: For Devotees of Ancient Greece & Rome

The Atrium :: Portal to the Worlds of Ancient Greece and Rome

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History and Chronology of Greece

Balkan Wars, 1st Greece, Balkan Wars, 2nd Greece, Byzantine War Greece, Civil War Greece, Duchy of Athens Greece, Government Greece, Government Spain Greece, Greco Turkish War Greece, Greek Independence Greece, Greek War of Independence Greece, Holy Crusades, The 4th Greece, House of Battenburg Greece, House of Bavaria Greece, House of Denmark Greece, Military Greece, North African Wars Greece, Rebellion Greece, Revolution Greece, Turkey War Greece, Turkey War Cyprus Greece

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Athenian Rowdies

The Athens of 350 BC was in many ways like our own society: bursting at the seams with idiots, drunkards and rabble ready to sue over anything. Like nearly every nation in the modern world, Athens had courts to try criminals and sue individuals for damages, both usually filled to capacity. In her magnificent work, The Murder of Herodes, Kathleen Freeman digs up old court transcripts and translates them for our enjoyment. Before we delve into our favorite testimonial, we will indulge ourselves with a little etymology. It turns out the word testimonial is derived from the same Greek root as testicle. Why? Only men were allowed to sue and testify in court, and so to prove their manhood and by extension their honor, they swore their testimony by grabbing their, well, manhood. More convenient than casting about for a Bible! It is interesting that this gesture is now interpreted as agressive or dismissive, when it was once the sacred symbol of one of our most ancient and important legal rights. But we digress. [Ancient Greece]

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Greece and Rome - Art and Archaeology

Sites for the Study of Ancient History [Ancient Greece]

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The Athenian Constitution by Aristotle

The Internet Classics Archive | [Ancient Greece]

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Mr. Dowling's Ancient Greece Page

The civilization of ancient Greece flowered more than 2500 years ago but it influences the way we live today. Greece is a peninsula in southeastern Europe. The people of the region attempted to explain the world through the laws of nature. They made important discoveries in science. They developed democracy, where people govern themselves rather than being ruled by a king. The Greeks also valued beauty and imagination. They wrote many stories and plays that continue to be performed today. The ancient Greeks developed a great deal of what we take for granted. This is why Greece is often known as the Cradle of Western Civilization.

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Government in Greece: Pages Through the Ages

Ancient Greek Government. Ancient Greece was divided into areas called city-states. There were many city-states and each one had it's own government. Athens and Sparta were two of the most powerful city-states. Sparta was ruled by the military. In earliest times, Athens was governed by a monarchy. A monarchy is a Greek work meaning "ruled by one." Soldiers hand-picked their new leader and put him into power. Monarchy did not last long in Athens. In 800 B.C., the Athenians build a new government called an oligarchy, which means "ruled by the few." In 600 and 500 B.C., some leaders were known as tyrants. A tyranny is an unjust government led by someone who has taken power. By 508 B.C. democracy started in Athens. Greece had one of the first democracies ever! [Ancient Greece]

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Sparta

[Ancient Greece]

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Crete Island : Herakleion Prefecture : Knossos

Knossos is, of course, Crete's most famous monument: the largest, strongest and most impressive of the island's Minoan palaces, a true must for every visitor. In Knossos, as Kazantzakis put it, one's mind is flooded with questions and one's heart beats with a different rhythm. [Greek Hotel]

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Linear B

Despite such a non-descriptive name, Linear B has proved to be the oldest surviving record of the Greek dialect known as Mycenaean, named after the great site of Mycenae where the legendary Agamemnon ruled. The script's usage spanned the time period between approximately 1500 BC and 1200 BC, and geographically covered the island of Crete, as well as the southern part of the Greek Mainland.

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Visiting Sparta

If you have just arrived in town, I suggest visiting the archaeological museum before you walk to the remains of the acropolis. As Thucydides mentioned, there is not an overwhelming amount of architectural remains on the site, but some of the finest pieces are now on display at the museum, and you will probably have a better idea of the local Spartan uniqueness if you spend an hour or so at the museum first. [Ancient Greece]

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Minoan Religion

Since we have only ruins and remains from Minoan culture, we can only guess at their religious practices. We have no scriptures, no prayers, no books of ritual; all we have are objects and fragments all of which only hint at a rich and complex religious life and symbolic system behind their broken exteriors. The most apparent characteristic of Minoan religion was that it was polytheistic and matriarchal, that is, a goddess religion; the gods were all female, not a single male god has been identified until later periods.

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The Early Minoan Period:The Settlements

EARLY MINOAN I (ca. 3100/3000-2700/2650 B.C.) Pottery Architecture Stone Metal External Relations EARLY MINOAN II (ca. 2700/2650-2150 B.C.) Pottery Architecture Stone Metal Internal and External Relations EARLY MINOAN III (ca. 2150-2050/2000 B.C.) Problems of Definition Pottery Architecture

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The Peloponnesian War

Ancient sources | Thucydides | The war in general | Particular points | Inscriptions | Reviews | Bibliographies | Discussions [Ancient Greece]

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History of the hoplite phalanx

Men wear their helmets and their breastplates for their own needs, but they carry shields for the men of the entire line. --Plutarch, Moralia The hoplite phalanx was the perfect manifestation of classical Greek society on the battlefield. Made up of middle-class men who had day jobs, the phalanx was made to decide a war in a single bloody struggle. Hellenistic warfare.

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Vase-Paintings and Hoplite Equipment

Arms and Armour: Representations of Warfare. UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE; THE SHEFTON MUSEUM OF GREEK ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY

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Ancient Swords (Greece)

The Greeks known for big achievements in politics, mathematics, sculpture, literature and philosophy, were fearsome warriors as well. The Greek swords were dual-purpose weapons with leaf-shaped blades. These blades were designed for both cutting and thrusting.

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Ancient Greek Armour, Shields and Helmets

Hoplite Armour and more (includes some less used parts such as perimerides, pericheirida, perisphyra) The defensive armour most used consisted of four pieces: helmet (kranos), cuirass (thorax), shield (aspis) and greaves (knimis). A weapon is called hoplon from which panoply and hoplite (a man with weapons) is derived (initially the shield was called hoplon (üðëÃ-í) but today hoplon is a general name for weapon). It was kept holding the antilabe in the border of the shield.

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Ancient Greece Glossary

Brief. Ancient Greece

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Hoplite Sword (Greece)

The hoplite sword was essentially a slashing weapon and was generally worn slung from a baldric over the right shoulder so that it hung almost horizontally on the left. Alexander the Great is often shown with a sword of this type in a period mosaic from Pompeii.

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Ancient Greek Infantry

I. Tactical Warfare: Formation of the phalanx; defensive and offensive fronts. II. Armor and Weapons: Hoplite armaments, shields, swords etc.; chariots. III. Military Hierarchy: Infrastructure from Generals to "packers". IV. Military Pay: Integration of monetary funds for military duties, mercenaries. V. Military Duty: Duty to the state and to the gods. VI. Bibliography:

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Ancient Spartan Infantry Weapons

Infantry was the dominant military arm in ancient Greece, and the Spartan infantry eclipsed all others. A Spartan hoplite (footsoldier) wielded a pike of seven and a half to nine feet in length, which he handled more skillfully than his opponent did his own weapon of lesser stature. He donned a helmet, breastplate, and greaves and carried a short sword at his waist. He held so large a shield that it could be used as a stretcher to carry wounded from the field. This shield protected its bearer's left side and front, and extended far leftward to protect his neighbor's right side. Dependence upon a neighbor's shield encouraged each hoplite to keep rank. These trained hoplites maneuvered in a formation, called a phalanx, of at least eight ranks deep. The Spartan phalanx was the most formidable sight on battlefields in the fifth century B.C .

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1300 BC The Ten Commandments

from the Law Museum Archives [Mesopotamia] [Events]

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Images and Information about Centaurs

In Greek mythology, the centaurs (Centaur, Greek: ÊÃíôáõñÃ-ò) are a race part human and part horse, with a horse's body and a human head and torso. Dwelling in the mountains of Thessaly, the centaurs were the offspring of Ixion and Nephele, the rain-cloud. Alternatively, the centaurs were the offspring of Kentauros (the son of Ixion and Nephele) and some Magnesian mares or of Apollo and Hebe. It was sometimes said that Ixion planned to have sex with Hera but Zeus prevented it by fashioning a cloud in the shape of Hera. Since Ixion is usually considered the ancestor of the centaurs, they may be referred to by poets as the Ixionidae.

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Hellas Net: The History of Hellas

Excellent resource from the bronze age to the Roman era. Martijn Moerbeek [Ancient Greece]

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Hellas Net: The History of Hellas

Excellent resource from the bronze age to the Roman era. The history of Hellas starts somewhere in the prehistory, but the Glory of Greece starts with the Mycenaean civilisation which was influenced by a "forgotten" civilisation: the Minoic kingdom. Dark ages follow this golden era, but the pattern for the future is set with the invasion of the Dorians and the rise of the Polis. Several conflicts with the immense Persian empire show the power of city-states. However, internal conflicts for hegemony push Hellas into the hands of Macedon who ends the indepency of Hellas by conquering it. Greek culture is spread out over Asia Minor with Macedonian conquests, but eventually it is Rome who becomes the new worldpower. Martijn Moerbeek [Ancient Greece]

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Map of Trade Routes and Empires

Map of Trade Routes and great empires of the 1st Century AD.

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Areopagus (Mars Hill), Athens

In classical times, the Areopagus functioned as the chief homicide court of Athens. Ares was supposed to have been tried here by the Gods for the murder of Poseidon's son Alirrothios. Another legend states that the hill was the site of the trial of Orestes for killing his stepmother and her lover, Clytemnestra and Aegisthus. In pre-classical times (before the 5th century BC), the Areopagus was the council of elders of the city, like the Roman Senate. Like the Senate, its membership derived from those who had held high public office, in this case that of Archon. In 462 BC, Ephialtes put through reforms which deprived the Areopagus of almost all its functions except that of a murder tribunal. At the foot of the Areopagus was a temple dedicated to the Erinyes where murderers used to find shelter so as not to face the consequences of their actions. Near the Areopagus was also constructed the basilica of Dionysius Areopagites. [images] [Archaeology]

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Helen of Troy

one page from History of Women through Art.

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The Acropolis

The Ancient City of Athens: Sites & Monuments. Lots of Images of The Acropolis, includes: Fortified citadel and primary urban religious sanctuary. Propylaia, Temple of Athena Nike, Parthenon, Erechtheion.

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The North Slope of the Acropolis

Lots of images from the The Ancient City of Athens: Sites & Monuments photos from indiana.edu including: "Longs Rocks" & Northwest Caves (Caves of Apollo & Pan), Sanctuary of Eros & Aphrodite, Rock-cut Niches, Peripatos Inscription.

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The East Slope of the Acropolis

Lots of images from the The Ancient City of Athens: Sites & Monuments photos from Indiana.edu including: East Cave, Rock-cut Beddings for Altars & Monuments, The "True Aglaureion"?

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The South Slope of the Acropolis

Lots of images from the The Ancient City of Athens: Sites & Monuments photos from Indiana.edu including: Sanctuary and Theater of Dionysos, Choregic Monuments, Asklepieion, Sacred Spring, Stoa of Eumenes, Odeion of Herodes Atticus.

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The Philopappos Monument

The Ancient City of Athens: The Philopappos Monument

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The Pnyx

The Ancient City of Athens: The Pnyx: Meeting Place of the Ancient Athenian Democratic Assembly. Pnyx, Bema (Speaker's Platform), Sanctuary of Zeus Hypsistos.

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The Agora

The Ancient City of Athens at Indiana University, Bloomington. Lots of images of The Agora: Commercial & Civic Center of Ancient Athens. Royal Stoa, Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios, Temple of Apollo Patroos, Metroon, Bouleuterion, Tholos, Monument of the Eponymous Heroes, Hephaisteion, Altar of the 12 Gods, Stoa of Attalos, Church of the Holy Apostles.

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The Ancient City of Athens

THE ANCIENT CITY OF ATHENS is a photographic archive of the archaeological and architectural remains of ancient Athens (Greece). It is intended primarily as a resource for students of classical art & archaeology, civilization, languages, and history at Indiana University as a supplement to their class lectures and reading assignments and as a source of images for use in term papers, projects, and presentations. We also hope that this site will be useful to all who have an interest in archaeological exploration and the recovery, interpretation, and preservation of the past.
©Copyright 1995-98. All rights reserved. All of the images presented here are from the personal slide collection of Kevin T. Glowacki and Nancy L. Klein of the Department of Classical Studies at Indiana University, Bloomington. You are free to download and use unmodified copies of these images for non-commercial purposes providing that you include a reference to this site and copyright notice.

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The Roman Agora

Lots of images of The Roman Agora, Tower of the Winds, & the Library of Hadrian: Gate of Athena Archegetis, Colonnade, Fountain, Propylon, "Agoranomion", Public Latrines; Water Clock of Andronikos, The Eight Winds. Lying east of the Ancient Agora, the Roman Agora actually has nothing to do with Romans, but took this name because it was constructed during Roman times -1st century CE- in order to serve a growing Athens. It is a single architectural complex consisting of a vast rectangular court, measuring 367 ft by 315 ft, surrounded by colonnades. The courtyard was surrounded by stoas, shops and storerooms. It has an east, Ionic propylon and a west, Doric propylon, known as the Gate of Athena Archegetis, which linked it to the Greek Agora. It was built between 19 and 11 BCE with a donation of Julius Caesar and Augustus. During the reign of Hadrian the court was paved with slabs. After the invasion of the Herulae in 267 CE, the city of Athens was restricted to the area within the Late Roman fortification wall, and the administrative and commercial center of the city was transferred from the Ancient Agora to the Roman Agora and the Library of Hadrian.

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The Library of Hadrian Athens

The Library of Hadrian is located to the north side of the Acropolis and the Roman Agora. It provided the people of Athens with a new, multi-purpose, public square and cultural center that contained a garden, works of art, a library, and lecture halls.

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The Lysikrates Monument

The Ancient City of Athens at Indiana University, Bloomington. Lots of images of The Lysikrates Monument & the Street of the Tripods.

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The Arch of Hadrian

Hadrian (AD 117-138) was known for his peaceful reign and for being an extensive builder. He was very fond of Greek learning and had traveled in Achaea. He also rebuilt the fortification wall around Athens which had been torn down by Sulla and changed the Acropolis into a fort, which it had been before. Athens became somewhat of a second capital during Hadrian's reign.

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Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens

Temple of Olympian Zeus, "Peisistratid" column drums, Panathenaic Stadium. The graceful ruins of the Temple of the Olympian Zeus can be clearly seen from the Acropolis, and are floodlit at night. The temple is made of fine marble brought from Mount Pentelus and originally measured 96 meters long and 40 meters wide. Hadrian had erected a giant gold and ivory status of Zeus in the cella, and placed an equally large one of himself next to it. Unfortunately, however, nothing remains of these or anything else from the interior of the temple. There were originally 104 Corinthian columns, each 17 meters high; 48 of these stood in triple rows under the pediments and 56 in double rows at the sides. Only 15 columns remain standing today, with lovely Corinthian capitals still in place. A 16th column was blown down during a gale in 1852 and is still lying where it fell.

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The Kerameikos

The Ancient City of Athens at Indiana University, Bloomington. Lots of images of: Kerameikos Cemetery, Public & Private Grave Monuments, "Themistoklean" Wall, Sacred Gate, Dipylon Gate, Pompeion.

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Greek Art

Art Images By The University of Haifa Library, Haifa, Israel. Large selection of images.

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ANCIENT GREECE IMAGES

Lots of Ancient Images. J. Cohen

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Dance in Ancient and Modern Greece

Prylis: Cretan funeral dance performed by men wearing armor Circle dances: very sacred and mystic; performed by men and women around altars, trees, pillars, sacred objects, or even people. Circles were believed magical and had purifying powers. Dancers would often stop during the dance in certain poses they believed communicated praises to the gods. Mazes: Danced in weaving, labyrinthine patterns Wedding dances: most famous was the now forgotten "geranos" or crane dance.

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The Amazing Ancient World of Western Civilization

What is the Ancient World? Greece, Rome, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Babylon, Sumer, Nubia, Persia, Byzantium, Turkey? Or is it Assyrians, Chaldeans, Hebrews, Hittites, Akkadians, Etruscans, Minoans? Is it Alexander, Plato, Virgil, Socrates, Hammurabi, Aristotle, Nefertiti, the Pharaohs, Emperors, Caesar, Cleopatra, Sargon, Akhenaton, the Black Athena, Homer?

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AncientGreece.com

Lots of categorized links concerning: Art & Architecture - Geography - History - Mythology - Olympics - People - Wars - Other Resources

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Ancient Greece Coloring Pages

Print Your Own Coloring Page

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EAWC: Ancient Greece

Chronology Essays Images Internet Sites Texts

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Odyssey Online

Major Resource Site [Emory University]

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Perseus Greek and Roman Materials

Use this tool to browse or search the contents of the Perseus Digital Library.

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Ancient Greek Civilizations

History of Aegean Civilization, Cultures of Greece, The Cities of Greece, Aspects of Culture and People in Ancient Greece, Other Resources... [Ancient Greece] [Lots of Images] [Minnesota State University].

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