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Manners & Customs

The Talmud and Leprosy

The Talmud indicates that a leper could not come within 4 cubits of any Israelite or 100 cubits if there was an east wind blowing. The Mishnah indicates that any contact with a leper, his dwelling, or any of his possessions would make a person ceremonially unclean. According to Leviticus 13:45 a leper was commanded to cry "unclean, unclean" when he was near any Israelite. According to Josephus there were many lepers in the land and they were forbidden to come into a city at all or to live with any anyone in a house. The leper was to be treated as a dead person.

Link: https://bible-history.com/backd2/leprosy.html

The Writings of Josephus on Leprosy

The Talmud indicates that a leper could not come within 4 cubits of any Israelite or 100 cubits if there was an east wind blowing. The Mishnah indicates that any contact with a leper, his dwelling, or any of his possessions would make a person ceremonially unclean. According to Leviticus 13:45 a leper was commanded to cry "unclean, unclean" when he was near any Israelite. According to Josephus there were many lepers in the land and they were forbidden to come into a city at all or to live with any anyone in a house. The leper was to be treated as a dead person.

Link: https://bible-history.com/backd2/leprosy.html

Anointing with the Alabaster Flask

The Bible mentions an alabaster flask or box or more accurately "an alabastron", a small contaner which was filled with costly spikenard (perfumed oil). Mary came to the house of Simon the leper to anoint Jesus by breaking the jar and pouring the spikenard on his head in Mark 14. In the ancient world one of the purposes for anointing the head was to show respect and honor to the person receiving it. Alabaster was a soft stone resembling marble, and many of these jars came from Egypt. Alabaster jars contained many interesting colors, some were translucent with veins of yellow, brown, and red. The alabaster jar usually contained olive oil, or a costly ointment or perfume. It had a long neck designed to restrict the flow and prevent waste. Mary broke the top in order to pour out the spikenard. [Life of Jesus]

Link: https://bible-history.com/jesus/jesusuntitled00000253.htm

Anointing with the Alabaster Flask

The Bible mentions an alabaster flask or box or more accurately "an alabastron", a small contaner which was filled with costly spikenard (perfumed oil). Mary came to the house of Simon the leper to anoint Jesus by breaking the jar and pouring the spikenard on his head in Mark 14. In the ancient world one of the purposes for anointing the head was to show respect and honor to the person receiving it. Alabaster was a soft stone resembling marble, and many of these jars came from Egypt. Alabaster jars contained many interesting colors, some were translucent with veins of yellow, brown, and red. The alabaster jar usually contained olive oil, or a costly ointment or perfume. It had a long neck designed to restrict the flow and prevent waste. Mary broke the top in order to pour out the spikenard. [Life of Jesus]

Link: https://bible-history.com/jesus/jesusuntitled00000253.htm

Jesus and the Leper

Luke 5:12-14 - And it came to pass, when he was in a certain city, behold a man full of leprosy: who seeing Jesus fell on his face, and besought him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. And he put forth his hand, and touched him, saying, I will: be thou clean. And immediately the leprosy departed from him. And he charged him to tell no man: but go, and shew thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing, according as Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them. Luke tells us that a man "full of leprosy" came to Jesus and "fell on his face." The leper came, perhaps from his primitive dwelling in the fields to speak with Jesus. He had no doubt heard Jesus message and believed in him. The Bible says the leper came to Jesus and "worshiped" him. He certainly knew that in the Law it was forbidden to bow down and worship any man, but only God. Jesus took note of this as the leper pleaded with him, "if you are willing you can make me clean," Jesus suddenly reached out and touched the man, and then spoke the word "I am willing, be clean" and the leprosy left the man. You can feel the compassion that Jesus had for this poor man, as Jesus reached out and touched him. This would have been a shock if anyone was close enough to observe, because touching a leper meant instant uncleanness. In reverence for the Law (Lev 14:2) he told the leper to go and present himself to the priest and offer the gift as a testimony to them.

Link: https://bible-history.com/backd2/leprosy.html

Leprosy in the Ancient World

During ancient biblical times there was a loathsome disease called leprosy (Heb. tzarah meaning smitten and Gr. lepra meaning scaly) of which there was no known cure. It was an uncontrollable, slowly growing disease that would cause swollen lumps on the skin and ulcerous scabs all over the body. There was a numbness sensation that caused the leper to scratch himself, and damage his body unknowingly. A leprous person would look scaly and very deformed, their hair and body was noticeably white and therefore they were easy to identify. Their bodies would rot, body parts would deform, and fingers and toes and sometimes feet would fall off. The leper would drag himself along and his voice would often sound like a dog growling or howling in pain. The only hope and rest for the leper was death.

Link: https://bible-history.com/backd2/leprosy.html

The Separation of Lepers

In biblical times lepers were considered unclean, and they were forced to separate themselves from the public. The mere touch of a leper brought uncleanness, and breathing the same air of a leper was believed to be dangerous. When someone was pronounced "leprous" they were looked upon as dead and cast out of society to dwell in a special place or colony in the wilderness, living in caves or tents. In ancient Israel lepers were commanded to wear certain clothes, keep themselves a certain distance from people, wear special bells, and they had to cry "unclean unclean" if someone was too close (Lev 13:45). The rabbis viewed leprosy as a chastisement from God because of moral issues.

Link: https://bible-history.com/backd2/leprosy.html

The Law of Moses and Leprosy

The ancient Jewish Law made no provision for the cleansing of a leper, but only the ability to declare someone clean who had been suspected of leprosy. The Law required lepers to be quarantined, and there were strict rules for ceremonial cleansing. For a man that was suspected of leprosy the priest would make the decision if the disease was harmless or dangerous. He would examine the skin, hair, and beard and if the man was "smitten with the plague of leprosy" he would be cast out of society. The priest would also give the word if the disease was harmless and the man would be considered "ceremonially clean" and he could live a normal life.

Link: https://bible-history.com/backd2/leprosy.html

The Tax Collectors - Bible History Online

The Tax Collectors, Overview , Their Name, Their History , Their Customs , NT Tax Collectors , Jesus and Tax Collectors, Dictionaries , Encyclopedias , Index, Conclusion

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/

Overview of the Tax Collectors

The Jewish people were under the yoke of foreign oppressors ever since the Babylonian captivity. During the New Testament times the land of Israel was within the province of Syria and the tax collectors were collectors of Roman taxes, they were extortioners, and very despised. The Jews detested these tax collectors not only on account of their abusive and tyrannical attitude, but because the very taxes that they were forced to collect by the Roman government were a badge of servitude and a constant reminder that God had forsaken His people. The tax collectors were always classed by the people with the harlots, usurers, gamblers, thieves, and dishonest herdsmen, who lived promiscuous, lawless lives. Some of the common terms for the tax collectors were "licensed robbers" and "beasts in human shape." According to Rabbinism there was no hope for a tax collector. They were excluded from all religious fellowship including the Temple and Synagogue. Their money was considered tainted and it defiled anyone who accepted it. They could not serve as a witness in any court in Israel. The Rabbis had no word to describe any sort of help for the tax collector, because they expected him to externally conform to the law in order to be justified before God. Ancient Jewish writings reveal some interesting views of Rabbis toward the tax collectors: "As one robber disgraced his whole family, so one publican in a family; promises were not to be kept with murderers, thieves and publicans" -Nedar 3:4 "The synagogue alms box and the temple corban must not receive their alms" -Baba Kama 10:1 "It was not lawful to use riches received from them, as gotten by rapine; nor could they judge or give testimony in court -Sanhedr. 25, sec. 2 The attitude of Jesus toward the tax collectors was in stark contrast to that of the Rabbis. He had come to seek and save the lost. The Pharisees were separatists, and did not lower themselves to have anything to do with a tax collector, who was to them no better than a Gentile. But Jesus came not to condemn anyone, but to save every sinner and offer a better life. He never taught that there was anything inherently wrong with paying tribute to the Roman Government or collecting the tax. He was opposed to extortioners, but would fling open the door of repentance and salvation to them. He rejected none, not even the worst. Jesus made himself a friend of men, even of the tax collectors and the worst of sinners. He set a new precedent among the Jews by accepting and associating with the tax collectors. He ate with them (Mark 2:16), He offered salvation to them (Luke 19:9), and He even chose a tax collector (Matthew) as one of His twelve disciples (Matt 9:9). Luke 18:9-14 "Also He spoke this parable to some who trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others: Two men went up to the temple to pray, one a Pharisee and the other a tax collector. The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, 'God, I thank You that I am not like other men--extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this tax collector. I fast twice a week; I give tithes of all that I possess.' And the tax collector, standing afar off, would not so much as raise his eyes to heaven, but beat his breast, saying, 'God, be merciful to me a sinner!' I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other; for everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and he who humbles himself will be exalted."

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSOverview.htm

Views of the Rabbi's Toward Tax Collectors

According to Rabbinism there was no hope for a tax collector. They were excluded from all religious fellowship including the Temple and Synagogue. Their money was considered tainted and it defiled anyone who accepted it. They could not serve as a witness in any court in Israel. The Rabbis had no word to describe any sort of help for the tax collector, because they expected him to externally conform to the law in order to be justified before God. Ancient Jewish writings reveal some interesting views of Rabbis toward the tax collectors: "As one robber disgraced his whole family, so one publican in a family; promises were not to be kept with murderers, thieves and publicans" -Nedar 3:4 "The synagogue alms box and the temple corban must not receive their alms" -Baba Kama 10:1 "It was not lawful to use riches received from them, as gotten by rapine; nor could they judge or give testimony in court -Sanhedr. 25, sec. 2

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSOverview.htm

Jesus' Attitude Toward Tax Collectors

The attitude of Jesus toward the tax collectors was in stark contrast to that of the Rabbis. He had come to seek and save the lost. The Pharisees were separatists, and did not lower themselves to have anything to do with a tax collector, who was to them no better than a Gentile. But Jesus came not to condemn anyone, but to save every sinner and offer a better life. He never taught that there was anything inherently wrong with paying tribute to the Roman Government or collecting the tax. He was opposed to extortioners, but would fling open the door of repentance and salvation to them. He rejected none, not even the worst. Jesus made himself a friend of men, even of the tax collectors and the worst of sinners. He set a new precedent among the Jews by accepting and associating with the tax collectors. He ate with them (Mark 2:16), He offered salvation to them (Luke 19:9), and He even chose a tax collector (Matthew) as one of His twelve disciples (Matt 9:9). Luke 18:9-14 "Also He spoke this parable to some who trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others: Two men went up to the temple to pray, one a Pharisee and the other a tax collector. The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, 'God, I thank You that I am not like other men--extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this tax collector. I fast twice a week; I give tithes of all that I possess.' And the tax collector, standing afar off, would not so much as raise his eyes to heaven, but beat his breast, saying, 'God, be merciful to me a sinner!' I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other; for everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and he who humbles himself will be exalted."

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSOverview.htm

The Term Tax Collector

The term "tax collector" or "tax gatherer" is from the Greek word "telones" and the King James Version of the Bible translates the word "publican," although the Greek word telones were really NOT the publicans. Publicans were wealthy men, usually non-Jewish, who contracted with the Roman government to be responsible for the taxes of a particular district of the imperial Roman state. The Publican collected income tax for Rome. Sometime around 200 B.C. the Roman Senate found it fitting to farm the vectigalia (direct taxes) and the portoria (customs) to capitalists, who agreed to pay a substantial sum into the publicum (treasury) and so received the name of publicani. The Roman class who handled the contracts and financial arrangements were called equites. They often went further in their dealings with the publicani and formed a joint-stock societas (company) partnership with them or one of their agents magister (manager). This manager usually resided at Rome and conducted business and paying profits to all partners through the submagistri (officer) who lived among the provinces. Directly under their authority were the portitores (customhouse officers) who would examine all goods, whether imported or exported, assess the value, wrote out a ticket and enforced payment. They would live within the province where they were stationed and come into contact with all classes of the population. It was these portitores who were referred to as the Tax Gatherers (telones) in the New Testament.

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSName.htm

History of the Tax Collectors

The Tax Collectors in the Roman Empire The Tax Collector or Tax Gatherer is the Greek word "telones" and the King James Version of the Bible translates the word "publican." He was contracted by Rome to collect taxes for the government during New Testament times. The Greek word telones were really NOT the publicans. Publicans were wealthy men, usually non-Jewish, who contracted with the Roman government to be responsible for the taxes of a particular district of the imperial Roman state. These publicans would often be backed by military force. The telones tax collectors to which the New Testament refers (with the exception of Zacchaeus?) were employed by publicans to do the actual collecting of taxes within the areas where they lived. These men were Jews, usually not very wealthy, who could be seen in the Temple (Luke 18:13). They were probably very familiar with the people from whom they collected taxes. The Publican collected income tax for Rome. Sometime around 200 B.C. the Roman Senate found it fitting to farm the vectigalia (direct taxes) and the portoria (customs) to capitalists, who agreed to pay a substantial sum into the publicum (treasury) and so received the name of publicani. The Roman class who handled the contracts and financial arrangements were called equites. They often went further in their dealings with the publicani and formed a joint-stock societas (company) partnership with them or one of their agents magister (manager). This manager usually resided at Rome and conducted business and paying profits to all partners through the submagistri (officer) who lived among the provinces. Directly under their authority were the portitores (customhouse officers) who would examine all goods, whether imported or exported, assess the value, wrote out a ticket and enforced payment. They would live within the province where they were stationed and come into contact with all classes of the population. It was these portitores who were referred to as the Tax Gatherers (telones) in the New Testament. These tax-gatherers were usually Jews and would collect taxes for Rome and it was understood that they were to keep a "fraction" for themselves. There was really no real way to prevent that fraction from assuming great proportions, and in fact fraudulent exactions were encouraged. Although there were some honorable exceptions, the publicans, great and small, were really extortioners. Luke 3:12-15 "Then tax collectors also came to be baptized, and said to him, "Teacher, what shall we do?" And he said to them, "Collect no more than what is appointed for you." Likewise the soldiers asked him, saying, "And what shall we do?" So he said to them, "Do not intimidate anyone or accuse falsely, and be content with your wages." The Jewish people were outraged by the Publicans and regarded them as traitors and apostates. They were considered defiled by their constant contact with the heathen, even Rome’s willing instruments of oppression. Zacchaeus was called a "chief tax-gatherer" (Greek: ‘architelones’) in Luke 19:2 and his kind were utterly despised. Yet Jesus showed mercy on him: Luke 19:8-10 "Then Zacchaeus stood and said to the Lord, "Look, Lord, I give half of my goods to the poor; and if I have taken anything from anyone by false accusation, I restore fourfold." And Jesus said to him, "Today salvation has come to this house, because he also is a son of Abraham; for the Son of Man has come to seek and to save that which was lost." In Augustus's day (27 B.C.-A.D. 14) the practice of selling tax-collection contracts to joint-stock companies ceased, and tax collectors were put on the public payroll. Thus a kind of Internal Revenue Service was established and continued through the rest of the NT period. Edersheim makes an interesting comment: "The Talmud distinguishes two classes of publicans-the tax-gatherer in general (Gabbai) and the Mokhes or Mokhsa, who was specially the douanier, or customhouse official. Although both classes fell under the rabbinic ban, the douanier-such as Matthew was-was the object of chief execration. And this because his exactions were more vexatious and gave more scope to rapacity. The Gabbai, or tax-gatherer, collected the regular dues, which consisted of ground, income, and poll tax. . . . If this offered many opportunities for vexatious exactions and rapacious injustice, the Mokhes might inflict much greater hardship upon the poor people. There was a tax and duty upon all imports and exports; on all that was bought and sold; bridge money, road money, harbor dues, town dues, etc. The classical reader knows the ingenuity which could invent a tax and find a name for every kind of exaction, such as on axles, wheels, pack animals, pedestrians, roads, highways; on admission to markets; on carriers, bridges, ships, and quays; on crossing rivers, on dams, on licenses-in short, on such a variety of objects that even the research of modern scholars has not been able to identify all the names. But even this was as nothing compared to the vexation of being constantly stopped on the journey, having to unload all one's pack animals, when every bale and package was opened, and the contents tumbled about, private letters opened, and the Mokhes ruled supreme in his insolence and rapacity" (Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, 1:515 ff.). These tax collectors gathered several different types of taxes. Rome levied upon the Jews a land tax, a poll tax, even a tax for the operation of the Temple. There were different kinds of taxes for every territory. For example, since some provinces, like Galilee, were not under an imperial governor, taxes remained in the province rather than going to the imperial treasury at Rome. This is one reason why the Pharisees in Judea (an imperial province) came to ask Jesus, "Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?" (Matt 22:17). Levi or Matthew, gathered the customs on exports and imports and taxes (Matt 9:9-11; Mark 2:14, etc.). The office for "receipt of custom" was at city gates, on public roads, or bridges. Levi's post was on the great road between Damascus and the seaports of Phoenicia. Zacchaeus' head quarters were in Jericho, which was a great center for the balsam trade. In fact this was the territory where the famed Marc Anthony purchased balsam plantations for Queen Cleopatra. It is interesting that when Jesus was in Jericho He preferred to eat at the publican’s house than any of the priests who lived in Jericho, who were said to have numbered over 10,000, which reveals the honor that He bestowed upon Zacchaeus and the scorn for the Jewish priesthood.

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSHistory.htm

The Customs of Tax Collectors

The Customs of Tax Collectors in the Roman Empire. "The tax collector could walk up to any traveler, on any road within his district and ask him to drop all of his goods in order to exact tax." The taxes levied by the Roman government were many and varied. There was first of all the poll tax (tributum capitis). This had to be paid by every male over fourteen and every female over twelve (the aged were exempt). There was the land tax (tributum agri), which was payable in kind. Both of these direct taxes were collected by officials in Palestine who were usually Jewish. Also there were many forms of indirect taxation. The people were taxed on all imports and exports, including the transportation of slaves. These were collected by the telones of the gospels. They examined goods and collected tolls on roads and bridges. There was also a market toll in Jerusalem introduced by Herod. Many scholars believe that the customs raised at Capernaum, in Galilee, went into the treasury of Herod Antipas. In senatorial provinces, the Roman senate seized the money. Judea, however, was an imperial province, and the revenue collected went into the treasury of the emperor. This is part of the reason that they asked Jesus the question: "Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?" (Matt 22 :17; Mark 12 :14; Luke 20:22). Luke 19:2 mentions a "chief tax collector" at Jericho. Josephus (Jos. War II. xiv. 4) speaks of a certain John who was a tax collector at Caesarea in A.D. 66 and evidently a prominent Jew. Alfred Edersheim makes an interesting comment: "The Talmud distinguishes two classes of publicans-the tax-gatherer in general (Gabbai) and the Mokhes or Mokhsa, who was specially the douanier, or customhouse official. Although both classes fell under the rabbinic ban, the douanier-such as Matthew was-was the object of chief execration. And this because his exactions were more vexatious and gave more scope to rapacity. The Gabbai, or tax-gatherer, collected the regular dues, which consisted of ground, income, and poll tax. . . . If this offered many opportunities for vexatious exactions and rapacious injustice, the Mokhes might inflict much greater hardship upon the poor people. There was a tax and duty upon all imports and exports; on all that was bought and sold; bridge money, road money, harbor dues, town dues, etc. The classical reader knows the ingenuity which could invent a tax and find a name for every kind of exaction, such as on axles, wheels, pack animals, pedestrians, roads, highways; on admission to markets; on carriers, bridges, ships, and quays; on crossing rivers, on dams, on licenses-in short, on such a variety of objects that even the research of modern scholars has not been able to identify all the names. But even this was as nothing compared to the vexation of being constantly stopped on the journey, having to unload all one's pack animals, when every bale and package was opened, and the contents tumbled about, private letters opened, and the Mokhes ruled supreme in his insolence and rapacity" (Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, 1:515 ff.).

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSCustoms.htm

Tax Collector Coin

The Tiberius Denarius

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSTiberius_Denarius.htm

Matthew the Tax Collector

The call of Matthew (Levi) and his reception in honor of Jesus (Mark 2:13-17 ; Matt. 9:9-13 ; Luke 5:27-37) . Jesus went out from the house of Peter to walk by the seaside. He needed a brief rest after the sharp conflict with His astute and stubborn enemies. This walk on the beach was a favorite haunt of His. There was place for physical recuperation in the salt-laden breezes and for quiet meditation and prayer after the heated debate. Soon the crowd was gathering about Him again. We do not know how many days of strenuous activity He had in the ministry by the sea before the call .of Levi. It may have been many days; but possibly it was on that same day that He passed by and "saw the son of Alpheus," who may have been the father of James the Less, also later of the Apostolic group. Levi was a custom-house official. The Talmud distinguishes between the tax collector and the custom house official. The Gabbai collected the regular real estate and income taxes and the poll tax; the Mockhes, the duty on imports, exports, toll on roads, bridges, the harbor, the town tax, and a great multiplicity of other variable taxes on an unlimited variety of things, admitting of much abuse and graft. The very word Mockhes was associated with the idea -of oppression and injustice. The taxes in Judea were levied by publicans, who were Jews, and therefore hated the more as direct officials of the heathen Roman power. Levi occupied the detestable position of a publican of the worst type --a little Mockhes, who himself stood in the Roman custom-house on the highway connecting Damascus and Ptolemais, and by the sea where all boats plied between the domains of Antipas and Philip. The name "publican," which applied to these officials, is derived from the :Latin word publicanus a man who did public duty. The Jews detested these publicans not only on account of their frequent abuses and tyrannical spirit, but because the very taxes they were forced to collect by the Roman government were a badge of servitude and a constant reminder that God had forsaken His people and land in spite of the Messianic hope, founded on many promises of the ancient prophets. The publicans were classed by the people with harlots, usurers, gamblers, thieves, and dishonest herdsmen, who lived hard, lawless lives. They were just "licensed robbers" and "beasts in human shape." According to Rabbinism there was no hope for a man like Levi. He was excluded from all religious fellowship including the Temple and Synagogue. His money was considered tainted and defiled anyone who accepted it. He could not serve as a witness. The Rabbis had no word of help for the publican, because they expected him by external conformity to the law to be justified before God. The attitude of Jesus toward the publican was in complete contrast to that of the Rabbis. He had come to seek and save the lost. The Pharisees were separatists, and did not deign to have anything to do with a publican, who was to them no better than a Gentile. But Jesus came not to condemn a whole class or any individuals, but to save every sinner to a better life. He refused to admit that there was anything inherently wrong with paying tribute to the Roman Government, while that continued supreme and maintained order in the land. Why was it wrong to collect the tax? Even though Levi and his colleagues .of the custom-house had been extortioners, Jesus would fling open the door of repentance and salvation to them. He despaired of none, not even the worst. Jesus made himself a friend of men, even of the publicans and the worst of sinners. By doing this, He "made Himself of no reputation" so far as the elite society was concerned. But He was a friend of all classes, the rich and the poor, the learned and the illiterate, the good and the bad. Capernaum, being located on the Via Maris and being a busy populous center, had a large custom-house with a correspondingly large number of tax-gatherers. It was located at the

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSMatthew.htm

The Well Hated Tax Collector

There is no one hated by a nation quite as much as an enemy collaborator. The tax collectors in Israel at the time of Christ were the leaches that sucked the financial blood out of the hard working laborers of Israeli society and transferred it into the coffers of the occupying Roman Empire, taking as much as they could for themselves. The tax collector made a sizable living. But part of his pay was the derision, disgust and isolation of his community. In rigid defiance he plodded through the condemning faces, the whispers, the threats and rage, multiplying his wealth and the emptiness of his soul. Here comes the new preacher from Nazareth, offering as his credentials, miracles, physical healing, and a voice of authority that even demonic presences obey. Having spent another day plundering the strongholds of hell over His people, He calls another to follow Him. Who would it be this time? It is Matthew, a tax collector! But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins...." Then he said to the paralytic, "Get up, take your mat and go home." And the man got up and went home. When the crowd saw this, they were filled with awe; and they praised God, who had given such authority to men. As Jesus went on from there, he saw a man named Matthew sitting at the tax collector's booth. "Follow me," he told him, and Matthew got up and followed him. While Jesus was having dinner at Matthew's house, many tax collectors and "sinners" came and ate with him and his disciples. When the Pharisees saw this, they asked his disciples, "Why does your teacher eat with tax collectors and `sinners'?" On hearing this, Jesus said, "It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. But go and learn what this means: `I desire mercy, not sacrifice.' For I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners." Matt. 9:6-13 The great physician calls to all who are sick, knowing that the disease of sin is terminal regardless of the kind of sin, degree of sin, or any biased human method of quantifying it. All have fallen short of the glory of God, and all are in desperate need of His love and forgiveness. The tax collectors that followed Christ took their place in the long line of notorious sinners who were grateful for the abundance of mercy that God offered and continues to offer to all who will call upon His name. Part of their message must be that if God can forgive an enemy collaborator, He can forgive me. In the end, and by God’s standard, have we not all collaborated with the true enemy of heaven? Haven’t we all been self-serving if we were honest enough to admit it? Thank God there is room for the tax collectors, and the sinners of all kinds in the Kingdom of Heaven, because that means that there is also room for you and me.

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSConclusion.htm

Window Scripture - 1 Chronicles 15:29

And it came to pass, [as] the ark of the covenant of the LORD came to the city of David, that Michal the daughter of Saul looking out at a window saw king David dancing and playing: and she despised him in her heart.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/15/

Window Scripture - Acts 20:9

And there sat in a window a certain young man named Eutychus, being fallen into a deep sleep: and as Paul was long preaching, he sunk down with sleep, and fell down from the third loft, and was taken up dead.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/20/

Window Scripture - Joshua 2:15

Then she let them down by a cord through the window: for her house [was] upon the town wall, and she dwelt upon the wall.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Joshua/2/

Window Scripture - Genesis 26:8

And it came to pass, when he had been there a long time, that Abimelech king of the Philistines looked out at a window, and saw, and, behold, Isaac [was] sporting with Rebekah his wife.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/26/

Window Scripture - Judges 5:28

The mother of Sisera looked out at a window, and cried through the lattice, Why is his chariot [so] long in coming? why tarry the wheels of his chariots?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Judges/5/

Window Scripture - 2 Kings 9:30

And when Jehu was come to Jezreel, Jezebel heard [of it]; and she painted her face, and tired her head, and looked out at a window.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/9/

Wine in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

win, win'-pres: I. Terms. 1. Wine: (1) (~yayin), apparently from a non-Tsere root allied to Greek oinos, Latin vinum, etc. This is the usual word for "wine" and is found 141 times in Massoretic Text. (2) chemer, perhaps "foaming" (Dt 32:14 and Massoretic Text Isa 27:2 (but see the English Revised Version margin)); Aramaic chamar (Ezr 6:9; 7:22; Dan 5:1,2,4,23). (3) tirosh. Properly this is the fresh grape juice (called also mishreh, Nu 6:3), even when still in the grape (Isa 65:8). But unfermented grape juice is a very difficult thing to keep without the aid of modern antiseptic precautions, and its preservation in the warm and not over-cleanly conditions of ancient Israel was impossible. Consequently, tirosh came to mean wine that was not fully aged (although with full intoxicating properties (Jdg 9:13; Hos 4:11; compare Acts 11:13)) or wine when considered specifically as the product of grapes (Dt 12:17; 18:4, etc.). The Septuagint always (except Isa 65:8; Hos 4:11) translates by oinos and the Targums by chamar. the King James Version has "wine" 26 times, "new wine" 11 times, "sweet wine" in Mic 6:15; the Revised Version (British and American) "vintage" in Nu 18:12; Mic 6:15 (with the same change in Neh 10:37,39 the Revised Version margin; Isa 62:8 the English Revised Version margin). Otherwise the English Revised Version has left the King James Version unchanged, while the American Standard Revised Version uses "new wine" throughout. (4) Two apparently poetic words are `acic (the Revised Version (British and American) "sweet wine," Isa 49:26; Am 9:13; Joel 1:5; 3:18, "juice"; Song 8:2), and cobhe' ("wine," Isa 1:22; "drink," Hos 4:18 (margin "carouse"); Nah 1:10). (5) For spiced wine three words occur: mecekh, Ps 75:8 (English Versions of the Bible "mixture"); mimcakh, Prov 23:30 ("mixed wine"); Isa 65:11 (the Revised Version (British and American) "mingled wine"); mezegh, Song 7:2 (the Revised Version (British and American) "mingled wine"); compare also yayin hareqach, Song 8:2 ("spiced wine"). (6) mamethaqqim, literally, "sweet," Neh 8:10. (7) shekhar (22 times), translated "strong drink" in English Versions of the Bible. Shekhar appears to mean "intoxicating drink" of any sort and in Nu 28:7 is certainly simply "wine" (compare also its use in parallelism to "wine" in Isa 5:11,22, etc.). In certain passages (Lev 10:9; Nu 6:3; 1 Sam 1:15, etc.), however, it is distinguished from "wine," and the meaning is not quite certain. But it would seem to mean "drink not made from grapes." Of such only pomegranate wine is named in the Bible (Song 8:2), but a variety of such preparations (made from apples, quinces, dates, barley, etc.) were known to the ancients and must have been used in Israel also. The translation "strong drink" is unfortunate, for it suggests "distilled liquor," "brandy," which is hardly in point. See DRINK, STRONG. (8) In the Apocrypha and New Testament "wine" represents oinos, with certain compounds, except in Acts 2:13, where the Greek is gleukos, "sweet," English Versions of the Bible "new wine." See also BLOOD; DRINK; FLAGON; FRUIT; HONEY. 2. Wine Press: (1) Properly speaking, the actual wine press was...

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Wine in Naves Topical Bible

Made from grapes Ge 40:11; 49:11; Isa 25:6; Jer 40:1,12 -From pomegranates So 8:2 -Kept in jars Jer 13:12; 48:12 -In skins (R. V.) Jos 9:4,13; Job 32:19; Mt 9:17; Lu 5:37,38 -In bottles Jos 9:4,13; Job 32:19; Jer 13:12; 48:12; Mt 9:17; Lu 5:37,38 -Cellars for 1Ch 27:27 -New Hag 1:11 -Old Lu 5:39 -Medicinal use of Pr 31:6,7 -Recommended by Paul to Timothy 1Ti 5:23 -Used at meals Mt 26:27-29; Mr 14:23 -Made by Jesus at the marriage feast in Cana Joh 2:9,10 -Sacramental use of Mt 26:27-29; Lu 22:17-20 -Forbidden to priests while on duty Le 10:9; Eze 44:21 -Forbidden to Nazarites Nu 6:2,3 -See NAZARITE -Abstinence from Of Daniel Da 1:5,8,16; 10:3 Of the courtiers of Ahasuerus Es 1:8 Of Timothy 1Ti 5:23 -Samson's mother forbidden to drink Jud 13:4,5 -Forbidden to kings Pr 31:4 -Denied to the Israelites in the wilderness, so that they could know that the Lord was their God De 29:6 -Offered with sacrifices Ex 29:40; Le 23:13; Nu 15:5,10; 28:7,14 -Given by Melchizedek to Abraham Ge 14:18 -Fermented Le 10:9; Nu 6:3; 28:7; De 14:26; 29:6; Pr 23:31,32; Mr 2:22 -Refined Isa 25:6; Jer 48:11 -Of staggering (R. V.) Ps 60:3 -Inflames the eyes Ge 49:12 -Commerce in Re 18:13 -Banquets of Es 5:6 -Cheap wine (like vinegar) given to Jesus at the crucifixion Mt 27:48; Mr 15:23; Lu 23:36; Joh 19:29 -Intoxication from the use of Ps 104:15; Pr 4:17 -INSTANCES OF INTOXICATION FROM Noah Ge 9:21 Lot Ge 19:32 Joseph and his brothers Ge 43:34 Nabal 1Sa 25:36 Amnon 2Sa 13:28,29 Ahasuerus Es 1:10 Kings of Israel Ho 7:5 Falsely charged against the disciples Ac 2:13 -FIGURATIVE Of the divine judgments Ps 60:3; 75:8; Jer 51:7 Of the joy of wisdom Pr 9:2,5 Of the joys of spiritual matters Isa 25:6; 55:1; Joe 2:19 Of abominations Re 14:8; 16:19 -SYMBOLICAL Of the blood of Jesus Mt 26:28; Mr 14:23,24; Lu 22:20; Joh 6:53-56 -UNCLASSIFIED SCRIPTURES RELATING TO De 14:26; 33:28; 2Ki 18:32; 2Ch 32:28; Ne 10:39; Ps 4:7; 104:14,15; Pr 31:6,7; Ec 2:3,11; Isa 56:12; Ho 2:8,22; 7:14; Joe 1:5; 2:24; 3:3; Am 6:6; Hab 2:5; Hag 1:11; Zec 9:17; 10:7; 1Ti 5:23 See VINE See VINEYARD -ADMONITIONS AGAINST THE USE OF Le 10:9; Nu 6:3; Jud 13:4; Pr 20:1; 21:17; 23:29-32; 31:4,5; Isa 5:11,22; 24:9; 28:1,3,7; Jer 23:9; 35:2-10,14,18,19; Eze 44:21; Ho 4:11; Lu 1:15; Ro 14:21; Eph 5:18; Tit 2:3

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Wine in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The manufacture of wine is carried back in the Bible to the age of Noah, Ge 9:20,21 to whom the discovery of the process is apparently, though not explicitly, attributed. The natural history and culture of the vine are described under a separate head. [VINE] The only other plant whose fruit is noticed as having been converted into wine was the pomegranate. So 8:2 In Israel the vintage takes place in September, and is celebrated with great rejoicing. The ripe fruit was gathered in baskets, Jer 6:9 as represented in Egyptian paintings, and was carried to the wine-press. It was then placed in the upper one of the two vats or receptacles of which the winepress was formed, and was subjected to the process of "treading," which has prevailed in all ages in Oriental and south European countries. Ne 13:15; Job 24:11; Isa 18:10; Jer 25:30; 48:33; Am 9:13; Re 19:15 A certain amount of juice exuded front the ripe fruit from its own pressure before treading commenced. This appears to have been kept separate from the rest of the juice, and to have formed the "sweet wine" noticed in Ac 2:13 [See below] The "treading" was effected by one or more men, according to the size of the vat. They encouraged one another by shouts. Isa 16:9,10; Jer 25:30; 48:33 Their legs and garments were dyed red with the juice. Ge 40:11; Isa 63:2,3 The expressed juice escaped by an aperture into the lower vat, or was at once collected in vessels. A hand-press was occasionally used in Egypt, but we have no notice of such an instrument in the Bible. As to the subsequent treatment of the wine we have but little information. Sometimes it was preserved in its unfermented state and drunk as must, but more generally it was bottled off after fermentation and if it were designed to be kept for some time a certain amount of lees was added to give it body. Isa 25:6 The wine consequently required to be "refined" or strained previous to being brought to table. Isa 25:6 To wine, is attributed the "darkly-flashing eye," Ge 40:12 Authorized Version "red," the unbridled tongue, Pr 20:1; Isa 28:7 the excitement of the spirit, Pr 31:6; Isa 5:11; Zec 9:15; 10:7 the enchained affections of its votaries, Ho 4:11 the perverted judgment, Pr 31:5; Isa 28:7 the indecent exposure, Hab 2:15,16 and the sickness resulting from the heat (chemah, Authorized Version "bottles") of wine. Ho 7:5 The allusions to the effects of tirosh are confined to a single passage, but this a most decisive one, viz. Ho 4:11 "Whoredom and wine (yayin) and new wine (tirosh) take away the heart," where tirosh appears as the climax of engrossing influences, in immediate connection with yayin. It has been disputed whether the Hebrew wine was fermented; but the impression produced on the mind by a general review of the above notices is that the Hebrew words indicating wine refer to fermented, intoxicating wine. The notices of fermentation are not very decisive. A certain amount of fermentation is implied in the distension of the leather bottles when new wine was placed in them, and which was liable to burst old bottles. It is very likely that new wine was preserved in the state of must by placing it in jars or bottles and then burying it in the earth. The mingling that we read of in conjunction with wine may have been designed either to increase or to diminish the strength of the wine, according as spices or water formed the ingredient that was added. The notices chiefly favor the former view; for mingled liquor was prepared for high festivals, Pr 9:2,5 and occasions of excess. Pr 23:30; Isa 5:22 At the same time strength was not the sole object sought; the wine "mingled with myrrh," given to Jesus, was designed to deaden pain, Mr 15:23 and the spiced pomegranate wine prepared by the bride, So 8:2 may well have been of a mild character. In the New Testament the character of the "sweet wine," noticed in Ac 2:13 calls for some little remark. It could not be new wine in the proper sense of the term, inasmuch as about eight months must have elapsed between the vintage and the feast of Pentecost. The explanations of the ancient lexicographers rather lead us to infer that its luscious qualities were due, not to its being recently made, but to its being produced from the very purest juice of the grape. There can be little doubt that the wines of palestine varied in quality, and were named after...

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Wine in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The common Hebrew word for wine is _yayin_, from a root meaning "to boil up," "to be in a ferment." Others derive it from a root meaning "to tread out," and hence the juice of the grape trodden out. The Greek word for wine is _oinos_, and the Latin _vinun_. But besides this common Hebrew word, there are several others which are thus rendered. (1.) Ashishah (2 Sam. 6:19; 1 Chr. 16:3; Cant. 2:5; Hos. 3:1), which, however, rather denotes a solid cake of pressed grapes, or, as in the Revised Version, a cake of raisins. (2.) 'Asis, "sweet wine," or "new wine," the product of the same year (Cant. 8:2; Isa. 49:26; Joel 1:5; 3:18; Amos 9:13), from a root meaning "to tread," hence juice trodden out or pressed out, thus referring to the method by which the juice is obtained. The power of intoxication is ascribed to it. (3.) Hometz. See VINEGAR -T0003771. (4.) Hemer, Deut. 32:14 (rendered "blood of the grape") Isa. 27:2 ("red wine"), Ezra 6:9; 7:22; Dan. 5:1, 2, 4. This word conveys the idea of "foaming," as in the process of fermentation, or when poured out. It is derived from the root _hamar_, meaning "to boil up," and also "to be red," from the idea of boiling or becoming inflamed. (5.) 'Enabh, a grape (Deut. 32:14). The last clause of this verse should be rendered as in the Revised Version, "and of the blood of the grape ['enabh] thou drankest wine [hemer]." In Hos. 3:1 the phrase in Authorized Version, "flagons of wine," is in the Revised Version correctly "cakes of raisins." (Comp. Gen. 49:11; Num. 6:3; Deut. 23:24, etc., where this Hebrew word is rendered in the plural "grapes.") (6.) Mesekh, properly a mixture of wine and water with spices that increase its stimulating properties (Isa. 5:22). Ps. 75:8, "The wine [yayin] is red; it is full of mixture [mesekh];" Prov. 23:30, "mixed wine;" Isa. 65:11, "drink offering" (R.V., "mingled wine"). (7.) Tirosh, properly "must," translated "wine" (Deut. 28:51); "new wine" (Prov. 3:10); "sweet wine" (Micah 6:15; R.V., "vintage"). This Hebrew word has been traced to a root meaning "to take possession of" and hence it is supposed that tirosh is so designated because in intoxicating it takes possession of the brain. Among the blessings promised to Esau (Gen. 27:28) mention is made of "plenty of corn and tirosh." Israel is called "a land of corn and tirosh" (Deut. 33:28; comp. Isa. 36:17). See also Deut. 28:51; 2 Chr. 32:28; Joel 2:19; Hos. 4:11, ("wine [yayin] and new wine [tirosh] take away the heart"). (8.) Sobhe (root meaning "to drink to excess," "to suck up," "absorb"), found only in Isa. 1:22, Hos. 4:18 ("their drink;" Gesen. and marg. of R.V., "their carouse"), and Nah. 1:10 ("drunken as drunkards;" lit., "soaked according to their drink;" R.V., "drenched, as it were, in their drink", i.e., according to their sobhe). (9.) Shekar, "strong drink," any intoxicating liquor; from a root meaning "to drink deeply," "to be drunken", a generic term applied to all fermented liquors, however obtained. Num. 28:7, "strong wine" (R.V., "strong drink"). It is sometimes distinguished from wine, c.g., Lev. 10:9, "Do not drink wine [yayin] nor strong drink [shekar];" Num. 6:3; Judg. 13:4, 7; Isa. 28:7 (in all these places rendered "strong drink"). Translated "strong drink" also in Isa. 5:11; 24:9; 29:9; 56:12; Prov. 20:1; 31:6; Micah 2:11. (10.) Yekebh (Deut. 16:13, but in R.V. correctly "wine-press"), a vat into which the new wine flowed from the press. Joel 2:24, "their vats;" 3:13, "the fats;" Prov. 3:10, "Thy presses shall burst out with new wine [tirosh];" Hag. 2:16; Jer. 48:33, "wine-presses;" 2 Kings 6:27; Job. 24:11. (11.) Shemarim (only in plural), "lees" or "dregs" of wine. In Isa. 25:6 it is rendered "wines on the lees", i.e., wine that has been kept on the lees, and therefore old wine. (12.) Mesek, "a mixture," mixed or spiced wine, not diluted with water, but mixed with drugs and spices to increase its strength, or, as some think, mingled with the lees by being shaken (Ps. 75:8; Prov. 23:30). In Acts 2:13 the word _gleukos_, rendered "new wine," denotes properly "sweet wine." It must have been intoxicating. In addition to wine the Hebrews also made use of what they called _debash_, which was obtained by boiling down must to one-half or one-third of its original bulk. In Gen. 43:11 this word is rendered "honey." It was a kind of syrup, and is called by the Arabs at the present day dibs. This word occurs in the phrase "a land flowing with milk and honey" (debash), Ex. 3:8, 17; 13:5; 33:3; Lev. 20:24; Num. 13: 27. (See HONEY -T0001809.) Our Lord miraculously supplied wine at the marriage feast in Cana of Galilee (John 2:1-11). The Rechabites were forbidden the use of wine (Jer. 35). The Nazarites also were to abstain from its use during the period of their vow (Num. 6:1-4); and those who were dedicated as Nazarites from their birth were perpetually to abstain from it (Judg. 13:4, 5; Luke 1:15; 7:33). The priests, too, were forbidden the use of wine and strong drink when engaged in their sacred functions (Lev. 10:1, 9-11). "Wine is little used now in the East, from the fact that Mohammedans are not allowed to taste it, and very few of other creeds touch it. When it is drunk, water is generally mixed with it, and this was the custom in the days of Christ also. The people indeed are everywhere very sober in hot climates; a drunken person, in fact, is never seen", (Geikie's Life of Christ). The sin of drunkenness, however, must have been not uncommon in the olden times, for it is mentioned either metaphorically or literally more than seventy times in the Bible. A drink-offering of wine was presented with the daily sacrifice (Ex. 29:40, 41), and also with the offering of the first-fruits (Lev. 23:13), and with various other sacrifices (Num. 15:5, 7, 10). Wine was used at the celebration of the Passover. And when the Lord's Supper was instituted, the wine and the unleavened bread then on the paschal table were by our Lord set apart as memorials of his body and blood. Several emphatic warnings are given in the New Testament against excess in the use of wine (Luke 21:34; Rom. 13:13; Eph. 5:18; 1 Tim. 3:8; Titus 1:7).

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Wine in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Tirosh is the most general term for "vintage fruit," put in connection with "corn and oil," necessaries (dagan, yitshar, rather more generally the produce of the field and the orchard) and ordinary articles of diet in Israel. It occurs 38 times, namely, six times by itself, eleven times with dagan, twice with yitshar, nineteen times with both dagan and yitshar. Besides, it is seven times with "firstfruits," ten times with "tithes" or "offerings" of fruits and grain; very rarely with terms expressing the process of preparing fruits or vegetable produce. Yayin is the proper term for "wine." In Micah 6:15, "thou shalt tread ... sweet wine (tirowsh, vintage fruit), but shalt not drink wine," the vintage fruit, that which is trodden, is distinguished from the manufactured "wine" which it yields. Tirowh is never combined with shemen "oil"; nor yitshar, "orchard produce," with "wine" the manufactured article. In Deuteronomy 11:14, "gather in thy grain, wine" (tirosh), it is described as a solid thing, eaten in Deuteronomy 12:7; compare 2 Chronicles 31:5-6. In Isaiah 65:8 "the tirowsh (vintage) is found in the cluster"; Isaiah 62:8-9, "the stranger shall not drink thy tirowsh, but they that have gathered it ... and brought it together (verbs hardly applicable to a liquid) shall drink it." Proverbs 3:10, "presses ... burst out with tirowsh"; and Joel 2:24, "fats shall overflow with tirowsh (vintage fruit) and yitshar." Deuteronomy 14:22-26, "tithe of tirowsh," not merely of wine but of the vintage fruit. Scripture denounces the abuse of yayin, "wine." Hosea 4:11, "whoredom, wine, and tirowsh take away the heart": the tirowsh is denounced not as evil in itself, but as associated with whoredom to which wine and grape cakes were stimulants; compare Hosea 3:1, "love pressed cakes of dried grapes" (not "flagons of wine"): Ezekiel 16:49. Yayin, from a root "boil up," is the extract from the grape, whether simple grape juice unfermented, or intoxicating wine; related to the Greek oinos, Latin vinum. Vinum, vitis, are thought related to Sanskrit we, "weave," viere. Chamar is the Chaldee equivalent to Hebrew yayin, the generic term for grape liquor. It literally, means "to foam" (Deuteronomy 32:14, "the blood of the grape, even wine," not "pure"): Ezra 6:9; Ezra 7:22; Daniel 5:1; Isaiah 27:2. 'asis, from a root to "tread," the grape juice newly expressed (Song of Solomon 8:2); "sweet wine" (Isaiah 49:26; Amos 9:13); "new wine" (Joel 1:5; Joel 3:18). Mesek; Psalm 75:8, translated"the wine is fermenting ('foaming with wine,' Hengstenberg), it is full ...

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Wine Scripture - 2 Chronicles 2:10

And, behold, I will give to thy servants, the hewers that cut timber, twenty thousand measures of beaten wheat, and twenty thousand measures of barley, and twenty thousand baths of wine, and twenty thousand baths of oil.

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Wine Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:26

And thou shalt bestow that money for whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatsoever thy soul desireth: and thou shalt eat there before the LORD thy God, and thou shalt rejoice, thou, and thine household,

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Wine Scripture - Deuteronomy 7:13

And he will love thee, and bless thee, and multiply thee: he will also bless the fruit of thy womb, and the fruit of thy land, thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil, the increase of thy kine, and the flocks of thy sheep, in the land which he sware unto thy fathers to give thee.

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Wine Scripture - Daniel 5:23

But hast lifted up thyself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of his house before thee, and thou, and thy lords, thy wives, and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them; and thou hast praised the gods of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know: and the God in whose hand thy breath [is], and whose [are] all thy ways, hast thou not glorified:

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Wine Scripture - 1 Samuel 10:3

Then shalt thou go on forward from thence, and thou shalt come to the plain of Tabor, and there shall meet thee three men going up to God to Bethel, one carrying three kids, and another carrying three loaves of bread, and another carrying a bottle of wine:

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Wine Scripture - Ezra 7:22

Unto an hundred talents of silver, and to an hundred measures of wheat, and to an hundred baths of wine, and to an hundred baths of oil, and salt without prescribing [how much].

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Wine Scripture - Isaiah 36:17

Until I come and take you away to a land like your own land, a land of corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards.

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Wine Scripture - John 2:9

When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence it was: (but the servants which drew the water knew;) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom,

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Wine Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:23

And thou shalt eat before the LORD thy God, in the place which he shall choose to place his name there, the tithe of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the firstlings of thy herds and of thy flocks; that thou mayest learn to fear the LORD thy God always.

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Wine Scripture - Deuteronomy 28:51

And he shall eat the fruit of thy cattle, and the fruit of thy land, until thou be destroyed: which [also] shall not leave thee [either] corn, wine, or oil, [or] the increase of thy kine, or flocks of thy sheep, until he have destroyed thee.

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Winepress in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

win, win'-pres: I. Terms. 1. Wine: (1) (~yayin), apparently from a non-Tsere root allied to Greek oinos, Latin vinum, etc. This is the usual word for "wine" and is found 141 times in Massoretic Text. (2) chemer, perhaps "foaming" (Dt 32:14 and Massoretic Text Isa 27:2 (but see the English Revised Version margin)); Aramaic chamar (Ezr 6:9; 7:22; Dan 5:1,2,4,23). (3) tirosh. Properly this is the fresh grape juice (called also mishreh, Nu 6:3), even when still in the grape (Isa 65:8). But unfermented grape juice is a very difficult thing to keep without the aid of modern antiseptic precautions, and its preservation in the warm and not over-cleanly conditions of ancient Israel was impossible. Consequently, tirosh came to mean wine that was not fully aged (although with full intoxicating properties (Jdg 9:13; Hos 4:11; compare Acts 11:13)) or wine when considered specifically as the product of grapes (Dt 12:17; 18:4, etc.). The Septuagint always (except Isa 65:8; Hos 4:11) translates by oinos and the Targums by chamar. the King James Version has "wine" 26 times, "new wine" 11 times, "sweet wine" in Mic 6:15; the Revised Version (British and American) "vintage" in Nu 18:12; Mic 6:15 (with the same change in Neh 10:37,39 the Revised Version margin; Isa 62:8 the English Revised Version margin). Otherwise the English Revised Version has left the King James Version unchanged, while the American Standard Revised Version uses "new wine" throughout. (4) Two apparently poetic words are `acic (the Revised Version (British and American) "sweet wine," Isa 49:26; Am 9:13; Joel 1:5; 3:18, "juice"; Song 8:2), and cobhe' ("wine," Isa 1:22; "drink," Hos 4:18 (margin "carouse"); Nah 1:10). (5) For spiced wine three words occur: mecekh, Ps 75:8 (English Versions of the Bible "mixture"); mimcakh, Prov 23:30 ("mixed wine"); Isa 65:11 (the Revised Version (British and American) "mingled wine"); mezegh, Song 7:2 (the Revised Version (British and American) "mingled wine"); compare also yayin hareqach, Song 8:2 ("spiced wine"). (6) mamethaqqim, literally, "sweet," Neh 8:10. (7) shekhar (22 times), translated "strong drink" in English Versions of the Bible. Shekhar appears to mean "intoxicating drink" of any sort and in Nu 28:7 is certainly simply "wine" (compare also its use in parallelism to "wine" in Isa 5:11,22, etc.). In certain passages (Lev 10:9; Nu 6:3; 1 Sam 1:15, etc.), however, it is distinguished from "wine," and the meaning is not quite certain. But it would seem to mean "drink not made from grapes." Of such only pomegranate wine is named in the Bible (Song 8:2), but a variety of such preparations (made from apples, quinces, dates, barley, etc.) were known to the ancients and must have been used in Israel also. The translation "strong drink" is unfortunate, for it suggests "distilled liquor," "brandy," which is hardly in point. See DRINK, STRONG. (8) In the Apocrypha and New Testament "wine" represents oinos, with certain compounds, except in Acts 2:13, where the Greek is gleukos, "sweet," English Versions of the Bible "new wine." See also BLOOD; DRINK; FLAGON; FRUIT; HONEY. 2. Wine Press: (1) Properly speaking, the actual wine press was...

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Winepress in Naves Topical Bible

General scriptures concerning Nu 18:27,30; De 15:14; Jud 6:11 -In vineyards Isa 5:2; Mt 21:33; Mr 12:1 -Trodden with joy and shouting Jer 48:33 -FIGURATIVE Treading the, of the sufferings of Christ Isa 63:2,3 Of the judgments of God La 1:15; Re 14:19,20

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Winepress in Smiths Bible Dictionary

From the scanty notices contained in the Bible we gather that, the wine-presses of the Jews consisted of two receptacles of vats placed at different elevations, in the upper one of which the grapes were trodden, while the lower one received the expressed juice. The two vats are mentioned together only in Joe 3:13 "The press is full: the fats overflow" --the upper vat being full of fruit, the lower one overflowing with the must. [WINE] The two vats were usually hewn out of the solid rock. Isa 5:2 margin; Mt 21:33 Ancient winepresses, so constructed, are still to he seen in Israel.

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Winepress in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Consisted of two vats or receptacles, (1) a trough (Heb. gath, Gr. lenos) into which the grapes were thrown and where they were trodden upon and bruised (Isa. 16:10; Lam. 1:15; Joel 3:13); and (2) a trough or vat (Heb. yekebh, Gr. hypolenion) into which the juice ran from the trough above, the gath (Neh. 13:15; Job 24:11; Isa. 63:2, 3; Hag. 2:16; Joel 2:24). Wine- presses are found in almost every part of Israel. They are "the only sure relics we have of the old days of Israel before the Captivity. Between Hebron and Beersheba they are found on all the hill slopes; they abound in southern Judea; they are no less common in the many valleys of Carmel; and they are numerous in Galilee." The "treading of the wine-press" is emblematic of divine judgment (Isa. 63:2; Lam. 1:15; Rev. 14:19, 20).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/W/Wine-press/

Winepress Scripture - Judges 7:25

And they took two princes of the Midianites, Oreb and Zeeb; and they slew Oreb upon the rock Oreb, and Zeeb they slew at the winepress of Zeeb, and pursued Midian, and brought the heads of Oreb and Zeeb to Gideon on the other side Jordan.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Judges/7/

Winepress Scripture - Lamentations 1:15

The Lord hath trodden under foot all my mighty [men] in the midst of me: he hath called an assembly against me to crush my young men: the Lord hath trodden the virgin, the daughter of Judah, [as] in a winepress.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Lamentations/1/

Winepress Scripture - Lamentations 1:15

The Lord hath trodden under foot all my mighty [men] in the midst of me: he hath called an assembly against me to crush my young men: the Lord hath trodden the virgin, the daughter of Judah, [as] in a winepress.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Lamentations/1/

Winepress Scripture - Deuteronomy 15:14

Thou shalt furnish him liberally out of thy flock, and out of thy floor, and out of thy winepress: [of that] wherewith the LORD thy God hath blessed thee thou shalt give unto him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/15/

Winepress Scripture - Isaiah 5:2

And he fenced it, and gathered out the stones thereof, and planted it with the choicest vine, and built a tower in the midst of it, and also made a winepress therein: and he looked that it should bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild grapes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/5/

Winepress Scripture - 2 Kings 6:27

And he said, If the LORD do not help thee, whence shall I help thee? out of the barnfloor, or out of the winepress?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/6/

Winepress Scripture - Revelation 14:19

And the angel thrust in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth, and cast [it] into the great winepress of the wrath of God

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/14/

Winepress Scripture - Numbers 18:30

Therefore thou shalt say unto them, When ye have heaved the best thereof from it, then it shall be counted unto the Levites as the increase of the threshingfloor, and as the increase of the winepress.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Numbers/18/

Winepress Scripture - Isaiah 63:3

I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people [there was] none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/63/

Winepress Scripture - Matthew 21:33

Hear another parable: There was a certain householder, which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and digged a winepress in it, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/21/

Winepress Scripture - Revelation 19:15

And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/19/

Winnowing in Naves Topical Bible

Of grain Ru 3:2; Isa 30:24; Mt 3:12

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/W/WINNOWING/

Winnowing in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Corn was winnowed, (1.) By being thrown up by a shovel against the wind. As a rule this was done in the evening or during the night, when the west wind from the sea was blowing, which was a moderate breeze and fitted for the purpose. The north wind was too strong, and the east wind came in gusts. (2.) By the use of a fan or van, by which the chaff was blown away (Ruth 3:2; Isa. 30:24; Jer. 4:11, 12; Matt. 3:12).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/W/Winnow/

Winnowing Scripture - Ruth 3:2

And now [is] not Boaz of our kindred, with whose maidens thou wast? Behold, he winnoweth barley to night in the threshingfloor.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ruth/3/

Winnowing Scripture - Isaiah 30:24

The oxen likewise and the young asses that ear the ground shall eat clean provender, which hath been winnowed with the shovel and with the fan.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/30/

Woman in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

woom'-an ('ishshah, "a woman" (feminine of 'ish, "a man"]; gune, "a woman" "wife"): I. IN THE CREATIVE PLAN II. IN OLD TESTAMENT TIMES 1. Prominence of Women 2. Social Equality 3. Marriage Laws 4. Inheritance 5. Domestic Duties 6. Dress and Ornaments 7. Religious Devotion and Service (1) in Idolatry and False Religion (2) in Spiritual Religion III. INTER-TESTAMENTAL ERA IV. IN NEW TESTAMENT TIMES 1. Mary and Elisabeth 2. Jesus and Women 3. In the Early Church 4. Official Service 5. Widows 6. Deaconesses IV. LATER TIMES 1. Changes in Character and Condition 2. Notable Examples of Christian Womanhood 3. Woman in the 20th Century The generic term "man" includes woman. In the narrative of the creation (Gen 1:26,27) Adam is a collective term for mankind. It may signify human being, male or female, or humanity entire. "God said, Let us make man .... and let them" (Gen 1:26), the latter word "them" defining "man" in the former clause. So in Gen 1:27, "in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them," "them" being synonymous with "him." See also ADAM; ANTHROPOLOGY. I. In the Creative Plan. Whatever interpretation the latest scholarship may give to the story of woman's formation from the rib of man (Gen 2:21-24), the passage indicates, most profoundly, the inseparable unity and fellowship of her life with his. Far more than being a mere assistant, "helper" (`ezer "help" "helper" Gen 2:18), she is man's complement, essential to the perfection of his being. Without her he is not man in the generic fullness of that term. Priority of creation may indicate headship, but not, as theologians have so uniformly affirmed, superiority. Dependence indicates difference of function, not inferiority. Human values are estimated in terms of the mental and spiritual. Man and woman are endowed for equality, and are mutually interdependent. Physical strength and prowess cannot be rated in the same category with moral courage and the capacity to endure ill-treatment, sorrow and pain; and in these latter qualities woman has always proved herself the superior. Man's historic treatment of woman, due to his conceit, ignorance or moral perversion, has taken her inferiority for granted, and has thus necessitated it by her enslavement and degradation. The narrative of the Fall (Gen 3) ascribes to woman supremacy of influence, for through her stronger personality man was led to disobedience of God's command. Her penalty for such ill- fated leadership was that her husband should "rule over" her (Gen 3:16), not because of any inherent superiority on his part, but because of her loss of prestige and power through sin. In that act she forfeited the respect and confidence which entitled her to equality of influence in family affairs. Her recovery...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/W/WOMAN/

Women in Naves Topical Bible

Creation of Ge 1:27; 2:21,22 -Named Ge 2:23 -Fall of, and curse upon Ge 3:1-16; 2Co 11:3; 1Ti 2:14 -Promise to Ge 3:15 -Had separate apartments in dwellings Ge 24:67; 31:33; Es 2:9,11 -Veiled the face Ge 24:65 -See VAIL -Vows of Nu 30:3-16 -When jealously charged with infidelity, their guilt or innocence was to be determined by an ordeal Nu 5:12-31 -Took part in ancient worship Ex 15:20; 21; 38:8; 1Sa 2:22 -In chorus 1Ch 25:5,6; Ezr 2:65; Ne 7:67 -Worshiped in separate compartments Ex 38:8; 1Sa 2:22 -Consecrated jewels to tabernacle Ex 35:22 -Mirrors Ex 38:8 -Required to attend to the reading of the law of Moses De 31:12; Jos 8:35 -Purifications of After menstruation Le 15:19-33; 2Sa 11:4 After childbirth Le 12; Lu 2:22 -Difference in ceremonies made between male and female children Le 12 -Religious privileges of, among early Christians Ac 1:14; 12:12,13; 1Co 11:5; 14:34; 1Ti 2:11 -Domestic duties of Ge 18:6; Pr 31:15-19; Mt 24:41 -Cooked Ge 18:6 -Spun Ex 35:25,26; 1Sa 2:19; Pr 31:19-24 -Embroidered Pr 31:22 -Made garments Ac 9:39 -Gleaned Ru 2:8 -Kept vineyards So 1:6 -Tended flocks and herds Ge 24:11,13,14,19,20; 29:9; Ex 2:16 -Worked in fields Isa 27:11; Eze 26:6,8 -Was a doorkeeper Mt 26:69; Joh 18:16,17; Ac 12:13,14 -Forbidden to wear men's costume...

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/W/WOMEN/

Women in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The position of women in the Hebrew commonwealth contrasts favorably with that which in the present day is assigned to them generally in eastern countries. The most salient point of contrast in the usages of ancient as compared with modern Oriental society was the large amount of liberty enjoyed by women. Instead of being immured in a harem, or appearing in public with the face covered. The wives and maidens of ancient times mingled freely and openly with the other sex in the duties and amenities of ordinary life. Rebekah travelled on a camel with her face unveiled until she came into the presence of her affianced. Ge 24:64,65 Jacob saluted Rachel with a kiss in the presence of the shepherds. Ge 29:11 Women played no inconsiderable part in public celebrations Ex 15:20,21; Jud 11:34 The odes of Deborah, Judg 5, and of Hannah, 1Sa 2:1 etc., exhibit a degree of intellectual cultivation which is in itself a proof of the position of the sex in that period. Women also occasionally held public office, particularly that of prophetess or inspired teacher. Ex 15:20; Jud 4:4; 2Ki 22:14; Ne 6:14; Lu 2:36 The management of household affairs devolved mainly on the women. The value of a virtuous and active housewife forms a frequent topic in the book of Proverbs. ch. Pr 11:16; 12:4; 14:1; 31:10 etc. Her influence was of course proportionably great.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/W/Women/

Woman in Easton's Bible Dictionary

was "taken out of man" (Gen. 2:23), and therefore the man has the preeminence. "The head of the woman is the man;" but yet honour is to be shown to the wife, "as unto the weaker vessel" (1 Cor. 11:3, 8, 9; 1 Pet. 3:7). Several women are mentioned in Scripture as having been endowed with prophetic gifts, as Miriam (Ex. 15:20), Deborah (Judg. 4:4, 5), Huldah (2 Kings 22:14), Noadiah (Neh. 6:14), Anna (Luke 2:36, 37), and the daughters of Philip the evangelist (Acts 21:8, 9). Women are forbidden to teach publicly (1 Cor. 14:34, 35; 1 Tim. 2:11, 12). Among the Hebrews it devolved upon women to prepare the meals for the household (Gen. 18:6; 2 Sam. 13:8), to attend to the work of spinning (Ex. 35:26; Prov. 31:19), and making clothes (1 Sam. 2:19; Prov. 31:21), to bring water from the well (Gen. 24:15; 1 Sam. 9:11), and to care for the flocks (Gen. 29:6; Ex. 2:16). The word "woman," as used in Matt. 15:28, John 2:4 and 20:13, 15, implies tenderness and courtesy and not disrespect. Only where revelation is known has woman her due place of honour assigned to her.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/W/Woman/

Women in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Enjoyed a status in Israel not assigned to them in the East now. Mahometanism especially has degraded women in Asia and Africa; anciently they had a liberty not now accorded them, veiling was not then required as now: e.g. Rebekah, Genesis 24:64-65; Rachel, Genesis 29:11; Sarah, Genesis 12:14-19; Miriam led a band of women with triumphant song, Exodus 15:20- 21; so Jephthah's daughter, Judges 11:34; the maidens of Shiloh, Judges 21:21; the women meeting Saul and David after victory; 1 Samuel 18:6-7; Hannah, 1 Samuel 2:1; Deborah, Judges 4 and Judges 5; Huldah, 2 Kings 22:14; Noadiah, Nehemiah 6:14; Anna, Luke 2:36. The virtuous matron is admirably pictured Proverbs 31:10, etc. Polygamy transferred power from the wives to the queen mother (called therefore gebiraah "powerful"), 1 Kings 2:19; 1 Kings 15:13; separate establishments were kept for the wives collectively or individually, "the house of the women" (Esther 2:3; Esther 2:9; 1 Kings 7:8); the wives had severally a separate tent (Genesis 31:33); the women were present at table (John 2:3; John 12:2; Job 1:4).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/W/Women/

Women Scripture - Ezekiel 16:34

And the contrary is in thee from [other] women in thy whoredoms, whereas none followeth thee to commit whoredoms: and in that thou givest a reward, and no reward is given unto thee, therefore thou art contrary.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/16/

Women Scripture - Song of Solomon 5:9

What [is] thy beloved more than [another] beloved, O thou fairest among women? what [is] thy beloved more than [another] beloved, that thou dost so charge us?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Song+of+Solomon/5/

Women Scripture - 2 Kings 8:12

And Hazael said, Why weepeth my lord? And he answered, Because I know the evil that thou wilt do unto the children of Israel: their strong holds wilt thou set on fire, and their young men wilt thou slay with the sword, and wilt dash their children, and rip up their women with child.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/8/

Women Scripture - Revelation 9:8

And they had hair as the hair of women, and their teeth were as [the teeth] of lions.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/9/

Women Scripture - Ezekiel 23:45

And the righteous men, they shall judge them after the manner of adulteresses, and after the manner of women that shed blood; because they [are] adulteresses, and blood [is] in their hands.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/23/

Women Scripture - Esther 2:8

So it came to pass, when the king's commandment and his decree was heard, and when many maidens were gathered together unto Shushan the palace, to the custody of Hegai, that Esther was brought also unto the king's house, to the custody of Hegai, keeper of the women.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Esther/2/

Women Scripture - 2 Chronicles 35:25

And Jeremiah lamented for Josiah: and all the singing men and the singing women spake of Josiah in their lamentations to this day, and made them an ordinance in Israel: and, behold, they [are] written in the lamentations.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/35/

Women Scripture - Deuteronomy 20:14

But the women, and the little ones, and the cattle, and all that is in the city, [even] all the spoil thereof, shalt thou take unto thyself; and thou shalt eat the spoil of thine enemies, which the LORD thy God hath given thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/20/

Women Scripture - Nehemiah 13:26

Did not Solomon king of Israel sin by these things? yet among many nations was there no king like him, who was beloved of his God, and God made him king over all Israel: nevertheless even him did outlandish women cause to sin.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Nehemiah/13/

Women Scripture - Genesis 14:16

And he brought back all the goods, and also brought again his brother Lot, and his goods, and the women also, and the people.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/14/

Yoke in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

yok: (1) The usual word is `ol (Gen 27:40, etc.), less commonly the (apparently later) form moTah (Isa 58:6, etc.; in Nab 1:13 moT), which the Revised Version (British and American) in Jer 27; 28 translates "bar" (a most needless and obscuring change). The Greek in Apocrypha (Sirach 28:19, etc.) and in the New Testament (Mt 11:29 f, etc.) is invariably zugos. Egyptian monuments show a yoke that consisted of a straight bar fastened to the foreheads of the cattle at the root of the horns, and such yokes were no doubt used in Israel also; but the more usual form was one that rested on the neck (Gen 27:40, etc.). It was provided with straight "bars" (moToth in Lev 26:13; Ezek 34:27) projecting downward, against which the shoulders of the oxen pressed, and it was held in position by thongs or "bonds" (moceroth in Jer 2:20; 5:5; 27:2; 30:8; 'aghuddoth in Isa 58:6, "bands"), fastened under the animals' throats. Such yokes could of course be of any weight (1 Ki 12:4 ff), depending on the nature of the work to be done, but the use of "iron yokes" (Dt 28:48; Jer 28:13 f) must have been very rare, if, indeed, the phrase is anything more than a figure of speech. What is meant by "the yoke on their jaws" in Hos 11:4 is quite obscure. Possibly a horse's bit is meant; possibly the phrase is a condensed form for "the yoke that prevents their feeding"; possibly the text is corrupt. See JAW. The figurative use of "yoke" in the sense of "servitude" is intensely obvious (compare especially Jer 27, 28). Attention needs to be called only to Lam 3:27, where "disciplining sorrow" is meant, and to Jer 5:5, where the phrase is a figure for "the law of God." This last use became popular with the Jews at a later period and it is found, e.g. in Apocrypha Baruch 41:3; Psalter of Solomon 7:9; 17:32; Ab. iii.7,. and in this sense the phrase is employed. by Christ in Mt 11:29 f. "My yoke" here means "the service of God as I teach it" (the common interpretation, "the sorrows that I bear," is utterly irrelevant) and the emphasis is on "my." The contrast is not between "yoke" and "no yoke," but between "my teaching" (light yoke) and "the current scribal teaching'; (heavy yoke). (2) "Yoke" in the sense of "a pair of oxen" is tsemedh (1 Sam 11:7, etc.), or zeugos (Lk 14:19).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/Y/YOKE/

Yoke in Naves Topical Bible

FIGURATIVE Le 26:13; Isa 9:4; 10:27; Jer 2:20; 5:5; 28:2,4,10; 30:8; La 1:14; 3:27; Mt 11:29,30; Ac 15:10

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/Y/YOKE/

Yoke in Smiths Bible Dictionary

1. A well-known implement of husbandry, frequently used metaphorically for subjection, e.g. 1Ki 12:4,9-11; Isa 9:4; Jer 5:5 hence an "iron yoke" represents an unusually galling bondage. De 28:48; Jer 28:13 2. A pair of oxen, so termed as being yoked together. 1Sa 11:7; 1Ki 19:19,21 The Hebrew term is also applied to asses, Jud 19:10 and mules, 2Ki 5:17 and even to a couple of riders. Isa 21:7 3. The term is also applied to a certain amount of land, 1Sa 14:14 equivalent to that which a couple of oxen could plough in a day, Isa 5:10 (Authorized Version "acre"), corresponding to the Latin jugum.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/Y/Yoke/

Yoke in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(1.) Fitted on the neck of oxen for the purpose of binding to them the traces by which they might draw the plough, etc. (Num. 19:2; Deut. 21:3). It was a curved piece of wood called _'ol_. (2.) In Jer. 27:2; 28:10, 12 the word in the Authorized Version rendered "yoke" is _motah_, which properly means a "staff," or as in the Revised Version, "bar." These words in the Hebrew are both used figuratively of severe bondage, or affliction, or subjection (Lev. 26:13; 1 Kings 12:4; Isa. 47:6; Lam. 1:14; 3:27). In the New Testament the word "yoke" is also used to denote servitude (Matt. 11:29, 30; Acts 15:10; Gal. 5:1). (3.) In 1 Sam. 11:7, 1 Kings 19:21, Job 1:3 the word thus translated is _tzemed_, which signifies a pair, two oxen yoked or coupled together, and hence in 1 Sam. 14:14 it represents as much land as a yoke of oxen could plough in a day, like the Latin _jugum_. In Isa. 5:10 this word in the plural is translated "acres."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/Y/Yoke/

Yoke in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

mot, the wooden bow (ol) bound to the ox's neck: the two are combined, "bands of the yoke" (Leviticus 26:13; Ezekiel 34:27; Jeremiah 2:20, rather "thou hast broken the yoke and burst the bands which I laid on thee," i.e. My laws, setting them at defiance, Jeremiah 5:5; Psalm 2:3). Contrast the world's heavy yoke (1 Kings 12:4; 1 Kings 12:9; 1 Kings 12:11; Isaiah 9:11) with Christ's "easy yoke" (Matthew 11:29-30). Tsemed, a pair of oxen (1 Samuel 11:7), or donkeys (Judges 19:10); a couple of horsemen (Isaiah 21:7); also what land a pair of oxen could plow in a day (Isaiah 5:10, "ten acres," literally, ten yokes; Latin: jugum, jugerum; 1 Samuel 14:14).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/Y/Yoke/

Yokes Scripture - Ezekiel 30:18

At Tehaphnehes also the day shall be darkened, when I shall break there the yokes of Egypt: and the pomp of her strength shall cease in her: as for her, a cloud shall cover her, and her daughters shall go into captivity.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/30/

Yokes Scripture - Jeremiah 27:2

Thus saith the LORD to me; Make thee bonds and yokes, and put them upon thy neck,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/27/

Yokes Scripture - Jeremiah 28:13

Go and tell Hananiah, saying, Thus saith the LORD; Thou hast broken the yokes of wood; but thou shalt make for them yokes of iron.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/28/

Vineyard Scripture - Deuteronomy 28:30

Thou shalt betroth a wife, and another man shall lie with her: thou shalt build an house, and thou shalt not dwell therein: thou shalt plant a vineyard, and shalt not gather the grapes thereof.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/28/

Vineyard Scripture - 1 Kings 21:15

And it came to pass, when Jezebel heard that Naboth was stoned, and was dead, that Jezebel said to Ahab, Arise, take possession of the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite, which he refused to give thee for money: for Naboth is not alive, but dead.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/21/

Vineyard Scripture - Leviticus 25:3

Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/25/

Vineyard Scripture - Exodus 23:11

But the seventh [year] thou shalt let it rest and lie still; that the poor of thy people may eat: and what they leave the beasts of the field shall eat. In like manner thou shalt deal with thy vineyard, [and] with thy oliveyard.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/23/

Vineyard Scripture - 1 Kings 21:16

And it came to pass, when Ahab heard that Naboth was dead, that Ahab rose up to go down to the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite, to take possession of it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/21/

Vineyard Scripture - 1 Corinthians 9:7

Who goeth a warfare any time at his own charges? who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the fruit thereof? or who feedeth a flock, and eateth not of the milk of the flock?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Corinthians/9/

Vineyard Scripture - Deuteronomy 23:24

When thou comest into thy neighbour's vineyard, then thou mayest eat grapes thy fill at thine own pleasure; but thou shalt not put [any] in thy vessel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/23/

Vineyard Scripture - Isaiah 5:7

For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts [is] the house of Israel, and the men of Judah his pleasant plant: and he looked for judgment, but behold oppression; for righteousness, but behold a cry.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/5/

Vineyard Scripture - Micah 1:6

Therefore I will make Samaria as an heap of the field, [and] as plantings of a vineyard: and I will pour down the stones thereof into the valley, and I will discover the foundations thereof.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Micah/1/

Vineyard Scripture - Leviticus 25:4

But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest unto the land, a sabbath for the LORD: thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/25/

Washing in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

wosh, wosh'-ing: The two usual Hebrew words for "wash" are rachats, and kabhac, the former being normally used of persons or of sacrificial animals (Gen 18:4, etc., often translated "bathe"; Lev 15:5, etc.), and the latter of things (Gen 49:11, etc.), the exceptions to this distinction being few (for rachats, 1 Ki 22:38 margin; for kabhac, Ps 51:2,7; Jer 2:22; 4:14). Much less common are duach (2 Ch 4:6; Isa 4:4; Ezek 40:38) and shataph (1 Ki 22:38; Job 14:19; Ezek 16:9), translated "rinse" in Lev 6:28; 15:11,12. In Neh 4:23 the King James Version has "washing" and the Revised Version (British and American) "water" for mayim, but the text is hopelessly obscure (compare the Revised Version margin). In the Apocrypha and New Testament the range of terms is wider. Most common is nipto (Mt 6:17, etc.), with aponipto in Mt 27:24. Of the other terms, louo (Susanna verses 15,17; Jn 13:10, etc.), with apolouo (Acts 22:16; 1 Cor 6:11) and the noun loutron (Sirach 34:25b; Eph 5:26; Tit 3:5), usually has a sacral significance. On baptizo (Sirach 34:25a; Mk 7:4; Lk 11:38), with the noun baptismos (Mk 7:4 (text?); Heb 9:10), see BAPTISM. In Lk 5:2; Rev 7:14; 22:14 the Revised Version (British and American) occurs pluno, while Judith 10:3 has perikluzo. Virtually, as far as meaning is concerned, all these words are interchangeable. Of the figurative uses of washing, the most common and obvious is that of cleansing from sin (Ps 51:2; Isa 1:16, etc.), but, with an entirely different figure, "to wash in" may signify "to enjoy in plenty" (Gen 49:11; Job 29:6; the meaning in Song 5:12 is uncertain). Washing of the hands, in token of innocence, is found in Dt 21:6; Mt 27:24. The "washing balls" of Susanna verse 17 (smegma, a very rare word) were of soap.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/W/WASH;+WASHING/

Washing in Naves Topical Bible

Of hands, a token of innocence De 21:6; Ps 26:6; 73:13; Mt 27:24 -See ABLUTION -See PURIFICATION -FIGURATIVE Of regeneration Ps 51:7; Pr 30:12; Isa 1:16; 4:4; Zec 13:1; 1Co 6:11; Eph 5:26; Tit 3:5

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/W/WASHING/

Washing the Hands and Feet in Smiths Bible Dictionary

As knives and forks were not used in the East, in Scripture times, in eating, it was necessary that the hand, which was thrust into the common dish, should be scrupulously clean; and again, as sandals were ineffectual against the dust and heat of the climate, washing the feet on entering a house was an act both of respect to the company and of refreshment to the traveller. The former of these usages was transformed by the Pharisees of the New Testament age into a matter of ritual observance, Mr 7:3 and special rules were laid down as to the time and manner of its performance. Washing the feet did not rise to the dignity of a ritual observance except in connection with the services of the sanctuary. Ex 30:19,21 It held a high place, however, among the rites of hospitality. Immediately that a guest presented himself at the tent door it was usual to offer the necessary materials for washing the feet. Ge 18:4; 19:2; 24:32; 43:24; Jud 19:21 It was a yet more complimentary act, betokening equally humility and affection, if the host himself performed the office for his guest. 1Sa 25:41; Lu 7:38,44; Joh 13:5-14; 1Ti 5:10 Such a token of hospitality is still occasionally exhibited in the East.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/W/Washing+the+hands+and+feet/

Washing in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Mark 7:1-9). The Jews, like other Orientals, used their fingers when taking food, and therefore washed their hands before doing so, for the sake of cleanliness. Here the reference is to the ablutions prescribed by tradition, according to which "the disciples ought to have gone down to the side of the lake, washed their hands thoroughly, 'rubbing the fist of one hand in the hollow of the other, then placed the ten finger- tips together, holding the hands up, so that any surplus water might flow down to the elbow, and thence to the ground.'" To neglect to do this had come to be regarded as a great sin, a sin equal to the breach of any of the ten commandments. Moses had commanded washings oft, but always for some definite cause; but the Jews multiplied the legal observance till they formed a large body of precepts. To such precepts about ceremonial washing Mark here refers. (See ABLUTION -T0000051.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/W/Washing/

Washing in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The high priest's whole body was washed at his consecration (Exodus 29:4; Leviticus 16:4); also on the day of atonement. The priests' hands and feet alone were washed in the daily tabernacle ministrations (Exodus 30:18-20). So Christians are once for all wholly "bathed" (leloumenoi) in regeneration which is their consecration; and daily wash away their soils of hand and foot contracted in walking through this defiling world (John 13:10, Greek "he that has been bathed needs not save to wash (nipsasthai) his feet, but is clean all over": 2 Corinthians 7:1; Hebrews 10:22-23; Ephesians 5:26). The clothes of him who led away the scape- goat, and of the priest who offered the red heifer, were washed (Leviticus 16:26; Numbers 19:7). The Pharisaic washings of hands before eating, and of the whole body after being in the market (Mark 7:2-4), turned attention off from the spirit of the law, which aimed at teaching inward purity, to a mere outward purification. In the sultry and dusty East water for the feet was provided for the guests (Luke 7:44; Genesis 18:4). The Lord Jesus by washing His disciples' feet taught our need of His cleansing, and His great humility whereby that cleansing was effected (compare 1 Samuel 25:41; 1 Timothy 5:10). The sandals, without stockings, could not keep out dust from the feet; hence washing them was usual before either dining or sleeping (Song of Solomon 5:3). Again, the usage of thrusting the hand into a common dish rendered cleansing of the hand indispensable before eating. It was only when perverted into a self righteous ritual that our Lord protested against it (Matthew 15:2; Luke 11:38).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/W/Washing/

Washing Hands Scripture - Deuteronomy 21:6

And all the elders of that city, [that are] next unto the slain [man], shall wash their hands over the heifer that is beheaded in the valley:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/21/

Washing Hands Scripture - Psalms 26:6

I will wash mine hands in innocency: so will I compass thine altar, O LORD:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/26/

Washing Hands Scripture - Psalms 73:13

Verily I have cleansed my heart [in] vain, and washed my hands in innocency.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/73/

Washing Hands Scripture - Matthew 27:24

When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but [that] rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed [his] hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye [to it].

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/27/

Watchman in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

woch'-man (tsopheh, shomer, metsappeh, notser): Used to designate a sentinel on the city walls (2 Sam 18:25; 2 Ki 9:18; Ps 127:1; Isa 62:6) or on the hilltops (Jer 31:6). Song 3:3; 5:7 introduces another class, "the watchmen that go about the city," and thus, it would seem, points to some system of municipal police. The distinction in meaning between the various words is clear, tsopheh having the idea of "outlooker" and notser that of "careful watcher" (being applied even to besiegers from outside: Jer 4:16, "watchers"), while shomer also embraces the idea of "defending" or "guarding." In Isa 21:6 metsappeh is to be taken generally in the sense of "watch." In Sirach 37:14 skopos, means simply "looker."

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/W/WATCHMAN/

Watchtower Scripture - Isaiah 21:5

Prepare the table, watch in the watchtower, eat, drink: arise, ye princes, [and] anoint the shield.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/21/

Watchtower Scripture - Isaiah 21:8

And he cried, A lion: My lord, I stand continually upon the watchtower in the daytime, and I am set in my ward whole nights:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/21/

Watchman Scripture - Psalms 127:1

Except the LORD build the house, they labour in vain that build it: except the LORD keep the city, the watchman waketh [but] in vain.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/127/

Watchman Scripture - Ezekiel 33:2

Son of man, speak to the children of thy people, and say unto them, When I bring the sword upon a land, if the people of the land take a man of their coasts, and set him for their watchman:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/33/

Watchman Scripture - 2 Samuel 18:27

And the watchman said, Me thinketh the running of the foremost is like the running of Ahimaaz the son of Zadok. And the king said, He [is] a good man, and cometh with good tidings.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/18/

Watchman Scripture - 2 Kings 9:18

So there went one on horseback to meet him, and said, Thus saith the king, [Is it] peace? And Jehu said, What hast thou to do with peace? turn thee behind me. And the watchman told, saying, The messenger came to them, but he cometh not again.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/9/

Watchman Scripture - 2 Kings 9:17

And there stood a watchman on the tower in Jezreel, and he spied the company of Jehu as he came, and said, I see a company. And Joram said, Take an horseman, and send to meet them, and let him say, [Is it] peace?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/9/

Watchman Scripture - Ezekiel 33:6

But if the watchman see the sword come, and blow not the trumpet, and the people be not warned; if the sword come, and take [any] person from among them, he is taken away in his iniquity; but his blood will I require at the watchman's hand.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/33/

Watchman Scripture - Isaiah 21:12

The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the night: if ye will enquire, enquire ye: return, come.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/21/

Watchman Scripture - Ezekiel 33:7

So thou, O son of man, I have set thee a watchman unto the house of Israel; therefore thou shalt hear the word at my mouth, and warn them from me.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/33/

Water in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

wo'-ter (mayim; hudor): (1) The Greek philosophers believed water to be the original substance and that all things were made from it. The Koran states, "From water we have made all things." In the story of the creation (Gen 1:2) water plays an elemental part. (2) Because of the scarcity of water in Israel it is especially appreciated by the people there. They love to go and sit by a stream of running water. Men long for a taste of the water of their native village (1 Ch 11:17). A town or village is known throughout the country for the quality of its water, which is described by many adjectives, such as "light," "heavy," etc. (3) The rainfall is the only source of supply of water for Israel. The moisture is carried up from the sea in clouds and falls on the hills as rain or snow. This supplies the springs and fountains. The rivers are mostly small and have little or no water in summer. For the most part springs supply the villages, but in case this is not sufficient, cisterns are used. Most of the rain falls on the western slopes of the mountains, and most of the springs are found there. The limestone in many places does not hold the water, so wells are not very common, though there are many references to them in the Bible. (4) Cisterns are usually on the surface of the ground and vary greatly in size. Jerusalem has always had to depend for the most part on water stored in this way, and carried to the city in aqueducts. A large number of cisterns have been found and partially explored under the temple-area itself. The water stored in the cisterns is surface water, and is a great menace to the health of the people. During the long, dry summer the water gets less and less, and becomes so stagnant and filthy that it is not fit to drink. In a few instances the cisterns or pools are sufficiently large to supply water for limited irrigation. See CISTERN. (5) During the summer when there is no rain, vegetation is greatly helped by the heavy dews. A considerable amount of irrigation is carried on in the country where there is sufficient water in the fountains and springs for the purpose. There was doubtless much more of it in the Roman period. Most of the fruit trees require water during the summer. (6) Many particular wells or pools are mentioned in the Bible, as: Beersheba (Gen 21:19), Isaac's well (Gen 24:11), Jacob's well (Jn 4:6), Pool of Siloam (Jn 9:7), "waters of Nephtoah" (Josh 15:9). (7) Washing with water held a considerable place in the Jewish temple-ceremony (Lev 11:32; 16:4; 17:15; 22:6; Nu 19:7; Ex 30:18; 40:7). Sacrifices were washed (Ex 29:4; Lev 1:9; 6:28; 14:5). (8) The lack of water caused great suffering (Ex 15:22; Dt 8:15; 2 Ki 3:9; Ps 63:1; Prov 9:17; Ezek 4:11; Lam 5:4).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/W/WATER/

Water in Naves Topical Bible

Creation of Ps 148:4,5 -Covered the whole earth Ge 1:9 -Daily allowance of Eze 4:11 -City waterworks 2Ki 20:20 -Vision of, by Ezekiel Eze 47:1-5 -Of separation Nu 19:2-22 -Libation of 1Sa 7:6 -Irrigation with See IRRIGATION -Miraculously supplied To the Israelites Ex 17:1,6; Nu 20:11 To Samson Jud 15:19 To Jehoshaphat's army 2Ki 3:16-20 -Purified by Elisha 2Ki 2:19-22 -Red Sea divided Ex 14:21,22 -The Jordan River Jos 3:14-17; 2Ki 2:6-8,14 -Jesus walks upon Mt 14:25 -Changed to wine Joh 2:1-11 -Turned into blood Re 16:3-5 -FIGURATIVE Water of life Joh 4:14; 7:37-39; Re 21:6; 22:17 Water of affliction 2Sa 22:17; Ps 69:1; Isa 30:20; 43:2 Water of salvation Isa 12:3; 49:10; 55:1; Eze 36:25; Joh 4:10; 7:38 Domestic love Pr 5:15 -SYMBOLICAL Isa 8:7; Re 8:11; 12:15; 16:4; 17:1,15

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/W/WATER/

Water in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The heat of summer and many mouths of drought necessitated also appliances for storing and conveying water; and remains still exist of the frontPOOLS of Solomon situated near Bethlehem, and of the aqueduct near Jericho which was constructed by the Romans.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/W/Water/

Weaving in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

we'-ving: Although weaving was one of the most important and best developed of the crafts of Bible times, yet we have but few Biblical references to enlighten us as to the processes used in those early days. A knowledge of the technique of weaving is necessary, however, if we are to understand some of the Biblical incidents. The principle of weaving in all ages is illustrated by the process of darning. The hole to be darned is laid over with parallel threads which correspond to the "warp" (shethi) of a woven fabric. Then, by means of a darning needle which takes the place of the shuttle in the loom, other threads are interlaced back and forth at right angles to the first set of strands. This second set corresponds to the woof (`erebh) or weft of woven cloth. The result is a web of threads across the hole. If the warp threads, instead of being attached to the edges of a fabric, are fastened to two beams which can be stretched either on a frame or on the ground, and the woof is interlaced exactly as in darning, the result will be a web of cloth. The process is then called weaving ('aragh), and the apparatus a loom. The most up-to-date loom of our modern mills differs from the above only in the devices for accelerating the process. The first of these improvements dates back some 5,000 years to the early Egyptians, who discovered what is technically known as shedding, i.e. dividing the warp into two sets of threads, every other thread being lifted so that the woof can run between, as is shown in the diagram of the Arabic loom.of considerable means (Mk 1:19,20; Jn 19:27). The looms are still commonly used among the Bedouins. Supppose only eight threads are used for an illustration. In reality the eight strands are made by passing one continuous thread back and forth between the two poles which are held apart by stakes driven into the ground. The even strands run through loops of string attached to a rod, and from there under a beam to the pole. By placing the ends upon stones, or by suspending it on loops, the even threads are raised above the odd threads, thus forming a shed through which the weft can be passed. The separating of odds and evens is assisted by a flat board of wedge-shaped cross-section, which is turned at right angles to the odd threads. After the shuttle has been passed across, this same stick is used to beat up the weft. The threads are removed from the stones or loops, and allowed to lie loosely on the warp; it is pulled forward toward the weaver and raised on the stones in the position previously occupied by it. The flat spreader is passed through the new shed in which the odd threads are now above and the even threads below. The weft is run through and is beaten into place with the thin edge of it. The shuttle commonly used is a straight tree branch on which the thread is loosely wound "kite-string" fashion. The loom used by Delilah was no doubt like the one described above (Jdg 16:13,14). It would have been an easy matter for her to run in Samson's locks as strands of the weft while he lay sleeping on the ground near the loom adjacent to rod under the beam. The passage might be transposed thus: "And he said unto her, If thou weavest the seven locks of my head into the web. And she passed in his locks and beat...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/W/WEAVING/

Weaving in Naves Topical Bible

General scriptures concerning Isa 19:9; 38:12 -Bezaleel skilled in Ex 35:35 -Performed by women 2Ki 23:7 -Of the ephod Ex 28:32; 39:22 -Of coats Ex 39:27 -Weaver's shuttle Job 7:6 -Beam Jud 16:14; 2Sa 21:19; 1Ch 11:23

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/W/WEAVING/

Weaving in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The art of weaving appears to be coeval with the first dawning of civilization. We find it practiced with great skill by the Egyptians at a very early period; The vestures of fine linen" such as Joseph wore, Ge 41:42 were the product of Egyptian looms. The Israelites were probably acquainted with the process before their sojourn in Egypt; but it was undoubtedly there that they attained the proficiency which enabled them to execute the hangings of the tabernacle, Ex 35:35; 1Ch 4:21 and other artistic textures. The Egyptian loom was usually upright, and the weaver stood at his work. The cloth was fixed sometimes at the top, sometimes at the bottom. The modern Arabs use a procumbent loom, raised above the ground by short legs. The textures produced by the Jewish weavers were very various. The coarser kinds, such tent-cloth, sack-cloth and the "hairy garments" of the poor, were made goat's or camel's hair. Ex 26:7; Mt 3:4 Wool was extensively used for ordinary clothing, Le 13:47; Pr 27:26; 31:13; Eze 27:18 while for finer work flax was used, varying in quality, and producing the different textures described in the Bible as "linen" and "fine linen." The mixture of wool and flax in cloth intended for a garment was interdicted. Le 19:19; De 22:11

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/W/Weaving/

Weaving in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Weaving was an art practised in very early times (Ex. 35:35). The Egyptians were specially skilled in it (Isa. 19:9; Ezek. 27:7), and some have regarded them as its inventors. In the wilderness, the Hebrews practised it (Ex. 26:1, 8; 28:4, 39; Lev. 13:47). It is referred to in subsequent times as specially the women's work (2 Kings 23:7; Prov. 31:13, 24). No mention of the loom is found in Scripture, but we read of the "shuttle" (Job 7:6), "the pin" of the beam (Judg. 16:14), "the web" (13, 14), and "the beam" (1 Sam. 17:7; 2 Sam. 21:19). The rendering, "with pining sickness," in Isa. 38:12 (A.V.) should be, as in the Revised Version, "from the loom," or, as in the margin, "from the thrum." We read also of the "warp" and "woof" (Lev. 13:48, 49, 51-53, 58, 59), but the Revised Version margin has, instead of "warp," "woven or knitted stuff."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/W/Weaving,+weavers/

Weaving in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(See LINEN.) The "fine linen" of Joseph (Genesis 41:42) accords with existing specimens of Egyptian weaving equal to the finest cambric. The Israelites learned from the Egyptians the art, and so could weave the tabernacle curtains (Exodus 35:35). In Isaiah 19:9 Gesenius translated choral (from chur, "white") "they that weave white cloth," for "networks" (Esther 1:6; Esther 8:15). The Tyrians got from Egypt their "fine linen with embroidered work" for sails (Ezekiel 27:7). Men wove anciently (1 Chronicles 4:21); latterly females (1 Samuel 2:19; Proverbs 31:13; Proverbs 31:19; Proverbs 31:24). The Egyptian loom was upright, and the weaver stood. Jesus' seamless coat was woven "from the top" (John 19:23). In Leviticus 13:48 the "warp" and "woof" are not parts of woven cloth, but yarn prepared for warp and yarn prepared for woof. The speed of the shuttle, the decisive cutting of the web from the thrum when the web is complete, symbolize the rapid passing away of life and its being cut off at a stroke (Job 7:6; Isaiah 38:12); each day, like the weaver's shuttle, leaves a thread behind. Textures with gold thread interwoven (Psalm 45:13) were most valuable. The Babylonians wove men and animals on robes; Achan appropriated such a "goodly Babylonish garment" (Joshua 7:21). Sacerdotal garments were woven without seam (Josephus, Ant. 3:7, section 4); so Jesus' "coat without seam" (John 19:23)was appropriately sacerdotal, as He was at once the Priest and the sacrifice.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/W/Weaving/

Weave Scripture - Isaiah 19:9

Moreover they that work in fine flax, and they that weave networks, shall be confounded.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/19/

Weave Scripture - Isaiah 59:5

They hatch cockatrice' eggs, and weave the spider's web: he that eateth of their eggs dieth, and that which is crushed breaketh out into a viper.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/59/

Well in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

(1) (be'er; compare Arabic bi'r, "well" or "cistern"; usually artificial: "And Isaac's servants digged (dug) in the valley, and found there a well of springing (margin "living") water" (Gen 26:19); some times covered: "Jacob .... rolled the stone from the well's mouth" (Gen 29:10). Be'er may also be a pit: "The vale of Siddim was full of slime pits" (Gen 14:10); "the pit of destruction" (Ps 55:23). (2) (bor), usually "pit": "Let us slay him, and cast him into one of the pits" (Gen 37:20); may be "well": "drew water out of the well of Beth-lehem" (2 Sam 23:16). (3) (pege), usually "running water," "fount," or "source": "Doth the fountain send forth from the same opening sweet water and bitter?" (Jas 3:11); may be "well"; compare "Jacob's well" (Jn 4:6). (4) (phrear), usually "pit": "the pit of the abyss" (Rev 9:1); but "well"; compare "Jacob's well" (Jn 4:11,12): "Which of you shall have an ass or an ox fallen into a well" (the King James Version "pit") (Lk 14:5). (5) (krene), "wells" (Sirach 48:17), Latin, fons, "spring" (2 Esdras 2:32). (6) ayin), compare Arabic `ain "fountain," "spring": "the fountain (English Versions of the Bible) which is in Jezreel" (1 Sam 29:1); "In Elim were twelve springs (the King James Version "fountains"] of water" (Nu 33:9); "She (Rebekah) went down to the fountain" (the King James Version "well") (Gen 24:16); "the jackal's well" (the English Revised Version "the dragon's well," the King James Version "the dragon well") (Neh 2:13). (7) (ma`yan), same root as (6); "the fountain (the King James Version "well") of the waters of Nephtoah" (Josh 18:15); "Passing through the valley of Weeping (the King James Version "Baca") they make it a place of springs" (the King James Version "well") (Ps 84:6); "Ye shall draw water out of the wells of salvation" (Isa 12:3). (8) (maqor), usually figurative: "With thee is the fountain of life" (Ps 36:9); "The mouth of the righteous is a fountain (the King James Version "well") of life" (Prov 10:11); "make her (Babylon's) fountain (the King James Version "spring") dry" (Jer 51:36); "a corrupted spring" (Prov 25:26). (9) (mabbu`), (nabha`, "to flow," "spring," "bubble up"; compare Arabic (nab`, manba`, yanbu`) "fountain": "or the pitcher is broken at the fountain" (Eccl 12:6); "the thirsty ground springs of water" (Isa 35:7). (10) (motsa'), "spring," (yatsa'), "to go out," "the dry land springs of water" (Isa 41:18); "a dry land into watersprings" (Ps 107:35); "the upper spring of the waters of Gihon" (2 Ch 32:30). (11) (nebhekh), root uncertain, reading doubtful; only in Job 38:16, "Hast thou entered into the springs of the sea?" (12) (tehom), "deep," "abyss"; compare Gen 1:2; translated "springs," the King James Version "depths" (Dt 8:7). (13) (gal), (galal), "to roll"; compare Gilgal (Josh 5:9); "a spring shut up" (Song 4:12). (14) (gullah), "bowl," "basin," "pool," same root: "Give me also springs of water. And he gave her the upper sprigs and the nether springs" (Josh 15:19); compare Arabic (kullat), pronounced gullat, "a marble," "a cannon-ball." As is clear from references cited above, wells and springs were not sharply distinguished in name, though be'er, and phrear are used mainly of wells, and `ayin, ma`yan, motsa', mabbua` and (poetically) maqor are chiefly used of fountains. The Arabic bi'r, the equivalent of the Hebrew be'er, usually denotes a cistern for rain-water, though it may be qualified as bi'r jam`, "well of gathering," i.e. for rain-water, or as bi'r nab`, "well of springing water." A spring or natural fountain is called in Arabic `ain or nab` (compare Hebrew `ayin and mabbua`). These Arabic and Hebrew words for "well" and "spring" figure largely in place-names, modern and ancient: Beer (Nu 21:16); Beer-elim (Isa 15:8), etc.; `Ain (a) on the northeast boundary of Israel (Nu 34:11), (b) in the South of Judah, perhaps = En-rimmon (Josh 15:32); Enaim (Gen 38:14); Enam (Josh 15:34), etc. Modern Arabic names with `ain are very numerous, e.g. `Ainul- fashkhah, `Ain-ul-chajleh, `Ain-karim, etc.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/W/WELL/

Well in Naves Topical Bible

The occasion of feuds Between Abraham and Abimelech Ge 21:25-30 Between Isaac and Abimelech Ge 26:15-22,32,33 -Of Jacob Joh 4:6 -Of Solomon Ec 2:6 -Of Uzziah 2Ch 26:10 -Of Hezekiah See GIHON -At Haran Ge 24:16 -FlGURATIVE Of salvation Isa 12:3; Joh 4:14 Without water Jer 15:18; 2Pe 2:17

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/W/WELLS/

Well in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Wells in Israel are usually excavated from the solid limestone rock, sometimes with steps to descend into them. Ge 24:16 The brims are furnished with a curb or low wall of stone, bearing marks of high antiquity in the furrows worn by the ropes used in drawing water. It was on a curb of this sort that our Lord sat when he conversed with the woman of Samaria, Joh 4:6 and it was this, the usual stone cover, which the woman placed on the mouth of the well at Bahurim, 2Sa 17:19 where the Authorized Version weakens the sense by omitting the article. The usual methods for raising water are the following: 1. The rope and bucket, or waterskin. Ge 24:14-20; Joh 4:11 2. The sakiyeh, or Persian wheel. This consists of a vertical wheel furnished with a set of buckets or earthen jars attached to a cord passing over the wheel. which descend empty and return full as the wheel revolves. 3. A modification of the last method, by which a man, sitting opposite to a wheel furnished with buckets, turns it by drawing with his hands one set of spokes prolonged beyond its circumference, and pushing another set from him with his feet. 4. A method very common in both ancient and modern Egypt is the shadoof, a simple contrivance consisting of a lever moving on a pivot, which is loaded at one end with a lump of clay or some other weight, and has at the other a bowl or bucket. Wells are usually furnished with troughs of wood or stone into which the water is emptied for the use of persons or animals coming to the wells. Unless machinery is used, which is commonly worked by men, women are usually the water-carriers.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/W/Well/

Well in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. beer), to be distinguished from a fountain (Heb. 'ain). A "beer" was a deep shaft, bored far under the rocky surface by the art of man, which contained water which percolated through the strata in its sides. Such wells were those of Jacob and Beersheba, etc. (see Gen. 21:19, 25, 30, 31; 24:11; 26:15, 18-25, 32, etc.). In the Pentateuch this word beer, so rendered, occurs twenty-five times.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/W/Well/

Well in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(See FOUNTAIN.) As ''Ayin, "fount," literally, "eye", refers to the water springing up to us, so beer, "well," from a root "to bore," refers to our finding our way down to it. The Bir- and the En- are always distinct. The rarity of wells in the Sinaitic region explains the national rejoicings over Beer or the well, afterward Beer-Elim, "well of heroes" (Numbers 21:16-17-18,22). God commanded Moses to cause the well to be dug; princes, nobles, and people, all heartily, believingly, and joyfully cooperated in the work. Naming a well marked right of property in it. To destroy it denoted conquest or denial of right of property (Genesis 21:30-31; Genesis 26:15-33; 2 Kings 3:19; Deuteronomy 6:11; Numbers 20:17; Numbers 20:19; Proverbs 5:15). "Drink waters out of thine own cistern, and running waters out of thine own well," i.e. enjoy the love of thine own wife alone. Wells and cisterns are the two sources of oriental supply, each house had its own cistern (2 Kings 18:31); to thirst for filthy waters is suicidal. Song of Solomon 4:12; in Israel wells are excavated in the limestone, with steps descending to them (Genesis 24:16). A low stone wall for protection (Exodus 21:33) surrounds the brim; on it sat our Lord in conversing with the Samaritan woman (John 4:6; John 4:11). A stone cover was above; this the woman placed on the well at Bahurim (2 Samuel 17:19), translated "the woman spread the covering over the well's mouth." A rope and bucket or water skin raised the water; the marks of the rope are still visible in the furrows worn in the low wall. See Numbers 24:7, "he shall stream with water out of his two buckets," namely, suspended from the two ends of a pole, the usual way of fetching water from the Euphrates in Balaam's neighbourhood. Wells are often contended for and are places of Bedouin attacks on those drawing water (Exodus 2:16-17; Judges 5:11; 2 Samuel 23:15-16). Oboth (Numbers 21:10-11) means holes dug in the ground for water. Beerlahairoi is the first well mentioned (Genesis 16:14). Beersheba, Rehoboth, and Jacob's well are leading instances of wells (Genesis 21:19; Genesis 26:22). They are sunk much deeper than ours, to prevent drying up. Jacob's well is 75 ft. deep, seven feet six inches in diameter, and lined with rough masonry; a pitcher unbroken at the bottom evidenced that there was water at some seasons, otherwise the fall would have broken the pitcher.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/W/Well/

Wells Scripture - Genesis 26:18

And Isaac digged again the wells of water, which they had digged in the days of Abraham his father; for the Philistines had stopped them after the death of Abraham: and he called their names after the names by which his father had called them.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/26/

Wells Scripture - Deuteronomy 6:11

And houses full of all good [things], which thou filledst not, and wells digged, which thou diggedst not, vineyards and olive trees, which thou plantedst not; when thou shalt have eaten and be full;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/6/

Wells Scripture - 2 Kings 3:19

And ye shall smite every fenced city, and every choice city, and shall fell every good tree, and stop all wells of water, and mar every good piece of land with stones.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/3/

Wells Scripture - 2 Kings 3:25

And they beat down the cities, and on every good piece of land cast every man his stone, and filled it; and they stopped all the wells of water, and felled all the good trees: only in Kirharaseth left they the stones thereof; howbeit the slingers went about [it], and smote it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/3/

Wells Scripture - Numbers 20:17

Let us pass, I pray thee, through thy country: we will not pass through the fields, or through the vineyards, neither will we drink [of] the water of the wells: we will go by the king's [high] way, we will not turn to the right hand nor to the left, until we have passed thy borders.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Numbers/20/

Wells Scripture - Nehemiah 9:25

And they took strong cities, and a fat land, and possessed houses full of all goods, wells digged, vineyards, and oliveyards, and fruit trees in abundance: so they did eat, and were filled, and became fat, and delighted themselves in thy great goodness.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Nehemiah/9/

Wells Scripture - 2 Chronicles 26:10

Also he built towers in the desert, and digged many wells: for he had much cattle, both in the low country, and in the plains: husbandmen [also], and vine dressers in the mountains, and in Carmel: for he loved husbandry.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/26/

Wells Scripture - Genesis 26:15

For all the wells which his father's servants had digged in the days of Abraham his father, the Philistines had stopped them, and filled them with earth.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/26/

Wells Scripture - Exodus 15:27

And they came to Elim, where [were] twelve wells of water, and threescore and ten palm trees: and they encamped there by the waters.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/15/

Wells Scripture - 2 Peter 2:17

These are wells without water, clouds that are carried with a tempest; to whom the mist of darkness is reserved for ever.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Peter/2/

Window in Naves Topical Bible

General scriptures concerning Ge 6:16; 26:8; Jos 2:15,21; 1Ki 6:4; Eze 40:16-36; Ac 20:9

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/W/WINDOW/

Window in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The window of an Oriental house consists generally of an aperture closed in with lattice-work. Jud 5:28; Pr 7:6 Authorized Version "casement;" Ec 12:3 Authorized Version "window;" So 2:9; Ho 13:3 Authorized Version "chimney." Glass has been introduced into Egypt in modern times as a protection against the cold of winter, but lattice-work is still the usual, and with the poor the only, contrivance for closing the window. The windows generally look into the inner court of the house, but in every house one or more look into the street. In Egypt these outer windows generally project over the doorway. [HOUSE]

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/W/Window/

Window in Easton's Bible Dictionary

properly only an opening in a house for the admission of light and air, covered with lattice-work, which might be opened or closed (2 Kings 1:2; Acts 20:9). The spies in Jericho and Paul at Damascus were let down from the windows of houses abutting on the town wall (Josh. 2:15; 2 Cor. 11:33). The clouds are metaphorically called the "windows of heaven" (Gen. 7:11; Mal. 3:10). The word thus rendered in Isa. 54:12 ought rather to be rendered "battlements" (LXX., "bulwarks;" R.V., "pinnacles"), or as Gesenius renders it, "notched battlements, i.e., suns or rays of the sun"= having a radiated appearance like the sun.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/W/Window/

Window in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(See HOUSE.) Chalon, "aperture" with lattice work; this being opened, nothing prevented one from falling through the aperture to the ground (2 Kings 1:2; Acts 20:9). Houses abutting on a town wall often had projecting windows looking into the country. From them the spies at Jericho were let down, and Paul at Damascus (Joshua 2:15; )

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/W/Window/

Window Scripture - Genesis 6:16

A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; [with] lower, second, and third [stories] shalt thou make it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/6/

Window Scripture - 2 Kings 13:17

And he said, Open the window eastward. And he opened [it]. Then Elisha said, Shoot. And he shot. And he said, The arrow of the LORD'S deliverance, and the arrow of deliverance from Syria: for thou shalt smite the Syrians in Aphek, till thou have consumed [them].

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/13/

Window Scripture - 2 Kings 13:17

And he said, Open the window eastward. And he opened [it]. Then Elisha said, Shoot. And he shot. And he said, The arrow of the LORD'S deliverance, and the arrow of deliverance from Syria: for thou shalt smite the Syrians in Aphek, till thou have consumed [them].

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/13/

Window Scripture - Joshua 2:18

Behold, [when] we come into the land, thou shalt bind this line of scarlet thread in the window which thou didst let us down by: and thou shalt bring thy father, and thy mother, and thy brethren, and all thy father's household, home unto thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Joshua/2/

Window Scripture - 2 Samuel 6:16

And as the ark of the LORD came into the city of David, Michal Saul's daughter looked through a window, and saw king David leaping and dancing before the LORD; and she despised him in her heart.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/6/

Robbery in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Practised by the Ishmaelites (Gen. 16:12), the Chaldeans and Sabeans (Job 1:15, 17), and the men of Shechem (Judg. 9:25. See also 1 Sam. 27:6-10; 30; Hos. 4:2; 6:9). Robbers infested Judea in our Lord's time (Luke 10:30; John 18:40; Acts 5:36, 37; 21:38; 2 Cor. 11:26). The words of the Authorized Version, "counted it not robbery to be equal," etc. (Phil. 2:6, 7), are better rendered in the Revised Version, "counted it not a prize to be on an equality," etc., i.e., "did not look upon equality with God as a prize which must not slip from his grasp" = "did not cling with avidity to the prerogatives of his divine majesty; did not ambitiously display his equality with God." "Robbers of churches" should be rendered, as in the Revised Version, "of temples." In the temple at Ephesus there was a great treasure-chamber, and as all that was laid up there was under the guardianship of the goddess Diana, to steal from such a place would be sacrilege (Acts 19:37).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/R/Robbery/

Thieves in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Greek leestai. Rather "robbers." Lawless banditti infested Israel in our Lord's days (Josephus, Ant. 17:19, section 8; 20:8, section 10), and gave trouble to each successive Roman governor (Josephus, B. J. 2:13, section 2). Even on the high road between Jericho and Jerusalem they assailed travelers, as the parable of the good Samaritan shows (Luke 10:30). Armed bands were needed to encounter them (Luke 22:52). Fanatical zeal for emancipating the Jewish nation often accompanied robbery, from whence Barabbas and his companions in insurrection and murder enlisted popular sympathy (Mark 15:7). Crucifixion was the Roman penalty for the robber and the rebel alike. The two crucified with Jesus were probably such: the taunt of the one, "if Thou be Christ, save Thyself and us," implies sympathy with the Jews' fanatical zeal for national and individual deliverance from Roman rule: they probably were among Barabbas' fellow insurgents, and were doomed to die with him; but he was released, and they were left to their fate. At first both railed at Jesus (Matthew 27:44; Mark 15:32). (Though possibly the plural for the singular is a Hebrew idiom when the writer expresses a fact generally, without specifying which of two the fact bolds good of, as when Jonah "went down into the sides (i.e. one or other of the sides) of the ship," Jonah 1:5.) The mysterious darkness from noon; the meek, holy, and divine bearing of Jesus amidst all taunts and agonies, and His prayer for His murderers, touched the heart of one of the two robbers with sympathy and awe (Luke 23:39-43). When his fellow reviled Jesus he rebuked the reviler (which makes probable the explanation from Hebrew idiom above, that he himself had not reviled Jesus), "dost thou not fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation (surely such a terrible penalty from God should lead thee to fear Him: see Isaiah 9:13; Revelation 16:10-11; 2 Chronicles 28:22; Jeremiah 5:3); and we indeed justly (he justifies God in His dealings however penal, the sure mark of repentance, accepting the punishment of iniquity: Psalm 51:4; Leviticus 26:41), for we receive the due reward of our deeds (confession of sin: 1 John 1:9); but this Man hath done nothing amiss" (acknowledgment of Jesus as the Holy One of God: Romans 10:9; Hebrews 7:26; 1 Peter 2:22-24). Then he said to Jesus, "Lord remember me": he might have said, Lord save me from this agonizing cross, as the other said in taunt; but recognizing him as "Lord" by the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 12:3), he leaves the mode of blessing for the All-wise and Loving One to decide. "Remember me" includes all that is really...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/T/Thieves/

Robbery in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Esteemed by the Ishmaelites as creditable (Genesis 16:12). Predatory incursions were frequent on the part of the Chaldaeans and Sabeans (Job 1:15; Job 1:17). The "liers in wait" of the men of Shechem are instances also, "robbing all that came along that way" (Judges 9:25). Also David plundering the Amalekites, etc. (1 Samuel 27:6-10); they made reprisals (1 Samuel 30). In Israel's disorganized state in the northern kingdom this evil was very prevalent (Hosea 4:2; Hosea 6:9; Micah 2:8). Owing to the corrupt administration of Roman governors, and the facility of collecting and hiding banditti in the natural caves of Israel, robbers infested Judaea much in our Lord's time and the age following (Luke 10:30; John 18:40; Acts 5:36-37; Acts 21:38; 2 Corinthians 11:26). (On the punishment of robbery, see Exodus 22.) (For "thieves" translated "robbers", see Matthew 27:38.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/R/Robbery/

Thieves Scripture - Luke 19:46

Saying unto them, It is written, My house is the house of prayer: but ye have made it a den of thieves.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/19/

Thieves Scripture - Matthew 21:13

And said unto them, It is written, My house shall be called the house of prayer; but ye have made it a den of thieves.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/21/

Thieves Scripture - Obediah 1:5

If thieves came to thee, if robbers by night, (how art thou cut off!) would they not have stolen till they had enough? if the grapegatherers came to thee, would they not leave [some] grapes?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Obediah/1/

Thieves Scripture - Jeremiah 48:27

For was not Israel a derision unto thee? was he found among thieves? for since thou spakest of him, thou skippedst for joy.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/48/

Thieves Scripture - Mark 11:17

And he taught, saying unto them, Is it not written, My house shall be called of all nations the house of prayer? but ye have made it a den of thieves.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/11/

Thieves Scripture - Luke 10:30

And Jesus answering said, A certain [man] went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, which stripped him of his raiment, and wounded [him], and departed, leaving [him] half dead.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/10/

Thieves Scripture - Isaiah 1:23

Thy princes [are] rebellious, and companions of thieves: every one loveth gifts, and followeth after rewards: they judge not the fatherless, neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/1/

Thieves Scripture - Jeremiah 49:9

If grapegatherers come to thee, would they not leave [some] gleaning grapes? if thieves by night, they will destroy till they have enough.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/49/

Thieves Scripture - Matthew 6:19

Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/6/

Thieves Scripture - Matthew 6:20

But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/6/

Threshing in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

thresh'-ing (dush; aloao): Dush means literally, "to trample out." In Jer 51:33, darakh, is used of threshing. Fitches and cummin were beaten off with a rod. The distinction between beating and threshing is made in Isa 28:27. Gideon, in order to avoid being seen by the Midianites, beat out his wheat in a wine press instead of threshing it on the threshing-floor (Jdg 6:11). For a general description of the threshing operations see AGRICULTURE. Figurative: "Thou shalt thresh the mountains," i.e. thou wilt overcome great difficulties (Isa 41:15). Babylon's destruction was foretold poetically in the language of the threshing-floor (Isa 21:10; Jer 51:33; Dan 2:35); Zion's foes would be gathered as sheaves on the threshing-floor (Mic 4:12,13; compare 2 Ki 13:7; Am 1:3; Hab 3:12); threshing unto the vintage, i.e. throughout the summer, indicated an extra abundant yield (Lev 26:5).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/T/THRESHING/

Threshing in Naves Topical Bible

By beating Ru 2:17 -By treading De 25:4; Isa 25:10; Ho 10:11; 1Co 9:9; 1Ti 5:18 -With instruments Of wood 2Sa 24:22 Of iron Am 1:3 With a cart wheel Isa 28:27,28 -Floors for Ge 50:10,11; Jud 6:37; Ru 3:2-14; 1Sa 23:1; 2Sa 6:6; Ho 9:2; Joe 2:24 -Floor of Araunah purchased by David for a place of sacrifice 2Sa 24:16-25 -Floor for, in barns 2Ki 6:27

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/T/THRESHING/

Threshing Scripture - 1 Chronicles 21:23

And Ornan said unto David, Take [it] to thee, and let my lord the king do [that which is] good in his eyes: lo, I give [thee] the oxen [also] for burnt offerings, and the threshing instruments for wood, and the wheat for the meat offering; I give it all.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/21/

Threshing Scripture - Isaiah 41:15

Behold, I will make thee a new sharp threshing instrument having teeth: thou shalt thresh the mountains, and beat [them] small, and shalt make the hills as chaff.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/41/

Threshing Scripture - 2 Samuel 24:22

And Araunah said unto David, Let my lord the king take and offer up what [seemeth] good unto him: behold, [here be] oxen for burnt sacrifice, and threshing instruments and [other] instruments of the oxen for wood.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/24/

Threshing Scripture - Leviticus 26:5

And your threshing shall reach unto the vintage, and the vintage shall reach unto the sowing time: and ye shall eat your bread to the full, and dwell in your land safely.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/26/

Threshing Scripture - Isaiah 28:27

For the fitches are not threshed with a threshing instrument, neither is a cart wheel turned about upon the cummin; but the fitches are beaten out with a staff, and the cummin with a rod.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/28/

Threshing Scripture - 1 Chronicles 21:20

And Ornan turned back, and saw the angel; and his four sons with him hid themselves. Now Ornan was threshing wheat.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/21/

Threshing Scripture - 2 Kings 13:7

Neither did he leave of the people to Jehoahaz but fifty horsemen, and ten chariots, and ten thousand footmen; for the king of Syria had destroyed them, and had made them like the dust by threshing.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/13/

Threshing Scripture - Amos 1:3

Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not turn away [the punishment] thereof; because they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Amos/1/

Threshing Scripture - Isaiah 28:28

Bread [corn] is bruised; because he will not ever be threshing it, nor break [it with] the wheel of his cart, nor bruise it [with] his horsemen.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/28/

Threshing Scripture - Isaiah 21:10

O my threshing, and the corn of my floor: that which I have heard of the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, have I declared unto you.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/21/

Tomb in Smiths Bible Dictionary

From the burial of Sarah in the cave of Machpelah, Ge 23:19 to the funeral rites prepared for Dorcas, Ac 9:37 there is no mention of any sarcophagus, or even coffin, in any Jewish burial. Still less were the rites of the Jews like those of the Pelasgi or Etruscans. They were marked with the same simplicity that characterized all their religious observances. This simplicity of rite led to what may be called the distinguishing characteristic of Jewish sepulchres --the deep loculus --which, so far as is now known, is universal in all purely Jewish rock-cut tombs, but hardly known elsewhere. Its form will be understood by referring to the following diagram, representing the forms of Jewish sepulture. In the apartment marked A there are twelve such loculi about two feet in width by three feet high. On the ground floor these generally open on the level of the door; when in the upper story, as at C, on a ledge or platform, on which the body might be laid to be anointed, and on which the stones might rest which closed the outer end of each loculus. The shallow loculus is shown in chamber B, but was apparently only used when sarcophagi were employed, and therefore, so far as we know, only during the Graeco-Roman period, when foreign customs came to be adopted. The shallow loculus would have been singularly inappropriate and inconvenient where an unembalmed body was laid out to decay, as there would evidently be no means of shutting it off from the rest of the catacomb. The deep loculus, on the other hand, was strictly conformable with Jewish customs, and could easily be closed by a stone fitted to the end and luted into the groove which usually exists there. This fact is especially interesting as it affords a key to much that is otherwise hard to be understood in certain passages in the New Testament; Thus in Joh 11:59 Jesus says, "Take away the stone," and (ver. 40) "they took away the stone" without difficulty, apparently. And in ch. Joh 20:1 the same expression is used "the stone is taken away." There is one catacomb-- that known as the "tomb of the kings" --which is closed by a stone rolled across its entrance; but it is the only one, and the immense amount of contrivance and fitting which it has required is sufficient proof that such an arrangement was not applied to any other of the numerous rock tombs around Jerusalem nor could the traces of it have been obliterated had if anywhere existed. Although, therefore, the Jews were singularly free from the pomps and vanities of funereal magnificence, they were at all stages of their independent existence an eminently burying people. Tombs of the patriarchs. --One of the most striking events in the life of Abraham is the purchase of the field of Ephron the Hittite at Hebron, in which was the cave of Machpelah, in order that he might therein bury Sarah his wife, and that it might be a sepulchre for himself and his children. There he and his immediate descendants were laid 3700 years ago, and there they are believed to rest now, under the great mosque of Hebron; but no one in modern times has seen their remains, or been allowed to enter into the cave where they rest. From the time when Abraham established the burying-place of his family at Hebron till the time when David fixed that of his family in the city which bore his name, the Jewish rulers-had no fixed or favorite place of sepulture. Each was buried on his own property, or where he died, without much caring for either the sanctity or convenience chosen. Tomb of the kings. --Of the twenty-two kings of Judah who reigned at Jerusalem from 1048 to 590 B.C. eleven, or exactly one half, were buried in one hypogeum in the "city of David." Of all these it is merely said that they were buried in "the sepulchres of their fathers" or "of the kings" in the city of David, except of two-- Asa and Hezekiah. Two more of these kings-- Jehoram and Joash --were buried also in the city of David "but not in the sepulchres of the kings." The passage in Ne 3:18 and...

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/T/Tomb/

Tombs in Easton's Bible Dictionary

of the Hebrews were generally excavated in the solid rock, or were natural caves. Mention is made of such tombs in Judg. 8:32; 2 Sam. 2:32; 2 Kings 9:28; 23:30. They were sometimes made in gardens (2 Kings 21:26; 23:16; Matt. 27:60). They are found in great numbers in and around Jerusalem and all over the land. They were sometimes whitewashed (Matt. 23:27, 29). The body of Jesus was laid in Joseph's new rock-hewn tomb, in a garden near to Calvary. All evidence is in favour of the opinion that this tomb was somewhere near the Damascus gate, and outside the city, and cannot be identified with the so-called "holy sepulchre." The mouth of such rocky tombs was usually closed by a large stone (Heb. golal), which could only be removed by the united efforts of several men (Matt. 28:2; comp. John 11:39). (See GOLGOTHA -T0001522.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/T/Tombs/

Tombs in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Simplicity is the characteristic of Jewish sepulture. No sarcophagus or coffin or separate tomb structure for one individual; usually no pillar (but Jacob set one over Rachel, Genesis 35:20) or mound, no inscription or painting. The coffining and embalming of Joseph as a naturalized Egyptian, and the embalming of Jacob his father in Egypt, are exceptional cases. So also the burning of Saul, when his body was hastily rescued from the Philistines. The body was usually washed, anointed, wrapped in linen, and borne without pageant or prayers to the grave. "Great burnings" of perfumes accompanied the sepulture of kings (Mark 14:8; Mark 16:1; John 19:39, etc.; 2 Chronicles 16:14; Jeremiah 34:5). The Jewish rock tombs are of three classes: (1) Kokim tombs, which have parallel tunnels running in, three or four side by side, from the walls of a rectangular chamber; the bodies lay with their feet toward the chamber, and stone pillows for the heads at the further end; the entrance door is in the face of the cliff; this is the most ancient form of tomb, for the kokim are found sometimes in part destroyed to enlarge the tomb on a different system. (2) Loculus tombs; these often have decorated facades, within the chamber has an arched recess with rock- cut sarcophagus or loculus beneath, the body lying parallel to the side of the chamber; the rolling stone is found with the loculus, hardly ever with the koka tomb; our Lord's sepulchre was therefore a loculus. (3) Sunken tombs are not of Jewish origin. The so- called sepulchres of Joseph and Nicodemus are unmistakably Jewish kokim, rock-hewn. The present chamber in the church of the Holy Sepulchre was formed when the church was built, by cutting away a portion of the original tomb chamber so as to leave a sort of cave, and the floor was leveled at the same time. The side of the kok was cut away, and a canopy of rock left over its bed. In course of time, by pilgrims carrying off relics of rock the kok became entirely isolated, the canopy disappeared, and the tomb assumed its present form (Major Wilson). The angel at the head and the angel at the foot could only have been in a loculus, not a koka tomb. The Mishna (Baba Bathra, 2:9) says, "corpses and sepulchres are separated from the city 50 cubits." The fact that the locuhs tomb was formed out of an original koka tomb, whereas our Lord's loculus tomb was a "new" one "wherein was man never yet laid" (John 19:41), seems to be fatal to the claim of the so-called Holy Sepulchre, independently of the argument of its having been probably inside the walls. The loculi or recesses are about two feet wide by three high. A stone closes the outer end of each loculus. The shallow loculi were used only in the Greek-Roman period, when sarcophagi were introduced, and for embalmed bodies. The deep loculus lengthwise from the cave best suited the unembalmed body, for it whilst the body was decomposing could most easily be shut off with a small stone from the rest of the catacomb (compare John 11:38-40, "take away the stone," and "they took away the stone".) This, and the stone rolled away from out' Lord's tomb (Mark 16:3-4, "the stone was rolled away ... very great"), was that at the mouth of the cave, not as Smith's Dictionary supposes from the small mouth of the loculus inside. The stone, like a cheese or millstone, (generally three feet wide,) rolled right and left of the door (generally two feet wide) in a groove, so that it could be moved to one side when the tomb was opened and rolled back over the mouth in shutting the tomb. (See BURIAL.) The slope was down toward the cave mouth, so that it would roll down there by its own...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/T/Tombs/

Tombs Scripture - Matthew 8:28

And when he was come to the other side into the country of the Gergesenes, there met him two possessed with devils, coming out of the tombs, exceeding fierce, so that no man might pass by that way.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/8/

Tombs Scripture - Luke 8:27

And when he went forth to land, there met him out of the city a certain man, which had devils long time, and ware no clothes, neither abode in [any] house, but in the tombs.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/8/

Tombs Scripture - Matthew 23:29

Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/23/

Tombs Scripture - Mark 5:5

And always, night and day, he was in the mountains, and in the tombs, crying, and cutting himself with stones.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/5/

Tombs Scripture - Mark 5:2

And when he was come out of the ship, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/5/

Tombs Scripture - Mark 5:3

Who had [his] dwelling among the tombs; and no man could bind him, no, not with chains:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/5/

Trade in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

trad: I. GENERAL 1. Terms 2. Position of Israel 3. Trade Products of Israel 4. Palestinian Traders II. HISTORY 1. To David 2. Solomon 3. Maritime Trade 4. To the Exile 5. The Exile and After LITERATURE I. General. 1. Terms: For a full list of the commercial terms used in the Old Testament, reference must be made to EB, IV, cols. 5193-99. Only the more important can be given here. For "merchant" the Hebrew uses almost always one of the two participial forms cocher, or rokhel, both of which mean simply "one who travels." There is no difference in their meaning, but when the two are used together (Ezek 27:13 ff) the Revised Version (British and American) distinguishes by using "trafficker" for rokhel. The verb cachar, from which cocher is derived, is translated "to trade" in Gen 34:10,21 and "to traffic" in Gen 49:34, with numerous noun formations from the same stem. The verb rakhal from which rokhel is derived does not occur, but the noun formation rekhullah in Ezek 26:12 (the Revised Version (British and American) "merchandise"); 28:5,16,18 (the Revised Version (British and American) "traffic") may be noted. In Ezek 27:24 the Revised Version (British and American) has "merchandise" for markoleth, but the word means "place of merchandise," "market." The participle tarim, from tur, "seek out," in combination with 'aneshe, "men," in 1 Ki 10:15, is translated "merchant men" by the King James Version, "chapmen" by the English Revised Version and "traders" by the American Standard Revised Version; in 2 Ch 9:14, the King James Version and the English Revised Version have "chapmen" and the American Standard Revised Version "traders." The text of these verses is suspected. In Ezek 27 (only) "merchandise" represents ma`arabh, from `arabh, "to exchange," translated "to deal," margin "exchange," in 27:9 the American Standard Revised Version, with "dealers," margin "exchangers," in 27:27 (the King James Version and the English Revised Version have "occupy," "occupiers"). kena`an, and kena`ani "Canaanite," are sometimes used in the sense of "merchant," but it is often difficult to determine whether the literal or the transferred force is intended. Hence, all the confusion in English Versions of the Bible; in the Revised Version (British and American) note "merchant," Job 41:6; "merchant," margin "Canaanite," Prov 31:24; "trafficker," Isa 23:8; "trafficker," margin "Canaanite," Hos 12:7; "Canaan," margin "merchant people," Isa 23:11; Zeph 1:11, and compare "land of traffic," margin "land of Canaan," Ezek 17:4. See CHAPMAN; OCCUPY. In Apocrypha and New Testament "merchant" is for emporos (Sirach 26:29, etc.; Mt 13:45; Rev 18:3,11,15,23). So "merchandise" is emporion, in Jn 2:16 and emporia, in Mt 22:5, while emporeuomai, is translated "make...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/T/TRADE/

Trade in Naves Topical Bible

1. Occupation See under the name of each trade -2. Commerce See COMMERCE

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/T/TRADE/

Trade Scripture - Genesis 34:21

These men [are] peaceable with us; therefore let them dwell in the land, and trade therein; for the land, behold, [it is] large enough for them; let us take their daughters to us for wives, and let us give them our daughters.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/34/

Trade Scripture - Genesis 34:10

And ye shall dwell with us: and the land shall be before you; dwell and trade ye therein, and get you possessions therein.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/34/

Trade Scripture - Genesis 46:34

That ye shall say, Thy servants' trade hath been about cattle from our youth even until now, both we, [and] also our fathers: that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd [is] an abomination unto the Egyptians.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/46/

Trade Scripture - Revelation 18:17

For in one hour so great riches is come to nought. And every shipmaster, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by sea, stood afar off,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/18/

Trade Scripture - Genesis 46:32

And the men [are] shepherds, for their trade hath been to feed cattle; and they have brought their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/46/

Traveller in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

trav'-el-er: Jdg 5:6 for halakh nethibhah, "goers on paths"; 2 Sam 12:4 for helekh, literally, "a going"; Job 31:32 for 'arach, participle of a verb meaning "to wander"; Sirach 26:12; 42:3 for hodoiporos, "one making a way."

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/T/TRAVELLER/

Travel Scripture - Acts 19:29

And the whole city was filled with confusion: and having caught Gaius and Aristarchus, men of Macedonia, Paul's companions in travel, they rushed with one accord into the theatre.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/19/

Travel Scripture - 2 Corinthians 8:19

And not [that] only, but who was also chosen of the churches to travel with us with this grace, which is administered by us to the glory of the same Lord, and [declaration of] your ready mind:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Corinthians/8/

Vegetarians in Naves Topical Bible

Persons who refrain from eating meat Ro 14:2

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/V/VEGETARIANS/

Veils in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

val: The following words are so translated in English Versions of the Bible (sometimes the King James Version vail): (1) miTpachath, Ruth 3:15 the King James Version, the Revised Version (British and American) "mantle." As the material was strong enough to serve as a bag for a large quantity of grain the Revised Version (British and American) is certainly right; compare Isa 3:22. (2) macweh, Ex 34:33- 35. Paul in his quotation of the passage in 2 Cor 3:13-16 uses kalumma, following Septuagint. The covering worn by Moses to conceal the miraculous brightness of his face, although, according to Massoretic Text, he seems to have worn it only in private. (3) macckhah, Isa 25:7; in 28:20 translated "covering." The use in 25:7 is figurative and the form of the "veil" a matter of indifference. (4) tsammah, the Revised Version (British and American) Song 4:1,3 (margin "locks" (of hair)); 6:7; Isa 47:2, the King James Version "locks." The meaning of the word is uncertain and the King James Version may very well be right. If, however, the Revised Version's translation is correct, a light ornamental veil is meant. (5) tsa`iph, Gen 24:65; 38:14,19. A large wrap is meant, which at times was used to cover the face also. In 24:65 Rebekah conformed to the etiquette which required the veiling of brides (see MARRIAGE). In Genesis 38 one motive for Tamar's use of the veil was certainly to avoid recognition, but it seems clear from the passage that veils were used by courtesans. Why is unknown, perhaps partly to conceal their identity, perhaps partly in parody of the marriage custom. (6) redhidh, Song 5:7 (the Revised Version (British and American) "mantle," margin "veil"); Isa 3:23. A light mantle is certainly meant. In Song 5:7 it is torn from the maiden in the watchmen's endeavor to detain her. (7) parakalumma, The Wisdom of Solomon 17:3 the King James Version, the Revised Version (British and American) "curtain." (8) Verb katakalupto, 1 Cor 11:6 f, with akatakalupto, "unveil" in 11:5; the King James Version has "cover" and "uncover"; kalupto, 2 Cor 4:3 (twice), anakalupto, 2 Cor 3:18; the King James Version "hid" and "open." It will be seen that there is a certain reference to what in modern times would be termed a "veil" only in (2) above. For a possible additional reference see MUFFLER. The use of the face veil as a regular article of dress was unknown to the Hebrew women, and if "veil" is to be understood in Song 4:1, etc., it was worn as an ornament only. The modern oriental custom of veiling is due to Mohammedan influence and has not been universally adopted by Jewesses in the Orient. In New Testament times, however, among both Greeks and Romans, reputable women wore a veil in public (Plutarch Quaest. Rom. xiv) and to appear without it was an act of bravado (or worse); Tarsus, Paul's home city, was especially noted for strictness in this regard (Dio of Prusa, Tarsica prior, section symbol 48). Hence, Paul's indignant directions in 1 Cor 11:2-16, which have their basis in the social proprieties of the time. The bearing of these directions, however, on the compulsory use of the hat by modern women in public worship would appear to be very remote.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/V/VEIL+(1)/

Veil in Naves Topical Bible

Worn By Rebekah Ge 24:65 By Tamar Ge 38:14,19 By Moses, to screen his face when he descended from Mount Sinai Ex 34:33,35; 2Co 3:13-16

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/V/VEIL/

Veil in Smiths Bible Dictionary

With regard to the use of the veil, it is important to observe that it was by no means so general in ancient as in modern times. Much of the scrupulousness in respect of the use of the veil dates from the promulgation of the Koran, which forbade women appearing unveiled except in the presence of their nearest relatives. In ancient times the veil was adopted only in exceptional cases, either as an article of ornamental dress, So 4:1,3; 6:7 or by betrothed maidens in the presence of their future husbands, especially at the time of the wedding, Ge 24:65 or lastly, by women of loose character for purposes of concealment. Ge 38:14 Among the Jews of the New Testament age it appears to have been customary for the women to cover their heads (not necessarily their faces) when engaged in public worship.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/V/Veil/

Veil in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(1.) Heb. mitpahath (Ruth 3:15; marg., "sheet" or "apron;" R.V., "mantle"). In Isa. 3:22 this word is plural, rendered "wimples;" R.V., "shawls" i.e., wraps. (2.) Massekah (Isa. 25:7; in Isa. 28:20 rendered "covering"). The word denotes something spread out and covering or concealing something else (comp. 2 Cor. 3:13-15). (3.) Masveh (Ex. 34:33, 35), the veil on the face of Moses. This verse should be read, "And when Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face," as in the Revised Version. When Moses spoke to them he was without the veil; only when he ceased speaking he put on the veil (comp. 2 Cor. 3:13, etc.). (4.) Paroheth (Ex. 26:31-35), the veil of the tabernacle and the temple, which hung between the holy place and the most holy (2 Chr. 3:14). In the temple a partition wall separated these two places. In it were two folding-doors, which are supposed to have been always open, the entrance being concealed by the veil which the high priest lifted when he entered into the sanctuary on the day of Atonement. This veil was rent when Christ died on the cross (Matt. 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45). (5.) Tza'iph (Gen. 24:65). Rebekah "took a vail and covered herself." (See also 38:14, 19.) Hebrew women generally appeared in public without veils (12:14; 24:16; 29:10; 1 Sam. 1:12). (6.) Radhidh (Cant. 5:7, R.V. "mantle;" Isa. 3:23). The word probably denotes some kind of cloak or wrapper. (7.) Masak, the veil which hung before the entrance to the holy place (Ex. 26:36, 37).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/V/Veil,+vail/

Veil in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(See DRESS.) The mitpachath (Rth 3:15), tsaiph (Genesis 24:65; Genesis 38:14; Genesis 38:19), and radial (Song of Solomon 5:7; Isaiah 3:23). Moses' veil was the masveh (Exodus 34:33-35), related to suth (Genesis 49:11). An ample outer robe, drawn over the face when required. Mispachot, the false prophets' magical veils or "kerchiefs" (Ezekiel 13:18; Ezekiel 13:21) which they put over the heads of those consulting them as if to fit them for receiving a response, that they might be rapt in spiritual trance above the world; placed "upon the head of every stature," i.e. upon persons of every age and height, young and old. Re' aloth, light veils worn by females, called "mufflers" (Isaiah 3:19), from rahal "to tremble," i.e. tremulous, referring to their rustling motion. Tzammah, translated "locks" (Song of Solomon 4:1; Song of Solomon 4:3), the bride's veil, a mark of modesty and subjection to her lord. Isaiah 47:2, "take off thy veil," or "thy locks," nature's covering for a woman (1 Corinthians 11:15), a badge of female degradation. Anciently the veil was only exceptionally used for ornament or by women betrothed in meeting their future husbands, and at weddings (Genesis 24:65). Ordinarily women among the Jews, Egyptians, and Assyrians, appeared in public with faces exposed (Genesis 12:14; Genesis 24:16; Genesis 24:65; Genesis 20:16; Genesis 29:10; 1 Samuel 1:12). Assyrian and Egyptian sculptures similarly represent women without a veil. It was Mahometanism that introduced the present veiling closely and seclusion of women; the veil on them in worship was the sign of subjection to their husbands (1 Corinthians 11:4-15

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/V/Veil/

Veil Scripture - Matthew 27:51

And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/27/

Veil Scripture - Song of Solomon 5:7

The watchmen that went about the city found me, they smote me, they wounded me; the keepers of the walls took away my veil from me.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Song+of+Solomon/5/

Veil Scripture - Hebrews 6:19

Which [hope] we have as an anchor of the soul, both sure and stedfast, and which entereth into that within the veil;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hebrews/6/

Veil Scripture - Mark 15:38

And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/15/

Veil Scripture - Luke 23:45

And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/23/

Veil Scripture - Hebrews 10:20

By a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hebrews/10/

Veil Scripture - Hebrews 9:3

And after the second veil, the tabernacle which is called the Holiest of all;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hebrews/9/

Vine in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

vin: 1. Hebrew Words: (1) gephen, usually the cultivated grape vine. In Nu 6:4; Jdg 13:14 we have gephen ha-yayin, literally, "vine of wine," translated "grape vine" (Numbers) and "vine," margin "grape vine" (Jgs); 2 Ki 4:39, gephen sadheh English Versions of the Bible "wild vine"; Dt 32:32, gephen cedhom, "vine of Sodom." (2) soreq, in Isa 5:2, "choicest vine"; soreq, in Jer 2:21, "noble vine"; soreqah, in Gen 49:11, "choice vine"; compare SOREK, VALLEY OF (which see). The Hebrew is supposed to indicate dark grapes and, according to rabbinical tradition, they were unusually sweet and almost, if not quite, stoneless. (3) nazir, in Lev 25:5,11, "undressed vine," the King James Version "vine undressed," margin "separation." This may mean an unpruned vine and be a reference to the uncut locks of a Nazirite, but it is equally probable that nazir should be batsir, "vintage." For the blossom we have peraq (Isa 18:5), "blossom"; nitstsah, either the blossom or half-formed clusters of grapes (Gen 40:10; Isa 18:5); cemadhar, "sweet-scented blossom" (Song 2:13,15; 7:12). For grapes we have commonly: `enabh (a word common to all Semitic languages) (Gen 40:10; Dt 32:14; Isa 5:2, etc.); dam `anabhim, literally, "blood of grapes," i.e. wine (Gen 49:11); bocer, "the unripe grape" (Isa 18:5, "ripening grape," the King James Version "sour grape"; Job 15:33, "unripe grapes"; Jer 31:29 f; Ezek 18:2, "sour grapes"); be'ushim "wild grapes" (Isa 5:2,4; see GRAPES, WILD); 'eshkol, a "cluster" of ripe grapes (Gen 40:10; Song 7:8 f; Hab 3:17, etc.; compare ESHCOL (which see)); qartsannim, usually supposed to be the kernels of grapes (Nu 6:4). 2. Greek and Latin: In Greek we have ampelos, "vine" (Mt 26:29, etc.), staphule (Sirach 39:26, "blood of grapes"; Mt 7:16, "grapes," etc.), and botrus (Rev 14:18), "cluster of the vine." In the Latin of 2 Esdras vinea is "vine" in 5:23 ("vineyard" in 16:30,43); botrus (9:21) and racemus (16:30) are "cluster"; acinium (9:21) and uva (16:26) are "a grape." 3. Antiquity and Importance: Israel appears to have been a vine-growing country from the earliest historic times. The countless wine presses found in and around centers of early civilization witness to this. It is probable that the grape was largely cultivated as a source of sugar: the juice expressed in the "wine press" was reduced by boiling to a liquid of treacle-like consistency known as "grape honey," or in Hebrew debhash (Arabic, dibs). This is doubtless the "honey" of many Old Testament references, and before the days of cane sugar was the chief source of sugar. The whole Old Testament witnesses to how greatly Israel depended upon the vine and its products. Men rejoiced in wine also as one of God's best gifts (Jdg 9:13; Ps 104:15). But the Nazirite might eat nothing of the vine "from the kernels even to the husk" (Nu 6:4; Jdg 13:14). The land promised to the children of Israel was one of "vines and fig trees and pomegranates" (Dt 8:8); they inherited vineyards which they had not planted (Dt 6:11; Josh 24:13; Neh 9:25). Jacob's blessing on Judah had much reference...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/V/VINE/

Vineyard in Naves Topical Bible

Huts (R. V., booths) in Isa 1:8 -Towers in Isa 5:2; Mt 21:33; Mr 12:1 -Winepress in Isa 5:2 -Pools in Ec 2:4,6 -Leased So 8:11,12; Isa 7:23; Mt 21:33-39 -Of kings 1Ch 27:26-28 -Neglected Pr 24:30,31 -Plain of the Jud 11:33 -Parables of Isa 5:1-7; 27:2,3; Jer 12:10; Mt 20:1-16; 21:28- 31,33-41; Lu 13:6-9

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/V/VINEYARD/

Vine in Smiths Bible Dictionary

the well-known valuable plant (vitis vinifera) very frequently referred to in the Old and New Testaments, and cultivated from the earliest times. The first mention of this plant occurs in Ge 9:20,21 That it was abundantly cultivated in Egypt is evident from the frequent representations on the monuments, as well as from the scriptural allusions. Ge 40:9-11; Ps 78:47 The vines of Israel were celebrated both for luxuriant growth and for the immense clusters of grapes which they produced, which were sometimes carried on a staff between two men, as in the case of the spies, Nu 13:23 and as has been done in some instances in modern times. Special mention is made in the Bible of the vines of Eshcol, Nu 13:24; 32:9 of Sibmah, Heshbon and Elealeh Isa 16:8,9,10; Jer 48:32 and of Engedi. So 1:14 From the abundance and excellence of the vines, it may readily be understood how frequently this plant is the subject of metaphor in the Holy Scriptures. To dwell under the vine and tree is an emblem of domestic happiness and peace, 1Ki 4:25; Ps 128:3; Mic 4:4 the rebellious people of Israel are compared to "wild grapes," "an empty vine," "the degenerate plant of a strange vine," etc. Isa 6:2,4; Jer 2:21; Ho 10:1 It is a vine which our Lord selects to show the spiritual union which subsists between himself and his members. Joh 15:1-6 The ancient Hebrews probably allowed the vine to go trailing on the ground or upon supports. This latter mode of cultivation appears to be alluded to by Ezekiel. Eze 19:11,12 The vintage, which formerly was a season of general festivity, began in September. The towns were deserted; the people lived among the vineyards in the lodges and tents. Comp. Jud 8:27; Isa 16:10; Jer 25:30 The grapes were gathered with shouts of joy by the "grape gatherers," Jer 25:30 and put into baskets. See Jer 6:9 They were then carried on the head and shoulders, or slung upon a yoke, to the "wine-press." Those intended for eating were perhaps put into flat open baskets of wickerwork, as was the custom in Egypt. In Israel, at present, the finest grapes, says Dr. Robinson, are dried as raisins, and the juice of the remainder, after having been trodden and pressed, "is boiled down to a sirup, which, under the name of dibs, is much used by all classes, wherever vineyards are found, as a condiment with their food." The vineyard, which was generally on a hill, Isa 5:1; Jer 31:5; Am 9:13 was surrounded by a wall or hedge in order to keep out the wild boars, Ps 80:13 jackals and foxes. Nu 22:24; Ne 4:3; So 2:15; Eze 13:4,5; Mt 21:33 Within the vineyard was one or more towers of stone in which the vine-dressers lived. Isa 1:8; 5:2; Mt 21:33 The vat, which was dug, Mt 21:33 or hewn out of the rocky soil, and the press, were part of the vineyard furniture. Isa 5:2

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/V/Vine/

Vine in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Noah appears as its first cultivator (Genesis 9:20-21); he probably preserved the knowledge of its cultivation from the antediluvian world. Pharaoh's dream (Genesis 40:9-11, see Speaker's Commentary) implies its prevalence in Egypt; this is confirmed by the oldest Egyptian monuments. So also Psalm 78:47. Osiris the Egyptian god is represented as first introducing the vine. Wine in Egypt was the beverage of the rich people; beer was the drink of the poor people. The very early monuments represent the process of fermenting wine. The spies bore a branch with one cluster of grapes between two on a staff from the brook Eshcol. Bunches are found in Israel of ten pounds weight (Reland Palest., 351). Kitto (Phys. Hist. Palest., p. 330) says a bunch from a Syrian vine was sent as a present from the Duke of Portland to the Marquis of Rockingham, weighing 19 pounds, and was carried on a staff by four, two bearing it in rotation. Sibmah, Heshbon, and Elealeh (Isaiah 16:8-10; Jeremiah 48:31) and Engedi (Song of Solomon 1:14) were famous for their vines. Judah with its hills and tablelands was especially suited for vine cultivation; "binding his foal unto the vine and his ass' colt unto the choice vine he washed his garments in wine and his clothes in the blood of grapes, his eyes shall be red with wine" (Genesis 49:11-12). Both Isaiah (Isaiah 5) and the Lord Jesus make a vineyard with fence and tower, the stones being gathered out, the image of Judah (Matthew 21:33). Israel is the vine brought out of Egypt, and planted by Jehovah in the land of promise (Psalm 80:8; compare Isaiah 27:2-3). The "gathering out of the stones" answers to God's dislodging the original inhabitants before Israel, and the "fencing" to God's protection of Israel from surrounding enemies. "The choicest vine" (sowreq, still in Morocco called serki, the grapes have scarcely perceptible stones; Judges 16:4 mentions a town called from this choice vine Sorek) is the line of holy patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joshua, etc. The square "tower" was to watch against depredations, and for the owner's use; the "fence" to keep out wild boars, foxes, jackals, etc. (Psalm 80:13; Song of Solomon 2:15). The "fence" may represent the law, the "stones" gathered out Jerome thinks are the idols; the "tower" the temple "in the midst" of Judaea; the "winepress," generally hewn...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/V/Vine/

Street Scripture - Jeremiah 37:21

Then Zedekiah the king commanded that they should commit Jeremiah into the court of the prison, and that they should give him daily a piece of bread out of the bakers' street, until all the bread in the city were spent. Thus Jeremiah remained in the court of the prison.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/37/

Street Scripture - Ezekiel 16:24

[That] thou hast also built unto thee an eminent place, and hast made thee an high place in every street.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/16/

Street Scripture - Esther 6:9

And let this apparel and horse be delivered to the hand of one of the king's most noble princes, that they may array the man [withal] whom the king delighteth to honour, and bring him on horseback through the street of the city, and proclaim before him, Thus shall it be done to the man whom the king delighteth to honour.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Esther/6/

Street Scripture - 2 Samuel 21:12

And David went and took the bones of Saul and the bones of Jonathan his son from the men of Jabeshgilead, which had stolen them from the street of Bethshan, where the Philistines had hanged them, when the Philistines had slain Saul in Gilboa:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/21/

Street Scripture - Deuteronomy 13:16

And thou shalt gather all the spoil of it into the midst of the street thereof, and shalt burn with fire the city, and all the spoil thereof every whit, for the LORD thy God: and it shall be an heap for ever; it shall not be built again.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/13/

Street Scripture - Ezekiel 16:31

In that thou buildest thine eminent place in the head of every way, and makest thine high place in every street; and hast not been as an harlot, in that thou scornest hire;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/16/

Street Scripture - Revelation 22:2

In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, [was there] the tree of life, which bare twelve [manner of] fruits, [and] yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree [were] for the healing of the nations.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/22/

Street Scripture - Genesis 19:2

And he said, Behold now, my lords, turn in, I pray you, into your servant's house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on your ways. And they said, Nay; but we will abide in the street all night.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/19/

Street Scripture - Ezra 10:9

Then all the men of Judah and Benjamin gathered themselves together unto Jerusalem within three days. It [was] the ninth month, on the twentieth [day] of the month; and all the people sat in the street of the house of God, trembling because of [this] matter, and for the great rain.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezra/10/

Swaddle and Swaddling Band in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

swod'-'-l, swod'-ling-band (verb chathal, "enwrap," "swaddle" (Ezek 16:4), noun chathullah, "swaddling-band" (Job 38:9); verb sparganoo, "to wrap in swaddling clothes" (Lk 2:7,12), noun spargana (pl.), "swaddling clothes" (The Wisdom of Solomon 7:4). the King James Version also has "swaddle" (Lam 2:22) for Taphach, literally, "to extend." But the word means "to carry on the outstretched palms of the hands" (compare Tippuchim, "dandled in the hands," Lam 2:20), whence RV's "to dandle"): "To swaddle" and "to swathe" are really the same word, both forms going back to an AS form swethel, "a bandage," but "swaddle" has become the technical term for the wrapping of an infant in the Orient or elsewhere. The oriental swaddling-clothes consist of a square of cloth and two or more bandages. The child is laid on the cloth diagonally and the corners are folded over the feet and body and under the head, the bandages then being tied so as to hold the cloth in position. This device forms the clothing of the child until it is about a year old, and its omission (Ezek 16:4) would be a token that the child had been abandoned. The mention of darkness as a "swaddling-band" at the birth of the sea (Job 38:9) is only a poetic way of saying that the sea, at its creation, was covered with clouds and darkness, and to find any idea of restraint involved is fanciful.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SWADDLE;+SWADDLING-BAND/

Swaddle in Naves Topical Bible

(Wrapping, bundling) Of children Job 38:9; La 2:22; Eze 16:4; Lu 2:7,12

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/S/SWADDLE/

Swaddling Clothes Scripture - Luke 2:7

And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/2/

Swaddling Clothes Scripture - Luke 2:12

And this [shall be] a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/2/

Synagogue in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

sin'-a-gog: 1. Name 2. Origin 3. Spread of Synagogues 4. The Building (1) The Site (2) The Structure (3) The Furniture 5. The Officials (1) The Elders (2) The Ruler (3) The Servant (or Servants) (4) Delegate of the Congregation (5) The Interpreter (6) The Almoners 6. The Service (1) Recitation of the "Shema`" (2) Prayers (3) Reading of the Law and the Prophets (4) The Sermon (5) The Benediction LITERATURE 1. Name: Synagogue, Greek sunagoge, "gathering" (Acts 13:43), "gathering-place" (Lk 7:5), was the name applied to the Jewish place of worship in later Judaism in and outside of Israel Proseuche, "a place of prayer" (Acts 16:13), was probably more of the nature of an enclosure, marking off the sacred spot from the profane foot, than of a roofed building like a synagogue. Sabbateion in Ant, XV, i, 6, 2, most probably also meant synagogue. In the Mishna we find for synagogue beth ha-keneceth, in the Targums and Talmud be- khenishta', or simply kenishta'. The oldest Christian meetings and meeting-places were modeled on the pattern of the synagogues, and, in Christian-Palestinian Aramaic the word kenishta' is used for the Christian church (compare Zahn, Tatian's Diatessaron, 335). 2. Origin: That the synagogue was, in the time of our Lord, one of the most important religious institutions of the Jews is clear from the fact that it was thought to have been instituted by Moses (Apion, ii, 17; Philo, De Vita Moses, iii.27; compare Targum Jer to Ex 18:20). It must have come into being during the Babylonian exile. At that time the more devout Jews, far from their native land, having no sanctuary or altar, no doubt felt drawn from time to time, especially on Sabbath and feast days, to gather round those who were specially pious and God-fearing, in order to listen to the word of God and engage in some kind of worship. That such meetings were not uncommon is made probable by Ezek 14:1; 20:1. This would furnish a basis for the institution of the synagogue. After the exile the synagogue remained and even developed as a counterpoise to the absolute sacerdotalism of the temple, and must have been felt absolutely necessary for the Jews of the Dispersion. Though at first it was meant only for the exposition of the Law, it was natural that in the course of time prayers and preaching should be added to the service. Thus these meetings, which at first were only held on Sabbaths and feast days, came also to be held on other days, and at the same hours with the services in the temple. The essential aim, however, of the synagogue was not prayer, but instruction in the Law for all classes of the people. Philo calls the synagogues "houses of instruction, where the philosophy of the fathers and all manner of virtues were taught" (compare Mt 4:23; Mk 1:21; 6:2; Lk 4:15,33; 6:6; 13:10; Jn 6:59; 18:20; CAp, ii, 17). 3. Spread of Synagogues: In Israel the synagogues were scattered all over the country, all the larger...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SYNAGOGUE/

Synagogue in Naves Topical Bible

1. Primarily an assembly of Jews and God-fearers Ac 13:43 R. V.) Jas 2:2 Constitutes a court of justice Lu 12:11; Ac 9:2 Had powers Of criminal courts Mt 10:17; 23:34; Ac 22:19; 26:11 Of religious courts Joh 9:22,34; 12:42; 16:2 -2. A phycial place of assembly for Jews and other God- fearers. The Scriptures were read and expounded in Ne 8:1-8; 9:3,5; Mt 4:23; 9:35; 13:54; Mr 1:39; Lu 4:15-33; 13:10; Joh 18:20; Ac 9:20; 13:5-44; 14:1; 15:21; 17:2,10; 18:4,19,26 In Jerusalem Ac 6:9 In Damascus Ac 9:2,20 In other cities Ac 14:1; 17:1,10; 18:4 One was erected by Jairus Lu 7:5 Jesus performed healing in Mt 12:9-13; Lu 13:11-14 Alms (charity) were given in Mt 6:2 Of Satan Re 2:9; 3:9 See CHURCH

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Synagogue in Smiths Bible Dictionary

1. History. --The word synagogue (sunagoge), which means a "congregation," is used in the New Testament to signify a recognized place of worship. A knowledge of the history and worship of the synagogues is of great importance, since they are the characteristic institution of the later phase of Judaism. They appear to have arisen during the exile, in the abeyance of the temple-worship, and to have received their full development on the return of the Jews from captivity. The whole history of Ezra presupposes the habit of solemn, probably of periodic, meetings. Ezr 8:15; Ne 8:2; 9:1; Zec 7:5 After the Maccabaean struggle for independence, we find almost every town or village had its one or more synagogues. Where the Jews were not in sufficient numbers to be able to erect and fill a building, there was the proseucha (proseuche), or place of prayer, sometimes open, sometimes covered in, commonly by a running stream or on the seashore, in which devout Jews and proselytes met to worship, and perhaps to read. Ac 16:13 Juven. Sat. iii. 296. It is hardly possible to overestimate the influence of the system thus developed. To it we may ascribe the tenacity with which, after the Maccabaean struggle, the Jews adhered to the religion of their fathers, and never again relapsed into idolatry. 2. Structure. --The size of a synagogue varied with the population. Its position was, however, determinate. If stood, if possible, on the highest ground, in or near the city to which it belonged. And its direction too was fixed. Jerusalem was the Kibleh of Jewish devotion. The synagogue was so constructed that the worshippers, as they entered and as they prayed, looked toward it. The building was commonly erected at the cost of the district. Sometimes it was built by a rich Jew, or even, as in Lu 7:5 by a friend or proselyte. In the internal arrangement of the synagogue we trace an obvious analogy to the type of the tabernacle. At the upper or Jerusalem end stood the ark, the chest which, like the older and more sacred ark contained the Book of the Law. It gave to that end the name and character of a sanctuary. This part of the synagogue was naturally the place of honor. Here were the "chief seats," for which Pharisees and scribes strove so eagerly, Mt 23:6 and to which the wealthy and honored worshipper was invited. Jas 2:2,3 Here too, in front of the ark, still reproducing the type of the tabernacle, was the eight-branched lamp, lighted only on the greater festivals. Besides this there was one lamp kept burning perpetually. More toward the middle of the building was a raised platform, on which several persons could stand at once, and in the middle of this rose a pulpit, in which the reader stood to read the lesson or sat down to teach. The congregation were divided, men on one side, women on the other a low partition, five or six feet high, running between them. The arrangements of modern synagogues, for many centuries, have made the separation more complete by placing the women in low side-galleries, screened off a lattice-work. 3. Officers. --In smaller towns there was often but one rabbi. Where a fuller organization was possible, there was a college of elders, Lu 7:3 presided over by one who was "the chief of the synagogue." Lu 8:41,49; 13:14; Ac 18:8,17 The most prominent functionary in a large synagogue was known as the sheliach (= legatus), the officiating minister who acted as the delegate of the congregation and was therefore the chief...

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Synagogue in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Gr. sunagoge, i.e., "an assembly"), found only once in the Authorized Version of Ps. 74:8, where the margin of Revised Version has "places of assembly," which is probably correct; for while the origin of synagogues is unknown, it may well be supposed that buildings or tents for the accommodation of worshippers may have existed in the land from an early time, and thus the system of synagogues would be gradually developed. Some, however, are of opinion that it was specially during the Babylonian captivity that the system of synagogue worship, if not actually introduced, was at least reorganized on a systematic plan (Ezek. 8:1; 14:1). The exiles gathered together for the reading of the law and the prophets as they had opportunity, and after their return synagogues were established all over the land (Ezra 8:15; Neh. 8:2). In after years, when the Jews were dispersed abroad, wherever they went they erected synagogues and kept up the stated services of worship (Acts 9:20; 13:5; 17:1; 17:17; 18:4). The form and internal arrangements of the synagogue would greatly depend on the wealth of the Jews who erected it, and on the place where it was built. "Yet there are certain traditional pecularities which have doubtless united together by a common resemblance the Jewish synagogues of all ages and countries. The arrangements for the women's place in a separate gallery or behind a partition of lattice-work; the desk in the centre, where the reader, like Ezra in ancient days, from his 'pulpit of wood,' may 'open the book in the sight of all of people and read in the book of the law of God distinctly, and give the sense, and cause them to understand the reading' (Neh. 8:4, 8); the carefully closed ark on the side of the building nearest to Jerusalem, for the preservation of the rolls or manuscripts of the law; the seats all round the building, whence 'the eyes of all them that are in the synagogue' may 'be fastened' on him who speaks (Luke 4:20); the 'chief seats' (Matt. 23:6) which were appropriated to the 'ruler' or 'rulers' of the synagogue, according as its organization may have been more or less complete;", these were features common to all the synagogues. Where perfected into a system, the services of the synagogue, which were at the same hours as those of the temple, consisted, (1) of prayer, which formed a kind of liturgy, there were in all eighteen prayers; (2) the reading of the Scriptures in certain definite portions; and (3) the exposition of the portions read. (See Luke 4:15, 22; Acts 13:14.) The synagogue was also sometimes used as a court of judicature, in which the rulers presided (Matt. 10:17; Mark 5:22; Luke 12:11; 21:12; Acts 13:15; 22:19); also as public schools. The establishment of synagogues wherever the Jews were found in sufficient numbers helped greatly to keep alive Israel's hope of the coming of the Messiah, and to prepare the way for the spread of the gospel in other lands. The worship of the Christian Church was afterwards modelled after that of the synagogue. Christ and his disciples frequently taught in the synagogues (Matt. 13:54; Mark 6:2; John 18:20; Acts 13:5, 15, 44; 14:1; 17:2-4, 10, 17; 18:4, 26; 19:8). To be "put out of the synagogue," a phrase used by John (9:22; 12:42; 16:2), means to be excommunicated.

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Synagogue in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Hebrew eedah, "a congregation" or "appointed solemn meeting," in the Pentateuch; qaahaal, "a meeting called", represents ekklesia the "Church". (See CHURCH.) In the New Testament synagogue (Greek) is used of the Christian assembly only by the most Judaic apostle (James 2:2). The Jews' malice against Christianity caused Christians to leave the term "synagogue" to the Jews (Revelation 2:9). The first hints of religions meetings appear in the phrases "before the Lord," "the calling of assemblies" (Isaiah 1:13). The Sabbaths were observed from an early time by gatherings for prayer, whether at or apart from the tabernacle or temple (1 Samuel 20:5; 2 Kings 4:23). Jehoshaphat's mission of priests and Levites (2 Chronicles 17:7-9) implies there was no provision for regular instruction except the septennial reading of the law at the feast of tabernacles (Deuteronomy 31:10-13). In Psalm 74:4; Psalm 74:8 (compare Jeremiah 52:13; Jeremiah 52:17, which shows that the psalm refers to the Chaldaean destruction of the sanctuary) the "congregations" and "synagogues "refer to the tabernacle or temple meeting place between God and His people; "mo'eed mo'adee" in the psalm is the same word as expresses "the tabernacle of congregation," or meeting between God and His people, in Exodus 33:7, compare Exodus 29:42-43. So in Lamentations 2:6, "He (the Lord) hath destroyed His places of assembly." But the other places of devotional meetings of the people besides the temple are probably included. So Psalm 107:32, "the congregation of the people ... the assembly of the elders" (Ezra 3:1). The prophets' assemblies for psalmody and worship led the way (1 Samuel 9:12; 1 Samuel 10:5; 1 Samuel 19:20-24). Synagogues in the strict and later sense are not mentioned until after the desecration of the temple by Antiochus Epiphanes. The want of the temple in the Babylonian captivity familiarized the exiles with the idea of spiritual worship independent of locality. The elders often met and sat before the prophet, Ezekiel to hear Jehovah's word (Ezekiel 8:1; Ezekiel 11:15-16; Ezekiel 14:1; Ezekiel 20:1); in Ezekiel 33:31 the people also sit before him to hear. Periodic meetings for hearing the law and the prophets read were customary thenceforth on the return (Ezra 8:15; Nehemiah 8:2; Nehemiah 9:1; Zechariah 7:5; Acts 15:21). When the Jews could not afford to build a synagogue they built "an oratory" (proseuchee) by a running stream or the seashore (Acts 16:13). The synagogue was the means of rekindling the Jewish devotion and patriotism which shone so brightly in the Maccabean struggle with Antiochus. The synagogue required no priest to minister; this and the reading of the Old Testament prepared the way for the gospel. Sometimes a wealthy Jew or a proselyte built the synagogue (Luke 7:5). The kibleh or "direction" was toward Jerusalem. The structure, though essentially different from the temple (for it had neither altar nor sacrifice), resembled in some degree that of the temple: the ark at the far end contained the law in both; the lid was called the kopereth or "mercy-seat"; a veil hung before it. Here were "the chief seats" sought by the Pharisees and the rich (Matthew 23:6; James 2:2-3). In the middle was a raised platform on which several could be together, with a pulpit in the middle for the reader to stand in when reading and to sit when teaching. A low partition separated men on one side from women on the other. Besides the ark for "the law" (torah) there was a chest for the haphtaroth or "roll of the prophets". In the synagogue a college of elders was presided over by the chief or ruler of the synagogue (Luke 7:3; Luke 8:41; Luke 8:49). The elders were called parnasiym, "pastors," "shepherds" (Ephesians 4:11; 1 Peter 5:1), ruling

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Synagogue Scripture - Revelation 3:9

Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/3/

Synagogue Scripture - Luke 13:14

And the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath day, and said unto the people, There are six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the sabbath day.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/13/

Synagogue Scripture - Luke 4:38

And he arose out of the synagogue, and entered into Simon's house. And Simon's wife's mother was taken with a great fever; and they besought him for her.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/4/

Synagogue Scripture - Acts 18:7

And he departed thence, and entered into a certain [man's] house, named Justus, [one] that worshipped God, whose house joined hard to the synagogue.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/18/

Synagogue Scripture - Acts 18:8

And Crispus, the chief ruler of the synagogue, believed on the Lord with all his house; and many of the Corinthians hearing believed, and were baptized.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/18/

Synagogue Scripture - John 9:22

These [words] spake his parents, because they feared the Jews: for the Jews had agreed already, that if any man did confess that he was Christ, he should be put out of the synagogue.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/John/9/

Synagogue Scripture - Acts 14:1

And it came to pass in Iconium, that they went both together into the synagogue of the Jews, and so spake, that a great multitude both of the Jews and also of the Greeks believed.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/14/

Synagogue Scripture - Mark 6:2

And when the sabbath day was come, he began to teach in the synagogue: and many hearing [him] were astonished, saying, From whence hath this [man] these things? and what wisdom [is] this which is given unto him, that even such mighty works are wrought by his hands?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/6/

Synagogue Scripture - John 18:20

Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/John/18/

Synagogue Scripture - Acts 18:17

Then all the Greeks took Sosthenes, the chief ruler of the synagogue, and beat [him] before the judgment seat. And Gallio cared for none of those things.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/18/

Tanner in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

tan'-er (burseus, from bursa "a hide"): The only references to a tanner are in Acts 9:43; 10:6,32. The Jews looked upon tanning as an undesirable occupation and well they might, for at best it was accompanied with unpleasant odors and unattractive sights, if not even ceremonially unclean. We can imagine that Simon the tanner found among the disciples of Jesus a fellowship which had been denied him before. Peter made the way still easier for Simon by choosing his house as his abode while staying in Joppa. Simon's house was by the seashore, as is true of the tanneries along the Syrian coast today, so that the foul-smelling liquors from the vats can be drawn off with the least nuisance, and so that the salt water may be easily accessible for washing the skins during the tanning process. These tanneries are very unpretentious affairs, usually consisting of one or two small rooms and a courtyard. Within are the vats made either of stone masonry, plastered within and without, or cut out of the solid rock. The sheep or goat skins are smeared on the flesh side with a paste of slaked lime and then folded up and allowed to stand until the hair loosens. The hair and fleshy matter are removed, the skins are plumped in lime, bated in a concoction first of dog dung and afterward in one of fermenting bran, in much the same way as in a modern tannery. The bated skins are tanned in sumach (Arabic summak), which is the common tanning material in Syria and Israel. After drying, the leather is blackened on one side by rubbing on a solution made by boiling vinegar with old nails or pieces of copper, and the skin is finally given a dressing of olive oil. In the more modern tanneries degras is being imported for the currying processes. For dyeing the rams' skins red (Ex 25 ff) they rub on a solution of qermes (similar to cochineal; see DYEING), dry, oil, and polish with a smooth stone. Pine bark is sometimes used for tanning in Lebanon. According to Wilkinson (Ancient Egypt, II, 186), the Arabs use the juice of a desert plant for dehairing and tanning skins. The skins for pouches are either tawed, i.e. tanned with a mineral salt like alum, or treated like parchment (see PARCHMENT). About Hebron oak branches, chopped into small chips, are used for tanning the leather bottles or water skins. In this case the hair is not removed. The tanning is accomplished, after removing the fleshy matter, by filling the skin with oak chips and water, tying up all openings in the skins, and allowing them to lie in the open on their "backs," with "legs" upright, for weeks. The field near Hebron where they arrange the bulging skins in orderly rows during the tanning process presents a weird sight. These are the bottles referred to in the King James Version (the Revised Version (British and American) "skins") (Josh 9:4,13; Hos 7:5; Mt 9:17; Mk 2:22; Lk 5:37). Leather was probably used more extensively than any records show. We know that the Egyptians used leather for ornamental work. They understood the art of making stamped leather. The sculptures give us an idea of the methods used for making the leather into sandals, trimmings for chariots, coverings of chairs, decorations for harps, sarcophagi, etc. There are two Biblical references to leather, where leather girdles are mentioned (2 Ki 1:8; Mt 3:4).

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Tanning in Naves Topical Bible

General scriptures concerning Ac 9:43; 10:5,6

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Tanner Scripture - Acts 10:32

Send therefore to Joppa, and call hither Simon, whose surname is Peter; he is lodged in the house of [one] Simon a tanner by the sea side: who, when he cometh, shall speak unto thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/10/

Tanner Scripture - Acts 10:6

He lodgeth with one Simon a tanner, whose house is by the sea side: he shall tell thee what thou oughtest to do.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/10/

Tanner Scripture - Acts 9:43

And it came to pass, that he tarried many days in Joppa with one Simon a tanner.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/9/

Tax in Naves Topical Bible

Poll Ex 30:11-16; 38:26; Ne 10:32; Lu 2:1 -Jesus pays Mt 17:24-27 -Land Ge 41:34,48; 2Ki 23:35 -Land mortgaged for Ne 5:3,4 -Priests exempted from Ge 47:26; Ezr 7:24 -Paid in grain Am 5:11; 7:1 -Paid in provisions 1Ki 4:7-28 -Personal 1Ki 9:15; 2Ki 15:19,20; 23:35 -Resisted by Israelites 1Ki 12:18; 2Ch 10:18 -World-wide, levied by Caesar -The R. V. changes the reading to enrolled instead of taxed Lu 2:1-3 -Collectors of 2Sa 20:24; 1Ki 4:6; Isa 33:18; Da 11:20; Mr 2:14; Lu 3:13; 5:27 -Unpopular Mt 5:46; 9:11; 11:19; 18:17; 21:31; Lu 18:11 -Stoned 2Ch 10:18

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/T/TAX/

Tax in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

taks, taks'-ing: I. INTRODUCTION 1. General Considerations 2. Limits of the Discussion II. TAXES IN ISRAEL UNDER SELF-GOVERNMENT 1. In the Earliest Period 2. Under the Theocracy; in the Period of the Judges 3. Under the Kings III. TAXES IN ISRAEL UNDER CONQUERORS 1. Under the Assyrians and Babylonians 2. Under the Persians 3. Under the Ptolemies and Seleucid Kings 4. Under the Romans I. Introduction. 1. General Considerations: Taxation, in the sense of regular, graduated imposts levied by authority upon wealth, whether in the form of flocks and herds, tilled lands or accumulated treasure, is a comparatively late product of social evolution. The beginnings of this trouble-breeding institution are, of course, very ancient. If in the beginning all wealth was common wealth, all property vested in the family or tribe, making any kind of levies unnecessary, with the rise of individualism, the prorata setting aside, for common uses, of certain possessions held as private property by individuals, which is the essence of taxation, is inevitable. With the advent of more advanced civilization, by which is meant fixed residence, systematic use and cultivation of defined and limited territory, established political organization centering in rulers of one kind or another, regular taxation must necessarily have begun. Throughout history the burden of taxation has kept pace with the elaboration of the machinery of government; kings, courts, ceremonials, legislative and judicial administration, wars, diplomacy--all these institutions spell expense and, consequently, taxation. In a very real sense, the history of taxation is the history of civilization. 2. Limits of the Discussion: In following the history of taxation in the Bible, two lines of development are to be noted: Israel's internal history when left to herself, and her experiences as tributary to successive conquerors. These two lines of experience form the main divisions of this article. We shall confine ourselves so far as possible to the civil aspects of the subject, leaving for others those interesting problems of taxation connected with the origin and development of the priestly legislation. See TITHE etc. II. Taxes in Israel under Self-Government. In the first glimpses of the ancestors of the Hebrew...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/T/TAX;+TAXING/

Taxes in Easton's Bible Dictionary

first mentioned in the command (Ex. 30:11-16) that every Jew from twenty years and upward should pay an annual tax of "half a shekel for an offering to the Lord." This enactment was faithfully observed for many generations (2 Chr. 24:6; Matt. 17:24). Afterwards, when the people had kings to reign over them, they began, as Samuel had warned them (1 Sam. 8:10-18), to pay taxes for civil purposes (1 Kings 4:7; 9:15; 12:4). Such taxes, in increased amount, were afterwards paid to the foreign princes that ruled over them. In the New Testament the payment of taxes, imposed by lawful rulers, is enjoined as a duty (Rom. 13:1-7; 1 Pet. 2:13, 14). Mention is made of the tax (telos) on merchandise and travellers (Matt. 17:25); the annual tax (phoros) on property (Luke 20:22; 23:2); the poll-tax (kensos, "tribute," Matt. 17:25; 22:17; Mark 12:14); and the temple-tax ("tribute money" = two drachmas = half shekel, Matt. 17:24-27; comp. Ex. 30:13). (See TRIBUTE

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/T/Taxes/

Taxes in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(See PUBLICAN.) Each Israelite paid a half shekel as "atonement money" for the service of the tabernacle, the morning and evening sacrifice, the incense, wood, shewbread, red heifers, scape-goat, etc. (Exodus 30:13). This became an annual payment on the return from Babylon; at first only a third of a shekel (Nehemiah 10:32); afterward a half, the didrachma (Matthew 17:24); paid by every Jew wherever in the world he might be (Josephus Ant. 18:9, section 1). Under kings the taxes were much increased: a tithe of the soil's produce and of cattle (1 Samuel 8:15; 1 Samuel 8:17); forced military service, a month every year (verse 12; 1 Kings 9:22; 1 Chronicles 27:1); gifts, nominally voluntary but really imperative (like the Old English "benevolences"), and expected, as at the beginning of a reign or in war (1 Samuel 10:27; 1 Samuel 16:20; 1 Samuel 17:18). Import duties on foreign articles (1 Kings 10:15); monopolies of commerce; gold, linen from Egypt (1 Kings 9:28; 1 Kings 10:28); the first cuttings of hay, "the king's mowings" (Amos 7:1). Exemption from taxes was deemed an ample reward for military service (1 Samuel 17:25). The taxes, not the idolatry, of Solomon caused the revolt under his son; and Adoram, as over the tribute, was the chief object, of hatred (1 Kings 12:4; 1 Kings 12:18). The Assyrian and Egyptian conquerors imposed heavy taxes on the Israelite and Jewish kings, Mendhem, Hoshea, Hezekiah, Josiah (2 Kings 15:20; 2 Kings 17:4; 2 Kings 18:14; 2 Kings 23:35). Under the Persian Darius Hystaspes each satrap had to pay a fixed sum which he levied from the people with extortion. Judaea had to provide for the governor's household daily maintenance, besides 40 shekels a day (Nehemiah 5:14-15). The three sources of revenue were: (1) the mindah or "measured payment" or "toll," i.e. direct taxes; (2) the excise on articles of consumption, "tribute," belo; (3) "custom" (halak), payable at bridges, fords, and stations on the road (Ezra 4:13; Ezra 4:20). The priests, Levites, singers, porters, and Nethinim were exempted by Artaxerxes (Ezra 7:24). The distress of the people by taxes and forced service is pathetically described (Nehemiah 9:37). They mortgaged their lands to buy grain, and borrowed money at one per cent per month, i.e. 12 percent per year, to pay the king's tribute; failing payment they became slaves to their creditors. When Judaea fell under Rome, the taxes were farmed, namely, the "dues" (telos) at harbours and city gates, and the poll tax (census or epikephalaion); the lawfulness of the latter alone the rabbis questioned (Matthew 22:17). Judas of Galilee raised a revolt against it (Josephus Ant. 18:1, section 6; B.J. 2:8, sec. 1). Besides there was a property tax, the registry and valuation for which took place at Christ's birth and was completed by Quirinus Cyrenius after Archelaus' deposition (Luke 2:1-2). (See CYRENIUS.) The Christian's rule is Matthew 22:21; Romans 13:7.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/T/Taxes/

Taxes in Smiths Bible Dictionary

I. Under the judges, according to the theocratic government contemplated by the law, the only payments incumbent upon the people as of permanent obligation were the Tithes, the Firstfruits, the Redemption-money of the first-born, and other offerings as belonging to special occasions. The payment by each Israelite of the half-shekel as "atonement- money," for the service of the tabernacle, on taking the census of the people, Ex 30:13 does not appear to have had the character of a recurring tax, but to have been supplementary to the freewill offerings of Ex 25:1-7 levied for the one purpose of the construction of the sacred tent. In later times, indeed, after the return from Babylon, there was an annual payment for maintaining the fabric and services of the temple; but the fact that this begins by of a shekel, Ne 10:32 shows that till then there was no such payment recognized as necessary. A little later the third became a half, and under the name of the didrachma, Mt 17:24 was paid by every Jew, in whatever part of the world he might be living. II. The kingdom, with centralized government and greater magnificence, involved of course, a larger expenditure, and therefore a heavier taxation, The chief burdens appear to have been-- (1) A tithe of the produce both of the soil and of live stock. 1Sa 8:15,17 (2) Forced military service for a month every year. 1Sa 8:12; 1Ki 9:22; 1Ch 27:1 (3) Gifts to the king. 1Sa 10:27; 16:20; 17:18 (4) Import duties. 1Ki 10:15 (5) The monopoly of certain-branches of commerce. 1Ki 9:28; 22:48; 10:28,29 (6) The appropriation to the king's use of the early crop of hay. Am 7:1 At times, too, in the history of both the kingdoms there were special burdens. A tribute of fifty shekels a head had to be paid by Menahem to the Assyrian king, 2Ki 16:20 and under his successor Hoshea this assumed the form of an annual tribute. 2Ki 17:4 III. Under the Persian empire the taxes paid by the Jews were, in their broad outlines, the same in kind as those of other subject races. The financial system which gained for Darius Hystaspes the name of the "shopkeeper king" involved the payment by each satrap of a fixed sum as the tribute due from his province. In Judea, as in other provinces, the inhabitants had to provide in kind for the maintenance of the governor's household, besides a money payment of forty shekels a day. Ne 5:14,15 In Ezra 4:13,20; 7:24 we get a formal enumeration of the three great branches of the revenue. The influence of Ezra secured for the whole ecclesiastical order, from the priests down to the Nethinim, an immunity from all three Ezr 7:24 but the burden pressed heavily on the great body of the people. IV. Under the Egyptian and Syrian kings the taxes paid by the Jews became yet heavier. The "farming" system of finance was adopted in its worst form. The taxes were put up to auction. The contract sum for those of Phoenicia, Judea and Samaria had been estimated at about 8000 talents. An unscrupulous adventurer would bid double that sum, and would then go down to the province, and by violence and cruelty, like that of Turkish or Hindoo collectors, squeeze out a large margin of profit for himself. V. The pressure of Roman taxation, if not absolutely heavier, was probably more galling, as being more thorough and systematic, more distinctively a mark of bondage. The capture of Jerusalem by Pompey was followed immediately by the imposition of a tribute, and within a short time the sum thus taken from the resources of the country amounted to 10,000 talents. When Judea became formally a Roman province, the whole financial system of the empire came as a natural consequence. The taxes were systematically farmed, and the publicans appeared as a new curse to the country. The portoria were levied at harbors, piers and the gates of cities. Mt 17:24; Ro 13:7 In addition to this there was the poll-tax paid by every Jew, and looked upon, for that reason, as the special badge of servitude. United with this, as part of the same system, there was also, in all probability, a property tax of some kind. In addition to these general taxes, the inhabitants of Jerusalem were subject to a special house duty about this period.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/T/Taxes/

Taxes Scripture - Daniel 11:20

Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes [in] the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Daniel/11/

Taxed Scripture - 2 Kings 23:35

And Jehoiakim gave the silver and the gold to Pharaoh; but he taxed the land to give the money according to the commandment of Pharaoh: he exacted the silver and the gold of the people of the land, of every one according to his taxation, to give [it] unto Pharaohnechoh.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/23/

Taxed Scripture - Luke 2:1

And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/2/

Taxed Scripture - Luke 2:5

To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/2/

Taxed Scripture - Luke 2:3

And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/2/

Tentmaker in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

tent'-mak-er (~skenopoios): Mentioned only once (Acts 18:3). Paul's native province of Cilicia was noted for its goats' hair cloth which was exported under the name of cilicium and was used largely for tentmaking. We are told in the passage mentioned that Paul dwelt with Aquila and Priscilla, and worked with them at tent-making (compare Acts 20:34).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/T/TENT-MAKER/

Tentmaker Scripture - Acts 18:3

And because he was of the same craft, he abode with them, and wrought: for by their occupation they were tentmakers.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/18/

Tent in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

tent ('ohel; skene; 'ohel is a derivative of 'ahal, "to be clear," "to shine"; hence, 'ohel, "to be conspicuous from a distance"): In the great stretches of uncultivated lands in the interior of Syria or Arabia, which probably have much the same aspect today as in Abraham's time, it is an easy matter to espy an encampment of roving Bedouin, "a nation .... that dwelleth without care .... that have neither gates nor bars" (Jer 49:31). The peaks of their black (compare Song 1:5) goats' hair tents stand out in contrast against the lighter colors of the soil. There seems to be little doubt about the antiquity of the Arab tent, and one can rightly believe that-the dwelling- places of Abraham, Sarah, Jacob, and their descendants were made on the same pattern and of the same materials (Gen 4:20; 9:27; 12:8; 13:3; 18:6; 31:25,30; Ps 78:55; Heb 11:9, etc.). Long after the children of Israel had given up their tents for houses they continued to worship in tents (2 Sam 7:1-6; 2 Ch 1:3,4) (for the use of tents in connection with religious observances see TABERNACLE). The Arab tents (called bait sha`r, "house of hair") are made of strips of black goats' hair cloth, sewed together into one large piece (see GOATS' HAIR; WEAVING). Poles are placed under this covering at intervals to hold it from the ground, and it is stretched over these poles by ropes of goats hair or hemp (compare Job 4:21; Isa 54:2; Jer 10:20) "fastened to hard-wood pins driven into the ground (Isa 54:2; Jdg 4:21; 5:26). A large wooden mallet for driving the pegs is part of the regular camp equipment (Jdg 4:21; 5:26). The sides (curtains) of the tent (Isa 54:2) are made of strips of goats hair cloth or from mats woven from split cane or rushes (see Illustration, p. 2948). Where more than one family occupies the same tent or the animals are provided with shelter under the same roof (compare 2 Ch 14:15), curtains of the same materials mentioned above form the dividing walls. A corner of the matting where two ends meet is turned back to form the door of the tent (Gen 18:1). In the summer time the walls are mostly removed. New tents are not water-proof, and the condition of the interior after a heavy rain is not far from squalid. The tent material becomes matted by use, especially if wool has been woven into the fabric, and is then a better protection against the rain. It is the women's duty to pitch the tents. The poorer Arabs have no mats to cover the ground under their tents. Straw mats, goats' hair or woolen rugs (compare Jdg 4:18), more or less elaborate as the taste and means of the family allow, are the usual coverings for the tent floor. The food supplies are usually kept in goats' hair bags, the liquids, as oil or milk products, in skins. One or two tinned copper cooking-vessels, a shallow tray of the same material, a coffee set consisting of roasting pan, mortar and pestle, boiling-pot and cups, make up the usual camp furniture. The more thrifty include bedding in their equipment, but this increases the difficulties of moving, since it might require more than the one animal, sometimes only a donkey, which carries all the earthly belongings of the family. A sheikh or chief has several tents, one for himself and guests, separate ones for his wives and female servants, and still others for his animals (compare Gen 31:33). Other Hebrew words translated "tent" are forms of chanah (Nu 13:19; 1 Sam 17:53; 2 Ki 7:16; 2 Ch 31:2; Zec 14:15); cukkah (2 Sam 11:11; 22:12); mishkenoth (Song 1:8). Figurative: "Neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there" typified utter desolation (Isa 13:20). "Enlarge the place of thy tent .... stretch forth the curtains .... lengthen thy cords .... strengthen thy stakes" prophesied an increase in numbers and prosperity of God's people (Isa 54:2; compare 33:20; Lk 16:9; 2 Cor 5:4). Tent cords plucked up denoted death. (Job 4:21). Jer 10:20 is a picture of a destroyed household as applied to Judah. Hezekiah in his sickness bewails that his dwelling (life) had been carried away as easily as a shepherd's tent is plucked up (Isa 38:12). Isaiah compared the heavens to a tent spread out (Isa 40:22). "They shall pitch their tents against her" i.e. they shall make war (Jer 6:3).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/T/TENT/

Tent in Naves Topical Bible

Used for a dwelling Ge 4:20 -By Noah Ge 9:21 -By Abraham Ge 12:8; 13:18; 18:1 -By Lot Ge 13:5 -By Moses Ex 18:7 -By the people of Israel Nu 24:5,6; 2Sa 20:1; 1Ki 12:16 -By the Midianites Jud 6:5 -By Cushites Hab 3:7 -By Arabians Isa 13:20 -By shepherds Isa 38:12; Jer 6:3 -Women had separate tents from men Ge 24:67; 31:33 -Used for cattle 2Ch 14:15 -The manufacture of Ac 18:3

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/T/TENT/

Tent in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(1.) Heb. 'ohel (Gen. 9:21, 27). This word is used also of a dwelling or habitation (1 Kings 8:66; Isa. 16:5; Jer. 4:20), and of the temple (Ezek. 41:1). When used of the tabernacle, as in 1 Kings 1:39, it denotes the covering of goat's hair which was placed over the mishcan. (2.) Heb. mishcan (Cant. 1:8), used also of a dwelling (Job 18:21; Ps. 87:2), the grave (Isa. 22:16; comp. 14:18), the temple (Ps. 46:4; 84:2; 132:5), and of the tabernacle (Ex. 25:9; 26:1; 40:9; Num. 1:50, 53; 10:11). When distinguished from 'ohel, it denotes the twelve interior curtains which lay upon the framework of the tabernacle (q.v.). (3.) Heb. kubbah (Num. 25:8), a dome-like tent devoted to the impure worship of Baal-peor. (4.) Heb. succah (2 Sam. 11:11), a tent or booth made of green boughs or branches (see Gen. 33:17; Lev. 23:34, 42; Ps. 18:11; Jonah 4:5; Isa. 4:6; Neh. 8:15-17, where the word is variously rendered). Jubal was "the father of such as dwell in tents" (Gen. 4:20). The patriarchs were "dwellers in tents" (Gen. 9:21, 27; 12:8; 13:12; 26:17); and during their wilderness wanderings all Israel dwelt in tents (Ex. 16:16; Deut. 33:18; Josh. 7:24). Tents have always occupied a prominent place in Eastern life (1 Sam. 17:54; 2 Kings 7:7; Ps. 120:5; Cant. 1:5). Paul the apostle's occupation was that of a tent-maker (Acts 18:3); i.e., perhaps a maker of tent cloth.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/T/Tent/

Tent in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

'ohel, "tabernacle "; mishkan, "dwelling"; sukkak, "booth"; qubbah, "recess" (Numbers 25:8). The characteristic dwelling of the keepers of cattle, the nomadic races, of whom Jabal was the father (Genesis 4:20). The stay of Israel in Egypt weaned them from tent life and trained them for their fixed home in Canaan. The pastoral tribes Reuben, Gad, and half Manasseh, still in part retained the tent life E. of Jordan (Joshua 22:8). The phrase "to your tents, O Israel," remained as a trace of the former nomadic state, when the nation was no longer so (1 Kings 12:16). Agriculture was sometimes associated with tent life, as in Isaac's case (Genesis 26:12), and probably in Heber's case (Judges 4:11- 22). Hazerim (Deuteronomy 2:23) is not a proper name, but means nomadic "villages" or "enclosures," a piece of ground surrounded with a rude fence, in which tents were pitched and cattle tethered at night for safety from marauders; or as the Yezidee tent in Syria, a stone wall five feet high, roofed with goats' hair cloth raised on long poles. So Hazar-adder in the S. and Hazar-erran in the N. (Numbers 34:4; Numbers 34:9.) Some tents are circular, resting on one central pole; others square on several poles. The better kind are oblong, and divided by a curtain into an outer apartment for the males and an inner one for the females. Hooks are fixed in the poles to hang articles on (Isaiah 22:23-24). To the rain-proof goats' hair covering a cloth is sewn or twisted round a stick, to the ends of which are tied leather loops. To these loops one end of the tent ropes is fastened, the other being tied to a hooked sharp pin of wood which they drive into the ground with a mallet; such a nail and mallet Jael used (Judges 4:21). The patriarchs' wives had separate tents (Genesis 24:67; Genesis 31:33). The beauty of Israel's orderly and wide encampment by the four parallel brooks running westward into Jordan is compared to trees in rows in beautiful gardens, such as Balaam had seen along his own river Euphrates (Numbers 24:5-6). The quickness and ease with which tents can be struck, leaving their tenants without covering in the lonely desert, is Paul's image for the speedy dissolution of our mortal body, preparatory to our abiding resurrection home (2 Corinthians 5:1).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/T/Tent/

Tent in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Among the leading characteristics of the nomad races, those two have always been numbered whose origin has been ascribed to Jabal the son of Lameth, Ge 4:20 viz., to be tent- dwellers and keepers of cattle. The same may be said of the forefathers of the Hebrew race; nor was it until the return into Canaan from Egypt that the Hebrews became inhabitants of cities. An Arab tent is called beit, "house;" its covering consists of stuff, about three quarters of a yard broad, made of black goat's-hair, So 1:5 laid parallel with the tent's length. This is sufficient to resist the heaviest rain. The tent-poles or columns are usually nine in number, placed in three groups; but many tents have only one pole, others two or three. The ropes which hold the tent in its place are fastened, not to the tent-cover itself, but to loops consisting of a leathern thong tied to the ends of a stick, round which is twisted a piece of old cloth, which is itself sewed to the tent-cover. The ends of the tent-ropes are fastened to short sticks or pins, which are driven into the ground with a mallet. Jud 4:21 Round the back and sides of the tent runs a piece of stuff removable at pleasure to admit air. The tent is divided into two apartments, separated by a carpet partition drawn across the middle of the tent and fastened to the three middle posts. When the pasture near an encampment is exhausted, the tents are taken down, packed on camels and removed. Ge 26:17,22,25; Isa 38:12 In choosing places for encampment, Arabs prefer the neighborhood of trees, for the sake of the shade and coolness which they afford. Ge 18:4,8

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/T/Tent/

Tent Scripture - Genesis 31:25

Then Laban overtook Jacob. Now Jacob had pitched his tent in the mount: and Laban with his brethren pitched in the mount of Gilead.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/31/

Tent Scripture - 2 Samuel 19:8

Then the king arose, and sat in the gate. And they told unto all the people, saying, Behold, the king doth sit in the gate. And all the people came before the king: for Israel had fled every man to his tent.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/19/

Tent Scripture - Exodus 26:13

And a cubit on the one side, and a cubit on the other side of that which remaineth in the length of the curtains of the tent, it shall hang over the sides of the tabernacle on this side and on that side, to cover it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/26/

Tent Scripture - Genesis 12:8

And he removed from thence unto a mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, [having] Bethel on the west, and Hai on the east: and there he builded an altar unto the LORD, and called upon the name of the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/12/

Tent Scripture - Numbers 3:25

And the charge of the sons of Gershon in the tabernacle of the congregation [shall be] the tabernacle, and the tent, the covering thereof, and the hanging for the door of the tabernacle of the congregation,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Numbers/3/

Tent Scripture - 1 Samuel 13:2

Saul chose him three thousand [men] of Israel; [whereof] two thousand were with Saul in Michmash and in mount Bethel, and a thousand were with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin: and the rest of the people he sent every man to his tent.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Samuel/13/

Tent Scripture - Exodus 40:29

And he put the altar of burnt offering [by] the door of the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation, and offered upon it the burnt offering and the meat offering; as the LORD commanded Moses.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/40/

Tent Scripture - Exodus 36:14

And he made curtains [of] goats' [hair] for the tent over the tabernacle: eleven curtains he made them.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/36/

Tent Scripture - Exodus 36:19

And he made a covering for the tent [of] rams' skins dyed red, and a covering [of] badgers' skins above [that].

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/36/

Thief in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

thef: In the Old Testament the uniform translation (17 times) of gannabh, from ganabh, "steal," but gannabh is rather broader than the English "thief," and may even include a kidnapper (Dt 24:7). In Apocrypha and the New Testament, the King James Version uses "thief" indifferently for kleptes, and lestes, but the Revised Version (British and American) always renders the latter word by "robber" (a great improvement), See CRIMES. The figurative use of thief" as one coming without warning" (Mt 24:43, etc.) needs no explanation. The penitent thief ("robber," the Revised Version (British and American) Mk 15:27; Mt 27:38,44; "malefactor," Lk 23:32,39) was one of the two criminals crucified with Christ. According to Mark and Matthew, both of these joined in the crowd's mockery, but Luke tells that one of them reproached his fellow for the insults, acknowledged his own guilt, and begged Christ to remember him at the coming of the Kingdom. And Christ replied by promising more than was asked--immediate admission into Paradise. It should be noted that unusual moral courage was needed for the thief to make his request at such a time and under such circumstances, and that his case has little in common with certain sentimental "death-bed repentances." To explain the repentance and the acknowledgment of Christ as Messiah, some previous acquaintance of the thief with Christ must be supposed, but all guesses as to time and place are of course useless. Later tradition abundantly filled the blanks and gave the penitent thief the name Titus or Dysmas.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/T/THIEF/

Robber in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

rob'-er, rob'-er-i: "Robber" represents no particular Hebrew word in the Old Testament, but in the Apocrypha and the New Testament is always a translation of lestes (see THIEF). In the King James Version Job 5:5; 18:9, "robber" stands for the doubtful word tsammim, the Revised Version (British and American) "hungry" in JOb 5:5 and "snare" in 18:9. The meaning is uncertain, and perhaps tseme'im, "thirsty," should be read in both places. Ps 62:10, "Become not vain in robbery," means "put not your trust in riches dishonestly gained." RV's changes of the King James Version in Prov 21:7; Dan 11:14; Nab 3:1 are obvious. In Phil 2:6 the King James Version reads "thought it not robbery to be equal with God." the English Revised Version has "a prize," while the English Revised Version margin and the American Standard Revised Version read "a thing to be grasped," the American Standard Revised Version rewording "counted not the being on an equality with God a thing to be grasped." The Greek here is harpagmos, a word derived from harpazo, "to ravish away," "carry off," "plunder" (compare "harpy"). Properly speaking, the termination -mos should give the derived noun an active sense, "the act of plundering," whence the King James Version's "robbery." The verse would then mean "who thought that being on an equality with God did not consist in grasping," and this translation gives good sense in the context and has some excellent scholarly support. But a passive significance is frequently found despite a -mos termination, giving to harpagmos the sense of "thing grasped," as in the Revised Version (British and American). Usually English commentators take "grasped" as meaning "clung to"--"did not think equality with God should be clung to tenaciously"--but "to cling to" seems unknown as a translation of harpazo. Hence, render "a thing to be grasped at"--did not seek equality with God by selfish methods but by humbling himself." It is to be noticed, naturally, that Paul is thinking of "equality with God" simply in the sense of "receiving explicit adoration from men" (Phil 2:10,11), and that the metaphysical relation of the Son to the Father is not at all in point.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/R/ROBBER;+ROBBERY/

Robbers in Naves Topical Bible

General scriptures concerning Pr 1:11-16 -Dens of Jer 7:11 -Bands of Ho 6:9; 7:1

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/R/ROBBERS/

Robbery in Naves Topical Bible

Forbidden Le 19:13; Isa 61:8 -Punished with death Eze 18:10,13 -Forgiven Eze 33:15 -INSTANCES OF Jud 9:25; Lu 10:30

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/R/ROBBERY/

Theft and Thieves in Naves Topical Bible

General scriptures concerning Ex 20:15; 21:16; 22:1-4,10-15; Le 6:2-7; 19:11,13; De 5:19; 23:24,25; Ps 50:18; 62:10; 119:61; Pr 6:30,31; 21:7; Isa 61:8; Jer 2:26; 7:9,10; Eze 22:29; Ho 4:1,2; Na 3:1; Zec 5:3; Mt 6:19,20; 15:19; 19:18; 21:13; 27:38,44; Mr 7:21,22; 11:17; 15:27; Lu 18:20; 19:45,46; Joh 10:1; Ro 2:21; 13:9; 1Co 6:8,10; Eph 4:28; Tit 2:10; 1Pe 4:15; Re 3:3; 9:21 -See DISHONESTY -FIGURATIVE Ob 1:5 -INSTANCES OF By Rachel, of the household gods (teraphim) Ge 31:19,34,35 Achan Jos 7:11 Micah Jud 17:2 The spies of Laish Jud 18:14-27 Judas Joh 12:6

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/T/THEFT+AND+THIEVES/

Robbery in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Robbery has ever been one of the principal employments of the nomad tribes of the East. From the time of Ishmael to the present day the Bedouin has been a "wild man," and a robber by trade. Ge 16:12 The Mosaic law on the subject of theft is contained in Ex 2:2 There seems no reason to suppose that the law underwent any alteration in Solomon's time. Man-stealing was punishable with death. Ex 21:16; De 24:7 Invasion of right in land was strictly forbidden. De 27:17; Isa 5:8; Mic 2:2

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/R/Robbery/

Signet Scripture - Exodus 28:36

And thou shalt make a plate [of] pure gold, and grave upon it, [like] the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/28/

Signet Scripture - Jeremiah 22:24

[As] I live, saith the LORD, though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah were the signet upon my right hand, yet would I pluck thee thence;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/22/

Signet Scripture - Genesis 38:18

And he said, What pledge shall I give thee? And she said, Thy signet, and thy bracelets, and thy staff that [is] in thine hand. And he gave [it] her, and came in unto her, and she conceived by him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/38/

Signet Scripture - Genesis 38:25

When she [was] brought forth, she sent to her father in law, saying, By the man, whose these [are, am] I with child: and she said, Discern, I pray thee, whose [are] these, the signet, and bracelets, and staff.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/38/

Signet Scripture - Daniel 6:17

And a stone was brought, and laid upon the mouth of the den; and the king sealed it with his own signet, and with the signet of his lords; that the purpose might not be changed concerning Daniel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Daniel/6/

Slave in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

slav, slav'-er-i: 1. Acquiring of Slaves 2. Hebrews as War Captives 3. Freedom of Slaves 4. Rights of Slaves 5. Rights of Slave Masters 6. The New Testament Conception LITERATURE The origin of the term "slave" is traced to the German sklave, meaning a captive of the Slavonic race who had been forced into servitude (compare Slav); French esclave, Dutch slaaf, Swedish slaf, Spanish esclavo. The word "slave" occurs only in Jer 2:14 and in Rev 18:13, where it is suggested by the context and not expressed in the original languages (Hebrew yelidh bayith, "one born in the house"; Greek soma, "body"). However, the Hebrew word `ebhedh, in the Old Testament and the Greek word doulos, in the New Testament more properly might have been translated "slave" instead of "servant" or "bondservant," understanding though that the slavery of Judaism was not the cruel system of Greece, Rome, and later nations. The prime thought is service; the servant may render free service, the slave, obligatory, restricted service. Scripture statement rather than philological study must form the basis of this article. We shall notice how slaves could be secured, sold and redeemed; also their rights and their masters' rights, confining the study to Old Testament Scripture, noting in conclusion the New Testament conception. The word "slave" in this article refers to the Hebrew slave unless otherwise designated. 1. Acquiring of Slaves: Slaves might be acquired in the following ways, namely: (1) Bought. There are many instances of buying slaves (Lev 25:39 ff). Hebrew slavery broke into the ranks of every human relationship: a father could sell his daughter (Ex 21:7; Neh 5:5); a widow's children might be sold to pay their father's debt (2 Ki 4:1); a man could sell himself (Lev 25:39,47); a woman could sell herself (Dt 15:12,13,17), etc. Prices paid were somewhat indefinite. According to Ex 21:32 thirty shekels was a standard price, but Lev 27:3-7 gives a scale of from 3 to 50 shekels according to age and sex, with a provision for an appeal to the priest in case of uncertainty (27:8). Twenty shekels is the price set for a young man (27:5), and this corresponds with the sum paid for Joseph (Gen 37:28). But in 2 Macc 8:11 the price on the average is 90 for a talent, i.e. 40 shekels...

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Slave in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The institution of slavery was recognized, though not established, by the Mosaic law with a view to mitigate its hardship and to secure to every man his ordinary rights. I. Hebrew slaves. -- 1. The circumstances under which a Hebrew might be reduced to servitude were-- (1) poverty; (2) the commission of theft; and (3) the exercise of paternal authority. In the first case, a man who had mortgaged his property, and was unable to support his family, might sell himself to another Hebrew, with a view both to obtain maintenance and perchance a surplus sufficient to redeem his property. Le 25:25,39 (2) The commission of theft rendered a person liable to servitude whenever restitution could not be made on the scale prescribed by the law. Ex 22:1,3 The thief was bound to work out the value of his restitution money in the service of him on whom the theft had been committed. (3) The exercise of paternal authority was limited to the sale of a daughter of tender age to be a maidservant, with the ulterior view of her becoming the concubine of the purchaser. Ex 21:7 2. The servitude of a Hebrew might be terminated in three ways: (1) by the satisfaction or the remission of all claims against him; (2) by the recurrence of the year of jubilee, Le 25:40 and (3) the expiration of six years from the time that his servitude commenced. Ex 21:2; De 15:12 (4) To the above modes of obtaining liberty the rabbinists added, as a fourth, the death of the master without leaving a son, there being no power of claiming the salve on the part of any heir except a son. If a servant did not desire to avail himself of the opportunity of leaving his service, he was to signify his intention in a formal manner before the judges (or more exactly at the place of judgment), and then the master was to take him to the door-post, and to bore his ear through with an awl, Ex 21:6 driving the awl into or "unto the door," as stated in De 15:17 and thus fixing the servant to it. A servant who had submitted to this operation remained, according to the words of the law, a servant "forever." Ex 21:6 These words are however, interpreted by Josephus and by the rabbinsts as meaning until the year of jubilee. 3. The condition of a Hebrew servant was by no means intolerable. His master was admonished to treat him, not "as a bond-servant, but as an hired servant and as a sojourner," and, again, "not to rule over him with rigor." Le 25:39,40,43 At the termination of his servitude the master was enjoined not to "let him go away empty," but to remunerate him liberally out of his flock, his floor and his wine-press. De 15:13,14 In the event of a Hebrew becoming the servant of a "stranger," meaning a non-Hebrew, the servitude could be terminated only in two ways, viz. by the arrival of the year of jubilee, or by the repayment to the master of the purchase money paid for the servant, after deducting a sum for the value of his services proportioned to the length of his servitude. Le 25:47-55 A Hebrew woman might enter into voluntary servitude on the score of poverty, and in this case she was entitled to her freedom after six years service, together with her usual gratuity at leaving, just as in the case of a man. De 15:12,13 Thus far we have seen little that is objectionable in the condition of Hebrew servants. In respect to marriage there were some peculiarities which, to our ideas, would be regarded as hardships. A master might, for instance, give a wife to a Hebrew servant for the time of his servitude, the wife being in this case, it must be remarked, not only a slave but a non-Hebrew. Should he leave when his term had expired, his wife and children would remain the absolute property of the master. Ex 21:4,5 Again, a father might sell his young daughter to a Hebrew, with a view either of marrying her himself or of giving her to his son. Ex 21:7-9 It diminishes the apparent harshness of this proceeding if we look on the purchase money as in the light of a dowry given, as was not unusual, to the parents of the bride; still more, if we accept the rabbinical view that the consent of the maid was required before the marriage could take place. The position of a maiden thus sold by her father was subject to the following regulations: (1) She could not "go out as the men- servants do," i.e. she could not leave at the termination of six years, or in the year of jubilee, if her..

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Slave in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Jer. 2:14 (A.V.), but not there found in the original. In Rev. 18:13 the word "slaves" is the rendering of a Greek word meaning "bodies." The Hebrew and Greek words for slave are usually rendered simply "servant," "bondman," or "bondservant." Slavery as it existed under the Mosaic law has no modern parallel. That law did not originate but only regulated the already existing custom of slavery (Ex. 21:20, 21, 26, 27; Lev. 25:44- 46; Josh. 9:6-27). The gospel in its spirit and genius is hostile to slavery in every form, which under its influence is gradually disappearing from among men.

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Slave in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Hired service was little known anciently; slavery was the common form of service. But among the Hebrew the bond service was of a mild and equitable character; so much so that ebed, "servant," is not restricted to the bond servant, but applies to higher relations, as, e.,g., the king's prime minister, a rich man's steward, as Eliezer (Genesis 15:2; Genesis 24:2), God's servant (Daniel 9:17). Bond service was not introduced by Moses, but being found in existence was regulated by laws mitigating its evils and restricting its duration. Man stealing was a capital crime (Deuteronomy 24:7); not only stealing Israelites, but people of other nations (Exodus 21:16). The Mosaic law jealously guarded human life and liberty as sacred. Masters must treat Hebrew servants as hired servants, not with rigour, but with courteous considerateness as brethren, and liberally remunerate them at the close of their service (Deuteronomy 15:12-18; Leviticus 25:39-41). Exodus 21:2 provided that no Israelite bound to service could be forced to continue in it more than six years. Leviticus supplements this by giving every Hebrew the right to claim freedom for himself and family in the Jubilee year, without respect to period of service, and to recover his land. This was a cheek on the oppression of the rich (Jeremiah 34:8-17). Property in foreign slaves might be handed down from father to son, so too the children born in the house (Genesis 14:14; Genesis 17:12). Some were war captives (Numbers 31:6-7; Numbers 31:9; Deuteronomy 20:14); but Israelites must not reduce to bondage Israelites taken in war (2 Chronicles 28:8-15). The monuments give many illustrations of the state of the Israelites themselves reduced to bondage by foreign kings to whom they were delivered for their rebellion. Others were enslaved for crime (Exodus 22:3, like our penal servitude), or bought from foreign slave dealers (Leviticus 25:44), so they were his property (Exodus 21:21). The price was about 30 or 40 shekels (Exodus 21:32; Leviticus 27:3-4; Zechariah 11:12-13; Matthew 26:15). The slave was encouraged to become a "proselyte" (doulos) (Exodus 12:44). He might be set free (Exodus 21:3; Exodus 21:20-21; Exodus 21:26-27). The law guarded his life and limbs. If a married man became a bondman, his rights to his wife were respected, she going out with him after six years' service. If as single he accepted a wife from his master, and she bore him children, she and they remained the master's, and he alone went out, unless from love to his master and his wife and children he preferred staying (Exodus 21:6); then the master bored his ear (the member symbolizing willing obedience, as the phrase "give ear" implies) with an awl, and he served for ever, i.e. until Jubilee year (Leviticus 25:10; Deuteronomy 15:17); type of the Father's willing Servant for man's sake (compare Isaiah 50:5; Psalm 40:6-8; Hebrews 10:5; Philemon 2:7). A Hebrew sold to a stranger sojourning in Israel did not go out after six years, but did at the...

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Slaves Scripture - Revelation 18:13

And cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves, and souls of men.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/18/

Spices in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

spis, spi'-sis, -sez: (1) (besem (Ex 30:23), bosem, plural besamim, all from root "to attract by desire," especially by smell): The list of spices in Ex 30:23 includes myrrh, cinnamon, "sweet calamus cassia." These, mixed with olive oil, made the "holy anointing oil." Officials of the temple had charge of the spices (1 Ch 9:29). Among the treasures of the temple shown by Hezekiah to the messengers of Babylon were the spices (2 Ki 20:13). They were used in the obsequies of kings (2 Ch 16:14) and in preparation of a bride for a royal marriage (Est 2:12, "sweet-odors" = balsam). Spices are frequently mentioned in Song (4:10,14,16; 5:1, margin and the King James Version "balsam"; Song 5:13; 6:2, "bed of spices," margin "balsam"; 8:14). These passages in Song may refer in particular to balsam, the product of the balsam plant, Balsamodendron opobalsamum, a plant growing in Arabia. According to Josephus it was cultivated at Jericho, the plant having been brought to Israel by the Queen of Sheba (Ant., VIII, vi, 6; see also XIV, iv, 1; XV, iv, 2; BJ, I, vi, 6). See MYRRH. (2) cammim (Ex 30:34, "sweet spices")): "Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; sweet spices with pure frankincense." It is a general term for fragrant substances finely powdered. Compare Arabic shamm, "a smell" or "sense of smell"; generally translated "sweet incense" (Ex 25:6; 30:7; 31:11; 35:8,15,28; 39:38; 40:27 (the King James Version only); Lev 4:7; 16:12; Nu 4:16; 2 Ch 2:4 (the King James Version only); 2 Ch 13:11). In Ex 37:29; 40:27; 2 Ch 2:4, we have qsToreth cammim, "incense of sweet spices." (3) (nekho'th; thumiamata (Gen 37:25, "spicery," margin "gum tragacanth or storax"); thumiama "incense" (Gen 43:11, "spicery"; some Greek versions and the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) have "storax")): Storax is the dried gum of the beautiful Styrax officinalis (see POPLAR), which was used as incense--different article from that now passing under that name. Tragacanth is the resinous gum of several species of milk vetch (Natural Order, Leguminosae), especially of the Astragalus gummifer. Septuagint "incense" is probably the best translation. (4) (reqach, "spiced" wine (Song 8:2)). See WINE. (5) (aroma, "spices" (Mk 16:1, the King James Version "sweet spices"; Lk 23:56; 24:1; Jn 19:40; in 19:39 defined as a mixture of aloes and myrrh)). See PERFUME; BURIAL. (6) (amomon (Rev 18:13), margin "amomum"; the King James Version "odours"): The Greek means "blameless," and it was apparently applied in classical times to any sweet and fine odor. In modern botany the name Amomum is given to a genus in the Natural Order. Zingiberaceae. The well-known cardamon seeds (Amomum cardamomum) and the A. grana Paradisi which yields the well-known "grains of Paradise," used as a stimulant, both belong to this genus. What was the substance indicated in Rev 18:13 is quite uncertain.

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Spices in Naves Topical Bible

In the formula for the sacred oil Ex 25:6; 35:8 -Stores of 2Ki 20:13 -Used in the temple 1Ch 9:29 -Exported from Gilead Ge 37:25 -Sent as a present by Jacob to Joseph Ge 43:11 -Presented by the Queen of Sheba to Solomon 1Ki 10:2,10 -Sold in the marketplaces of Tyre Eze 27:22 -Used in the embalming of Asa 2Ch 16:14 -Prepared for embalming the corpse of Jesus Mr 16:1; Lu 23:56; 24:1; Joh 19:39,40

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Spices in Smiths Bible Dictionary

1. Heb. basam, besem or bosem. In So 5:1 "I have gathered my myrrh with my spice," the word points apparently to some definite substance. In the other places, with the exception perhaps of So 1:13; 6:2 the words refer more generally to sweet aromatic odors, the principal of which was that of the balsam or balm of Gilead; the tree which yields this substance is now generally admitted to be the Balsam- odendron opobalsamum. The balm of Gilead tree grows in some parts of Arabia and Africa, and is seldom more than fifteen feet high, with straggling branches and scanty foliage. The balsam is chiefly obtained from incisions in the bark, but is procured also from the green and ripe berries. 2. Necoth. Ge 37:25; 43:11 The most probable explanation is that which refers the word to the Arabic naku'at i.e. "the gum obtained from the tragacanth" (Astragalus). 3. Sammim, a general term to denote those aromatic substances which were used in the preparation of the anointing oil, the incense offerings, etc. The spices mentioned as being used by Nicodemus for the preparation of our Lord's body, Joh 19:39,40 are "myrrh and aloes," by which latter word must be understood not the aloes of medicine, but the highly-scented wood of the Aquilaria agallochum.

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Spices in Easton's Bible Dictionary

aromatic substances, of which several are named in Ex. 30. They were used in the sacred anointing oil (Ex. 25:6; 35:8; 1 Chr. 9:29), and in embalming the dead (2 Chr. 16:14; Luke 23:56; 24:1; John 19:39, 40). Spices were stored by Hezekiah in his treasure-house (2 Kings 20:13; Isa. 39:2).

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Spices in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

basam. Not pungent, as pepper, ginger, etc., but aromatic woods, seeds, or gums (Song of Solomon 6:2; Song of Solomon 5:1). Balsam or balm of Gilead, Amyris opobalsamum; a tropical plant that grew in the plains of Jericho and the hot valleys of southern Israel. KJV translated not basam, but tseri or tsori, "balm". (See BALM.) The balm of Gilead tree is not more than 15 ft. high, with straggling branches and scanty foil age. The balsam is procured from the bark by incision, and from the green and ripe berries. The nekoth, "spicery" Genesis 37:25, is the storax or gum of the styrax tree (Speaker's Commentary). Arabic nekaat, the gum exuding from the tragacanth (astragalus); when exposed to the air it hardens into lumps or worm-like spires (Smith's Bible Dictionary). In 2 Kings 20:13 margin, "house of spicery" expresses the original design of the house; but it was used ultimutely for storing Hezekiah's other "precious things." Sammim, a general term for aromatics used in preparing the holy anointing oil. Certain Levites especially "oversaw the frankincense and spices" (1 Chronicles 9:29-30). Myrrh and aloes were among the spices wrapped with Jesus' body (John 19:39-40; compare also 2 Chronicles 16:4; Mark 16:1; Luke 23:56; Luke 24:1).

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Spices Scripture - Exodus 30:23

Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred [shekels], and of sweet cinnamon half so much, [even] two hundred and fifty [shekels], and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty [shekels],

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Spices Scripture - 2 Kings 20:13

And Hezekiah hearkened unto them, and shewed them all the house of his precious things, the silver, and the gold, and the spices, and the precious ointment, and [all] the house of his armour, and all that was found in his treasures: there was nothing in his house, nor in all his dominion, that Hezekiah shewed them not.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/20/

Spices Scripture - Isaiah 39:2

And Hezekiah was glad of them, and shewed them the house of his precious things, the silver, and the gold, and the spices, and the precious ointment, and all the house of his armour, and all that was found in his treasures: there was nothing in his house, nor in all his dominion, that Hezekiah shewed them not.

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Spices Scripture - 2 Chronicles 9:1

And when the queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon, she came to prove Solomon with hard questions at Jerusalem, with a very great company, and camels that bare spices, and gold in abundance, and precious stones: and when she was come to Solomon, she communed with him of all that was in her heart.

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Spices Scripture - 2 Chronicles 9:9

And she gave the king an hundred and twenty talents of gold, and of spices great abundance, and precious stones: neither was there any such spice as the queen of Sheba gave king Solomon.

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Spices Scripture - 1 Kings 10:25

And they brought every man his present, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and garments, and armour, and spices, horses, and mules, a rate year by year.

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Spices Scripture - 2 Chronicles 9:24

And they brought every man his present, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and raiment, harness, and spices, horses, and mules, a rate year by year.

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Spices Scripture - 2 Chronicles 16:14

And they buried him in his own sepulchres, which he had made for himself in the city of David, and laid him in the bed which was filled with sweet odours and divers kinds [of spices] prepared by the apothecaries' art: and they made a very great burning for him.

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Spices Scripture - Song of Solomon 4:16

Awake, O north wind; and come, thou south; blow upon my garden, [that] the spices thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden, and eat his pleasant fruits.

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Spices Scripture - Mark 16:1

And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the [mother] of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.

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Fountain in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

foun'-tin, foun'-tan: In a country where no rain falls for half of the year, springs sume an importance unknown in more favored lands. In both eastern and western Israel and even in Lebanon there are many villages which depend entirely upon reservoirs or cisterns of rain water. Others are situated along the courses of the few perennial streams. But wherever a spring exists it is very apt to be the nucleus of a village. It may furnish sufficient water to be used in irrigation, in which case the gardens surrounding the village become an oasis in the midst of the parched land. Or there may be a tiny stream which barely suffices for drinking water, about which the village women and girls sit and talk waiting their turns to fill their jars, sometimes until far in the night. The water of the village fountain is often conveyed by a covered conduit for some distance from the source to a convenient spot in the village where an arch is built up, under which the water gushes out. See CISTERN; SPRING; WELL; EN-, and place-names compounded with EN-. Figurative: (1) of God (Ps 36:9; Jer 2:13; 17:13); (2) of Divine pardon and purification, with an obvious Messianic reference (Zec 13:1); (3) of wisdom and godliness (Prov 13:14; 14:27); (4) of wives (Prov 5:18); (5) of children (Dt 33:28; compare Ps 68:26; Prov 5:16); (6) of prosperity (Ps 107:35; 114:8; Hos 13:15); (7) of the heart (Eccl 12:6; see CISTERN); (8) of life everlasting (Rev 7:17; 21:6).

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Fountain in Naves Topical Bible

FIGURATIVE Of divine grace Ps 36:9; Jer 2:13 Of the salvation of the gospel Joe 3:18; Zec 13:1; Re 7:17 The turgid, of the debasement of character Pr 25:26

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Fountain in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(a spring in distinction from a well). The springs of Israel, though short-lived, are remarkable for their abundance and beauty, especially those which fall into the Jordan and into its lakes, of which there are hundreds throughout its whole course. The spring or fountain of living water, the "eye" of the landscape, is distinguished in all Oriental languages from the artificially-sunk and enclosed well. Jerusalem appears to have possessed either more than one perennial spring or one issuing by more than one outlet. In Oriental cities generally public fountains are frequent. Traces of such fountains at Jerusalem may perhaps be found in the names of Enrogel, 2Sa 17:17 the "Dragon well" or fountain, and the "gate of the fountain." Ne 2:13,14

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Fountain in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. 'ain; i.e., "eye" of the water desert), a natural source of living water. Israel was a "land of brooks of water, of fountains, and depths that spring out of valleys and hills" (Deut. 8:7; 11:11). These fountains, bright sparkling "eyes" of the desert, are remarkable for their abundance and their beauty, especially on the west of Jordan. All the perennial rivers and streams of the country are supplied from fountains, and depend comparatively little on surface water. "Israel is a country of mountains and hills, and it abounds in fountains of water. The murmur of these waters is heard in every dell, and the luxuriant foliage which surrounds them is seen in every plain." Besides its rain-water, its cisterns and fountains, Jerusalem had also an abundant supply of water in the magnificent reservoir called "Solomon's Pools" (q.v.), at the head of the Urtas valley, whence it was conveyed to the city by subterrean channels some 10 miles in length. These have all been long ago destroyed, so that no water from the "Pools" now reaches Jerusalem. Only one fountain has been discovered at Jerusalem, the so- called "Virgins's Fountains," in the valley of Kidron; and only one well (Heb. beer), the Bir Eyub, also in the valley of Kidron, south of the King's Gardens, which has been dug through the solid rock. The inhabitants of Jerusalem are now mainly dependent on the winter rains, which they store in cisterns. (See WELL -T0003803.)

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Fountain in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

A spring of water flowing from a hole in the earth. The limestone rock of Israel is especially suited for the formation of springs. In semi-arid country springs are highly prized as water sources and often determine the location of settlements. Thus the frequency of the Hebrew root En, meaning spring, in place names: En-dor (Joshua 17:11); En-eglaim (Ezekiel 47:10); En-gannim (Joshua 15:34); En-gedi (Joshua 15:62); En-haddah (Joshua 19:21); En-hakkore (Judges 15:19); En-hazor (Joshua 19:37); En-rimmon; (Nehemiah 11:29); En-rogel and En-shemesh (Joshua 15:7); and En-tappuah (Joshua 17:7). Enaim (Enam, Joshua 15:34) means "two springs." The goodness of Canaan was seen in its abundant water supply, "a land with flowing streams, with springs and underground waters welling up in valleys and hills" (Deuteronomy 8:7 NRSV). The Old Testament portrays the earth's dry land resting on foundations over the fountains of the deep (Genesis 7:11). The unleashing of these waters amounted to a return to the chaos before the creation (Genesis 1:1,Genesis 1:9). Provisions of spring water is an expression of God's providential care (Psalms 104:10). God's special concern for the poor and needy is pictured in terms of providing fountains and springs (Isaiah 41:17-18). The blessedness of the endtime includes pictures of fountains flowing from the Temple (Ezekiel 47:1-12; Joel 3:18), Jerusalem (Zechariah 14:8), or the throne of God (Revelation 22:1-2) with amazing life-giving powers. The metaphorical use of fountain for source is common. The teaching of the wise is a fountain (source) of life (Proverbs 13:14; contrast Proverbs 25:26).

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Fountain Scripture - Nehemiah 3:15

But the gate of the fountain repaired Shallun the son of Colhozeh, the ruler of part of Mizpah; he built it, and covered it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof, and the wall of the pool of Siloah by the king's garden, and unto the stairs that go down from the city of David.

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Fountain Scripture - Nehemiah 12:37

And at the fountain gate, which was over against them, they went up by the stairs of the city of David, at the going up of the wall, above the house of David, even unto the water gate eastward.

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Fountain Scripture - Joshua 15:9

And the border was drawn from the top of the hill unto the fountain of the water of Nephtoah, and went out to the cities of mount Ephron; and the border was drawn to Baalah, which [is] Kirjathjearim:

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Fountain Scripture - Ecclesiastes 12:6

Or ever the silver cord be loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or the pitcher be broken at the fountain, or the wheel broken at the cistern.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ecclesiastes/12/

Fountain Scripture - Joel 3:18

And it shall come to pass in that day, [that] the mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the rivers of Judah shall flow with waters, and a fountain shall come forth of the house of the LORD, and shall water the valley of Shittim.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Joel/3/

Fountain Scripture - Psalms 36:9

For with thee [is] the fountain of life: in thy light shall we see light.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/36/

Fountain Scripture - Jeremiah 17:13

O LORD, the hope of Israel, all that forsake thee shall be ashamed, [and] they that depart from me shall be written in the earth, because they have forsaken the LORD, the fountain of living waters.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/17/

Fountain Scripture - Hosea 13:15

Though he be fruitful among [his] brethren, an east wind shall come, the wind of the LORD shall come up from the wilderness, and his spring shall become dry, and his fountain shall be dried up: he shall spoil the treasure of all pleasant vessels.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hosea/13/

Fountain Scripture - Jeremiah 2:13

For my people have committed two evils; they have forsaken me the fountain of living waters, [and] hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns, that can hold no water.

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Fountain Scripture - Jeremiah 6:7

As a fountain casteth out her waters, so she casteth out her wickedness: violence and spoil is heard in her; before me continually [is] grief and wounds.

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Springs Scripture - Job 38:16

Hast thou entered into the springs of the sea? or hast thou walked in the search of the depth?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job/38/

Springs Scripture - Isaiah 41:18

I will open rivers in high places, and fountains in the midst of the valleys: I will make the wilderness a pool of water, and the dry land springs of water.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/41/

Springs Scripture - Deuteronomy 4:49

And all the plain on this side Jordan eastward, even unto the sea of the plain, under the springs of Pisgah.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/4/

Springs Scripture - Joshua 10:40

So Joshua smote all the country of the hills, and of the south, and of the vale, and of the springs, and all their kings: he left none remaining, but utterly destroyed all that breathed, as the LORD God of Israel commanded.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Joshua/10/

Springs Scripture - Joshua 12:8

In the mountains, and in the valleys, and in the plains, and in the springs, and in the wilderness, and in the south country; the Hittites, the Amorites, and the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Joshua/12/

Springs Scripture - Isaiah 35:7

And the parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water: in the habitation of dragons, where each lay, [shall be] grass with reeds and rushes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/35/

Springs Scripture - Isaiah 49:10

They shall not hunger nor thirst; neither shall the heat nor sun smite them: for he that hath mercy on them shall lead them, even by the springs of water shall he guide them.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/49/

Springs Scripture - Jeremiah 51:36

Therefore thus saith the LORD; Behold, I will plead thy cause, and take vengeance for thee; and I will dry up her sea, and make her springs dry.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/51/

Springs Scripture - Psalms 87:7

As well the singers as the players on instruments [shall be there]: all my springs [are] in thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/87/

Springs Scripture - Psalms 104:10

He sendeth the springs into the valleys, [which] run among the hills.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/104/

Staff in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

staf: Many Hebrew terms are represented by this word. The "staves" of the ark translate the word badh, literally, "a part," hence, branch, bar, etc. (Ex 25:13,14,15,27,28, etc.). Other words, as matteh, maqqel, shebhet, used of the staff in the hand, the shepherd's staff, figuratively, "staff of bread" (matteh, Ezek 4:16; 5:16; 14:13), as indispensable for support of life, are dealt with under ROD (which see). The New Testament word is rhabdos (Mt 10:10 parallel Lk 9:3; Heb 11:21). See also SCEPTRE.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/STAFF/

Rod in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

(maqqel, maTTeh, shebheT; rhabdos): Little distinction can be drawn between the Hebrew words used for "rod" and "staff." Maqqel is the word used in Gen 30:37 ff for the twigs of poplar put by Jacob before his sheep, and in Jer 1:11 of the "rod of an almond-tree." MaTTeh is used of a rod in the hand, as the "rods" of Moses and of Aaron (Ex 4:2 ff; 7:9 ff, etc.). ShebheT is used, but sometimes also maTTeh, of the rod used for correction (Ex 21:20; 2 Sam 7:14; Prov 10:13; 13:24; Isa 10:5, etc.). In Ps 23:4 ("Thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me"), however, shebheT is the shepherd's rod, figurative of divine guidance and care. In Ezek 21:10,13, the word stands for the royal scepter. In the New Testament "rod" is used of a rod of correction (1 Cor 4:21), Aaron's rod (Heb 9:4), a ruler's rod "of iron" (severity, as in Rev 2:27; 12:5; 19:15), a measuring rod (Rev 11:1).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/R/ROD/

Rod in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Emblem of authority. Exodus 4:2, etc., Moses'; Numbers 17, Aaron's; Psalm 2:9, Christ's. He will either rule with the pastoral rod, or break with the rod (scepter) of iron (Revelation 2:27; Revelation 19:15; Micah 6:9; Micah 7:14; Psalm 110:2; Isaiah 9:4; Isaiah 11:4).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/R/Rod/

Staff Scripture - 2 Samuel 23:21

And he slew an Egyptian, a goodly man: and the Egyptian had a spear in his hand; but he went down to him with a staff, and plucked the spear out of the Egyptian's hand, and slew him with his own spear.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/23/

Staff Scripture - Judges 6:21

Then the angel of the LORD put forth the end of the staff that [was] in his hand, and touched the flesh and the unleavened cakes; and there rose up fire out of the rock, and consumed the flesh and the unleavened cakes. Then the angel of the LORD departed out of his sight.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Judges/6/

Staff Scripture - 1 Chronicles 11:23

And he slew an Egyptian, a man of [great] stature, five cubits high; and in the Egyptian's hand [was] a spear like a weaver's beam; and he went down to him with a staff, and plucked the spear out of the Egyptian's hand, and slew him with his own spear.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/11/

Staff Scripture - Isaiah 3:1

For, behold, the Lord, the LORD of hosts, doth take away from Jerusalem and from Judah the stay and the staff, the whole stay of bread, and the whole stay of water,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/3/

Staff Scripture - 2 Samuel 3:29

Let it rest on the head of Joab, and on all his father's house; and let there not fail from the house of Joab one that hath an issue, or that is a leper, or that leaneth on a staff, or that falleth on the sword, or that lacketh bread.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/3/

Staff Scripture - Isaiah 28:27

For the fitches are not threshed with a threshing instrument, neither is a cart wheel turned about upon the cummin; but the fitches are beaten out with a staff, and the cummin with a rod.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/28/

Staff Scripture - Ezekiel 5:16

When I shall send upon them the evil arrows of famine, which shall be for [their] destruction, [and] which I will send to destroy you: and I will increase the famine upon you, and will break your staff of bread:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/5/

Staff Scripture - Leviticus 26:26

[And] when I have broken the staff of your bread, ten women shall bake your bread in one oven, and they shall deliver [you] your bread again by weight: and ye shall eat, and not be satisfied.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/26/

Staff Scripture - Isaiah 10:24

Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD of hosts, O my people that dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrian: he shall smite thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff against thee, after the manner of Egypt.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/10/

Staff Scripture - 2 Kings 18:21

Now, behold, thou trustest upon the staff of this bruised reed, [even] upon Egypt, on which if a man lean, it will go into his hand, and pierce it: so [is] Pharaoh king of Egypt unto all that trust on him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/18/

Street in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The street called "Straight" at Damascus (Acts 9:11) is "a long broad street, running from east to west, about a mile in length, and forming the principal thoroughfare in the city." In Oriental towns streets are usually narrow and irregular and filthy (Ps. 18:42; Isa. 10:6). "It is remarkable," says Porter, "that all the important cities of Israel and Syria Samaria, Caesarea, Gerasa, Bozrah, Damascus, Palmyra, had their 'straight streets' running through the centre of the city, and lined with stately rows of columns. The most perfect now remaining are those of Palmyra and Gerasa, where long ranges of the columns still stand.", Through Samaria, etc.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/S/Street/

Street in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The streets of a modern Oriental town present a great contrast to those with which we are familiar, being generally narrow, tortuous and gloomy, even in the best towns. Their character is mainly fixed by the climate and the style of architecture, the narrowness being due to the extreme heat, and the gloominess to the circumstance of the windows looking for the most part into the inner court. The street called "Straight," in Damascus, Ac 9:11 was an exception to the rule of narrowness: it was a noble thoroughfare, one hundred feet wide. divided in the Roman age by colonnades into three avenues, the central one for foot passengers, the side passages for vehicles and horsemen going in different directions. The shops and warehouses were probably collected together into bazaars in ancient as in modern times. Jer 37:21 That streets occasionally had names appears from Jer 37:21; Ac 9:11 That they were generally unpaved may be inferred from the notices of the pavement laid by Herod the Great at Antioch, and by Herod Agrippa II. at Jerusalem. Hence pavement forms one of the peculiar features of the ideal Jerusalem. Tob. 13:17; Re 21:21 Each street and bazaar in a modern town is locked up at night; the same custom appears to have prevailed in ancient times. So 3:3

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/S/Street/

Street in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

rechob. A broad open space, as the courtyard, the space near the gate devoted to public business (Deuteronomy 13:16), or before t he temple (Ezra 10:9; Esther 4:6). Particular trades gathered in certain quarters, as "the bakers' street" (Jeremiah 37:21). Chuts is a "narrow street" (Proverbs 5:16; Jeremiah 5:1) in contrast to the "broad street", rechob. Shuq like chuts is seemingly "the narrow street" distinguished from "the broad way," rechob, in Song of Solomon 3:2. Luke 14:21 plateia and rumee, "the streets and lanes." But shuq etymology means "a place of concourse", and rume is applied to the "straight" street of Damascus (Acts 9:11).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/S/Street/

Street Scripture - Joshua 2:19

And it shall be, [that] whosoever shall go out of the doors of thy house into the street, his blood [shall be] upon his head, and we [will be] guiltless: and whosoever shall be with thee in the house, his blood [shall be] on our head, if [any] hand be upon him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Joshua/2/

Shepherd in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(See SHEEP.) The nomadic state is one of the earliest stages of society, and was regarded as honourable even to a chief (Genesis 4:2; Genesis 4:20; Genesis 30:29 ff; Genesis 37); chiefs' daughters did not disdain to tend flocks (Genesis 29:6, etc.; Exodus 2:19). The long stay in Egypt elevated Israel from the nomadic to a settled life. The two and a half nomadic tribes received their portion in the outlying regions beyond Jordan (Numbers 32). As agriculture increased pasturage decreased, and was limited to particular spots, the border of the wilderness of Judah, Carmel (1 Samuel 25:2), Bethlehem (1 Samuel 16:11; Luke 2:8), Tekoa (Amos 1:1), and Gedor (1 Chronicles 4:39). Hence the "shepherd's tent" came to symbolize desolation (Ezekiel 25:4; Zephaniah 2:6). The shepherd's occupation was now no longer dignified (Psalm 78:70; 2 Samuel 7:8; Amos 7:14). The shepherd's office represents Jehovah's tender care of His people (Psalm 23; Isaiah 40:11; Isaiah 49:9-10; Jeremiah 23:3-4; Ezekiel 34:11-12; Ezekiel 34:23). Allusions occur to the exposure to heat and cold (Genesis 31:40), the precarious food (Amos 7:14), the husks of the carob (Luke 15:16), the attacks of beasts (1 Samuel 17:34; Isaiah 31:4; Amos 3:12), robbers (Genesis 31:39). The shepherd had a mantle of sheepskin with the fleece on (Jeremiah 43:12), a wallet for food (1 Samuel 17:40), a sling such as the Bedouin still carries, a staff to ward off foes and to guide the flock with its crook (Psalm 23:4; Zechariah 11:7; so Jehovah "lifts up His staff against" His people's foes, Isaiah 10:1-24; His word is at once our prop of support and our defense against Satan). The shepherd, when far from home, had his light tent (Song of Solomon 1:8), easily taken down and shifted (Isaiah 38:12). Towers were sometimes erected to spy a foe afar off, and to guard the flock (2 Chronicles 26:10; 2 Chronicles 27:4, compare "tower of Edar," Genesis 35:21; Micah 4:8). frontEDAR.) His duty was to go before and call by name the sheep (John 10:4), watch it with dogs, a sorry animal in the East (Job 30:1), to search for stray sheep (Ezekiel 34:12; Luke 15:4), to supply water, either at a stream or at troughs by wells (Genesis 29:7; Genesis 30:38; Exodus 2:16), (so Jesus, Psalm 23:2), to bring back to the fold at evening and to reckon the sheep that none be missing (compare as to Jesus John 18:9; John 17:11-12; John 10:28-29), passing one by one "under the rod" (Leviticus 27:32; Jeremiah 33:13; Ezekiel 20:37), (i.e. you shall be counted as Mine, and subjected to My chastening discipline with a view to My ultimate saving of the elect, Micah 7:14), checking each sheep as it passed; to act as porter, guarding the entrance to the fold by night (John 10:3). The shepherds kept watches (plural in Greek, Luke 2:8, not "slumbering," Nahum 3:18) by turns at night, not on duty both night and day as Jacob (Genesis 31:40). Tenderness to the young and feeble was the shepherd's duty, not to overdrive them (Genesis 33:13); so Jesus (Isaiah 40:11-29; Mark 6:31; Mark 8:2; Mark 4:33; John 16:12). There were chief and under shepherds (Genesis 47:6; 1 Peter 5:4), and hirelings not of the family (John 10:11-13; 1 Samuel 21:7). The shepherd had responsibility, and at the same time personal interest in the flock (1 Samuel 31:39; 1 Samuel 30:32; 1 Corinthians 9:7). Playing on the pipe beguiled the monotony, and a feast at shearing time gave a yearly variety (1 Samuel 16:17; Genesis 31:19; Genesis 38:12; 2 Samuel 13:23). Shepherds often contended with one another as to water (Genesis 26:17-22; Exodus 2:17). The Egyptian antipathy to shepherds (whom the monuments always represent as mean) was due to their being themselves agriculturists, whereas the neighbouring Arabs with whom they so often strove were nomads. The seizure of Lower Egypt by shepherd kings (Hyksos) for centuries aggravated this dislike, though the Hyksos were subsequent to Joseph (Genesis 46:34). Princes, and even hostile leaders, are called shepherds: Isaiah 44:28; Jeremiah 2:8; Jeremiah 3:15; Jeremiah 6:3; Ezekiel 34:2; Micah 5:5. Teachers: Ecclesiastes 12:11. Messiah: Genesis 49:24; Psalm 80:1; Zechariah 13:7; John 10:14; Hebrews 13:20.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/S/Shepherd/

Shepherds Scripture - Isaiah 31:4

For thus hath the LORD spoken unto me, Like as the lion and the young lion roaring on his prey, when a multitude of shepherds is called forth against him, [he] will not be afraid of their voice, nor abase himself for the noise of them: so shall the LORD of hosts come down to fight for mount Zion, and for the hill thereof.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/31/

Shepherds Scripture - Zechariah 11:3

[There is] a voice of the howling of the shepherds; for their glory is spoiled: a voice of the roaring of young lions; for the pride of Jordan is spoiled.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Zechariah/11/

Shepherds Scripture - Zechariah 10:3

Mine anger was kindled against the shepherds, and I punished the goats: for the LORD of hosts hath visited his flock the house of Judah, and hath made them as his goodly horse in the battle.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Zechariah/10/

Shepherds Scripture - Zechariah 11:8

Three shepherds also I cut off in one month; and my soul lothed them, and their soul also abhorred me.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Zechariah/11/

Shepherds Scripture - Genesis 47:3

And Pharaoh said unto his brethren, What [is] your occupation? And they said unto Pharaoh, Thy servants [are] shepherds, both we, [and] also our fathers.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/47/

Shepherds Scripture - Song of Solomon 1:8

If thou know not, O thou fairest among women, go thy way forth by the footsteps of the flock, and feed thy kids beside the shepherds' tents.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Song+of+Solomon/1/

Shepherds Scripture - Isaiah 13:20

It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation: neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the shepherds make their fold there.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/13/

Shepherds Scripture - Luke 2:15

And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/2/

Shepherds Scripture - Jeremiah 25:34

Howl, ye shepherds, and cry; and wallow yourselves [in the ashes], ye principal of the flock: for the days of your slaughter and of your dispersions are accomplished; and ye shall fall like a pleasant vessel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/25/

Shepherds Scripture - Jeremiah 50:6

My people hath been lost sheep: their shepherds have caused them to go astray, they have turned them away [on] the mountains: they have gone from mountain to hill, they have forgotten their restingplace.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/50/

Ships and Boats in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

I. THE HEBREWS AND THE SEA II. SHIPS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT AND THE APOCRYPHA 1. Among the Hebrews (1) In Early Times (2) During the Monarchy (3) In Later Times 2. Among Neighboring Nations (1) Egypt (2) Assyria and Babylonia (3) Phoenicia 3. General References III. SHIPS IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 1. In the Gospels 2. In the Acts of the Apostles 3. In Other Books LITERATURE In the Old Testament the following words are found: (1) The word most commonly used in Hebrew for "a ship" is 'oniyah (Prov 30:19; Jon 1:3,4), of which the plural 'oniyoth is found most frequently (Jdg 5:17; 1 Ki 22:48 f, and many other places). The collective term for "a navy of ships" is 'oni (1 Ki 9:26 f; 10:22, 'oni Tharshish, "a navy (of ships) of Tarshish"; but Isa 33:21, 'oni shayit, a "galley with oars"). (2) tsi (Nu 24:24; Ezek 30:9; Isa 33:21), tsi 'addir, "gallant ship"; Dan 11:30, tsiyim Kittim, "ships of Kittim.' (3) cephinah, "innermost parts of the ship" the Revised Version (British and American), "sides of the ship" the King James Version (Jon 1:5, the only place where the word is found). In Apocrypha ploion, is the usual word (The Wisdom of Solomon 14:1; Ecclesiasticus 33:2, etc.), translated "vessel" in The Wisdom of Solomon 14:1, but "ship" elsewhere. For "ship" The Wisdom of Solomon 5:10 has naus. "Boat" in 2 Macc 12:3,6 is for skaphos, and "navy" in 1 Macc 1:17; 2 Macc 12:9; 14:1 for stolos. In The Wisdom of Solomon 14:6 Noah's ark is called a schedia, a "clumsy ship" (the literal translation "raft" in the Revised Version (British and American) is impossible). In the New Testament there are four words in use: (1) naus (Acts 27:41, the only place where it occurs, designating the large sea-going vessel in which Paul suffered shipwreck). (2) ploiarion, "a little boat" (Mk 3:9 and two other places, Jn 6:22 ff; 21:8). (3) ploion, "boat" (Mt 4:21,22 and many other places in the Gospels--the ordinary fishingboat of the Sea of Galilee rendered "boat" uniformly in the Revised Version (British and American) instead of "ship" the King James Version), "ship" (Acts 20:13, and all other places where the ship carrying Paul is mentioned, except 27:41, as above). In Jas 3:4; Rev 8:9; 18:17 ff, it is rendered "ship." (4) skaphe, "boat" (Acts 27:16,30,32, where it means the small boat of the ship in which Paul was being conveyed as a prisoner to Rome). Cognate expressions are: "shipmen," 'anshe 'oniyoth (1 Ki 9:27); nautai (Acts 27:27,30 the King James Version, "sailors" the Revised Version (British and American)); "mariners," mallachim (Jon 1:15; Ezek 27:9,27,29), shaTim (Ezek 27:8 the King James Version, "rowers" the Revised Version (British and American); Ezek 27:26, the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American)); "pilot," chobhel (Jon 1:6; Ezek 27:8,27,28,29); "sailing," "voyage," plous (Acts 21:7; 27:9,10, the Revised Version (British and American) "voyage" in all verses). I. The Hebrews and the Sea. The Hebrews were a pastoral and agricultural people, and had no inducements to follow a seafaring life. They were possessed of a considerable seaboard along the Mediterranean, but the character of their coast gave little encouragement to navigation. The coast line of the land of Israel from Carmel southward had no bays and no estuaries or river-mouths to offer shelter from storm or to be havens of ships. Solomon landed his timber and other materials for the Temple at Joppa, and tradition has handed down what is called "Solomon's Harbor" there. The builders of the second temple also got timber from Lebanon and conveyed it to Joppa. It was Simon Maccabeus, however, who built its harbor, and the harbor at Joppa was...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SHIPS+AND+BOATS/

Ship in Naves Topical Bible

Built By Noah Ge 6:13-22 By Solomon 1Ki 9:26; 2Ch 8:17 By Jehoshaphat 1Ki 22:48; 2Ch 20:35,36 Of gopher wood Ge 6:1,4 Of fir wood Eze 27:5 Of bulrushes Isa 18:2 Sealed with pitch (tar?) Ge 6:15 -Equipped with A helm Jas 3:4 A rudder Ac 27:40 Tackling Isa 33:23; Ac 27:19 -Sails Isa 33:23; Ac 27:1,9,17,40 -Sails embroidered Eze 27:7 -Masts Isa 33:23; Eze 27:5 -Oars Jon 1:13; Mr 6:48 -Figurehead Ac 28:11 -An anchor Ac 27:29,30,40; Heb 6:19 -Lifeboats Ac 27:30,32 -Used in commerce Ac 21:3; 27:10 -Used in commerce With Tarshish 1Ki 22:48; Isa 60:9; Jon 1:3 With Ophir 1Ki 10:11; 2Ch 8:18 With Adramyttium Ac 27:2 For passenger traffic Isa 60:9; Jon 1:3; Ac 20:13; 27:2,37; 28:11 For ferriage 2Sa 19:18 -Repaired by caulking Eze 27:9 -Wrecked at Ezion-geber 1Ki 22:48; 2Ch 20:35-37 -At Melita (Malta) Ac 27:14,44 -Warships used by Chittim Nu 24:24; Da 11:30

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/S/SHIP/

Ship in Smiths Bible Dictionary

No one writer in the whole range of Greek and Roman literature has supplied us with so much information concerning the merchant-ships of the ancients as St. Luke in the narrative of St. Paul's voyage to Rome. Acts 27,28. It is important to remember that he accomplished it in three ships: first, the Adramyttian vessel which took him from Caesarea to Myra, and which was probably a coasting-vessel of no great size, Ac 27:1-6 secondly, the large Alexandrian corn-ship, in which he was wrecked on the coast of Malta Ac 27:6-28 :1; and thirdly, another large Alexandrian corn- ship, in which he sailed from Malta by Syracuse and Rhegium to Puteoli. Ac 28:11-13 1. Size of ancient ships. --The narrative which we take as our chief guide affords a good standard for estimating this. The ship, in which St. Paul was wrecked had persons on board, Ac 27:37 besides a cargo of wheat, ibid. Ac 27:10,38 and all these passengers seem to have been taken on to Puteoli in another ship, ibid, Ac 28:11 which had its own crew and its own cargo. Now, in modern transport-ships, prepared far carrying troops, it is a common estimate to allow a toll and a half per man. On the whole, if we say that an ancient merchant-ship might range from 500 to 1000 tons, we are clearly within the mark. 2. Steering apparatus. --Some commentators have fallen into strange perplexities from observing that in Ac 27:40 ("the fastenings of the rudders") St. Luke uses the plural. Ancient ships were in truth not steered at all by rudders fastened or hinged to the stern, but by means of two paddle-rudders one on each quarter, acting in a rowlock or through a port-hole as the vessel might be small or large. 3. Build and ornaments of the hull. --It is probable that there was no very marked difference between the bow and the stern. The "hold," Jon 1:5 would present no special peculiarities. That personification of ships which seems to be instinctive led the ancients to paint an eye on each side of the bow. Comp. Ac 27:15 An ornament of the ship which took Paul from Malta to Pozzuoli is more explicitly referred to. The "sign" of that ship, Ac 28:11 was Castor and Pollux; and the symbols of those heroes were doubtless painted or sculptured on each side of the bow. 4. Under-girders. --The imperfection of the build, and still more (see below, 6) the peculiarity of the rig, in ancient ships, resulted in a greater tendency than in our times to the starting of the pranks and consequently to leaking and foundering. Hence it was customary to take on board peculiar contrivances, suitable called helps," Ac 27:17 as precautions against such dangers. These were simply cables or chains, which in case of necessity could be passed round the frame of the ship, at right angles to its length, and made tight. 5. Anchors. --Ancient anchors were similar in form to those which we use now. except that they were without flukes. The ship in which Paul was sailing had four anchors on board. The sailors on this occasion anchored by the stern. Ac 27:29 6. Masts, sails, ropes and yards. -The rig of an ancient ship was more simple and clumsy than that employed in modern times. Its great feature was one large mast, with one large square sail fastened to a yard of great length. Hence the strain upon the hull, and the danger of starting the planks, were greater than under the present system, which distributes the mechanical pressure more evenly over the whole ship. Not that there...

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/S/Ship/

Ships in Easton's Bible Dictionary

early used in foreign commerce by the Phoenicians (Gen. 49:13). Moses (Deut. 28:68) and Job (9:26) make reference to them, and Balaam speaks of the "ships of Chittim" (Num. 24:24). Solomon constructed a navy at Ezion-geber by the assistance of Hiram's sailors (1 Kings 9:26-28; 2 Chr. 8:18). Afterwards, Jehoshaphat sought to provide himself with a navy at the same port, but his ships appear to have been wrecked before they set sail (1 Kings 22:48, 49; 2 Chr. 20:35-37). In our Lord's time fishermen's boats on the Sea of Galilee were called "ships." Much may be learned regarding the construction of ancient merchant ships and navigation from the record in Acts 27, 28.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/S/Ships/

Ship in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Among the earliest shipbuilders were the Phoenicians, whose commerce and voyages made them foremost in the maritime science of early ages, and traces of whose ships are frequently met with. (On PAUL'S voyage, see EUROCLYDON; MELITA; CNIDUS; CRETE; FAIR HAVENS.) Paul was first in the Adramyttian coasting vessel from Caesarea to Myra; then in the large Alexandrian grain ship wrecked at Malta; then in another Alexandrian grain ship from Malta by Syracuse and Rhegium to Purcell. Luke shows accurate nautical knowledge, yet not professional, but of an observer, telling what was done but not the how or the why. Fourteen different verbs he uses of the progression of a ship, peculiar to himself and appropriate to each case: pleoo; Luke 8:23; Acts 21:3; apopleo; Acts 13:4; Acts 14:26; Acts 20:15; Acts 27:1; bradupleoo; Acts 27:7; diapleoo; Acts 27:5; ekpleoo; Acts 15:39; katapleoo; Luke 8:26; hupopleoo; Acts 27:4; Acts 27:7; parapleoo; Acts 20:16; euthudromeoo; Acts 16:11; Acts 21:1; hupotrechoo; Acts 27:16; paralegomai; Acts 27:8; Acts 27:13; feromai; Acts 27:15; diaferomai; Acts 27:27; diaperaoo; Acts 21:2. Paul's ship, besides cargo of wheat, carried 276 persons, so she would be of 600 tons. Lucian (Ploion e Euche) describes an Alexandrian wheat ship, 180 ft. long (including end projections) by 45 ft. broad, i.e. 1,300 tons. The largest on record was Ptolemy Philopator's war galley, 420 ft. long by 57 ft. broad, under 5,000 tons. "The governor" in James 3:4 is the "helmsman" (kuberneetees; the "owner" was naukleeros). There were two paddle rudders, one on each quarter, acting in a rowlock or through a porthole. As the helmsman used only one at a time, "the helm" is in the singular in James 3:4. In Acts 27:29; Acts 27:40, after letting go the four anchors at the stern, they lashed up both the rudder paddles lest they should interfere with the ground tackle. When they wished to steer again and the anchor ropes were cut (margin), they unfastened the lashings or bands of the paddles. The ship's run from Rhegium to Puteoli, 180 miles in two days, the wind being full from the S., illustrates the rate of sailing. The bow and the stern were much alike, except that on each side of the bow was painted "the sign" (paraseemon), as for instance "Castor and Pollux" (Acts 28:11). An eye was painted on each side of the bow; so Luke's phrase (antofthalmein), "bear up into," literally, "eye the wind" directly (Acts 27:15). The imperfect build of ships caused the need of "undergirders" to pass round the frame, at right angles to its length, when the planks were in danger of starting. The anchors resembled ours, but had no flukes. Spiritually they symbolize the Christian hope (Hebrews 6:19). The soul is the ship; the world the sea; the bliss beyond the distant coast; hope resting on faith the anchor which prevents the vessel being tossed to and fro; the consolation through God's promise and hope is the cable connecting the ship and anchor. The soul clings, as one in fear of shipwreck, to the anchor, and sees not where the cable runs, where it is fastened; she knows it is fastened behind the veil which hides the future glory; if only she hold on to the anchor, she shall in due time be drawn in where it is, into the holiest, by the Saviour. Anchoring by the stern, the ancients were prepared to anchor in the gale such as Paul encountered; and Purdy (Sailing Directions, 180) says that the holding ground at Malta where Paul was wrecked is quite good enough to have secured the anchors and ship in spite of the severe night. In Acts 27:40, for "mainsail" translated "foresail," which was needed to put the ship about and to run it aground. Vessels were propelled by oars as well as by sails (Ezekiel 27:29; Isaiah 33:21; Jonah 1:13). Of the 32 parts or points of the compass card a modern ship will sail within six points of the wind. The clumsier ancient ship probably could sail within seven points. In a heavy gale the ship would lie to, with the right side to the storm, the object being not progress but safety; as under the lee of Clauda (Acts 27:14- 17). To anchor was impossible; to drift would have brought the ship to the fatal Syrtis off Africa. The wind was E.N.E. (Euraquilo); the direction of drift being W. by N., and the rate of drift one mile and a half an hour; the shipwreck must have been off Malta. Having no compass or charts, they seldom ventured voyaging in winter (Acts 27:9), and the absence of visible sun or stars seriously embarrassed them (Acts 27:20). In the intricate passages between islands and mainland they did not sail by night when the moon was dark (Acts 20:13-16; Acts 21:1). Thomson (Land and Book, 401-404) mentions seeing but one rickety boat on the sea of Galilee, which was once covered with fishermen's boats; contrast the fact that Josephus (B. J., 2:21, section 8-10) mentions his collecting here 280 boats, with four men in each.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/S/Ship/

Ships Scripture - Daniel 11:30

For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Daniel/11/

Ships Scripture - 1 Kings 22:49

Then said Ahaziah the son of Ahab unto Jehoshaphat, Let my servants go with thy servants in the ships. But Jehoshaphat would not.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/22/

Ships Scripture - 2 Chronicles 8:18

And Huram sent him by the hands of his servants ships, and servants that had knowledge of the sea; and they went with the servants of Solomon to Ophir, and took thence four hundred and fifty talents of gold, and brought [them] to king Solomon.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/8/

Ships Scripture - Revelation 18:19

And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she made desolate.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/18/

Ships Scripture - 2 Chronicles 20:37

Then Eliezer the son of Dodavah of Mareshah prophesied against Jehoshaphat, saying, Because thou hast joined thyself with Ahaziah, the LORD hath broken thy works. And the ships were broken, that they were not able to go to Tarshish.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/20/

Ships Scripture - Deuteronomy 28:68

And the LORD shall bring thee into Egypt again with ships, by the way whereof I spake unto thee, Thou shalt see it no more again: and there ye shall be sold unto your enemies for bondmen and bondwomen, and no man shall buy [you].

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/28/

Ships Scripture - Daniel 11:40

And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Daniel/11/

Ships Scripture - Genesis 49:13

Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea; and he [shall be] for an haven of ships; and his border [shall be] unto Zidon.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/49/

Ships Scripture - Revelation 8:9

And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had life, died; and the third part of the ships were destroyed.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/8/

Ships Scripture - Ezekiel 27:9

The ancients of Gebal and the wise [men] thereof were in thee thy calkers: all the ships of the sea with their mariners were in thee to occupy thy merchandise.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/27/

Sickle in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

sik'-'l (chermesh (Dt 16:9; 23:25), maggal; compare Arabic minjal (Jer 50:16; Joel 3:13); drepanon (Mk 4:29; Rev 14:14- 19)): Although the ancients pulled much of their grain by hand, we know that they also used sickles. The form of this instrument varied, as is evidenced by the Egyptian sculptures. The earliest sickle was probably of wood, shaped like the modern scythe, although much smaller, with the cutting edge made of sharp flints set into the wood. Sickle flints were found at Tel el-Chesy. Crescent-shaped iron sickles were found in the same mound. In Israel and Syria the sickle varies in size. It is usually made wholly of iron or steel and shaped much like the instrument used in western lands. The smaller- sized sickles are used both for pruning and for reaping.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SICKLE/

Sickle in Naves Topical Bible

An agricultural implement used for cutting grain De 23:25; Jer 50:16; Mr 4:29 -FIGURATIVE Of the judgments of God Joe 3:13; Re 14:14-19

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/S/SICKLE/

Sickle in Easton's Bible Dictionaryy

of the Egyptians resembled that in modern use. The ears of corn were cut with it near the top of the straw. There was also a sickle used for warlike purposes, more correctly, however, called a pruning-hook (Deut. 16:9; Jer. 50:16, marg., "scythe;" Joel 3:13; Mark 4:29).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/S/Sickle/

Sickle Scripture - Deuteronomy 23:25

When thou comest into the standing corn of thy neighbour, then thou mayest pluck the ears with thine hand; but thou shalt not move a sickle unto thy neighbour's standing corn.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/23/

Sickle Scripture - Deuteronomy 16:9

Seven weeks shalt thou number unto thee: begin to number the seven weeks from [such time as] thou beginnest [to put] the sickle to the corn.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/16/

Sickle Scripture - Revelation 14:15

And another angel came out of the temple, crying with a loud voice to him that sat on the cloud, Thrust in thy sickle, and reap: for the time is come for thee to reap; for the harvest of the earth is ripe.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/14/

Sickle Scripture - Revelation 14:16

And he that sat on the cloud thrust in his sickle on the earth; and the earth was reaped.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/14/

Sickle Scripture - Revelation 14:14

And I looked, and behold a white cloud, and upon the cloud [one] sat like unto the Son of man, having on his head a golden crown, and in his hand a sharp sickle.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/14/

Sickle Scripture - Revelation 14:19

And the angel thrust in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth, and cast [it] into the great winepress of the wrath of God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/14/

Sickle Scripture - Jeremiah 50:16

Cut off the sower from Babylon, and him that handleth the sickle in the time of harvest: for fear of the oppressing sword they shall turn every one to his people, and they shall flee every one to his own land.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/50/

Sickle Scripture - Joel 3:13

Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe: come, get you down; for the press is full, the fats overflow; for their wickedness [is] great.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Joel/3/

Sickle Scripture - Mark 4:29

But when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/4/

Sickle Scripture - Revelation 14:17

And another angel came out of the temple which is in heaven, he also having a sharp sickle.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/14/

Sickle Scripture - Revelation 14:18

And another angel came out from the altar, which had power over fire; and cried with a loud cry to him that had the sharp sickle, saying, Thrust in thy sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth; for her grapes are fully ripe.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/14/

Sickness in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

sik, sik'-nes (chalah (Gen 48:1, etc.), choli (Dt 28:61, etc.), tachalu' (Dt 29:21, etc.), machalah (Ex 23:25, etc.), daweh (Lev 15:33, etc.), 'anash (2 Sam 12:15, etc.); astheneo (Mt 10:8, etc.;. compare 2 Macc 9:22), [@kakos echon (Lk 7:2), kakos echontas (Mt 4:24, etc.), arrhostos (Sirach 7:35; Mt 14:14, etc.), arrhostema (Sirach 10:10, etc.), with various cognates, kamno (Jas 5:15); Latin morbus (2 Esdras 8:31)): Compared with the number of deaths recorded in the historical books of the Bible the instances in which diseases are mentioned are few. "Sick" and "sickness" (including "disease," etc.) are the translations of 6 Hebrew and 9 Greek words and occur 56 times in the Old Testament and 57 times in the New Testament. The number of references in the latter is significant as showing how much the healing of the sick was characteristic of the Lord's ministry. The diseases specified are varied. Of infantile sickness there is an instance in Bath-sheba's child (2 Sam 12:15), whose disease is termed 'anash, not improbably trismus nascentium, a common disease in Israel. Among adolescents there are recorded the unspecified sickness of Abijah (1 Ki 14:1), of the widow's son at Zarephath (1 Ki 17:17), the sunstroke of the Shunammite's son (2 Ki 4:19), the epileptic boy (Mt 17:15), Jairus' daughter (Mt 9:18), and the nobleman's son (Jn 4:46). At the other extreme of life Jacob's death was preceded by sickness (Gen 48:1). Sickness resulted from accident (Ahaziah, 2 Ki 1:2), wounds (Joram, 2 Ki 8:29), from the violence of passion (Amnon, 2 Sam 13:2), or mental emotion (Dan 8:27); see also in this connection Song 2:5; 5:8. Sickness the result of drunkenness is mentioned (Hos 7:5), and as a consequence of famine (Jer 14:18) or violence (Mic 6:13). Daweh or periodic sickness is referred to (Lev 15:33; 20:18), and an extreme case is that of Lk 8:43. In some examples the nature of the disease is specified, as Asa's disease in his feet (1 Ki 15:23), for which he sought the aid of physicians in vain (2 Ch 16:12). Hezekiah and Job suffered from sore boils, Jehoram from some severe dysenteric attack (2 Ch 21:19), as did Antiochus Epiphanes (2 Macc 9:5). Probably the sudden and fatal disease of Herod was similar, as in both cases there is reference to the presence of worms (compare Acts 12:23 and 2 Macc 9:9). The disease of Publius' father was also dysentery (Acts 28:8). Other diseases specified are paralysis (Mt 8:6; 9:2), and fever (Mt 8:14). Not improbably the sudden illness of the young Egyptian at Ziklag (1 Sam 30:11), and the illness of Ben-hadad which weakened him so that he could not resist the violence of Hazael, were also the common Israel fever (2 Ki 8:15) of whose symptoms and effects there is a graphic description in Ps 38. Unspecified fatal illnesses were those of Elisha (2 Ki 13:14), Lazarus (Jn 11:1), Tabitha (Acts 9:37). In the language of the Bible, leprosy is spoken of as a defilement to be cleansed, rather than as a disease to be cured. The proverb concerning the sick quoted by the Lord at Capernaum (Mk 2:17) has come down to us in several forms in apocryphal and rabbinical writings (Babha' Qamma' 26:13; Sanhedhrin 176), but is nowhere so terse as in the form in which He expresses it. The Lord performed His healing of the sick by His word or touch, and one of the most emphatic charges which He gave to His disciples when sending them out was to heal the sick. One of the methods used by them, the anointing with oil, is mentioned in Mk 6:13 and enjoined by James (5:15). In later times the anointing which was at first used as a remedial agent became a ceremonial in preparation for death, one of the seven sacraments of the Roman church (Aquinas, Summa Theologia suppl. ad Piii. 29). The duty of visiting the sick is referred to in Ezek 34:4,16, and by the Lord in the description of the Judgment scene (Mt 25:36,43). It is inculcated in several of the rabbinical tracts. "He that visits the sick lengthens his life, he who refrains shortens it," says Rabbi Ischanan in Nedharim 29. In Shulchan `Arukh, Yoreh De`ah there is a chapter devoted to this duty, which is regarded as incumbent on the Jew, even though the sick person be a Gentile (Gittin 61a). The church's duty to the sick, so long neglected, has, within the last century, been recognized in the mission field, and has proved, in heathen lands, to be the most important of all pioneer agressive methods. While we find that the apostles freely exercised their gifts of healing, it is noteworthy that we read of the sickness of two of Paul's companions, Epaphroditus (Phil 2:26) and Trophimus (2 Tim 4:20), for whose recovery he seems to have used no other means than prayer. See also DISEASE.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SICK;+SICKNESS/

Disease in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

di-zez', di-zez'-iz (chalah, choli; nosos): Israel, from its position and physical conditions, ought to be a healthy country. That it is not so depends on the unsanitary conditions in which the people live and the absence of any attempts to check the introduction or development of zymotic diseases. The number of marshes or pools is fairly small, and the use of active measures to destroy the larvae of mosquitos might easily diminish or abolish the malarial fevers which now prevail all over the country. The freeing of Ismailieh and Port Said from these pests is an object- lesson in sanitation. When one examines the conditions of life in towns and villages all over the country, the evidences of the ravages of these fevers and their sequelae appear on every hand as they affect all ages from infancy to middle age, and one meets but few individuals of extreme old age. The absence of any adequate system of drainage and the pollution of the water supplies are also factors of great importance in preserving this unhealthiness. In ancient times it was regarded as healthier than Egypt, as it well might be, hence, the diseases of Egypt are referred to as being worse than those of Israel (Dt 7:15; 28:60; Am 4:10). The sanitary regulations and restrictions of the Priestly Code would doubtless have raised the standard of public health, but it is unlikely that these were ever observed over any large area. The types of disease which are referred to in the Bible are those that still prevail. Fevers of several kinds, dysentery, leprosy, intestinal worms, plague, nervous diseases such as paralysis and epilepsy, insanity, ophthalmia and skin diseases are among the commonest and will be described under their several names. Methods of treatment are described under MEDICINE; PHYSICIAN. The word "disease" or "diseases" in the King James Version is changed to "sickness" in the Revised Version (British and American) in 2 Ki 1:2; 8:8; Mt 9:35, and left out in Jn 5:4; while in Mt 8:17 "sicknesses" is replaced by "diseases." the Revised Version (British and American) also changes "infirmity" in Lk 7:21 to "diseases," and in Ps 38:7 "a loathsome disease" is changed to "burning."

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/D/DISEASE;+DISEASES/

Disease in Naves Topical Bible

Sent from God Le 14:34 -As judgments Ps 107:17; Isa 3:17 -INSTANCES OF Upon the Egyptians See PLAGUES; Upon Nabal 1Sa 25:38 David's child 2Sa 12:15 Gehazi 2Ki 5:27 Jeroboam 2Ch 13:20 Jehoram 2Ch 21:12-19 Uzziah 2Ch 26:17-20 Threatened as judgments Le 26:16; De 7:15; 28:22,27,28,35; 29:22 Healing of, from God Ex 15:26; 23:25; De 7:15; 2Ch 16:12; Ps 103:3; 107:20 In answer to prayer Of Hezekiah 2Ki 20:1-11; Isa 38:1-8 Of David Ps 21:4; 116:8 Miraculous healing of, a sign to accompany the preaching of the word Mr 16:18 See MIRACLES Physicians employed for 2Ch 16:12; Jer 8:22; Mt 9:12; Mr 5:26; Lu 4:23 Remedies used Pr 17:22; 20:30; Isa 38:21; Jer 30:13; 46:11 Poultices 2Ki 20:7 Ointments Isa 1:6; Jer 8:22 Emulsions Lu 10:34 Of the sexual organs Le 15; 22:4; Nu 5:2; De 23:10 See CIRCUMCISION See MENSTRUATION See GONORRHEA Treatment of fractures Eze 30:21 See AFFLICTION -FIGURATIVE Ps 38:7; Isa 1:6; Jer 30:12

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/S/DISEASE/

Diseases in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The effect of sin's entrance. Healed by the Lord Jesus, as Isaiah foretold, "Himself took our infirmities and bore our sicknesses" (Matthew 8:17; Isaiah 53:4; 1 Peter 2:24). His bearing our guilt in His manhood, assumed with all its infirmities, was the ground of His sympathetically feeling for and relieving our sickness by His miraculous power. At His second coming His people "shall not say, I am sick," for "they shall be forgiven their iniquity" (Isaiah 33:24).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/D/Diseases/

Sickness Scripture - 2 Kings 13:14

Now Elisha was fallen sick of his sickness whereof he died. And Joash the king of Israel came down unto him, and wept over his face, and said, O my father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/13/

Sickness Scripture - Hosea 5:13

When Ephraim saw his sickness, and Judah [saw] his wound, then went Ephraim to the Assyrian, and sent to king Jareb: yet could he not heal you, nor cure you of your wound.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hosea/5/

Sickness Scripture - 1 Kings 8:37

If there be in the land famine, if there be pestilence, blasting, mildew, locust, [or] if there be caterpiller; if their enemy besiege them in the land of their cities; whatsoever plague, whatsoever sickness [there be];

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/8/

Sickness Scripture - Deuteronomy 7:15

And the LORD will take away from thee all sickness, and will put none of the evil diseases of Egypt, which thou knowest, upon thee; but will lay them upon all [them] that hate thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/7/

Sickness Scripture - 2 Chronicles 21:19

And it came to pass, that in process of time, after the end of two years, his bowels fell out by reason of his sickness: so he died of sore diseases. And his people made no burning for him, like the burning of his fathers.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/21/

Sickness Scripture - 2 Chronicles 6:28

If there be dearth in the land, if there be pestilence, if there be blasting, or mildew, locusts, or caterpillers; if their enemies besiege them in the cities of their land; whatsoever sore or whatsoever sickness [there be]:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/6/

Sickness Scripture - Leviticus 20:18

And if a man shall lie with a woman having her sickness, and shall uncover her nakedness; he hath discovered her fountain, and she hath uncovered the fountain of her blood: and both of them shall be cut off from among their people.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/20/

Sickness Scripture - Matthew 4:23

And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all manner of sickness and all manner of disease among the people.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/4/

Sickness Scripture - Matthew 4:23

And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all manner of sickness and all manner of disease among the people.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/4/

Sickness Scripture - Matthew 10:1

And when he had called unto [him] his twelve disciples, he gave them power [against] unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness and all manner of disease.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/10/

Sickness Scripture - Isaiah 38:12

Mine age is departed, and is removed from me as a shepherd's tent: I have cut off like a weaver my life: he will cut me off with pining sickness: from day [even] to night wilt thou make an end of me.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/38/

Ring in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

(Anglo-Saxon, Hring, "ring"): The word renders (the American Standard Revised Version) two Hebrew words (in the King James Version and the English Revised Version three) and two Greek words. Tabba`ath, the principal Hebrew word, is from Tabha`, "sink," either because the ring is something "cast" or molded, or, more probably, since the principal use of the ring was as a seal, because it "sank" into the wax or clay that received the impression. In Exodus, Tabba`ath, "ring," is a detail of furniture or equipment, as the rings of the ark through which the staves were thrust (Ex 25:12, etc.), rings for curtains, in the high priest's ephod (Ex 28:28; 39:21), etc. Its other use was perhaps the original, to describe the article of personal adornment worn on the finger, apparently in the Old Testament always a signet- ring, and as such an indispensable article of masculine attire. Such a ring Pharaoh gave Joseph as a symbol of authority (Gen 41:42); and Ahasuerus gave Haman (Est 3:10); with it the royal missive was sealed (Est 3:12; 8:8 twice,10). It was also a feminine ornament in Isaiah's list of the fashionable feminine paraphernalia, "the rings and the nose-jewels" (quite likely rings also) (Isa 3:21). Either as ornaments or for their intrinsic value, or both, rings were used as gifts for sacred purposes from both men and women: "brooches, and ear-rings, and signet-rings" (margin "nose-rings") (Ex 35:22); "bracelets, rings (the American Standard Revised Version "signet-rings"), ear- rings" (Nu 31:50 the King James Version). chotham, "signet," mentioned in Gen 38:18,25; Ex 28:11,21,36; Ex 39:6,14,30; Jer 22:24; Hag 2:23, etc., was probably usually a seal ring, but in Gen 38 and elsewhere the seal may have been swung on wire, and suspended by a cord from the neck. It was not only an identification, but served as a stamp for signature. galil, "circle" (compare "Galilee," "Circle" of the Gentiles), rendered "ring" in Est 1:6; Song 5:14, may rather mean "cylinder" or "rod" of metal. Earring (which see) in the King James Version is from totally different words: nezem, whose etymology is unknown, aghil, "round," or lachash, "amulet"; so the Revised Version (British and American). The "rings" of the wheels in Ezek 1:18 (the King James Version) are gabh, "curved," and mean "rims" (American Standard Revised Version), "felloes." Egyptians especially wore a great profusion of rings, principally of silver or gold, engraved with scarabaei, or other devices. In the New Testament the ring, daktulios, "finger-ring," is a token of means, position, standing: "put a ring on his hand" (Lk 15:22). Perhaps also it included the right to give orders in his father's name. To be chrusodaktulios, "golden-ringed," perhaps with more than one, indicated wealth and social rank: "a man with a gold ring" (Jas 2:2).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/R/RING/

Ring in Naves Topical Bible

Of gold Nu 31:50 -Worn as a badge of office Ge 41:42 -Given as a token Es 3:10,12; 8:2-10 -Worn in the nose Pr 11:22; Isa 3:21 -Offerings of, to the tabernacle Ex 35:22; Nu 31:50

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/R/RING/

Ring in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The ring was regarded as an indispensable article of a Hebrew's attire, inasmuch as it contained his signet. It was hence the symbol of authority. Ge 41:42; Es 3:10 Rings were worn not only by men, but by women. Isa 3:21 We may conclude from Ex 28:11 that the rings contained a stone engraven with a device or with the owner's name. The custom appears also to have prevailed among the Jews of the apostolic age. Jas 2:2

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/R/Ring/

Signet in Easton's Bible Dictionary

a seal used to attest documents (Dan. 6:8-10, 12). In 6:17, this word properly denotes a ring. The impression of a signet ring on fine clay has recently been discovered among the ruins at Nineveh. It bears the name and title of an Egyptian king. Two actual signet rings of ancient Egyptian monarchs (Cheops and Horus) have also been discovered. When digging a shaft close to the south wall of the temple area, the engineers of the Israel Exploration Fund, at a depth of 12 feet below the surface, came upon a pavement of polished stones, formerly one of the streets of the city. Under this pavement they found a stratum of 16 feet of concrete, and among this concrete, 10 feet down, they found a signet stone bearing the inscription, in Old Hebrew characters, "Haggai, son of Shebaniah." It has been asked, Might not this be the actual seal of Haggai the prophet? We know that he was in Jerusalem after the Captivity; and it is somewhat singular that he alone of all the minor prophets makes mention of a signet (Hag. 2:23). (See SEAL -T0003246.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/S/Signet/

Ring in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

tabaath, "to impress with a seal." frontEARRING.) Used as "a signet" (Genesis 38:18, chothem), worn on the hand, or suspended, as the Arabs do, by a cord from the neck. Pharaoh's transfer of his ring from his finger to Joseph betokened his investing him with royal authority (Genesis 41:42; a device, as the beetle or the owner's name, was engraven on it, Exodus 28:11). So Ahasuerus in the case of Haman (Esther 3:8-10), and Mordecai (Esther 8:2). In Luke 15:22 it is the father's token of favor, dignity, and sonship to the prodigal; Roman slaves wore no gold rings. We are no longer slaves, but God's free sons when we believe, and receive the Holy Spirit as the pledge of sonship and earnest of sharing the Father's glory (Galatians 4:3-7). Rich men (especially Romans of the equestrian order, whose badge the ring was) wore many rings on the left hand (James 2:2). Greek "golden-ringed," not merely with one ring. Christians derived the usage of the wedding ring from the Jews. The ring was treasured much, and so symbolizes what is most precious to us (Jeremiah 22:24, Jehoiachin's popularity is alluded to); the signet ring was worn on the right hand (contrast Haggai 2:23). A costly sacrifice to the Lord (Exodus 35:22). Song of Solomon 5:14, "his hands" bent are compared to "rings" in which "beryls" are set, as the nails in the fingers; compare as to our names being "sealed" upon His heart, Song of Solomon 8:6, and palms, Isaiah 49:16. The bride desires herself to be a signet ring on His arm. God in turn seals us with His signet (Revelation 7:2-4), "I will make thee as a signet" (Haggai 2:23), i.e. an object of constant regard, as the ring is ever before the eye. Christ the Antitype is always in the Father's presence, ever pleasing in His sight; so we, through Him our representative. The signet represents legally the owner; so Christ wields the Father's delegated authority (Matthew 28:18; John 5:22-23).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/R/Ring/

Signet Scripture - Haggia 2:23

In that day, saith the LORD of hosts, will I take thee, O Zerubbabel, my servant, the son of Shealtiel, saith the LORD, and will make thee as a signet: for I have chosen thee, saith the LORD of hosts.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Haggia/2/

Signet Scripture - Exodus 28:21

And the stones shall be with the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names, [like] the engravings of a signet; every one with his name shall they be according to the twelve tribes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/28/

Signet Scripture - Exodus 39:14

And the stones [were] according to the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names, [like] the engravings of a signet, every one with his name, according to the twelve tribes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/39/

Signet Scripture - Exodus 28:11

With the work of an engraver in stone, [like] the engravings of a signet, shalt thou engrave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel: thou shalt make them to be set in ouches of gold.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/28/

Signet Scripture - Exodus 39:30

And they made the plate of the holy crown [of] pure gold, and wrote upon it a writing, [like to] the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/39/

Sacrifice in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The offering up of sacrifices is to be regarded as a divine institution. It did not originate with man. God himself appointed it as the mode in which acceptable worship was to be offered to him by guilty man. The language and the idea of sacrifice pervade the whole Bible. Sacrifices were offered in the ante-diluvian age. The Lord clothed Adam and Eve with the skins of animals, which in all probability had been offered in sacrifice (Gen. 3:21). Abel offered a sacrifice "of the firstlings of his flock" (4:4; Heb. 11:4). A distinction also was made between clean and unclean animals, which there is every reason to believe had reference to the offering up of sacrifices (Gen. 7:2, 8), because animals were not given to man as food till after the Flood. The same practice is continued down through the patriarchal age (Gen. 8:20; 12:7; 13:4, 18; 15:9-11; 22:1-18, etc.). In the Mosaic period of Old Testament history definite laws were prescribed by God regarding the different kinds of sacrifices that were to be offered and the manner in which the offering was to be made. The offering of stated sacrifices became indeed a prominent and distinctive feature of the whole period (Ex. 12:3-27; Lev. 23:5-8; Num. 9:2-14). (See ALTAR -T0000185.) We learn from the Epistle to the Hebrews that sacrifices had in themselves no value or efficacy. They were only the "shadow of good things to come," and pointed the worshippers forward to the coming of the great High Priest, who, in the fullness of the time, "was offered once for all to bear the sin of many." Sacrifices belonged to a temporary economy, to a system of types and emblems which served their purposes and have now passed away. The "one sacrifice for sins" hath "perfected for ever them that are sanctified." Sacrifices were of two kinds: 1. Unbloody, such as (1) first-fruits and tithes; (2) meat and drink- offerings; and (3) incense. 2. Bloody, such as (1) burnt-offerings; (2) peace-offerings; and (3) sin and trespass offerings. (See OFFERINGS -T0002770.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/S/Sacrifice/

Sacrifice in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Every sacrifice was assumed to be vitally connected with the spirit of the worshipper. Unless the heart accompanied the sacrifice God rejected the gift (Isaiah 1:11; Isaiah 1:13). Corban included all that was given to the Lord's service, whether firstfruits, tithes (Leviticus 2:12; Leviticus 27:30), and gifts, for maintaining the priests and endowing the sanctuary (Numbers 7:3; Numbers 31:50), or offerings for the altar. The latter were: 1. Animal (1) burnt offerings, (2) peace offerings, (3) sin offerings. 2. Vegetable: (1) meat and drink offerings for the altar outside, (2) incense and meat offerings for the holy place within. Besides there were the peculiar offerings, the Passover lamb, the scape-goat, and the red heifer; also the chagigah peace offering during the Passover. (See PASSOVER.) The public sacrifice as the morning and evening lamb, was at the cost of the nation. The private sacrifice was offered by the individual, either by the ordinance of the law or by voluntary gift. Zebach is the general term for "a slaughtered animal", as distinguished from minchah, "gift," a vegetable offering, our "meat (i.e. food) offering." 'Owlah is the "burnt offering", that which ascends (from 'alah) or "is burnt"; also kaleel, "whole," it all being consumed on the altar; "whole burnt sacrifice." Shelem is the "peace offering". Todah the "thank offering". Chattath ("sin and punishment") the "sin offering". 'Asham, "trespass offering", accompanied by pecuniary fine or forfeit, because of injury done to some one (it might be to the Lord Himself) in respect to property. The burnt offering was wholly burnt upon the altar; the sin offering was in part burnt upon the altar, in part given to the priests, or burnt outside the camp. The peace offering was shared between the altar, the priests, and the sacrificer. The five animals in Abraham's sacrifice of the covenant (Genesis 15:9) are the five alone named in the law for sacrifice: the ox, sheep, goat, dove, and pigeon. They fulfilled the three legal conditions: (1) they were clean; (2) used for food; (3) part of the home property of the sacrificers. They must be without spot or blemish; but a disproportioned victim was allowed in a free will peace offering (Leviticus 7:16-17; Leviticus 22:23). The age was from a week to three years old; Judges 6:25 is exceptional. The sacrificer (the offerer generally, but in public sacrifice the priests or Levites) slew the victim at the N. side of the altar. The priest or his assistant held a bowl under the cut throat to receive the blood. The sacrificial meal was peculiar to the peace offering. The priest sprinkled the blood of the burnt offering, the peace offering, and the trespass offering "round about upon the altar." But in the sin offering, for one of the common people or a ruler, he took of the blood with his finger and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and poured out what blood remained at the bottom of the altar; in the sin offering for the congregation and for the high priest he brought some of the blood into the sanctuary and sprinkled it seven times before the veil, and put some on the horns of the altar of incense...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/S/Sacrifice/

Sacrifice Scripture - Exodus 29:28

And it shall be Aaron's and his sons' by a statute for ever from the children of Israel: for it [is] an heave offering: and it shall be an heave offering from the children of Israel of the sacrifice of their peace offerings, [even] their heave offering unto the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/29/

Sacrifice Scripture - 1 Samuel 10:8

And thou shalt go down before me to Gilgal; and, behold, I will come down unto thee, to offer burnt offerings, [and] to sacrifice sacrifices of peace offerings: seven days shalt thou tarry, till I come to thee, and shew thee what thou shalt do.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Samuel/10/

Sacrifice Scripture - Leviticus 7:12

If he offer it for a thanksgiving, then he shall offer with the sacrifice of thanksgiving unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and cakes mingled with oil, of fine flour, fried.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/7/

Sacrifice Scripture - 1 Kings 12:27

If this people go up to do sacrifice in the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, then shall the heart of this people turn again unto their lord, [even] unto Rehoboam king of Judah, and they shall kill me, and go again to Rehoboam king of Judah.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/12/

Sacrifice Scripture - Jeremiah 33:11

The voice of joy, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that shall say, Praise the LORD of hosts: for the LORD [is] good; for his mercy [endureth] for ever: [and] of them that shall bring the sacrifice of praise into the house of the LORD. For I will cause to return the captivity of the land, as at the first, saith the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/33/

Sacrifice Scripture - Psalms 40:6

Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; mine ears hast thou opened: burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/40/

Sacrifice Scripture - Ezekiel 40:42

And the four tables [were] of hewn stone for the burnt offering, of a cubit and an half long, and a cubit and an half broad, and one cubit high: whereupon also they laid the instruments wherewith they slew the burnt offering and the sacrifice.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/40/

Sacrifice Scripture - 2 Chronicles 2:6

But who is able to build him an house, seeing the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain him? who [am] I then, that I should build him an house, save only to burn sacrifice before him?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/2/

Sacrifice Scripture - Numbers 29:6

Beside the burnt offering of the month, and his meat offering, and the daily burnt offering, and his meat offering, and their drink offerings, according unto their manner, for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Numbers/29/

Sacrifice Scripture - Numbers 28:8

And the other lamb shalt thou offer at even: as the meat offering of the morning, and as the drink offering thereof, thou shalt offer [it], a sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Numbers/28/

Sandal in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Mentioned only in Mark 6:9 and Acts 12:8. The sandal was simply a sole, made of wood or palm-bark, fastened to the foot by leathern straps. Sandals were also made of seal-skin (Ezek. 16:10; lit. tahash, "leather;" A.V., "badger's skin;" R.V., "sealskin," or marg., "porpoise-skin"). (See SHOE -T0003404.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/S/Sandals/

Sandal in Smiths Bible Dictionary

was the article ordinarily used by the Hebrews for protecting the feet. It consisted simply of a sole attached to the foot by thongs. We have express notice of the thong (Authorized Version "shoe latchet") in several passages, notably Ge 14:23; Isa 5:27; Mr 1:7 Sandals were worn by all classes of society in Israel, even by the very poor; and both the sandal and the thong or shoe-latchet were so cheap and common that they passed into a proverb for the most insignificant thing. Ge 14:23 Ecclus. 46;13, They were dispensed with in-doors, and were only put on by persons about to undertake some business away from their homes. During mealtimes the feet were uncovered. Lu 7:38; Joh 13:5,6 It was a mark of reverence to cast off the shoes in approaching a place or person of eminent sanctity. Ex 3:5; Jos 5:15 It was also an indication of violent emotion, or of mourning, if a person appeared barefoot in public. 2Sa 15:30 To carry or to unloose a person's sandal was a menial office, betokening great inferiority on the part of the person performing it. Mt 3:11

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/S/Sandal/

Sandal in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

na'al. A sole attached to the foot by thongs, Greek hupodema (Mark 6:9; Acts 12:8). Often ornamentally inlaid with gold, silver, jewels, and silk (Song of Solomon 7:1). The materials were leather, felt, cloth, or wood, occasionally shod with iron. A shoe was delivered in token of transferring property: "over Edom will I cast My shoe." i.e. I will take possession of it, treading on its pride as it had trodden Israel as an invader (Psalm 60:8; Psalm 60:12; 2 Samuel 8:14; Joshua 10:24). The custom, which existed among the Indians and the ancient Germans, arose from the taking possession of property by treading the soil (Genesis 13:17), hence handing the shoe symbolized renunciation and transfer of ownership (Deuteronomy 25:9; Rth 4:7-8). When a Bedouin husband divorces a runaway wife, he says, "She was my slipper, I have cast her off." (Burckhardt). In Matthew 3:11; Acts 13:25, the image is, one about to wash his feet getting the slave to untie his shoe or else sandal. Hengstenberg so explains Psalm 60:8, "Moab is My washing tub; to Edom will I cast My shoe," namely, to "bear" as My slave. The latchet was the strap across the instep, securing it on the foot, of small value (Genesis 14:23; Amos 2:6; Amos 8:6). "Buy the needy for a pair of shoes," i.e. by oppression compel them to sell themselves to us as bondmen, in order that our great women may have elaborately ornamented sandals. Sandals were laid aside indoors, and only put on in a journey or military expedition (Joshua 9:5; Joshua 9:13; Isaiah 5:27; Ephesians 6:15). "Your feet shod with the preparation (Psalm 10:17) of the gospel of peace," i.e. preparedness for the good warfare, produced by the gospel, which brings peace within though there is conflict outside with Satan and the world (Luke 1:79; Romans 10:15; Isaiah 26:3; Philemon 4:7). The shoes and sandals were taken off during meals (Luke 7:38; John 13:5-6); but the Jews wore sandals on their feet at the Passover, as ready for the journey (Exodus 12:11). They put off sandals in reverence at a sacred place (Exodus 3:5; Joshua 5:15). So the priests in the temple officiated barefoot; so the Mahometans of Israel before entering a mosque or the Kaaba at Mecca, and the Mesopotamian Yezidis before entering the tomb of a patron saint, and the Samaritans before treading Mount Gerizim. A sign of mourning (2 Samuel 15:30; Ezekiel 24:17); humiliation (Isaiah 20:2; Isaiah 20:4; Ezekiel 16:10), "I shod thee with badgers' skins" or seal skins, and skins of other marine animals of the Red Sea; the material of the Hebrew shoes and of the tabernacle covering. (See BADGER.) Matthew 10:10, "provide not shoes," but Mark 6:9, "be shod with sandals"; Luke 10:4 harmonizes them, "carry not shoes," i.e., do not, as most travelers, carry an extra pair in case the pair in use became worn out.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/S/Sandal/

Sandals Scripture - Acts 12:8

And the angel said unto him, Gird thyself, and bind on thy sandals. And so he did. And he saith unto him, Cast thy garment about thee, and follow me.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/12/

Sandals Scripture - Mark 6:9

But [be] shod with sandals; and not put on two coats.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/6/

Ships and Boats in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

I. THE HEBREWS AND THE SEA II. SHIPS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT AND THE APOCRYPHA 1. Among the Hebrews (1) In Early Times (2) During the Monarchy (3) In Later Times 2. Among Neighboring Nations (1) Egypt (2) Assyria and Babylonia (3) Phoenicia 3. General References III. SHIPS IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 1. In the Gospels 2. In the Acts of the Apostles 3. In Other Books LITERATURE In the Old Testament the following words are found: (1) The word most commonly used in Hebrew for "a ship" is 'oniyah (Prov 30:19; Jon 1:3,4), of which the plural 'oniyoth is found most frequently (Jdg 5:17; 1 Ki 22:48 f, and many other places). The collective term for "a navy of ships" is 'oni (1 Ki 9:26 f; 10:22, 'oni Tharshish, "a navy (of ships) of Tarshish"; but Isa 33:21, 'oni shayit, a "galley with oars"). (2) tsi (Nu 24:24; Ezek 30:9; Isa 33:21), tsi 'addir, "gallant ship"; Dan 11:30, tsiyim Kittim, "ships of Kittim.' (3) cephinah, "innermost parts of the ship" the Revised Version (British and American), "sides of the ship" the King James Version (Jon 1:5, the only place where the word is found). In Apocrypha ploion, is the usual word (The Wisdom of Solomon 14:1; Ecclesiasticus 33:2, etc.), translated "vessel" in The Wisdom of Solomon 14:1, but "ship" elsewhere. For "ship" The Wisdom of Solomon 5:10 has naus. "Boat" in 2 Macc 12:3,6 is for skaphos, and "navy" in 1 Macc 1:17; 2 Macc 12:9; 14:1 for stolos. In The Wisdom of Solomon 14:6 Noah's ark is called a schedia, a "clumsy ship" (the literal translation "raft" in the Revised Version (British and American) is impossible). In the New Testament there are four words in use: (1) naus (Acts 27:41, the only place where it occurs, designating the large sea-going vessel in which Paul suffered shipwreck). (2) ploiarion, "a little boat" (Mk 3:9 and two other places, Jn 6:22 ff; 21:8). (3) ploion, "boat" (Mt 4:21,22 and many other places in the Gospels--the ordinary fishingboat of the Sea of Galilee rendered "boat" uniformly in the Revised Version (British and American) instead of "ship" the King James Version), "ship" (Acts 20:13, and all other places where the ship carrying Paul is mentioned, except 27:41, as above). In Jas 3:4; Rev 8:9; 18:17 ff, it is rendered "ship." (4) skaphe, "boat" (Acts 27:16,30,32, where it means the small boat of the ship in which Paul was being conveyed as a prisoner to Rome). Cognate expressions are: "shipmen," 'anshe 'oniyoth (1 Ki 9:27); nautai (Acts 27:27,30 the King James Version, "sailors" the Revised Version (British and American)); "mariners," mallachim (Jon 1:15; Ezek 27:9,27,29), shaTim (Ezek 27:8 the King James Version, "rowers" the Revised Version (British and American); Ezek 27:26, the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American)); "pilot," chobhel (Jon 1:6; Ezek 27:8,27,28,29); "sailing," "voyage," plous (Acts 21:7; 27:9,10, the Revised Version (British and American) "voyage" in all verses). I. The Hebrews and the Sea. The Hebrews were a pastoral and agricultural people, and had no...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SHIPS+AND+BOATS/

Ship in Naves Topical Bible

Built By Noah Ge 6:13-22 By Solomon 1Ki 9:26; 2Ch 8:17 By Jehoshaphat 1Ki 22:48; 2Ch 20:35,36 Of gopher wood Ge 6:1,4 Of fir wood Eze 27:5 Of bulrushes Isa 18:2 Sealed with pitch (tar?) Ge 6:15 -Equipped with A helm Jas 3:4 A rudder Ac 27:40 Tackling Isa 33:23; Ac 27:19 -Sails Isa 33:23; Ac 27:1,9,17,40 -Sails embroidered Eze 27:7 -Masts Isa 33:23; Eze 27:5 -Oars Jon 1:13; Mr 6:48 -Figurehead Ac 28:11 -An anchor Ac 27:29,30,40; Heb 6:19 -Lifeboats Ac 27:30,32 -Used in commerce Ac 21:3; 27:10 -Used in commerce With Tarshish 1Ki 22:48; Isa 60:9; Jon 1:3 With Ophir 1Ki 10:11; 2Ch 8:18 With Adramyttium Ac 27:2 For passenger traffic Isa 60:9; Jon 1:3; Ac 20:13; 27:2,37; 28:11 For ferriage 2Sa 19:18 -Repaired by caulking Eze 27:9 -Wrecked at Ezion-geber 1Ki 22:48; 2Ch 20:35-37 -At Melita (Malta) Ac 27:14,44 -Warships used by Chittim Nu 24:24; Da 11:30

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/S/SHIP/

Ship in Smiths Bible Dictionary

No one writer in the whole range of Greek and Roman literature has supplied us with so much information concerning the merchant-ships of the ancients as St. Luke in the narrative of St. Paul's voyage to Rome. Acts 27,28. It is important to remember that he accomplished it in three ships: first, the Adramyttian vessel which took him from Caesarea to Myra, and which was probably a coasting-vessel of no great size, Ac 27:1-6 secondly, the large Alexandrian corn-ship, in which he was wrecked on the coast of Malta Ac 27:6-28 :1; and thirdly, another large Alexandrian corn- ship, in which he sailed from Malta by Syracuse and Rhegium to Puteoli. Ac 28:11-13 1. Size of ancient ships. --The narrative which we take as our chief guide affords a good standard for estimating this. The ship, in which St. Paul was wrecked had persons on board, Ac 27:37 besides a cargo of wheat, ibid. Ac 27:10,38 and all these passengers seem to have been taken on to Puteoli in another ship, ibid, Ac 28:11 which had its own crew and its own cargo. Now, in modern transport-ships, prepared far carrying troops, it is a common estimate to allow a toll and a half per man. On the whole, if we say that an ancient merchant-ship might range from 500 to 1000 tons, we are clearly within the mark. 2. Steering apparatus. --Some commentators have fallen into strange perplexities from observing that in Ac 27:40 ("the fastenings of the rudders") St. Luke uses the plural. Ancient ships were in truth not steered at all by rudders fastened or hinged to the stern, but by means of two paddle-rudders one on each quarter, acting in a rowlock or through a port-hole as the vessel might be small or large. 3. Build and ornaments of the hull. --It is probable that there was no very marked difference between the bow and the stern. The "hold," Jon 1:5 would present no special peculiarities. That personification of ships which seems to be instinctive led the ancients to paint an eye on each side of the bow. Comp. Ac 27:15 An ornament of the ship which took Paul from Malta to Pozzuoli is more explicitly referred to. The "sign" of that ship, Ac 28:11 was Castor and Pollux; and the symbols of those heroes were doubtless painted or sculptured on each side of the bow. 4. Under-girders. --The imperfection of the build, and still more (see below, 6) the peculiarity of the rig, in ancient ships, resulted in a greater tendency than in our times to the starting of the pranks and consequently to leaking and foundering. Hence it was customary to take on board peculiar contrivances, suitable called helps," Ac 27:17 as precautions against such dangers. These were simply cables or chains, which in case of necessity could be passed round the frame of the ship, at right angles to its length, and made tight. 5. Anchors. --Ancient anchors were similar in form to those which we use now. except that they were without flukes. The ship in which Paul was sailing had four anchors on board. The sailors on this occasion anchored by the stern. Ac 27:29 6. Masts, sails, ropes and yards. -The rig of an ancient ship was more simple and clumsy than that employed in modern times. Its great feature was one large mast, with one large square sail fastened to a yard of great length. Hence the strain upon the hull, and the danger of starting the planks, were greater than under the present system, which distributes the mechanical pressure more evenly over the whole ship. Not that there were never more masts than one, or more sails than one on the same mast, in an ancient merchantman; but these were repetitions, so to speak, of the same general unit of rig. Another feature of the ancient, as of the modern , feature of the ancient, as of ship is the flag at the top of the mast. Isai l.c., and Isa 30:17 We must remember that the ancients...

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/S/Ship/

Ships in Easton's Bible Dictionary

early used in foreign commerce by the Phoenicians (Gen. 49:13). Moses (Deut. 28:68) and Job (9:26) make reference to them, and Balaam speaks of the "ships of Chittim" (Num. 24:24). Solomon constructed a navy at Ezion-geber by the assistance of Hiram's sailors (1 Kings 9:26-28; 2 Chr. 8:18). Afterwards, Jehoshaphat sought to provide himself with a navy at the same port, but his ships appear to have been wrecked before they set sail (1 Kings 22:48, 49; 2 Chr. 20:35-37). In our Lord's time fishermen's boats on the Sea of Galilee were called "ships." Much may be learned regarding the construction of ancient merchant ships and navigation from the record in Acts 27, 28.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/S/Ships/

Ship in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Among the earliest shipbuilders were the Phoenicians, whose commerce and voyages made them foremost in the maritime science of early ages, and traces of whose ships are frequently met with. (On PAUL'S voyage, see EUROCLYDON; MELITA; CNIDUS; CRETE; FAIR HAVENS.) Paul was first in the Adramyttian coasting vessel from Caesarea to Myra; then in the large Alexandrian grain ship wrecked at Malta; then in another Alexandrian grain ship from Malta by Syracuse and Rhegium to Purcell. Luke shows accurate nautical knowledge, yet not professional, but of an observer, telling what was done but not the how or the why. Fourteen different verbs he uses of the progression of a ship, peculiar to himself and appropriate to each case: pleoo; Luke 8:23; Acts 21:3; apopleo; Acts 13:4; Acts 14:26; Acts 20:15; Acts 27:1; bradupleoo; Acts 27:7; diapleoo; Acts 27:5; ekpleoo; Acts 15:39; katapleoo; Luke 8:26; hupopleoo; Acts 27:4; Acts 27:7; parapleoo; Acts 20:16; euthudromeoo; Acts 16:11; Acts 21:1; hupotrechoo; Acts 27:16; paralegomai; Acts 27:8; Acts 27:13; feromai; Acts 27:15; diaferomai; Acts 27:27; diaperaoo; Acts 21:2. Paul's ship, besides cargo of wheat, carried 276 persons, so she would be of 600 tons. Lucian (Ploion e Euche) describes an Alexandrian wheat ship, 180 ft. long (including end projections) by 45 ft. broad, i.e. 1,300 tons. The largest on record was Ptolemy Philopator's war galley, 420 ft. long by 57 ft. broad, under 5,000 tons. "The governor" in James 3:4 is the "helmsman" (kuberneetees; the "owner" was naukleeros). There were two paddle rudders, one on each quarter, acting in a rowlock or through a porthole. As the helmsman used only one at a time, "the helm" is in the singular in James 3:4. In Acts 27:29; Acts 27:40, after letting go the four anchors at the stern, they lashed up both the rudder paddles lest they should interfere with the ground tackle. When they wished to steer again and the anchor ropes were cut (margin), they unfastened the lashings or bands of the paddles. The ship's run from Rhegium to Puteoli, 180 miles in two days, the wind being full from the S., illustrates the rate of sailing. The bow and the stern were much alike, except that on each side of the bow was painted "the sign" (paraseemon), as for instance "Castor and Pollux" (Acts 28:11). An eye was painted on each side of the bow; so Luke's phrase (antofthalmein), "bear up into," literally, "eye the wind" directly (Acts 27:15). The imperfect build of ships caused the need of "undergirders" to pass round the frame, at right angles to its length, when the planks were in danger of starting. The anchors resembled ours, but had no flukes. Spiritually they symbolize the Christian hope (Hebrews 6:19). The soul is the ship; the world the sea; the bliss beyond the distant coast; hope resting on faith the anchor which prevents the vessel being tossed to and fro; the consolation through God's promise and hope is the cable connecting the ship and anchor. The soul clings, as one in fear of shipwreck, to the anchor, and sees not where the cable runs, where it is fastened; she knows it is fastened behind the veil which hides the future glory; if only she hold on to the anchor, she shall in due time be drawn in where it is, into the holiest, by the Saviour. Anchoring by the stern, the ancients were prepared to anchor in the gale such as Paul encountered; and Purdy (Sailing Directions, 180) says that the holding ground at Malta where Paul was wrecked is quite good enough to have secured the anchors and ship in spite of the severe night. In Acts 27:40, for "mainsail" translated "foresail," which was needed to put the ship about and to run it aground. Vessels were propelled by oars as well as by sails (Ezekiel 27:29; Isaiah 33:21; Jonah 1:13). Of the 32 parts or points of the compass card a modern ship will sail within six points of the wind. The clumsier ancient ship probably could sail within seven points. In a heavy gale the ship would lie to, with the right side to the storm, the object being not progress but safety; as under the lee of Clauda (Acts 27:14- 17). To anchor was impossible; to drift would have brought the ship to the fatal Syrtis off Africa. The wind...

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Ship Scripture - Jonah 1:3

But Jonah rose up to flee unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD, and went down to Joppa; and he found a ship going to Tarshish: so he paid the fare thereof, and went down into it, to go with them unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jonah/1/

Ship Scripture - Acts 21:3

Now when we had discovered Cyprus, we left it on the left hand, and sailed into Syria, and landed at Tyre: for there the ship was to unlade her burden.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/21/

Ship Scripture - Matthew 4:21

And going on from thence, he saw other two brethren, James [the son] of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/4/

Ship Scripture - Matthew 14:13

When Jesus heard [of it], he departed thence by ship into a desert place apart: and when the people had heard [thereof], they followed him on foot out of the cities.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/14/

Ship Scripture - Mark 4:1

And he began again to teach by the sea side: and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea; and the whole multitude was by the sea on the land.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/4/

Ship Scripture - John 21:6

And he said unto them, Cast the net on the right side of the ship, and ye shall find. They cast therefore, and now they were not able to draw it for the multitude of fishes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/John/21/

Ship Scripture - Acts 27:41

And falling into a place where two seas met, they ran the ship aground; and the forepart stuck fast, and remained unmoveable, but the hinder part was broken with the violence of the waves.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/27/

Ship Scripture - Isaiah 33:21

But there the glorious LORD [will be] unto us a place of broad rivers [and] streams; wherein shall go no galley with oars, neither shall gallant ship pass thereby.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/33/

Ship Scripture - Luke 8:37

Then the whole multitude of the country of the Gadarenes round about besought him to depart from them; for they were taken with great fear: and he went up into the ship, and returned back again.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/8/

Ship Scripture - Acts 27:2

And entering into a ship of Adramyttium, we launched, meaning to sail by the coasts of Asia; [one] Aristarchus, a Macedonian of Thessalonica, being with us.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/27/

Seal in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

sel (substantive chotham, "seal," "signet," Tabba`ath, "signet-ring"; Aramaic `izqa'; sphragis; verb chatham, (Aramaic chatham); (sphragizo), (katasphragizomai, "to seal"): I. Literal Sense. A seal is an instrument of stone, metal or other hard substance (sometimes set in a ring), on which is engraved some device or figure, and is used for making an impression on some soft substance, as clay or wax, affixed to a document or other object, in token of authenticity. 1. Prevalence in Antiquity: The use of seals goes back to a very remote antiquity, especially in Egypt, Babylonia and Assyria. Herodotus (i.195) records the Babylonian custom of wearing signets. In Babylonia the seal generally took the form of a cylinder cut in crystal or some hard stone, which was bored through from end to end and a cord passed through it. The design, often accompanied by the owner's name, was engraved on the curved part. The signet was then suspended by the cord round the neck or waist (compare the Revised Version (British and American) "cord" in Gen 38:18; "upon thy heart .... upon thine arm," i.e. one seal hanging down from the neck and another round the waist; Song 8:6). In Egypt, too, as in Babylonia, the cylinder was the earliest form used for the purpose of a seal; but this form was in Egypt gradually superseded by the scarab (= beetle-shaped) as the prevailing type. Other forms, such as the cone-shaped, were also in use. From the earliest period of civilization the finger- ring on which some distinguishing badge was engraved was in use as a convenient way of carrying the signet, the earliest extant rings being those found in Egyptian tombs. Other ancient peoples, such as the Phoenicians, also used seals. From the East the custom passed into Greece and other western countries. Devices of a variety of sorts were in use at Rome, both by the emperors and by private individuals. In ancient times, almost every variety of precious stones was used for seals, as well as cheaper material, such as limestone or terra-cotta. In the West wax came early into use as the material for receiving the impression of the seal, but in the ancient East clay was the medium used (compare Job 38:14). Pigment and ink also came into use. 2. Seals among the Hebrews: That the Israelites were acquainted with the use in Egypt of signets set in rings is seen in the statement that Pharaoh delivered to Joseph his royal signet as a token of deputed authority (Gen 41:41 f). They were also acquainted with the use of seals among the Persians and Medes (Est 3:12; 8:8-10; Dan 6:17). The Hebrews themselves used them at an early period, the first recorded instance being Gen 38:18,25, where the patriarch Judah is said to have pledged his word to Tamar by leaving her his signet, cord and staff. We have evidence of engraved signets being in important use among them in early times in the description of the two stones on the high priest's ephod (Ex 28:11; 39:6), of his golden plate (Ex 28:36; 39:30), and breastplate (Ex 39:14). Ben- Sirach mentions as a distinct occupation the work of engraving on signets (Sirach 38:27). From the case of Judah and the common usage in other countries, we may infer that every Hebrew of any standing wore a seal. In the case of the signet ring, it was usual to wear it on one of the fingers of the right hand (Jer 22:24). The Hebrews do not seem to have developed an original type of signets. The seals so far discovered in Israel go to prove that the predominating type was the Egyptian, and to a less degree the Babylonian. 3. Uses of Sealing: (1) One of the most important uses of sealing in antiquity was to give a proof...

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Seal in Naves Topical Bible

1. A stamp used for signifying documents Given as a pledge Ge 38:18 Engraved Ex 28:11,21,36; 39:6,14,30; 2Ti 2:19 Decrees signified by 1Ki 21:8; Es 8:8 Documents sealed with Ahab's letter 1Ki 21:8 Covenants Ne 9:38; 10:1; Isa 8:16 Decrees Es 8:8; Da 6:9 Deeds Jer 32:10 Treasures secured by De 32:34 Lion's den secured by Da 6:17 The gravesite of Jesus Mt 27:66 Circumcision was regarded as a seal of righteousness Ro 4:11 -FIGURATIVE Of secrecy Da 12:9; Re 5:1 Of certainty of divine approval Joh 6:27; Ro 15:28; 2Co 1:22; Eph 1:13; 4:30; Re 7:3,4 -2. An amphibious animal Skins of, according to the Revised Version, were used as a covering of the tabernacle Ex 25:5; 26:14; 35:7,23; 36:19; 39:34; Nu 4:25

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Seal in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The importance attached to seals in the East is so great that without one no document is regarded as authentic. Among the methods of sealing used in Egypt at a very early period were engraved stones, graved stones, pierced through their length and hung by a string or chain from the arm or neck, or set in rings for the finger. The most ancient form used for this purpose was the scarabaeus, formed of precious or common stone, or even of blue pottery or porcelain, on the flat side of which the inscription or device was engraved. In many cases the seal consisted of a lump of clay, impressed with the seal and attached to the document, whether of papyrus or other material, by strings. In other cases wax was used. In sealing a sepulchre or box, the fastening was covered with clay or wax, and the impression from a seal of one in authority was stamped upon it, so that it could not be broken open without discovery. The signet- ring was an ordinary part of a man's equipment. Ge 38:18 The ring or the seal as an emblem of authority in Egypt, Persia and elsewhere is mentioned in Ge 41:42; 1Ki 21:8; Es 3:10,12; 8:2; Da 6:17 and as an evidence of a covenant, in Jer 32:10,44; Ne 9:38; 10:1; Hag 2:23 Engraved signets were in use among the Hebrews in early times. Ex 28:11,36; 39:6

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Seal in Easton's Bible Dictionary

commonly a ring engraved with some device (Gen. 38:18, 25). Jezebel "wrote letters in Ahab's name, and sealed them with his seal" (1 Kings 21:8). Seals are frequently mentioned in Jewish history (Deut. 32:34; Neh. 9:38; 10:1; Esther 3:12; Cant. 8:6; Isa. 8:16; Jer. 22:24; 32:44, etc.). Sealing a document was equivalent to the signature of the owner of the seal. "The use of a signet-ring by the monarch has recently received a remarkable illustration by the discovery of an impression of such a signet on fine clay at Koyunjik, the site of the ancient Nineveh. This seal appears to have been impressed from the bezel of a metallic finger-ring. It is an oval, 2 inches in length by 1 inch wide, and bears the image, name, and titles of the Egyptian king Sabaco" (Rawlinson's Hist. Illus. of the O.T., p. 46). The actual signet-rings of two Egyptian kings (Cheops and Horus) have been discovered. (See SIGNET -T0003426.) The use of seals is mentioned in the New Testament only in connection with the record of our Lord's burial (Matt. 27:66). The tomb was sealed by the Pharisees and chief priests for the purpose of making sure that the disciples would not come and steal the body away (ver. 63, 64). The mode of doing this was probably by stretching a cord across the stone and sealing it at both ends with sealing-clay. When God is said to have sealed the Redeemer, the meaning is, that he has attested his divine mission (John 6:27). Circumcision is a seal, an attestation of the covenant (Rom. 4:11). Believers are sealed with the Spirit, as God's mark put upon them (Eph. 1:13; 4:30). Converts are by Paul styled the seal of his apostleship, i.e., they are its attestation (1 Cor. 9:2). Seals and sealing are frequently mentioned in the book of Revelation (5:1; 6:1; 7:3; 10:4; 22:10).

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Seal in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Used to stamp a document, giving it legal validity. Judah probably wore his suspended from the neck over the breast (Genesis 38:18; Song of Solomon 8:6; Job 38:14). As the plastic clay presents various figures impressed on it by the revolving cylinder seal (one to three inches long, of terra cotta or precious stone, such as is found in Assyria), as "it is turned," so the morning light rolling on over the earth, previously void of form through the darkness, brings out to view hills, valleys, etc. Treasures were sealed up (Deuteronomy 32:34); the lions' den in Daniel's case (Daniel 6:17); so our Lord's tomb (Matthew 27:66). Sealing up was also to ensure secrecy (Daniel 12:4; Revelation 5:1). The signet ring was the symbol of royal authority (Genesis 12:41-42; Esther 3:10; Esther 8:10). Clay hardens in the heat, and was therefore used in Assyria and Babylon rather than wax, which melts. A stone cylinder in the Alnwick Museum bears the date of Osirtasin I, between 2,000 and 3,000 B.C. The Assyrian documents were often of baked clay, sealed while wet and burnt afterwards. Often the seal was a lump of clay impressed with a seal and tied the document. Such is the seal of Sabacho or So, king of Egypt (711 B.C.), found at Nimrud (2 Kings 17:4).

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Seals Scripture - Revelation 5:9

And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/5/

Seals Scripture - Revelation 5:5

And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not: behold, the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/5/

Seals Scripture - Revelation 5:2

And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, Who is worthy to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof?

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Seals Scripture - Revelation 5:1

And I saw in the right hand of him that sat on the throne a book written within and on the backside, sealed with seven seals.

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Seals Scripture - Revelation 6:1

And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come and see.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/6/

Sheaves Scripture - Nehemiah 13:15

In those days saw I in Judah [some] treading wine presses on the sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and lading asses; as also wine, grapes, and figs, and all [manner of] burdens, which they brought into Jerusalem on the sabbath day: and I testified [against them] in the day wherein they sold victuals.

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Sheaves Scripture - Amos 2:13

Behold, I am pressed under you, as a cart is pressed [that is] full of sheaves.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Amos/2/

Sheaves Scripture - Ruth 2:15

And when she was risen up to glean, Boaz commanded his young men, saying, Let her glean even among the sheaves, and reproach her not:

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Sheaves Scripture - Ruth 2:7

And she said, I pray you, let me glean and gather after the reapers among the sheaves: so she came, and hath continued even from the morning until now, that she tarried a little in the house.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ruth/2/

Sheaves Scripture - Psalms 126:6

He that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing precious seed, shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves [with him].

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Sheaves Scripture - Psalms 129:7

Wherewith the mower filleth not his hand; nor he that bindeth sheaves his bosom.

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Sheaves Scripture - Micah 4:12

But they know not the thoughts of the LORD, neither understand they his counsel: for he shall gather them as the sheaves into the floor.

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Sheaves Scripture - Genesis 37:7

For, behold, we [were] binding sheaves in the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and, behold, your sheaves stood round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/37/

Sheep in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

shep: 1. Names: The usual Hebrew word is tso'n, which is often translated "flock," e.g. "Abel .... brought of the firstlings of his flock" (Gen 4:4); "butter of the herd, and milk of the flock" (Dt 32:14). The King James Version and the English Revised Version have "milk of sheep." Compare Arabic da'n. The Greek word is probaton. For other names, see notes under CATTLE; EWE; LAMB; RAM. 2. Zoology: The origin of domestic sheep is unknown. There are 11 wild species, the majority of which are found in Asia, and it is conceivable that they may have spread from the highlands of Central Asia to the other portions of their habitat. In North America is found the "bighorn," which is very closely related to a Kamschatkan species. One species, the urial or sha, is found in India. The Barbary sheep, Ovis tragelaphus, also known as the aoudad or arui, inhabits the Atlas Mountains of Northwest Africa. It is thought by Tristram to be zemer, English Versions of the Bible "chamois" of Dt 14:5, but there is no good evidence that this animal ranges eastward into Bible lands. Geographically nearest is the Armenian wild sheep, Ovis gmelini, of Asia Minor and Persia. The Cyprian wild sheep may be only a variety of the last, and the mouflon of Corsica and Sardinia is an allied species. It is not easy to draw the line between wild sheep and wild goats. Among the more obvious distinctions are the chin beard and strong odor of male goats. The pelage of all wild sheep consists of hair, not wool, and this indeed is true of some domestic sheep as the fat-rumped short-tailed sheep of Abyssinia and Central Asia. The young lambs of this breed have short curly wool which is the astrachan of commerce. Sheep are geologically recent, their bones and teeth not being found in earlier deposits than the pleiocene or pleistocene. They were, however, among the first of domesticated animals. 3. Sheep of Israel: The sheep of Syria and Israel are characterized by the possession of an enormous fat tail which weighs many pounds and is known in Arabic as 'alyat, or commonly, liyat. This is the 'alyah, "fat tail" (the King James Version "rump") (Ex 29:22; Lev 3:9; 7:3; 8:25; 9:19), which was burned in sacrifice. This is at the present day esteemed a great delicacy. Sheep are kept in large numbers by the Bedouin, but a large portion of the supply of mutton for the cities is from the sheep of Armenia and Kurdistan, of which great droves are brought down to the coast in easy stages. Among the Moslems every well-to-do family sacrifices a sheep at the feast of al-'adcha', the 10th day of the month dhu-l- chijjat, 40 days after the end of ramadan, the month of fasting. In Lebanon every peasant family during the summer fattens a young ram, which is literally crammed by one of the women of the household, who keeps the creature's jaw moving with one hand while with the other she stuffs its mouth with vine or mulberry leaves. Every afternoon she washes it at the village fountain. When slaughtered in the fall it is called ma`luf, "fed," and is very fat and the flesh very tender. Some of the meat and fat are eaten at once, but the greater part, fat and lean, is cut up fine, cooked together in a large vessel with pepper and salt, and stored in an earthen jar. This, the so-called qauramat, is used as needed through the winter. In the mountains the sheep are gathered at night into folds, which may be caves or enclosures...

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Sheep in Naves Topical Bible

Offered in sacrifice By Abel Ge 4:4 By Noah Ge 8:20 By Abraham Ge 22:13 -See OFFERINGS -Required in the Mosaic offerings See OFFERINGS -The land of Bashan adapted to the raising of De 32:14 -Also Bozrah Mic 2:12 Kedar Eze 27:21 Nebaioth Isa 60:7 Sharon Isa 65:10 Jacob's management of Ge 30:32-40 -Milk of, used for food De 32:14 -Shearing of Ge 31:19; 38:12-17; Isa 53:7 -Feasting at the time of shearing 1Sa 25:11,36; 2Sa 13:23 -The first fleece of, belonged to the priests and the Levites De 18:4 -Tribute (taxes) paid in 2Ki 3:4; 1Ch 5:21; 2Ch 17:11 -FIGURATIVE 1Ch 21:17; Ps 74:1; Jer 13:20 Of backsliders Jer 50:6 Of lost sinners Mt 9:36; 10:6 Of the righteous Jer 50:17; Eze 34; Mt 26:31; Mr 14:27; Joh 10:1-16 Of the defenselessness of servants of God (Greek: diakonoi) Mt 10:16 Parable of the lost Mt 18:11-13; Lu 15:4-7

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Sheep in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Sheep were an important part of the possessions of the ancient Hebrews and of eastern nations generally. The first mention of sheep occurs in Ge 4:2 They were used in the sacrificial offering,as, both the adult animal, Ex 20:24 and the lamb. See Ex 29:28; Le 9:3; 12:6 Sheep and lambs formed an important article of food. 1Sa 25:18 The wool was used as clothing. Le 13:47 "Rams skins dyed red" were used as a covering for the tabernacle. Ex 25:5 Sheep and lambs were sometimes paid as tribute. 2Ki 3:4 It is very striking to notice the immense numbers of sheep that were reared in Israel in biblical times. (Chardin says he saw a clan of Turcoman shepherds whose flock consisted of 3,000,000 sheep and goats, besides 400,000 Feasts of carriage, as horses, asses and camels.) Sheep-sheering is alluded to Ge 31:19 Sheepdogs were employed in biblical times. Job 30:1 Shepherds in Israel and the East generally go before their flocks, which they induce to follow by calling to them, comp. Joh 10:4; Ps 77:20; 80:1 though they also drive them. Ge 33:13 The following quotation from Hartley's "Researches in Greece and the Levant," p. 321, is strikingly illustrative of the allusions in Joh 10:1-16 "Having had my attention directed last night to the words in Joh 10:3 I asked my man if it was usual in Greece to give names to the sheep. He informed me that it was, and that the sheep obeyed the shepherd when he called them by their names. This morning I had an opportunity of verifying the truth of this remark. Passing by a flock of sheep I asked the shepherd the same question which I had put to the servant, and he gave me the same answer. I then had him call one of his sheep. He did so, and it instantly left its pasturage and its companions and ran up to the hands of the shepherd with signs of pleasure and with a prompt obedience which I had never before observed in any other animal. It is also true in this country that a stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him. The shepherd told me that many of his sheep were still wild, that they had not yet learned their names, but that by teaching them they would all learn them." The common sheer, of Syria and Israel are the broad-tailed. As the sheep is an emblem of meekness, patience and submission, it is expressly mentioned as typifying these qualities in the person of our blessed Lord. Isa 53:7; Ac 8:32 etc. The relation that exists between Christ, "the chief Shepherd," and his members is beautifully compared to that which in the East is so strikingly exhibited by the shepherds to their flocks [SHEPHERD]

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Sheep in Easton's Bible Dictionary

are of different varieties. Probably the flocks of Abraham and Isaac were of the wild species found still in the mountain regions of Persia and Kurdistan. After the Exodus, and as a result of intercourse with surrounding nations, other species were no doubt introduced into the herds of the people of Israel. They are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The care of a shepherd over his flock is referred to as illustrating God's care over his people (Ps. 23:1, 2; 74:1; 77:20; Isa. 40:11; 53:6; John 10:1-5, 7-16). "The sheep of Israel are longer in the head than ours, and have tails from 5 inches broad at the narrowest part to 15 inches at the widest, the weight being in proportion, and ranging generally from 10 to 14 lbs., but sometimes extending to 30 lbs. The tails are indeed huge masses of fat" (Geikie's Holy Land, etc.). The tail was no doubt the "rump" so frequently referred to in the Levitical sacrifices (Ex. 29:22; Lev. 3:9; 7:3; 9:19). Sheep-shearing was generally an occasion of great festivity (Gen. 31:19; 38:12, 13; 1 Sam. 25:4-8, 36; 2 Sam. 13:23-28).

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Sheep in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Genesis 4:2. Abounded in the pastures of Israel. Shepherds go before them and call them by name to follow (John 10:4; Psalm 77:20; Psalm 80:1). The ordinary sheep are the broad tailed sheep, and the Ovis aries, like our own except that the tail is longer and thicker, and the ears larger; called bedoween. Centuries B.C. Aristotle mentions Syrian sheep with tails a cubit wide. The fat tail is referred to in Leviticus 3:9; Leviticus 7:3. The Syrian cooks use the mass of fat instead of the rancid Arab butter. The sheep symbolizes meekness, patience, gentleness, and submission (Isaiah 53:7; Acts 8:32). (See LAMB.) Tsown means sheep"; ayil, the full-grown "ram," used for the male of other ruminants also; rachel, the adult "ewe"; kebes (masculine), kibsah (feminine), the half grown lamb; seh, "sheep" or paschal "lamb"; char, "young ram"; taleh, "sucking lamb"; 'atod (Genesis 31 "ram") means "he-goat"; imrin, "lambs for sacrifice." The sheep never existed in a wild state, but was created expressly for man, and so was selected from the first for sacrifice. The image is frequent in Scripture: Jehovah the Shepherd, His people the flock (Psalm 23:1; Isaiah 40:11; Jeremiah 23:1-2; Ezekiel 34). Sinners are the straying sheep whom the Good Shepherd came to save (Psalm 119:176; Isaiah 53:6; Jeremiah 50:6; Luke 15:4-6; John 10:8; John 10:11). False teachers are thieves and wolves in sheep's clothing (Matthew 7:15). None can pluck His sheep from His hand and the Father's (John 10:27-29).

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Sheep Scripture - 1 Chronicles 5:21

And they took away their cattle; of their camels fifty thousand, and of sheep two hundred and fifty thousand, and of asses two thousand, and of men an hundred thousand.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/5/

Sheep Scripture - Genesis 29:10

And it came to pass, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother's brother, and the sheep of Laban his mother's brother, that Jacob went near, and rolled the stone from the well's mouth, and watered the flock of Laban his mother's brother.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/29/

Sheep Scripture - John 21:17

He saith unto him the third time, Simon, [son] of Jonas, lovest thou me? Peter was grieved because he said unto him the third time, Lovest thou me? And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee. Jesus saith unto him, Feed my sheep.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/John/21/

Sheep Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:26

And thou shalt bestow that money for whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatsoever thy soul desireth: and thou shalt eat there before the LORD thy God, and thou shalt rejoice, thou, and thine household,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/14/

Sheep Scripture - Deuteronomy 7:13

And he will love thee, and bless thee, and multiply thee: he will also bless the fruit of thy womb, and the fruit of thy land, thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil, the increase of thy kine, and the flocks of thy sheep, in the land which he sware unto thy fathers to give thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/7/

Sheep Scripture - Numbers 18:17

But the firstling of a cow, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not redeem; they [are] holy: thou shalt sprinkle their blood upon the altar, and shalt burn their fat [for] an offering made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Numbers/18/

Sheep Scripture - Deuteronomy 28:31

Thine ox [shall be] slain before thine eyes, and thou shalt not eat thereof: thine ass [shall be] violently taken away from before thy face, and shall not be restored to thee: thy sheep [shall be] given unto thine enemies, and thou shalt have none to rescue [them].

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/28/

Sheep Scripture - 1 Kings 8:63

And Solomon offered a sacrifice of peace offerings, which he offered unto the LORD, two and twenty thousand oxen, and an hundred and twenty thousand sheep. So the king and all the children of Israel dedicated the house of the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/8/

Sheep Scripture - Nehemiah 12:39

And from above the gate of Ephraim, and above the old gate, and above the fish gate, and the tower of Hananeel, and the tower of Meah, even unto the sheep gate: and they stood still in the prison gate.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Nehemiah/12/

Sheep Scripture - Deuteronomy 15:19

All the firstling males that come of thy herd and of thy flock thou shalt sanctify unto the LORD thy God: thou shalt do no work with the firstling of thy bullock, nor shear the firstling of thy sheep.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/15/

Shepherd in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

shep'-erd (ro`eh, ro`i; poimen, "a feeder"): The sheep owner frequently tends the flocks himself (Gen 4:4; 30:40; compare Ezek 34:12), but more often he delegates the work to his children (Gen 29:9; 1 Sam 16:19; 17:15) or relatives (Gen 31:6). In such cases the sheep have good care because the keepers have a personal interest in the well-being of the animals, but when they are attended by a hireling (1 Sam 17:20) the flocks may be neglected or abused (Isa 56:10,11; Ezek 34:8,10; Zec 11:15,17; Jn 10:12). The chief care of the shepherd is to see that the sheep find plenty to eat and drink. The flocks are not fed in pens or folds, but, summer and winter, must depend upon foraging for their sustenance (Ps 23:2). In the winter of 1910-11 an unprecedented storm ravaged Northern Syria. It was accompanied by a snowfall of more than 3 ft., which covered the ground for weeks. During that time, hundreds of thousands of sheep and goats perished, not so much from the cold as from the fact that they could get no food. Goats hunt out the best feeding- grounds, but sheep are more helpless and have to be led to their food (compare Nu 27:16,17); nor do they possess the instinct of many other animals for finding their way home (compare Ezek 34:6-8). Flocks should be watered at least once a day. Where there are springs or streams this is an easy matter. Frequently the nearest water is hours away. One needs to travel in the dry places in Syria or Israel, and then enter the watered valleys like those in Edom where the flocks are constantly being led for water, to appreciate the Psalmist's words, "He leadcth me beside still waters." Sometimes water can be obtained by digging shallow wells (Gen 26:18-22,25,32). The shepherd frequently carries with him a pail from which the sheep can drink when the water is not accessible to them. On the mountain tops the melting snows supply the needed water. In other districts it is drawn from deep wells (Gen 29:2; Jn 4:6). The usual time for watering is at noon, at which time the flocks are led to the watering-places (Gen 29:2,3). After drinking, the animals lie down or huddle together in the shade of a rock while the shepherd sleeps. At the first sound of his call, which is usually a peculiar guttural sound, hard to imitate, the flock follow off to new feeding-grounds. Even should two shepherds call their flocks at the same time and the sheep be intermingled, they never mistake their own master's voice (Jn 10:3-5). The shepherd's equipment is a simple one. His chief garment is a cloak woven from wool or made from sheepskins. This is sleeveless, and so made that it hangs like a cloak on his shoulders. When he sleeps he curls up under it, head and all. During the summer a lighter, short-sleeved `aba or coat is worn. He carries a staff or club (see STAFF), and a characteristic attitude is to make a rest for his arms by placing his staff on his shoulders against the back of his neck. When an especially productive spot is found, the shepherd may pass the time, while the animals are grazing, by playing on his pipe (Jdg 5:16). He sometimes carries a sling (qela`) of goat's hair (1 Sam 17:40). His chief belongings are kept in a skin pouch or bag (keli) (1 Sam 17:40). This bag is usually a whole tawed skin turned wrong side out, with the legs tied up and the neck forming the opening. He is usually aided in the keeping and the defending of the sheep by a dog (Job 30:1). In Syria the Kurdish dogs make the best protectors of the sheep, as, unlike the cowardly city dogs, they are fearless and will drive away the wild beasts. The shepherd is often called upon to aid the dogs in defending the sheep (Gen 31:39; 1 Sam 17:34,35; Isa 31:4; Jer 5:6; Am 3:12). Figurative: The frequent use of the word "shepherd" to indicate a spiritual overseer is familiar to Bible readers (Ps 23:1; 80:1; Eccl 12:11; Isa 40:4; 63:14; Jer 31:10; Ezek 34:23; 37:24; Jn 21:15-17; Eph 4:11; 1 Pet 5:1-4). We still use the term "pastor," literally, "a shepherd." Leaders in temporal affairs were also called shepherds (Gen 47:17 margin; Isa 44:28; 63:11). "Sheep without a shepherd" typified individuals or nations who had forgotten Yahweh (Nu 27:17; 1 Ki 22:17; 2 Ch 18:16; Ezek 34:5,8; Zec 10:2; Mt 9:36; Mk 6:34). Jesus is spoken of as the good shepherd (Jn 10:14); chief shepherd (1 Pet 5:4); great shepherd (Heb 13:20); the one shepherd (Jn 10:16). "He will feed his flock like a shepherd, he will gather the lambs in his arm, and carry them in his bosom, and will gently lead those that have their young" (Isa 40:11) is a picture drawn from pastoral life of Yahweh's care over His children. A strong sympathy for helpless animals, though sometimes misdirected, is a marked characteristic of the people of Bible lands. The birth of offspring in a flock often occurs far off on the mountain side. The shepherd solicitously guards the mother during her helpless moments and picks up the lamb and carries it to the fold. For the few days, until it is able to walk, he may carry it in his arms or in the loose folds of his coat above his girdle.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SHEPHERD/

Shepherd in Naves Topical Bible

One who cares for flocks of sheep Ge 31:38-40; Ps 78:52,53; Jer 31:10; Am 3:12; Lu 2:8 -David the, defends his flock against a lion and a bear 1Sa 17:34,35 -Causes the flock to rest Ps 23:2; So 1:7; Jer 33:12 -Counts the flock Le 27:32; Jer 33:13 -Knows each one of his flock by name Joh 10:3-5 -Keeps the sheep and goats apart Mt 25:32 -Waters the flocks Ge 29:2-10 -Keeps the flocks in folds Nu 32:16; 1Sa 24:3; 2Sa 7:8; Joh 10:1 -Watch towers of 2Ch 26:10; Mic 4:8 -Dogs of Job 30:1 -Was an abomination to the Egyptians Ge 46:34 -Angels appeared to Lu 2:8-20 -INSTANCES OF Abel Ge 4:2 Rachel Ge 29:9 The daughters of Jethro Ex 2:16 Moses Ex 3:1 David 1Sa 16:11; 2Sa 7:8; Ps 78:70 -FIGURATIVE Ge 49:24 Of God's care Ps 23; 78:52; 80:1 Of prophets, priests, Levites, and civil authorities Eze 34 Of Christ Zec 13:7; Mt 26:31; Joh 10:1-16; Heb 13:20; 1Pe 2:25 A name given to Jesus Isa 40:11; Mr 14:27; Joh 10:11; 1Pe 2:25; 5:4 A name given to Cyrus Isa 44:28

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/S/SHEPHERD/

Shepherd in Smiths Bible Dictionary

In a nomadic state of society every man, from the sheikh down to the slave, is more or less a shepherd. The progenitors of the Jews in the patriarchal age were nomads, and their history is rich in scenes of pastoral life. The occupation of tending the flocks was undertaken,not only by the sons of wealthy chiefs, Ge 30:29 ff.; Gene 37:12 ff., but even by their daughters. Ge 29:6,8; Ex 2:10 The Egyptian captivity did march to implant a love of settled abode, and consequently we find the tribes which still retained a taste for shepherd life selecting their own quarters apart from their brethren in the transjordanic district. Nu 32:1 ff. Thenceforward in Israel proper the shepherd held a subordinate position. The office of the eastern shepherd, as described in the Bible, was attended with much hardship, and even danger. He was exposed to the extremes of heat and cold, Ge 31:40 his food frequently consisted of the precarious supplies afforded by nature, such as the fruit of the "sycamore" or Egyptian fig, Am 7:14 the "husks" of the carob tree, Lu 15:16 and perchance the locusts and wild honey which supported the Baptist, Mt 3:4 he had to encounter the attacks of wild beasts, occasionally of the larger species, such as lions, nerves, panthers and bears, 1Sa 17:34; Isa 31:4 Jer 5:6 Am 5:12 nor was he free from the risk of robbers or predators hordes. Ge 31:39 To meet these various foes the shepherd's equipment consisted of the following articles: a mantle, made probably of sheep skin with the fleece on, which he turned inside out in cold weather, as implied in the comparison in Jer 43:12 (cf. Juv. xiv. 187.); a scrip or wallet, containing a small amount of food 1Sa 17:40 a sling, which is still the favorite weapon of the Bedouin shepherd, 1Sa 17:40 and lastly, a which served the double purpose of a weapon against foes and a crook for the management of the flock. 1Sa 17:40; Ps 23:4; Zec 11:7 If the shepherd was at a distance from his home, he was provided with a light tent, So 1:8; Jer 35:7 the removal of which was easily effected. Isa 38:12 In certain localities, moreover, towers were erected for the double purpose of spying an enemy at a distance and of protecting the flock; such towers were erected by Uzziah and Jotham, 2Ch 26:10; 27:4 while their existence in earlier times is testified by the name Migdal-edar Ge 35:21 Authorized Version "a tower of Edar;" Mic 4:8 Authorized Version "tower of the flock." The routine of the shepherd's duties appears to have been as follows: In the morning he led forth his flock from the fold Joh 10:4 which he did by going before them and calling to them, as is still usual in the East; arrived at the pasturage he watched the flock with the assistance of dogs, Job 30:1 and should any sheep stray, he had to search for it until he found it, Eze 34:12; Lu 15:4 he supplied them with water, either at a running stream or at troughs attached to wells, Ge 29:7; 30:38; Ex 2:16; Ps 23:2 at evening he brought them back to the fold, and reckoned them to see that none were missing, by passing them "under the rod" as they entered the door of the enclosure Le 27:32; Eze 20:37 checking each sheep, as it passed, by a motion of the hand, Jer 33:13 and, finally, he watched the entrance of the fold throughout the night, acting as porter. Joh 10:3 [See Sheepfold, under SHEEP] The shepherd's office thus required great watchfulness, particularly by night. Lu 2:8 cf. Nahu 3:18 It also required tenderness toward the young and feeble, Isa 40:11 particularly in driving them to and from the pasturage. Ge 33:13 In large establishments there are various grades of shepherds, the highest being styled "rulers," Ge 47:6 or "chief shepherds," 1Pe 5:4 in a royal household the title of abbir "mighty," was bestowed on the person who held the post. 1Sa 21:7 [SHEEP]

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/S/Shepherd/

Shepherd in Easton's Bible Dictionary

a word naturally of frequent occurence in Scripture. Sometimes the word "pastor" is used instead (Jer. 2:8; 3:15; 10:21; 12:10; 17:16). This word is used figuratively to represent the relation of rulers to their subjects and of God to his people (Ps. 23:1; 80:1; Isa. 40:11; 44:28; Jer. 25:34, 35; Nahum 3:18; John 10:11, 14; Heb. 13:20; 1 Pet. 2:25; 5:4). The duties of a shepherd in an unenclosed country like Israel were very onerous. "In early morning he led forth the flock from the fold, marching at its head to the spot where they were to be pastured. Here he watched them all day, taking care that none of the sheep strayed, and if any for a time eluded his watch and wandered away from the rest, seeking diligently till he found and brought it back. In those lands sheep require to be supplied regularly with water, and the shepherd for this purpose has to guide them either to some running stream or to wells dug in the wilderness and furnished with troughs. At night he brought the flock home to the fold, counting them as they passed under the rod at the door to assure himself that none were missing. Nor did his labours always end with sunset. Often he had to guard the fold through the dark hours from the attack of wild beasts, or the wily attempts of the prowling thief (see 1 Sam. 17:34).", Deane's David.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/S/Shepherd/

Horn Scripture - Micah 4:13

Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion: for I will make thine horn iron, and I will make thy hoofs brass: and thou shalt beat in pieces many people: and I will consecrate their gain unto the LORD, and their substance unto the Lord of the whole earth.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Micah/4/

Horn Scripture - Exodus 21:29

But if the ox were wont to push with his horn in time past, and it hath been testified to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, but that he hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be stoned, and his owner also shall be put to death.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/21/

Horn Scripture - Joshua 6:5

And it shall come to pass, that when they make a long [blast] with the ram's horn, [and] when ye hear the sound of the trumpet, all the people shall shout with a great shout; and the wall of the city shall fall down flat, and the people shall ascend up every man straight before him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Joshua/6/

Horn Scripture - Psalms 148:14

He also exalteth the horn of his people, the praise of all his saints; [even] of the children of Israel, a people near unto him. Praise ye the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/148/

Horn Scripture - 1 Samuel 2:1

And Hannah prayed, and said, My heart rejoiceth in the LORD, mine horn is exalted in the LORD: my mouth is enlarged over mine enemies; because I rejoice in thy salvation.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Samuel/2/

Horn Scripture - Zechariah 1:21

Then said I, What come these to do? And he spake, saying, These [are] the horns which have scattered Judah, so that no man did lift up his head: but these are come to fray them, to cast out the horns of the Gentiles, which lifted up [their] horn over the land of Judah to scatter it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Zechariah/1/

Horn Scripture - 1 Chronicles 25:5

All these [were] the sons of Heman the king's seer in the words of God, to lift up the horn. And God gave to Heman fourteen sons and three daughters.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/25/

Horn Scripture - 1 Samuel 16:1

And the LORD said unto Samuel, How long wilt thou mourn for Saul, seeing I have rejected him from reigning over Israel? fill thine horn with oil, and go, I will send thee to Jesse the Bethlehemite: for I have provided me a king among his sons.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Samuel/16/

Horn Scripture - 1 Samuel 2:10

The adversaries of the LORD shall be broken to pieces; out of heaven shall he thunder upon them: the LORD shall judge the ends of the earth; and he shall give strength unto his king, and exalt the horn of his anointed.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Samuel/2/

Religion in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

re-lij'-un: "Religion" and "religious" in Elizabethan English were used frequently to denote the outward expression of worship. This is the force of threskeia, translated "religion" in Acts 26:5; Jas 1:26,27 (with adjective threskos, "religious"), while the same noun in Col 2:18 is rendered "worshipping" ("cult" would give the exact meaning). And in the same external sense "religion" is used by the King James Version for latreia, "worship" (so the Revised Version (British and American)), in I Macc 1:43; 2:19,22. Otherwise "Jews' religion" (or "religion of the Jews") appears in 2 Macc 8:1; 14:38 (the Revised Version (British and American) bis); Gal 1:13,14 (Ioudaismos, "Judaism"); and "an alien religion" in 2 Macc 6:24 (allophulismos, "that belonging to another tribe"). The neglect of the external force of "religion" has led to much reckless misquoting of Jas 1:26,27. Compare Acts 17:22.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/R/RELIGION/

Religion in Naves Topical Bible

FALSE De 32:31-33 See IDOLATRY See INTOLERANCE See TEACHERS, FALSE -FAMILY See FAMILY -NATIONAL Supported by taxes Ex 30:11-16; 38:26 Priests supported by the State 1Ki 18:19; 2Ch 11:13-15 Subverted by Jeroboam 1Ki 12:26-33; 2Ch 11:13-15 Established by Jeroboam 1Ki 12:26-33 -NATURAL Job 12:7-16; 35:10-12; 37:1-24; Ps 8:1-9; 19:1-6; Ac 14:17; 17:23-28; Ro 1:18-20; 10:16-18 See REVIVALS -TRUE Mt 5:1-48; 6:1-34; 7:1-29; 22:36-40; Ac 10:34,35; Ro 8:1-18; 10:1-13; 12:1-21; 1Co 13:1-13; Ga 5:22-25; 1Th 5:15-23; Jas 1:27; 2:8-26; 2Pe 1:5-9; Jude 1:20,21 See BLESSINGS, SPIRITUAL See COMMANDMENTS See DUTY See GRACES See REGENERATION See REPENTANCE See SANCTIFICATION See SIN, FORGIVENESS OF -INSTANCES OF OUTSTANDING RELIGIOUS PERSONS Abel Ge 4:4-8; Heb 11:4 Noah Ge 6; 7; 8; 9 Abraham Ge 12:1-8; 15; 17; 18:22-33 Jacob Ge 28:10-22; 32:24-32 Moses Ex 3:2-22; De 32; 33 Jethro Ex 18:12 Joshua Jos 1 Gideon Jud 6; 7 Samuel 1Sa 3 David See PSALMS OF DAVID Solomon 1Ki 5:3-5; 2Ch 6 Jehu 2Ki 10:16-30 Hezekiah 2Ki 18:3-7; 19:14-19 Jehoshaphat 2Ch 17:3-9; 19; 20 Jabez 1Ch 4:9,10 Asa 2Ch 14; 15 Josiah 2Ki 22; 23 Daniel Da 6:4-22 The three Hebrews (Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego) Da 3 Zacharias Lu 1:13,67-79 Simeon Lu 2:25-35 Anna, the prophetess Lu 2:36,37 The Roman centurion Lu 7:1-10 Cornelius, another centurion Ac 10 Eunice and Lois 2Ti 1:5

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/R/RELIGION/

Religion in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

RELIGIOUS. James 1:26-27, threeskos, threeskeia; distinct from eulabees ("reverent"; from the Old Testament standpoint; "cautious fear toward God"), "devout" (Luke 2:25); theosebees, "godly"; eusebees, "pious." "If any man seem a diligent observer of the offices of religion (threeskos) ... pure and undefiled religion (not the sum total or inner essentials of religion, but its outer manifestations) is to visit the fatherless," etc. The Old Testament cult or "religious service" (threeskeia) was ceremony and ritual; the New Testament religious service consists in acts of mercy, love, and holiness. "Religion" refers to the external service, "godliness" being the soul. James as president of the Jerusalem council (Acts 15:13-21) had decided against ritualism; so he teaches, instead of Judaic ceremonialism, true religious service is (1) active, (2) passive (Micah 6:7- 8; Matthew 23:23); compare Acts 26:5, "our religion"; Colossians 2:18, "worshipping," threeskeia.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/R/Religion/

Robe in Naves Topical Bible

Of righteousness 2Ch 6:41; Isa 61:10; Re 6:11; 7:9,13 -The parable of the man who was not dressed in a wedding garment Mt 22:11

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/R/ROBE/

Robes Scripture - 2 Chronicles 18:29

And the king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat, I will disguise myself, and will go to the battle; but put thou on thy robes. So the king of Israel disguised himself; and they went to the battle.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/18/

Robes Scripture - 1 Kings 22:30

And the king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat, I will disguise myself, and enter into the battle; but put thou on thy robes. And the king of Israel disguised himself, and went into the battle.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/22/

Robes Scripture - 2 Chronicles 18:9

And the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat king of Judah sat either of them on his throne, clothed in [their] robes, and they sat in a void place at the entering in of the gate of Samaria; and all the prophets prophesied before them.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/18/

Robes Scripture - 1 Kings 22:10

And the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah sat each on his throne, having put on their robes, in a void place in the entrance of the gate of Samaria; and all the prophets prophesied before them.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/22/

Robes Scripture - Revelation 7:9

After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/7/

Robes Scripture - Luke 20:46

Beware of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief rooms at feasts;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/20/

Robes Scripture - 2 Samuel 13:18

And [she had] a garment of divers colours upon her: for with such robes were the king's daughters [that were] virgins apparelled. Then his servant brought her out, and bolted the door after her.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/13/

Robes Scripture - Ezekiel 26:16

Then all the princes of the sea shall come down from their thrones, and lay away their robes, and put off their broidered garments: they shall clothe themselves with trembling; they shall sit upon the ground, and shall tremble at [every] moment, and be astonished at thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/26/

Robes Scripture - Revelation 7:14

And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/7/

Robes Scripture - Revelation 6:11

And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellowservants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they [were], should be fulfilled.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/6/

Roof Scripture - Nehemiah 8:16

So the people went forth, and brought [them], and made themselves booths, every one upon the roof of his house, and in their courts, and in the courts of the house of God, and in the street of the water gate, and in the street of the gate of Ephraim.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Nehemiah/8/

Roof Scripture - Deuteronomy 22:8

When thou buildest a new house, then thou shalt make a battlement for thy roof, that thou bring not blood upon thine house, if any man fall from thence.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/22/

Roof Scripture - Judges 16:27

Now the house was full of men and women; and all the lords of the Philistines [were] there; and [there were] upon the roof about three thousand men and women, that beheld while Samson made sport.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Judges/16/

Roof Scripture - Ezekiel 3:26

And I will make thy tongue cleave to the roof of thy mouth, that thou shalt be dumb, and shalt not be to them a reprover: for they [are] a rebellious house.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/3/

Roof Scripture - Luke 7:6

Then Jesus went with them. And when he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying unto him, Lord, trouble not thyself: for I am not worthy that thou shouldest enter under my roof:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/7/

Roof Scripture - 2 Samuel 18:24

And David sat between the two gates: and the watchman went up to the roof over the gate unto the wall, and lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold a man running alone.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/18/

Roof Scripture - Lamentations 4:4

The tongue of the sucking child cleaveth to the roof of his mouth for thirst: the young children ask bread, [and] no man breaketh [it] unto them.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Lamentations/4/

Roof Scripture - Matthew 8:8

The centurion answered and said, Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest come under my roof: but speak the word only, and my servant shall be healed.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/8/

Roof Scripture - Song of Solomon 7:9

And the roof of thy mouth like the best wine for my beloved, that goeth [down] sweetly, causing the lips of those that are asleep to speak.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Song+of+Solomon/7/

Roof Scripture - Psalms 137:6

If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth; if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief joy.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/137/

Ashes in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

ash'-iz: Among the ancient Hebrews #and other Orientals, to sprinkle with or sit in ashes was a mark or token of grief, humiliation, or penitence. Ashes on the head was one of the ordinary signs of mourning for the dead, as when "Tamar put ashes on her head .... and went on crying" (2 Sam 13:19 the King James Version), and of national humiliation, as when the children of Israel were assembled under Nehemiah "with fasting, and with sackcloth, and earth (ashes) upon them" (Neh 9:1), and when the people of Nineveh repented in sackcloth and ashes at the preaching of Jonah (Jon 3:5,6; compare 1 Macc 3:47). The afflicted or penitent often sat in ashes (compare Job 2:8; 42:6: "I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes"), or even wallowed in ashes, as Jeremiah exhorted sinning Israel to do: "O daughter of my people .... wallow thyself in ashes" (Jer 6:26), or as Ezekiel in his lamentation for Tyre pictures her mariners as doing, crying bitterly and `casting up dust upon their heads' and `wallowing themselves in the ashes' (in their weeping for her whose head was lifted up and become corrupted because of her beauty), "in bitterness of soul with bitter mourning" (Ezek 27:30,31). However, these and various other modes of expressing grief, repentance, and humiliation among the Hebrews, such as rending the garments, tearing the hair and the like, were not of Divine appointment, but were simply the natural outbursts of the impassioned oriental temperament, and are still customary among eastern peoples. Figurative: The term "ashes" is often used to signify worthlessness, insignificance or evanescence (Gen 18:27; Job 30:19). "Proverbs of ashes," for instance, in Job 13:12, is Job's equivalent, says one writer, for our modern "rot." For the ritual use of the ashes of the Red Heifer by the priests, see RED HEIFER.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/A/ASHES/

Ashes in Naves Topical Bible

Uses of, in purification Nu 19:9,10,17; Heb 9:13 -A symbol of mourning 2Sa 13:19; Es 4:1,3 -Sitting in Job 2:8 -Repenting in Job 42:6; Da 9:3; Jon 3:6; Mt 11:21; Lu 10:13 -Disguises in 1Ki 20:38,41

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/A/ASHES/

Ashes in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The ashes on the altar of burnt offering were gathered into a cavity in its surface. The ashes of a red heifer burnt entire, according to regulations prescribed in Numb. 19, had the ceremonial efficacy of purifying the unclean, Heb 9:13 but of polluting the clean. [SACRIFICE] Ashes about the person, especially on the head, were used as a sign of sorrow. [MOURNING]

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/A/Ashes/

Ashes in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The ashes of a red heifer burned entire (Num. 19:5) when sprinkled on the unclean made them ceremonially clean (Heb. 9:13). To cover the head with ashes was a token of self- abhorrence and humiliation (2 Sam. 13:19; Esther 4:3; Jer. 6:26, etc.). To feed on ashes (Isa. 44:20), means to seek that which will prove to be vain and unsatisfactory, and hence it denotes the unsatisfactory nature of idol-worship. (Comp. Hos. 12:1).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/A/Ashes/

Ashes in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Sitting down in, or covering one's self with, is the symbol of mourning (Job 2:8; Job 42:6; Esther 4:1; Isaiah 61:3; Matthew 11:21). To eat asides expresses figuratively mourning is one's food, i.e. one's perpetual portion (Psalm 102:9). "He feedeth on ashes," i.e., tries to feed his soul with what is at once humiliating and unsatisfying, on an idol which ought to have been reduced to ashes, like the rest of the tree of which it is made (Isaiah 44:20). The ashes of a red heifer burnt entire (Numbers 19), when sprinkled upon, purified ceremonially the unclean (Hebrews 9:13) but defiled the clean person.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/A/Ashes/

Ashes Scripture - Ezekiel 28:18

Thou hast defiled thy sanctuaries by the multitude of thine iniquities, by the iniquity of thy traffick; therefore will I bring forth a fire from the midst of thee, it shall devour thee, and I will bring thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/28/

Ashes Scripture - Exodus 27:3

And thou shalt make his pans to receive his ashes, and his shovels, and his basons, and his fleshhooks, and his firepans: all the vessels thereof thou shalt make [of] brass.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/27/

Ashes Scripture - 2 Kings 23:4

And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, and the priests of the second order, and the keepers of the door, to bring forth out of the temple of the LORD all the vessels that were made for Baal, and for the grove, and for all the host of heaven: and he burned them without Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and carried the ashes of them unto Bethel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/23/

Ashes Scripture - Leviticus 6:10

And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh, and take up the ashes which the fire hath consumed with the burnt offering on the altar, and he shall put them beside the altar.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/6/

Ashes Scripture - Job 13:12

Your remembrances [are] like unto ashes, your bodies to bodies of clay.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job/13/

Ashes Scripture - Isaiah 58:5

Is it such a fast that I have chosen? a day for a man to afflict his soul? [is it] to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes [under him]? wilt thou call this a fast, and an acceptable day to the LORD?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/58/

Ashes Scripture - Jeremiah 6:26

O daughter of my people, gird [thee] with sackcloth, and wallow thyself in ashes: make thee mourning, [as for] an only son, most bitter lamentation: for the spoiler shall suddenly come upon us.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/6/

Ashes Scripture - Numbers 19:9

And a man [that is] clean shall gather up the ashes of the heifer, and lay [them] up without the camp in a clean place, and it shall be kept for the congregation of the children of Israel for a water of separation: it [is] a purification for sin.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Numbers/19/

Ashes Scripture - Luke 10:13

Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon, which have been done in you, they had a great while ago repented, sitting in sackcloth and ashes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/10/

Ashes Scripture - Esther 4:1

When Mordecai perceived all that was done, Mordecai rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth with ashes, and went out into the midst of the city, and cried with a loud and a bitter cry;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Esther/4/

Sackcloth in Naves Topical Bible

A symbol of mourning 1Ki 20:31,32; Job 16:15; Isa 15:3; Jer 4:8; 6:26; 49:3; La 2:10; Eze 7:18; Da 9:3; Joe 1:8 -Worn by Jacob when it was reported to him that Joseph had been devoured by wild animals Ge 37:34 -Animals covered with, at a time of national mourning Jon 3:8

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/S/SACKCLOTH/

Sackcloth in Smiths Bible Dictionary

cloth used in making sacks or bags, a coarse fabric, of a dark color, made of goat's hair, Isa 50:3; Re 6:12 end resembling the eilicium of the Romans. It, was used also for making the rough garments used by mourners, which were in extreme cases worn next the skin. 1Ki 21:27; 2Ki 6:30; Job 16:15; Isa 32:11

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/S/Sackcloth/

Sackcloth in Easton's Bible Dictionary

cloth made of black goats' hair, coarse, rough, and thick, used for sacks, and also worn by mourners (Gen. 37:34; 42:25; 2 Sam. 3:31; Esther 4:1, 2; Ps. 30:11, etc.), and as a sign of repentance (Matt. 11:21). It was put upon animals by the people of Nineveh (Jonah 3:8).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/S/Sackcloth/

Sackcloth in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Of coarse, dark goat's hair. Used for sacks, also for close fitting raiment in mourning; secured by a girdle (Genesis 42:25; 1 Kings 21:27; 2 Samuel 3:31).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/S/Sackcloth/

Sackcloth Scripture - Esther 4:2

And came even before the king's gate: for none [might] enter into the king's gate clothed with sackcloth.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Esther/4/

Sackcloth Scripture - 1 Kings 20:31

And his servants said unto him, Behold now, we have heard that the kings of the house of Israel [are] merciful kings: let us, I pray thee, put sackcloth on our loins, and ropes upon our heads, and go out to the king of Israel: peradventure he will save thy life.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/20/

Sackcloth Scripture - 1 Chronicles 21:16

And David lifted up his eyes, and saw the angel of the LORD stand between the earth and the heaven, having a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem. Then David and the elders [of Israel, who were] clothed in sackcloth, fell upon their faces.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/21/

Sackcloth Scripture - Psalms 30:11

Thou hast turned for me my mourning into dancing: thou hast put off my sackcloth, and girded me with gladness;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/30/

Sackcloth Scripture - Lamentations 2:10

The elders of the daughter of Zion sit upon the ground, [and] keep silence: they have cast up dust upon their heads; they have girded themselves with sackcloth: the virgins of Jerusalem hang down their heads to the ground.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Lamentations/2/

Sackcloth Scripture - Joel 1:13

Gird yourselves, and lament, ye priests: howl, ye ministers of the altar: come, lie all night in sackcloth, ye ministers of my God: for the meat offering and the drink offering is withholden from the house of your God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Joel/1/

Sackcloth Scripture - Isaiah 58:5

Is it such a fast that I have chosen? a day for a man to afflict his soul? [is it] to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes [under him]? wilt thou call this a fast, and an acceptable day to the LORD?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/58/

Sackcloth Scripture - Jeremiah 6:26

O daughter of my people, gird [thee] with sackcloth, and wallow thyself in ashes: make thee mourning, [as for] an only son, most bitter lamentation: for the spoiler shall suddenly come upon us.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/6/

Sackcloth Scripture - Amos 8:10

And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation; and I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness upon every head; and I will make it as the mourning of an only [son], and the end thereof as a bitter day.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Amos/8/

Sackcloth Scripture - Luke 10:13

Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon, which have been done in you, they had a great while ago repented, sitting in sackcloth and ashes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/10/

Human Sacrifice in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

hu'-man: As an expression of religious devotion, human sacrifice has been widespread at certain stages of the race's development. The tribes of Western Asia were deeply affected by the practice, probably prior to the settlement of the Hebrews in Israel, and it continued at least down to the 5th century BC. At times of great calamity, anxiety and danger, parents sacrificed their children as the greatest and most costly offering which they could make to propitiate the anger of the gods and thus secure their favor and help. There is no intimation in the Bible that enemies or captives were sacrificed; only the offering of children by their parents is mentioned. The belief that this offering possessed supreme value is seen in Mic 6:6 f, where the sacrifice of the firstborn is the climax of a series of offerings which, in a rising scale of values, are suggested as a means of propitiating the angry Yahweh. A striking example of the rite as actually practiced is seen in 2 Ki 3:27, where Mesha the king of Moab (made famous by the Moabite Stone), under the stress of a terrible siege, offered his eldest son, the heir-apparent to the throne, as a burnt offering upon the wall of Kir-hareseth. As a matter of fact this horrid act seems to have had the effect of driving off the allies. Human sacrifice was ordinarily resorted to, no doubt, only in times of great distress, but it seems to have been practiced among the old Canaanitish tribes with some frequency (Dt 12:31). The Israelites are said to have borrowed it from their Canaanite neighbors (2 Ki 16:3; 2 Ch 28:3), and as a matter of fact human sacrifices were never offered to Yahweh, but only to various gods of the land. The god who was most frequently worshipped in this way was Moloch or Molech, the god of the Ammonites (2 Ki 23:10; Lev 18:21; 20:2), but from Jeremiah we learn that the Phoenician god Baal was, at least in the later period of the history, also associated with Molech in receiving this worship (Jer 19:5; 31:35). As in the case of the Canaanites, the only specific cases of human sacrifice mentioned among the Israelites are those of the royal princes, sons of Ahaz and Manasseh, the two kings of Judah who were most deeply affected by the surrounding heathen practices and who, at the same time, fell into great national distress (2 Ki 16:3; 2 Ch 28:3; 2 Ki 21:6; 2 Ch 33:6). But it is clear from many general statements that the custom was widespread among the masses of the people as well. It is forbidden in the Mosaic legislation (Lev 18:21; 20:2-5; Dt 18:10); it is said in 2 Ki 17:17 that the sacrifice of sons and daughters was one of the causes of the captivity of the ten tribes. Jeremiah charges the people of the Southern Kingdom with doing the same thing (Jer 7:31; 19:5; 31:35); with these general statements agree Isa 57:5; Ezek 16:2 f; 20:31; 23:37; Ps 106:37 f. A study of these passages makes it certain that in the period immediately before the captivity of Judah, human sacrifice was by no means confined to the royal family, but was rather common among the people. Daughters as well as sons were sacrificed. It is mentioned only once in connection with the Northern Kingdom, and then only in the summary of the causes of their captivity (2 Ki 17:17), but the Southern Kingdom in its later years was evidently deeply affected. There were various places where the bloody rite was celebrated (Jer 19:5), but the special high place, apparently built for the purpose, was in the Valley of Tophet or Hinnom (ge-hinnom, Gehenna) near Jerusalem (2 Ch 28:3; 33:6). This great high place, built for the special purpose of human sacrifice (Jer 7:31; 32:35), was defiled by the good king Josiah in the hope of eradicating the cruel practice (2 Ki 23:10). The Biblical writers without exception look upon the practice with horror as the supreme point of national and religious apostasy, and a chief cause of national disaster. They usually term the rite "passing through fire," probably being unwilling to use the sacred term "sacrifice" in reference to such a revolting custom. There is no evidence of a continuance of the practice in captivity nor after the return. It is said, however, that the heathen Sepharvites, settled by the Assyrian kings in the depopulated territory of the Northern Kingdom, "burnt their children in the fire to Adrammelech and Anammelech, the gods of Sepharvaim" (2 Ki 17:31). The practice is not heard of again, and probably rapidly died out. The restored Israelites were not affected by it. Compare SACRIFICE (Old Testament), VI, 10.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SACRIFICE,+HUMAN/

Sacrifice in the New Testament 1 in the Bible Encyclopedia -

IN THE NEW TESTAMENT I. TERMS OF SACRIFICE EPITOMIZED II. ATTITUDE OF JESUS AND NEW TESTAMENT WRITERS TO THE OLD TESTAMENT SACRIFICIAL SYSTEM 1. Jesus' Attitude 2. Paul's Attitude 3. Attitude of the Author of Hebrews III. THE SACRIFICIAL IDEA IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 1. Teaching of John the Baptist 2. Teaching of Jesus 3. Teaching of Peter 4. Paul's Teaching 5. Teaching of Hebrews 6. Johannine Teaching IV. RELATION OF CHRIST'S SACRIFICE TO MAN'S SALVATION 1. Redemption or Deliverance from Curse of Sin 2. Reconciliation 3. Remission of Sins 4. The Cancellation of Guilt 5. Justification or Right Standing with God 6. Cleansing or Sanctification 7. Sonship V. HOW CHRIST'S SACRIFICE PROCURES SALVATION 1. Jesus' Teaching 2. Paul's Teaching 3. Teaching of Hebrews 4. Petrine and Johannine Teaching VI. RATIONALE OF THE EFFICACY OF CHRIST'S SACRIFICE 1. Jesus' Teaching 2. Paul's Teaching 3. The Teaching in Hebrews VII. THE HUMAN CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION 1. Universal in Objective Potentiality 2. Efficacious When Subjectively Applied VIII. THE CHRISTIAN'S LIFE THE LIFE OF SACRIFICE 1. Consequence of Christ's Sacrifice 2. Christ's Death the Appeal for Christian's Sacrifice 3. Necessary to Fill Out Christ's Sacrifice 4. Content of the Christian's Sacrifice 5. The Supper as a Sacrifice LITERATURE I. Terms of Sacrifice Epitomized. The word "offering" (prosphora) describes the death of Christ, once in Paul (Eph 5:2); 5 times in Hebrews (Heb 10:5,8,10,14,18). The verb prosphero, "to offer," is also used, 15 times in Hebrews (Heb 5:1,3; 8:3,4; 9:7,14,25,28; 10:1,8,11,12; 11:4). The noun prosphora occurs 15 times in the Septuagint, usually as the translation of minchah, "sacrifice." This noun in the New Testament refers to Old Testament sacrifices in Acts 7:42; 21:26; to the offering of money in Acts 24:17; Rom 15:16. The verb anaphero, also occurs 3 times in Hebrews (7:27; 9:28; 13:15); also in 1 Pet 2:5. The word "sacrifice" (thusia in the Septuagint translates 8 different Hebrew words for various kinds of sacrifice, occurring about 350 times) refers to Christ's death, once in Paul (Eph 5:2) 5 times in Heb (5:1; 9:23,26; 10:12,26). It refers several times to Old Testament sacrifice and 5 times to Christian living or giving (Phil 2:17; 4:18; Heb 13:15,16; 1 Pet 2:5). The verb "to sacrifice" (thuo) is used once by Paul to describe Christ's death (1 Cor 5:7). The blood (haima) of Christ is said to secure redemption or salvation, 6 times in Paul (Rom 3:25; 5:9; 1 Cor 10:16; Eph 1:7; 2:13; Col 1:20); 3 times in Hebrews (9:12,14; 10:19; compare also 10:29); 2 times in 1 Peter (1:2,19) and 5 times in the Johannine writings (1 Jn 1:7; 5:62,8; Rev 1:5). Unmistakably this figure of the blood refers to Christ's sacrificial death. "In any case the phrase (en to autou haimati, `in his blood,' Rom 3:25) carries with it the idea of sacrificial blood-shedding" (Sanday, Commentary on Epistle to Romans, 91). (lutron, "ransom," the price paid for redeeming, occurring in Septuagint 19 times, meaning the price paid for redeeming the servant (Lev 25:51,52); ransom for first-born (Nu 3:46); ransom for the life of the owner of the goring ox (Ex 21:30, etc.)) occurs in the New Testament only twice (Mt 20:28; Mk 10:45). This word is used by Jesus to signify the culmination of His sacrificial life in His sacrificial death. (antilutron, "ransom," a word not found in Septuagint, stronger in meaning than the preceding word) occurs only once in the New Testament (1 Tim 2:6). (apolutrosis, "redemption," in Ex 21:8, meaning the ransom paid by a father to redeem his daughter from a cruel master) signifies (1) deliverance from sin by Christ's death, 5 times in Paul (Rom 3:24; 1 Cor 1:30; Eph 1:7,14; Col 1:14); once in Hebrews (9:15); (2) general deliverance, twice (Lk 21:28; Heb 11:35); (3) the Christian's final deliverance, physical and spiritual (Rom 8:23; Eph 4:30). The simple word (lutrosis, "redemption," 10 times in Septuagint as the translation of 5 Hebrew words) occurs once for spiritual deliverance (Heb 9:12). (exagorazo, "redeem," only once in Septuagint, Dan 2:8) in the New Testament means (1) to deliver from the curse of the law, twice by Paul (Gal 3:13; 4:5); (2) to use time wisely, twice by Paul (Eph 5:16; Col 4:5). The simple verb (agorazo, meaning in Lev 27:19 to redeem land) occurs twice in Paul (1 Cor 6:20; 7:23) and means "to redeem" (in a spiritual sense). katallage, "reconciliation," only twice in the Septuagint) means...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SACRIFICE,+IN+THE+NEW+TESTAMENT,+1/

Sacrifice in the New Testament 2 in the Bible Encyclopedia

VI. Rationale of the Efficacy of Christ's Sacrifice. 1. Jesus' Teaching: Jesus emphasizes His voluntary spirit in making the sacrifice. "The Son of man also came .... to give his life a ransom." The sacrifice was voluntary, not compulsory. God did not force Him to lay down His life; He chose to do so (compare Jn 10:11). But Jesus gives us no philosophy on this or any other element in His sacrifice as being the ground of its efficacy. 2. Paul's Teaching: Paul also emphasizes the voluntary gift of Christ (Gal 2:20), but he urges rather the dignity of Him who makes the sacrifice as a ground of its efficacy. It is the sacrifice of God's Son, shown to be such in His resurrection (Rom 1:4; 4:25b). It was no ordinary man but the sinless Son who gave "himself" (Gal 2:20). It was not merely a dying Christ but the Son who rose again "in power" (Rom 1:4), who secures our "justification" (Rom 4:25b; 1 Cor 15:3,4,17b). Paul also emphasizes the sinless life and character of Jesus as a ground of efficacy in Christ's sacrifice, "who knew no sin" in His life experience (2 Cor 5:21a). 3. The Teaching in Hebrews: The author of Hebrews, most of all New Testament writers, elaborates the grounds of efficacy in Christ's sacrifice. (1) It was a personal not an animal sacrifice (9:12-14; 9:26, "sacrifice of himself"; 10:4). (2) It was the sacrifice of the Son of God (3:5). (3) It was a royal person who made the sacrifice (6:20b; 7:1, "after the order of Melchizedek .... king of Salem"). (4) It was a sinless person (7:26,27; 9:14; 10:10,12). Westcott, Commentary on Hebrews, 298, well says, "It becomes necessary, therefore, in order to gain a complete view of the Sacrifice of Christ, to combine with the crowning act upon the Cross His fulfillment of the will of God from first to last, the Sacrifice of Life with the Sacrifice of Death." (5) It was an eternal person (6:20, "for ever"; 7:16, "after the power of an endless (margin "indissoluble") life"). The author of Hebrews reaches the climax of his argument for the superior efficacy of Christ's sacrifice when he represents Him as entering the holy of holies in the very presence of God to complete the offering for man's sin (8:1,2; 9:11,12,24). Peter and John do not discuss the ground of efficacy, and so add nothing to our conclusions above. The efficacy of the sacrifice is suggested by describing the glory of the person (1 Pet 1:19; 2:22,23; 1 Jn 1:7b; 2:2). To sum up our conclusion as to the efficacy of Christ's sacrifice: Jesus and the leading New Testament writers intimate that the efficacy of His sacrifice centers in His personality. Jesus, Peter and John do not discuss the subject directly. Paul, though discussing it more extensively, does not do so fully, but the author of Heb centers and culminates his argument for the finality of Christianity, in the superior efficacy of Christ's sacrifice, which is grounded in His personality, divine, royal, sinless, eternal (see Menegoz, Theol. de l'Ep. aux Hebreux). It is easy to see, from the position...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SACRIFICE,+IN+THE+NEW+TESTAMENT,+2/

Sacrifice in the Old Testament 1 in the Bible Encyclopedia

sak'-ri-fis, sak'-ri-fiz: IN THE OLD TESTAMENT I. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS II. ORIGIN AND NATURE OF SACRIFICES 1. Theory of a Divine Revelation 2. Theories of a Human Origin (1) The Gift-Theory (2) The Magic Theory (3) The Table-Bond Theory (4) The Sacramental Communion Theory (5) The Homage Theory (6) The Piacular Theory (7) Originating Religious Instincts III. CLASSIFICATION OF SACRIFICES 1. Maimonides 2. W.R. Smith and Others 3. Oehler 4. Paterson and Others 5. H.M. Wiener IV. SACRIFICES IN THE PRE-MOSAIC AGE 1. In Egypt 2. In Babylonia 3. Nomads and Tribes of Arabia and Syria 4. The Offerings of Cain and Abel 5. Of Noah 6. Of Abraham 7. Of Job 8. Of Isaac 9. Of Jacob 10. Of Israel in Egypt 11. Of Jethro 12. Summary and Conclusions V. THE MOSAIC SACRIFICIAL SYSTEM 1. The Covenant Sacrifice 2. The Common Altars 3. The Consecration of Aaron and His Sons 4. Sacrifices before the Golden Calf 5. The Law of the Burnt Offering (`Olah) (1) Ritual for the Offerer (Leviticus 1:3-17) (2) Ritual for the Priest (Leviticus 1:3-17) (3) General Laws for the Priest (4) Laws in Deuteronomy 12:6,13,14,27; 27:6 6. The Law of the Meal Offering (Minchah)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SACRIFICE,+IN+THE+OLD+TESTAMENT,+1/

Sacrifice in the Old Testament 2 in the Bible Encyclopedia

V. The Mosaic Sacrificial System. 1. The Covenant Sacrifice: The fundamental function of Moses' work was to establish the covenant between Israel and God. This important transaction took place at Sinai and was accompanied by solemn sacrifices. The foundation principle was obedience, not sacrifices (Ex 19:4-8). No mention is made of these at the time, as they were incidental--mere by-laws to the constitution. The center of gravity in Israel's religion is now shifted from sacrifices to obedience and loyalty to Yahweh. Sacrifices were helps to that end and without obedience were worthless. This is in exact accordance with Jer 7:21 ff. God did not speak unto the fathers at this time about sacrifices; He did speak about obedience. The covenant having been made, the terms and conditions are laid down by Moses and accepted by the people (Ex 24:3). The Decalogue and Covenant Code are given, an altar is built, burnt offerings and peace offerings of oxen are slain by young men servants of Moses, not by priests, and blood is sprinkled on the altar (Ex 24:4 ff). The blood would symbolize the community of life between Yahweh and Israel, and consecrated the altar. The Law was read, the pledge again given, and Moses sprinkled the representatives of the people, consecrating them also (Ex 24:7 f). Ascending the mount, they had a vision of God, held a feast before Him, showing the joys and privileges of the new relationship. The striking feature of these ceremonies is the use of the blood. It is expiatory and consecrating, it is life offered to God, it consecrates the altar and the people: they are now acceptable to God and dare approach Him and feast with Him. There is no idea of God's drinking the blood. The entire ritual is far removed from the crass features of common Semitic worship. 2. The Common Altars: In the Covenant Code, which the people accepted, the customary altars are not abolished, but regulated (Ex 20:24 ff). This law expressly applies to the time when they shall be settled in Canaan. `In the whole place where I cause my name to be remembered,' etc. (Ex 20:24 margin). No need to change the reading to "in every place where I cause," etc., as the Wellhausen school does for obvious reasons. All the land was eligible. On such rude altars sacrifices were allowed. This same law is implied in Dt 16:21, a passage either ignored or explained away by the Wellhausen school (see Wiener, Essays in Pentateuchal Criticism, 200 f). Moses commanded Joshua in accordance with it (Dt 27:5 ff). Joshua, Gideon, Jephthah, Samuel, Saul, David, Elijah and many others used such altars. There were altars at Shechem (Josh 24:1,26), Mizpah in Gilead (Jdg 11:11), Gilgal (1 Sam 13:9). High places were chiefly used until the times of Hezekiah and Josiah, when they were abolished because of their corruptions, etc. All such altars were perfectly legitimate and in fact necessary, until there was a central capital and sanctuary in Jerusalem. The customary burnt offerings and peace offerings with the worshipper officiating were the chief factors. Heathen sacrifices and the use of heathen altars were strictly forbidden (Ex 22:20 (Hebrew 19); 34:15) 3. The Consecration of Aaron and His Sons: The altar used at the consecration of Aaron and his sons was a "horned" or official altar, the central one. The offerings were a bullock, two rams, unleavened bread, etc. (Ex 29:1- 4), and were brought to the door of the sanctuary. The ritual consisted of Aaron laying his hand on the bullock's head, designating it as his substitute (Ex 29:10), killing it before the tent of meeting (Ex 29:11), smearing some blood on the horns of the altar, and pouring...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SACRIFICE,+IN+THE+OLD+TESTAMENT,+2/

Sacrifice in the Old Testament 3 in the Bible Encyclopedia

VIII. Sacrifice in the "Writings." 1. Proverbs: Dates are very uncertain here. The Psalms and Proverbs extend from David and Solomon into the Persian period. The sages take the same attitude as the prophets. They enjoin the sacrifice of first-fruits (Prov 3:9). A feast usually follows a sacrifice of peace offerings (7:14). The trespass offering (?) has no meaning to fools (14:9), and the sacrifices of the wicked are an abomination to God (15:8; 21:27). Righteousness and justice are more acceptable to Yahweh than sacrifices (21:3), yet to them sacrifices are a regular part of worship. Qoheleth speaks of sacrifices as quite the custom, and deprecates the offerings of fools (Eccl 5:1; 9:2). 2. The Psalms: The Psalmist admonishes the faithful to offer the sacrifices of righteousness, i.e. sacrifices offered in the right spirit (Ps 4:5). The drink offerings of idolaters are well known (Ps 16:4). Prayer is made for the acceptance of sacrifices (Ps 20:3). It is a coveted privilege to offer them (Ps 27:6; 84:1-4). The true relation between sacrifice and obedience is expressed in Ps 40:6-8. As in Jer 7:21 f, the emphasis is laid on obedience, without which sacrifices are worthless and repugnant to God. They are not the important thing in Israel's religion, for that religion could exist without them as in the wilderness and exile. The teaching corresponds exactly with that of the prophets and is probably late. Ps 50 is even more emphatic. The Psalmist knows that sacrifices are in the covenant regulations (50:5), but repudiates the idea of giving anything to God or of feeding Him (50:12,13). Everything belongs to Him, He is not hungry, He would scorn the idea of drinking the blood of goats, etc. The idea of the cult being of any real value to God is scouted. Yet in the next verse the reader is admonished to offer sacrifices of thanksgiving and pay vows (50:14). The sacrifices that express worship, penitence, prayer, thanksgiving and faith are acceptable. The penitent Psalmist speaks in similar terms. Sacrifices as such are no delight to God, the real sacrifice is a broken heart (51:16 f). When the heart is right, then, as an expression of true- heartedness, devotion, repentance and faith, burnt offerings are highly acceptable (51:19). Another Psalmist promises a freewill offering to God (54:6; 66:13,15). Sacrifices of thanksgiving are advised (96:8; 107:22; 118:27) and promised (116:17). Prayer is likened to the evening sacrifice (141:2). IX. The Idea and Efficacy of Sacrifices. That the Hebrews thoroughly believed in the efficacy of sacrifices is without doubt. What ideas they entertained regarding them is not so clear. No single theory can account for all the facts. The unbloody sacrifices were regarded as food for the Deity, or a pleasant odor, in one instance, taking the place of a bloody offering (see above). The bloody offerings present some difficulties, and hence, many different views. 1. A Gift of Food to the Deity: Included under the head of gifts of food to the Deity would be the meal and peace offerings, in so far as they were consumed by fire, the burnt offerings and the shewbread, etc. They were fire-food, the fire-distilled essence or etherealized food for God which gave Him pleasure and disposed Him favorably toward the offerer. They were intended either to appease wrath, to win favor, or to express thanks and gratitude for favors experienced. The earlier and more naive idea was probably to win the favor of the Deity by a gift. Later, other ideas were expressed in the offerings. 2. Expression of Adoration and Devotion, etc.: The burnt offering best gave expression to the sentiments of adoration and devotion, though...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SACRIFICE,+IN+THE+OLD+TESTAMENT,+3/

Sacrifices in Naves Topical Bible

FIGURATIVE Isa 34:6; Eze 39:17; Zep 1:7,8; Ro 12:1; Php 2:17; 4:18 Of self-denial Php 3:7,8 Of praise Ps 116:17; Jer 33:11; Ho 14:2; Heb 13:15 "Calves of the lips" signifying praise Ho 14:2 See OFFERINGS

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/S/SACRIFICES/

Sacrifice in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The peculiar features of each kind of sacrifice are referred to under their respective heads. I. (A) ORIGIN OF SACRIFICE. --The universal prevalence of sacrifice shows it to have been primeval, and deeply rooted in the instincts of humanity. Whether it was first enjoined by an external command, or whether it was based on that sense of sin and lost communion with God which is stamped by his hand on the heart of man, is a historical question which cannot be determined. (B) ANTE-MOSAIC HISTORY OF SACRIFICE. --In examining the various sacrifices recorded in Scripture before the establishment of the law, we find that the words specially denoting expiatory sacrifice are not applied to them. This fact does not at all show that they were not actually expiatory, but it justified the inference that this idea was not then the prominent one in the doctrine of sacrifice. The sacrifices of Cain and Abel are called minehah, tend appear to have been eucharistic. Noah's, Ge 8:20 and Jacob's at Mizpah, were at the institution of a covenant; and may be called federative. In the burnt offerings of Job for his children Job 1:5 and for his three friends ch. Job 42:8 we for the first time find the expression of the desire of expiation for sin. The same is the case in the words of Moses to Pharaoh. Ex 10:26 Here the main idea is at least deprecatory. (C) THE SACRIFICES OF THE MOSAIC PERIOD. --These are inaugurated by the offering of the Passover and the sacrifice of Ex 24:1 ... The Passover indeed is unique in its character but it is clear that the idea of salvation from death by means of sacrifice is brought out in it with a distinctness before unknown. The law of Leviticus now unfolds distinctly the various forms of sacrifice: (a) The burnt offering: Self-dedicatory. (b) The meat offering: (unbloody): Eucharistic. (c) The sin offering; the trespass offering: Expiatory. To these may be added, (d) The incense offered after sacrifice in the holy place and (on the Day of Atonement) in the holy of holies, the symbol of the intercession of the priest (as a type of the great High Priest) accompanying and making efficacious the prayer of the people. In the consecration of Aaron and his sons, Le 8:1 ... we find these offered in what became ever afterward their appointed order. First came the sin offering, to prepare access to God; next the burnt offering, to mark their dedication to his service; and third the meat offering of thanksgiving. Henceforth the sacrificial system was fixed in all its parts until he should come whom it typified. (D) POST-MOSAIC SACRIFICES. --It will not be necessary to pursue, in detail the history of the Poet Mosaic sacrifice, for its main principles were now fixed forever. The regular sacrifices in the temple service were-- (a) Burnt offerings. 1, the daily burnt offerings, Ex 29:38-42 2, the double burnt offerings on the Sabbath, Nu 28:9,10 3, the burnt offerings at the great festivals; Nu 26:11 ... 29:39 (b) Meat offerings. 1, the daily meat offerings accompanying the daily burnt offerings, Ex 29:40,41 2, the shewbread, renewed every Sabbath, Le 24:6,9 3, the special meat offerings at the Sabbath and the great festivals, Nu 28:1 ..., 29:1 ... 4, the first-fruits, at the Passover, Le 23:10-14 at Pentecost, Le 23:17-20 the firstfruits of the dough and threshing-floor at the harvest time. Nu 15:20,21; De 26:1-11 (c) Sin offerings. 1, sin offering each new moon Nu 28:15 2, sin offerings at the passover, Pentecost, Feast of Trumpets...

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/S/Sacrifice/

Potter Scripture - Zechariah 11:13

And the LORD said unto me, Cast it unto the potter: a goodly price that I was prised at of them. And I took the thirty [pieces] of silver, and cast them to the potter in the house of the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Zechariah/11/

Praise in Naves Topical Bible

Song of Moses, after the passage through the Red Sea Ex 15:1-19 -Of Miriam Ex 15:21 -Of Deborah, after defeating the Canaanites Jud 5 -Of Hannah 1Sa 2:1-10 -Of David Celebrating his deliverance from the hand of Saul 2Sa 22 On bringing the ark of the covenant to Zion 1Ch 16:8-36 At the close of his reign 1Ch 29:10-19 -The chorus when Solomon brought the ark of the covenant into the temple 2Ch 5:13 -Psalms of, for God's goodness to Israel Ps 46; 48; 65; 66; 68; 76; 81; 85; 98; 105; 124; 126; 129; 135; 136 -See the Scriptures below -For God's goodness to righteous men Ps 23; 34; 36; 91; 100; 103; 107; 117; 121 -See printed scriptures below -For God's goodness to individuals Ps 9; 18; 22; 30; 40; 75; 103; 108; 116; 118; 138; 144 -For God's attributes Ps 8; 19; 22; 24; 29; 33; 47; 50; 65; 66; 76; 77; 92; 93; 95; 96; 97; 98; 99; 104; 111; 113; 114; 115; 134; 139; 147; 148; 150 -UNCLASSIFIED SCRIPTURES RELATING TO Ge 14:20; Ex 15:1,2; De 10:21; Jud 5:3; 2Sa 22:4; 1Ch 16:31,33,34,36; 23:30; 2Ch 7:3; Ne 9:5,6; Job 36:24; Ps 7:17; 8:2; 9:11; 18:3; 21:13; 22:22,23,25; 24:7-10; 26:12; 28:6,7; 30:4; 32:11; 33:1-3; 34:1-3; 35:18,28; 41:13; 42:4; 43:3,4; 47:1,6,7; 48:1; 50:23; 51:15; 52:9; 56:10,12; 57:7-9; 61:8; 63:3-6; 65:1; 66:1,2,4,8; 67:3,4; 68:4,26,32-34; 69:30,34; 70:4; 71:8,14,15,22; 75:1; 79:13; 81:1; 84:4; 86:12; 89:5,52; 92:1-3; 95:1,2,6,7; 96:1-4,7-9; 97:12; 98:4-6; 99:3,5,9; 100:1-5; 101:1; 103:20-22; 104:33,34; 105:1-5; 106:1,48; 107:8,9,15,21,31,32; 108:1-3; 109:30; 111:1,10; 113:1,2; 115:18; 116:12-14,17-19; 117:1,2; 118:15,28,29; 119:7,62,108,164,171,172,175; 134:1,2; 135:1-3,19,21; 136:1-26; 138:1,2; 140:13; 144:1,2,9; 145:1-21; 146:1-10; 147:1-20; 148:1-14; 149:1-9; 150:1-6; Isa 12:1-6; 24:14-16; 25:1; 35:10; 38:18,19; 42:10- 12; 43:21; 49:13; 51:3; 52:7-10; 61:3; Jer 31:7; 33:11; Da 2:20,23; 4:37; Jon 2:9; Mt 26:30; Mr 14:26; Lu 1:46-55,67-75; 2:20; 17:15,16; 19:37,38; 24:52,53; Ac 2:46,47; 4:24; 16:25; Ro 11:36; 16:27; 1Co 14:15; 15:57; Eph 1:3; 3:20,21; 5:19; Php 4:20; 1Ti 1:17; Heb 2:12; 13:15; Jas 5:13; 1Pe 1:3; 2:9; 4:11; 5:11; 2Pe 3:18; Jude 1:25; Re 1:6; 14:7 -IN HEAVEN Ne 9:6; Job 38:7; Ps 103:20,21; 148:2,4; Isa 6:3; Eze 3:12; Lu 2:13,14; 15:7,10; Re 1:6; 4:8-11; 5:9-14; 7:9-12; 11:16,17; 14:2,3; 15:3,4; 19:1-7

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/P/PRAISE/

Praise in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

praz (tehillah, "psalm," "praise," todhah, "confession" "thanksgiving," shabhach, "to praise" "glorify," zamar, yadhah, "to stretch out the hand," "confess"; aineo, epaineo, (epainos): 1. Its Meaning: The word comes from the Latin pretium, "price," or "value," and may be defined generally as an ascription of value or worth. Praise may be bestowed upon unworthy objects or from improper motives, but true praise consists in a sincere acknowledgment of a real conviction of worth. Its type may be seen in the representation given in the Apocalypse of the adoration of God and of the Lamb, which is inspired by a sense of their worthiness to be adored (Rev 4:11; 5:12). 2. With Man as Its Object: Man may be the object of praise, and may receive it either from God or from his fellow-men. In the former case (Rom 2:29; 1 Cor 4:5) the praise is inevitably just, as resting on a divine estimate of worth; in the latter case its value depends upon the grounds and motives that lie behind it. There is a praise which is itself a condemnation (Lk 6:26), an honor which seals the eyes in unbelief (Jn 5:44), a careless use of the epithet "good" which is dishonoring to God (Lk 18:19). This is the "praise of men" which Jesus warned His followers to shun as being incompatible with the "praise of God" (Mt 6:1-4; compare Jn 12:43; Gal 1:10; 1 Thess 2:6). On the other hand, there is a praise that is the instinctive homage of the soul to righteousness (Lk 23:47), the acknowledgment given to well-doing by just government (Rom 13:3; 1 Pet 2:14), the tribute of the churches to distinguished Christian service (2 Cor 8:18). Such praise, so far from being incompatible with the praise of God, is a reflection of it in human consciousness; and so Paul associates praise with virtue as an aid and incentive to holy living on which the mind should dwell (Phil 4:8). 3. With God as Its Object: In the Bible it is God who is especially brought before us as the object of praise. His whole creation praises Him, from the angels of heaven (Ps 103:20; Rev 5:11) to those lower existences that are unconscious or even inanimate (Ps 19:1-4; 148:1-10; Rev 5:13). But it is with the praises offered to God by man, and with the human duty of praising God, that the Scriptures are principally concerned. In regard to this subject the following points may be noticed: (1) The Grounds of Praise. Sometimes God is praised for His inherent qualities. His majesty (Ps 104:1) or holiness (Isa 6:3) fills the mind, and He is "glorified as God" (Rom 1:21) in view of what He essentially is. More frequently He is praised for His works in creation, providence, and redemption. References may be dispensed with here, for the evidence meets us on almost every page of the sacred literature from Genesis to Revelation, and the Book of Psalms in particular, from beginning to end, is occupied with these themes. When God's operations under these aspects present themselves, not simply as general effects of His power and wisdom, but as expressions of His personal love to the individual, the nation, the church, His works become benefits, and praise passes into blessing and thanksgiving (Pss 34; 103; Eph 1:3; 1 Pet 1:3). (2) The Modes of Praise. True praise of God, as distinguished from false...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/P/PRAISE/

Praise Scripture - Daniel 2:23

I thank thee, and praise thee, O thou God of my fathers, who hast given me wisdom and might, and hast made known unto me now what we desired of thee: for thou hast [now] made known unto us the king's matter.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Daniel/2/

Praise Scripture - Philippians 4:8

Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things [are] honest, whatsoever things [are] just, whatsoever things [are] pure, whatsoever things [are] lovely, whatsoever things [are] of good report; if [there be] any virtue, and if [there be] any praise, think on these things.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Philippians/4/

Praise Scripture - Psalms 148:4

Praise him, ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters that [be] above the heavens.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/148/

Praise Scripture - Psalms 118:28

Thou [art] my God, and I will praise thee: [thou art] my God, I will exalt thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/118/

Praise Scripture - 2 Chronicles 31:2

And Hezekiah appointed the courses of the priests and the Levites after their courses, every man according to his service, the priests and Levites for burnt offerings and for peace offerings, to minister, and to give thanks, and to praise in the gates of the tents of the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/31/

Praise Scripture - 2 Chronicles 23:13

And she looked, and, behold, the king stood at his pillar at the entering in, and the princes and the trumpets by the king: and all the people of the land rejoiced, and sounded with trumpets, also the singers with instruments of musick, and such as taught to sing praise. Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said, Treason, Treason.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/23/

Praise Scripture - 2 Chronicles 7:6

And the priests waited on their offices: the Levites also with instruments of musick of the LORD, which David the king had made to praise the LORD, because his mercy [endureth] for ever, when David praised by their ministry; and the priests sounded trumpets before them, and all Israel stood.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/7/

Praise Scripture - Psalms 57:7

My heart is fixed, O God, my heart is fixed: I will sing and give praise.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/57/

Praise Scripture - Jeremiah 17:26

And they shall come from the cities of Judah, and from the places about Jerusalem, and from the land of Benjamin, and from the plain, and from the mountains, and from the south, bringing burnt offerings, and sacrifices, and meat offerings, and incense, and bringing sacrifices of praise, unto the house of the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/17/

Praise Scripture - Jeremiah 17:26

And they shall come from the cities of Judah, and from the places about Jerusalem, and from the land of Benjamin, and from the plain, and from the mountains, and from the south, bringing burnt offerings, and sacrifices, and meat offerings, and incense, and bringing sacrifices of praise, unto the house of the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/17/

Praise Scripture - 2 Chronicles 8:14

And he appointed, according to the order of David his father, the courses of the priests to their service, and the Levites to their charges, to praise and minister before the priests, as the duty of every day required: the porters also by their courses at every gate: for so had David the man of God commanded.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/8/

Worship in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

wur'-ship (Anglo-Saxon: weorthscipe, wyrthscype, "honor," from weorth, wurth, "worthy," "honorable," and scipe, "ship"): 1. Terms 2. Old Testament Worship 3. New Testament Worship 4. Public Christian Worship LITERATURE Honor, reverence, homage, in thought, feeling, or act, paid to men, angels, or other "spiritual" beings, and figuratively to other entities, ideas, powers or qualities, but specifically and supremely to Deity. 1. Terms: The principal Old Testament word is shachah, "depress," "bow down," "prostrate" (Hithpael), as in Ex 4:31, "bowed their heads and worshipped"; so in 94 other places. The context determines more or less clearly whether the physical act or the volitional and emotional idea is intended. The word is applied to acts of reverence to human superiors as well as supernatural. the Revised Version (British and American) renders it according to its physical aspect, as indicated by the context, "bowed himself down" (the King James Version "worshipped," Gen 24:52; compare 23:7; 27:29, etc.). Other words are: caghadh, "prostrate," occurring in Isa 44:15,17,19; 46:6, but rendered (English Versions of the Bible) "fall down." In Dan 2:46; 3:5,6,7,10,15,18,28, it (Aramaic ceghidh) is "worship" (English Versions of the Bible), 7 times associated with "falling down" and 5 times with "serve." `abhadh, "work," "labor," "serve," is rendered "worship" by English Versions of the Bible in 2 Ki 10:19,21 ff: "the worshippers (servants) of Baal." In Isa 19:21 the Revised Version (British and American) has "worship with sacrifice and oblation" (the King James Version "do sacrifice"). Isa 19:23 the King James Version has "served," the Revised Version (British and American) "worship." `atsabh, "carve," "fabricate," "fashion," is once given "worship," i.e. "make (an object of) worship" (Jer 44:19, the American Revised Version margin "portray"). The Old Testament idea is therefore the reverential attitude of mind or body or both, combined with the more generic notions of religions adoration, obedience, service. The principal New Testament word (59 times) is proskuneo, "kiss (the hand or the ground) toward," hence, often in the oriental fashion bowing prostrate upon the ground; accordingly, Septuagint uses it for the Hithpael of shachah (hishtachawah), "prostrate oneself." It is to render homage to men, angels, demons, the Devil, the "beast," idols, or to God. It is rendered 16 times to Jesus as a beneficent superior; at least 24 times to God or to Jesus as God. The root idea of bodily prostration is much less prominent than in the Old Testament. It is always translated "worship." Next in frequency is sebomai, "venerate," and its various cognates, sebazomai, eusebeo, theosebes, sebasma. Its root is sebas, "fear," but this primitive meaning is completely merged into "reverence," "hold in awe": "In vain do they worship me" (Mt 15:9, etc.). latreuo, is "serve" (religiously), or "worship publicly," "perform sacred services," "offer gifts," "worship God in the observance of the rites instituted for His worship." It is translated "worship" in Acts 7:42; 24:14 the King James Version, but "serve," American Standard Revised Version: "serve the host of heaven," "serve I the God of our fathers"; but both the King James Version and...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/W/WORSHIP/

Worship in Naves Topical Bible

To be rendered only to God Ex 20:3; De 5:7; 6:13; Mt 4:10; Lu 4:8; Ac 10:26; 14:15; Col 2:18; Re 19:10; 22:8 -Of Jesus See JESUS, WORSHIP OF -Acceptable to God Ge 4:4; 8:21 -Of the wicked rejected Ge 4:5,7 -See PRAYER, OF THE WICKED -"Iniquity of the holy things," Ex 28:38 -Public, in the temple Jer 26:2; Lu 18:10; 24:53 -David's ordinances for 1Ch 23; 24; 25; 26 -Family De 16:11,14 -Of Abraham Ge 12:7,8; 13:4,18 -Of Jacob Ge 35:2,3 -Of Job Job 1:5 -Of the Philippian jailer Ac 16:34 -In private homes Ac 1:1,3,14; 5:42; 12:12; 20:7-9; Ro 16:5; 1Co 16:19; Col 4:15; Phm 1:2 -In the night Isa 30:29; Ac 16:25 -Jesus prays all night long Lu 6:12 -Postures in Bowing Ex 34:8; 2Ch 20:18 -Prostration Ge 17:3; Mr 3:11 -See PRAYER, ATTITUDES IN -Prayer in See PRAYER -God's presence in Le 19:30; Ps 77:13; 84:4; Isa 56:7; Heb 10:25 -Loved by his people Ps 27:4; 84:1-3,10; Zec 8:21 -Benedictions pronounced See BENEDICTIONS -The whole nation required to assemble for, including men, women, children, servants, and foreigners De 16:11; 31:11-13 -On Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal Jos 8:32-35 -The word of God read in public assemblies Ex 24:7; De 27:12-26; 31:11-13; Jos 8:33-35; 2Ki 23:1-3; Ne 8:1-8,13-18; Mt 21:23; Lu 4:16,17; 1Ti 4:13 -Of angels, forbidden Re 19:10; 22:8,9

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/W/WORSHIP/

Worship in Easton's Bible Dictionary

homage rendered to God which it is sinful (idolatry) to render to any created being (Ex. 34:14; Isa. 2:8). Such worship was refused by Peter (Acts 10:25,26) and by an angel (Rev. 22:8,9).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/W/Worship/

Worshipper in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Greek neokoros. "Temple keeper "; originally an attendant in charge of a temple. Then applied to cities devoted to the worship of some special idol, as Ephesus was to that of Diana (Acts 19:35), In Nero's reign about the same date, A.D. 55 or 56, a coin is extant inscribed with Neocoron Ephesion, and on the reverse Diana's temple (Mionnet Inset. 3:9; Eckhel Doctr. Vet. Num. 2:520. (See RELIGION.) Ancient representations strikingly confirm the picture which Isaiah gives us in chapter 44 of the man who "hath formed a god, ... he marketh it out with a line ... after the figure of a man ... he taketh the cypress and the oak ... he maketh a god and worshippeth it; he maketh it a graven image" (Isaiah 44:10-15).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/W/Worshipper/

Worship Scripture - 2 Kings 5:18

In this thing the LORD pardon thy servant, [that] when my master goeth into the house of Rimmon to worship there, and he leaneth on my hand, and I bow myself in the house of Rimmon: when I bow down myself in the house of Rimmon, the LORD pardon thy servant in this thing.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/5/

Worship Scripture - Ezekiel 46:9

But when the people of the land shall come before the LORD in the solemn feasts, he that entereth in by the way of the north gate to worship shall go out by the way of the south gate; and he that entereth by the way of the south gate shall go forth by the way of the north gate: he shall not return by the way of the gate whereby he came in, but shall go forth over against it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/46/

Worship Scripture - Revelation 13:15

And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/13/

Worship Scripture - Psalms 66:4

All the earth shall worship thee, and shall sing unto thee; they shall sing [to] thy name. Selah.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/66/

Worship Scripture - Psalms 99:9

Exalt the LORD our God, and worship at his holy hill; for the LORD our God [is] holy.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/99/

Worship Scripture - Isaiah 49:7

Thus saith the LORD, the Redeemer of Israel, [and] his Holy One, to him whom man despiseth, to him whom the nation abhorreth, to a servant of rulers, Kings shall see and arise, princes also shall worship, because of the LORD that is faithful, [and] the Holy One of Israel, and he shall choose thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/49/

Worship Scripture - Jeremiah 26:2

Thus saith the LORD; Stand in the court of the LORD'S house, and speak unto all the cities of Judah, which come to worship in the LORD'S house, all the words that I command thee to speak unto them; diminish not a word:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/26/

Worship Scripture - Deuteronomy 26:10

And now, behold, I have brought the firstfruits of the land, which thou, O LORD, hast given me. And thou shalt set it before the LORD thy God, and worship before the LORD thy God:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/26/

Worship Scripture - Deuteronomy 4:19

And lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, [even] all the host of heaven, shouldest be driven to worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath divided unto all nations under the whole heaven.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/4/

Worship Scripture - Luke 14:10

But when thou art bidden, go and sit down in the lowest room; that when he that bade thee cometh, he may say unto thee, Friend, go up higher: then shalt thou have worship in the presence of them that sit at meat with thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/14/

Prayer in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

prar (deesis, proseuche, (enteuxis; for an excellent discussion of the meaning of these see Thayer's Lexicon, p. 126, under the word deesis; the chief verbs are euchomai, proseuchomai, and deomai, especially in Luke and Acts; aiteo, "to ask a favor" distinguished from erotao, "to ask a question," is found occasionally): In the Bible "prayer" is used in a simpler and a more complex a narrower and a wider signification. In the former case it is supplication for benefits either for one's self (petition) or for others (intercession). In the latter it is an act of worship which covers all soul in its approach to God. Supplication is at the heart of it, for prayer always springs out of a sense of need and a belief that God is a rewarder of them that diligently seek Him (Heb 11:6). But adoration and confession and thanksgiving also find a It place, so that the suppliant becomes a worshipper. It is unnecessary to distinguish all the various terms for prayer that are employed in the Old Testament and the New Testament. But the fact should be noticed that in the Hebrew and Greek aloe there are on the one hand words for prayer that denote a direct petition or short, sharp cry of the heart in its distress (Ps 30:2; 2 Cor 12:8), and on the other "prayers" like that of Hannah (1 Sam 2:1-10), which is in reality a song of thanksgiving, or that of Paul, the prisoner of Jesus Christ, in which intercession is mingled with doxology (Eph 3:14-21). 1. In the Old Testament: The history of prayer as it meets us here reflects various stages of experience and revelation. In the patriarchal period, when `men began to call upon the name of the Lord' (Gen 4:26; compare 12:8; 21:33), prayer is naive, familiar and direct (Gen 15:2 ff; 17:18; 18:23 ff; 24:12). It is evidently associated with sacrifice (Gen 12:8; 13:4; 26:25), the underlying idea probably being that the gift or offering would help to elicit the desired response. Analogous to this is Jacob's vow, itself a species of prayer, in which the granting of desired benefits becomes the condition of promised service and fidelity (Gen 28:20 ff). In the pre- exilic history of Israel prayer still retains many of the primitive features of the patriarchal type (Ex 3:4; Nu 11:11-15; Jdg 6:13 ff; 11:30 f; 1 Sam 1:11; 2 Sam 15:8; Ps 66:13 f). The Law has remarkably little to say on the subject, differing here from the later Judaism (see Schurer, HJP, II, i, 290, index-vol, p. 93; and compare Mt 6:5 ff; 23:14; Acts 3:1; 16:13); while it confirms the association of prayer with sacrifices, which now appear, however, not as gifts in anticipation of benefits to follow, but as expiations of guilt (Dt 21:1-9) or thank offerings for past mercies (Dt 26:1-11). Moreover, the free, frank access of the private individual to God is more and more giving place to the mediation of the priest (Dt 21:5; 26:3), the intercession of the prophet (Ex 32:11-13; 1 Sam 7:5-13; 12:23), the ordered approach of tabernacle and temple services (Ex 40; 1 Ki 8). The prophet, it is true, approaches God immediately and freely--Moses (Ex 34:34; Dt 34:10) and David (2 Sam 7:27) are to be numbered among the prophets--but he does so in virtue of his office, and on the ground especially of his possession of the Spirit and his intercessory function (compare Ezek 2:2; Jer 14:15). A new epoch in the history of prayer in Israel was brought about by the experiences of the Exile. Chastisement...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/P/PRAYER/

Prayer in Naves Topical Bible

MISCELLANY OF MINOR SUB-TOPICS Prayer test proposed by Elijah 1Ki 18:24-39 Daily, in the morning Ps 5:3; 88:13; 143:8; Isa 33:2 Twice daily Ps 88:1 Thrice daily Ps 55:17; Da 6:10 All night Lu 6:12 Without ceasing 1Th 5:17 Boldness in Enjoined Heb 4:16 Exemplified by Abraham in his inquiry concerning Sodom Ge 18:23-32 By Moses, supplicating for assistance in delivering Israel Ex 33:12,18 Secret Ge 24:63; Mt 6:6 Silent Ps 5:1 Weeping in Ezr 10:1 In a loud voice, satirized by Elijah 1Ki 18:27 Long Of Pharisees Mt 23:14 Of scribes Mr 12:40; Lu 20:47 Profuse, to be avoided Ec 5:2; Mt 6:7 Vain repetitions of, to be avoided Mt 6:7 Tokens asked for, as assurance of answer By Abraham's servant Ge 24:14 Gideon asks for a sign of dew on a fleece Jud 6:36-40 Rebuked Of Moses, at the Red Sea Ex 14:15 When Moses prayed to see Canaan, the promised land De 3:23-27 Of Joshua Jos 7:10 Evils averted by Jer 26:19 Unbelief in Job 21:15 "The Lord's Prayer," Mt 6:9-13; Lu 11:2-4 However, see Joh 17:1-26 Answer to, withheld Of Balaam De 23:5; Jos 24:10 Of Job Job 30:20; with 42:12 Of the Israelites, when attacked by the Amorites De 1:45 The prayer of Jesus, "Let this cup pass away," Mt 26:39,42,44; with 26:45-75 And Mt 27 Answer to, delayed Ps 22:1,2; 40:1; 80:4; 88:14; Jer 42:7; Hab 1:2; Lu 18:7 Answer to, exceeds petition Solomon asked for wisdom; the answer included wisdom, riches, honour, and long life 1Ki 3:7-14; 2Ch 1:10-12 The disciples prayed for Peter; the answer included Peter's deliverance Ac 12:15; with 12:5 Answer to, different from the request Moses asked to be permitted to cross the Jordan River; the answer was permission to view the land of promise De 3:23-27 The Israelites lusted for the fleshpots of Egypt; the answer gave them, flesh, but also leanness of soul Ps 106:14,15 Martha and Mary asked Jesus to come and heal their brother Lazarus; Jesus delayed, but raised Lazarus from the dead Joh 11 Paul asked that the "thorn in the flesh" be removed; the answer was a promise of grace to endure it 2Co 12:8,9 In Behalf of Nations See NATIONS, PRAYER FOR Penitential Of David...

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/P/PRAYER/

Prayer in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The object of this article will be to touch briefly on -- 1. The doctrine of Scripture as to the nature and efficacy of prayer; 2. Its directions as to time, place and manner of prayer; 3. Its types and examples of prayer. 1. Scripture does not give any theoretical explanation of the mystery which attaches to prayer. The difficulty of understanding real efficacy arises chiefly from two sources: from the belief that man lives under general laws, which in all cases must be fulfilled unalterably; and the opposing belief that he is master of his own destiny, and need pray for no external blessing. Now, Scripture, while, by the doctrine of spiritual influence it entirely disposes of the latter difficulty, does not so entirely solve that part of the mystery which depends on the nature of God. It places it clearly before us, and emphasizes most strongly those doctrines on which the difficulty turns. Yet while this is so, on the other hand the instinct of prayer is solemnly sanctioned and enforced on every page. Not only is its subjective effect asserted, but its real objective efficacy, as a means appointed by God for obtaining blessing, is both implied and expressed in the plainest terms. Thus, as usual in the case of such mysteries, the two apparently opposite truths are emphasized, because they are needful: to man's conception of his relation to God; their reconcilement is not, perhaps cannot be, fully revealed. For, in fact, it is involved in that inscrutable mystery which attends on the conception of any free action of man as necessary for the working out of the general laws of God's unchangeable will. At the same time it is clearly implied that such a reconcilement exists, and that all the apparently isolated and independent exertions of man's spirit in prayer are in some way perfectly subordinated to the one supreme will of God, so as to form a part of his scheme of providence. It is also implied that the key to the mystery lies in the fact of man's spiritual unity with God in Christ, and of the consequent gift of the Holy Spirit. So also is it said of the spiritual influence of the Holy Ghost on each individual mind that while "we know not what to pray for, "the indwelling" Spirit makes intercession for the saints, according to the will of God." Ro 8:26,27 Here, as probably in still other cases, the action of the Holy Spirit on the soul is to free agents what the laws of nature are to things inanimate, and is the power which harmonizes free individual action with the universal will of God. 2. There are no directions as to prayer given in the Mosaic law: the duty is rather taken for granted, as an adjunct to sacrifice, than enforced or elaborated. It is hardly conceivable that, even from the beginning public prayer did not follow every public sacrifice. Such a practice is alluded to in Lu 1:10 as common; and in one instance, at the offering of the first-fruits, it was ordained in a striking form. De 26:12-15 In later times it certainly grew into a regular service both in the temple and in the synagogue. But, besides this public prayer, it was the custom of all at Jerusalem to go up to the temple, at regular hours if possible, for private prayer, see Lu 18:10; Ac 3:1 and those who were absent were wont to "open their windows toward Jerusalem," and pray "toward" the place...

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/P/Prayer/

Prayer in Easton's Bible Dictionary

is converse with God; the intercourse of the soul with God, not in contemplation or meditation, but in direct address to him. Prayer may be oral or mental, occasional or constant, ejaculatory or formal. It is a "beseeching the Lord" (Ex. 32:11); "pouring out the soul before the Lord" (1 Sam. 1:15); "praying and crying to heaven" (2 Chr. 32:20); "seeking unto God and making supplication" (Job 8:5); "drawing near to God" (Ps. 73:28); "bowing the knees" (Eph. 3:14). Prayer presupposes a belief in the personality of God, his ability and willingness to hold intercourse with us, his personal control of all things and of all his creatures and all their actions. Acceptable prayer must be sincere (Heb. 10:22), offered with reverence and godly fear, with a humble sense of our own insignificance as creatures and of our own unworthiness as sinners, with earnest importunity, and with unhesitating submission to the divine will. Prayer must also be offered in the faith that God is, and is the hearer and answerer of prayer, and that he will fulfil his word, "Ask, and ye shall receive" (Matt. 7:7, 8; 21:22; Mark 11:24; John 14:13, 14), and in the name of Christ (16:23, 24; 15:16; Eph. 2:18; 5:20; Col. 3:17; 1 Pet. 2:5). Prayer is of different kinds, secret (Matt. 6:6); social, as family prayers, and in social worship; and public, in the service of the sanctuary. Intercessory prayer is enjoined (Num. 6:23; Job 42:8; Isa. 62:6; Ps. 122:6; 1 Tim. 2:1; James 5:14), and there are many instances on record of answers having been given to such prayers, e.g., of Abraham (Gen. 17:18, 20; 18:23-32; 20:7, 17, 18), of Moses for Pharaoh (Ex. 8:12, 13, 30, 31; Ex. 9:33), for the Israelites (Ex. 17:11, 13; 32:11-14, 31-34; Num. 21:7, 8; Deut. 9:18, 19, 25), for Miriam (Num. 12:13), for Aaron (Deut. 9:20), of Samuel (1 Sam. 7:5-12), of Solomon (1 Kings 8; 2 Chr. 6), Elijah (1 Kings 17:20-23), Elisha (2 Kings 4:33- 36), Isaiah (2 Kings 19), Jeremiah (42:2-10), Peter (Acts 9:40), the church (12:5-12), Paul (28:8). No rules are anywhere in Scripture laid down for the manner of prayer or the attitude to be assumed by the suppliant. There is mention made of kneeling in prayer (1 Kings 8:54; 2 Chr. 6:13; Ps. 95:6; Isa. 45:23; Luke 22:41; Acts 7:60; 9:40; Eph. 3:14, etc.); of bowing and falling prostrate (Gen. 24:26, 52; Ex. 4:31; 12:27; Matt. 26:39; Mark 14:35, etc.); of spreading out the hands (1 Kings 8:22, 38, 54; Ps. 28:2; 63:4; 88:9; 1 Tim. 2:8, etc.); and of standing (1 Sam. 1:26; 1 Kings 8:14, 55; 2 Chr. 20:9; Mark 11:25; Luke 18:11, 13). If we except the "Lord's Prayer" (Matt. 6:9-13), which is, however, rather a model or pattern of prayer than a set prayer to be offered up, we have no special form of prayer for general use given us in Scripture. Prayer is frequently enjoined in Scripture (Ex. 22:23, 27; 1 Kings 3:5; 2 Chr. 7:14; Ps. 37:4; Isa. 55:6; Joel 2:32; Ezek. 36:37, etc.), and we have very many testimonies that it has been answered (Ps. 3:4; 4:1; 6:8; 18:6; 28:6; 30:2; 34:4; 118:5; James 5:16-18, etc.). "Abraham's servant prayed to God, and God directed him to the person who should be wife to his master's son and heir (Gen. 24:10-20). "Jacob prayed to God, and God inclined the heart of his irritated brother, so that they met in peace and friendship (Gen. 32:24-30; 33:1-4). "Samson prayed to God, and God showed him a well where he quenched his burning thirst, and so lived to judge Israel (Judg. 15:18-20). "David prayed, and God defeated the counsel of Ahithophel (2 Sam. 15:31; 16:20-23; 17:14-23). "Daniel prayed, and God enabled him both to tell Nebuchadnezzar his dream and to give the interpretation of it (Dan. 2: 16-23). "Nehemiah prayed, and God inclined the heart of the king of Persia to grant him leave of absence to visit and rebuild Jerusalem (Neh. 1:11; 2:1-6). "Esther and Mordecai prayed, and God defeated the purpose of Haman, and saved the Jews from destruction (Esther 4:15-17; 6:7, 8). "The believers in Jerusalem prayed, and God opened the prison doors and set Peter at liberty, when Herod had resolved upon his death (Acts 12:1-12). "Paul prayed that the thorn in the flesh might be removed, and his prayer brought a large increase of spiritual strength, while the thorn perhaps remained (2 Cor. 12:7-10). "Prayer is like the dove that Noah sent forth, which blessed him not only when it returned with an olive-leaf in its mouth, but when it never returned at all.", Robinson's Job.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/P/Prayer/

Prayer in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(1) Techinnah, from chandra "to be gracious"; hithpael, "to entreat grace"; Greek deesis. (2) Tephillah, from hithpael of paalal, "to seek judgment"; Greek proseuchee. "Prayer," proseuchee, for obtaining blessings, implying devotion; "supplication," deesis, for averting evil. "Prayer" the general term; "supplication" with imploring earnestness (implying the suppliant's sense of need); enteuxis, intercession for others, coming near to God, seeking an audience in person, generally in another's behalf. Thanksgiving should always go with prayer (1 Timothy 2:1; Ephesians 6:18; Philemon 4:6). An instinct of every nation, even pagan (Isaiah 16:12; Isaiah 44:17; Isaiah 45:20; 1 Kings 18:26). In Seth's days, when Enos (frailty) was born to him, "men began to call upon the name of Jehovah." The name Enos embodies the Sethites' sense of human frailty urging them to prayer, in contrast to the Cainites' self sufficient "pride of countenance" which keeps sinners from seeking God (Psalm 10:4). While the Cainites by building a city and inventing arts were founding the kingdom of this world, the Sethites by united calling upon Jehovah constituted the first church, and laid the foundation of the kingdom of God. The name of God is His whole self manifestation in relation to man. On this revealed divine character of grace and power believers fasten their prayers (Psalm 119:49; Proverbs 18:10). The sceptic's objections to prayer are: (1) The immutability of nature's general laws. But nature is only another name for the will of God; that will provides for answers to prayer in harmony with the general scheme of His government of the world. There are higher laws than those observed in the material world; the latter are subordinate to the former. (2) God's predestinating power, wisdom and love make prayer useless and needless. But man is made a free moral agent; and God who predestines the blessing predestines prayer as the means to that end (Matthew 24:20). Prayer produces and strengthens in the mind conscious dependence on God, faith, and love, the state for receiving and appreciating God's blessing ordained in answer to prayer. Moreover prayer does not supersede work; praying and working are complementary of each other (Nehemiah 4:9). Our weakness drives us to cast ourselves on God's fatherly love, providence, and power. Our cf6 "Father knoweth what things we have need of before we ask Him"; "we know not what things we should pray for as we ought" (Matthew 6:8; Romans 8:26). Yet "the Spirit helpeth our infirmities," and Jesus teaches us by the Lord's prayer how to pray (Luke 11). Nor is the blessing merely subjective; but we may pray for particular blessings, temporal and spiritual, in submission to God's will, for ourselves. cf6 "Thy will be done," (Matthew 6:10) and "if we ask anything according to His will" (1 John 5:14-15), is the limitation. Every truly believing prayer contains this limitation. God then grants either the petition or something better than it, so that no true prayer is lost (2 Corinthians 12:7-10; Luke 22:42; Hebrews 5:7). Also "intercessions" for others (the effect of which cannot be merely subjective) are enjoined (1 Timothy 2:1). God promises blessings in answer to prayer, as the indispensable condition of the gift (Matthew 7:7-8). Examples confirm the command to pray. None prayed so often as Jesus; early in the morning "a great while before day" (Mark 1:35), "all the night" (Luke 6:12), in Gethsemane with an "agony" that drew from Him "sweat as it were great drops of blood falling to the ground" (Luke 22:44); "when He was being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened" (Luke 3:21); "as He prayed" He was transfigured (Luke 9:29); "as He was praying in a certain place" (Luke 11:1) one disciple struck by His prayer said, "Lord teach us to pray as John also taught his disciples" (Luke 11:1) (an interesting fact here only recorded). Above all, the intercession in John 17, His beginning of advocacy with the Father for us; an example of the highest and holiest spiritual communion. The Holy Spirit in believers "maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God." "He that...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/P/Prayer/

Prayer Scripture - Nehemiah 1:6

Let thine ear now be attentive, and thine eyes open, that thou mayest hear the prayer of thy servant, which I pray before thee now, day and night, for the children of Israel thy servants, and confess the sins of the children of Israel, which we have sinned against thee: both I and my father's house have sinned.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Nehemiah/1/

Prayer Scripture - 2 Kings 19:4

It may be the LORD thy God will hear all the words of Rabshakeh, whom the king of Assyria his master hath sent to reproach the living God; and will reprove the words which the LORD thy God hath heard: wherefore lift up [thy] prayer for the remnant that are left.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/19/

Prayer Scripture - Isaiah 37:4

It may be the LORD thy God will hear the words of Rabshakeh, whom the king of Assyria his master hath sent to reproach the living God, and will reprove the words which the LORD thy God hath heard: wherefore lift up [thy] prayer for the remnant that is left.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/37/

Prayer Scripture - 1 Kings 9:3

And the LORD said unto him, I have heard thy prayer and thy supplication, that thou hast made before me: I have hallowed this house, which thou hast built, to put my name there for ever; and mine eyes and mine heart shall be there perpetually.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/9/

Prayer Scripture - Job 22:27

Thou shalt make thy prayer unto him, and he shall hear thee, and thou shalt pay thy vows.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job/22/

Prayer Scripture - 2 Samuel 7:27

For thou, O LORD of hosts, God of Israel, hast revealed to thy servant, saying, I will build thee an house: therefore hath thy servant found in his heart to pray this prayer unto thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/7/

Prayer Scripture - 2 Chronicles 6:20

That thine eyes may be open upon this house day and night, upon the place whereof thou hast said that thou wouldest put thy name there; to hearken unto the prayer which thy servant prayeth toward this place.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/6/

Prayer Scripture - Psalms 142:1

Prayer when he was in the cave.> I cried unto the LORD with my voice; with my voice unto the LORD did I make my supplication.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/142/

Prayer Scripture - 1 Kings 8:29

That thine eyes may be open toward this house night and day, [even] toward the place of which thou hast said, My name shall be there: that thou mayest hearken unto the prayer which thy servant shall make toward this place.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/8/

Prayer Scripture - 2 Kings 20:5

Turn again, and tell Hezekiah the captain of my people, Thus saith the LORD, the God of David thy father, I have heard thy prayer, I have seen thy tears: behold, I will heal thee: on the third day thou shalt go up unto the house of the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/20/

Shawl in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

shol: the Revised Version (British and American) substitutes "shawls" for the King James Version "wimples" in Isa 3:22.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SHAWL/

Agrarian Laws in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

a-gra'-ri-an loz: 1. The Sabbath Year 2. The Jubilee 3. Its Object 4. The Legal Rules 5. Ideas and Circumstances of the Legislation 6. Form of the Legislation 7. Its Operation and Extension 8. Other Laws Affecting the Land The Mosaic provisions on this subject form one of the most characteristic and interesting portions of the legislation. The main institutions are two, namely, the Sabbath year and the jubilee, and they are closely linked together. 1. The Sabbath Year: In every seventh year the land was to lie fallow "that the poor of thy people may eat: and what they leave the beast of the field shall eat" (Ex 23:10 f; compare Lev 25:2-7). `And the Sabbath of the land shall be for food for you; for thee, and for thy servant, and for thy maid, and for thy hired servant and for thy stranger that sojourn with thee; but for thy cattle, and for the beasts that are in thy land, shall all the increase thereof be for food' (Lev 25:6 f). This has been quoted at length because the rendering of English Versions of the Bible is misleading. "The Sabbath of the land" does not mean that the natural increase thereof is to be eaten by the Israelite peasant. That interpretation is excluded by Lev. 25:3-5,20-22. What is intended is clearly shown by the latter of these two passages, "I will command my blessing upon you in the sixth year." The principle on which the manna had been provided for Sabbaths was to apply to the harvest of the sixth year, and this is the import of the phrase. 2. The Jubilee: After "seven sabbaths of years, even forty and tone years" a trumpet was to be blown throughout the land on the tenth day of the seventh month (i.e. the Day of Atonement) and the fiftieth year was to be hallowed and celebrated as a "jubilee." No agricultural work of any kind was to be performed, but "ye may (so correct EVV) eat the increase thereof out of the field" (Lev 25:12). God would so bless the land in the sixth year that it would bring forth enough for the Sabbath year, the ensuing jubilee and the subsequent period to the harvest of the ninth year (Lev 25:20-22). 3. Its Object: In addition to being a period in which the land was left fallow, the jubilee was intended to meet the economic evils that befell peasants in ancient societies. Wars or unfavorable seasons would soon reduce a farmer to a condition in which he would have to borrow. But money is rarely to be had without interest and security, and in early communities the rates of interest were very high indeed, while the only security the farmer could offer would consist of his land and the persons of himself and his children. Hence we find insolvency giving rise to the alienation of land and to slavery all over the world--sometimes with the retention of civil rights (as in Rome and Israel), at others in a more unalloyed form. The jubilee aims at both these evils. It is provided that in that year the peasants who had lost their full freedom through insolvency should be free (see Wiener, Studies in Biblical Law, 5 ff) and all lands that had been sold should return to the original owner or his family. "And the land shall not be sold in perpetuity; for the land is mine: for ye are strangers and sojourners with me" (lev 25:23). To this theory...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/A/AGRARIAN+LAWS/

Landmark in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

land'-mark (gebhul, literally, "boundary"): The boundary may have been marked, as at present, simply by a furrow or stone. The iniquity of removing a landmark is frequently insisted on (Dt 19:14; 27:17; Prov 22:28; 23:10; Job 24:2 gebhulah), its removal being equivalent to theft.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/L/LANDMARK/

Landmarks in Naves Topical Bible

Protected from fraudulent removal De 19:14; 27:17; Job 24:9; Pr 22:28; 23:10; Ho 5:10

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/L/LANDMARKS/

Landmark in Easton's Bible Dictionary

a boundary line indicated by a stone, stake, etc. (Deut. 19:14; 27:17; Prov. 22:28; 23:10; Job 24:2). Landmarks could not be removed without incurring the severe displeasure of God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/L/Landmark/

Raid in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

rad (1 Sam 27:10).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/R/RAID/

Rain in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

ran (maTar, Arabic (?), maTar, "rain" geshem, "heavy rain" moreh, "early rain," yoreh, "former rain," malqosh, "latter rain"; brecho, huetos): 1. Water-Supply in Egypt and Israel: In Egypt there is little or no rainfall, the water for vegetation being supplied in great abundance by the river Nile; but in Syria and Israel there are no large rivers, and the people have to depend entirely on the fall of rain for water for themselves, their animals and their fields. The children of Israel when in Egypt were promised by Yahweh a land which "drinketh water of the rain of heaven" (Dt 11:11). Springs and fountains are found in most of the valleys, but the flow of the springs depends directly on the fall of rain or snow in the mountains. 2. Importance of Rain in Season: The cultivation of the land in Israel is practically dry farming in most of the districts, but even then some water is necessary, so that there may be moisture in the soil. In the summer months there is no rain, so that the rains of the spring and fall seasons are absolutely essential for starting and maturing the crops. The lack of this rain in the proper time has often been the cause of complete failure of the harvest. A small difference in the amount of these seasonal rains makes a large difference in the possibility of growing various crops without irrigation. Ellsworth Huntington has insisted on this point with great care in his very important work, Israel and Its Transformation. The promise of prosperity is given in the assurance of "rain in due season" (Lev 26:4 the King James Version). The withholding of rain according to the prophecy of Elijah (1 Ki 17:1) caused the mountain streams to dry up (1 Ki 17:7), and certain famine ensued. A glimpse of the terrible suffering for lack of water at that time is given us. The people were uncertain of another meal (1 Ki 17:12), and the animals were perishing (1 Ki 18:5). 3. Amount of Rainfall: Israel and Syria are on the borderland between the sea and the desert, and besides are so mountainous, that they not only have a great range of rainfall in different years, but a great variation in different parts of the country. The amount of rain on the western slopes is comparable with that in England and America, varying from 25 to 40 inches per annum, but it falls mostly in the four winter months, when the downpour is often very heavy, giving oftentimes from 12 to 16 inches in a month. On the eastern slopes it is much less, varying from 8 to 20 inches per annum. The highest amount falls in the mountains of Lebanon where it averages about 50 inches. In Beirut the yearly average is 35,87 inches. As we go South from Syria, the amount decreases (Haifa 27,75, Jaffa 22,39, Gaze 17,61), while in the Sinaitic Peninsula there is little or none. Going from West to East the change is much more sudden, owing to the mountains which stop the clouds. In Damascus the average is less than 10 inches. In Jerusalem the average for 50 years is 26,16 in., and the range is from 13,19 in 1870 to 41,62 in 1897. The yearly records as given by J. Glaisher and A. Datzi in Israel Exploration Fund Quarterly from 1861 to 1910, 50 years, are given in the accompanying table.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/R/RAIN/

Rain in Naves Topical Bible

Forty days of, at the time of the great flood of Noah Ge 7:4,10-12,17-24 -The plague of, upon Egypt Ex 9:22-26,33,34 -Miraculously caused By Samuel 1Sa 12:16-19 By Elijah 1Ki 18:41-45 -David delivered by 2Sa 5:17-21; Isa 28:21 -North wind unfavorable to Pr 25:23 -Withheld as judgment De 11:17; 28:24; 1Ki 8:35; 2Ch 7:13; Jer 3:3; Am 4:7; Zec 14:17 -The earth will never again be destroyed by Ge 9:8-17 -Sent by God De 11:13,14; Job 37:6; Isa 30:23; Jer 5:24; 14:22 -Contingent upon obedience Le 26:3,4; De 11:13,14 -Prayer for 1Ki 8:35,36; 2Ch 6:26,27 -Answer to prayer for, promised 2Ch 7:13,14; Zec 10:1 -Withheld, in answer to prayer Jas 5:17,18 -Rainy season in Palestine is in the ninth month, corresponding to December Ezr 10:9,13 -See METEOROLOGY -FIGURATIVE Ps 72:6

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/R/RAIN/

Rain in Smiths Bible Dictionary

In the Bible "early rain" signifies the rain of the autumn, De 11:14 and "latter rain" the rain of spring. Pr 16:1,5 For six months in the year, from May to October, no rain falls, the whole land becomes dry, parched and brown. The autumnal rains are eagerly looked for, to prepare the earth for the reception of the seed. These, the early rains, commence about the latter end of October continuing through November and December. January and February are the coldest months, and snow falls, sometimes to the depth of a foot or more, at Jerusalem, but it does not lie long; it is very seldom seen along the coast and in the low plains. Rain continues to fall more or less during the month of March it is very rare in April. Robinson observes that there are not, at the present day, "any particular periods of rain or succession of showers which might be regarded as distinct rainy seasons. The whole period from October to March now constitutes only one continued season of rain, without any regularly-intervening term of prolonged fine weather. Unless therefore, there has been some change in the climate, the early and the latter rains, for which the husbandman waited with longing, seem rather to hare implied the first showers of autumn--which revived the parched and thirsty soil and prepared it for the seed --and the later showers of spring, which continued to refresh and forward both the ripening crops and the vernal products of the fields." Jas 5:7; Pr 16:15

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/R/Rain/

Rain in Easton's Bible Dictionary

There are three Hebrew words used to denote the rains of different seasons, (1.) Yoreh (Hos. 6:3), or moreh (Joel 2:23), denoting the former or the early rain. (2.) Melqosh, the "latter rain" (Prov. 16:15). (3.) Geshem, the winter rain, "the rains." The heavy winter rain is mentioned in Gen. 7:12; Ezra 10:9; Cant. 2:11. The "early" or "former" rains commence in autumn in the latter part of October or beginning of November (Deut. 11:14; Joel 2:23; comp. Jer. 3:3), and continue to fall heavily for two months. Then the heavy "winter rains" fall from the middle of December to March. There is no prolonged fair weather in Israel between October and March. The "latter" or spring rains fall in March and April, and serve to swell the grain then coming to maturity (Deut. 11:14; Hos. 6:3). After this there is ordinarily no rain, the sky being bright and cloudless till October or November. Rain is referred to symbolically in Deut. 32:2; Ps. 72:6; Isa. 44:3, 4; Hos. 10:12.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/R/Rain/

Rain in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(See PALESTINE; Climate.) Matar. Geshem, "violent rain" or generically "the early and latter rain" (Jeremiah 5:24; Joel 2:23). Yoreh, "the early rain of autumn"; malkosh, "the latter rain of spring" (Proverbs 16:15; Job 29:23; Jeremiah 3:3; Hosea 6:3; Zechariah 10:1). Rebibim, from rab "many," from the multitude of drops; "showers" (Deuteronomy 32:2). Zerem, "violent rain," "hailstorm" (Job 24:8). Sagrir only in Proverbs 27:15. As compared with Egypt, Israel was a land of rain (Deuteronomy 11:10-11), but for six months no rain falls so that "rain in harvest" and "thunder" were marvelous phenomena, and out of time and place (Proverbs 26:1; 1 Samuel 12:16-18). The early rain begins gradually, the latter end of October or beginning of November. Generally from the W. or S.W. (Luke 12:54); the wind then changes to the N. or E. At no period in the winter, from the end of October to the end of March, does rain entirely cease. In January and February snow falls, but lies only a short time. "The early rain" means the first autumnal showers which prepare the arid soil for the seed; "the latter rain" the later spring showers, especially in March, which Bring forward the crop toward harvest (James 5:7; Proverbs 16:15). Showers fall occasionally in April and May. God claims as His peculiar prerogative the sending or withholding of rain, which He made dependent on the obedience or disobedience of Israel (Leviticus 26:3-5; Leviticus 26:19; Deuteronomy 11:13-15; Deuteronomy 28:23-24; Jeremiah 3:3; Jeremiah 5:24; Jeremiah 14:22). "The latter rain in the first (month)" in Joel 2:23 means in the month when first it is needed; or else, as Vulgate and Septuagint, "as at the first" (compare Isaiah 1:26; Hosea 2:15; Malachi 3:4); or in Nisan or Abib, the Passover month, the first, namely, the end of March and beginning of April. The departure of winter was marked by the cessation of rain (Song of Solomon 2:11-13). Rain is the beautiful image of the Spirit's refreshing influences in Messiah's kingdom (Hosea 6:3; 2 Samuel 23:4; Psalm 72:6).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/R/Rain/

Rain Scripture - 2 Chronicles 6:27

Then hear thou from heaven, and forgive the sin of thy servants, and of thy people Israel, when thou hast taught them the good way, wherein they should walk; and send rain upon thy land, which thou hast given unto thy people for an inheritance.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/6/

Rain Scripture - Genesis 7:4

For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/7/

Rain Scripture - 1 Samuel 12:18

So Samuel called unto the LORD; and the LORD sent thunder and rain that day: and all the people greatly feared the LORD and Samuel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Samuel/12/

Rain Scripture - 1 Kings 8:36

Then hear thou in heaven, and forgive the sin of thy servants, and of thy people Israel, that thou teach them the good way wherein they should walk, and give rain upon thy land, which thou hast given to thy people for an inheritance.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/8/

Rain Scripture - Deuteronomy 28:12

The LORD shall open unto thee his good treasure, the heaven to give the rain unto thy land in his season, and to bless all the work of thine hand: and thou shalt lend unto many nations, and thou shalt not borrow.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/28/

Rain Scripture - Psalms 68:9

Thou, O God, didst send a plentiful rain, whereby thou didst confirm thine inheritance, when it was weary.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/68/

Rain Scripture - Genesis 2:5

And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and [there was] not a man to till the ground.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/2/

Rain Scripture - Ezekiel 1:28

As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so [was] the appearance of the brightness round about. This [was] the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw [it], I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spake.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/1/

Rain Scripture - Ezra 10:9

Then all the men of Judah and Benjamin gathered themselves together unto Jerusalem within three days. It [was] the ninth month, on the twentieth [day] of the month; and all the people sat in the street of the house of God, trembling because of [this] matter, and for the great rain.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezra/10/

Rain Scripture - Deuteronomy 11:17

And [then] the LORD'S wrath be kindled against you, and he shut up the heaven, that there be no rain, and that the land yield not her fruit; and [lest] ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/11/

Horn in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

horn (Hebrew and Aramaic qeren; keras; for the "ram's horn" (yobhel) of Josh 6 see MUSIC, and for the "inkhorn" of Ezek 9 (qeceth) see separate article): (1) Qeren and keras represent the English "horn" exactly, whether on the animal (Gen 22:13), or used for musical purposes (Josh 6:5; 1 Ch 25:5), or for containing a liquid (1 Sam 16:1,13; 1 Ki 1:39), but in Ezek 27:15 the horns of ivory are of course tusks and the "horns" of ebony are small (pointed?) logs. Consequently most of the usages require no explanation. (2) Both the altar of burnt offering (Ex 27:2; 38:2; compare Ezek 43:15) and the incense altar (Ex 30:2; 37:25,26; compare Rev 9:13) had "horns," which are explained to be projections "of one piece with" the wooden framework and covered with the brass (or gold) that covered the altar. They formed the most sacred part of the altar and were anointed with the blood of the most solemn sacrifices (only) (Ex 30:10; Lev 4:7,18,25,30,34; 16:18; compare Ezek 43:20), and according to Lev 8:15; 9:9, the first official sacrifices began by anointing them. Consequently cutting off the horns effectually desecrated the altar (Am 3:14), while "sin graven on them" (Jer 17:1) took all efficacy from the sacrifice. On the other hand they offered the highest sanctuary (1 Ki 1:50,51; 2:28). Of their symbolism nothing whatever is said, and the eventual origin is quite obscure. "Remnants of a bull-cult" and "miniature sacred towers" have been suggested, but are wholly uncertain. A more likely origin is from an old custom of draping the altar with skins of sacrificed animals (RS, 436). That, however, the "horns" were mere conveniences for binding the sacrificial animals (Ps 118:27, a custom referred to nowhere else in the Old Testament), is most unlikely. See ALTAR. (3) The common figurative use of "horn" is taken from the image of battling animals (literal use in Dan 8:7, etc.) to denote aggressive strength. So Zedekiah ben Chenaanah illustrates the predicted defeat of the enemies by pushing with iron horns (1 Ki 22:11; 2 Ch 18:10), while "horns of the wildox" (Dt 33:17; Ps 22:21; 92:10, the King James Version "unicorn") represent the magnitude of power, and in Zec 1:18-21 "horns" stand for power in general. In Hab 3:4 the "horns coming out of his hand" denote the potency of Yahweh's gesture (the Revised Version (British and American) "rays" may be smoother, but is weak). So to "exalt the horn" (1 Sam 2:1,10; Ps 75:4, etc.) is to clothe with strength, and to "cut off the horn" (not to be explained by Am 3:14) is to rob of power (Ps 75:10; Jer 48:25). Hence, the "horn of salvation" in 2 Sam 22:3; Ps 18:2; Lk 1:69 is a means of active defense and not a place of sanctuary as in 1 Ki 1:50. When, in Dan 7:7-24; 8:3,8,9,20,21; Rev 13:1; 17:3,7,12,16, many horns are given to the same animal, they figure successive nations or rulers. But the seven horns in Rev 5:6; 12:3 denote the completeness of the malevolent or righteous power. In Rev 13:11, however, the two horns point only to the external imitation of the harmless lamb, the "horns" being mere stubs.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/H/HORN/

Horn in Naves Topical Bible

Used to containi the anointing oil 1Sa 16:1; 1Ki 1:39 -Used for a trumpet See TRUMPET -FIGURATIVE Of divine protection 2Sa 22:3 Of power 1Ki 22:11; Ps 89:24; 92:10; 132:17 -SYMBOLICAL Da 7:7-24; 8:3-9,20; Am 6:13; Mic 4:13; Hab 3:4; Zec 1:18-21; Re 5:6; 12:3; 13:1,11; 17:3-16 Horns of the altar See ALTAR

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/H/HORN/

Horn in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The word "horn" is often used metaphorically to signify strength and honor, because horns are the chief weapons and ornaments of the animals which possess them; hence they are also used as a type of victory. Of strength the horn of the unicorn was the most frequent representative, De 33:17 etc., but not always; comp. 1Ki 22:11 where probably horns of iron, worn defiantly and symbolically on the head, are intended. Among the Druses upon Mount Lebanon the married women wear silver horns on their heads. In the sense of honor, the word horn stands for the abstract "my horn," Job 16:16 "all the horn of Israel," 1Sa 2:3 and so for the supreme authority. It also stands for the concrete, whence it comes to mean king, kingdom. Da 8:2 etc.; Zech 1:18 Out of either or both of these last two metaphors sprang the idea of representing gods with horns.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/H/Horn/

Horn in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Trumpets were at first horns perforated at the tip, used for various purposes (Josh. 6:4,5). Flasks or vessels were made of horn (1 Sam. 16:1, 13; 1 Kings 1:39). But the word is used also metaphorically to denote the projecting corners of the altar of burnt offerings (Ex. 27:2) and of incense (30:2). The horns of the altar of burnt offerings were to be smeared with the blood of the slain bullock (29:12; Lev. 4:7-18). The criminal, when his crime was accidental, found an asylum by laying hold of the horns of the altar (1 Kings 1:50; 2:28). The word also denotes the peak or summit of a hill (Isa. 5:1, where the word "hill" is the rendering of the same Hebrew word). This word is used metaphorically also for strength (Deut. 33:17) and honour (Job 16:15; Lam. 2:3). Horns are emblems of power, dominion, glory, and fierceness, as they are the chief means of attack and defence with the animals endowed with them (Dan. 8:5, 9; 1 Sam. 2:1; 16:1, 13; 1 Kings 1:39; 22:11; Josh. 6:4, 5; Ps. 75:5, 10; 132:17; Luke 1:69, etc.). The expression "horn of salvation," applied to Christ, means a salvation of strength, or a strong Saviour (Luke 1:69). To have the horn "exalted" denotes prosperity and triumph (Ps. 89:17, 24). To "lift up" the horn is to act proudly (Zech. 1:21). Horns are also the symbol of royal dignity and power (Jer. 48:25; Zech. 1:18; Dan. 8:24).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/H/Horn/

Horn in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

qeren. Trumpets were perhaps at first merely horns perforated at the tip. In Joshua 6:4-5, instead of "trumpets of rams' horns," translated "Jubilee trumpets." Rams' horns would scarcely have been effective enough. Hajobeel, from jabal "to stream violently with noise," is the name for a long wind instrument like a horn. Used for summoning to war, or for public proclamations (Judges 3:27; Judges 7:18). The horn was also used for a flask to contain oil (1 Samuel 16:1); also to contain stibium or antimony to beautify the eyelashes and eyelids of women; from whence Job's daughter drew her name Keren-happuch, "horn of stibium," in contrast to Job's "horn defiled in the dust" formerly (Job 16:15). The "horn" being the instrument of the oxen's strength is the symbol of power (1 Kings 22:11). The "horns of the (See ALTAR" were simply projections from the four corners. The peak of a hill is called a horn. Isaiah 5:1, "a very fruitful hill" Hebrew "a horn of the son of oil," as the Swiss Shreckhorn, Wetterhorn, Celtic cairn. In Habakkuk 3:4, "He had horns coming out of His hand" means, He had the emblems of power wielded by His hand (L. de Dieu), or else rays" (i.e. lightnings): Psalm 18:8 (Maurer). So Exodus 34:29-30; Exodus 34:35, qaaran, "to horn," is used in the sense to emit rays. Livingstone mentions a horn-shaped cap as worn by Africans; married Druse women wear silver horns on their heads. The ram with two horns (Daniel 8:3) represents the Medo-Persian double power. The "notable horn" of the "he goat" (Daniel 8:5) is Alexander the Great who on coins is represented with horns. The four horns in Zechariah 1:18 represent the four ruling powers of the world, to be superseded finally by Messiah's kingdom: Babylon, Medo- Persia, Greece, and Rome. (On "the little horn" of the third and of the fourth world powers (Daniel 7:8; Daniel 8:9). (See ANTICHRIST.) On Egyptian and Roman coins, and in Assyrian sculptures, are figures of gods with horns, symbolical of power. "A horn of salvation" means mighty instrument of salvation (Luke 1:69).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/H/Horn/

Horn Scripture - Lamentations 2:17

The LORD hath done [that] which he had devised; he hath fulfilled his word that he had commanded in the days of old: he hath thrown down, and hath not pitied: and he hath caused [thine] enemy to rejoice over thee, he hath set up the horn of thine adversaries.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Lamentations/2/

Phylacteries in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Gr. phulakteria; i.e., "defences" or "protections"), called by modern Jews tephillin (i.e., "prayers") are mentioned only in Matt. 23:5. They consisted of strips of parchment on which were inscribed these four texts: (1.) Ex. 13:1-10; (2.) 11-16; (3.) Deut. 6:4-9; (4.) 11:18-21, and which were enclosed in a square leather case, on one side of which was inscribed the Hebrew letter shin, to which the rabbis attached some significance. This case was fastened by certain straps to the forehead just between the eyes. The "making broad the phylacteries" refers to the enlarging of the case so as to make it conspicuous. (See FRONTLETS -T0001386.) Another form of the phylactery consisted of two rolls of parchment, on which the same texts were written, enclosed in a case of black calfskin. This was worn on the left arm near the elbow, to which it was bound by a thong. It was called the "Tephillah on the arm."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/P/Phylacteries/

Phylacteries in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

nezem, which also includes the nose ring hanging on one side of the nose (Genesis 24:47, where the words "upon her face" imply either a nose ring or one to be hung from her forehead, Genesis 35:4). Circular, as its other name 'agil implies. Oriental men wore them as well as women. Judges 8:24 seems to imply that the Israelite men did not wear them, as did the Ishmaelites; but Exodus 32:2 proves that young "sons" wore them. There were besides netiphot (Judges 8:26), not "collars" but pearlshaped "ear drops," or jewels attached to the rings, or else pendent scent bottles, or pendants from the neck on the breast, "Chains" KJV (Isaiah 3:19; Isaiah 3:21), "earrings" (leehashim, from laachash "to whisper"), AMULETS with magic inscriptions, and so surrendered along with the idols by Jacob's household (Genesis 35:4). The best use made of them was that in Numbers 31:50, an offering to the Lord to "make atonement for souls"; not that our gifts can wipe away guilt, but acknowledgments of God's grace not being offered in loving gratitude evince an unatoned state, and so a state of guilt. When offered in loving faith, they evidence and seal visibly our reception of the atonement (Luke 7:44-47). The "phylacteries," headbands, totapkot (Matthew 23:5) in the Talmudists' opinion were the sanctioned antidote to the idolatrous amulets and "earrings" (Deuteronomy 6:7-8; Deuteronomy 11:18-19; contrast Hosea 2:13; Isaiah 3:21, lechashim. But the language in Deuteronomy and in Exodus 13:9; Exodus 13:16 is rightly taken by the Karaite Jews as proverbial, not literal; as is apparent from the reason added, "that the law of Jehovah may be in thy mouth"; for it is by receiving the law into the heart, and by keeping it, that it would be naturally on the tongue continually. God does not say that His law was to be written upon scrolls, but to be "for a sign upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes," i.e., was to be kept in view like memorials upon the forehead and the hand, the prominent visible parts symbolizing respectively open confession and action (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 22:4). This view is proved by Proverbs 3:3; Proverbs 4:21; Proverbs 6:21-22; Proverbs 7:3. But latterly the Jews used the "phylacteries," totaphot, or tephillim, prayer fillets, parchment strips with sentences of the law, bound on the forehead or left arm during prayer.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/P/Phylacteries/

Phylacteries in Hitchcock's Bible Names

things to be especially observed

Link: https://bible-history.com/hitchcock/P/Phylacteries/

Phylacteries Scripture - Matthew 23:5

But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/23/

Frontlets Scripture - Exodus 13:16

And it shall be for a token upon thine hand, and for frontlets between thine eyes: for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/13/

Frontlets Scripture - Deuteronomy 6:8

And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/6/

Frontlets Scripture - Deuteronomy 11:18

Therefore shall ye lay up these my words in your heart and in your soul, and bind them for a sign upon your hand, that they may be as frontlets between your eyes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/11/

Physician in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

fi-zish'-an (rophi; iatros): To the pious Jew at all times God was the healer (Dt 32:39): "It was neither herb nor mollifying plaister that cured them, but thy word, O Lord, which healeth all things" (The Wisdom of Solomon 16:12). The first physicians mentioned in Scripture are those of Egypt. Long before the sojourn of the Hebrews in that land, Egypt had a priestly class of physicians (snu) and a god of healing (Imchtp). From the ancient medical papyri which have been preserved, the largest of which is the Papyrus Ebers, we know that the medical knowledge of these physicians was purely empirical, largely magical and wholly unscientific. In spite of their ample opportunities they knew next to nothing of human anatomy, their descriptions of diseases are hopelessly crude, and three-fourths of the hundreds of prescriptions in the papyri are wholly inert. Even their art of embalming was so imperfect that few of their mummies would have remained in any other climate than that of Egypt. Physicians of this kind who were Joseph's servants embalmed Jacob (Gen 50:2) and Joseph (Gen 50:26). It was not until the foundation of the School of Alexandria, which was purely Greek, that Egypt became a place of medical education and research. There is no evidence that at any time the priests of Israel were reputed to be the possessors of medical knowledge or tradition. In the ceremonial law they had explicit instructions as to the isolation of those suffering from skin eruptions, so that they might recognize certain obstinate and infectious forms which caused ceremonial uncleanness, but with this duty as sanitary police their function ended and they used no means to cure these diseases. There is, as far as I know, no record or tradition of a priest-physician in Bible times. The records of cure by the prophets, especially Elisha, are mostly recorded as miracles, not as cures by treatment. The salt which cured the noxious water at Jericho and the meal by which the poisonous gourds were rendered innoxious, like the manipulation of the Shunammite's son, can scarcely be regarded as adequate remedies. There is an implied reference to a healer of wounds in Ex 21:19, as also in Isa 3:7, and it is recorded in Pesachim, iv.9 that there was in existence in the time of the monarchy a book of cures, cepher rephu'oth, supposed to have been written by Solomon, but withdrawn from public use by Hezekiah. The first specific mention of Hebrew physicians is 2 Ch 16:12, but Asa is obviously regarded by the Chronicler as reprehensible in trusting to their skill. In 2 Ki 8:29 Joram, king of Israel, is said to have gone to Jezreel to be healed. Not far from this, across the Jordan, was Gilead, which possibly may also have been a place resorted to by those needing medical treatment, as indicated by Jeremiah's query: "Is there no balm in Gilead? is there no physician there?" (Jer 8:22). Job, irritated by the platitudes of his friends, calls them physicians of no value (13:4). In the New Testament our Lord's saying, "They that are whole have no need of a physician," etc., shows that there were physicians in Galilee (Mt 9:12; Mk 2:17; Lk 5:31), and in Nazareth He quotes what seems to have been a proverb: "Physician, heal thyself" (Lk 4:23). There were...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/P/PHYSICIAN/

Physician in Naves Topical Bible

General scriptures concerning 2Ch 16:12; Mt 9:12; Mr 5:26; Lu 8:43 -Proverbs about Mr 2:17; Lu 4:23 -Luke, a physician Col 4:14 -FIGURATIVE Job 13:4; Jer 8:22; Lu 5:31

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/P/PHYSICIAN/

Physician in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Asa, afflicted with some bodily malady, "sought not to the Lord but to the physicians" (2 Chr. 16:12). The "physicians" were those who "practised heathen arts of magic, disavowing recognized methods of cure, and dissociating the healing art from dependence on the God of Israel. The sin of Asa was not, therefore, in seeking medical advice, as we understand the phrase, but in forgetting Jehovah."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/P/Physician/

Physician Scripture - Mark 2:17

When Jesus heard [it], he saith unto them, They that are whole have no need of the physician, but they that are sick: I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/2/

Physician Scripture - Jeremiah 8:22

[Is there] no balm in Gilead; [is there] no physician there? why then is not the health of the daughter of my people recovered?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/8/

Physician Scripture - Colossians 4:14

Luke, the beloved physician, and Demas, greet you.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Colossians/4/

Physician Scripture - Luke 4:23

And he said unto them, Ye will surely say unto me this proverb, Physician, heal thyself: whatsoever we have heard done in Capernaum, do also here in thy country.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/4/

Physician Scripture - Matthew 9:12

But when Jesus heard [that], he said unto them, They that be whole need not a physician, but they that are sick.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/9/

Physician Scripture - Luke 5:31

And Jesus answering said unto them, They that are whole need not a physician; but they that are sick.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/5/

Plow in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

plou (charash; arotrioo): No implement of the Bible is more frequently illustrated today than the plow. This is partly because there is every reason to believe that the plows still used throughout Egypt, Israel, and Syria are counterparts of the ancient ones. The first plows were probably an adaptation of the ancient Egyptian hoe, where the handle was lengthened in order that animals might be hitched to it. To make it easier to break up the ground, it was pointed, and handles were added by which it could be guided. The ancient plow probably varied in type in different sections of the country, as it does today. In one form a young tree Of oak or other strong wood of a diameter of 3 or 4 inches is cut off just below a good-sized branch and again 15 or 20 inches above. The upper end of the severed trunk is pointed and forms the share. Between this and the side branch is fitted a brace. The branch is cut off 10 or 12 ft. from the trunk and forms the pole. A lighter stick, about 3 ft. long, projects upward from the share and forms the handle. The plow used in Syria is of slightly different construction. The handle and share are one continuous piece, so cut that there is a slight bend at the middle. The share is pointed and is used bare in the plains, or in more stony regions is shod with iron. The pole is of 2 pieces joined end to end. The thicker end of the pole is notched, so that it may be attached firmly to the share. The whole plow is so light that it can be easily carried on a man's shoulder. These plows literally scratch the soil, as the Hebrew word implies. They do not turn over the ground as the modern implement does. The plowman guides the plow with one hand, and with the other sometimes goads the oxen, and at other times with the chisel end of his goad breaks away the lumps of earth or other material which impedes the progress of his plow. See YOKE. In addition to the words which are found above, the following terms occur: `abhadh (literally, "to serve"), "worked" or "plowed" (Dt 21:4); palach (literally, "to break open," Ps 141:7). One special law is mentioned in connection with plowing, namely that an ox and an ass should not be yoked together (Dt 22:10), a prohibition which is utterly disregarded today. Oxen were principally used for plowing (Job 1:14). Often several yokes of oxen followed each other plowing parallel furrows across the field, a sight still common on the plains of Syria (1 Ki 19:19). Plowing was done by bond servants (Lk 17:7; compare `abhadh, Dt 21:4). Plowing cannot be done before the rains (Jer 14:4); on the other hand the soil is too sticky to plow in the winter time (Prov 20:4). The law requiring one day of rest in every seven days included plowing time (Ex 34:21). Figurative: "The plowers plowed upon my back" typified deep affliction (Ps 129:3; compare 141:7). "Plow iniquity" is urged in the sense of "plant iniquity." Doing evil was sure to bring evil consequences (Job 4:8; compare Mic 3:12). As surely as planting comes after plowing, so surely will Yahweh carry out His decree of destruction (Isa 28:23-25). "Judah shall plow," i.e. become enslaved (Hos 10:11); compare "Foreigners shall be your plowmen" (Isa 61:5). "Will one plow there with oxen?" (Am 6:12), "neither plowing nor harvest" (Gen 45:6) are figures of desolation. Zion plowed as a field, i.e. utterly destroyed (Jer 26:18). The plowman shall overtake the reaper, i.e. the soil shall be so fertile as to require no rest--typical of great abundance (Am 9:13). No opportunity to plow because of lack of rain is a desolate picture of drought (Jer 14:4). As the plowman expects to share in the fruits of the harvest, so might an apostle expect his temporal needs to be provided for (1 Cor 9:10). "If ye had not plowed with my heifer," i.e. used my wife, was Samson's reply to those who had secured the answer to his riddle from her (Jdg 14:18). "Beat their swords into plowshares" (or hoes) (Isa 2:4; Mic 4:3) typified peace; "beat your plowshares into swords"--war (Joel 3:10). "Having put his hand to the plow, and looking back," i.e. longing for evil things when one has set his face toward doing what is right, unfits a man for the kingdom of God (Lk 9:62; compare Gen 19:26; Phil 3:13).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/P/PLOW/

Plow in Naves Topical Bible

Shares of, sharpened by the smiths of the Philistines 1Sa 13:20 -Used by Elisha with twelve yoke (pairs) of oxen 1Ki 19:19 -By Job's servants Job 1:14 -FIGURATIVE Of afflictions Ps 129:3

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/P/PLOW/

Plough in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The ploughs of ancient Egypt consisted of a share-often pointed with iron or bronze--two handles and a pole which was inserted into the base of the two handles. Ploughs in Israel have usually but one handle with a pole joined to it near the ground and drawn by oxen, cows or camels.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/P/Plough/

Plough in Easton's Bible Dictionary

first referred to in Gen. 45:6, where the Authorized Version has "earing," but the Revised Version "ploughing;" next in Ex. 34:21 and Deut. 21:4. The plough was originally drawn by oxen, but sometimes also by asses and by men. (See AGRICULTURE -T0000124.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/P/Plough/

Plough Scripture - Luke 9:62

And Jesus said unto him, No man, having put his hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/9/

Plow Scripture - 1 Corinthians 9:10

Or saith he [it] altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, [this] is written: that he that ploweth should plow in hope; and that he that thresheth in hope should be partaker of his hope.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Corinthians/9/

Plow Scripture - Hosea 10:11

And Ephraim [is as] an heifer [that is] taught, [and] loveth to tread out [the corn]; but I passed over upon her fair neck: I will make Ephraim to ride; Judah shall plow, [and] Jacob shall break his clods.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hosea/10/

Plow Scripture - Isaiah 28:24

Doth the plowman plow all day to sow? doth he open and break the clods of his ground?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/28/

Plow Scripture - 1 Samuel 14:14

And that first slaughter, which Jonathan and his armourbearer made, was about twenty men, within as it were an half acre of land, [which] a yoke [of oxen might plow].

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Samuel/14/

Plow Scripture - Amos 6:12

Shall horses run upon the rock? will [one] plow [there] with oxen? for ye have turned judgment into gall, and the fruit of righteousness into hemlock:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Amos/6/

Plow Scripture - Proverbs 20:4

The sluggard will not plow by reason of the cold; [therefore] shall he beg in harvest, and [have] nothing.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Proverbs/20/

Plow Scripture - Job 4:8

Even as I have seen, they that plow iniquity, and sow wickedness, reap the same.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job/4/

Plow Scripture - Deuteronomy 22:10

Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/22/

Polygamy in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

po-lig'-a-mi: 1. Meaning of the Term 2. Origin of Polygamy 3. The Old Testament and Polygamy 4. Polygamy Unnatural The Eunuch 5. Weakness of Polygamy 1. Meaning of the Term: Polygamy has been and is the open blazon by the human race of sex vice. The very term is a misnomer. Since man became moralized he has apprehended that the proper marriage relation between the sexes is monogamy. Whatever may have been the practice, since man could ask himself, What is right? he has known that ap' arches ("from the beginning," Mt 19:4), au fond, at bottom, marriage is the choice of one man and one woman of each other for a life family relation. La Rochefoucauld said: "Hypocrisy is a sort of homage which vice pays to virtue." There is hypocrisy beneath the word polygamy. It is an attempt to cover up by the term "plural marriage" what is not marriage and cannot be marriage. There is no particular need of defining what the condition is, so long as we can look upon it as a violation and negation of the marriage relation. The very use of the term from any language covering a like condition is attempt-- "To steal the livery of the court of heaven To serve the Devil in." Polygamy is a general term and might mean a multiplicity of partners in the family relation by one of either sex. But it does not. Polygamy practically means exactly "polygyny" (gune), i.e. it describes a many-wived man. The correlative term "polyandry" describes the condition of a woman who has many men in family relation with herself. They are all husbands to her, as in polygamy all the women are wives to one man. But polyandry in historic times has had so little illustration that it may be dismissed as so exceptional as to be worthy of no further notice here. Why polygamy has captured the whole position philologically covered by polygyny is readily apparent. The might of the physically strongest has dictated the situation. Man has on the average one-fourth more muscular force than woman. When it comes to wrong in sex relation, man has that advantage, and it has given him the field covered by the word "polygamy." There he is master and woman is the victim. 2. Origin of Polygamy: It is plainly evident that polygamy is primarily largely the outcome of tribal wars. When men had separated into clans and had taken up different places of abode, collisions would soon occur between them. What would happen in such cases would be what we know did happen in North America soon after its first settlement by Europeans, to wit, the destruction of the Hurons by the Iroquois. The great majority of the men were massacred; the women and...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/P/POLYGAMY/

Polygamy in Naves Topical Bible

Forbidden De 17:17; Le 18:18; Mal 2:14,15; Mt 19:4,5; Mr 10:2- 8; 1Ti 3:2,12; Tit 1:6 -Authorized 2Sa 12:8 -Tolerated Ex 21:10; 1Sa 1:2; 2Ch 24:3 -Practiced by Job 27:15 -Lamech Ge 4:19 -Abraham Ge 16 -Esau Ge 26:34; 28:9 -Jacob Ge 29:30 -Ashur 1Ch 4:5 -Gideon Jud 8:30 -Elkanah 1Sa 1:2 -David 1Sa 25:39-44; 2Sa 3:2-5; 5:13; 1Ch 14:3 -Solomon 1Ki 11:1-8 -Rehoboam 2Ch 11:18-23 -Abijah 2Ch 13:21 -Jehoram 2Ch 21:14 -Joash 2Ch 24:3 -Ahab 2Ki 10 -Jehoiachin 2Ki 24:15 -Belshazzar Da 5:2 -See 1Ch 2:8 -Hosea Ho 3:1,2 -Mosaic law respecting the firstborn in De 21:15-17 -Sought by women Isa 4:1 -The evil effects of Husband's favoritism in De 21:15-17 Jacob's Ge 29:30; 30:15 Elkanah's 1Sa 1:5 Rehoboam's 2Ch 11:21 -Domestic unhappiness In Abraham's family Ge 16; 21:9-16 In Jacob's family Ge 29:30-34; 30:1-23 In Elkanah's family 1Sa 1:4-7 -With Solomon 1Ki 11:4-8 -See CONCUBINAGE -See MARRIAGE

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/P/POLYGAMY/

Polygamy Scripture - Deuteronomy 17:17

Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away: neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/17/

Polygamy Scripture - Leviticus 18:18

Neither shalt thou take a wife to her sister, to vex [her], to uncover her nakedness, beside the other in her life [time].

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/18/

Polygamy Scripture - Malachi 2:14

Yet ye say, Wherefore? Because the LORD hath been witness between thee and the wife of thy youth, against whom thou hast dealt treacherously: yet [is] she thy companion, and the wife of thy covenant.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Malachi/2/

Polygamy Scripture - Malachi 2:15

And did not he make one? Yet had he the residue of the spirit. And wherefore one? That he might seek a godly seed. Therefore take heed to your spirit, and let none deal treacherously against the wife of his youth.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Malachi/2/

Polygamy Scripture - 2 Samuel 12:8

And I gave thee thy master's house, and thy master's wives into thy bosom, and gave thee the house of Israel and of Judah; and if [that had been] too little, I would moreover have given unto thee such and such things.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/12/

Polygamy Scripture - Exodus 21:10

If he take him another [wife]; her food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/21/

Polygamy Scripture - Job 27:15

Those that remain of him shall be buried in death: and his widows shall not weep.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job/27/

Polygamy Scripture - Genesis 4:19

And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one [was] Adah, and the name of the other Zillah.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/4/

Polygamy Scripture - Genesis 29:30

And he went in also unto Rachel, and he loved also Rachel more than Leah, and served with him yet seven other years.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/29/

Polygamy Scripture - 1 Samuel 1:2

And he had two wives; the name of the one [was] Hannah, and the name of the other Peninnah: and Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Samuel/1/

Pools in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

pool, pond, rez'-er-vwar, rez'-er-vwar ((1) berekhah, "pool"; compare Arabic birkat, "pool"; compare berakhah, "blessing," and Arabic barakat, "blessing"; (2) agham, "pool," "marsh," "reeds"; compare Arabic 'ajam, "thicket," "jungle"; (3) miqwah, "reservoir," the King James Version "ditch" (Isa 22:11); (4) miqweh, "pond," the King James Version "pool" (Ex 7:19); miqweh ha-mayim, English Versions of the Bible "gathering together of the waters" (Gen 1:10); miqweh-mayim, "a gathering of water," the King James Version "plenty of water" (Lev 11:36); (5) kolumbethra, "pool," literally, "a place of diving," from kolumbao, "to dive"): Lakes (see LAKE) are very rare in Syria and Israel, but the dry climate, which is one reason for the fewness of lakes, impels the inhabitants to make artificial pools or reservoirs to collect the water of the rain or of springs for irrigation and also for drinking. The largest of these are made by damming water courses, in which water flows during the winter or at least after showers of rain. These may be enlarged or deepened by excavation. Good examples of this are found at Diban and Madeba in Moab. Smaller pools of rectangular shape and usually much wider than deep, having no connection with water courses, are built in towns to receive rain from the roofs or from the surface of the ground. These may be for common use like several large ones in Jerusalem, or may belong to particular houses. These are commonly excavated to some depth in the soil or rock, though the walls are likely to rise above the surface. Between these and cylindrical pits or cisterns no sharp line can be drawn. The water of springs may be collected in large or small pools of masonry, as the pool of Siloam (Jn 9:7). This is commonly done for irrigation when the spring is so small that the water would be lost by absorption or evaporation if it were attempted to convey it continuously to the fields. The pool (Arabic, birkat) receives the trickle of water until it is full. The water is then let out in a large stream and conducted where it is needed. (In this way by patient labor a small trickling spring may support much vegetation.) 'Agham does not seem to be used of artificial pools, but rather of natural or accidental depressions containing water, as pools by the Nile (Ex 7:19; 8:5), or in the wilderness (Ps 107:35; 114:8; Isa 14:23; 35:7; 41:18; 42:15). In Isa 19:10 the rendering of the King James Version, "all that make sluices and ponds for fish," would be an exception to this statement, but the Revised Version (British and American) has "all they that work for hire shall be grieved in soul." Miqweh occurs with 'agham in Ex 7:19 of the ponds and pools by the Nile. Berekhah is used of "the pool of Gibeon" (2 Sam 2:13), "the pool in Hebron" (2 Sam 4:12), "the pool of Samaria" (1 Ki 22:38), "the pools in Heshbon" (Song 7:4), "the pool of Shelah," the King James Version "Shiloah" (Neh 3:15); compare "the waters of Shiloah" (Isa 8:6). We read in Eccl 2:6, "I made me pools of water, to water therefrom the forest where trees were reared." There is mention of "the upper pool" (2 Ki 18:17; Isa 7:3; 36:2), "the lower pool" (Isa 22:9), "the king's pool" (Neh 2:14). Isa 22:11 has, "Ye made also a reservoir (miqwah) between the two walls for the water of the old pool (berekhah)." Kolumbethra is used of the pool of Bethesda (Jn 5:2,4,7) and of the pool of Siloam (Jn 9:7,11). See also CISTERN; NATURAL FEATURES; BJ, V, iv, 2.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/P/POOL;+POND;+RESERVOIR/

Pools in Naves Topical Bible

Of Samaria 1Ki 22:38 -Of Jerusalem Upper pool 2Ki 18:17; Isa 36:2 Lower pool Isa 22:9 Siloam (Shelah) Ne 3:15; Joh 9:7,11 Of Heshbon So 7:4

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/P/POOL/

Pools in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Pools, like the tanks of India, are in many parts of Israel and Syria the only resource for water during the dry season, and the failure of them involves drought and calamity. Isa 42:15 Of the various pools mentioned in Scripture, perhaps the most celebrated are the pools of Solomon near Bethlehem called by the Arabs el-Burak, from which an aqueduct was carried which still supplies Jerusalem with wafer. Ec 2:6 Ecclus. 24:30, 31.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/P/Pool/

Pools in Easton's Bible Dictionary

a pond, or reservoir, for holding water (Heb. berekhah; modern Arabic, birket), an artificial cistern or tank. Mention is made of the pool of Gibeon (2 Sam. 2:13); the pool of Hebron (4:12); the upper pool at Jerusalem (2 Kings 18:17; 20:20); the pool of Samaria (1 Kings 22:38); the king's pool (Neh. 2:14); the pool of Siloah (Neh. 3:15; Eccles. 2:6); the fishpools of Heshbon (Cant. 7:4); the "lower pool," and the "old pool" (Isa. 22:9,11). The "pool of Bethesda" (John 5:2,4, 7) and the "pool of Siloam" (John 9:7, 11) are also mentioned. Isaiah (35:7) says, "The parched ground shall become a pool." This is rendered in the Revised Version "glowing sand," etc. (marg., "the mirage," etc.). The Arabs call the mirage "serab," plainly the same as the Hebrew word _sarab_, here rendered "parched ground." "The mirage shall become a pool", i.e., the mock-lake of the burning desert shall become a real lake, "the pledge of refreshment and joy." The "pools" spoken of in Isa. 14:23 are the marshes caused by the ruin of the canals of the Euphrates in the neighbourhood of Babylon. The cisterns or pools of the Holy City are for the most part excavations beneath the surface. Such are the vast cisterns in the temple hill that have recently been discovered by the engineers of the Israel Exploration Fund. These underground caverns are about thirty-five in number, and are capable of storing about ten million gallons of water. They are connected with one another by passages and tunnels.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/P/Pool/

Pools in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

berakah. Reservoir for water, whether supplied by springs or rain (Isaiah 42:15). The drying up of the pools involved drought and national distress. The three pools of Solomon near Bethlehem are famous, and still supply Jerusalem with water by an aqueduct (Ecclesiastes 2:6). Partly hewn in the rock, partly built with masonry; all lined with cement; formed on successive levels with conduits from the upper to the lower; with flights of steps from the top to the bottom of each: in the sides of Etham valley, with a dam across its opening, which forms the eastern side of the lowest pool. The upper pool is 380 ft. long, 236 broad at the E., 229 at the W., 25 deep, 160 above the middle pool. This middle pool is 423 long, 250 broad at the E., 160 at the W., 39 deep, 248 above the lower pool. The lower pool is 582 long, 207 broad at the E., 148 at the W., 50 deep. A spring above is the main source (Robinson, Res. 1:348, 474).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/P/Pool/

Pools Scripture - Exodus 7:19

And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and stretch out thine hand upon the waters of Egypt, upon their streams, upon their rivers, and upon their ponds, and upon all their pools of water, that they may become blood; and [that] there may be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in [vessels of] wood, and in [vessels of] stone.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/7/

Pools Scripture - Ecclesiastes 2:6

I made me pools of water, to water therewith the wood that bringeth forth trees:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ecclesiastes/2/

Pools Scripture - Isaiah 42:15

I will make waste mountains and hills, and dry up all their herbs; and I will make the rivers islands, and I will dry up the pools.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/42/

Pools Scripture - Isaiah 14:23

I will also make it a possession for the bittern, and pools of water: and I will sweep it with the besom of destruction, saith the LORD of hosts.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/14/

Pools Scripture - Psalms 84:6

[Who] passing through the valley of Baca make it a well; the rain also filleth the pools.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/84/

Pools Scripture - Nehemiah 3:15

But the gate of the fountain repaired Shallun the son of Colhozeh, the ruler of part of Mizpah; he built it, and covered it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof, and the wall of the pool of Siloah by the king's garden, and unto the stairs that go down from the city of David.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Nehemiah/3/

Pools Scripture - 2 Kings 18:17

And the king of Assyria sent Tartan and Rabsaris and Rabshakeh from Lachish to king Hezekiah with a great host against Jerusalem. And they went up and came to Jerusalem. And when they were come up, they came and stood by the conduit of the upper pool, which [is] in the highway of the fuller's field.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/18/

Pools Scripture - Isaiah 36:2

And the king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem unto king Hezekiah with a great army. And he stood by the conduit of the upper pool in the highway of the fuller's field.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/36/

Pools Scripture - 2 Samuel 4:12

And David commanded his young men, and they slew them, and cut off their hands and their feet, and hanged [them] up over the pool in Hebron. But they took the head of Ishbosheth, and buried [it] in the sepulchre of Abner in Hebron.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/4/

Pools Scripture - Isaiah 41:18

I will open rivers in high places, and fountains in the midst of the valleys: I will make the wilderness a pool of water, and the dry land springs of water.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/41/

Potter in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

pot'-er, pot'-er-i: 1. Historical Development 2. Forms 3. Methods of Production 4. Uses 5. Biblical Terms 6. Archaeological Significance LITERATURE 1. Historical Development: (1) Prehistoric. The making of pottery ranks among the very oldest of the crafts. On the rocky plateaus of Upper Egypt, overlooking the Nile valley, are found the polished red earthenware pots of the prehistoric Egyptians. These are buried in shallow oval graves along with the cramped-up bodies of the dead and their chipped flint weapons and tools. These jars are the oldest examples of the potter's article It is inconceivable that in the country of Babel, Egypt's great rival in civilization, the ceramic arts were less developed at the same period, but the difference in the nature of the country where the first Mesopotamian settlement probably existed makes it unlikely that relics of the prehistoric dwellers of that country will ever be recovered from under the debris of demolished cities and the underlying deposits of clay and silt. (2) Babylonia. The oldest examples of Babylonian ceramics date from the historical period, and consist of baked clay record tablets, bricks, drainage pipes, household shrines, as well as vessels for holding liquids, fruits and other stores. (See Perrot and Chipiez, History of Art in Chaldea and Assyria, I, figures 159, 160, II, figures 163, 168.) Examples of pottery of this early period are shown in the accompanying figures. By the 9th to the 7th century BC the shaping of vessels of clay had become well developed. Fragments of pottery bearing the name of Esarhaddon establish the above dates. (3) Egypt. With the close of the neolithic period in Egypt and the beginning of the historical...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/P/POTTER;+POTTERY/

Pottery in Naves Topical Bible

Clay prepared for, by treading Isa 41:25 -Vessels made of Jer 18:3,4 -Place for manufacture of, outside the wall of Jerusalem, bought as a burying ground for poor people Mt 27:7-10 -FIGURATIVE Isa 64:8; Ro 9:21 Of weakness, in the idol in Nebuchadnezzars vision Da 2:41

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/P/POTTERY/

Pottery in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The art of pottery is one of the most common and most ancient of all manufactures. It is abundantly evident, both that the Hebrews used earthenware vessels in the wilderness and that the potter's trade was afterward carried on in Israel. They had themselves been concerned in the potter's trade in Egypt, Ps 81:6 and the wall-paintings minutely illustrate the Egyptian process. The clay, when dug, was trodden by men's feet so as to form a paste, Isa 41:25 Wisd. 15:7; then placed by the potter on the wheel beside which he sat, and shaped by him with his hands. How early the wheel came into use in Israel is not known, but it seems likely that it was adopted from Egypt. Isa 45:9; Jer 15:3 The vessel was then smoothed and coated with a glaze, and finally burnt in a furnace. There was at Jerusalem a royal establishment of potters, 1Ch 4:23 from whose employment, and from the fragments cast away in the process, the Potter's Field perhaps received its name. Isa 30:11

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/P/Pottery/

Pottery in Easton's Bible Dictionary

the art of, was early practised among all nations. Various materials seem to have been employed by the potter. Earthenware is mentioned in connection with the history of Melchizedek (Gen. 14:18), of Abraham (18:4-8), of Rebekah (27:14), of Rachel (29:2, 3, 8, 10). The potter's wheel is mentioned by Jeremiah (18:3). See also 1 Chr. 4:23; Ps. 2:9; Isa. 45:9; 64:8; Jer. 19:1; Lam. 4:2; Zech. 11:13; Rom. 9:21.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/P/Pottery/

Pottery in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Early known in Egypt. Israel in bondservice there wrought at it (Psalm 81:6, so the Hebrew in 1 Samuel 2:14); but translated for "pots" the harden baskets for carrying clay, bricks, etc., such as are depicted in the sepulchral vaults at Thebes (Exodus 5:6-12; 2 Chronicles 16:6). The potter trod the clay into a paste (Isaiah 41:25), then put it on a wheel, by which he sat and shaped it. The wheel or horizontal lathe was a wooden disc, placed on another larger one, and turned by hand or worked by a treadle (Jeremiah 18:3); on the upper he molded the clay into shape (Isaiah 45:9); the vessel was then smoothed, glazed, and burnt. Tiles with painting and writing on them were common (Ezekiel 4:1). There was a royal establishment of potters at Jerusalem under the sons of Shelab (1 Chronicles 4:25), carrying on the trade for the king's revenue. The pottery found in Israel is divisible into Phoenician, Graeco- Phoenician, Roman, Christian, and Arabic; on handles of jars occur inscriptions: "to king Zepha .... king Shat" and Melek (Israel Exploration, Our Work in Israel). Emblem of man's brittle frailty, and of God's potter-like power to shape our ends as He pleases (Psalm 2:9; Isaiah 29:16; Isaiah 30:14; Jeremiah 19:11; Lamentations 4:2). As Isaiah 40:3 and Malachi 3:1 are thrown together in Mark 1:2-3; also Isaiah 62:11 and Zechariah 9:9 in Matthew 21:4-5; and Isaiah 8:14; Isaiah 28:16 in Romans 9:33; so Jeremiah 18:3-6; Jeremiah 18:19, and Zechariah 11:12-13 in Matthew 27:9. Matthew presumes his reader's full knowledge of Scripture, and merges the two human sacred writers, Jeremiah and Zechariah, in the one voice of the Holy Spirit speaking by them. In Matthew and Zechariah alike, the Lord's representative, Israel's Shepherd, has a paltry price set upon Him by the people; the transaction is done deliberately by men connected with the house of Jehovah; the money is given to the potter, marking the perpetrators' baseness, guilt, and doom, and the hand of the Lord overrules it all, the Jewish rulers while following their own aims unconsciously fulfilling Jehovah's "appointment."

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/P/Pottery/

Potter Scripture - Jeremiah 18:6

O house of Israel, cannot I do with you as this potter? saith the LORD. Behold, as the clay [is] in the potter's hand, so [are] ye in mine hand, O house of Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/18/

Potter Scripture - Isaiah 64:8

But now, O LORD, thou [art] our father; we [are] the clay, and thou our potter; and we all [are] the work of thy hand.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/64/

Potter Scripture - Lamentations 4:2

The precious sons of Zion, comparable to fine gold, how are they esteemed as earthen pitchers, the work of the hands of the potter!

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Lamentations/4/

Potter Scripture - Isaiah 41:25

I have raised up [one] from the north, and he shall come: from the rising of the sun shall he call upon my name: and he shall come upon princes as [upon] morter, and as the potter treadeth clay.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/41/

Potter Scripture - Romans 9:21

Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Romans/9/

Potter Scripture - Revelation 2:27

And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers: even as I received of my Father.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/2/

Potter Scripture - Jeremiah 18:4

And the vessel that he made of clay was marred in the hand of the potter: so he made it again another vessel, as seemed good to the potter to make [it].

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/18/

Old Age Scripture - 1 Chronicles 29:28

And he died in a good old age, full of days, riches, and honour: and Solomon his son reigned in his stead.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/29/

Old Age Scripture - Job 12:12

With the ancient [is] wisdom; and in length of days understanding.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job/12/

Old Age Scripture - Psalms 71:9

Cast me not off in the time of old age; forsake me not when my strength faileth.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/71/

Old Age Scripture - Isaiah 46:4

And [even] to [your] old age I [am] he; and [even] to hoar hairs will I carry [you]: I have made, and I will bear; even I will carry, and will deliver [you].

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/46/

Old Age Scripture - Psalms 71:18

Now also when I am old and grayheaded, O God, forsake me not; until I have shewed thy strength unto [this] generation, [and] thy power to every one [that] is to come.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/71/

Old Age Scripture - Ecclesiastes 6:3

If a man beget an hundred [children], and live many years, so that the days of his years be many, and his soul be not filled with good, and also [that] he have no burial; I say, [that] an untimely birth [is] better than he.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ecclesiastes/6/

Old Age Scripture - Psalms 90:10

The days of our years [are] threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength [they be] fourscore years, yet [is] their strength labour and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and we fly away.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/90/

Old Age Scripture - Psalms 92:14

They shall still bring forth fruit in old age; they shall be fat and flourishing;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/92/

Olive Tree in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

ol'-iv tre (zayith, a word occurring also in Aramaic, Ethiopic and Arabic; in the last it means "olive oil," and zaitun, "the olive tree"; elaia): 1. The Olive Tree: The olive tree has all through history been one of the most characteristic, most valued and most useful of trees in Israel. It is only right that it is the first named "king" of the trees (Jdg 9:8,9). When the children of Israel came to the land they acquired olive trees which they planted not (Dt 6:11; compare Josh 24:13). The cultivation of the olive goes back to the earliest times in Canaan. The frequent references in the Bible, the evidences (see 4 below) from archaeology and the important place the product of this tree has held in the economy of the inhabitants of Syria make it highly probable that this land is the actual home of the cultivated olive. The wild olive is indigenous there. The most fruitful trees are the product of bare and rocky ground (compare Dt 32:13) situated preferably at no great distance from the sea. The terraced hills of Israel, where the earth lies never many inches above the limestone rocks, the long rainless summer of unbroken sunshine, and the heavy "clews" of the autumn afford conditions which are extraordinarily favorable to at least the indigenous olive. The olive, Olea Europaea (Natural Order Oleaceae), is a slow-growing tree, requiring years of patient labor before reaching full fruitfulness. Its growth implies a certain degree of settlement and peace, for a hostile army can in a few days destroy the patient work of two generations. Possibly this may have something to do with its being the emblem of peace. Enemies of a village or of an individual often today carry out revenge by cutting away a ring of bark from the trunks of the olives, thus killing the trees in a few months. The beauty of this tree is referred to in Jer 11:16; Hos 14:6, and its fruitfulness in Ps 128:3. The characteristic olive-green of its foliage, frosted silver below and the twisted and gnarled trunks--often hollow in the center--are some of the most picturesque and constant signs of settled habitations. In some parts of the land large plantations occur: the famous olive grove near Beirut is 5 miles square; there are also fine, ancient trees in great numbers near Bethlehem. In starting an oliveyard the fellah not infrequently plants young wild olive trees which grow plentifully over many parts of the land, or he may grow from cuttings. When the young trees are 3 years old they are grafted from a choice stock and after another three or four years they may commence to bear fruit, but they take quite a decade more before reaching full fruition. Much attention is, however, required. The soil around the trees must be frequently plowed and broken up; water must be conducted to the roots from the earliest rain, and the soil must be freely enriched with a kind of marl known in Arabic as chuwwarah. If neglected, the older trees soon send up a great many shoots from the roots all around the parent stem (perhaps the idea in Ps 128:3); these must be pruned away, although, should the parent stem decay, some of these may be capable of taking its place. Being, however, from the root, below the original point of grafting, they are of the wild olive type- -with smaller, stiffer leaves and prickly stem--and need grafting before they are of use. The olive tree furnishes a wood valuable for many forms of carpentry, and in modern...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/O/OLIVE+TREE/

Olive Tree in Easton's Bible Dictionary

is frequently mentioned in Scripture. The dove from the ark brought an olive-branch to Noah (Gen. 8:11). It is mentioned among the most notable trees of Israel, where it was cultivated long before the time of the Hebrews (Deut. 6:11; 8:8). It is mentioned in the first Old Testament parable, that of Jotham (Judg. 9:9), and is named among the blessings of the "good land," and is at the present day the one characteristic tree of Israel. The oldest olive-trees in the country are those which are enclosed in the Garden of Gethsemane. It is referred to as an emblem of prosperity and beauty and religious privilege (Ps. 52:8; Jer. 11:16; Hos. 14:6). The two "witnesses" mentioned in Rev. 11:4 are spoken of as "two olive trees standing before the God of the earth." (Comp. Zech. 4:3, 11-14.) The "olive-tree, wild by nature" (Rom. 11:24), is the shoot or cutting of the good olive-tree which, left ungrafted, grows up to be a "wild olive." In Rom. 11:17 Paul refers to the practice of grafting shoots of the wild olive into a "good" olive which has become unfruitful. By such a process the sap of the good olive, by pervading the branch which is "graffed in," makes it a good branch, bearing good olives. Thus the Gentiles, being a "wild olive," but now "graffed in," yield fruit, but only through the sap of the tree into which they have been graffed. This is a process "contrary to nature" (11:24).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/O/Olive-tree/

Olive Tree Scripture - Judges 9:8

The trees went forth [on a time] to anoint a king over them; and they said unto the olive tree, Reign thou over us.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Judges/9/

Olive Tree Scripture - Deuteronomy 6:11

And houses full of all good [things], which thou filledst not, and wells digged, which thou diggedst not, vineyards and olive trees, which thou plantedst not; when thou shalt have eaten and be full;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/6/

Olive Tree Scripture - Psalms 52:8

But I [am] like a green olive tree in the house of God: I trust in the mercy of God for ever and ever.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/52/

Olive Tree Scripture - Jeremiah 11:16

The LORD called thy name, A green olive tree, fair, [and] of goodly fruit: with the noise of a great tumult he hath kindled fire upon it, and the branches of it are broken.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/11/

Olive Tree Scripture - Hosea 14:6

His branches shall spread, and his beauty shall be as the olive tree, and his smell as Lebanon.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hosea/14/

Olive Tree Scripture - Revelation 11:4

These are the two olive trees, and the two candlesticks standing before the God of the earth.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/11/

Olive Tree Scripture - Zechariah 4:3

And two olive trees by it, one upon the right [side] of the bowl, and the other upon the left [side] thereof.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Zechariah/4/

Olive Tree Scripture - Romans 11:17

And if some of the branches be broken off, and thou, being a wild olive tree, wert graffed in among them, and with them partakest of the root and fatness of the olive tree;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Romans/11/

Olive Tree Scripture - Romans 11:24

For if thou wert cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and wert graffed contrary to nature into a good olive tree: how much more shall these, which be the natural [branches], be graffed into their own olive tree?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Romans/11/

Olive in Naves Topical Bible

(A fruit tree) -Branch of, brought by the dove to Noah's ark Ge 8:11 -Common to the land of Canaan Ex 23:11; De 6:11; 8:8 -Israelites commanded to cultivate in the land of promise De 28:40 -Branches of, used for booths (huts) Ne 8:15 -Bears flowers Job 15:33 -Precepts concerning gleaning the fruit of De 24:20; Isa 17:6 -The cherubs made of the wood of 1Ki 6:23,31-33 -Fable of Jud 9:8 -FIGURATIVE Of prosperity Ps 128:3 The wild, a figure of the Gentiles; the cultivated, of the Jews Ro 11:17-21,24 -SYMBOLICAL Zec 4:2-12; Re 11:4 -FRUIT OF Oil extracted from, used as illuminating oil in the tabernacle Ex 39:37; Le 24:2; Zec 4:12

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/O/OLIVE/

Olive in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The olive was among the most abundant and characteristic vegetation of Judea. The olive tree grows freely almost everywhere on the shores of the Mediterranean, but it was peculiarly abundant in Israel. See De 6:11; 8:8; 28:40 Oliveyards are a matter of course in descriptions of the country like vines and cornfields. Jud 15:5; 1Sa 8:14 The kings had very extensive ones. 1Ch 27:28 Even now the is very abundant in the country. Almost every village has its olive grove. Certain districts may be specified where at various times this tree been very luxuriant. The cultivation of the olive tree had the closest connection with the domestic life of the Israelites 2Ch 2:10 their trade, Eze 27:17; Ho 12:1 and even their Public ceremonies and religious worship. In Solomon's temple the cherubim were "of olive tree," 1Ki 6:23 as also the doors, vs. 1Ki 6:31,32 and posts. ver. 1Ki 6:33 For the various uses of olive oil see OIL. The wind was dreaded by the cultivator of the olive for the least ruffling of a breeze is apt to cause the flowers to fall. Job 15:33 It is needless to add that the locust was a formidable enemy of the olive. It happened not unfrequently that hopes were disappointed, and that "the labor of the olive failed." Hab 3:17 As to the growth of the tree, it thrives best in warm and sunny situations. It is of moderate height, with knotty gnarled trunk and a smooth ash-colored bark. It grows slowly, but lives to an immense age. Its look is singularly indicative of tenacious vigor, and this is the force of what is said in Scripture of its "greenness, as emblematic of strength and prosperity. The leaves, too, are not deciduous. Those who see olives for the first time are occasionally disappointed by the dusty color of their foilage; but those who are familiar with them find an inexpressible charm in the rippling changes of their slender gray-green leaves. (See Ruskin's "Stones of Venice," iii. 175-177.) The olive furnishes the basis of one of Paul's allegories. Ro 11:16-25 The Gentiles are the "wild olive" grafted in upon the "good olive," to which once the Jews belonged, and with which they may again be incorporated, (The olive grows from 20 to 40 feet high. In general appearance it resembles the apple tree; in leaves and sterns, the willow. The flowers are white and appear in June, The fruit is like a plum in shape and size, and at first is green, but gradually becomes purple, and even black, with a hard stony kernel, and is remarkable from the outer fleshy part being that in which much oil is lodged, and not, as is usual, in the almond of the seed. The fruit ripens from August to September. It is sometimes eaten green, but its chief value is in its oil. The wood is hard, fine beautifully veined, and is open used for cabinet work. Olive trees were so abundant in Galilee that at the siege of Jotapata by Vespasian the Roman army were driven from the ascent of the walls by hot olive oil poured upon them and scalding them underneath their armor. - -Josephus, Wars, 3; 7:28. --ED.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/O/Olive/

Olive in Easton's Bible Dictionary

the fruit of the olive-tree. This tree yielded oil which was highly valued. The best oil was from olives that were plucked before being fully ripe, and then beaten or squeezed (Deut. 24:20; Isa. 17:6; 24:13). It was called "beaten," or "fresh oil" (Ex. 27:20). There were also oil-presses, in which the oil was trodden out by the feet (Micah 6:15). James (3:12) calls the fruit "olive berries." The phrase "vineyards and olives" (Judg. 15:5, A.V.) should be simply "olive-yard," or "olive- garden," as in the Revised Version. (See OIL -T0002774.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/O/Olive/

Olive in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Its foliage is the earliest mentioned (Genesis 8:11). Tradition from Noah's days has ever made it symbolize peace. It is the emblem of "fatness" in the oldest parable (Judges 9:8-9). Emblem of the godly (Psalm 52:5; Psalm 52:8), in spirit constantly dwelling "in the house of God"; in contrast to slave-like formalists now sojourning outwardly in it for a time, but not abiding ever (John 8:34-35; Psalm 15:1; Psalm 23:6; Psalm 27:4-5; Psalm 36:8); the wicked and antichrist shall be "rooted out of (God's) dwelling place," literally, 5 ('ohel). The Septuagint, Chaldee, Vulgate, and Aben Ezra interpret 'ohel "the tabernacle" (2 Thessalonians 2:4; Daniel 11:44-45). The saint's children are "like olive plants round about his table" (Psalm 128:3). The old olive sends out young suckers which spring up round the parent tree, and which in after ages, when the parent's strength fails, shelter it on every side from the blast. It is the characteristic tree of Judea on Roman coins, Deuteronomy 8:8. Asher "dipped his foot in oil" (Deuteronomy 33:24). Emblem of Judah's adoption of God by grace (Jeremiah 11:16; Romans 11:17), also of joy and prosperity. The Gentile church is the wild twig "engrafted contrary to nature" on the original Jewish olive stock; it marks supernatural virtue in the stock that it enables those wild by nature to bear good fruit; ordinarily it is only a superior scion that is grafted on an inferior. The two witnesses for God (antitypes to Elijah and Moses, Zerubbabel and Joshua, the civil ruler and the priest: Malachi 4:5-6; Matthew 17:11; Acts 3:21; Judges 1:6) are "the two olive trees," channels of the oil (the Holy Spirit in them) feeding the church (Revelation 11:3-4; Zechariah 4:11-12). The wood, fine grained, solid, and yellowish, was used for the cherubim, doors, and posts (1 Kings 6:23; 1 Kings 6:31-33). The tree was shaken to get the remnant left after the general gathering (by "beating," Deuteronomy 24:20), Isaiah 24:13; image of Israel's "remnant according to the election of grace." The least breeze makes the flowers fall; compare Job 15:33, "he shall cast off his flower as the olive," i.e. the least blast sweeps away in a moment the sinner's prosperity. The tree poetically is made to cast off its own blossom, to mark that the sinner brings on his own ruin (Isaiah 3:11; Jeremiah 6:19). It thrives best in a sunny position. A rocky calcareous subsoil suits it; compare "oil out of the flinty rock" (Deuteronomy 32:13). The trunk is knotty and gnarled, the bark smooth and ash colored. Its growth is slow, but it lives very long. The leaves are grey green, not deciduous, suggestive of tenacious strength.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/O/Olive/

Olives Scripture - Micah 6:15

Thou shalt sow, but thou shalt not reap; thou shalt tread the olives, but thou shalt not anoint thee with oil; and sweet wine, but shalt not drink wine.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Micah/6/

Olives Scripture - Judges 15:5

And when he had set the brands on fire, he let [them] go into the standing corn of the Philistines, and burnt up both the shocks, and also the standing corn, with the vineyards [and] olives.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Judges/15/

Olives Scripture - Luke 19:29

And it came to pass, when he was come nigh to Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount called [the mount] of Olives, he sent two of his disciples,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/19/

Olives Scripture - Luke 21:37

And in the day time he was teaching in the temple; and at night he went out, and abode in the mount that is called [the mount] of Olives.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/21/

Olives Scripture - Luke 19:37

And when he was come nigh, even now at the descent of the mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works that they had seen;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/19/

Olives Scripture - Mark 13:3

And as he sat upon the mount of Olives over against the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him privately,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/13/

Olives Scripture - Matthew 21:1

And when they drew nigh unto Jerusalem, and were come to Bethphage, unto the mount of Olives, then sent Jesus two disciples,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/21/

Olives Scripture - Matthew 24:3

And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what [shall be] the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/24/

Olives Scripture - Mark 11:1

And when they came nigh to Jerusalem, unto Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount of Olives, he sendeth forth two of his disciples,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/11/

Olives Scripture - Matthew 26:30

And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/26/

Oven in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

uv'-'-n.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/O/OVEN/

Oven in Naves Topical Bible

For baking Ex 8:3; Le 2:4; 7:9; 11:35; 26:26 -See BREAD -FIGURATIVE Ps 21:9; Ho 7:4,6,7; Mal 4:1; Mt 6:30; Lu 12:28

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/O/OVEN/

Oven in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The eastern oven is of two kinds --fixed and portable. The former is found only in towns, where regular bakers are employed. Ho 7:4 The latter ia adapted to the nomad state, it consists of a large jar made of clay, about three feet high and widening toward the bottom, with a hole for the extraction of the ashes. Each household possessed such an article, Ex 8:3 and it was only in times of extreme dearth that the same oven sufficed for several families. Le 26:26 It was heated with dry twigs and grass, Mt 6:30 and the loaves were placed both inside and outside of it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/O/Olive/

Oven in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Heb. tannur, (Hos. 7:4). In towns there appear to have been public ovens. There was a street in Jerusalem (Jer. 37:21) called "bakers' street" (the only case in which the name of a street in Jerusalem is preserved). The words "tower of the furnaces" (Neh. 3:11; 12:38) is more properly "tower of the ovens" (Heb. tannurim). These resemble the ovens in use among ourselves. There were other private ovens of different kinds. Some were like large jars made of earthenware or copper, which were heated inside with wood (1 Kings 17:12; Isa. 44:15; Jer. 7:18) or grass (Matt. 6:30), and when the fire had burned out, small pieces of dough were placed inside or spread in thin layers on the outside, and were thus baked. (See FURNACE -T0001398.) Pits were also formed for the same purposes, and lined with cement. These were used after the same manner. Heated stones, or sand heated by a fire heaped over it, and also flat irons pans, all served as ovens for the preparation of bread. (See Gen. 18:6; 1 Kings 19:6.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/O/Oven/

Oven in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

tanur. Fixed or portable. The fixed ovens were inside towns. The portable ovens consisted of a large clay jar, three feet high, widening toward the bottom, with a hole to extract the ashes. Sometimes there was an erection of clay in the form of a jar, built on the house floor. Every house had one (Exodus viii. 3 ); only in a famine (lid one suffice for several faro-flies (Leviticus xxvi. 26). Tile heating fuel was dry grass and twigs (Blurt. vt. 30: "grass, which to-day is, to-morrow is cast into the oven"). The loaves were placed inside, and thin cakes outside of it. Image of consuming vengeance (Malachi 4:1). Psalm 21:9; "Thou shalt make them as a fiery oven in the time of Thine anger... burning with Thy hot, wrath in the day of the Lord." Hosea 7:4, 7: "they are all adulterers, as an oven heated by (burning from) the baker," i.e. the fire burns of itself, even after tlle baker has ceased to feed it with fuel. "Who teaseth from raising (rather from heating it meeir) after he hath kneaded the dough until it be leavened:" he omits to feed it only during the short time of the fermentation of the bread. So their lusts were on fire even in the short respite that Satan gives, till his leaven has worked. 2 Peter 2:14, "cannot cease from sin."

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/O/Oven/

Oven Scripture - Malachi 4:1

For, behold, the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble: and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the LORD of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Malachi/4/

Oven Scripture - Leviticus 11:35

And every [thing] whereupon [any part] of their carcase falleth shall be unclean; [whether it be] oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be broken down: [for] they [are] unclean, and shall be unclean unto you.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/11/

Oven Scripture - Leviticus 11:35

And every [thing] whereupon [any part] of their carcase falleth shall be unclean; [whether it be] oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be broken down: [for] they [are] unclean, and shall be unclean unto you.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/11/

Oven Scripture - Leviticus 26:26

[And] when I have broken the staff of your bread, ten women shall bake your bread in one oven, and they shall deliver [you] your bread again by weight: and ye shall eat, and not be satisfied.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/26/

Oven Scripture - Leviticus 2:4

And if thou bring an oblation of a meat offering baken in the oven, [it shall be] unleavened cakes of fine flour mingled with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/2/

Oven Scripture - Luke 12:28

If then God so clothe the grass, which is to day in the field, and to morrow is cast into the oven; how much more [will he clothe] you, O ye of little faith?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/12/

Oven Scripture - Matthew 6:30

Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to day is, and to morrow is cast into the oven, [shall he] not much more [clothe] you, O ye of little faith?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/6/

Oven Scripture - Psalms 21:9

Thou shalt make them as a fiery oven in the time of thine anger: the LORD shall swallow them up in his wrath, and the fire shall devour them.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/21/

Oven Scripture - Hosea 7:6

For they have made ready their heart like an oven, whiles they lie in wait: their baker sleepeth all the night; in the morning it burneth as a flaming fire.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hosea/7/

Oven Scripture - Hosea 7:4

They [are] all adulterers, as an oven heated by the baker, [who] ceaseth from raising after he hath kneaded the dough, until it be leavened.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hosea/7/

Oven Scripture - Leviticus 7:9

And all the meat offering that is baken in the oven, and all that is dressed in the fryingpan, and in the pan, shall be the priest's that offereth it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/7/

Oven Scripture - Hosea 7:7

They are all hot as an oven, and have devoured their judges; all their kings are fallen: [there is] none among them that calleth unto me.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hosea/7/

Oven Scripture - Lamentations 5:10

Our skin was black like an oven because of the terrible famine.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Lamentations/5/

Ox in Smiths Bible Dictionary

There was no animal in the rural economy of the Israelites, or indeed in that of the ancient Orientals generally, that was held in higher esteem than the ox and deservedly so, for the ox was the animal upon whose patient labors depended all the ordinary operations of farming. Oxen were used for ploughing, De 22:10; 1Sa 14:14 etc.; for treading out corn, De 25:4; Ho 10:11 etc.; for draught purposes, when they were generally yoked in pairs, Nu 7:3; 1Sa 6:7 etc.; as beasts of burden, 1Ch 12:40 their flesh was eaten, De 14:4; 1Ki 1:9 etc.; they were used in the sacrifices; cows supplied milk, butter, etc. De 32:14; 2Sa 17:29; Isa 7:22 Connected with the importance of oxen in the rural economy of the Jews is the strict code of laws which was mercifully enacted by God for their protection and preservation. The ox that threshed the corn was by no means to be muzzled; he was to enjoy rest on the Sabbath as well as his master. Ex 23:12; De 5:14 The ox was seldom slaughtered. Le 17:1-6 It seems clear from Pr 15:17 and 1Kin 4:23 that cattle were sometimes stall-fed though as a general rule it is probable that they fed in the plains or on the hills of Israel. The cattle that grazed at large in the open country would no doubt often become fierce and wild, for it is to be remembered that in primitive times the lion and other wild beasts of prey roamed about Israel. Hence the force of the Psalmist's complaint of his enemies. Ps 22:13

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/O/Ox/

Ox in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Heb. bakar, "cattle;" "neat cattle", (Gen. 12:16; 34:28; Job 1:3, 14; 42:12, etc.); not to be muzzled when treading the corn (Deut. 25:4). Referred to by our Lord in his reproof to the Pharisees (Luke 13:15; 14:5).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/O/Ox/

Ox Goad in Easton's Bible Dictionary

mentioned only in Judg. 3:31, the weapon with which Shamgar (q.v.) slew six hundred Philistines. "The ploughman still carries his goad, a weapon apparently more fitted for the hand of the soldier than the peaceful husbandman. The one I saw was of the 'oak of Bashan,' and measured upwards of ten feet in length. At one end was an iron spear, and at the other a piece of the same metal flattened. One can well understand how a warrior might use such a weapon with effect in the battle-field" (Porter's Syria, etc.). (See GOAD -T0001508.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/O/Ox+goad/

Ox in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(See BULL.) The law prohibiting the slaughter of clean beasts in the wilderness, except before the tabernacle, at once kept Israel from idolatry and tended to preserve their herds. During the 40 years oxen and sheep were seldom killed for food, from whence arose their lustings after flesh (Leviticus 17:1-6).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/O/Ox/

Oxen Scripture - Jeremiah 51:23

I will also break in pieces with thee the shepherd and his flock; and with thee will I break in pieces the husbandman and his yoke of oxen; and with thee will I break in pieces captains and rulers.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/51/

Oxen Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:26

And thou shalt bestow that money for whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatsoever thy soul desireth: and thou shalt eat there before the LORD thy God, and thou shalt rejoice, thou, and thine household,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/14/

Oxen Scripture - 1 Kings 8:63

And Solomon offered a sacrifice of peace offerings, which he offered unto the LORD, two and twenty thousand oxen, and an hundred and twenty thousand sheep. So the king and all the children of Israel dedicated the house of the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/8/

Oxen Scripture - Numbers 7:87

All the oxen for the burnt offering [were] twelve bullocks, the rams twelve, the lambs of the first year twelve, with their meat offering: and the kids of the goats for sin offering twelve.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Numbers/7/

Oxen Scripture - 2 Chronicles 35:8

And his princes gave willingly unto the people, to the priests, and to the Levites: Hilkiah and Zechariah and Jehiel, rulers of the house of God, gave unto the priests for the passover offerings two thousand and six hundred [small cattle], and three hundred oxen.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/35/

Oxen Scripture - 1 Chronicles 21:23

And Ornan said unto David, Take [it] to thee, and let my lord the king do [that which is] good in his eyes: lo, I give [thee] the oxen [also] for burnt offerings, and the threshing instruments for wood, and the wheat for the meat offering; I give it all.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/21/

Oxen Scripture - 2 Chronicles 7:5

And king Solomon offered a sacrifice of twenty and two thousand oxen, and an hundred and twenty thousand sheep: so the king and all the people dedicated the house of God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/7/

Oxen Scripture - 1 Kings 1:19

And he hath slain oxen and fat cattle and sheep in abundance, and hath called all the sons of the king, and Abiathar the priest, and Joab the captain of the host: but Solomon thy servant hath he not called.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/1/

Oxen Scripture - Daniel 4:25

That they shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and they shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, and they shall wet thee with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over thee, till thou know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Daniel/4/

Phylactery in Naves Topical Bible

A small box containing slips of parchment on which there were written portions of the law Ex 13:9,16; De 6:4-9; 11:18 -Worn ostentatiously by the Jews upon the head and left arm Mt 23:5

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/P/PHYLACTERY/

Phylactery in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

fi-lak'-ter-i (phulakterion, "guard"): 1. Bible References: This word is found only in Mt 23:5 in our Lord's denunciation of the Pharisees, who, in order that their works might "be seen of men," and in their zeal for the forms of religion, "make broad their phylacteries and enlarge the borders of their garments." The corresponding word in the Old Testament, ToTaphoth (Kennedy in HDB suggests pointing as the segholate feminine singular, ToTepheth), is fonnd in three passages (Ex 13:16; Dt 6:8; 11:18), where it is translated "frontlets." This rendering, however, is not at all certain, and may have been read into the text from its later interpretation. In Ex 13:9 the corresponding word to the Totaphoth of 13:16 is zikkaron, "memorial" or "reminder"; and in the parallel clauses of both verses the corresponding word is 'oth, "a sign" upon the hand, also used for the "sign" which Yahweh appointed for Cain (Gen 4:15). It may be rendered then as a mark or ornament or jewel, and used figuratively of Yahweh's Law as an ornament or jewel to the forehead of the Israelite, a reference to the charm or amulet worn by the pagan. The word used in the Talmud for the phylactery is tephillah, "prayer," or "prayer-band" (plural tephillin), indicating its use theoretically as a reminder of the Law, although practically it might be esteemed as an automatic and ever- present charm against evil: an aid within toward the keeping of the Law, a guard without against the approach of evil; a degradation of an Old Testament figurative and idealistic phrase to the materialistic and superstitious practices of the pagans. 2. Description: The phylactery was a leather box, cube-shaped, closed with an attached flap and bound to the person by a leather band. There were two kinds: (1) one to be bound to the inner side of the left arm, and near the elbow, so that with the bending of the arm it would rest over the heart, the knot fastening it to the arm being in the form of the Hebrew letter yodh (y), and the end of the string, or band, finally wound around the middle finger of the hand, "a sign upon thy hand" (Dt 6:8). This box had one compartment containing one or all of the four passages given above. The writer in his youth found one of these in a comparatively remote locality, evidently lost by a Jewish peddler, which contained only the 2nd text (Ex 13:11-16) in unpointed Hebrew. (2) Another was to be bound in the center of the forehead, "between thine eyes" (Dt 6:8), the knot of the band being in the form of the Hebrew letter daleth (d), with the Hebrew letter shin (sh) upon each end of the box, which was divided into four compartments with one of the four passages in each. These two Hebrew letters, with the yodh (y) of the arm-phylactery (see (1) above), formed the divine name shadday, "Almighty." Quite elaborate ceremonial accompanied the "laying" on of the phylacteries, that of the arm being bound on first, and that of the head next, quotations from Scripture or Talmud being repeated at each stage of the binding. They were to be worn by every male over 13 years old at the time of morning prayer, except on Sabbaths and festal days, such days being in themselves sufficient reminders of "the commandment, the statutes, and the ordinances" of Yahweh (Dt 6:1). 3. Interpretation of Old Testament Passages: The passages on which the wearing of the phylacteries is based are as follows: "It (i.e. the feast of...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/P/PHYLACTERY/

Oxen Scripture - Exodus 20:24

Exodus 20:24 - An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt offerings, and thy peace offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen: in all places where I record my name I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/20/

Phylactery in Smiths Bible Dictionary

[FRONTLETS]

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/P/Phylactery/

Trumpet in Naves Topical Bible

Made of ram's horn Jos 6:4-6,8,13 -Made of silver Nu 10:2 -Uses of, prescribed by Moses Nu 10:1-10 -Used in war Job 39:24,25; Jer 4:19; 6:1,17; 42:14; 51:27; Eze 7:14; Am 2:2; 3:6; Zep 1:16; 1Co 14:8 -To summon soldiers By Phinehas Nu 31:6 By Ehud Jud 3:27 By Gideon Jud 6:34 By Saul 1Sa 13:3 By Joab 2Sa 2:28; 18:16; 20:22 By Absalom 2Sa 15:10 By Sheba 2Sa 20:1 By Nehemiah Ne 4:18,20 -By Gideon's soldiers Jud 7:8-22 -In war, of Abijah 2Ch 13:12,14 -In the siege of Jericho Jos 6:4-20 -Sounded in time of danger Eze 33:3-6; Joe 2:1 -Used at Mount Sinai Ex 19:13-19; 20:18; Heb 12:19 -On the great day of atonement Isa 27:13 -At the jubilee Le 25:9 -At the bringing up of the ark of the covenant from the household of Obed-edom 2Sa 6:5,15; 1Ch 13:8; 15:28 -At the anointing of kings 1Ki 1:34,39; 2Ki 9:13; 11:14 -At the dedication of Solomon's temple 2Ch 5:12,13; 7:6 -In worship 1Ch 15:24; 16:42; 25:5; Ps 81:3,4 -At Jehoshaphat's triumph 2Ch 20:28 -At the foundation of the second temple Ezr 3:10,11 -At the dedication of the wall Ne 12:35,41 -FIGURATIVE Isa 27:13; Eze 33:3; Joe 2:1; Zec 9:14; Mt 6:2 -SYMBOLICAL Mt 24:31; 1Co 15:52; 1Th 4:16; Re 1:10; 4:1; 8; 9:1- 14; 10:7; 11:15 See MUSIC, INSTRUMENTS OF

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/T/TRUMPET/

Trumpet in Naves Topical Bible

Made of ram's horn Jos 6:4-6,8,13 -Made of silver Nu 10:2 -Uses of, prescribed by Moses Nu 10:1-10 -Used in war Job 39:24,25; Jer 4:19; 6:1,17; 42:14; 51:27; Eze 7:14; Am 2:2; 3:6; Zep 1:16; 1Co 14:8 -To summon soldiers By Phinehas Nu 31:6 By Ehud Jud 3:27 By Gideon Jud 6:34 By Saul 1Sa 13:3 By Joab 2Sa 2:28; 18:16; 20:22 By Absalom 2Sa 15:10 By Sheba 2Sa 20:1 By Nehemiah Ne 4:18,20 -By Gideon's soldiers Jud 7:8-22 -In war, of Abijah 2Ch 13:12,14 -In the siege of Jericho Jos 6:4-20 -Sounded in time of danger Eze 33:3-6; Joe 2:1 -Used at Mount Sinai Ex 19:13-19; 20:18; Heb 12:19 -On the great day of atonement Isa 27:13 -At the jubilee Le 25:9 -At the bringing up of the ark of the covenant from the household of Obed-edom 2Sa 6:5,15; 1Ch 13:8; 15:28 -At the anointing of kings 1Ki 1:34,39; 2Ki 9:13; 11:14 -At the dedication of Solomon's temple 2Ch 5:12,13; 7:6 -In worship 1Ch 15:24; 16:42; 25:5; Ps 81:3,4 -At Jehoshaphat's triumph 2Ch 20:28 -At the foundation of the second temple Ezr 3:10,11 -At the dedication of the wall Ne 12:35,41 -FIGURATIVE Isa 27:13; Eze 33:3; Joe 2:1; Zec 9:14; Mt 6:2 -SYMBOLICAL Mt 24:31; 1Co 15:52; 1Th 4:16; Re 1:10; 4:1; 8; 9:1- 14; 10:7; 11:15 See MUSIC, INSTRUMENTS OF

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/T/TRUMPET/

Flute in Naves Topical Bible

General scriptures concerning Da 3:5,7,10,15

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/F/FLUTE/

Pipe in Naves Topical Bible

(A wind instrument of music) -Used in religious services 1Sa 10:5; Isa 30:29

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/P/PIPE/

Musical Instruments in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(There has been great obscurity as to the instruments of music in use among the Hebrews, but the discoveries on the monuments of Egypt and Assyria have thrown much light upon the form and nature of these instruments. I. STRINGED INSTRUMENTS.-- 1. The harp or lyre. [See illustration] 2. The psaltery, the name of various large instruments of the harp kind. 3. The sackbut, a harp-like instrument of four strings and of triangular form. 4. A kind of lute or guitar (mahalath), in titles to Ps 53:1 and Psal 88:1 with a long, flat neck, and a hollow body of wood whose surface was perforated with holes. There were three strings, end the whole instrument was three or four feet long. 5. The gittith, in titles to Ps 8:1, 81:1, 84:1 a stringed instrument, probably found by David st Gath, whence its name. II. INSTRUMENTS OF PERCUSSION. 1. The timbrel, a form of tambourine, a narrow hoop covered with a tightened skin, and struck with the hand on the Egyptian monuments are three kinds --the circular, the square, and another formed by two squares separated by a bar. 2. The drum (toph). Of this there were many varieties, some of them resembling modern drums. The Egyptians had along drum, of wood or copper, 2 1/2 feet long, resembling the tom-tom of India, and beaten by the hand. Another form was shaped like a cask with bulging centre, and was made of copper. It was of the same length as the other, but larger around, and was beaten with sticks. Another drum was more like our kettledrum; and one of these, the rabbins say, was placed in the temple court to the priests to prayer, and could be heard from Jerusalem to Jericho. 3. Bells (paanton), attached to the high priest's dress, and rung by striking against the knobs, shaped like pomegranates, which were hung near them. 4. Cymbals. The earliest cymbals were probably finger cymbals -small plates of metal fastened to the thumb and middle finger, and struck together. Afterward there were the large cymbals, played with both hands. 5. Systra (menaanim), 2Sa 6:5 there translated comets. The systrum was a carved bronze or copper frame, with a handle, in all from 8 to 18 inches long, with movable rings and bars. It was shaken with the hand, and the rings and bars made a piercing metallic sound by striking against the bronze frame. 6. The triangle (shalishim), 1Sa 18:6 a musical instrument (machol) used for accompanying the dance, and several times translated dancing. Ps 150:3,45 It was a metallic rim or frame sometimes with a handle and had small bells attached to it, or bars across on which were strung metallic rings or plates. It was held in the hand, and was played by the women at weddings and merry-makings. III. WIND INSTRUMENTS. -- 1. The syrinx, pandean pipe or bagpipe (ugab); translated "organ" in Ge 4:21 Either like the bagpipe, or a series of pipes from 5 to 23 in number, though usually only 7. 2. The horn,in the form of an animal's horn even when made of metal but originating in the use of the horns of cattle. 3. The trumpet (shophar) same as horn, 2. 4. The straight trumpet. 5. The flute (halil, meaning "bored through "), a pipe perforated with holes, originally made from reeds, but afterward of wood bone, horn or ivory. It was chiefly consecrated to joy or pleasure. 6. The flute, alluded to in Da 3:6 probably a kind of double flageolet. 7. The dulcimer, Da 3:5 a kind of bagpipe with two shrill reeds. The modern dulcimer is a triangular instrument strung with about 60 brass wires, and played upon with little sticks or metallic rods. It more resembles the ancient psaltery than the dulcimer of Da 3:5 --ED.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Musical+instruments+of+the+Hebrews/

Pipe in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/P/Pipe/

Pipe in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(Heb. chalil). The Hebrew word so rendered is derived from a root signifying "to bore, perforate" and is represented with sufficient correctness by the English "pipe" or "flute," as in the margin of 1Ki 1:40 The pipe was the type of perforated wind instruments, as the harp was of stringed instruments. It was made of reed, bronze or copper. It is one of the simplest, and therefore probably one of the oldest, of musical Instruments. It is associated with the tabret as an instrument of a peaceful and social character. The pipe and tabret were used at the banquets of the Hebrews, Isa 5:12 and accompanied the simpler religious services when the young prophets, returning from the high place, caught their inspiration from the harmony, 1Sa 10:5 or the pilgrims, on their way to the great festivals of their ritual, beguiled the weariness of the march with psalms sung to the simple music of the pipe. Isa 30:29 The sound of the pipe was apparently a soft wailing note, which made it appropriate to be used in mourning and at funerals Mt 9:23 and in the lament of the prophet over the destruction of Moab. Jer 48:36 It was even used in the temple choir, as appears from Ps 87:7 In later times the funeral and death-bed were never without the professional pipers or flute-players, Mt 9:23 a custom which still exists. In the social and festive life of the Egyptians the pipe played as prominent a part as among the Hebrews.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/P/Pipe/

Musical Instruments in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Among instruments of music used by the Hebrews a principal place is given to stringed instruments. These were, (1.) The kinnor, the "harp." (2.) The nebel, "a skin bottle," rendered "psaltery." (3.) The sabbeka, or "sackbut," a lute or lyre. (4.) The gittith, occurring in the title of Ps. 8; 8; 84. (5.) Minnim (Ps. 150:4), rendered "stringed instruments;" in Ps. 45:8, in the form _minni_, probably the apocopated (i.e., shortened) plural, rendered, Authorized Version, "whereby," and in the Revised Version "stringed instruments." (6.) Machalath, in the titles of Ps. 53 and 88; supposed to be a kind of lute or guitar. Of wind instruments mention is made of, (1.) The 'ugab (Gen. 4:21; Job 21:12; 30:31), probably the so-called Pan's pipes or syrinx. (2.) The qeren or "horn" (Josh. 6:5; 1 Chr. 25:5). (3.) The shophar, rendered "trumpet" (Josh. 6:4, 6, 8). The word means "bright," and may have been so called from the clear, shrill sound it emitted. It was often used (Ex. 19:13; Num. 10:10; Judg. 7:16, 18; 1 Sam. 13:3). (4.) The hatsotserah, or straight trumpet (Ps. 98:6; Num. 10:1-10). This name is supposed by some to be an onomatopoetic word, intended to imitate the pulse-like sound of the trumpet, like the Latin taratantara. Some have identified it with the modern trombone. (5.) The halil, i.e, "bored through," a flute or pipe (1 Sam. 10:5; 1 Kings 1:40; Isa. 5:12; Jer. 48:36) which is still used in Israel. (6.) The sumponyah, rendered "dulcimer" (Dan. 3:5), probably a sort of bagpipe. (7.) The maskrokith'a (Dan. 3:5), rendered "flute," but its precise nature is unknown. Of instruments of percussion mention is made of, (1.) The toph, an instrument of the drum kind, rendered "timbrel" (Ex. 15:20; Job 21:12; Ps. 68:25); also "tabret" (Gen. 31:27; Isa. 24:8; 1 Sam. 10:5). (2.) The paamon, the "bells" on the robe of the high priest (Ex. 28:33; 39:25). (3.) The tseltselim, "cymbals" (2 Sam. 6:5; Ps. 150:5), which are struck together and produce a loud, clanging sound. Metsilloth, "bells" on horses and camels for ornament, and metsiltayim, "cymbals" (1 Chr. 13:8; Ezra 3:10, etc.). These words are all derived from the same root, tsalal, meaning "to tinkle." (4.) The menaan'im, used only in 2 Sam. 6:5, rendered "cornets" (R.V., "castanets"); in the Vulgate, "sistra," an instrument of agitation. (5.) The shalishim, mentioned only in 1 Sam. 18:6, rendered "instruments of music" (marg. of R.V., "triangles or three- stringed instruments"). The words in Eccl. 2:8, "musical instruments, and that of all sorts," Authorized Version, are in the Revised Version "concubines very many."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Music,+Instrumental/

Flute in Easton's Bible Dictionary

a musical instrument, probably composed of a number of pipes, mentioned Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15. In Matt. 9:23, 24, notice is taken of players on the flute, here called "minstrels" (but in R.V. "flute-players"). Flutes were in common use among the ancient Egyptians.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/F/Flute/

Pipe in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(1 Sam. 10:5; 1 Kings 1:40; Isa. 5:12; 30:29). The Hebrew word halil, so rendered, means "bored through," and is the name given to various kinds of wind instruments, as the fife, flute, Pan-pipes, etc. In Amos 6:5 this word is rendered "instrument of music." This instrument is mentioned also in the New Testament (Matt. 11:17; 1 Cor. 14:7). It is still used in Israel, and is, as in ancient times, made of different materials, as reed, copper, bronze, etc.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/P/Pipe/

Trumpet in Easton's Bible Dictionary

were of a great variety of forms, and were made of divers materials. Some were made of silver (Num. 10:2), and were used only by the priests in announcing the approach of festivals and in giving signals of war. Some were also made of rams' horns (Josh. 6:8). They were blown at special festivals, and to herald the arrival of special seasons (Lev. 23:24; 25:9; 1 Chr. 15:24; 2 Chr. 29:27; Ps. 81:3; 98:6). "Trumpets" are among the symbols used in the Book of Revelation (Rev. 1:10; 8:2). (See HORN -T0001821.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/T/Trumpets/

Pipe in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

chaliyl, "to bore." Representing wind instruments, as the harp represents "stringed instruments". The pipe single or double, the flute; one of the simplest and oldest of musical instruments, the accompaniment of festivity (1 Kings 1:40; Luke 7:32; Isaiah 5:12), religious services (1 Samuel 10:5), and processions (Isaiah 30:29). Also suited by its plaintive softness to mourning (Matthew 9:23; Jeremiah 48:36). The "shawm" of which the clarionet is an improvement, may be from chaliyl through the French chalumeau, German schalmeie.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/P/Pipe/

Harp in Naves Topical Bible

A stringed instrument of music Isa 38:20; Eze 33:32; Hab 3:19 -With three strings (margin) 1Sa 18:6 -Ten strings Ps 33:2; 92:3; 144:9; 150:4 -Originated with Jubal Ge 4:21 -Made of almug wood 1Ki 10:12 -David skillful in manipulating 1Sa 16:16,23 -Used in worship 1Sa 10:5; 1Ch 16:5; 25:1-7; 2Ch 5:12,13; 29:25; Ps 33:2; 43:4; 49:4; 57:8; 71:22; 81:2; 92:3; 98:5; 108:2; 147:7; 149:3; 150:3 -Used, in national jubilees, after the triumph over Goliath, (margin) 1Sa 18:6 -Over the armies of Ammon and Moab 2Ch 20:28; with 20:20-29 -When the new walls of Jerusalem were dedicated Ne 12:27,36 -Used in festivities Ge 31:27; Job 21:11,12; Isa 5:12; 23:16; 24:8; 30:32; Eze 26:13; Re 18:22 -In mourning Job 30:31 -Discordant 1Co 14:7 -Hung on the willows by the captive Jews Ps 137:2 -Heard in heaven, in John's apocalyptic vision Re 5:8; 14:2; 15:2 -The symbol used in the psalmody to indicate when the harp was to be introduced in the music was "Neginoth." See titles of Ps 4; 6; 54; 55; 61; 67; 76

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/H/HARP/

Harp in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The harp was the national instrument of the Hebrews, and was well known throughout Asia. Moses assigns its invention to Jubal during the antediluvian period. Ge 4:21 Josephus records that the harp had ten strings, and that it was played on with the plectrum. Sometimes it was smaller having only eight strings, and was usually played with the fingers.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/H/Harp/

Harp in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. kinnor), the national instrument of the Hebrews. It was invented by Jubal (Gen. 4:21). Some think the word _kinnor_ denotes the whole class of stringed instruments. It was used as an accompaniment to songs of cheerfulness as well as of praise to God (Gen. 31:27; 1 Sam. 16:23; 2 Chr. 20:28; Ps. 33:2; 137:2). In Solomon's time harps were made of almug-trees (1 Kings 10:11, 12). In 1 Chr. 15:21 mention is made of "harps on the Sheminith;" Revised Version, "harps set to the Sheminith;" better perhaps "harps of eight strings." The soothing effect of the music of the harp is referred to 1 Sam. 16:16, 23; 18:10; 19:9. The church in heaven is represented as celebrating the triumphs of the Redeemer "harping with their harps" (Rev. 14:2).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/H/Harp/

Harp in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

kinnor With ten strings, played on with a plectrum (quill), according to Josephus; but also with the hand by David (1 Samuel 16:23; 1 Samuel 18:10; 1 Samuel 19:9). Jubal invented it, the simplest kind of stringed instrument, and the" organ" (ugab), rather the "pipe," the simplest kind of wind instrument; his brother Jabal was" father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle." The brotherhood accords with the fact that the leisure of a nomad life was well suited to the production and appreciation of music (Genesis 4:20-21). The harp was the earliest of all musical instruments, and the national instrument of the Hebrew. They used it, not as the Greeks, for expressing sorrow, but on occasions of joy and praise (Genesis 31:27; 2 Chronicles 20:28; Psalm 33:2); therefore, it was hung on the willows in the Babylonian captivity (Psalm 137:2; Job 30:31). The words "My bowels shall sound like an harp" (Isaiah 16:11) do not allude to the sound as lugubrious, but to the strings vibrating when struck. There was a smaller harp played with the hand, as by the walking prophets (1 Samuel 10:5), besides the larger, with more strings, played with the plectrum. Its music, as that of other instruments, was raised to its highest perfection under David (Amos 6:5). It was an important adjunct to the "schools of the prophets."

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/H/Harp/

Musical Instruments Scripture - Daniel 3:15

Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made; [well]: but if ye worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and who [is] that God that shall deliver you out of my hands?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Daniel/3/

Harp Scripture - 1 Samuel 16:23

And it came to pass, when the [evil] spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took an harp, and played with his hand: so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Samuel/16/

Harp Scripture - 1 Samuel 10:5

After that thou shalt come to the hill of God, where [is] the garrison of the Philistines: and it shall come to pass, when thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a company of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a tabret, and a pipe, and a harp, before them; and they shall prophesy:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Samuel/10/

Harp Scripture - Psalms 57:8

Awake up, my glory; awake, psaltery and harp: I [myself] will awake early.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/57/

Pipe Scripture - 1 Samuel 10:5

After that thou shalt come to the hill of God, where [is] the garrison of the Philistines: and it shall come to pass, when thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a company of prophets coming down from the high place with a psaltery, and a tabret, and a pipe, and a harp, before them; and they shall prophesy:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Samuel/10/

Pipe Scripture - Isaiah 30:29

Ye shall have a song, as in the night [when] a holy solemnity is kept; and gladness of heart, as when one goeth with a pipe to come into the mountain of the LORD, to the mighty One of Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/30/

Pipe Scripture - Isaiah 5:12

And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts: but they regard not the work of the LORD, neither consider the operation of his hands.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/5/

Pipe Scripture - 1 Corinthians 14:7

And even things without life giving sound, whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction in the sounds, how shall it be known what is piped or harped?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Corinthians/14/

Necklace in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

nek'-las (rabhidh, "chain"): A neck-chain ornament, worn either separately (Ezek 16:11), or with pendants (Isa 3:19), such as crescents (Isa 3:18) or rings (Gen 38:25); sometimes made of gold (Gen 41:42; Dan 5:29), or of strings of jewels (Song 1:10). Even beasts of burden were sometimes so adorned by royalty (Jdg 8:26). It was considered suggestive of pride (Ps 73:6) or of filial loyalty (Prov 1:9). The word does not occur in the King James Version, but such adornments have always been popular in all the Bible lands.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/N/NECKLACE/

Necklace in Naves Topical Bible

(A. V., tablets, R. V., armlet) Ex 35:22; Nu 31:50

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/N/NECKLACE/

Necklace Scripture - Ezekiel 16:11

I decked thee also with ornaments, and I put bracelets upon thy hands, and a chain on thy neck.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/16/

Necklace Scripture - Isaiah 3:19

The chains, and the bracelets, and the mufflers,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/3/

Necklace Scripture - Psalms 73:6

Therefore pride compasseth them about as a chain; violence covereth them [as] a garment

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/73/

Necklace Scripture - Proverbs 1:9

For they [shall be] an ornament of grace unto thy head, and chains about thy neck.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Proverbs/1/

Nose-Jewels in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

noz-ju'-elz, -joo'-elz (nezem (probably from nazam, "muzzle") a "nose-ring," or "nose-jewel," so rendered in Isa 3:21; "jewel in a swine's snout," Prov 11:22, the King James Version margin "ring"; "jewel on thy forehead," Ezek 16:12, "ring upon thy nose"): In Gen 24:22, the King James Version rendered incorrectly "earring"; compare Gen 24:47. Indeed, the word had also a more generic meaning of "ring" or "jewelry," whether worn in the nose or not. See Gen 35:4; Ex 32:2, where the ornament was worn in the ear. There are several cases without specification, uniformly rendered, without good reason, however, "earring" in the King James Version (Ex 35:22; Jdg 8:24,25; Job 42:11 ("ring"); Prov 25:12; Hos 2:13 (15)). The nose-jewel was made of gold or of silver, usually, and worn by many women of the East. It was a ring of from an inch to about three inches (in extreme cases) in diameter, and was passed through the right nostril. Usually there were pendant from the metal ring jewels, beads or coral. Such ornaments are still worn in some parts of the East.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/N/NOSE-JEWELS/

Nose-Jewels in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Ge 24:22; Ex 35:22 "earing;" Isa 3:21, Eze 16:12 "jewel on the forehead," a ring of metal, sometimes of gold or silver, passed usually through the right nostril, and worn by way of ornament by women in the East. Upon it are strung beads, coral or jewels. In Egypt it is now almost confined to the lower classes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/N/Nose-jewel/

Nose-Jewels in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Only mentioned in Isa. 3:21, although refered to in Gen. 24:47, Prov. 11:22, Hos. 2:13. They were among the most valued of ancient female ornaments. They "were made of ivory or metal, and occasionally jewelled. They were more than an inch in diameter, and hung upon the mouth. Eliezer gave one to Rebekah which was of gold and weighed half a shekel...At the present day the women in the country and in the desert wear these ornaments in one of the sides of the nostrils, which droop like the ears in consequence."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/N/Nose-jewels/

Nose Jewels Scripture - Isaiah 3:21

The rings, and nose jewels,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/3/

Nose Jewels Scripture - Proverbs 11:22

[As] a jewel of gold in a swine's snout, [so is] a fair woman which is without discretion.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Proverbs/11/

Carpenter in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

kar'-pen-ter (charash; tekton): This word, which is a general word for graver or craftsman, is translated "carpenter" in 2 Ki 22:6; 2 Ch 24:12; Ezr 3:7; Isa 41:7. The same word is rendered "craftsman" in the American Standard Revised Version of Jer 24:1 and 29:2 and "smith" in the American Standard Revised Version of Zec 1:20. In 2 Sam 5:11; 2 Ki 12:11; 1 Ch 14:1; and Isa 44:13, charash occurs with `ets (wood), and is more exactly translated "carpenter" or "worker in wood." Tekton, the corresponding Greek word for artificer, is translated "carpenter" in Mt 13:55 and Mk 6:3.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/C/CARPENTER/

Fisherman in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

fish'-er fish'-er-man (dayyagh, dawwagh; halieus; Westcott and Hort, The New Testament in Greek haleeus): Although but few references to fishermen are made in the Bible, these men and their calling are brought into prominence by Jesus' call to certain Galilee fishermen to become His disciples (Mt 4:18,19; Mk 1:16,17). Fishermen, then as now, formed a distinct class. The strenuousness of the work (Lk 5:2) ruled out the weak and indolent. They were crude in manner, rough in speech and in their treatment of others (Lk 9:49,54; Jn 18:10). James and John before they became tempered by Jesus' influence were nicknamed the "sons of thunder" (Mk 3:17). The fishermen's exposure to all kinds of weather made them hardy and fearless. They were accustomed to bear with patience many trying circumstances. They often toiled for hours without success, and yet were always ready to try once more (Lk 5:5; Jn 21:3). Such men, when impelled by the same spirit as filled their Master, became indeed "fishers of men" (Mt 4:19; Mk 1:17). One of the striking instances of the fulfillment of prophecy is the use by the Syrian fishermen today of the site of ancient Tyre as a place for the spreading of their nets (Ezek 26:5,14). Figurative: Fish were largely used as food (Hab 1:16), hence, the lamentation of the fishermen, who provided for all, typified general desolation (Isa 19:8). On the other hand, abundance of fish and many fishermen indicated general abundance (Ezek 47:10). Our modern expression, "treated like a dog," had its counterpart in the language of the Old Testament writers, when they portrayed the punished people of Judah as being treated like fish. Yahweh would send many fishers to fish them up and put sticks or hooks through their cheeks as a fisherman strings his fish (Jer 16:16; Job 41:2). Such treatment of the people of Judah is depicted on some of the Assyrian monuments.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/F/FISHER;+FISHERMAN/

Tanner in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

tan'-er (burseus, from bursa "a hide"): The only references to a tanner are in Acts 9:43; 10:6,32. The Jews looked upon tanning as an undesirable occupation and well they might, for at best it was accompanied with unpleasant odors and unattractive sights, if not even ceremonially unclean. We can imagine that Simon the tanner found among the disciples of Jesus a fellowship which had been denied him before. Peter made the way still easier for Simon by choosing his house as his abode while staying in Joppa. Simon's house was by the seashore, as is true of the tanneries along the Syrian coast today, so that the foul-smelling liquors from the vats can be drawn off with the least nuisance, and so that the salt water may be easily accessible for washing the skins during the tanning process. These tanneries are very unpretentious affairs, usually consisting of one or two small rooms and a courtyard. Within are the vats made either of stone masonry, plastered within and without, or cut out of the solid rock. The sheep or goat skins are smeared on the flesh side with a paste of slaked lime and then folded up and allowed to stand until the hair loosens. The hair and fleshy matter are removed, the skins are plumped in lime, bated in a concoction first of dog dung and afterward in one of fermenting bran, in much the same way as in a modern tannery. The bated skins are tanned in sumach (Arabic summak), which is the common tanning material in Syria and Israel. After drying, the leather is blackened on one side by rubbing on a solution made by boiling vinegar with old nails or pieces of copper, and the skin is finally given a dressing of olive oil. In the more modern tanneries degras is being imported for the currying processes. For dyeing the rams' skins red (Ex 25 ff) they rub on a solution of qermes (similar to cochineal; see DYEING), dry, oil, and polish with a smooth stone. Pine bark is sometimes used for tanning in Lebanon. According to Wilkinson (Ancient Egypt, II, 186), the Arabs use the juice of a desert plant for dehairing and tanning skins. The skins for pouches are either tawed, i.e. tanned with a mineral salt like alum, or treated like parchment (see PARCHMENT). About Hebron oak branches, chopped into small chips, are used for tanning the leather bottles or water skins. In this case the hair is not removed. The tanning is accomplished, after removing the fleshy matter, by filling the skin with oak chips and water, tying up all openings in the skins, and allowing them to lie in the open on their "backs," with "legs" upright, for weeks. The field near Hebron where they arrange the bulging skins in orderly rows during the tanning process presents a weird sight. These are the bottles referred to in the King James Version (the Revised Version (British and American) "skins") (Josh 9:4,13; Hos 7:5; Mt 9:17; Mk 2:22; Lk 5:37). Leather was probably used more extensively than any records show. We know that the Egyptians used leather for ornamental work. They understood the art of making stamped leather. The sculptures give us an idea of the methods used for making the leather into sandals, trimmings for chariots, coverings of chairs, decorations for harps, sarcophagi, etc. There are two Biblical references to leather, where leather girdles are mentioned (2 Ki 1:8; Mt 3:4).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/T/TANNER/

Mason in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

ma'-s'n: The translation of 4 Hebrew words: (1) charash 'ebhen, "graver of stone" (2 Sam 5:11); (2) (3) gadhar (2 Ki 12:12), charash qur (1 Ch 14:1), "maker of a wall (or hedge)"; (4) chatsabh, "a hewer or digger (of stones)" (1 Ch 22:2; Ezr 3:7). Lebanon still supplies the greater number of skilled masons to Israel and Syria (see 2 Sam 5:11), those of Shweir being in special repute.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MASON/

Potter in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

pot'-er, pot'-er-i: 1. Historical Development 2. Forms 3. Methods of Production 4. Uses 5. Biblical Terms 6. Archaeological Significance LITERATURE 1. Historical Development: (1) Prehistoric. The making of pottery ranks among the very oldest of the crafts. On the rocky plateaus of Upper Egypt, overlooking the Nile valley, are found the polished red earthenware pots of the prehistoric Egyptians. These are buried in shallow oval graves along with the cramped-up bodies of the dead and their chipped flint weapons and tools. These jars are the oldest examples of the potter's article It is inconceivable that in the country of Babel, Egypt's great rival in civilization, the ceramic arts were less developed at the same period, but the difference in the nature of the country where the first Mesopotamian settlement probably existed makes it unlikely that relics of the prehistoric dwellers of that country will ever be recovered from under the debris of demolished cities and the underlying deposits of clay and silt. (2) Babylonia. The oldest examples of Babylonian ceramics date from the historical period, and consist of baked clay record tablets, bricks, drainage pipes, household shrines, as well as vessels for holding liquids, fruits and other stores. (See Perrot and Chipiez, History of Art in Chaldea and Assyria, I, figures 159, 160, II, figures 163, 168.) Examples of pottery of this early period are shown in the accompanying figures. By the 9th to the 7th century BC the shaping of vessels of clay had become well developed. Fragments of pottery bearing the name of Esarhaddon establish the above dates. (3) Egypt. With the close of the neolithic period in Egypt and the beginning of the historical or dynastic period (4500-4000 BC) there was a decline in the pottery article The workmanship and forms both became bad, and not until the IVth Dynasty was there any improvement. In the meantime the process of glazing had been discovered and the art of making beautiful glazed faience became one of the most noted of the ancient Egyptian crafts. The potter's wheel too was probably an invention of this date. (4) Israel. The making of pottery in the land which later became the home of the children of Israel began long before this people possessed the land and even before the Phoenicians of the coast cities had extended their trade inland and brought the earthenware vessels of the Tyrian or Sidonian potters. As in Egypt and Babylonia, the first examples were hand-made without the aid of the wheel. It is probable that Jewish potters learned their art from the Phoenicians. They at least copied Phoenician...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/P/POTTER;+POTTERY/

Carpentry in Naves Topical Bible

Building the ark of Noah Ge 6:14-16 -Tabernacle, and furniture of Ex 31:2-9 -See TABERNACLE -David's palace 2Sa 5:11 -Temple 2Ki 12:11; 22:6 -See TEMPLE -Making idols Isa 41:7; 44:13 -Carpenters Jer 24:1; Zec 1:20 -Joseph Mt 13:55 -Jesus Mr 6:3

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/C/CARPENTRY/

Fishermen in Naves Topical Bible

Certain apostles Mt 4:18-21; Mr 1:16,19; Joh 21:2,3 -FIGURATIVE Jer 16:16; Mt 4:19

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/F/FISHERMEN/

Mason in Naves Topical Bible

A trade In the time of David 2Sa 5:11 Of later times 2Ki 12:12; 22:6; 1Ch 14:1; Ezr 3:7

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/M/MASON/

Pottery in Naves Topical Bible

Clay prepared for, by treading Isa 41:25 -Vessels made of Jer 18:3,4 -Place for manufacture of, outside the wall of Jerusalem, bought as a burying ground for poor people Mt 27:7-10 -FIGURATIVE Isa 64:8; Ro 9:21 Of weakness, in the idol in Nebuchadnezzars vision Da 2:41

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/P/POTTERY/

Tanning in Naves Topical Bible

General scriptures concerning Ac 9:43; 10:5,6

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/T/TANNING/

Pottery in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The art of pottery is one of the most common and most ancient of all manufactures. It is abundantly evident, both that the Hebrews used earthenware vessels in the wilderness and that the potter's trade was afterward carried on in Israel. They had themselves been concerned in the potter's trade in Egypt, Ps 81:6 and the wall-paintings minutely illustrate the Egyptian process. The clay, when dug, was trodden by men's feet so as to form a paste, Isa 41:25 Wisd. 15:7; then placed by the potter on the wheel beside which he sat, and shaped by him with his hands. How early the wheel came into use in Israel is not known, but it seems likely that it was adopted from Egypt. Isa 45:9; Jer 15:3 The vessel was then smoothed and coated with a glaze, and finally burnt in a furnace. There was at Jerusalem a royal establishment of potters, 1Ch 4:23 from whose employment, and from the fragments cast away in the process, the Potter's Field perhaps received its name. Isa 30:11

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/P/Pottery/

Carpenter in Easton's Bible Dictionary

an artificer in stone, iron, and copper, as well as in wood (2 Sam. 5:11; 1 Chr. 14:1; Mark 6:3). The tools used by carpenters are mentioned in 1 Sam. 13:19, 20; Judg. 4:21; Isa. 10:15; 44:13. It was said of our Lord, "Is not this the carpenter's son?" (Matt. 13:55); also, "Is not this the carpenter? " (Mark 6:3). Every Jew, even the rabbis, learned some handicraft: Paul was a tentmaker. "In the cities the carpenters would be Greeks, and skilled workmen; the carpenter of a provincial village could only have held a very humble position, and secured a very moderate competence."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/C/Carpenter/

Pottery in Easton's Bible Dictionary

the art of, was early practised among all nations. Various materials seem to have been employed by the potter. Earthenware is mentioned in connection with the history of Melchizedek (Gen. 14:18), of Abraham (18:4-8), of Rebekah (27:14), of Rachel (29:2, 3, 8, 10). The potter's wheel is mentioned by Jeremiah (18:3). See also 1 Chr. 4:23; Ps. 2:9; Isa. 45:9; 64:8; Jer. 19:1; Lam. 4:2; Zech. 11:13; Rom. 9:21.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/P/Pottery/

Carpenter Scripture - Isaiah 44:13

The carpenter stretcheth out [his] rule; he marketh it out with a line; he fitteth it with planes, and he marketh it out with the compass, and maketh it after the figure of a man, according to the beauty of a man; that it may remain in the house.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/44/

Carpenter Scripture - Isaiah 41:7

So the carpenter encouraged the goldsmith, [and] he that smootheth [with] the hammer him that smote the anvil, saying, It [is] ready for the sodering: and he fastened it with nails, [that] it should not be moved.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/41/

Carpenter Scripture - Mark 6:3

Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? And they were offended at him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/6/

Tanner Scripture - Acts 10:32

Send therefore to Joppa, and call hither Simon, whose surname is Peter; he is lodged in the house of [one] Simon a tanner by the sea side: who, when he cometh, shall speak unto thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/10/

Tanner Scripture - Acts 9:43

And it came to pass, that he tarried many days in Joppa with one Simon a tanner.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/9/

Tanner Scripture - Acts 10:6

He lodgeth with one Simon a tanner, whose house is by the sea side: he shall tell thee what thou oughtest to do.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/10/

Masons Scripture - 2 Kings 12:12

And to masons, and hewers of stone, and to buy timber and hewed stone to repair the breaches of the house of the LORD, and for all that was laid out for the house to repair [it].

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/12/

Masons Scripture - 2 Chronicles 24:12

And the king and Jehoiada gave it to such as did the work of the service of the house of the LORD, and hired masons and carpenters to repair the house of the LORD, and also such as wrought iron and brass to mend the house of the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/24/

Masons Scripture - 2 Samuel 5:11

And Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, and carpenters, and masons: and they built David an house.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/5/

Masons Scripture - Ezra 3:7

They gave money also unto the masons, and to the carpenters; and meat, and drink, and oil, unto them of Zidon, and to them of Tyre, to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea of Joppa, according to the grant that they had of Cyrus king of Persia.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezra/3/

Masons Scripture - 1 Chronicles 14:1

Now Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and timber of cedars, with masons and carpenters, to build him an house.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/14/

Masons Scripture - 1 Chronicles 22:2

And David commanded to gather together the strangers that [were] in the land of Israel; and he set masons to hew wrought stones to build the house of God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/22/

Masons Scripture - 2 Kings 22:6

Unto carpenters, and builders, and masons, and to buy timber and hewn stone to repair the house.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/22/

Old Age in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

In individual lives (cheledh; helikia): We have scarcely any word in the Old Testament or New Testament which denotes "age" in the familiar modern sense; the nearest in the Old Testament is perhaps heledh, "life," "lifetime," and in the New Testament helikia, "full age," "manhood," but which is rendered stature in Mt 6:27, etc., the King James Version; cheledh occurs (Job 11:17, "Thine age shall be clearer than the noonday," the Revised Version (British and American) "(thy) life"; Ps 39:5, "Mine age is as nothing before thee," the American Standard Revised Version, "my life-time"); we have helikia (Jn 9:21,23, "He is of age"; Heb 11:11 "past age," Lk 2:52, "Jesus increased in wisdom and age," so the Revised Version, margin, King James Version margin, Eph 4:13); yom, day, (days) is used in the Old Testament to express "age" (Gen 47:28), the whole age of Jacob," the King James Version, "the days of the years of his life"; but it occurs mostly in connection with old age); ben, "son" (Nu 8:25; 1 Ch 23:3,24); kelah, "to be complete," is translated "full age" (Job 5:26); teleios, "complete" (Heb 5:14, the Revised Version (British and American), full-grown men, margin, perfect"), dor, a revolution," "a period" is translated "age" (Isa 38:12, "Mine age is departed and removed from me as a shepherd's tent," the American Standard Revised Version, "My dwelling is removed, and is carried away from me as a shepherd's tent," the English Revised Version, "mine age," margin, "or habitation"; Delitzsch, "my home"; compare Ps 49:19 (20); 2 Cor 5:8). In New Testament we have etos, "year" (Mk 5:42, the Revised Version (British and American), "old"; Lk 2:37; 3:23, "Jesus .... about 30 years of age"). "Old age," "aged," are the translation of various words, zaqen (zaqan, "the chin," the beard"), perhaps to have the chin sharp or hanging down, often translated "elders," "old man," etc. (2 Sam 19:32; Job 12:20; 32:9; Jer 6:11). In New Testament we have presbutes, "aged," "advanced in days" (Titus 2:2; Philem 1:9); presbutis, "aged woman" (Titus 2:3); probebekos en hemerais, advanced in days" (Lk 2:36); geras, "old age" (Lk 1:36). Revised Version has "old" for "the age of" (1 Ch 23:3), "own age" for "sort" (Dan 1:10); "aged" for "ancients" (Ps 119:100), for "ancient" (Isa 47:6); for "old" (Heb 8:13); "aged men" for "the ancients" (Job 12:12); for "aged" (Job 12:20), "elders." Regard for Old Age: (1) Among the Hebrews (and Orientals generally) old age was held in honor, and respect was required for the aged (Lev 19:32), "Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and honor the face of the old man"; a mark of the low estate of the nation was that "The faces of elders were not honored"; "The elders have ceased from the gate" (Lam 5:12,14). Compare Job 29:8 (as showing the exceptionally high regard for Job). See also The Wisdom of Solomon 2:10; Ecclesiasticus 8:6. (2) Old age was greatly desired and its attainment regarded as a Divine blessing (Gen 15:15; Ex 20:12, "that thy days may be long in the land"; Job 5:26; Ps 91:16, "With long life will I satisfy him"; 92:14; compare Isa 65:20; Zec 8:4; 1 Sam 2:32). (3) A Divine assurance is given, "Even to old age I am he, and even to hoar hairs will I carry you" (Isa 46:4); hence it was looked forward to in faith and hope (Ps 71:9,18). (4) Superior wisdom was believed to belong to the aged (Job 12:20; 15:10; 32:7,9; compare 1 Ki 12:8); hence positions of guidance and authority were given to them, as the terms "elders," "presbyters" and (Arabic) "sheik" indicate.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/A/AGE;+OLD+AGE/

Old Age in Naves Topical Bible

General scriptures concerning Ge 15:15; 47:9; De 34:7; 2Sa 19:34-37; 1Ch 29:28; Job 5:26; 11:17; 12:12; 32:4-9; 42:17; Ps 71:9,18; 90:10; 92:14; 148:12,13; Pr 16:31; Ec 6:3,6; 12:1-7; Isa 46:4; Lu 2:37; Tit 2:2,3; Phm 1:9

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/O/OLD+AGE/

Old Age in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The aged occupied a prominent place in the social and political system of the Jews. In private life they were looked up to as the depositaries of knowledge, Job 15:10 the young were ordered to rise up in their presence, Le 19:32 they allowed them to give their opinion first, Job 32:4 they were taught to regard gray hair as a "crown of glory," Pr 16:31; 20:29 The attainment of old age was regarded as a special blessing. Job 5:26 In pubic main qualification of those who acted as the representatives of the people in all matter of difficulty and deliberation. [ELDERS]

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/A/Age,+Old/

Age in Easton's Bible Dictionary

used to denote the period of a man's life (Gen. 47:28), the maturity of life (John 9:21), the latter end of life (Job 11:17), a generation of the human race (Job 8:8), and an indefinite period (Eph. 2:7; 3:5, 21; Col. 1:26). Respect to be shown to the aged (Lev. 19:32). It is a blessing to communities when they have old men among them (Isa. 65:20; Zech. 8:4). The aged supposed to excel in understanding (Job 12:20; 15:10; 32:4, 9; 1 Kings 12:6, 8). A full age the reward of piety (Job 5:26; Gen. 15:15).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/A/Age/

Old Age in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The reward of filial obedience, according to the fifth commandment; remarkably illustrated in the great permanence of the Chinese empire; wherein regard for parents and ancestors is so great that it has degenerated into superstition. Patriarchal times and patriarchal governments have most maintained respect for the old. The Egyptians followed the primeval law, which Moses embodies in Leviticus 19:32; "Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and honor the face of the old man, and fear thy God." Their experience made them to be regarded as depositories of knowledge (Job 15:10); they gave their opinion first (Job 32:4). A full age was the reward of piety (Job 5:26; Genesis 15:15); premature death was a temporal judgment for sin (1 Samuel 2:32); (spiritually, and as a taking out from the evil to come, it was sometimes a blessing; as in the case of Abijah, Jeroboam's son, 1 Kings 14; Isaiah 57:1). In the millennium, when there shall be a worldwide theocracy, with Israel for its center, the temporal sanction of exceeding long life (as in patriarchal times) shall be the reward for piety, and shortened years the penalty of any exceptional sin (Isaiah 65:20; Zechariah 8:4). The rulers under Moses required age as a qualification; hence they and those of the New Testament church are called elders (presbyters), until the word became a term of office, and not necessarily of age. Disobedience to parents and disrespect to seniors and "dignities" (Judges 1:8; 2 Peter 2:10) are foretold characteristics of the last apostate age (2 Timothy 3:2-4; Romans 1:30).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/A/Age,+old/

Old Age Scripture - Genesis 15:15

And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/15/

Old Age Scripture - Deuteronomy 34:7

And Moses [was] an hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/34/

Old Age Scripture - Job 5:26

Thou shalt come to [thy] grave in a full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in in his season.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job/5/

Millstones Scripture - 2 Samuel 11:21

Who smote Abimelech the son of Jerubbesheth? did not a woman cast a piece of a millstone upon him from the wall, that he died in Thebez? why went ye nigh the wall? then say thou, Thy servant Uriah the Hittite is dead also.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/11/

Millstones Scripture - Revelation 18:21

And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast [it] into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/18/

Millstones Scripture - Deuteronomy 24:6

No man shall take the nether or the upper millstone to pledge: for he taketh [a man's] life to pledge.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/24/

Millstones Scripture - Judges 9:53

And a certain woman cast a piece of a millstone upon Abimelech's head, and all to brake his skull.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Judges/9/

Millstones Scripture - Job 41:24

His heart is as firm as a stone; yea, as hard as a piece of the nether [millstone].

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job/41/

Millstones Scripture - Matthew 18:6

But whoso shall offend one of these little ones which believe in me, it were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and [that] he were drowned in the depth of the sea.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/18/

Millstones Scripture - Mark 9:42

And whosoever shall offend one of [these] little ones that believe in me, it is better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were cast into the sea.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/9/

Millstones Scripture - Luke 17:2

It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he cast into the sea, than that he should offend one of these little ones.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/17/

Moneychangers in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

chan'-jers (kollubistes, from kollubos, "a small coin," so "a money-changer," or "banker" (Mt 21:12; Mk 11:15; "changers" in Jn 2:15; compare 2:14, where kermatistes, "a dealer in small bits," or "change," is also rendered "changers"); compare trapezites, "one who sits at a table," "a money-changer," "a banker" or "broker"; one who both exchanges money for a small fee and pays interest on deposits (Mt 25:27, the King James Version "exchangers," the American Standard Revised Version "bankers")): The profession of money-changer in Israel was made necessary by the law requiring every male Israelite who had reached the age of 20 years to pay into the treasury of the sanctuary a half-shekel at every numbering of the people, an offering to Yahweh, not even the poor being exempt. It seems to have become an annual tax, and was to be paid in the regular Jewish half-shekel (Ex 30:11-15). Since the Jews, coming up to the feasts, would need to exchange the various coins in common circulation for this Jewish piece, there were money- changers who exacted a premium for the exchange. This fee was a kollubos (about 31 cents in U.S. money, i.e. in 1915), hence, the name kollubistes. The Jews of Christ's day came from many parts of the world, and the business of exchanging foreign coins for various purposes became a lucrative one, the exchangers exacting whatever fee they might. Because of their greed and impiety, Jesus drove them from the courts of the temple.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MONEY-CHANGERS/

Moneychangers in Naves Topical Bible

General scriptures concerning Mt 21:12; Mr 11:15; Joh 2:15

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/M/MONEY+CHANGERS/

Moneychangers in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Mt 21:12; Mr 11:15; Joh 2:15 According to Ex 30:13-15 every Israelite who had reached or passed the age of twenty must pay into the sacred treasury, whenever the nation was numbered, a half-shekel as an offering to Jehovah. The money-changers whom Christ, for their impiety, avarice and fraudulent dealing, expelled from the temple were the dealers who supplied half- shekels, for such a premium as they might be able to exact, to the Jews from all parts of the world who assembled at Jerusalem during the great festivals, and were required to pay their tribute or ransom money in the Hebrew coin.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Money-changers/

Moneychangers in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Matt. 21:12; Mark 11:15; John 2:15). Every Israelite from twenty years and upwards had to pay (Ex. 30:13-15) into the sacred treasury half a shekel every year as an offering to Jehovah, and that in the exact Hebrew half-shekel piece. There was a class of men, who frequented the temple courts, who exchanged at a certain premium foreign moneys for these half-shekels to the Jews who came up to Jerusalem from all parts of the world. (See PASSOVER -T0002864.) When our Lord drove the traffickers out of the temple, these money-changers fared worst. Their tables were overturned and they themselves were expelled.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Money-changer/

Moneychangers in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Kollubistes and kermatistes, both denoting dealers in small coin (kollubos and kerma the profit money, 1 1/2d.). They set up tables in the court of the Gentiles, to supply at a profit foreign Jews with the Jewish half shekels (1 shillings, 3 pence) required for the yearly payment into the temple treasury, in exchange for foreign coin. The "exchangers" (Matthew 25:27), trapezitai, were bankers.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/M/Money+changers/

Moneychangers Scripture - Matthew 21:12

And Jesus went into the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/21/

Moneychangers Scripture - Mark 11:15

And they come to Jerusalem: and Jesus went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/11/

Moneychangers Scripture - John 2:15

And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/John/2/

Burial in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

ber'-i-al (qebhurah; compare New Testament to entaphidsai): I. IMMEDIATE BURIAL CONSIDERED URGENT 1. Reasons for This 2. The Burial of Jesus 3. The Usual Time 4. Duties of Next of Kin II. PREPARATIONS FOR BURIAL 1. Often Informal and Hasty 2. Usually with More Ceremony 3. Contrasts between Jewish Customs and Other Peoples' (1) Cremation (2) Embalming III. ON THE WAY TO THE GRAVE 1. Coffins Unknown 2. Professional Mourners IV. AT THE GRAVE 1. Graves Dug in the Earth 2. Family Tombs. Later Customs 3. Sealed Stones 4. Stated Times of Mourning 5. Excessive Mourning 6. Dirge-Songs V. FAILURE TO RECEIVE BURIAL A CALAMITY OR JUDGMENT VI. PLACES OF BURIAL: HOW MARKED LITERATURE It is well to recall at the outset that there are points of likeness and of marked contrast between oriental and occidental burial customs in general, as well as between the burial customs of ancient Israel and those of other ancient peoples. These will be brought out, or suggested later in this article. I. Immediate Burial Considered Urgent. 1. Reasons for This: The burial of the dead in the East in general was and is often effected in such a way as to suggest to the westerner indecent haste. Dr. Post says that burial among the people of Syria today seldom takes place later than ten hours after death, often earlier; but, he adds, "the rapidity of decomposition, the excessive violence of grief, the reluctance of Orientals to allow the dead to remain long in the houses of the living, explain what seems to us the indecency of haste." This still requires the survivors, as in the case of Abraham on the death of Sarah, to bury their dead out of their sight (Gen 23:1-4); and it in part explains the quickness with which the bodies of Nadab and Abihu were Carried out of the camp (Lev 10:4), and those of Ananias and Sapphira were hastened off to burial (Acts 5:1- 11). Then, of course, the defilement to which contact with a dead body gave occasion, and the judgment that might come upon a house for harboring the body of one dying under a Divine judgment, further explain such urgency and haste. 2. The Burial of Jesus: It was in strict accordance with such customs and the provision of the Mosaic law (Dt 21:23; compare Gal 3:13), as well as in compliance with the impulses of true humanity, that Joseph of Arimathea went to Pilate and begged the body of Jesus for burial on the very day of the crucifixion (Mt 27:39 ff). 3. The Usual Time: The dead are often in their graves, according to present custom, within two or three hours after death. Among oriental Jews burial takes place, if possible, within twenty-four hours after death, and frequently on the day of death. Likewise Mohammedans bury their dead on the day of death, if death takes place in the morning; but if in the afternoon or at night, not until the following day. 4. Duties of Next of Kin: As soon as the breath is gone the oldest son, or failing him, the nearest of kin present, closes...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/B/BURIAL/

Grief in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

gref, grev: There are some 20 Hebrew words translated in the King James Version by "grief," "grieve," "to be grieved," etc. Among the chief are chalah, choli, yaghon, ka`ac, atsabh. They differ, partly, in their physical origin, and partly, in the nature and cause of the feeling expressed. the Revised Version (British and American) in several instances gives effect to this. (1) Chalah, choli express the sense of weakness, sickness, pain (e.g. Samson, in Jdg 16:7,11,17, "Then shall I become weak (chalah), and be as another man"); Isa 17:11 the King James Version, "a heap in the day of grief"; Isa 53:3,1, "a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief," "He hath borne our griefs" (choli), the Revised Version, margin Hebrew "sickness, sicknesses"; 53:10, "He hath put him to grief," the Revised Version, margin "made him sick" (chalah) (translated by Dillmann and others, "to crush him incurably"; compare Mic 6:13; Nah 3:19); yaghon, perhaps from the pain and weariness of toil (Ps 31:10), "For my life is spent with grief," the Revised Version (British and American) "sorrow"; "The Lord added grief to my sorrow," the Revised Version (British and American) "sorrow to my pain" (Jer 45:3); ka`ac implies provocation, anger, irritation; thus Hannah said to Eli (the King James Version), "Out of the abundance of my complaint and my grief (the Revised Version (British and American) "provocation") have I spoken" (1 Sam 1:16). Ps 6:7; 31:9, "grief"; Prov 17:25, "A foolish son is a grief to his father" (i.e. source of provocation; the same word is rendered "wrath" in 12:16, the King James Version "a fool's wrath," the Revised Version (British and American) "vexation"; so also Prov 27:3); Job 6:2, "Oh that my grief were thoroughly weighed," the Revised Version (British and American) "Oh that my vexation were but weighed" (in 5:2 the King James Version the same word is translated "wrath," the Revised Version (British and American) "vexation"); ke'ebh, is "sorrow," "pain," properly "to hurt." It occurs in Job 2:13 "His grief (the Revised Version, margin "or pain") was very great"; also 16:6 the Revised Version (British and American), "grief"; makh'obh "sorrows," "pain," "suffering" (2 Ch 6:29, the Revised Version (British and American) "sorrow"; Ps 69:26, the Revised Version, margin "or pain"; Isa 53:3, "a man of sorrows"; 53:4, "Surely he hath carried our sorrows"); marah and marar indicate "bitterness" (Gen 26:35; 49:23; 1 Sam 30:6; Ruth 1:13; Prov 14:10, "The heart knoweth its own bitterness, marah); puqah implies staggering, or stumbling, only in 1 Sam 25:31, "This shall be no grief unto thee," the Revised Version, margin Hebrew "cause of staggering"; ra` (a common word for "evil") denotes an evil, a calamity, only once in the King James Version translated "grief," namely, of Jonah's gourd, "to deliver him from his grief," the Revised Version (British and American) "from his evil case" (Jon 4:6); yara`, "to be evil," Dt 15:10, the Revised Version (British and American) "Thy heart shall not be grieved when thou givest unto him" (also 1 Sam 1:8; Neh 2:10; 13:8; several times translated "grievous"); charah, "to burn," "to be wroth" (e.g. Gen 4:6, "Why art thou wroth? "), is translated "grieved" in Gen 45:5, and 1 Sam 15:11 the King James Version (the Revised Version (British and American) "Samuel was wroth"); the same word is often used of the kindling of anger; la'ah, "to be weary," "tired," "faint" (Prov 26:15), the King James Version "The slothful hideth his hand in his bosom, it grieveth him to bring it again to his mouth," the Revised Version (British and American) "wearieth"; also Job 4:2; atsabh, "to grieve," "to be vexed," occurs in Gen 6:6; 34:7; 45:5, etc.; Ps 78:40, "How oft did they .... grieve him in the desert." Of other words sometimes translated "grief" may be mentioned quT, "to weary of," "to loathe" (Ps 95:10), "Forty long years was I grieved with that generation"; in 119:158; 139:21, the Revised Version, margin "loathe"; chamets, implying to be bitterly or violently moved, sour (often translated "leavened"), only in Ps 73:21, the Revised Version (British and American) "For my soul was grieved," margin, Hebrew "was in a ferment." (2) In the New Testament "grief," "grieve," etc., are infrequent. The commonest words are lupe (1 Pet 2:19), the Revised Version (British and American) "griefs," elsewhere translated "sorrow"; lupeo, "to grieve," "afflict" (Mk 10:22, the Revised Version (British and American) "sorrowful"; Jn 21:17 "Peter was grieved"; Rom 14:15; 2 Cor 2:4, the Revised Version (British and American) "made sorry"; 2:5, "caused sorrow"; Eph 4:30, "Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God"); diaponeomai, literally, "to labor through," "to grieve self" occurs twice (Acts 4:2; 16:18 the Revised Version (British and American) "sore troubled"); stenazo, "to groan, or sigh," once only translated "grief" (Heb 13:17), the Revised Version, margin "groaning"; prosochthizo, "to be indignant," etc., twice (Heb 3:10,17, the Revised Version (British and American) "displeased"). The reference is to Ps 95:10, where the Septuagint by this Greek word translates quT (see above). The less frequency in the New Testament of words denoting "grief" is significant. Christ came "to comfort all that mourn--to give a garland for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness." Christians, however, cannot but feel sorrow and be moved by grief, and it is to be noted that in both the Old Testament and New Testament, God Himself is said to be susceptible to grief.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/G/GRIEF;+GRIEVE/

Mourning in Naves Topical Bible

For the dead Head uncovered Le 10:6; 21:10 Lying on the ground 2Sa 12:16 Personal appearance neglected 2Sa 14:2 Cutting the flesh Le 19:28; 21:1-5; De 14:1; Jer 16:6,7; 41:5 Lamentations Ge 50:10; Ex 12:30; 1Sa 30:4; Jer 22:18; Mt 2:17,18 Fasting 1Sa 31:13; 2Sa 1:12; 3:35 -Priests prohibited, except for the nearest of kin Le 21:1-11 -For Nadab and Abihu forbidden Le 10:6 -Sexes separated in Zec 12:12,14 -Hired mourners 2Ch 35:25; Ec 12:5; Jer 9:17; Mt 9:23 -Abraham mourned for Sarah Ge 23:2 -The Egyptians mourned for Jacob for seventy days Ge 50:1-3 -The Israelites mourned for Aaron for thirty days Nu 20:29 -David's lamentations over The death of Saul and his sons 2Sa 1:17-27 The death of Abner 2Sa 3:33,34 The death of Absalom 2Sa 18:33 -Jeremiah and the singing men and singing women lament for Josiah 2Ch 35:25 -For calamities and other sorrows Ripping the garments Ge 37:29,34; 44:13; Nu 14:6; Jud 11:35; 2Sa 1:2,11; 3:31; 13:19,31; 15:32; 2Ki 2:12; 5:8; 6:30; 11:14; 19:1; 22:11,19; Ezr 9:3,5; Job 1:20; 2:12; Isa 37:1; Jer 41:5; Mt 26:65; Ac 14:14 -Wearing mourning clothes Ge 38:14; 2Sa 14:2 -See SACKCLOTH -Cutting or plucking off the hair and beard Ezr 9:3; Jer 7:29 -See BALDNESS -Covering The head and the face 2Sa 15:30; 19:4; Es 6:12; Jer 14:3,4 The upper lip Le 13:45; Eze 24:17,22; Mic 3:7 -Laying aside ornaments Ex 33:4,6 -Walking barefoot 2Sa 15:30; Isa 20:2 -Laying the hand on the head 2Sa 13:19; Jer 2:37 -Ashes put on the head Eze 27:30 -Dust on the head Jos 7:6 -Dressing in black Jer 14:2 -Sitting on the ground Isa 3:26 -Caused ceremonial defilement Nu 19:11-16; 31:19; Le 21:1 -Prevented offerings from being accepted De 26:14; Ho 9:4

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/M/MOURNING/

Wailing in Naves Topical Bible

Of the wicked Mt 13:42

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/W/WAILING/

Mourning in Smiths Bible Dictionary

One marked feature of Oriental mourning is what may be called its studies publicity and the careful observance of the prescribed ceremonies. Ge 23:2; Job 1:20; 2:12 1. Among the particular forms observed the following may be mentioned: (a) Rending the clothes. Ge 37:29,34; 44:13 etc. (b) Dressing in sackcloth. Ge 37:34; 2Sa 3:31; 21:10 etc. (c) Ashes, dust or earth sprinkled on the person. 2Sa 13:19; 15:32 etc. (d) Black or sad-colored garments. 2Sa 14:2; Jer 8:21 etc. (e) Removal of ornaments or neglect of person. De 21:12,13 etc. (f) Shaving the head, plucking out the hair of the head or beard. Le 10:6; 2Sa 19:24 etc. (g) Laying bare some part of the body. Isa 20:2; 47:2 etc. (h) Fasting or abstinence in meat and drink. 2Sa 1:12; 3:35; 12:16,22 etc. (i) In the same direction may be mentioned diminution in offerings to God, and prohibition to partake of sacrificial food. Le 7:20; De 26:14 (k) Covering the "upper lip," i.e. the lower part of the face, and sometimes the head, in token of silence. Le 13:45; 2Sa 15:30; 19:4 (l) Cutting the flesh, Jer 16:6,7; 41:5 beating the body. Eze 21:12; Jer 31:19 (m) Employment of persons hired for the purpose of mourning. Ec 12:5 Jer 9:17; Am 5:16; Mt 9:23 (n) Akin to the foregoing usage the custom for friends or passers-by to join in the lamentations of bereaved or afflicted persons. Ge 50:3; Jud 11:40; Job 2:11; 30:25 etc. (o) The sitting or lying posture in silence indicative of grief. Ge 23:3; Jud 20:26 etc. (p) Mourning feast and cup of consolation. Jer 16:7,8 2. The period of mourning varied. In the case of Jacob it was seventy days, Ge 50:3 of Aaron, Nu 20:29 and Moses, Deut 34:8 thirty. A further period of seven days in Jacob's case. Ge 50:10 Seven days for Saul, which may have been an abridged period in the time of national danger. 1Sa 31:13 With the practices above mentioned, Oriental and other customs, ancient and modern, in great measure agree. Arab men are silent in grief, but the women scream, tear their hair, hands and face, and throw earth or sand on their heads. Both Mohammedans and Christians in Egypt hire wailing-women, and wail at stated times. Burckhardt says the women of Atbara in Nubia shave their heads on the death of their nearest relatives --a custom prevalent also among several of the peasant tribes of upper Egypt. He also mentions wailing-women, and a man in distress besmearing his face with dirt and dust in token of grief. In the "Arabian Nights" are frequent allusions to similar practices. It also mentions ten days and forty days as periods of mourning. Lane, speaking of the modern Egyptians, says, "After death the women of the family raise cries of lamentation called welweleh or wilwal, uttering the most piercing shrieks, and calling upon the name of the deceased, 'Oh, my master! Oh, my resource! Oh, my misfortune! Oh, my glory!" See Jer 22:18 The females of the neighborhood come to join with them in this conclamation: generally, also, the family send for two or more neddabehs or public wailing-women. Each brings a tambourine, and beating them they exclaim, 'Alas for him!' The female relatives, domestics and friends, with their hair dishevelled and sometimes with rent clothes, beating their faces, cry in like manner, 'Alas for him!' These make no alteration in dress, but women, in some cases, dye their shirts, head-veils and handkerchiefs of a dark-blue color. They visit the tombs at stated periods." --Mod. Eg. iii. 152,171,195.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Mourning/

Mourn in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Frequent references are found in Scripture to, (1.) Mourning for the dead. Abraham mourned for Sarah (Gen. 23:2); Jacob for Joseph (37:34, 35); the Egyptians for Jacob (50:3- 10); Israel for Aaron (Num. 20:29), for Moses (Deut. 34:8), and for Samuel (1 Sam. 25:1); David for Abner (2 Sam. 3:31, 35); Mary and Martha for Lazarus (John 11); devout men for Stephen (Acts 8:2), etc. (2.) For calamities, Job (1:20, 21; 2:8); Israel (Ex. 33:4); the Ninevites (Jonah 3:5); Israel, when defeated by Benjamin (Judg. 20:26), etc. (3.) Penitential mourning, by the Israelites on the day of atonement (Lev. 23:27; Acts 27:9); under Samuel's ministry (1 Sam. 7:6); predicted in Zechariah (Zech. 12:10, 11); in many of the psalms (51, etc.). Mourning was expressed, (1) by weeping (Gen. 35:8, marg.; Luke 7:38, etc.); (2) by loud lamentation (Ruth 1:9; 1 Sam. 6:19; 2 Sam. 3:31); (3) by the disfigurement of the person, as rending the clothes (Gen. 37:29, 34; Matt. 26:65), wearing sackcloth (Gen. 37:34; Ps. 35:13), sprinkling dust or ashes on the person (2 Sam. 13:19; Jer. 6:26; Job 2:12), shaving the head and plucking out the hair of the head or beard (Lev. 10:6; Job 1:20), neglect of the person or the removal of ornaments (Ex. 33:4; Deut. 21:12, 13; 2 Sam. 14:2; 19:24; Matt. 6:16, 17), fasting (2 Sam. 1:12), covering the upper lip (Lev. 13:45; Micah 3:7), cutting the flesh (Jer. 16:6, 7), and sitting in silence (Judg. 20:26; 2 Sam. 12:16; 13:31; Job 1:20). In the later times we find a class of mourners who could be hired to give by their loud lamentation the external tokens of sorrow (2 Chr. 35:25; Jer. 9:17; Matt. 9:23). The period of mourning for the dead varied. For Jacob it was seventy days (Gen. 50:3); for Aaron (Num. 20:29) and Moses (Deut. 34:8) thirty days; and for Saul only seven days (1 Sam. 31:13). In 2 Sam. 3:31-35, we have a description of the great mourning for the death of Abner.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Mourn/

Lamentation in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. qinah), an elegy or dirge. The first example of this form of poetry is the lament of David over Saul and Jonathan (2 Sam. 1:17-27). It was a frequent accompaniment of mourning (Amos 8:10). In 2 Sam. 3:33, 34 is recorded David's lament over Abner. Prophecy sometimes took the form of a lament when it predicted calamity (Ezek. 27:2, 32; 28:12; 32:2, 16).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/L/Lamentation/

Lamentation in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Hebrew eechah called from the first word "How," etc., the formula in beginning a lamentation (2 Samuel 1:19). These "Lamentations" (we get the title from Septuagint, Greek threnoi, Hebrew kinot) or five elegies in the Hebrew Bible stand between Ruth and Ecclesiastes, among the Cherubim, or Hagiographa (holy writings), designated from the principal one, the Psalms," by our Lord (Luke 24:44). No "word of Jehovah "or divine message to the sinful and suffering people occurs in Lamentations. Jeremiah is in it the sufferer, not the prophet and teacher, but a sufferer speaking under the Holy Spirit. Josephus (c. Apion) enumerated the prophetic books as thirteen, reckoning Jeremiah and Lamentations as one book, as Judges and Ruth, Ezra and Nehemiah. Jeremiah wrote "lamentations" on the death of Josiah, and it was made "an ordinance in Israel" that "singing women" should "speak" of that king in lamentation. So here he writes "lamentations" on the overthrow of the Jewish city and people, as Septuagint expressly state in a prefatory verse, embodying probably much of the language of his original elegy on Josiah (2 Chronicles 35:25), and passing now to the more universal calamity, of which Josiah's sad death was the presage and forerunner. Thus, the words originally applied to Josiah (Lamentations 4:20) Jeremiah now applies to the throne of Judah in general, the last representative of which, Zedekiah, had just been blinded and carried to Babylon (compare Jeremiah 39:5-7): "the breath of our nostrils, the anointed of Jehovah, was taken in their pits, of whom we said, Under his shadow we shall live among the (live securely in spite of the surrounding) pagan." The language, true of good Josiah, is too favorable to apply to Zedekiah personally; it is as royal David's representative, and type of Messiah, and Judah's head, that he is viewed. The young children fainting for hunger (Lamentations 2:6; Lamentations 2:11-12; Lamentations 2:20-21; Lamentations 4:4; Lamentations 4:9; 2 Kings 25:3), the city stormed (Lamentations 2:7; Lamentations 4:12; 2 Chronicles 36:17; 2 Chronicles 36:19), the priests slain in the sanctuary, the citizens carried captive (Lamentations 1:5; Lamentations 2:9; 2 Kings 25:11) with the king and princes, the feasts, sabbaths, and the law no more (Lamentations 1:4; Lamentations 2:6), all point to Jerusalem's capture by Nebuchadnezzar. The subject is the Jerusalem citizens' sufferings throughout the siege, the penalty of national sin. The events probably are included under Manasseh and Josiah (2 Chronicles 33:11; 2 Chronicles 35:20-25), Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah (2 Chronicles 36:3, etc.). "Every letter is written with a tear, every word is the sound of a broken heart" (Lowth). Terse conciseness marks the style which Jeremiah suits to his theme, whereas he is diffuse in his prophecies. The elegies are grouped in stanzas, but without artificial arrangement of the thoughts. The five are acrostic, and each elegy divided into 22 stanzas. The first three elegies have stanzas with triplets of lines, excepting elegy Lamentations 1:7 and Lamentations 2:9 containing four lines each. The 22 stanzas begin severally with the 22 Hebrew letters in alphabetical order. In three instances two letters are transposed: elegy Lamentations 2:16-17; Lamentations 3:46-51; Lamentations 4:16-17. In the third elegy each line of the three forming every stanza begins with the same letter. The fourth and fifth elegies have their stanzas...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/L/Lamentations/

Mourning Scripture - Amos 5:16

Therefore the LORD, the God of hosts, the Lord, saith thus; Wailing [shall be] in all streets; and they shall say in all the highways, Alas! alas! and they shall call the husbandman to mourning, and such as are skilful of lamentation to wailing.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Amos/5/

Mourning Scripture - Lamentations 2:5

The Lord was as an enemy: he hath swallowed up Israel, he hath swallowed up all her palaces: he hath destroyed his strong holds, and hath increased in the daughter of Judah mourning and lamentation.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Lamentations/2/

Mourning Scripture - Genesis 27:41

And Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing wherewith his father blessed him: and Esau said in his heart, The days of mourning for my father are at hand; then will I slay my brother Jacob.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/27/

Mourning Scripture - Ecclesiastes 7:4

The heart of the wise [is] in the house of mourning; but the heart of fools [is] in the house of mirth.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ecclesiastes/7/

Mourning Scripture - 2 Samuel 14:2

And Joab sent to Tekoah, and fetched thence a wise woman, and said unto her, I pray thee, feign thyself to be a mourner, and put on now mourning apparel, and anoint not thyself with oil, but be as a woman that had a long time mourned for the dead:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/14/

Mourning Scripture - Psalms 30:11

Thou hast turned for me my mourning into dancing: thou hast put off my sackcloth, and girded me with gladness;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/30/

Mourning Scripture - Deuteronomy 34:8

And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days: so the days of weeping [and] mourning for Moses were ended.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/34/

Mourning Scripture - Jeremiah 16:5

For thus saith the LORD, Enter not into the house of mourning, neither go to lament nor bemoan them: for I have taken away my peace from this people, saith the LORD, [even] lovingkindness and mercies.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/16/

Mourning Scripture - Ezekiel 31:15

Thus saith the Lord GOD; In the day when he went down to the grave I caused a mourning: I covered the deep for him, and I restrained the floods thereof, and the great waters were stayed: and I caused Lebanon to mourn for him, and all the trees of the field fainted for him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/31/

Mourning Scripture - Deuteronomy 26:14

I have not eaten thereof in my mourning, neither have I taken away [ought] thereof for [any] unclean [use], nor given [ought] thereof for the dead: [but] I have hearkened to the voice of the LORD my God, [and] have done according to all that thou hast commanded me.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/26/

Wailing Scripture - Revelation 18:19

And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she made desolate.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/18/

Wailing Scripture - Jeremiah 9:20

Yet hear the word of the LORD, O ye women, and let your ear receive the word of his mouth, and teach your daughters wailing, and every one her neighbour lamentation.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/9/

Wailing Scripture - Ezekiel 27:31

And they shall make themselves utterly bald for thee, and gird them with sackcloth, and they shall weep for thee with bitterness of heart [and] bitter wailing.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/27/

Wailing Scripture - Ezekiel 27:32

And in their wailing they shall take up a lamentation for thee, and lament over thee, [saying], What [city is] like Tyrus, like the destroyed in the midst of the sea?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/27/

Wailing Scripture - Jeremiah 9:10

For the mountains will I take up a weeping and wailing, and for the habitations of the wilderness a lamentation, because they are burned up, so that none can pass through [them]; neither can [men] hear the voice of the cattle; both the fowl of the heavens and the beast are fled; they are gone.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/9/

Wailing Scripture - Esther 4:3

And in every province, whithersoever the king's commandment and his decree came, [there was] great mourning among the Jews, and fasting, and weeping, and wailing; and many lay in sackcloth and ashes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Esther/4/

Wailing Scripture - Jeremiah 9:19

For a voice of wailing is heard out of Zion, How are we spoiled! we are greatly confounded, because we have forsaken the land, because our dwellings have cast [us] out.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/9/

Wailing Scripture - Revelation 18:15

The merchants of these things, which were made rich by her, shall stand afar off for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/18/

Wailing Scripture - Micah 1:8

Therefore I will wail and howl, I will go stripped and naked: I will make a wailing like the dragons, and mourning as the owls.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Micah/1/

Wailing Scripture - Jeremiah 9:18

And let them make haste, and take up a wailing for us, that our eyes may run down with tears, and our eyelids gush out with waters.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/9/

Mules in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

mul (peredh (1 Ki 10:25; 18:5; Ezr 2:66; Isa 66:20; Zec 14:15), the feminine pirdah (1 Ki 1:33,38,44), rekhesh, "swift steeds," the King James Version "mules" (Est 8:10,14), 'achashteranim, "used in the king's service," the King James Version "camels," the Revised Version margin "mules" (Est 8:10,14), yemim, "hot springs," the King James Version "mules" (Gen 36:24); hemionos, "half-ass," "mule" (1 Esdras 5:43; Judith 15:11)): Mules are mentioned as riding animals for princes (2 Sam 13:29; 18:9; 1 Ki 1:33,38,44); in the tribute brought to Solomon (2 Ch 9:24); as beasts of burden (2 Ki 5:17; 1 Ch 12:40); horses and mules are obtained from the "house of Togarmah" in the distant north (Ezek 27:14). The injunction of Ps 32:9, "Be ye not as the horse, or as the mule, which have no understanding," need not be understood as singling out the horse and mule as more in need of guidance than the rest of the brute creation, but rather as offering familiar examples to contrast with man who should use his intelligence. At the present day mules are used as pack animals and for drawing freight wagons, rarely for riding. One does not often see in Israel mules as large and fine as are common in Europe and America. This may be because most of the mares and many of the donkeys are small.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MULE/

Mules in Naves Topical Bible

Uses of For royal riders 2Sa 13:29; 18:9; 1Ki 1:33 Ridden by phetic vision of the kingdom of Christ Isa 66:20 As pack animals 2Ki 5:17; 1Ch 12:40 -Tribute paid in 1Ki 10:25 -Used in barter Eze 27:14 -By the captivity in returing from Babylon Ezr 2:66; Ne 7:68 -In war Zec 14:15

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/M/MULE/

Mules in Smiths Bible Dictionary

a hybrid animal, the offspring of a horse and an ass. "The mule is smaller than the horse, and is a remarkably hardy, patient, obstinate, sure-footed animal, living, ordinarily, twice as long as a horse." --McClintock and Strong's Cyclopedia. It was forbidden to the Israelites to breed mules, but sometimes they imported them. It would appear that only kings and great men rode on mules. We do not read of mules at all in the New Testament; perhaps therefore they had ceased to be imported.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Mule/

Mules in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. pered), so called from the quick step of the animal or its power of carrying loads. It is not probable that the Hebrews bred mules, as this was strictly forbidden in the law (Lev. 19:19), although their use was not forbidden. We find them in common use even by kings and nobles (2 Sam. 18:9; 1 Kings 1:33; 2 Kings 5:17; Ps. 32:9). They are not mentioned, however, till the time of David, for the word rendered "mules" (R.V. correctly, "hot springs") in Gen. 36:24 (yemim) properly denotes the warm springs of Callirhoe, on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. In David's reign they became very common (2 Sam. 13:29; 1 Kings 10:25). Mules are not mentioned in the New Testament. Perhaps they had by that time ceased to be used in Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Mule/

Mules Scripture - Zechariah 14:15

And so shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, and of all the beasts that shall be in these tents, as this plague.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Zechariah/14/

Mules Scripture - 2 Samuel 13:29

And the servants of Absalom did unto Amnon as Absalom had commanded. Then all the king's sons arose, and every man gat him up upon his mule, and fled.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/13/

Mules Scripture - 1 Kings 1:38

So Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and the Cherethites, and the Pelethites, went down, and caused Solomon to ride upon king David's mule, and brought him to Gihon.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/1/

Mules Scripture - 1 Kings 1:44

And the king hath sent with him Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and the Cherethites, and the Pelethites, and they have caused him to ride upon the king's mule:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/1/

Mules Scripture - 1 Kings 1:33

The king also said unto them, Take with you the servants of your lord, and cause Solomon my son to ride upon mine own mule, and bring him down to Gihon:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/1/

Mules Scripture - Psalms 32:9

Be ye not as the horse, [or] as the mule, [which] have no understanding: whose mouth must be held in with bit and bridle, lest they come near unto thee.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psalms/32/

Mules Scripture - 2 Samuel 18:9

And Absalom met the servants of David. And Absalom rode upon a mule, and the mule went under the thick boughs of a great oak, and his head caught hold of the oak, and he was taken up between the heaven and the earth; and the mule that [was] under him went away.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/18/

Mules Scripture - Isaiah 66:20

And they shall bring all your brethren [for] an offering unto the LORD out of all nations upon horses, and in chariots, and in litters, and upon mules, and upon swift beasts, to my holy mountain Jerusalem, saith the LORD, as the children of Israel bring an offering in a clean vessel into the house of the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/66/

Mules Scripture - Genesis 36:24

And these [are] the children of Zibeon; both Ajah, and Anah: this [was that] Anah that found the mules in the wilderness, as he fed the asses of Zibeon his father.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/36/

Mules Scripture - 1 Chronicles 12:40

Moreover they that were nigh them, [even] unto Issachar and Zebulun and Naphtali, brought bread on asses, and on camels, and on mules, and on oxen, [and] meat, meal, cakes of figs, and bunches of raisins, and wine, and oil, and oxen, and sheep abundantly: for [there was] joy in Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/12/

Music in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

mu'-zik: I. IMPORTANCE 1. The Sole Art Cultivated 2. A Wide Vocabulary of Musical Terms 3. Place in Social and Personal Life 4. Universal Language of Emotions 5. Use in Divine Service 6. Part at Religious Reformations II. THEORY OF MUSIC 1. Dearth of Technical Information 2. Not Necessarily Unimpressive III. MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 1. Strings 2. Winds 3. Percussion Instruments LITERATURE I. Importance. That the Hebrews were in ancient times, as they are at the present day, devoted to the study and practice of music is obvious to every reader of the Old Testament. The references to it are numerous, and are frequently of such a nature as to emphasize its importance. They occur not only in the Psalter, where we might expect them, but in the Historical Books and the Prophets, in narratives and in declamations of the loftiest meaning and most intense seriousness. And the conclusion drawn from a cursory glance is confirmed by a closer study. 1. The Sole Art Cultivated: The place held by music in the Old Testament is unique. Besides poetry, it is the only art that Art seems to have been cultivated to any extent in ancient Israel. Painting is entirely, sculpture almost entirely, ignored. This may have been due to the prohibition contained in the Second Commandment, but the fidelity with which that was obeyed is remarkable. 2. A Wide Vocabulary of Musical Terms: From the traces of it extant in the Old Testament, we can infer that the vocabulary of musical terms was far from scanty. This is all the more significant when we consider the condensed and pregnant nature of Hebrew. "Song" in our English Versions of the Bible represents at least half a dozen words in the original. 3. Place in Social and Personal Life: The events, occasions, and occupations with which music was associated were extremely varied. It accompanied leave- taking with honored guests (Gen 31:27); celebrated a signal triumph over the nation's enemies (Ex 15:20); and welcomed conquerors returning from victory (Jdg 11:34; 1 Sam 18:6). It was employed to exorcise an evil spirit (1 Sam 18:10), and to soothe temper, or excite the inspiration, of a prophet (2 Ki 3:15). The words "Destroy not" in the titles of four of the Psalms (compare Isa 65:8) most probably are the beginning of a vintage-song, and the markedly rhythmical character of Hebrew music would indicate that it accompanied and lightened many kinds of work requiring combined and uniform exertion. Processions, as e.g. marriages (1 Macc 9:39) and funerals (2 Ch 35:25), were regulated in a similar way. The Psalms headed "Songs of Degrees" were probably the sacred marches sung by the pious...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MUSIC/

Music in Naves Topical Bible

Teachers of 1Ch 15:22; 25:7,8; 2Ch 23:13 -Physical effect of, on man 1Sa 6:15,16 -Discoursed during the offering of sacrifices 2Ch 29:27,28 -Precentor Ne 12:42 -Chief musician Ne 12:42; Hab 3:19 -Chambers for musicians in the temple, in Ezekiel's vision Eze 40:44 -In heaven Re 5:8,9; 14:2,3; 15:2,3 -INSTRUMENTS OF Invented by Jubal Ge 4:21 Invented by David 1Ch 23:5; 2Ch 7:6; 29:26; Am 6:5 Made by Solomon 1Ki 10:12; 2Ch 9:11; Ec 2:8 Made by Tyrians Eze 28:13 CORNET Da 3:5,7,10 See TRUMPET CYMBAL See CYMBAL DULCIMER, a double pipe Da 3:5,10,15 FLUTE Da 3:5,7,10,15 GITTITH, a stringed instrument Ps 8; 81; 84 HARP See HARP ORGAN, probably composed of pipes furnishing a number of notes Ge 4:21; Job 21:12; 30:31; Ps 150:4 PIPE See PIPE PSALTERY See PSALTERY SACKBUT, a harp Da 3:5,7,10,15 TABRET See TIMBREL TIMBREL, a tambourine See TIMBREL TRUMPET See TRUMPET VIOL, a lyre Isa 5:12; 14:11; Am 5:23; 6:5 -SYMBOLS USED IN -ALAMOTH (Literally virgins) A musical term which appears in 1Ch 15:20 And in the title of Ps 46:1 (It seems to indicate the rendering of the song by female voices, possibly soprano) -AL-TASCHITH It appears in the titles of Ps 57:1; 58:1; 59:1; 75:1 (it seems to have been used to indicate the kind of ode, or the kind of melody in which the ode should be sung.) -HIGGAION Ps 92:3 (According to Gesenius, it signifies the murmuring tone of a harp, and hence that the music should be rendered in a plaintive manner.) Ps 9:16 (Combined with "Selah," it may have been intended to indicate a pause in the vocal music while the instruments rendered an interlude.) Ps 19:14 (Mendelssohn translates it "meditation, thought." Hence, the music was to be rendered in a mode to promote devout meditation.) -MAKALATH, MASCHIL, LEANNOTH These terms are found in the titles of...

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/M/MUSIC/

Music in Smiths Bible Dictionary

1. The most ancient music. --The inventor of musical instruments, like the first poet and the first forger of metals, was a Cainite. We learn from Ge 4:21 that Jubal the son of Lamech was "the father of all such as handle the harp and organ," that is, of all players upon stringed and wind instruments. The first mentioned of music in the times after the deluge is in the narrative of Laban's interview with Jacob, Ge 32:27 so that, whatever way it was preserved, the practice of music existed in the upland country of Syria, and of the three possible kinds of musical instruments two were known and employed to accompany the song. The three kinds are alluded to in Job 21:12 On the banks of the Red Sea Moses and the children of Israel sang their triumphal song of deliverance from the hosts of Egypt; and Miriam, in celebration of the same event, exercised one of her functions as a prophetess by leading a procession of the women of the camp, chanting in chorus the burden of the song of Moses. The song of Deborah and Barak is cast in a distinctly metrical form, and was probably intended to be sung with a musical accompaniment as one of the people's songs. The simpler impromptu with which the women from the cities of Israel greeted David after the slaughter of the Philistines was apparently struck off on the spur of the moment, under the influence of the wild joy with which they welcomed their national champion. "the darling of the sons of Israel." 1Sa 18:6,7 Up to this time we meet with nothing like a systematic cultivation of music among the Hebrews, but the establishment of the schools of the prophets appears to have supplied this want. Whatever the students of these schools may have been taught, music was an essential part of their practice. Professional musicians soon became attached to the court. 2. The golden age of Hebrew music. David seems to have gathered round him "singing men and singing women." 2Sa 19:35 Solomon did the same, Ec 2:8 adding to the luxury of his court by his patronage of art, and obtaining a reputation himself as no mean composer. 1Ki 4:32 But the temple was the great school of music, and it was consecrated to its highest service in the worship of Jehovah. Before, however the elaborate arrangements had been made by David for the temple choir, there must have been a considerable body of musicians throughout the country. 2Sa 6:5 (David chose 4000 musicians from the 38,000 Levies in his reign, or one in ten of the whole tribe. Of these musicians 288 were specially trained and skillful. 1Ch 26:6,7 The whole number was divided into 24 courses, each of which would thus consist of a full band of 154 musicians, presided over by a body of 12 specially-trained leaders, under one of the twenty-four sons of Asaph, Heman or Jeduthun as conductor. The leaders appear to have played on the cymbals, perhaps to make the time. 1Ch 15:19; 16:5 All these joined in a special chant which David taught them, and which went by his name. 1Ch 23:5 Women also took part in the temple choir. 1Ch 13:8; 25:5,6 These great choirs answered one to another in responsive singing; thus the temple music most have been grand and inspiring beyond anything known before that time. 3. Character of Hebrew music.--As in all Oriental nations, the music of the Hebrews was melody rather than harmony, which latter was then unknown. All old and young, men and maidens, singers and instruments, appear to have sung one part only in or in octaves. "The beauty of the music consisted altogether in the melody;" but this, with so many instruments and voices, was so charming that "the whole of antiquity is full of the praises of this music. By its means battles were won, cities conquered, mutinies quelled, diseases cured." --ED.) 4. Uses of music. --In the private as well as in the religions life of the Hebrews music held a prominent place. The kings had their court musicians, 2Ch 35:25; Ec 2:8 and in the luxurious times of the later monarchy the effeminate gallants of Israel amused themselves with devising musical instruments while their nation was perishing ("as Nero fiddled while Rome was burning"). But music was also the legitimate expression of mirth and gladness The bridal processions as they passed through the streets were accompanied with music and song. Jer 7:34 The music of the banquets was accompanied with song and dancing. Lu 15:26 The triumphal processions which celebrated victory were enlivened by minstrels and singers. Ex 15:1,20; Jud 5:1; 11:34 There were also religious songs. Isa 30:29; Jas 5:13 Love songs are alluded to; in Ps 45:1 title, and Isai 5:1 There were also the doleful songs of the funeral procession, and the wailing chant of the mourners. The grape-gatherers sang at their work, and the women sang as they toiled at the mill, and on every occasion the land of the Hebrews during their national prosperity was a land of music and melody.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Music/

Music in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Jubal was the inventor of musical instruments (Gen. 4:21). The Hebrews were much given to the cultivation of music. Their whole history and literature afford abundant evidence of this. After the Deluge, the first mention of music is in the account of Laban's interview with Jacob (Gen. 31:27). After their triumphal passage of the Red Sea, Moses and the children of Israel sang their song of deliverance (Ex. 15). But the period of Samuel, David, and Solomon was the golden age of Hebrew music, as it was of Hebrew poetry. Music was now for the first time systematically cultivated. It was an essential part of training in the schools of the prophets (1 Sam. 10:5; 19:19-24; 2 Kings 3:15; 1 Chr. 25:6). There now arose also a class of professional singers (2 Sam. 19:35; Eccl. 2:8). The temple, however, was the great school of music. In the conducting of its services large bands of trained singers and players on instruments were constantly employed (2 Sam. 6:5; 1 Chr. 15; 16; 23;5; 25:1-6). In private life also music seems to have held an important place among the Hebrews (Eccl. 2:8; Amos 6:4-6; Isa. 5:11, 12; 24:8, 9; Ps. 137; Jer. 48:33; Luke 15:25).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Music/

Music in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(For illustrations, see DANCE; DAVID; FLUTE; HARP; JEDUTHUN.) Its invention is due to a Cainite, Jubal son of Lamech, "father (first teacher) of all such as handle the harp (lyre) and organ" (pipe). "The lyre and flute were introduced by the brother of a nomadic herdsman (Jabal); it is in the leisure of this occupation that music is generally first exercised and appreciated" (Kalisch: Genesis 4:21). "Mahalaleel," third from Seth, means "giving praise to God," therefore vocal music in religious services was probably earlier than instrumental music among the Cainites (Genesis 5:12). Laban the Syrian mentions "songs, tabret (tambourine), and harp" (Genesis 31:27); Job (Job 21:12) "the timbrel (tambourine), harp, and organ (pipe)". Instead of "they take," translated "they lift up (the voice)," as in Isaiah 42:11, to accompany "the tambourine," etc. (Umbrett.) Thus the "voice," stringed and wind instruments, include all kinds of music. The Israelite men led by Moses sang in chorus, and Miriam led the women in singing the refrain at each interval, accompanied by tambourine and dances (Exodus 15:21). Music rude and boisterous accompanied the dances in honor of the golden calf, so that Joshua mistook it for "the noise of war," "the voice of them that shout for the mastery and that cry for being overcome" (Exodus 32:17-18). The triumphant shout of the foe in the temple is similarly compared to the joyous thanksgivings formerly offered there at solemn feasts, but how sad the contrast as to the occasion (Lamentations 2:7). The two silver trumpets were used by the priests to call an assembly, and for the journeying of the camps, and on jubilant occasion (Numbers 10:1-10; 2 Chronicles 13:12). (On the rams' (rather Jubilee) horns of Joshua 6, see HORNS.) The instruments at Nebuchadnezzar's dedication of his golden image were the "cornet," like the French horn; "flute" or pipe blown at the end by a mouthpiece; "sackbut," a triangular stringed instrument with short strings, in a high sharp key; "psaltery," a kind of harp; "dulcimer," a bagpipe, emitting a plaintive sound, a Hebraized Greek word, sumfonia (Daniel 3:4). The schools of the prophets cultivated music as a study preparing the mind for receiving spiritual influences (1 Samuel 10:5; 1 Samuel 19:19-20): at Naioth; also at Jericho (2 Kings 2:5; 2 Kings 2:7), "when the minstrel among Jehoshaphat's retinue played, the hand of Jehovah came upon Elisha" (2 Kings 3:15); Gilgal (2 Kings 4:38); Jerusalem (2 Kings 22:14). "Singing men and women" were at David's court (2 Samuel 19:35), also at Solomon's (Ecclesiastes 2:8; Gesenius translated for "musical instruments and that of all sorts," shiddah wishidot, "a princess and princesses".) They also" spoke of Josiah in their lamentations, and made them an ordinance in Israel" (2 Chronicles 35:25). Music was often introduced at banquets (Isaiah 5:12), "the harp and viol" (nebel, the "lute", an instrument with 12 strings), etc. (Luke 15:25.) Amos 6:5; "chant (parat, 'mark distinct tones,' the Arabic root expresses an unmeaning hurried flow of rhythmical sounds without much sense, as most glees) to the sound of the viol, and invent to themselves instruments of music like David"; they fancy themselves David's equals In music (1 Chronicles 23:5; Nehemiah 12:36). He added to the temple service the stringed psaltery, kinor ("lyre"), and nebel ("harp"), besides the cymbals. These as distinguished from the trumpets were "David's instruments" (2 Chronicles 29:25-26; 1 Chronicles 15:16; 1 Chronicles 15:19-21; 1 Chronicles 15:24; 1 Chronicles 23:5). The age of Samuel, David, and Solomon was the golden one alike of poetry and of music. The Hebrew use of music was inspirational, curative, and festive or mournful. David's skill on the harp in youth brought him under Saul's notice, and he played away Saul's melancholy under the evil spirit (1 Samuel 16:16-23)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/M/Music/

Music Scripture - 1 Chronicles 15:22

And Chenaniah, chief of the Levites, [was] for song: he instructed about the song, because he [was] skilful.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/15/

Music Scripture - 2 Chronicles 23:13

And she looked, and, behold, the king stood at his pillar at the entering in, and the princes and the trumpets by the king: and all the people of the land rejoiced, and sounded with trumpets, also the singers with instruments of musick, and such as taught to sing praise. Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said, Treason, Treason.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/23/

Music Scripture - Nehemiah 12:42

And Maaseiah, and Shemaiah, and Eleazar, and Uzzi, and Jehohanan, and Malchijah, and Elam, and Ezer. And the singers sang loud, with Jezrahiah [their] overseer.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Nehemiah/12/

Music Scripture - Habakkuk 3:19

The LORD God [is] my strength, and he will make my feet like hinds' [feet], and he will make me to walk upon mine high places. To the chief singer on my stringed instruments.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Habakkuk/3/

Musical Instruments in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

mu'-zi-kal in'-stroo-ments (shiddah we-shiddoth): "I gat me .... musical instruments, and that of all sorts" (Eccl 2:8). Thus the King James Version and the American Standard Revised Version; the English Revised Version and the American Revised Version margin "concubines very many." The word occurs only here; the meaning is not certain, but it has nothing to do with music.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MUSICAL+INSTRUMENTS/

Marriage Scripture - Mark 12:25

For when they shall rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but are as the angels which are in heaven.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/12/

Marriage Scripture - Luke 20:34

And Jesus answering said unto them, The children of this world marry, and are given in marriage:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/20/

Marriage Scripture - Hebrews 13:4

Marriage [is] honourable in all, and the bed undefiled: but whoremongers and adulterers God will judge.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hebrews/13/

Masons in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

ma'-s'n: The translation of 4 Hebrew words: (1) charash 'ebhen, "graver of stone" (2 Sam 5:11); (2) (3) gadhar (2 Ki 12:12), charash qur (1 Ch 14:1), "maker of a wall (or hedge)"; (4) chatsabh, "a hewer or digger (of stones)" (1 Ch 22:2; Ezr 3:7). Lebanon still supplies the greater number of skilled masons to Israel and Syria (see 2 Sam 5:11), those of Shweir being in special repute. See CRAFTS, II, 8; also ARCHITECTURE; BUILDING; GEBAL; HOUSE.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MASON/

Masons in Naves Topical Bible

A trade In the time of David 2Sa 5:11 Of later times 2Ki 12:12; 22:6; 1Ch 14:1; Ezr 3:7

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/M/MASON/

Masons in Easton's Bible Dictionary

an artificer in stone. The Tyrians seem to have been specially skilled in architecture (1 Kings 5:17, 18; 2 Sam. 5:11). This art the Hebrews no doubt learned in Egypt (Ex. 1:11, 14), where ruins of temples and palaces fill the traveller with wonder at the present day.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Mason/

Masons Scripture - 2 Kings 12:12

And to masons, and hewers of stone, and to buy timber and hewed stone to repair the breaches of the house of the LORD, and for all that was laid out for the house to repair [it].

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/12/

Masons Scripture - 2 Chronicles 24:12

And the king and Jehoiada gave it to such as did the work of the service of the house of the LORD, and hired masons and carpenters to repair the house of the LORD, and also such as wrought iron and brass to mend the house of the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/24/

Masons Scripture - 2 Samuel 5:11

And Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, and carpenters, and masons: and they built David an house.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Samuel/5/

Masons Scripture - Ezra 3:7

They gave money also unto the masons, and to the carpenters; and meat, and drink, and oil, unto them of Zidon, and to them of Tyre, to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea of Joppa, according to the grant that they had of Cyrus king of Persia.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezra/3/

Masons Scripture - 1 Chronicles 14:1

Now Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and timber of cedars, with masons and carpenters, to build him an house.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/14/

Masons Scripture - 1 Chronicles 22:2

And David commanded to gather together the strangers that [were] in the land of Israel; and he set masons to hew wrought stones to build the house of God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Chronicles/22/

Masons Scripture - 2 Kings 22:6

Unto carpenters, and builders, and masons, and to buy timber and hewn stone to repair the house.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/22/

Meat in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

met (broma, brosis): In the King James Version used for food in general, e.g. "I had my meat of herbs" (2 Esdras 12:51); "his disciples were gone away into the city to buy meat," the Revised Version (British and American) "food" (Jn 4:8). The English word signified whatever is eaten, whether of flesh or other food.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MEAT/

Meat in Smiths Bible Dictionary

It does not appear that the word "meat" is used in any one instance in the Authorized Version of either the Old or New Testament in the sense which it now almost exclusively bears of animal food. The latter is denoted uniformly by "flesh." The word "meat," when our English version was made, meant food in general; or if any particular kind was designated, it referred to meal, flour or grain. The only real and inconvenient ambiguity caused by the change which has taken place in the meaning of the word is in the case of the "meat offering." [MEAT OFFERING]

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Meat/

Meat Offering in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The law or ceremonial of the meat offering is described in Le 2:1 ... and Levi 6:14-23 It was to be composed of fine flour, seasoned with salt and mixed with oil and frankincense, but without leaven; and it was generally accompanied by a drink offering of wine. A portion of it, including all the frankincense, was to be burnt on the altar as "a memorial;" the rest belonged to the priest; but the meat offerings offered by the priests themselves were to be wholly burnt. Its meaning appears to be exactly expressed in the words of David. 1Ch 29:10-14 It will be seen that this meaning involves neither of the main ideas of sacrifices --the atonement for sin and self-dedication to God. It takes them for granted, and is based on them. Rather it expresses gratitude and love to God as the giver of all. Accordingly the meat offering, properly so called, seems always to have been a subsidiary offering, needing to be introduced by the sin offering which represented the one idea, and to have formed an appendage to the burnt offering, which represented the other. The unbloody offerings offered alone did not properly belong to the regular meat offerings; they were usually substitutes for other offerings. Comp. Le 5:11; Nu 5:15 [MEAT]

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Meat+offering/

Meat Offering in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. minhah), originally a gift of any kind. This Hebrew word came latterly to denote an "unbloody" sacrifice, as opposed to a "bloody" sacrifice. A "drink-offering" generally accompanied it. The law regarding it is given in Lev. 2, and 6:14-23. It was a recognition of the sovereignty of God and of his bounty in giving all earthly blessings (1 Chr. 29:10-14; Deut. 26:5-11). It was an offering which took for granted and was based on the offering for sin. It followed the sacrifice of blood. It was presented every day with the burnt-offering (Ex. 29:40, 41), and consisted of flour or of cakes prepared in a special way with oil and frankincense.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Meat-offering/

Meat in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Not in our sense, "flesh." Thus of the three divisions of offerings "the burnt, the meat, and the peace offering," the meat offering is a "present or oblation" (minchah from a root "to send or offer"), consisting only of flour, grain, and oil, flesh never being in it as in the other two. In Psalm 111:5, "He hath given meat (tereph) unto them that fear Him," literally, spoil such as Israel brought out of Egypt (Exodus 12:36), and which God had covenanted to Abraham, Genesis 15:14 (Kimchi). Rather, the manna and quails, a heaven-sent "booty" (treasure trove) to the hungering people. Tereph is used for "meat" in general (Proverbs 31:15; Malachi 3:10). In 1 Corinthians 8:13, "if meat make my brother to offend," etc., and Romans 14:20, "for meat destroy not the work of God," brooma means food in general, not merely flesh. The minchah denotes generally a gift from an inferior to a superior, whether God or man (Genesis 4:3-5; Genesis 32:13); qorban or korban afterward expressed this general sense. Minchah then was restricted to the unbloody offering, zebach to the "bloody sacrifice". Necek, "drink offerings", accompanied the minchah. In Leviticus 2; Leviticus 6:14-23 the law of the meat offerings is given. Their ingredients, flour and oil, were the chief vegetable foods of Israel; so in them the Israelite offered his daily bread to the Lord, but in a manner distinct from the merely dedicatory first fruits of grain and bread (compare 1 Chronicles 29:10-14; Deuteronomy 26:5-11). The latter loaves were leavened, and neither they nor the first fruits sheaf were burial upon the altar (Leviticus 23:10-11; Leviticus 23:17; Leviticus 23:20). Each meat offering on the contrary was to be prepared without leaven, and a portion given by burning to Jehovah for a sweet savor upon the altar. The rest as a most holy thing was to be eaten in the holy place by the priests alone as the mediators between Jehovah and the people. Therefore, the meat offerings did not denote merely the sanctification of earthly food, but symbolized the spiritual food enjoyed by the congregation of the Lord. If even the earthly life is not nourished merely by the daily bread but by the divine grace which blesses the food as means of preserving life, much less can the spiritual life be nourished by earthly food, but only by the spiritual food which a man partakes of by the Spirit of God from the true bread of life, the word of God. As oil symbolizes the Spirit as the principle of all spiritual life, so bread from the seed of the field symbolizes the word of God (Luke 8:11; Deuteronomy 8:3). Sanctification consists in the operation of this spiritual food through the right use of the means of grace for growth in holiness (Matthew 5:16; 1 Peter 2:12). This inner food fills the inner man with peace, joy, and blessedness in God. This fruit of the spiritual life is shadowed forth in the "meat offerings." They must be free from the "leaven" of hypocrisy (Luke 12:1) (the leaven of the old nature, Kurtz), malice, and wickedness (1 Corinthians 5:8), and from the "honey" of carnal delights, both being destructive of spiritual life. "The salt of the covenant of God" (i.e. the purifying, strengthening, and quickening power of the covenant, whereby moral corruption is averted) and the incense of prayer were to be added, that the fruit of the spiritual life might be well pleasing to the Lord (Qeri). Wine symbolized vigor and refreshment (Psalm 104:15). The priests' own meat offerings were to be wholly burnt. The sin offering implied atonement for sin; the burnt offering self dedication to God; the meat offering spiritual sustenance through the word and Spirit. "The prayer to God, Give us this day our daily bread, is accompanied by the demand on God's part, Give Me today My daily bread. This demand is answered by the church when it offers to God in good works that for which God has endowed it with strength, benediction, and prosperity." (Hengstenberg, Dissertation on the Pentateuch, ii. 531.) The meat offering was to be for a "memorial" reminding God of His people; so Cornelius' alms and prayers (Acts 10:4). The minchah, as a sacrifice, was something surrendered to God, which was of the greatest value to man as a means of living. It was not merely grain, but grain prepared by man's labor. Hence the minchah, expressed a confession that all our good works are wrought in God and are due to Him (Speaker's Commentary, Leviticus 2:14).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/M/Meat/

Meat Scripture - Ezekiel 42:13

Then said he unto me, The north chambers [and] the south chambers, which [are] before the separate place, they [be] holy chambers, where the priests that approach unto the LORD shall eat the most holy things: there shall they lay the most holy things, and the meat offering, and the sin offering, and the trespass offering; for the place [is] holy.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/42/

Meat Scripture - Leviticus 2:11

No meat offering, which ye shall bring unto the LORD, shall be made with leaven: for ye shall burn no leaven, nor any honey, in any offering of the LORD made by fire.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Leviticus/2/

Meat Scripture - Ezekiel 4:10

And thy meat which thou shalt eat [shall be] by weight, twenty shekels a day: from time to time shalt thou eat it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/4/

Meat Scripture - Joshua 22:23

That we have built us an altar to turn from following the LORD, or if to offer thereon burnt offering or meat offering, or if to offer peace offerings thereon, let the LORD himself require [it];

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Joshua/22/

Meat Scripture - Numbers 28:8

And the other lamb shalt thou offer at even: as the meat offering of the morning, and as the drink offering thereof, thou shalt offer [it], a sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Numbers/28/

Meat Scripture - 2 Chronicles 7:7

Moreover Solomon hallowed the middle of the court that [was] before the house of the LORD: for there he offered burnt offerings, and the fat of the peace offerings, because the brasen altar which Solomon had made was not able to receive the burnt offerings, and the meat offerings, and the fat.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/7/

Meat Scripture - Numbers 7:87

All the oxen for the burnt offering [were] twelve bullocks, the rams twelve, the lambs of the first year twelve, with their meat offering: and the kids of the goats for sin offering twelve.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Numbers/7/

Meat Scripture - Joshua 22:29

God forbid that we should rebel against the LORD, and turn this day from following the LORD, to build an altar for burnt offerings, for meat offerings, or for sacrifices, beside the altar of the LORD our God that [is] before his tabernacle.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Joshua/22/

Meat Scripture - 1 Corinthians 8:13

Wherefore, if meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh while the world standeth, lest I make my brother to offend.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Corinthians/8/

Meat Scripture - Deuteronomy 20:20

Only the trees which thou knowest that they [be] not trees for meat, thou shalt destroy and cut them down; and thou shalt build bulwarks against the city that maketh war with thee, until it be subdued.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deuteronomy/20/

Merchants in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

mur'-chant, mur'-chant-man. See COMMERCE; MERCHANDISE; TRADE.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MERCHANT;+MERCHANTMAN/

Merchandise in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

mur'-chan-diz ((1) `amar (2) cachar, (3) cachar, (4) cechorach, (5) rekhullah, (6) ma`arabh, (7) markoleth; (8) emporia (9) emporion, (10) gomos): There seem to be 4 distinct meanings of the word according to the Revised Version (British and American), namely: (1) The products, i.e. goods or things sold or exchanged, and so merchandise in the present-day usage: (a) cachar is translated thus in Prov 31:18; Isa 23:18; (b) cachar is translated thus in Isa 45:14; these two are from a root meaning "to travel around as a peddler"; (c) rekhullah, translated thus in Ezek 26:12, from a root meaning "to travel for trading purposes"; (d) ma`arabh, translated thus in Ezek 27:9,27,33,34, from a root meaning "to intermix, to barter"; (e) markoleth, translated thus in Ezek 27:24 (the above 5 Hebrew words are all used to designate the goods or wares which were bartered); (f) `amar, occurring in Dt 21:14; 24:7, translated in the King James Version "make merchandise of," but in the Revised Version (British and American) "deal with as a slave," or the Revised Version margin "deal with as a chattel"; (g) emporia, translated "merchandise" in Mt 22:5; (h) emporion, likewise in Jn 2:16 (the same Greek word is used in 2 Pet 2:3 for the American Standard Revised Version "make merchandise of you"); (i) gomos, "merchandise," margin "cargo." (2) The process of trade itself, i.e. the business: rekhullah has in it the root meaning of "itinerant trading", and so in Ezek 28:16 the correct translation is not "merchandise," as in the King James Version, but "traffic," "abundance of thy traffic," i.e. doing a thriving business: "trade was good." (3) The place of trading, i.e. emporium, mart, etc.: cechorah in Ezek 27:15 is translated "mart." In Jn 2:16 reference is made to the "house of merchandise." (4) The profits of trading: In Prov 3:14, cachar is translated "gaining." Referring to wisdom, "For the gaining of it is better than the gaining of silver, and the profit thereof than fine gold"; the King James Version "merchandise."

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MERCHANDISE/

Merchant in Naves Topical Bible

General scriptures concerning Ge 23:16; 37:28; 1Ki 10:15,28; 2Ch 9:14; Ne 3:32; 13:20; Job 41:6; So 3:6; Isa 23:2; 47:15; Eze 17:4; 27:13,17,21-36; 38:13; Ho 12:7; Na 3:16; Mt 13:45; Re 18:3,11,23

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/M/MERCHANT/

Commerce in Naves Topical Bible

Laws concerning Le 19:36,37; 25:14,17 -Carried on by means of caravans Ge 37:25,27; Isa 60:6 -Carried on by means of ships 1Ki 9:27,28; 10:11; 22:48; Ps 107:23-30; Pr 31:11; Re 18:19 -Conducted in fairs Eze 27:12,19; Mt 11:16 -Of the Arabians Isa 60:6; Jer 6:20; Eze 27:21-24 -Egyptians Ge 42:2-34 -Ethiopians Isa 45:14 -Ishmaelites Ge 37:27,28 -Israelites 1Ki 9:26-28; Ne 3:31,32; Eze 27:17 -Ninevites Na 3:16 -Syrians Eze 27:16,18 -Tyrians 2Sa 5:11; 1Ki 5:6; Isa 23:8; Eze 27; 28:5 -Zidonians Isa 23:2; Eze 27:8 -Babylonians Re 18:3,11-13 -Jews Eze 27:17 -From Tarshish Jer 10:9; Eze 27:25 -Evil practices connected with Pr 29:14; Eze 22:13; Ho 12:7 -Articles of Apes 1Ki 10:22 Balm Ge 37:25 Blue cloth Eze 27:24 Brass Eze 27:13; Re 18:12 Cinnamon Re 18:13 Corn 1Ki 5:11; Eze 27:17 Cattle Eze 27:21 Chest of rich apparel Eze 27:24 Chariots 1Ki 10:29; Re 18:13 Clothes for chariots Eze 27:20 Embroidery Eze 27:16,24 Frankincense Jer 6:20; Re 18:13 Gold 1Ki 9:28; 10:22; 2Ch 8:18; Isa 60:6; Re 18:12 Honey Eze 27:17 Horses 1Ki 10:29; Eze 27:14; Re 18:13 Ivory 1Ki 10:22; 2Ch 9:21; Eze 27:15; Re 18:12 Iron and steel Eze 27:12,19 Land Ge 23:13-16; Ru 4:3 Lead Eze 27:12 Linen 1Ki 10:28; Re 18:12 Oil 1Ki 5:11; Eze 27:17 Pearls Re 18:12 Peacocks 1Ki 10:22 Perfumes So 3:6 Precious stones Eze 27:16,22; 28:13,16; Re 18:12 Purple Eze 27:16; Re 18:12 Sheep Re 18:13 Slaves Ge 37:28,36; De 24:7 Silk Re 18:12 Silver 1Ki 10:22; 2Ch 9:21; Re 18:12 Sweet cane Jer 6:20 Thyine wood Re 18:12 Timber 1Ki 5:6,8 Tin Eze 27:12 Wheat Re 18:13 White wool Eze 27:18 Wine 2Ch 2:15; Eze 27:18; Re 18:13 Bodies and souls of men Re 18:13 -Transportation of passengers Jon 1:3; Ac 21:2; 27:2,6,37

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/M/COMMERCE/

Commerce in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

kom'-ers (emporia): I. Old Testament Times. 1. Early Overland Commerce: There were forces in early Hebrew life not favorable to the development of commerce. Intercourse with foreigners was not encouraged by Israel's social and religious customs. From the days of the appearance of the Hebrews in Canaan, however, some commercial contact with the peoples around was inevitable. There were ancient trade routes between the East and the West, as well as between Egypt and the Mesopotamian valley. Israel lay as a bridge between these objective points. There were doubtless traveling merchants from very remote times, interchanging commodities of other lands for those of Israel Some of the Hebrew words for "trading" and "merchant" indicate this (compare cachar, "to travel," rakhal, "to go about"). In the nomadic period, the people were necessarily dependent upon overland commerce for at least a part of their food supply, such as grain, and doubtless for articles of clothing, too. Frequent local famines would stimulate such trade. Companies or caravans carrying on this overland commerce are seen in Gen 37:25,28, "Ishmaelites" and "Midianites, merchantmen," on their way to Egypt, with spices, balm and myrrh. Jacob caused his sons to take certain products to Egypt as a present with money to Joseph in return for grain: balsam, spices, honey, myrrh, nuts, almonds (Gen 43:11 f). The presence of a "Bab mantle" among the spoils of Ai (Josh 7:21) indicates commerce between Canaan and the East. 2. Sea Traffic: While there are slight indications of a possible sea trade as early as the days of the Judges (Jdg 5:17; compare Gen 49:13), we must wait till the days of the monarchy of David and especially Solomon for the commerce of ships. Land traffic was of course continued and expanded (1 Ki 10:15,28,29; 2 Ch 1:16). Sea trade at this time made large strides forward. The Philistines were earlier in possession of the coast. Friendship with Hiram king of Tyre gave Solomon additional advantages seaward (1 Ki 5; 9:26; 10:19- 29; 2 Ch 8:17; 9:14), since the Phonicians were pre- eminently the Miditerranean traders among all the people of Israel Later, commerce declined, but Jehoshaphat attempted to revive it (1 Ki 22:48; 2 Ch 20:36), but without success. Tyre and Sidon as great commercial centers, however, long impressed the life of Israel (Isa 23; Ezek 26 through 27). Later, in the Maccabean period, Simon acquired Joppa as a Jewish port (1 Macc 14:5), and so extended Mediterranean commerce. 3. Land Traffic in the Time of the Kings: During the peaceful reign of Solomon, there came, with internal improvements and foreign friendships, a stimulus to traffic with Egypt and the Far East over the ancient trade routes as well as with Phoenicia on the northwest. He greatly added to his wealth through tariffs levied upon merchantmen...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/C/COMMERCE/

Merchant in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The Hebrew word so rendered is from a root meaning "to travel about," "to migrate," and hence "a traveller." In the East, in ancient times, merchants travelled about with their merchandise from place to place (Gen. 37:25; Job 6:18), and carried on their trade mainly by bartering (Gen. 37:28; 39:1). After the Hebrews became settled in Israel they began to engage in commercial pursuits, which gradually expanded (49:13; Deut. 33:18; Judg. 5:17), till in the time of Solomon they are found in the chief marts of the world (1 Kings 9:26; 10:11, 26, 28; 22:48; 2 Chr. 1:16; 9:10, 21). After Solomon's time their trade with foreign nations began to decline. After the Exile it again expanded into wider foreign relations, because now the Jews were scattered in many lands.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Merchant/

Merchant Scripture - Genesis 23:16

And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver, which he had named in the audience of the sons of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver, current [money] with the merchant.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/23/

Merchant Scripture - Ezekiel 27:3

And say unto Tyrus, O thou that art situate at the entry of the sea, [which art] a merchant of the people for many isles, Thus saith the Lord GOD; O Tyrus, thou hast said, I [am] of perfect beauty.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/27/

Merchant Scripture - Ezekiel 27:18

Damascus [was] thy merchant in the multitude of the wares of thy making, for the multitude of all riches; in the wine of Helbon, and white wool.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/27/

Merchant Scripture - Ezekiel 27:16

Syria [was] thy merchant by reason of the multitude of the wares of thy making: they occupied in thy fairs with emeralds, purple, and broidered work, and fine linen, and coral, and agate.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/27/

Merchant Scripture - Isaiah 23:11

He stretched out his hand over the sea, he shook the kingdoms: the LORD hath given a commandment against the merchant [city], to destroy the strong holds thereof.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/23/

Merchant Scripture - Ezekiel 27:12

Tarshish [was] thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all [kind of] riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/27/

Merchant Scripture - Song of Solomon 3:6

Who [is] this that cometh out of the wilderness like pillars of smoke, perfumed with myrrh and frankincense, with all powders of the merchant?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Song+of+Solomon/3/

Merchant Scripture - Proverbs 31:24

She maketh fine linen, and selleth [it]; and delivereth girdles unto the merchant.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Proverbs/31/

Merchant Scripture - Zephaniah 1:11

Howl, ye inhabitants of Maktesh, for all the merchant people are cut down; all they that bear silver are cut off.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Zephaniah/1/

Merchant Scripture - Hosea 12:7

[He is] a merchant, the balances of deceit [are] in his hand: he loveth to oppress.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hosea/12/

Merchant Scripture - Matthew 13:45

Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant man, seeking goodly pearls:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/13/

Merchant Scripture - Ezekiel 27:20

Dedan [was] thy merchant in precious clothes for chariots.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/27/

Smith in Naves Topical Bible

(A worker in metals) -Tubal-cain Ge 4:22 -Bezaleel Ex 31:1-11 -The Philistines 1Sa 13:19 -Jewish, carried away captive to Babylon 2Ki 24:14; Jer 24:1 -The manufacturers of idols Isa 41:7; 44:12 -Genius of, from God Ex 31:3-5; 35:30-35; Isa 54:16

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/B/SMITH/

Smith in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The Hebrews were not permitted by the Philistines in the days of Samuel to have a smith amongst them, lest they should make them swords and spears (1 Sam. 13:19). Thus the Philistines sought to make their conquest permanent (comp. 2 Kings 24:16).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/S/Smith/

Smith Scripture - Genesis 4:22

And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain [was] Naamah.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/4/

Smith Scripture - Exodus 31:4

To devise cunning works, to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/31/

Smith Scripture - 1 Samuel 13:19

Now there was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel: for the Philistines said, Lest the Hebrews make [them] swords or spears:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Samuel/13/

Smith Scripture - 2 Kings 24:14

And he carried away all Jerusalem, and all the princes, and all the mighty men of valour, [even] ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and smiths: none remained, save the poorest sort of the people of the land.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/24/

Smith Scripture - Jeremiah 24:1

The LORD shewed me, and, behold, two baskets of figs [were] set before the temple of the LORD, after that Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon had carried away captive Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah, and the princes of Judah, with the carpenters and smiths, from Jerusalem, and had brought them to Babylon.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/24/

Smith Scripture - Isaiah 41:7

So the carpenter encouraged the goldsmith, [and] he that smootheth [with] the hammer him that smote the anvil, saying, It [is] ready for the sodering: and he fastened it with nails, [that] it should not be moved.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/41/

Smith Scripture - Isaiah 44:12

The smith with the tongs both worketh in the coals, and fashioneth it with hammers, and worketh it with the strength of his arms: yea, he is hungry, and his strength faileth: he drinketh no water, and is faint.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/44/

Smith scripture - Isaiah 54:16

Behold, I have created the smith that bloweth the coals in the fire, and that bringeth forth an instrument for his work; and I have created the waster to destroy.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/54/

Mills and Millstones in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

mil, mil'-ston (recheh; mulos, mulon): The two most primitive methods of grinding grain were (1) by pounding it in a mortar, and (2) by rubbing it between two stones. In Nu 11:8 both methods are mentioned as used for rendering the manna more fit for cooking. Numerous examples of both mill and mortar have been found in ancient excavations. Bliss and Macalister in their excavations at Gezer and other places have found specimens of what is called the saddle-quern or mill, which consists of two stones. The "nether" stone, always made of hard lava or basalt from the district of the Hauran, was a large heavy slab varying in length from 1 1/2 ft. to 2 3/4 ft., and in width from 10 inches to 1 1/3 ft. Its upper surface was hollowed out slightly, which made it look a little like a saddle and may have suggested the name of "riding millstone" applied by the Hebrews to the upper stone which rested on it (Jdg 9:53). The "upper stone" or "rider" was much smaller, 4 inches to 8 in. long and 2 3/4 inches to 6 inches wide, and of varying shapes. This could be seized with the two hands and rubbed back and forth over the nether stone much the same as clothes are scrubbed on a wash-board. Such a stone could be used as a weapon (Jdg 9:53; 2 Sam 11:21), or given as a pledge (Dt 24:6). Macalister goes so far as to say that "the rotary handquern in the form used in modern Israel and in remote European regions, such as the Hebrides, is quite unknown throughout the whole history, even down to the time of Christ" (Excavations at Gezer). The same writer, however, describes some mills belonging to the 3rd and 4th Sere periods which are much like the present rotary quern, except smaller (4 inches to 6 inches in diameter), and with no provision for a turning handle. Schumacher describes these as paint grinders. The only perforated upper millstones found in the excavations at Gezer belong to the early Arabic period. If the above assertions are substantiated then we must alter somewhat the familiar picture of the two women at the mill (Mt 24:41), commonly illustrated by photographs of the mills still used in modern Israel These latter consist of two stone discs each 18 inches to 20 inches in diameter, usually made of Hauran basalt. The upper one is perforated in the center to allow it to rotate on a wooden peg fixed in the nether stone, and near the circumference of the upper stone is fixed a wooden handle for turning it. The grain to be ground is fed into the central hole on the upper stone and gradually works down between the stones. As the grain is reduced to flour, it flies out from between the stones on to a cloth or skin placed underneath the mill. To make the flour fine it is reground and sifted. Larger stones 4 ft. to 5 ft. in diameter, working on the principle of the handmill, are still used for grinding sesame seed. These are turned by asses or mules. Another form of mill, which is possibly referred to in Mt 18:6; Mk 9:42; Rev 18:21,22, consisted of a conical nether stone on which "rode" a second stone like a hollowed-out capstan. The upper stone was probably turned with handspikes in much the same way as an old-fashioned ship's capstan was turned. The material to be ground was fed into the upper cone which formed the hopper and from which it was delivered to the grinding surfaces between the "rider" and the nether stone. This form of mill must have been known in late Biblical times, because many examples of the upper stone dating from the Greek-Roman period have been found. One may be seen in the museum of the Syrian Protestant College at Beirut. Another large one lies among the ruins at Petra, etc. In Mt 18:6; Mk 9:42, the mill is described as a mulos onikos, literally, a mill turned by an ass, hence, a great millstone. It is not at all unlikely that the writers have confused the meaning of onos (chamor), a term commonly applied to the upper millstone of a handmill, thinking it referred instead to the animal which turned the mill. This explanation would make Christ's words of condemnation more applicable. The upper millstone of a handmill would be more than sufficient to sink the condemned, and the punishment would be more easily carried out. A few years from now handmills will have disappeared from the Syrian households, for the more modern gristmills turned by water or other motor power are rapidly replacing them. See CRAFTS, II, 8. Figuratively: (1) Of firmness and undaunted courage (Job 41:24). "The heart of hot-blooded animals is liable to sudden contractions and expansions, producing rapid alternations of sensations; not so the heart of the great saurians" (Canon Cook, at the place). (2) To "grind the face of the poor" (Isa 3:15) is cruelly to oppress and afflict them. (3) The ceasing of the sound of the millstone was a sign of desolation (Jer 25:10; Rev 18:22).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MILL;+MILLSTONE/

Mills in Naves Topical Bible

General scriptures concerning Jer 25:10 -Upper and lower stones of De 24:6; Job 41:24; Isa 47:2 -Used in Egypt Ex 11:5 -Operated by women Mt 24:41 -And captives Jud 16:21; La 5:13 -Manna ground in Nu 11:8 -Sound of, to cease Re 18:22

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/M/MILL/

Millstones in Naves Topical Bible

Not to be taken as a pledge De 24:6 -Probably used in executions by drowning Mt 18:6; Mr 9:42; Lu 17:2 -Abimelech killed by one being of hurled upon him Jud 9:53 -Figurative of a hard heart Job 41:24

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/M/MILLSTONE/

Mills in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The mills of the ancient Hebrews probably differed but little from those at present in use in the East. These consist of two circular stones, each about eighteen inches or two feet in diameter, the lower of which is fixed, and has its upper surface slightly convex, fitting into a corresponding concavity in the upper stone. In the latter is a hole thorough which the grain passes, immediately above a pivot or shaft which rises from the centre of the lower stone, and about which the upper stone is turned by means of an upright handle fixed near the edge. It is worked by women, sometimes singly and sometimes two together, who are usually seated on the bare ground. Isa 47:1,2 "facing each other; both have hold of the handle by which the upper is turned round on the 'nether' millstone. The one whose right hand is disengaged throws in the grain as occasion requires through the hole in the upper stone. It is not correct to say that one pushes it half round and then the other seizes the handle. This would be slow work, and would give a spasmodic motion to the stone. Both retain their hold, and pull to or push from, as men do with the whip or cross-cut saw. The proverb of our Saviour, Mt 24:41 is true to life, for women only grind. I cannot recall an instance in which men were at the mill." --Thomson, "The Land and the Book," c.34. So essential were millstones for daily domestic use that they were forbidden to be taken in pledge. De 24:6 There were also larger mills that could only be turned by cattle or asses. Allusion to one of these is made in Mt 18:6 With the movable upper millstone of the hand-mill the woman of Thebez broke Abimelech's skull. Jud 9:53

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Mill/

Mills in Easton's Bible Dictionary

for grinding corn, mentioned as used in the time of Abraham (Gen. 18:6). That used by the Hebrews consisted of two circular stones, each 2 feet in diameter and half a foot thick, the lower of which was called the "nether millstone" (Job 41:24) and the upper the "rider." The upper stone was turned round by a stick fixed in it as a handle. There were then no public mills, and thus each family required to be provided with a hand-mill. The corn was ground daily, generally by the women of the house (Isa. 47:1, 2; Matt. 24:41). It was with the upper stone of a hand-mill that "a certain woman" at Thebez broke Abimelech's skull (Judg. 9:53, "a piece of a millstone;" literally, "a millstone rider", i.e., the "runner," the stone which revolves. Comp. 2 Sam. 11:21). Millstones could not be pledged (Deut. 24:6), as they were necessary in every family.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Mill/

Mills in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

In the East two "circular stones" (reechahim), 2 ft. diameter, the lower fixed, and with the upper surface slightly convex, fitting into the upper stone's concavity. This stone has a hole through which the grain passes, above a pivot rising from the lower stone. About the pivot the "upper stone" (recheb, "the rider") is turned by a handle. Being moveable it could be thrown as a missile (Judges 9:53 Gesenius translated "a cut piece of millstone," not a fragment, but the whole with its carefully cut surface; Revelation 18:21). Two women (Matthew 24:41) facing one another, seated on the ground, both turned it round by the handle, the one supplying the grain through the hole. It was hard servile labor (Exodus 11:5; Judges 16:21; Isaiah 47:1-2; Lamentations 5:18). The mill stones were so essential for preparing food that they were forbidden to be taken in pledge (Deuteronomy 24:6). The cessation of the sound of grinding was a sign of desolation (Jeremiah 25:10; Revelation 18:22; Ecclesiastes 12:3-4, "the grinders cease because they are few ... the sound of the grinding is low".) Larger millstones were turned by asses; Matthew 18:6 "a donkey millstone" (Greek).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/M/Mill/

Mills Scripture - Numbers 11:8

[And] the people went about, and gathered [it], and ground [it] in mills, or beat [it] in a mortar, and baked [it] in pans, and made cakes of it: and the taste of it was as the taste of fresh oil.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Numbers/11/

Mills Scripture - Exodus 11:5

And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that [is] behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/11/

Mills Scripture - Matthew 24:41

Two [women shall be] grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/24/

Millstones Scripture - Jeremiah 25:10

Moreover I will take from them the voice of mirth, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of the candle.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jeremiah/25/

Millstones Scripture - Isaiah 47:2

Take the millstones, and grind meal: uncover thy locks, make bare the leg, uncover the thigh, pass over the rivers.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/47/

Millstones Scripture - Revelation 18:22

And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft [he be], shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/18/

Candles in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Lamp more accurately represents the original than candle. Image of conscience, "the candle of the Lord, searching the inward man" (Proverbs 20:27). Of prosperity; the sinner's short candle soon goes out, the righteous shall shine as the sun forever (Job 21:17; Job 18:5; Proverbs 13:9; Matthew 13:43). Of believers' bright example leading others to spiritual light (Matthew 5:14). Of the gladdening influence of a ruler (2 Samuel 21:17). Of the all-seeing accuracy with which Jehovah will search out sinners, so that in no dark grainer can they escape punishment (Zephaniah 1:12; Amos 9:3). In beautiful contrast, as the woman in the parable "lit the candle, swept the house, and sought diligently until she found" the lost piece of silver, so God (Luke 15:8) searches out His elect so that not one is lost, and takes each out of the darkness of this world, and restores the divine image, with a view to their salvation.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/C/Candle/

Candles Scripture - Zephaniah 1:12

And it shall come to pass at that time, [that] I will search Jerusalem with candles, and punish the men that are settled on their lees: that say in their heart, The LORD will not do good, neither will he do evil.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Zephaniah/1/

Locusts in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

lo'-kust: The translation of a large number of Hebrew and Greek words: 1. Names: (1) 'arbeh from the root rabhah, "to increase" (compare Arabic raba', "to increase"). (2) sal`am, from obsolete [?] cal`am, "to swallow down," "to consume." (3) chargol (compare Arabic charjal, "to run to the right or left," charjalat, "a company of horses" or "a swarm of locusts," charjawan, a kind of locust). (4) chaghabh (compare Arabic chajab, "to hide," "to cover"). (5) gazam (compare Arabic jazum, " to cut off") (6) yeleq, from the root laqaq "to lick" (compare Arabic laqlaq, "to dart out the tongue" (used of a serpent)). (7) chacil, from the root chacal, "to devour" (compare Arabic chaucal, "crop" (of a bird)). (8) gobh, from the obsolete root gabhah (compare Arabic jabi, "locust," from the root jaba', "to come out of a hole"). (9) gebh, from same root. (10) tselatsal from [?] tsalal (onomatopoetic), "to tinkle," "to ring" (compare Arabic call, "to give a ringing sound" (used of a horse's bit); compare also Arabic Tann, used of the sound of a drum or piece of metal, also of the humming of flies). (11) akris (genitive akridos; diminutive akridion, whence Acridium, a genus of locusts). 2. Identifications: (1), (2), (3) and (4) constitute the list of clean insects in Lev 11:21 f, characterized as "winged creeping things that go upon all fours, which have legs above their feet, wherewith to leap upon the earth." This manifestly refers to jumping insects of the order Orthoptera, such as locusts, grasshoppers and crickets, and is in contrast to the unclean "winged creeping things that go upon all fours," which may be taken to denote running Orthoptera, such as cockroaches, mole-crickets and ear-wigs, as well as insects of other orders. 'Arbeh (1) is uniformly translated "locust" in the Revised Version (British and American). the King James Version has usually "locust," but "grasshopper" in Jdg 6:5; 7:12; Job 39:20; Jer 46:23. Septuagint has usually akris, "locust"; but has brouchos, "wingless locust," in Lev 11:22; 1 Ki 8:37 (akris in the parallel passage, 2 Ch 6:28); Nah 3:15; and attelebos, "wingless locust," in Nah 3:17. 'Arbeh occurs (Ex 10:4-19) in the account of the plague of locusts; in the phrase "as locusts for multitude" (Jdg 6:5; 7:12); "more than the locusts .... innumerable" (Jer 46:23); "The locusts have no king, Yet go they forth all of them by bands" (Prov 30:27). 'Arbeh is referred to as a plague in Dt 28:38; 1 Ki 8:37; 2 Ch 6:28; Ps 78:46; in Joel and in Nahum. These references, together with the fact that it is the most used word, occurring 24 times, warrant us in assuming it to be one of the swarming species, i.e. Pachtylus migratorius or Schistocerca peregrina, which from time to time devastate large regions in the countries bordering on the Mediterranean. Cal`am (2), English Versions of the Bible "bald locust," occurs only in Lev 11:22. According to...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/L/LOCUST/

Locusts in Naves Topical Bible

Authorized as food Le 11:22 -Used as food Mt 3:4; Mr 1:6 -Plague of Ex 10:1-19; Ps 105:34,35 -Devastation by De 28:38; 1Ki 8:37; 2Ch 7:13; Isa 33:4; Joe 1:4-7; Re 9:7-10 -Sun obscured by Joe 2:2,10 -Instincts of Pr 30:27 -In A. V. often inaccurately translated "grasshopper," as in Jud 6:5; 7:12; Job 39:20; Jer 46:23 -See GRASSHOPPER -FIGURATIVE Jer 46:23 -SYMBOLICAL Re 9:3-10

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/L/LOCUST/

Locusts in Smiths Bible Dictionary

a well-known insect, of the grasshopper family, which commits terrible ravages on vegetation in the countries which it visits. "The common brown locust is about three inches in length, and the general form is that of a grasshopper." The most destructive of the locust tribe that occur in the Bible lands are the (Edipoda migratoria and the Acridium peregrinum; and as both these species occur in Syria and Arabia, etc., it is most probable that one or other is denoted in those passages which speak of the dreadful devastations committed by these insects. Locusts occur in great numbers, and sometimes obscure the sun. Ex 10:15; Jud 6:5; Jer 46:23 Their voracity is alluded to in Ex 10:12,15; Joe 1:4,7 They make a fearful noise in their flight. Joe 2:5; Re 9:9 Their irresistible progress is referred to in Joe 2:8,9 They enter dwellings, and devour even the woodwork of houses. Ex 10:6; Joe 2:9,10 They do not fly in the night. Na 3:17 The sea destroys the greater number. Ex 10:19; Joe 2:20 The flight of locusts is thus described by M. Olivier (Voyage dans l' Empire Othoman, ii. 424): "With the burning south winds (of Syria) there come from the interior of Arabia and from the most southern parts of Persia clouds of locusts (Acridium peregrinum), whose ravages to these countries are as grievous and nearly as sudden as those of the heaviest hail in Europe. We witnessed them twice. It is difficult to express the effect produced on us by the sight of the whole atmosphere filled on all sides and to a great height by an innumerable quantity of these insects, whose flight was slow and uniform, and whose noise resembled that of rain: the sky was darkened, and the light of the sun considerably weakened. In a moment the terraces of the houses, the streets, and all the fields were covered by these insects, and in two days they had nearly devoured all the leaves of the plants. Happily they lived but a short time, and seemed to have migrated only to reproduce themselves and die; in fact, nearly all those we saw the next day had paired, and the day following the fields were covered with their dead bodies." "Locusts have been used as food from the earliest times. Herodotus speaks of a Libyan nation who dried their locusts in the sun and ate them with milk. The more common method, however, was to pull off the legs and wings and roast them in an iron dish. Then they thrown into a bag, and eaten like parched corn, each one taking a handful when he chose." --Biblical Treasury. Sometimes the insects are ground and pounded, and then mixed with flour and water and made into cakes, or they are salted and then eaten; sometimes smoked; sometimes boiled or roasted; again, stewed, or fried in butter.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/L/Locust/

Locusts in Easton's Bible Dictionary

There are ten Hebrew words used in Scripture to signify locust. In the New Testament locusts are mentioned as forming part of the food of John the Baptist (Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6). By the Mosaic law they were reckoned "clean," so that he could lawfully eat them. The name also occurs in Rev. 9:3, 7, in allusion to this Oriental devastating insect. Locusts belong to the class of Orthoptera, i.e., straight-winged. They are of many species. The ordinary Syrian locust resembles the grasshopper, but is larger and more destructive. "The legs and thighs of these insects are so powerful that they can leap to a height of two hundred times the length of their bodies. When so raised they spread their wings and fly so close together as to appear like one compact moving mass." Locusts are prepared as food in various ways. Sometimes they are pounded, and then mixed with flour and water, and baked into cakes; "sometimes boiled, roasted, or stewed in butter, and then eaten." They were eaten in a preserved state by the ancient Assyrians. The devastations they make in Eastern lands are often very appalling. The invasions of locusts are the heaviest calamites that can befall a country. "Their numbers exceed computation: the hebrews called them 'the countless,' and the Arabs knew them as 'the darkeners of the sun.' Unable to guide their own flight, though capable of crossing large spaces, they are at the mercy of the wind, which bears them as blind instruments of Providence to the doomed region given over to them for the time. Innumerable as the drops of water or the sands of the seashore, their flight obscures the sun and casts a thick shadow on the earth (Ex. 10:15; Judg. 6:5; 7:12; Jer. 46:23; Joel 2:10). It seems indeed as if a great aerial mountain, many miles in breadth, were advancing with a slow, unresting progress. Woe to the countries beneath them if the wind fall and let them alight! They descend unnumbered as flakes of snow and hide the ground. It may be 'like the garden of Eden before them, but behind them is a desolate wilderness. At their approach the people are in anguish; all faces lose their colour' (Joel 2:6). No walls can stop them; no ditches arrest them; fires kindled in their path are forthwith extinguished by the myriads of their dead, and the countless armies march on (Joel 2:8, 9). If a door or a window be open, they enter and destroy everything of wood in the house. Every terrace, court, and inner chamber is filled with them in a moment. Such an awful visitation swept over Egypt (Ex. 10:1-19), consuming before it every green thing, and stripping the trees, till the land was bared of all signs of vegetation. A strong north-west wind from the Mediterranean swept the locusts into the Red Sea.", Geikie's Hours, etc., ii., 149.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/L/Locust/

Locusts Scripture - Nahum 3:15

There shall the fire devour thee; the sword shall cut thee off, it shall eat thee up like the cankerworm: make thyself many as the cankerworm, make thyself many as the locusts.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Nahum/3/

Locusts Scripture - Exodus 10:13

And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all [that] night; [and] when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/10/

Locusts Scripture - Revelation 9:3

And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth: and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/9/

Locusts Scripture - Exodus 10:12

And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up upon the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, [even] all that the hail hath left.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/10/

Locusts Scripture - 2 Chronicles 6:28

If there be dearth in the land, if there be pestilence, if there be blasting, or mildew, locusts, or caterpillers; if their enemies besiege them in the cities of their land; whatsoever sore or whatsoever sickness [there be]:

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/6/

Locusts Scripture - Revelation 9:7

And the shapes of the locusts [were] like unto horses prepared unto battle; and on their heads [were] as it were crowns like gold, and their faces [were] as the faces of men.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Revelation/9/

Locusts Scripture - Exodus 10:19

And the LORD turned a mighty strong west wind, which took away the locusts, and cast them into the Red sea; there remained not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Exodus/10/

Locusts Scripture - Nahum 3:17

Thy crowned [are] as the locusts, and thy captains as the great grasshoppers, which camp in the hedges in the cold day, [but] when the sun ariseth they flee away, and their place is not known where they [are].

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Nahum/3/

Locusts Scripture - Matthew 3:4

And the same John had his raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/3/

Locusts Scripture - 2 Chronicles 7:13

If I shut up heaven that there be no rain, or if I command the locusts to devour the land, or if I send pestilence among my people;

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Chronicles/7/

Mangers in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

man'-jer (phatne): Properly the place in a stall or stable where the food of cattle is placed (in the Old Testament "crib" (Job 39:9; Prov 14:4; Isa 1:3)); thus also, apparently, in the narrative of the nativity in Lk 2:7,12,16. In Septuagint, the Greek word, representing different Hebrew words, has also the extended meaning of "stall" (2 Ch 32:28; Hab 3:17); thus also in Lk 13:15, where the Revised Version margin has "manger." Old tradition says that Jesus was born in a cave in the neighborhood of Bethlehem; even so, a place for food for cattle may have been cut in the side of the rock.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MANGER/

Mangers in Naves Topical Bible

(A feeding box for cattle) Lu 2:7,12,16 -Rendered "stall" in Lu 13:15

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/M/MANGER/

Mangers in Smiths Bible Dictionary

This word occurs only in Lu 2:7,12,16 in connection with the birth of Christ. It means a crib or feeding trough; but according to Schleusner its real signification in the New Testament is the open court-yard attached to the inn or khan, in which the cattle would be shut at night, and where the poorer travellers might unpack their animals and take up their lodging, when they mere either by want of means excluded from the house.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Manger/

Mangers in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Luke 2:7, 12, 16), the name (Gr. phatne, rendered "stall" in Luke 13:15) given to the place where the infant Redeemer was laid. It seems to have been a stall or crib for feeding cattle. Stables and mangers in our modern sense were in ancient times unknown in the East. The word here properly denotes "the ledge or projection in the end of the room used as a stall on which the hay or other food of the animals of travellers was placed."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Manger/

Mangers Scripture - Luke 2:7

And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/2/

Mangers Scripture - Luke 2:12

And this [shall be] a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/2/

Mangers Scripture - Luke 2:16

And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/2/

Mantles in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

man'-t'-l: Used 5 times of Elijah's mantle ('addereth, 1 Ki 19:18,19; 2 Ki 2:8,13,14), which was probably of hair. Found in plural once (Isa 3:22), where it (ma`ataphoth) is an upper wide tunic with sleeves (kethoneth).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MANTLE/

Mantles in Naves Topical Bible

Ripped as a token of grief Ezr 9:3; Job 1:20; 2:12 -Of Elijah 1Ki 19:19; 2Ki 2:8,13,14

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/M/MANTLE/

Mantles in Smiths Bible Dictionary

the word employed in the Authorized Version to translate no less than four Hebrew terms, entirely distinct and independent in both derivation and meaning. 1. Jud 4:18 the garment with which Jael covered Sisera. 2. Rendered "mantle" in 1Sa 15:27; 28:14; Ezr 9:3,5 etc. This word is in other passages of the Authorized Version rendered "coat," "cloak" and "robe." 3. Isa 3:22 only. Apparently some article of a lady's dress. 4. 1Ki 19:13,19; 2Ki 2:8,13,14 The sole garment of the prophet Elijah. It was probably of sheepskin, such as is worn by the modern dervishes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Mantle/

Mantles in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(1.) Heb. 'addereth, a large over-garment. This word is used of Elijah's mantle (1 Kings 19:13, 19; 2 Kings 2:8, 13, etc.), which was probably a sheepskin. It appears to have been his only garment, a strip of skin or leather binding it to his loins. _'Addereth_ twice occurs with the epithet "hairy" (Gen. 25:25; Zech. 13:4, R.V.). It is the word denoting the "goodly Babylonish garment" which Achan coveted (Josh. 7:21). (2.) Heb. me'il, frequently applied to the "robe of the ephod" (Ex. 28:4, 31; Lev. 8:7), which was a splendid under tunic wholly of blue, reaching to below the knees. It was woven without seam, and was put on by being drawn over the head. It was worn not only by priests but by kings (1 Sam. 24:4), prophets (15:27), and rich men (Job 1:20; 2:12). This was the "little coat" which Samuel's mother brought to him from year to year to Shiloh (1 Sam. 2:19), a miniature of the official priestly robe. (3.) Semikah, "a rug," the garment which Jael threw as a covering over Sisera (Judg. 4:18). The Hebrew word occurs nowhere else in Scripture. (4.) Maataphoth, plural, only in Isa. 3:22, denoting a large exterior tunic worn by females.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Mantle/

Mantles Scripture - Isaiah 3:22

The changeable suits of apparel, and the mantles, and the wimples, and the crisping pins,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isaiah/3/

Mantles Scripture - 2 Kings 2:14

And he took the mantle of Elijah that fell from him, and smote the waters, and said, Where [is] the LORD God of Elijah? and when he also had smitten the waters, they parted hither and thither: and Elisha went over.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/2/

Mantles Scripture - 1 Kings 19:13

And it was [so], when Elijah heard [it], that he wrapped his face in his mantle, and went out, and stood in the entering in of the cave. And, behold, [there came] a voice unto him, and said, What doest thou here, Elijah?

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/19/

Mantles Scripture - Job 2:12

And when they lifted up their eyes afar off, and knew him not, they lifted up their voice, and wept; and they rent every one his mantle, and sprinkled dust upon their heads toward heaven.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job/2/

Mantles Scripture - Judges 4:18

And Jael went out to meet Sisera, and said unto him, Turn in, my lord, turn in to me; fear not. And when he had turned in unto her into the tent, she covered him with a mantle.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Judges/4/

Mantles Scripture - 1 Kings 19:19

So he departed thence, and found Elisha the son of Shaphat, who [was] plowing [with] twelve yoke [of oxen] before him, and he with the twelfth: and Elijah passed by him, and cast his mantle upon him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Kings/19/

Mantles Scripture - Ezra 9:5

And at the evening sacrifice I arose up from my heaviness; and having rent my garment and my mantle, I fell upon my knees, and spread out my hands unto the LORD my God,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezra/9/

Mantles Scripture - 1 Samuel 28:14

And he said unto her, What form [is] he of? And she said, An old man cometh up; and he [is] covered with a mantle. And Saul perceived that it [was] Samuel, and he stooped with [his] face to the ground, and bowed himself.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+Samuel/28/

Mantles Scripture - Ezra 9:3

And when I heard this thing, I rent my garment and my mantle, and plucked off the hair of my head and of my beard, and sat down astonied.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezra/9/

Mantles Scripture - 2 Kings 2:8

And Elijah took his mantle, and wrapped [it] together, and smote the waters, and they were divided hither and thither, so that they two went over on dry ground.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+Kings/2/

Mantles Scripture - Job 1:20

Then Job arose, and rent his mantle, and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and worshipped,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job/1/

Market in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

mar'-ket, mar'-ketplas, mart (ma`arabh, cachar; agora): (1) Ma`arabh, from a root meaning "trading" and hence, goods exchanged, and so "merchandise" in the Revised Version (British and American), "market" in the King James Version, occurs only in Ezek 27:13,17,19,25, and is translated correctly "merchandise" in both the English Revised Version and the American Standard Revised Version. (2) Cachar means a "trading emporium," hence, mart, and merchandise. It occurs only in Isa 23:3 (see MERCHANDISE). (3) Agora, from root meaning "to collect," means a "town meeting-place," "resort of the people," so a place where the public generally met to exchange views and wares. No doubt, the central place soon filling up, the people thronged the adjoining streets, and so in time each street thus used came to be called agora, "marketplace"; translated "marketplace(s)" in 1 Esdras 2:18; Tobit 2:3; Mt 11:16; 20:3; 23:7; Mk 6:56; 7:4; 12:38; Lk 7:32; 11:43; 20:46; Acts 16:19; 17:17; "Market of Appius" in Acts 28:15 means, probably, "street" (see APPII FORUM). The marketplace in New Testament times was the public open space, either simple or ornate, in town, city or country, where (Mk 6:56) the people congregated, not only for exchange of merchandise, but for one or more of the following purposes: (1) a place where the children came together to sing, dance and play, a "back-to-date" municipal recreation center (Mt 11:16,17; Lk 7:32); (2) a place for loafers, a sort of ancient, irresponsible labor bureau where the out-of-work idler waited the coming of an employer with whom he might bargain for his services, usually by the day (Mt 20:1-16); (3) a place where the proud pretender could parade in long robes and get public recognition, "salutations in the market-places," e.g. the scribes and Pharisees against whom Jesus emphatically warns His disciples (Mt 23:3-7; Mk 12:38; Lk 11:43; 20:46); (4) a place where the sick were brought for treatment, the poor man's sanatorium, a municipal hospital; Jesus "who went about doing good" often found His opportunity there (Mk 6:56); (5) a place of preliminary hearing in trials, where the accused might be brought before rulers who were present at the time, e.g. Paul and Silas at Philippi (Acts 16:19); (6) a place for religious and probably political or philosophical discussion (gossip also), a forum, a free- speech throne; no doubt often used by the early apostles not only as a place of proclaiming some truth of the new religion but also a place of advertisement for a coming synagogue service, e.g. Paul in Athens (Acts 17:17). The Wisdom of Solomon 15:12 (the King James Version) has "They counted ... our time here a market for gain," the Revised Version (British and American) "a gainful fair," margin "a keeping of festival," Greek panegurismos, "an assembly of all." Such assemblies offered particular opportunities for business dealings.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MARKET;+MARKETPLACE;+MART/

Market in Naves Topical Bible

(A place for general merchandise) -Held at gates -See GATES -Judgment seat at Ac 16:19 -Traffic of, in Tyre Consisted of horses, horsemen, horns, ivory, and ebony, emeralds, purple, embroidered wares, linen, coral, agate, honey, balm, wine, wool, oil, cassia, calamus, lambs, rams, goats, precious stones, and gold, spices, and costly apparel Eze 27:13-25

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/M/MARKET/

Market Places in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Mt 20:3; Mr 12:38; Lu 7:35; Ac 16:19 (any open place of public resort in cities or towns where public trials and assemblies were held and goods were exposed for sale. "The market-places or bazaars of the East were, and are at this day, the constant resort of unoccupied people, the idle, the news-mongers." -- Hackett s Ill. S.S. --ED.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Market-places/

Market Places in Easton's Bible Dictionary

any place of public resort, and hence a public place or broad street (Matt. 11:16; 20:3), as well as a forum or market-place proper, where goods were exposed for sale, and where public assemblies and trials were held (Acts 16:19; 17:17). This word occurs in the Old Testament only in Ezek. 27:13. In early times markets were held at the gates of cities, where commodities were exposed for sale (2 Kings 7:18). In large towns the sale of particular articles seems to have been confined to certain streets, as we may infer from such expressions as "the bakers' street" (Jer. 37:21), and from the circumstance that in the time of Josephus the valley between Mounts Zion and Moriah was called the Tyropoeon or the "valley of the cheesemakers."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Market-place/

Market in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The bazaars of the East are the resort of the idle and news- mongers. Hence, agoraioi," market frequenters," is another name for "fellows of the baser sort" (Acts 17:5 Greek).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/M/Market/

Market Places Scripture - Acts 16:19

And when her masters saw that the hope of their gains was gone, they caught Paul and Silas, and drew [them] into the marketplace unto the rulers,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/16/

Market Places Scripture - Luke 7:32

They are like unto children sitting in the marketplace, and calling one to another, and saying, We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced; we have mourned to you, and ye have not wept.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Luke/7/

Market Places Scripture - Matthew 20:3

And he went out about the third hour, and saw others standing idle in the marketplace,

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Matthew/20/

Market Scripture - Ezekiel 27:25

The ships of Tarshish did sing of thee in thy market: and thou wast replenished, and made very glorious in the midst of the seas.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/27/

Market Scripture - Ezekiel 27:17

Judah, and the land of Israel, they [were] thy merchants: they traded in thy market wheat of Minnith, and Pannag, and honey, and oil, and balm.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/27/

Market Scripture - Mark 7:4

And [when they come] from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, [as] the washing of cups, and pots, brasen vessels, and of tables.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Mark/7/

Market Scripture - Ezekiel 27:13

Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, they [were] thy merchants: they traded the persons of men and vessels of brass in thy market.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/27/

Market Scripture - John 5:2

Now there is at Jerusalem by the sheep [market] a pool, which is called in the Hebrew tongue Bethesda, having five porches.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/John/5/

Market Scripture - Ezekiel 27:19

Dan also and Javan going to and fro occupied in thy fairs: bright iron, cassia, and calamus, were in thy market.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezekiel/27/

Market Scripture - Acts 17:17

Therefore disputed he in the synagogue with the Jews, and with the devout persons, and in the market daily with them that met with him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Acts/17/

Marriage in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

mar'-ij: Introduction Scope and Viewpoint of the Present Article 1. Marriage among the Hebrews 2. Betrothal the First Formal Part 3. Wedding Ceremonies 4. Jesus' Sanction of the Institution 5. His Teaching concerning Divorce LITERATURE It would be interesting to study marriage biologically and sociologically, to get the far and near historical and social background of it as an institution, especially as it existed among the ancient Jews, and as it figures in the teaching of Jesus as recorded in the New Testament. For, like all social institutions, marriage, and the family which is the outcome of marriage, must be judged, not by its status at any particular time, but in the light of its history. Such a study of it would raise a host of related historic questions, e.g. What was its origin? What part has it played in the evolution and civilization of the race? What social functions has it performed? And then, as a sequel, Can the services it has rendered to civilization and progress be performed or secured in any other way? This, indeed, would call for us to go back even farther--to try to discover the psychology of the institution and its history, the beliefs from which it has sprung and by which it has survived so long. This were a task well worth while and amply justified by much of the thinking of our time; for, as one of the three social institutions that support the much challenged form and fabric of modern civilization, marriage, private property and the state, its continued existence, in present form at least, is a matter of serious discussion and its abolition, along with the other two, is confidently prophesied. "Marriage, as at present understood, is an arrangement most closely associated with the existing social status and stands or falls with it" (Bebel, Socialism and Sex, 199, Reeves, London; The Cooperative Commonwealth in Its Outline, Gronlund, 224). But such a task is entirely outside of and beyond the purpose of this article. Neither the Bible in general, nor Jesus in particular, treats of the family from the point of view of the historian or the sociologist, but solely from that of the teacher of religion and morals. In short, their point of view is theological, rather than sociological. Moses and the prophets, no less than Jesus and His apostles, accepted marriage as an existing institution which gave rise to certain practical, ethical questions, and they dealt with it accordingly. There is nothing in the record of the teachings of Jesus and of His apostles to indicate that they gave to marriage any new social content, custom or sanction. They simply accepted it as it existed in the conventionalized civilization of the Jews of their day and used it and the customs connected with it for ethical or illustrative purposes. One exception is to be made to this general statement, namely, that Jesus granted that because of the exigencies of the social development Moses had modified it to the extent of permitting and regulating divorce, clearly indicating, however, at the same time, that He regarded such modification as out of harmony with the institution as at first given to mankind. According to the original Divine purpose it was monogamous, and any form of polygamy, and apparently of divorce, was excluded by the Divine idea and purpose. The treatment of the subject here, therefore, will be limited as follows: Marriage among the Ancient Hebrews and Other Semites; Betrothal as the First Formal Part of the Transaction; Wedding Ceremonies Connected with Marriage, especially as Reflected in the New Testament; and Jesus' Sanction and Use of the Institution, Teaching concerning Divorce, etc. 1. Marriage among the Hebrews: With the Hebrews married life was the normal life. Any exception called for apology...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MARRIAGE/

Marriage in Naves Topical Bible

Consanguinous, Abraham and Sarah Ge 11:29; 12:13; 20:3,9-16 -Isaac and Rebekah Ge 24:3,4,67; 28:2 -Jacob and his wives Ge 29:15-30 -See below, in the elaborated text -Levirate (the brother required to marry a brother's widow) Ge 38:8,11; De 25:5-10; Ru 4:5; Mt 22:24; Mr 12:19- 23; Lu 20:28 -Parents contract for their children Hagar selects a wife for Ishmael Ge 21:21 Abraham for Isaac Ge 24 Laban arranges for his daughters' marriage Ge 29 Samson asks his parents to procure him a wife Jud 14:2 -Parents' consent requires in the Mosaic law Ex 22:17 -Presents given to parents to secure their favor Ge 24:53; 34:12; De 22:29; 1Sa 18:25; Ho 3:2 -Nuptial feasts Ge 29:22; Jud 14:12; Es 2:18; Mt 22:11,12 -Jesus present at Joh 2:1-5 -Ceremony attested by witnesses Ru 4:1-11; Isa 8:1-3 -The groom exempt one year from military duty De 24:5 -Bridal ornaments Isa 49:18; Jer 2:32 -Bridal presents Ge 24:53; Ps 45:12 -A herald preceded the bridegroom Mt 25:6 -Wedding robes adorned with jewels Isa 61:10 -Wives obtained By purchase Ge 29:20; Ru 4:10; Ho 3:2; 12:12 By kidnapping Jud 21:21-23 -Given by Kings 1Sa 17:25; 18:17,21 -Daughters given in, as rewards of valor Jud 1:12; 1Sa 17:25; 18:27 -Wives taken by edict Es 2:2-4,8-14 -David gave one hundred Philistine foreskins for a wife 2Sa 3:14 -Wives among the Israelites must be Israelites Ex 34:16; De 7:3,4; 1Ch 23:22; Ezr 9:1,2,12; Ne 10:30; 13:26,27; Mal 2:11; 1Co 7:39; 2Co 6:14 -Betrothal a quasi-marriage Mt 1:18; Lu 1:27 -Betrothal made with the spirit Eze 16:8 -Celibacy deplored Jud 11:38; Isa 4:1; Jer 16:9 -Advised 1Co 7:7,8,24-40 -Obligations under, inferior to duty to God De 13:6-10; Mt 19:29; Lu 14:26 -Not binding after death Mt 22:29,30; Mr 12:24,25 -See BRIDE -See BRIDEGROOM -UNCLASSIFIED SCRIPTURES RELATING TO Ge 2:23,24; Ex 22:16,17; Le 18:6-18; 20:14,17,19-21; 21:1,7,13-15; Nu 36:8; De 21:10-14; 24:1-5; Pr 18:22; 21:9,19; Jer 29:6; Ho 2:19,20; Mal 2:13-16; Mt 5:31,32; Mr 6:17,18; 10:2-12; Mt 19:2-9; Lu 16:18; Ro 7:1-3; 1Co 6:16; 7:1-40; 9:5; 11:11,12; 1Ti 3:2,12; 4:1,3; 5:14; Heb 13:4 -FIGURATIVE Isa 54:5; 62:4,5; Jer 3:14; 31:32; Ho 1:2; 2:19,20; Eph 5:30-32; Re 19:7-9 Parables from Mt 22:2; 25:1-10 See DIVORCE See HUSBAND See WIFE

Link: https://bible-history.com/naves/M/MARRIAGE/

Marriage in Smiths Bible Dictionary

1. Its origin and history. --The institution of marriage dates from the time of man's original creation. Ge 2:18-25 From Ge 2:24 we may evolve the following principles: (1) The unity of man and wife, as implied in her being formed out of man. (2) The indissolubleness of the marriage bond, except on; the strongest grounds, Comp. Mt 19:9 (3) Monogamy, as the original law of marriage (4) The social equality of man and wife. (5) The subordination of the wife to the husband. 1Co 11:8,9; 1Ti 2:13 (6) The respective duties of man and wife. In the patriarchal age polygamy prevailed, Ge 16:4; 25:1,8; 28:9; 29:23,26; 1Ch 7:14 but to a great extent divested of the degradation which in modern times attaches to that practice. Divorce also prevailed in the patriarchal age, though but one instance of it is recorded. Ge 21:14 The Mosaic law discouraged polygamy, restricted divorce, and aimed to enforce purity of life. It was the best civil law possible at the time, and sought to bring the people up to the pure standard of the moral law. In the Post-Babylonian period monogamy appears to have become more prevalent than at any previous time. The practice of polygamy nevertheless still existed; Herod the Great had no less than nine wives at one time. The abuse of divorce continued unabated. Our Lord and his apostles re-established the integrity and sanctity of the marriage bond by the following measures: (a) By the confirmation of the original charter of marriage as the basis on which all regulations were to be framed. Mt 19:4,5 (b) By the restriction of divorce to the case of fornication, and the prohibition of remarriage in all persons divorced on improper grounds. Mt 5:32; 19:9; Ro 7:3; 1Co 7:10,11 (c) By the enforcement of moral purity generally Heb 13:4 etc., and especial formal condemnation of fornication. Ac 15:20 2. The conditions of legal marriage. --In the Hebrew commonwealth marriage was prohibited (a) between an Israelite and a non-Israelite. There were three grades of prohibition: total in regard to the Canaanites on either side; total on the side of the males in regard to the Ammonites and Moabites; and temporary on the side of the males in regard to the Edomites and Egyptians, marriages with females in the two latter instances being regarded as legal. The progeny of illegal marriages between Israelites and non-Israelites was described as "bastard." De 23:2 (b) between an Israelite and one of his own community. The regulations relative to marriage between Israelites and Israelites were based on considerations of relationship. The most important passage relating to these is contained in Le 18:6-18 wherein we have in the first place a general prohibition against marriage between a man and the "flesh of his flesh," and in the second place special prohibitions against marriage with a mother, stepmother, sister or half- sister, whether "born at home or abroad," granddaughter, aunt, whether by consanguinity on either side or by marriage on the father's side, daughter in-law, brother's wife, stepdaughter, wife's mother, stepgranddaughter, or wife's sister during the lifetime of the wife. An exception is subsequently made, De 26:5-9 in favor of marriage with a brother's wife in the event of his having died childless. The law which regulates this has been named the "levirate," from the Latin levir, "brother-in-law." 3. The modes by which marriage was effected. --The choice of the bride devolved not on the bridegroom himself, but on his relations or on a friend deputed by the bridegroom for this purpose. The consent of the maiden was sometimes asked Ge 24:58 but this appears to have been subordinate to the previous consent of the father and the adult brothers. Ge 24:51; 34:11 Occasionally the whole business of selecting the wife was left in the hands of a friend. The selection of the bride was followed by the espousal, which was a formal proceeding undertaken by a friend or legal representative on the part of the bridegroom and by the parents on the part of the bride; it was confirmed by oaths, and accompanied with presents to the bride. The act of betrothal was celebrated by a feast, and among the more modern Jews it is the custom in some parts for the bride. groom to place a ring on the bride's finger. The ring was regarded among the Hebrews as a token of fidelity Ge 41:42 and of adoption into a family. Lu 15:25 Between the betrothal sad the marriage so interval elapsed, varying from a few days in the patriarchal age, Ge 24:55 to a full year for virgins and a month for widows in later times. During this period the bride-elect lived with her friends, and all communication between herself and her future husband was carried on through the medium of a friend deputed for the purpose, termed the "friend of the bridegroom." Joh 3:29 She was now virtually regarded as the wife...

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Marriage/

Marriage in Easton's Bible Dictionary

was instituted in Paradise when man was in innocence (Gen. 2:18-24). Here we have its original charter, which was confirmed by our Lord, as the basis on which all regulations are to be framed (Matt. 19:4, 5). It is evident that monogamy was the original law of marriage (Matt. 19:5; 1 Cor. 6:16). This law was violated in after times, when corrupt usages began to be introduced (Gen. 4:19; 6:2). We meet with the prevalence of polygamy and concubinage in the patriarchal age (Gen. 16:1-4; 22:21-24; 28:8, 9; 29:23-30, etc.). Polygamy was acknowledged in the Mosaic law and made the basis of legislation, and continued to be practised all down through the period of Jewish histroy to the Captivity, after which there is no instance of it on record. It seems to have been the practice from the beginning for fathers to select wives for their sons (Gen. 24:3; 38:6). Sometimes also proposals were initiated by the father of the maiden (Ex. 2:21). The brothers of the maiden were also sometimes consulted (Gen. 24:51; 34:11), but her own consent was not required. The young man was bound to give a price to the father of the maiden (31:15; 34:12; Ex. 22:16, 17; 1 Sam. 18:23, 25; Ruth 4:10; Hos. 3:2) On these patriarchal customs the Mosaic law made no change. In the pre-Mosaic times, when the proposals were accepted and the marriage price given, the bridegroom could come at once and take away his bride to his own house (Gen. 24:63- 67). But in general the marriage was celebrated by a feast in the house of the bride's parents, to which all friends were invited (29:22, 27); and on the day of the marriage the bride, concealed under a thick veil, was conducted to her future husband's home. Our Lord corrected many false notions then existing on the subject of marriage (Matt. 22:23-30), and placed it as a divine institution on the highest grounds. The apostles state clearly and enforce the nuptial duties of husband and wife (Eph. 5:22-33; Col. 3:18, 19; 1 Pet. 3:1-7). Marriage is said to be "honourable" (Heb. 13:4), and the prohibition of it is noted as one of the marks of degenerate times (1 Tim. 4:3). The marriage relation is used to represent the union between God and his people (Isa. 54:5; Jer. 3:1-14; Hos. 2:9, 20). In the New Testament the same figure is employed in representing the love of Christ to his saints (Eph. 5:25-27). The Church of the redeemed is the "Bride, the Lamb's wife" (Rev. 19:7-9).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Marriage/

Marriage Customs in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The charter of marriage is Genesis 2:24, reproduced by our Lord with greater distinctness in Matthew 19:4-5; "He which made them at the beginning made them male and female, and said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain, shall be one flesh." The Septuagint, and Samaritan Pentateuch reads "twain" or "two" in Genesis 2:24; compare as to this joining in one flesh of husband and wife, the archetype of which is the eternally designed union of Christ and the church, Ephesians 5:31; Mark 10:5-9; 1 Corinthians 6:16; 1 Corinthians 7:2. In marriage husband and wife combine to form one perfect human being; the one is the complement of the other. So Christ makes the church a necessary adjunct to Himself. He is the Archetype from whom, as the pattern, the church is formed (Romans 6:5). He is her Head, as the husband is of the wife (1 Corinthians 11:3; 1 Corinthians 15:45). Death severs bridegroom and bride, but cannot separate Christ and His bride (Matthew 19:6; John 10:28-29; John 13:1; Romans 8:35-39). In Ephesians 5:32 translated "this mystery is great," i.e. this truth, hidden once but now revealed, namely, Christ's spiritual union with the church, mystically represented by marriage, is of deep import. Vulgate wrongly translated "this is a great sacrament," Rome's plea for making marriage a sacrament. Not marriage in general, but the marriage of Christ and the church, is the great mystery, as the following words prove, "I say it in regard to (eis) Christ and in regard to (eis) the church," whereas Genesis 2:24 refers to literal marriage. Transl. Ephesians 5:30, "we are members of His (glorified) body, being (formed) out of (ek) His flesh and of His bones." Adam's deep sleep wherein Eve was formed out of His opened side, symbolizes Christ's death which was the birth of the spouse, the church (John 12:24; John 19:34-35). As Adam gave Eve a new name, 'ishah, "woman" or "wife" the counterpart of iysh, "man" or "husband," so Christ gives the church His new name; He, Solomon, she, the Shulamite (Song of Solomon 6:13; Revelation 2:17; Revelation 3:12). The propagation of the church from Christ, as that of Eve from Adam, is the foundation of the spiritual marriage. Natural marriage rests on the spiritual marriage, whereby Christ left the Father's bosom to woo to Himself the church out of a lost world. His earthly mother as such He holds secondary to His spiritual bride (Luke 2:48-49; Luke 8:19-21; Luke 11:27-28). He shall again leave His Father's abode to consummate the union (Matthew 25:1-10; Revelation 19:7). Marriage is the general rule laid down for most men, as not having continency (1 Corinthians 7:2; 1 Corinthians 7:5, etc.). The existing "distress" (1 Corinthians 7:26) was Paul's reason then for recommending celibacy where there was the gift of continency. In all cases his counsel is true, "that they that have wives be as though they had none," namely, in permanent possession, not making idols of them. Scripture teaches the unity of husband and wife; the indissolubleness of marriage save...

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Marriage Scripture - Revelation 19:9

And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed [are] they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings o