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Bible History

Search the Bible Online (KJV)

Bible History Online search tool. Browse every chapter and verse or search for a topic and bring up a unique sequence of results.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/

Search the Bible Online (KJV)

Bible History Online search tool. Browse every chapter and verse or search for a topic and bring up a unique sequence of results.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/

Browse the King James Bible

Browse from a list of every Book of the Bible, once your selection is made you can browse by chapter and verse.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/

Bible Genealogy Diagram

SHOWING SOME ELEMENTS OF KINSHIP AND FAMILY ORGANIZATION: (OLD TESTAMENT [TANAKH]) Jim Belote

Link: http://www.d.umn.edu/~jbelote/bible2.html

Search the Bible

Use this tool to search for people places and events in the Bible.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/

Walking the Bible Timeline

Walking the Bible is a production of TMC Entertainment

Link: http://www.pbs.org/walkingthebible/timeline.html

The Disquisition

Disquisition of biblical scripture-How the flood and Noah's Ark were possible?-Where was the ancient city of Babel? -How could the lineage from Adam to Abraham be so accurate? -Biblical Creation against Evolution and the Big Bang? -Bible curruption? Rome, the Whore of Babylon? -and much more

Link: http://www.oldkingjames.com

First Plumbline Apologetics

Heresy and Great Apostasy in the Church Apologetics Site

Link: http://www.firstplumbline.net

Religion Detoxification: The Gospel Writers

A quote from the new religion detoxification book, The Gospel Writers. A theory of Historical Jesus set within the context of a social tool (the Ruling Class - Worker Bee model) developed and used by Walled City-States, c. 6,500 BCE, when kingships and hereditary monarchies began to replace democratic assembles.

Link: http://www.indymedia.org/fr/2005/01/867726.shtml

Bible History Online

Images and resources for the study of Biblical history.

Link: https://bible-history.com

Guided Bible Studies for Hungry Christians

Popular Becker Bible studies challenge born again Christian students to focus on scripture to enlighten followers of Jesus Christ through the Word of God.

Link: http://www.guidedbiblestudies.com

Institute of Bible Technology, Hyderabad

The Institute is about condemning false preachings. We conduct Bible Research Seminars according to the Scriptures. We give Bible Training free of cost. We preach the Christ Crusified with the evidence of the Science and Technology.

Link: http://bibletechnology.org/

Crosswalk.com

Online Study Bible Bible In A Year Interlinear Bible Parallel Bible Commentaries Concordances Dictionaries Encyclopedias Lexicons History Sermon Helps

Link: http://bible.crosswalk.com/

Blue Letter Bible

Charts and Outlines Encyclopedias and Dictionaries Introductions to Books of the Bible Timelines Missions Cults Miscellaneous

Link: http://www.blueletterbible.org/

Resource Pages for Biblical Studies

Page One: Bible texts, translations and related texts. Page Two: Biblical Studies Electronically Published. Page Three: Aspects of the Mediterranean Social World. The Philo of Alexandria Page. These pages are intended as a resource for serious, scholarly studies of the early Christian writings and their social world.

Link: http://www.torreys.org/bible/

StudyLight.org

"- Interlinear Bible "- Parallel Bible "- Daily Reading Plan "- Devotionals "- Commentaries "- Concordances "- Dictionaries "- Encyclopedias "- Lexicons "- History "- Sermon Essentials "- Audio Resources "- Religious Artwork

Link: http://www.studylight.org/

Good News For a Better World

Please Read and also listen to the Word of God. The Bible in MP3 Audio Format.God's Story On-line a unique and accurate illustrated summary of the Holy Bible, focusing on God's plan of salvation... The Bible in MP3 Audio Format. The Bible in mp3 audio, real audio and windows media. Free download also Bible Search Tools,Screensavers and Free Bible Software. Free Bible Tools for searching the Blue Letter Bible . Biblical Word and Phrase Search Tool Searches the KJV Bible plus 6 Bible Dictionaries for any English Word.

Link: http://webresources.freeservers.com/goodnewsbibleaudio.html

Bible Family Tree

Genealogy of the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, with details for every individual (if available), hebrew meanings of names, bible cross reference and approximate birth and death dates. You will also find detailed information about Mesopotamian history B.C.

Link: http://www.biblefamilytree.com/

Following the Light - Scriptural Truths

The objective of Following the Light is to offer unbiased, scripturally based evidence to help people discover what God requires of them; bring hope to mankind, restore faith in God's promises, and bring glory to the Father and Son in Heaven.

Link: http://www.followingthelight.org/

Angels on the Web

Angels on the Web is a comprehensive guide to angels in religion, culture and art. It covers the topic from every religious tradition""Judaism, Orthodoxy, Protestantism, Mormonism, you name it""and every angle. The highlight is a 550-thumbnail images library, from Medieval manuscripts to contemporary fantasy.

Link: http://www.isidore-of-seville.com/angels/

American Standard Version - (ASV)

Full text of this version of the Bible.

Link: http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/bib/ASV/index.html

Ancient Lattice Windows

The lattice window looked very much like a fisherman's net, and was used in warm middle eastern countries. It was formed of reticulated work, and highly ornamental. They also had hinges which allowed them to be open or shut. On very hot days then sun is kept out while the air is let in through the trellis openings.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/lattice.html

Today's Word

Today's Word is a Campus Crusade for Christ verse by verse Bible exposition forming a principle and application that shows how to live out the principle. There are 2400 studies of 2-3 pages each.

Link: http://www.crusade.org/word

shekel-Syria

Judas was probably paid 30 shekels, one of which may have been of the type in this picture. This Syrian tetradrachm (shekel) was issued by the Romans in 46-40 B.C. copying the design issued under Philip Philadelphos, 93-83 B.C., but on a smaller coin. On the back side Zeus is holding Nike. [Bible Coins]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_judaea_653_2.jpg

Herod Agrippa I (37 - 44 AD)

Coins relating to the Idumaean Princes : Herod Agrippa I (37 - 44 AD) AE Prutah 41/42 AD Hendin 553, SGIC 5567 17 mm. 3.01 gm. Die position=12h reverse Obverse: Canopy with fringe; A[gamma]PI[pi]A BACI[lambda]EWC. Reverse: Three ears of barley, growing between two leaves; date L[stigma]. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.jewishcoins.net/ancient-israel-coins/herod-agrippa%20I.html

Herod Agrippa I (37 - 44 AD) reverse

Coins relating to the Idumaean Princes : Herod Agrippa I (37 - 44 AD) AE Prutah 41/42 AD Hendin 553, SGIC 5567 17 mm. 3.01 gm. Die position=12h reverse Obverse: Canopy with fringe; A[gamma]PI[pi]A BACI[lambda]EWC. Reverse: Three ears of barley, growing between two leaves; date L[stigma]. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_judaea_553.jpg

Porcius Festus (59 - 62 AD)

Coins relating to the Roman Procurators : Porcius Festus (59 - 62 AD) AE Prutah 58 AD Hendin 653, SGIC 5627 17 mm. 2.29 gm. Die position=12h Procurator under Nero reverse Obverse: Palm branch surrounded by date LE (year 5) and KAIC APOC. Reverse: Legend NEP WNO C (Nero) within wreath tied with X at bottom. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/judaea/i_judaea_653_2.jpg

Porcius Festus (59 - 62 AD) reverse

Coins relating to the Roman Procurators : Porcius Festus (59 - 62 AD) AE Prutah 58 AD Hendin 653, SGIC 5627 17 mm. 2.29 gm. Die position=12h Procurator under Nero reverse Obverse: Palm branch surrounded by date LE (year 5) and KAIC APOC. Reverse: Legend NEP WNO C (Nero) within wreath tied with X at bottom. [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

Link: http://www.romancoins.net/large%20html%20picture%20pages/Biblical%20Coins/BC-14%20Antonius%20Felix%20under%20Nero%201.jpg

the widow's mite

The coin name in King James English is the widow's "mite". The proper Greek name is lepton for any coin in this exhibit with similar size. The illustrated coin was one of the first, and most common, Jewish coins ever minted, dating from the time of Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 B.C.), a descendent of Judas Maccabee. Jewish leptons often show defects of hasty mintage methods.

Link: http://www.youngearth.org/Coins/Bag17.htm

Drachma

The Greek coin word used in the above text is drachm or drachma for plural. Being similar to the Roman denarius, it is worth about a day's wages. This drachm is from the Syrian Empire. [Bible Coins]

Link: http://www.youngearth.org/Coins/Bag18.htm

drachm

The Greek coin word used in the above text is drachm or drachma for plural. Being similar to the Roman denarius, it is worth about a day's wages. This drachm is from the Syrian Empire. [Bible Coins]

Link: http://www.youngearth.org/Coins/Bag18.htm

denarius

The denarius is the origin of the symbol, d, for the old British penny, to which it deteriorated as a result of inflation. On today's ancient coin market an ordinary denarius still costs about a day's pay. Denarii made for the Roman Republic (before about 44 B.C.) typically had the names of the mint master or coin designer, as in this illustration. [Bible Coins]

Link: http://www.keyway.ca/htm2000/20000511.htm

Render Unto Caesar Coin

notice what else is on the coin as titles (missing letters in small print). On the back Tiberius is called PONTIFex MAXIMus (high priest). But the Jews had their own high priest and Jesus is our High Priest. On the front is TIberius CAESAR DIVIni AUGusti Filius AUGUSTUS (=Tiberius, Caesar, Son of the Divine Augustus, Augustus). Since his father Augustus had already been declared a god, that would make Tiberius the son of a god. [Bible Coins]

Link: http://www.youngearth.org/Coins/Bag20.htm

half shekel

The annual Temple tax paid by each adult male Jew was a half shekel of silver (Exodus 30:12-15). This coin, designed in Tyre and minted there and in Jerusalem, was acceptable at the Temple to pay that tax, but coins from other locations were not. Therefore the money changers performed a necessary service, providing that they were honest. Jesus threw out those who were not, saying "Is it not written: 'My house will be called a house of prayer for all nations'? But you have made it 'a den of robbers.'" (Mark 11:17) [Bible Coins]

Link: http://www.youngearth.org/Coins/Bag21a.htm

shekel-Tyre

Only the silver shekel minted in Tyre or Syria was acceptable at the Jerusalem Temple. Images of any god were forbidden, but all shekels from foreign countries had them. This one pictures the minor Greek god Melqarth, one of the least offensive to the Jews. All other silver coins had to be converted into this (or the Syrian) type for Temple use. So the 30 pieces of silver given to Judas were most likely 30 of these shekels. This shekel of Tyre was made in Jerusalem in 3 or 4 A.D. [Bible Coins]

Link: http://www.youngearth.org/Coins/Bag21.htm

Widow`s Mites A popular Biblical coin

Mark 12:42-44 and Luke 21:2-4 tell the story of the Widow who gave all she had, two "mites". A number of tiny copper coins circulated in Judaea during the time of Christ so there is no way to establish any particular design as "the" Widow`s Mite. The coins were produced in vast quantities through the first century BC and first century AD. The quality of workmanship employed in the production of these coins varied from rushed to misreable. It is rather unusual to find a single coin that shows all of the legends and design on both sides. Sizes of individual specimens also vary greatly (some were halves of the whole `prutah` which itself was worth half of a Roman quadrans, the smallest denomination then being produced at Rome). Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Palestine in New Testament Times Map

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/maps/palestine_in_nt_times.jpg

The Division of Herod's Kingdom Map

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/maps/The_Division_of Herod's_Kingdom.jpg

The Mesha Stele

(The Moabite Stone. Description with text. 830 BCE.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/westsem/mesha.html

Mesha Stele Photo

Moabite Stone
Language: Moabite (a West Semitic Language)
Medium: basalt stone stele
Size: 1.15 meters high, 60-68 centimeters wide
Length: 35 lines of writing
Honoree: Mesha, king of Moab
(late 9th century BCE)
Approximate Date: 830 BCE
Place of Discovery: Dhiban [in modern Jordan]
Date of Discovery: 1868
Current Location: Louvre Museum (Paris, France)
Inventory number: AO 5066

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/artifacts/moabite_stone.jpg

Tiberius, Tribute Penny

Among collectors of ancient coins, the Tribute Penny has great appeal, especially to Christians. You may recall from your study of the Bible that Matthew 22:17-22, Mark 12:15-17 and Luke 20:22-26 all describe Jesus commenting on a denarius, a coin that we would refer to today as a "penny". [Bible] [Rome] [Coin]

Link: http://www.oceanlight.com/log/the-tribute-penny.html

Herod the Great, and His Death

A brief study about the life and death of Herod the Great. For 40 years, Jewish history was dominated by HEROD THE GREAT. Rome needed a shrewd and capable agent in Israel, and in Herod the Great they felt they had found such a man. [Bible History Online Study]

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/ff_herod.htm

The Rosetta Stone

A brief study about the deciphering of the ancient Hieroglyphs and the discovering of the Rosetta Stone. [Bible History Online Study]

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/ff_hiero.htm

Picture of The Rosetta Stone

This stone held the key to the deciphering of the ancient Hieroglyphs of Egypt [Bible History Online Study]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/rosetta.jpg

Search RSV Bible (English Translation)

Selected Ancient Near Eastern Texts

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/anet.html

ROME & CHRISTIANITY TIMELINE

CHRISTIAN TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

Link: http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/chrtrium.html

Evidence for The Resurrection of Christ

The resurrection of Jesus Christ is a fact of history and applies to every person's life. Because Jesus died, our debt was paid. Jesus' last words on the cross was, "It is finished", the debt has been paid. His death on the cross paid the debt for your sin and His resurrection gives you life. Eddie Snipes

Link: http://www.exchangedlife.com/Sermons/Psalms/psalm_22.shtml

Archeology Confirms The Bible's Reliability

By Louis Rushmore

Link: http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0003_Archeology1.html

How Archeology Proved the Bible's Accuracy

By Louis Rushmore

Link: http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0004_Archeology2.html

The Anvil that Has Worn Out Many Hammers

Nineteenth century writer H.L. Hastings once forcibly illustrated the unique way in which the Bible has withstood the attacks of skepticism.

Link: http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0002_Anvil.html

The Book That Changed History

By Jay Rogers. It is subversive literature. It has led to the overthrow of governments, sparked mass migrations across oceans, and more than once changed the course of history. Governments - from the 16th-century English monarchy to the Communist Soviet Union - have gone to great lengths to restrict or even prevent its printing and distribution. Yet it has outlasted its enemies. It is the most popular book ever printed. No other has been translated into so many languages and few have had such impact on the development of those languages. It is, of course, the Bible, portions of which have been translated into 1,946 of the 5000 languages of the world. This includes 318 languages into which the entire Bible has been translated. No other book even comes close to these numbers.

Link: http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0005_Book.html

The Book That Has Survived Its Enemies

The Bible, like no other book in history, has withstood vicious attacks from its enemies. Many have tried to ban it, burn it and outlaw it ... from the days of the Roman emperors to the present-day tyrant-dominated nations. Sidney Collett, in All About the Bible, says, "Voltaire, the noted French infidel who died in 1778, said that in one hundred years from his time Christianity would be swept from existence and passed into history. But what has happened? Voltaire has passed into history, while the circulation of the Bible continues to increase in almost all parts of the world, carrying blessing wherever it goes.

Link: http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0006_Book.html

The Bible: Reliable Enough for Matthew Fontaine Maury

The Bible: Reliable Enough for "the Father of Modern Navigation"

Link: http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0012_Father.html

The Bible - Is It Authentic?

Through the centuries Christians have been called upon to give a reason or defense for their faith.1 Since the Scriptures lay at the very foundation of their faith in Christ, it has been incumbent upon Christian apologists to provide evidence for the inspiration of the Bible.

Link: http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0019_Is.html

Criticism of the Bible

" Got a Problem With the Bible?"

Link: http://forerunner.com/forerunner/X0024_Problem.html

Scientific Accuracy of the Bible

David M. Skjaerlund. The Bible, passed down through many generations of recorded history, is the basis of Christianity and contains God's instructions for man. The Bible also describes the origin of life on earth. Many have questioned whether a book written thousands of years ago could still be found accurate when scrutinized by modern science. But each time man thought that science contradicted the Bible, later scientific discoveries proved it to be true - while proving the previous scientific theories to be false.

Link: http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0027_Scientific.html

The Influence of the Bible

One writer has aptly noted that if every Bible in every city of the world was destroyed, the entire book could be restored by piecing together quotations from books on the shelves of public libraries. This example was given to show how often the Bible has been cited in the works of literature.

Link: http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0035_Worlds.html

What About All the "Contradictions" in the Bible?

There's a typical argument heard on campus, particularly in the religion department: "You can't trust the Bible because its full of inconsistencies and contradictions." Religion professors and skeptics of Christianity capitalize on the fact that there are thousands of various readings of both the Old and New Testaments ... leaving Christian faith with little to stand on.

Link: http://forerunner.com/forerunner/X0009_Contradictions.html

The Authority of Biblical Silence

By Louis Rushmore. Sometimes biblical silence is as outspoken as any Scriptural statement. What the Bible does not say contributes as much to Bible authority as what the Bible does say on any particular subject. It is precisely because the Bible does say something regarding a topic which causes biblical silence on the same topic to be authoritative. In areas, though, where the Bible stipulates nothing, in the same areas silence does not constitute Bible authority.

Link: http://www.bible-infonet.org/bin/short_articles/Bible/Silence.htm

Why Christianity Is Unique Among Religions

Some people think that Christianity is simply a certain set of beliefs and values, like any other world religion. But to those critics and scholars who have set out to study it, all have come away with the conclusion that Christianity is unique because it is based upon a historical event: namely, the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

Link: http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0008_Christianity.html

How We Got the Bible

Answering the most often asked questions. How was it decided which books belong in the Bible?

Link: http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0017_How.html

The Book that Refused to Be Written

Dr. Frank Morrison, a lawyer who had been brought up in a rationalistic environment, had come to hold the opinion that the resurrection of Jesus Christ was nothing but a fairy tale happy ending which spoiled the matchless story of Jesus. He felt that he owed it to himself and to others to write a book which would present the truth about Jesus, expose the misconceptions, and dispel forever the mythical story of the resurrection. Upon studying the facts, however, he, too, came to a different conclusion. The sheer weight of the evidence compelled him to conclude that Jesus actually did rise from the dead.

Link: http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0034_Who.html

Got a Problem With the Bible?

It is not uncommon to hear critics of the Bible speak of its "contradictions" and "inaccuracies." Yet if one studies the history of ancient writings, it is obvious that no book in history has been so carefully preserved over the centuries.

Link: http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0024_Problem.html

What are the Dead Sea Scrolls and why are they important?

The legends of what was contained in the Dead Sea Scrolls are far beyond what was actually there. There were no lost books of the Bible or other literature that there was not already other copies of. The vast majority of the Dead Sea Scrolls were simply copies of books of the Old Testament from 250-150 B.C. A copy or portion of nearly every Old Testament book was found in Qumran. There were extra-biblical and apocryphal books found as well, but again, the vast majority of the scrolls were copies of the Hebrew Old Testament. The Dead Sea Scrolls were such an amazing discovery in that the scrolls were in excellent condition and had remained hidden for so long (over 2000 years). The Dead Sea Scrolls can also give us confidence in the reliability of the Old Testament manuscripts since there were minimal differences between the manuscripts that had previously been discovered and those that were found in Qumran.

Link: http://www.gotquestions.org/dead-sea-scrolls.html

Countering Bible Contradictions

A list of 143 purported Bible contradictions, along with a suggestion for more contradictions not found in this list.

Link: http://www.bringyou.to/apologetics/bible.htm

Are There Errors And Contradictions In The Bible?

We often get questions along the lines of "Explain how these verses do not contradict!" or "Look, here is an error in the Bible!" Admittedly, some of the things people bring up are difficult to answer. However, there are viable and intellectually plausible answers to every supposed Bible contradiction and error. Many "Bible attackers" are even aware of the answers, but they continue to use the same old shallow attacks again and again.

Link: http://www.gotquestions.org/Bible-errors.html

Is the Genesis account of creation to be read literally?

The Genesis account is to be accepted as true and as inspired by God. However, other creation accounts in Scripture (Job 38 and Psalm 104) allow us to conclude that, for the Hebrews, it was more important to present an account of origins that would meet the needs of people constantly tempted to lapse into idolatry and paganism. In contrast to the secular accounts of the ancients' many diverse gods and goddesses who fought among themselves and created worlds and systems out of each other's dead carcasses, the Hebrew creation account is orderly, elegant and beautiful to read. The God of Genesis 1 towers over all things that were made. He calls them into being solely by his sovereign will. There is order, beauty and simplicity. Some scholars are convinced that this was done in six literal days and nights as the account reads. Plain Truth Ministries

Link: http://www.ptm.org/uni/QandA/0025/genesisLit.htm

Evolution: fact or fantacy?

Evolution: Theory Or Fact? Scientists comments on the scientific basis of Darwin's Theory of Evolution Darwin's theory of evolution is exactly that: a theory, with little in the way of hard scientific evidence to back it up. Yet it has been accepted almost as an article of faith in the modern world. However, as the following shows there are many within the scientific community who have voiced serious doubts over what still remains no more than a theory. Don't expect the mainstream media to make too much of the following though; the powers that be would rather we accept Darwin's theory as a proven fact rather than question it. Because that might lead us to question other accepted notions and dogmas, which in turn might even prompt us to start thinking for ourselves. And that is something the powers that be do not want to happen; their power rests on our acquiescence, which in turn depends on our ignorance, cultivated and conditioned by the mainstream media. Ed.

Link: http://www.thetruthseeker.co.uk/article.asp?ID=104

Evolution: Theory or Fact

Link: http://www.thetruthseeker.co.uk/article.asp?ID=104

Scientific Accuracy of the Bible

David M. Skjaerlund. The Bible, passed down through many generations of recorded history, is the basis of Christianity and contains God's instructions for man. The Bible also describes the origin of life on earth. Many have questioned whether a book written thousands of years ago could still be found accurate when scrutinized by modern science. But each time man thought that science contradicted the Bible, later scientific discoveries proved it to be true "" while proving the previous scientific theories to be false.

Link: http://forerunner.com/forerunner/X0027_Scientific.html

Apologetics

Topics in Apologetics. Brief discussions and videos for sale.

Link: http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0001.html

Old Latin Bible open

on double page, close-up, overhead view (Tony Stone Images)

Link: https://bible-history.com/acp/images/stone/tony-993445-001.jpg

Pontius Pilate under Tiberius 2 (Coin)

AE Prutah, 14mm. Lituus and Greek inscription (Tiberius Caesar)/Date LIH (year 18 = AD31) in wreath. This coin was minted after the crucifixion and was in circulation while Paul was persecuting Jesus' followers. [Coins of Jesus' time]

Link: http://www.historian.net/images/coinpil2.jpg

Herod Antipas (Coin)

AE 1/4 Unit. Reed and date (LK'delta'), Greek inscription (=Herod Tetrarch)/TIB.PIAC in 2 lines in wreath, H65. Herod Antipas was the Tetrarch of the Galilee. [Coins of Jesus' time]

Link: http://www.historian.net/images/coinant.jpg

AR Shekel or Tetradrachm (Coin)

Phoenicia, Tyre, after 126 BC, AR Shekel (or Tetradrachm) (14.4g). Melqarth head rt/Eagle standing left on thunderbolt. These Tyrian Tetradrachms are the "30 pieces of silver" with which the temple authorities paid Judas Iscariot. [Coins of Jesus' time]

Link: http://www.historian.net/images/cointyre.jpg

Agrippa I (Coin)

AD 37-44, AE Prutah, 17mm. Umbrella-like canopy, Greek inscription (the king Agrippa)/Three barley ears, date (year 6) Herod Agrippa was close to the mad emperor Caligula. In a persecution of the followers of Jesus, he executed James, "The Great." [Coins of Jesus' time]

Link: http://www.historian.net/images/coinagripp1.jpg

Agrippa II (Coin)

pre-royal coinage, mint of Caesarea Maritima, AE 19mm. Laureate bust of nero, Greek inscription (Nero Augustus Caesar)/Bust of Agrippina left, Greek inscription (Agrippina Augusta) It was under Agrippa II when the High Priest Ananus illegally executed Jesus' brother James, the Righteous (62 CE). [Coins of Jesus' time]

Link: http://www.historian.net/images/coinagr2a.jpg

An image of the Ten Commandments (Ancient Hebrew Script)

Image reproduction of the Ten Commandments in the ancient Hebrew script of the time of Moses.

Link: http://www.historian.net/images/10compap.jpg

The Earliest New Testament Fragment - P52

Info and image. [Manuscripts] [image]

Link: http://www.historian.net/P52.html

Great Isaiah Scroll Complete Manuscript Image

An index to images of the entire Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsaa=Qa), dated to the second century B.C. [Bible manuscripts]

Link: http://www.ao.net/~fmoeller/qumdir.htm

Great Isaiah Scroll Complete Manuscript Image

An index to images of the entire Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsaa=Qa), dated to the second century B.C. [Bible manuscripts]

Link: http://www.ao.net/~fmoeller/qumdir.htm

Great Isaiah Scroll Complete Manuscript Image

An index to images of the entire Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsaa=Qa), dated to the second century B.C. [Bible manuscripts]

Link: http://www.ao.net/~fmoeller/qumdir.htm

Ancient Egypt Glossary of Terms

Over Egypt's past, many terms from many origins have come into use. In order to understand the Egyptian past, we have included a glossary of terms.

Link: http://touregypt.net/dictionary.htm

The Origin and Development of the English Bible

The origin of the English Bibles of today can be traced to a time when men, under the divine inspiration of God, first wrote the books of the Bible. This word of God was transmitted from generation to generation by handwritten copies and by word-of-mouth. As men began to realize how valuable these teachings were, attempts were made to collate these teachings into a single comprehensive book. [Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://laurelstreetchurchofchrist.com/bibleorigin.htm

Does Archaeology Support Bible History?

Book Excerpt from Hard Sayings of the Bible by Walter C. Kaiser Jr., Peter H. Davids, F. F. Bruce and Manfred T. Brauch [Archaeology] [Bible History]

Link: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3817/is_/ai_n8875058

Does Archaeology Support Bible History?

Book Excerpt from Hard Sayings of the Bible by Walter C. Kaiser Jr., Peter H. Davids, F. F. Bruce and Manfred T. Brauch [Archaeology] [Bible History]

Link: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3817/is_/ai_n8875058

Bible Archaeology

The aim of this special edition is to point the reader to the wealth of information that has literally been unearthed by the spades of patient, dedicated people which helps to confirm the historical accuracy of the Bible - God`s Word. [Archaeology] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/bl8.htm

Bible Archaeology

Many topics on the subject. How does archaeology conclusively demonstrate the Bible to be reliable and unique among all the holy books of world religions? [Archaeology] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christiananswers.net/archaeology/home.html

Archaeological Tour in the steps of Jesus

Text and Images [Archaeology] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.historian.net/Step1.html

History and the New Testament

By Jack Kilmon, Text and Images [Archaeology] [Bible History]

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament/history-and-the-new-testament

A Chronology of the First Century of Christianity

By Jack Kilmon [Timeline] note: I do not necessarily agree to this timeline but it is helpful.

Link: http://www.historian.net/ntchrono.htm

Coin of Augustus

Coin of Augustus, 27BC-AD14, AR Cistophorus (12.20g). IMP CAESAR, his head rt/Six grain ears tied together, AVGV-STVS across field, RIC478 (R). Ephesus mint. This coin would have been in circulation when the 12 year old Jesus visited the Temple for his taking of vows. [Coins of Jesus' time]

Link: http://www.historian.net/images/coinaug.jpg

Herod I, the Great (Coin)

40-4 BC,AE 8 Prutot, 23mm. Tripod, date (year 3) and monogram in Greek (of king Herod)/Helmet, star above flanked by 2 palm branches. This coin would have been in circulation when Joseph became betrothed to Mary. [Coins of Jesus' time]

Link: http://www.historian.net/images/coinhrd.jpg

Herod I, the Great - 2 (Coin)

Herod I, 'the Great', 40-4 BC, AE 8 Prutot. Crested helmet and star flanked by palms/Thymaterion (incense burner), date(year 3) and monogram, Greek legend around (= of King Herod) This coin was in circulation when the Bar Yosef family was in Egypt. [Coins of Jesus' time]

Link: http://www.historian.net/images/coinhrd2.jpg

Herod Archelaus (Coin)

4BC-6AD, AE Prutot, 18mm. Double cornucopiae with parallel horns, Greek inscription (Herod)/War galley left, Greek inscription above (Ethnarch). This coin was in circulation during the early childhood of Jesus in Nazareth. [Coins of Jesus' time]

Link: http://www.historian.net/images/coinarch.jpg

Tiberius (Coin)

AD14-37, AR Denarius. Bust rt/PONT MAXIM, 'Livia' seated rt. as Pax holds branch, SR567. This is the "Tribute Penny" These coins would have been in circulation throughout Jesus' adult life. This would have been the coin he held for his "render to Caesar" response. [Coins of Jesus' time]

Link: http://www.historian.net/images/cointib.jpg

Coponius under Augustus (Coin)

AE Prutah, 16mm. Barley ear, Greek inscription (Caesar)/Palm tree, date in field (year 36 = AD6) This coin was minted by the first Prefect of Judea after the fall of Archelaus in the wake of the Galilean uprising of Judas of Gamala. Jesus would have been about 12 years old. [Coins of Jesus' time]

Link: http://www.historian.net/images/coincop.jpg

Valerius Gratus under Tiberius (Coin)

AE Prutah, 16mm. Greek inscription (Julia - refers to Julia Livia, mother of Tiberius) in wreath/Laurel branch, date (year 2 = AD15). This coin was in circulation when Joseph Caiaphas was appointed Hight Priest. [Coins of Jesus' time]

Link: http://www.historian.net/images/coinval.jpg

Pontius Pilate under Tiberius (Coin)

AE Prutah, 15mm. Simpulum, Greek inscription and date LIS (year 16 = AD29)/Three wheat ears, Greek inscription. This coin was minted and in circulation during the active ministry of Jesus. [Coins of Jesus' time]

Link: http://www.historian.net/images/coinpil1.jpg

Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch

Thus, the external evidence is overwhelmingly in favor of Mosaic authorship of the core substance (and most of the form) of the Pentateuch. We have seen that the internal evidence for the antiquity of the Pentateuchal materials is exceedingly abundant, and that the external witness to Mosaic authority is virtually unanimous and very early. The main residual challenges to Mosaic authorship are in supposed historical inaccuracies (e.g. domestication of the camel), which I cannot go into now, but will later. The vast array of KNOWN historical points of validation, however, should engender a sense of humility in us, before judging this surprisingly accurate text as being in error! [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/qmoses1.html

Discussion of the Septuagint

Some questions asked to Glenn Miller [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.reference-guides.com/collections.html

Evidence for the doctrine of the Trinity within the O.T.

Is there evidence for the doctrine of the Trinity within the OT? [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/trin02.html

Transmission of the Old Testament

The OT was basically finished around 400 BC., but the earliest full copies (of all the books together) we have are from around 900 AD....we have fragments earlier, and can historically reconstruct the text back to around 100 AD. (beginning of the Talmudist period)...in this regards, the mss tradition is comparable to other classical literature...but the means of transmission of that text is so bizarre as to suggest that its reliability is very, very high... [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/aecx.html

The Transmission of the Hebrew Text

The OT was basically finished around 400 BC., but the earliest full copies (of all the books together) we have are from around 900 AD....we have fragments earlier, and can historically reconstruct the text back to around 100 AD. (beginning of the Talmudist period)...in this regards, the mss tradition is comparable to other classical literature...but the means of transmission of that text is so bizarre as to suggest that its reliability is very, very high... by John H. Skilton [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.bible-researcher.com/skilton1.html

Transmission of the Greek New Testament

The finalizing of the canon of the NT... [New Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.friktech.com/rel/canon/types.htm

How The Bible Came To Us

Understanding how the Bible came to us gives us a confident foundation for our faith in the reliability the Bible. Evidence presented in a criminal case must be shown to have been protected by a proper chain of custody from being tampered with. We will be able to answer to critics when they claim that the New Testament contains 200,000 errors. We will have some understanding of why the newer translations such as the NIV and NASV differ from the King James Versions at various points. Wesley Ringer [New Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/bibleorigin.html

Exactly WHEN was the name of YHWH revealed to Israel?

[Old Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/qyhwh.html

Who were the Sons of God in Genesis 6?

[Old Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/qgensix.html

Adam, Eve, and Incest

[Old Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/qincest.html

What are the oldest NT manuscripts we posess?

[New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/papyrus/texts/manuscripts.html

Dating the Oldest New Testament Manuscipts

by Peter van Minnen [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/papyrus/texts/manuscripts.html

Manuscripts Support for the Bible's Reliability

Thus, in the Bible as we have it (and as it is conveyed to us through faithful translations) we do have for practical purposes the very Word of God, inasmuch as the manuscripts do convey to us the complete vital truth of the originals. By practicing the science of textual criticism - comparing all the available manuscripts with each other - we can come to an assurance regarding what the original document must have said. [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://home.earthlink.net/~ronrhodes/Manuscript.html

The New Testament what does the Record Tell Us?

How important are the dates of these manuscripts? Are the oldest the most valuable? The three oldest vellum manuscripts are complete, or near-complete, copies of the New Testament. [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.knollwoodchurch.org/yr2003/i04_nt_record.html

Manuscript support for the Bible's Reliability

Manuscript Support for the Bible's Reliability by Ron Rhodes Manuscript Evidence for the New Testament There are more than 24,000 partial and complete manuscript copies of the New Testament. These manuscript copies are very ancient and they are available for inspection now. There are also some 86,000 quotations from the early church fathers and several thousand Lectionaries (church-service books containing Scripture quotations used in the early centuries of Christianity). Bottom line: the New Testament has an overwhelming amount of evidence supporting its reliability. [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://home.earthlink.net/~ronrhodes/Manuscript.html

Chronology of composition of the books of the NT

A likely chronology of composition of the books of the NT and other early Christian sources. [Timelines] [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.visitingpreacher.org/ntbooksdate.html

Chronology of composition of the books of the NT

A chronology of composition of the books of the NT and other early Christian sources by Tom Elseroad. [Timelines] [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.elseroad.com/nt/chronology_of_the_nt.htm

Manuscript evidence for superior New Testament reliability

The New Testament is constantly under attack and its reliability and accuracy are often contested by critics. But, if the critics want to disregard the New Testament, then they must also disregard other ancient writings by Plato, Aristotle, and Homer. This is because the New Testament documents are better preserved and more numerous than any other ancient writing. Because the copies are so numerous, they can be cross checked for accuracy. This process has determined that the biblical documents are extremely consistent and accurate. There are presently 5,686 Greek manuscripts in existence today for the New Testament.1 If we were to compare the number of New Testament manuscripts to other ancient writings, we find that the New Testament manuscripts far outweigh the others in quantity. [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.carm.org/evidence/textualevidence.htm

Critique of New Testament Reliability Response

James Still's "Critique of New Testament Reliability and 'Bias' in NT Development"--my initial response (cont.). [Timelines] [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/james_still/critbias.html

Critique of New Testament Reliability Response

James Still's "Critique of New Testament Reliability and 'Bias' in NT Development"--my initial response (cont.). [Answers]] [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/james_still/critbias.html

Christian 'bias' in the NT Writers

Does it render the NT unreliable or inadmissible as evidence? [Answers]] [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/nuhbias.html

Christian 'bias' in the NT Writers

Does it render the NT unreliable or inadmissible as evidence? [Answers]] [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/nuhbias.html

On an objection about Luke, Quirinius, and Herods

Questions asked to Glenn Miller [Answers]] [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/quirinius.html

On an objection about Luke, Quirinius, and Herods

Questions asked to Glenn Miller [Answers]] [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/quirinius.html

Reliability of the New Testament and alleged Bias

My Interaction with James Still over the alleged bias and reliability of the NT by Glenn Miller [Answers]] [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/stilltoc.html

Reliability of the New Testament and alleged Bias

My Interaction with James Still over the alleged bias and reliability of the NT by Glenn Miller [Answers]] [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/stilltoc.html

The Synoptic Problem

The Synoptic Problem concerns the literary relationship between and among the first three canonical gospels, or the "synoptic gospels." Specifically, a solution to the Synoptic Problem must account for the similarities and differences in content, order, and wording. The literary relation may be either direct (one Evangelist possessed one of the gospels) or indirect (two Evangelists having access to a shared source). The sources may be written or oral; one or a multitude. [Answers]] [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.mindspring.com/~scarlson/synopt/problem.htm

The Comments in the Debate with James Still

Topical Index to great responses by Glenn Miller dealing with detailed issues of the New Testament's reliability [Answers]] [New Testament Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/stilldex.html

Was First Clement aware of the NT materials?

esp. written copies of them? [Answers]] [Church History] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/dumbdad2.html

Clement and OT and NT materials

Did First Clement consider the NT materials to be on a par with the OT materials? [Answers]] [Church History] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/dumbdad3.html

Did Clement use inauthentic sources?

and could he even tell the difference? [Answers]] [Church History] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/dumbdad4.html

Was Jesus dishonest?

Was Jesus really fraudulent, dishonest, sacrilegious, and conspiratorial [Answers]] [Church History] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/hnoblood2.html

Literacy and time measurement in the Ancient World

[Answers] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/5felled.html

On the parting of the Red Sea

[Answers] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/5felled.html#partsea

On Joshua's 'long day'

[Answers] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/5felled.html#longday

On Joshua's 'long day'

[Answers] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/5felled.html#longday

On the parting of the Red Sea

[Answers] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/5felled.html#partsea

On the reversal of the sun by Isaiah

[Answers] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/5felled.html#sunback

On the reversal of the sun by Isaiah

[Answers] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/5felled.html#sunback

Messianic Expectations in 1st Century Judaism

Documentation from Non-Christian Sources [Answers] [Jesus]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/messiah.html

God's Witness in History--the miracle of the Bible"

Nice Outline from an ongoing weekly/fortnightly Course taught by Glenn Miller at the Palo Alto Pennisula Bible Church [Answers] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/ss.html

Questions about the Bible

Is the Bible truly God's Word? What is Bibliology? With so many Bible versions today which one is the best translation? How and when were the books of the Bible put together? What is the canon of Scripture? [Answers] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.gotquestions.org/

How 'non-Jesus' was paul really?

How much clearer can the data be?! The concept of a 'crucified Messiah' was in the Tanakh/OT and on the lips of Jesus--it was certainly not original with PAUL!! How about the other apostles? Peter, James, John, and others--do they speak of a 'crucified Christ'? Of course they do! [Answers] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/muslix.html

Theistic Philosophers on the Web

The following is a list of individuals who classify themselves as both philosophers and theists. They work in such diverse areas as metaphysics, epistemology, logic, action theory, ethics, aesthetics, philosophy of language, philosophy of logic, philosophy of science, philosophy of religion, philosophical theology, existentialism, phenomenology, political philosophy, and the history of philosophy. [Philosophy]

Link: http://theism.actualism.com/

Voice of the Shuttle: Philosophy Page

"- General Philosophy Resources "- Philosophical Fields "- Modern Philosophical Movements "- Philosophers & Works "- Other Philosophy Sites & Projects "- Philosophy Journals "- Philosophy Listservs & Newsgroups "- Course Syllabi "- Departments, Programs, Associations, Jobs "- Philosophy Conferences [Philosophy]

Link: http://vos.ucsb.edu/browse.asp?id=2724

The Society of Christian Philosophers

The Society of Christian Philosophers was organized in 1978 to promote fellowship among Christian Philosophers and to stimulate study and discussion of issues which arise from their Christian and philosophical commitments. One of its chief aims is to go beyond the usual philosophy of religion sessions at the American Philosophical Association and to stimulate thinking about the nature and role of Christian commitment in philosophy. [Philosophy]

Link: http://www.siu.edu/~scp/

The Evangelical Philosophical Society

[Philosophy]

Link: http://www.epsociety.org/

A Christian ThinkTank

Series, Syllabi, and Larger Studies The Miracles of Jesus The Trinity Women in the Bible Slavery in the Bible The Making of the OT/Tanach The Christian Worldview The Work of Christ on the Cross The NT 'bias' and composition The issue of the Canon Messianic Prophecy An exploration in Theodicy Competing Claims to "Truth"? Christian arguments and conclusiveness? Why does Christianity need so much defending, if it's true? Exploring the process of revelation Notes from the Edge of my bible (vss comments) Of Interest to Followers of Other Religions For students of Islam Paul versus Jesus? (and versus James, etc) Nazarenes/Ebionites the only true Christians? For students of Judaism Did the messianic Jewish Believers use the Hebrew Bible deceitfully in the NT? Were 1st-century Jews expecting a Messiah? Was Jesus a failure as a Messiah? Why believe Jesus was the Messiah when he did not fulfill all the prophecies? Does the New Testament contradict the Hebrew bible by saying the 'eternal law' has been changed? Was Jesus' sacrifice on the Cross a case of illegal human sacrifice? Was John's Gospel anti-Semitic? Was Paul's statement in 1 Thess 2 anti-Semitic? [Philosophy]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/

Reasoning from the Scriptures Ministries

Millennial Madness Confusion in Christian Music? Recovering from the Recovery Movement Strategies for Dialoguing with Atheists The Debate Over Feminist Theology: Which View Is Biblical? Black Theology, Black Power, and the Black Experience Christian Revolution in Latin America: The Changing Face of Liberation Theology The Christ of the New Age Movement The Jesus of the New Age Movement Esotericism and Biblical Interpretation Enter The Dragon? Wrestling With The Martial Arts Phenomenon (Part One: The Historical-Philosophical Backdrop) Enter the Dragon? Wrestling with the Martial Arts Phenomenon (Part Two: A Christian Assessment) The Eye of Faith Summary of Problems with Posttribulationism The Doctrine of the Tribulation in Relation to the Rapture Witnessing to Jews Witnessing to Liberals Close Encounters of the Celestial Kind: Evaluating Today's Angel Craze The Inspiration of Scripture Interpreting Scripture Manuscript Evidence for the Bible The Case for Unlimited Atonement Is Universalism Biblical? Is Purgatory Biblical? Is Reincarnation Biblical? Is Annihilationism Biblical? Important Creeds of Christendom A Biblical Perspective on Suicide [Apologetics Sites]

Link: http://home.earthlink.net/~ronrhodes/index.html

Alpha and Omega Ministries

Alpha and Omega Ministries is dedicated to providing the most up-to-date, faithful defense of the historic Protestant position on the sufficiency of Scripture and salvation. We are a Reformed ministry, fully believing in what are commonly called the "doctrines of grace." We firmly believe in the Trinity, the deity of Christ, the person of the Holy Spirit, and salvation by grace through faith alone. We hold to the "solas" of the Reformation: sola scriptura, sola gratia, sola fide, soli Deo gloria. [Apologetics Sites]

Link: http://www.aomin.org/

Answers in Action

A Fresh Agenda For Apologetics In The 21st Century John Morehead Answers In Action: Facts About The Jesus Seminar And Founder Robert W. Funk Apollonius Of Tyana: A Rival To Christ Appeal Denied: How challenging The Verdict Fails To Overturn the Case For Christ Can God Create A Stone So Heavy That He Cannot Move It? Change Your Mind Christian Apologetics Manifesto, By Douglas Groothius Does Jesus Teach That God Is Unjust? Fantasies, Legends, And Heroes Fantasies, Legends, And Heroes: Bob Passantino's Talk Presented To The Evangelical Ministry To New Religions Conference Outlining Some Of The Basic Critical Thinking Skills Needed To Have An Effective Cult Apologetics Ministry. Gordon R. Lewis Reviews A Tapestry Of Faiths: The Common Threads Between Christianity And World Religions By Winfried Corduan. Hot Thoughts How Can You Say Jesus Is The Only Way To God? How Far Can We Trust The Bible? If God Is Good, Why Is There So Much Suffering In The World? Is Truth Relative? The Golden Rule Apologetic. How The Golden Rule Applys To Apologetics The Mission Field On Your Desktop [Apologetics Sites]

Link: http://answers.org/

Stand to Reason

Various topics like: Abortion Apologetics Ethics Euthanasia Evolution Homosexuality Miscellaneous Topics Philosophy Reflections on Life Science Social Issues Theology. About Stand to Reason Our Vision Our vision is to provide the training to build a new generation of confident, courageous, yet winsome and attractive ambassadors for Christ capable of restoring credibility to the Christian world view. Our Mission Stand to Reason trains Christians to think more clearly about their faith and to make an even-handed, incisive, yet gracious defense for classical Christianity and classical Christian values in the public square. Our Strategy Stand to Reason has a strategy to change the world God gives us access to. Our plan has six parts, and we're working our plan very intentionally. Radio Self-directed Training Curricula Public Speaking and Seminars Publications Cyberspace Outposts [Apologetics Sites]

Link: http://str.org/

Ravi Zacharias International Ministries

In a generation not unlike ours, Jesus declared, "You will know the Truth and the Truth will set you free." Throughout history the message of Christ has faced significant challenges from other worldviews, from the academy, and from culture. And understandably so, for Jesus claimed to be unique in every way. Is a message so exclusive plausible? We believe it is, and we at Ravi Zacharias International Ministries seek to reach and challenge those who shape the ideas of a culture with the credibility and the beauty of the gospel of Jesus Christ. To the questions of the skeptic and the believer we offer an apologetic "" we give an answer "" to the counterclaims of secularism and other worldviews. We address the intellectual and essential assumptions of our culture, realizing that for some, the door to the heart is through the mind, and for others through the imagination. RZIM is committed to reaching this generation around the world - in the university, the arts, politics, business, and the church. Through open forums, community outreach, and various media, we seek to remove the barriers to the cross for the skeptic and we prepare Christians to give a reason for the hope within us. Ravi Zacharias International Ministries - stirring the imagination and impelling the mind to see the beauty and credibility of the Gospel of Jesus Christ [Apologetics Sites]

Link: http://www.rzim.org/

Christian Answers Network

How do I witness to my peers when they seem to have knowledgeable s against all of my beliefs? Aren't all religions basically the same? THE NEW TOLERANCE for all beliefs - It's politically correct, but does it hold danger for followers of Christ? Is love the same thing as tolerance? Does Christianity need to develop a NEW gospel adapted to today's world? A skeptic says: "I am perfectly content as a non-Christian. I do not believe in an afterlife and would never consider a religion so restrictive and exclusive as Christianity anyway." Response A skeptic asks: Why should any one have to accept ancient hearsay as evidence for the existence of a god? What if the cosmos is all that there is? What about the Psalm 91 promises? "...no harm will befall you, no disaster will come near your tent..." [Apologetics Sites]

Link: http://www.christiananswers.net/

Reasons to Believe

Whether you are looking for scientific support for your faith or answers to questions about God and science, Reasons To Believe exists for you. Evidence for Design Creation vs. Evolution Age of the Earth The Bible and Science Questions about Christianity Hot Topics Christian leaders open to old-earth interpretation This Week's Creation Update Creation Update Topical Index 2003's Top-Ten Discoveries Astronomy Picture of the Day Resource Helper Browse our Products Hotline How to become a Christian [Apologetics Sites]

Link: http://www.reasons.org/

The Everlasting Man

by G.K. Chesterton [Evolution] [Jesus] [Apologetics Sites]

Link: http://www.worldinvisible.com/library/chesterton/everlasting/content.htm

Glossary of Linguistics Terms

[Linguistics] [Glossary]

Link: http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/

A Glossary of Literary Terms

and A Handbook of Rhetorical Devices [Glossary]

Link: http://www.virtualsalt.com/litterms.htm

Church History Glossary of Terms

[Glossary]

Link: http://www.endtimes.org/glossary.html

Linguistic glossary (SIL site)

[Glossary] [Linguistics]

Link: http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossary/

Divisions and Organization of the Text (Chapters and Verses)

When and where were they put in? [NT Studies]

Link: http://www.skypoint.com/~waltzmn/Divisions.html

Versions of the New Testament

[Versions] [NT Studies]

Link: http://www.skypoint.com/~waltzmn/Versions.html

Manuscript Categories

[Manuscripts] [NT Studies]

Link: http://www.skypoint.com/~waltzmn/MSCategories.html

Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts

The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM), under the umbrella of The Center for the Research of Early Christian Documents (CRECD), exists for the following purposes: To make digital photographs of extant Greek New Testament manuscripts so that such images can be preserved, duplicated without deterioration, and accessed by scholars doing textual research. To utilize developing technologies (OCR, MSI, etc.) to read these manuscripts and create exhaustive collations. To analyze individual scribal habits in order to better predict scribal tendencies in any given textual problem. To publish on various facets of New Testament textual criticism To develop electronic tools for the examination and analysis of New Testament manuscripts. To cooperate with other institutes in the great and noble task of determining the wording of the autographa of the New Testament. [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

Link: http://www.csntm.org/

The Online Greek Bible

Greek Bible study resources: Greek New Testament. Ancient Greek (biblical / classical) material including: Online texts (accented Greek New Testament), Shopping for printed materials, and Resources for learning and studying Ancient Greek. [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

Link: http://www.greekbible.com/

CCAT Biblical texts - Apostolic Fathers

Epistle of Barnabas Lightfoot 1 Clement Lightfoot 2 Clement Lightfoot Didache [Hoole] or, alternatively, the Lightfoot translation Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus Lightfoot another translation The Shepherd of Hermas Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Philadelphians Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans Lightfoot Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians Lightfoot Fragments of Papias Epistle of Polycarp (to the Philippians) Lightfoot Martyrdom of Polycarp LightfootCenter for Computer Analysis of Texts (CCAT), Biblical texts. Including morphologically tagged MT & LXX, and parallel aligned MT//LXX [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

Link: https://coursebible.com/apostolic-fathers

BUBL Bible links

Translations unavailable elsewhere, e.g. Scandanavian ones. [Online Text Archives] [Study Tools] [Collections]

Link: http://bubl.ac.uk/link/b/bible.htm

The Making of the Old Testament

Data concerning HOW and TO WHAT EXTENT historical information passed down to Moses, the content originator of the first five books of the Bible. Note: The authorship of the first five books of the Bible is acribed to Moses by Jesus. This is BY FAR the most important reason to take traditional Mosaic authorship issues seriously. The antiquity and historical trustworthiness of the Pentateuch is taught very clearly by the Lord. [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/aec2.html

The Making of the Old Testament

Data concerning HOW and TO WHAT EXTENT historical information passed down to Moses, the content originator of the first five books of the Bible. Note: The authorship of the first five books of the Bible is acribed to Moses by Jesus. This is BY FAR the most important reason to take traditional Mosaic authorship issues seriously. The antiquity and historical trustworthiness of the Pentateuch is taught very clearly by the Lord. [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/aec2.html

A brief note about the Documentary Hypothesis...

"The evidence presented here points to the following conclusion: there is much more uniformity and much less fragmentation in the book of Genesis than generally assumed. The standard division of Genesis into J, E, and P strands should be discarded. This method of source criticism is a method of an earlier age, predominantly of the 19th century. If new approaches to the text, such as literary criticism of the type advanced here, deem the Documentary Hypothesis unreasonable and invalid, then source critics will have to rethink earlier conclusions and start anew." [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/dochypo.html

A brief note about the Documentary Hypothesis...

"The evidence presented here points to the following conclusion: there is much more uniformity and much less fragmentation in the book of Genesis than generally assumed. The standard division of Genesis into J, E, and P strands should be discarded. This method of source criticism is a method of an earlier age, predominantly of the 19th century. If new approaches to the text, such as literary criticism of the type advanced here, deem the Documentary Hypothesis unreasonable and invalid, then source critics will have to rethink earlier conclusions and start anew." [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/dochypo.html

Good questions on JEDP

"The evidence presented here points to the following conclusion: there is much more uniformity and much less fragmentation in the book of Genesis than generally assumed. The standard division of Genesis into J, E, and P strands should be discarded. This method of source criticism is a method of an earlier age, predominantly of the 19th century. If new approaches to the text, such as literary criticism of the type advanced here, deem the Documentary Hypothesis unreasonable and invalid, then source critics will have to rethink earlier conclusions and start anew." [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/qjedp.html

What is the JEDP Theory?

In brief, the JEDP theory states that the first five books of the Bible, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, were not written entirely by Moses, who died in 1451 B.C., but also by different authors / compliers after Moses. The theory is based on the fact that different names are used for God in different portions of the Pentateuch, and there are detectable differences in linguistic style. The letters of the JEDP theory stand for the four supposed authors; the author who uses Jehovah for God's name, the author who uses Elohim for God's name, the author of Deuteronomy, and the likely Priestly author of Leviticus. The JEDP theory goes on to state that the different portions of the Pentateuch were likely compiled in the 4th Century B.C., possibly by Ezra. [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.gotquestions.org/JEDP-theory.html

Creation and the Flood

Some literary data against the hypothesis that the creation/flood accounts , the Mosaic law and other books of the OT were 'borrowed' from surrounding religious traditions [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.cameronlaw.com/study/71.php

Flood and Noah Discussions

Christian ThinkTank (Scroll down to Flood) Noah's ark -- the problem of size(5k) "Is there extra-biblical evidence for Post-flood longevity?(10k) Relationship between the Flood and Chinese Characters(2k) How could a God of Love order the massacre/annihilation of the Canaanites?(97k) Who were the "Sons of God" in Genesis 6?(2k) How likely is it that Noah was the only righteous person on the whole earth, at the time of the Flood?(63k) Are there any extra-biblical refs to longevity BEFORE the flood?(10k) [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/topix.html

The Mosaic Law (was it borrowed?)

Mosaic authorship of Pentateuch? Some literary data against the hypothesis that the creation/flood accounts , the Mosaic law and other books of the OT were 'borrowed' from surrounding religious traditions [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/qmoses1.html

Master Index of Subjects and Questions

Large index of subjects by The Christian ThinkTank [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/topix.html

Issue of Borrowing

One issue that typically arises in a study of the writing and transmission of the OT 'core' material, is that of 'borrowing'. This issue concerns to what extent the OT writers 'borrowed' ideas, theology, laws, religious practices from their 'pagan' neighbors, maybe even to the point of being dependent on those pagan ideas. There are those who claim that Judeo-Christianity is a 'copycat' religion, being created by massive plagiarism of the other (perhaps more basic and 'truer') religions of the world. Since many of the alleged 'borrowings' occurred in the Wisdom Books of Proverbs, Job, and Ecclesiastes, I thought it would be good to survey these allegations, as well as to sketch out the nature and extent of Israel's borrowings from her neighbors in the ANE (Ancient Near East). [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/aecb.html

The Canon of the Old Testament

I. The term "Canon". II. The Purpose of a Canon of Scripture. III. The Hebrew Canon. IV. The Greek Canon. (Ancient Near East). [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.katapi.org.uk/OTIntro/Canon.htm

Hittite Treaty forms

The ANE (Ancient Near East) of the second millennium utilized a treaty form that has come to be called the Hittite vassal treaty. This treaty format had a VERY specific structure, with little or no variability in the order of those elements. It was pervasive in the ANE throughout the 2nd millennium, and an earlier form of it can be found in the 3rd millennium as well. But in the 1st millennium, treaty forms differed substantially from this format, and the general treaty form was essentially 'lost' to history until archeological discoveries in the last century. [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/aecy.html

The Travelogues of the Book of Numbers

The Book of Numbers presents itself as a record of Israel's wanderings in the wilderness--from the Exodus to the preparation for entry at Jordan. One might question to what extent day-to-day record keeping was common on such journeys, esp. since most royal military campaigns ended up being inscribed on stone monuments. [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/aecy.html

Israel's knowledge of Canaanite practices BEFORE the exodus

What data do we have that helps us formulate an understanding of how Israel had 'access' to data about Canaan? [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/aecy.html

How did Moses get Balaam's prophecies in Numbers?

Balaam was an international prophet of high repute. And, as most important prophets his messages would be written down, esp. when delivered to/for royalty. [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/aecy.html

The issue of borrowing - did Moses copy Hammurabi?

It has long been realized that the similarities between some of the Mosaic legislation and the Law Code of Hammurabi are striking. Hammi's law is dated around 1720 b.c.--before the advent of Moses. There are those who suggest that the Law of Moses is actually a mild type of plagiarism (instead of a divinely-given law), and seek to assert substantial dependence of Moses on prior law collections. [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/aecy.html

The issue of 'borrowing' - did Moses

It has long been realized that the similarities between some of the Mosaic legislation and the Law Code of Hammurabi are striking. Hammi's law is dated around 1720 b.c.--before the advent of Moses. There are those who suggest that the Law of Moses is actually a mild type of plagiarism (instead of a divinely-given law), and seek to assert substantial dependence of Moses on prior law collections. [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/aecy.html

General Information about the Book of Genesis

Genesis, the first book of the Old Testament in the Bible, is so named because it opens with an account of the creation of the world. The first 11 chapters, which are heavily indebted to Mesopotamian tradition, trace the gradual expansion of humankind and the development of human culture. But they show the ambiguity of this development by incorporating stories about the sin of Adam and Eve and about the Deluge, both of which illustrate humankind's growing alienation from God and one another. [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://mb-soft.com/believe/txs/genesis.htm

The Genesis Files - Archaeology

Archaeology and the Bible. Archaeological discoveries continue to show how historically accurate the Bible really is. It is by far the greatest document the world has ever known, surviving centuries of ridicule. God has remarkably preserved His message to us, which still provides the much-needed means of navigation in today's world. The real question that one should consider is: How much proof does it take for one to believe? [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.genesisfiles.com/Archaeology.htm

is thereProof that the Earth is 6000 years old?

Data in favour of the hypothesis that Genesis is a very old document (as old as it says it is.....) [Old Testament Studies] [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.independencebaptist.org/6,000%20year%20old%20earth/6,000_year_old_earth.htm

The Jerusalem Bible (Catholic)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/TJB.htm

Jerusalem Bible (Koren)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/JBK.htm

Complete Jewish Bible

This version expresses its original and essential Jewishness. Most other English translations of the New Testament present their message in a Gentile-Christian linguistic, cultural, and theological framework. Yeshua, the Messiah, was a Jew, was born to Jews, grew up among Jews, ministered to Jews, and died and rose from the dead in the Jewish capital. [Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/cjb.htm

John Wesley New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/JWNT.htm

King James Version (Authorized Version)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/KJV.htm

Kleist-Lilly New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/KLNT.htm

Knox Translation

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/KTC.htm

Lamsa Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/LBP.htm

Letchworth Version in Modern English

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/LVME.htm

Living Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/LB.htm

McCord's New Testament Translation of the Everlasting Gospel

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/MCT.htm

The Message (The New Testament in Contemporary English)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/TM.htm

Modern Reader's Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/MRB.htm

The Modern Speech New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/MSNT.htm

Moffatt New Translation

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/MNT.htm

New American Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NAB.htm

New American Standard Version

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NAS.htm

The New Berkeley Version in Modern English

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NBV.htm

New Century Version

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NCV.htm

New English Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NEB.htm

New Evangelical Translation

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NET.htm

New International Version

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NIV.htm

New Jerusalem Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NJB.htm

New JPS Version

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NJPS.htm

New King James Version

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NKJ.htm

New Life Version

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NLV.htm

New Living Translation

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NLT.htm

New Revised Standard Version

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NRS.htm

New Testament and Psalms: An Inclusive Version

This revolutionary new version, adapted from the New Revised Standard Version and edited by six scholars -- three men and three women -- pushes the English language to new levels of inclusive expression. This work addresses such issues as race, gender, and ethnicity more directly than ever before. [Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/aiv.htm

A New Translation (Jewish)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NTJ.htm

New World Translation

Watchtower (Jehovah's Witness) version. Many paraphrases that exclude critical words that give credence to the doctrine of the deity of Jesus and add words of their own. See Phil. 2:9 for example where they add the word "other." [Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NWT.htm

Noli New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NNT.htm

Norlie's Simplified New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/NSNT.htm

The Original New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/ONT.htm

The People's New Covenant

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/PNC.htm

Phillips Revised Student Edition

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/PRS.htm

Reese Chronological Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/RCB.htm

Restoration of Original Sacred Name Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/SNB.htm

Revised English Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/REB.htm

Revised Standard Version

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/RSV.htm

Riverside New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/RNT.htm

The Sacred Scriptures, Bethel Edition

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/SSBE.htm

The Scholars Version (The Five Gospels)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/SV.htm

The Scriptures (ISR)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/SISR.htm

The Septuagint

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/LXX.htm

The Shorter Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/SBK.htm

Spencer New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/SCM.htm

Standard American Edition, Revised Version

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/asv.htm

Swann New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/SNT.htm

Today's English New Testament (The Good News Bible)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/TEV.htm

Today's English New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/TENT.htm

The Twentieth Century New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/TCNT.htm

Westminster Version of the Sacred Scriptures

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/WVSS.htm

The Wiclif Translation (Wycliffe)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/TWT.htm

William Tyndale Newe Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/WTNT.htm

William Tyndale Translation

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/WTT.htm

Williams New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/WNT.htm

The Word Made Fresh

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/WMF.htm

Worrell New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/WAS.htm

Wuest Expanded Translation

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/WET.htm

Young's Literal Translation, Revised Edition

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/YLR.htm

Manuscript Glossary

[Glossary] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/glossary.htm

The Ten Commandments

The Ten Commandments: Many topics,viewpoints & interpretation. [O. T. Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_10co.htm

The Feasts of Israel

An overview study by Gavin Finley MD. [O. T. Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://endtimepilgrim.org/7feasts.htm

The Seventh-day Sabbath

The Feasts of Israel; The Seventh-day Sabbath foreshadows the "rest" that is yet to come to the righteous in the Kingdom of Yahshua. [O. T. Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.sabbathseventhday.com/

Passover

The Feasts of Israel; Passover announced the death of the Messiah, Yahshua. [O. T. Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/compare/passover.htm

Unleavened Bread

The Feasts of Israel; Unleavened Bread signified His burial. [O. T. Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/compare/passover.htm

Firstfruits

Jesus in The Feasts of Israel; Firstfruits marked His resurrection. [O. T. Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://oncedelivered.wordpress.com/2008/05/29/jesus-in-the-feasts-of-israel-the-feast-of-firstfruits/

The Feast of Weeks

The Feasts of Israel; The Feast of Weeks proclaimed the giving of His Set-Apart Spirit of Truth. [O. T. Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christcenteredmall.com/teachings/feasts/weeks.htm

The Feast of Trumpets

The Feasts of Israel; Trumpets will announce His second coming. [O. T. Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15070c.htm

The Feast of Atonement

The Feasts of Israel; Atonement will be His final judgment. [O. T. Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.awarenessministry.org/atonement.htm

The Feast of Tabernacles

The Feasts of Israel; Tabernacles specifies the temporary period for His RE-creation of the new heaven and the new earth. [O. T. Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14425a.htm

What Is in a Name?

Names, and Names of God; "The importance of names becomes clear when the Creator brought forth all living things to be named."[O. T. Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://ldolphin.org/Names.html

Coptic Manuscripts - Overview

Courtesy of the Scriptorium; 1. Introduction 2. Form 3. Writing Material 4. Writing Tools 5. Binding 6. Format 7. Illumination 8. Dialects 9. Dating 10. Subject [Manuscripts] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.stshenouda.com/coptman/coptmss1.htm

Gutenberg Bible British Museum

Leaf on vellum [Images] [Bible History]

Link: http://prodigi.bl.uk/TreasuresImages/Gutenberg/max/gl2/217_v.jpg

Galatians 4: The ABC's of Faith

by Dr. W. euGene Scott (Ph.D., Stanford University) [N.T Studies]

Link: http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=blog.view&friendID=218326195&blogID=312505988

Chronological Study of the Life of Christ

Link: http://www.xenos.org/classes/chronc.htm

Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Christ

by Christopher Louis Lang. In order to examine the evidence for the resurrection we must place ourselves in the historical situation. The events surrounding the life and death of Christ didn't occur at a place where we can gain no knowledge of them. Rather, they occurred in history, on earth, and were recorded by men who witnessed the events.

Link: http://www.xenos.org/classes/papers/doubt.htm

The Extent and Nature of Inspiration

The following paper is a portion of a reaction paper written in 1987 on the question of inerrancy. By Dennis McCallum

Link: http://www.xenos.org/essays/innernt.htm

Search the Bible in Various Languages

German Swedish; Latin; French; Spanish; Portuguese; Italian Tagalog; Norwegian. [Bible Search] [Various Versions]

Link: http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?

Museum of Classical Archaeology: Glossary

The who, what, when and where of Classical myths and history featured in the Cast Gallery. University of Cambridge [Bible Search] [Various Versions]

Link: http://www.classics.cam.ac.uk/museum/

A Glossary on the Old Testament

Author notes, "This list is not exhaustive and should not be used as a substitute for a good Bible dictionary when doing interpretation." [Old Testament Studies] [Bbible History]

Link: http://www.bluecord.org/moodle/mod/glossary/view.php?id=104

A Glossary on the Old Testament

Emphasis on Amos but has a nice glossary. [Old Testament Studies] [Bbible History]

Link: http://www.auckland.ac.nz/acte/pmb/glos.htm

Translation glossary

Bible Translations. [Glossaries] [Bbible History]

Link: http://www.geocities.com/bible_translation/glossary.htm

Translation glossary

Bible Translations. [Glossaries] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.geocities.com/bible_translation/glossary.htm

Bible Studies Glossary

by Kenneth W. Collins. [Glossaries] [Bible History]

Link: https://coursebible.com/glossary/bible-studies

The Art and Agony of Translation

by Kenneth W. Collins. [Translations] [Bible History]

Link: https://coursebible.com/bible/the-art-and-agony-of-translation

Translations of the Bible Into English

by Kenneth W. Collins. [Translations] [Bible History]

Link: https://coursebible.com/bible/translations-of-the-bible-into-english

How to Select a Bible—and Read It

by Kenneth W. Collins. [Translations] [Bible History]

Link: https://coursebible.com/bible/how-to-select-a-bible-and-read-it

About Those Literal Translations

by Kenneth W. Collins. [Translations] [Bible History]

Link: https://coursebible.com/bible/about-those-literal-translations

The Nicene Creed and the New Testament Canon

by Kenneth W. Collins. [Translations] [Bible History]

Link: https://coursebible.com/bible/the-nicene-creed-and-the-new-testament-canon

The Torah in Modern Scholarship

by Kenneth W. Collins. [Translations] [Bible History]

Link: https://coursebible.com/bible/the-torah-in-modern-scholarship

The Apocrypha and the Old Testament

by Kenneth W. Collins. [Translations] [Bible History]

Link: https://coursebible.com/bible/the-apocrypha-and-the-old-testament

New Testament Scholarship

by Kenneth W. Collins. [Translations] [Bible History]

Link: https://coursebible.com/bible/new-testament-scholarship

Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament

by Kenneth W. Collins. [Answers and Evidence] [Bible]

Link: https://coursebible.com/jesus/knowing-jesus-through-the-old-testament

Are There Contradictions in the Bible?

by Kenneth W. Collins. [Answers and Evidence] [Bible]

Link: https://coursebible.com/bible/are-there-contradictions-in-the-bible

Evolution versus Creationism

A Stupid and Arrogant Fight by Kenneth W. Collins. [Evolution & Science]

Link: https://coursebible.com/bible/evolution-and-creationism

Glossary of Theological Terms

[Glossary] [Bible History]

Link: https://coursebible.com/glossary/theology

The Catholic Encyclopedia

[Encyclopedia] [Bible History]

Link: http://ww.newadvent.org/cathen/

Religion and Science Glossary

A bridge discussion between science and religion requires some familiarity with scientific, religious, and philosophic language. [Glossary] [Bible History]

Link: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~grassie/StudentProjects/Glossary.html

Glossary of Jewish Terminology

partial list of Hebrew, Yiddish and other Jewish terms [Glossary] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.jewfaq.org/glossary.htm

Glossary of Theological Terms

This glossary is taken from Alister McGrath`s Christian Theology, Second Edition. [Glossary] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/mcgrath/Glossary_of_Theological_Terms.pdf

Hebrew Glossary

In-depth Glossary of Transliterated & English Translation with their Meanings of the Hebrew Language [Glossary] [Bible History]

Link: http://headcoverings-by-devorah.com/HebglossA.html#Top

Greek Glossary Term use in New Testament Bible

APHISTEMI Apostasy; apostatize; go away; desert; fallen away [Glossary] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.geocities.com/zanmeiyeshua/greektrm.html

KJB Strong's Hebrew and Greek dictionary Index

King James Bible Strong's Hebrew and Greek Dictionary Index [Glossary] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.htmlbible.com/sacrednamebiblecom/studybiblestrongs/STRINDEX.htm

Glossary for the Study of Judaism, Christianity and Islam

Prepared initially by Robert A. Kraft, University of Pennsylvaniaz, and intended to be used freely in the public domain [Glossary] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.2muslims.com/directory/Detailed/226370.shtml

Glossary to Terms for studies of the Dead Sea

[Glossary] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.flash.net/~hoselton/deadsea/glossary.htm

Glossaries of Terms for Bible Study

A Glossary of Important Terms for Biblical Studies by Felix Just, S.J., Ph.D. [Glossary] [Bible History]

Link: http://catholic-resources.org/Bible/Glossary.htm

Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms

[Glossary] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.matisse.net/files/glossary.html

The Forest of Rhetoric silva rhetoricae

This online rhetoric, provided by Dr. Gideon Burton of Brigham Young University, is a guide to the terms of classical and renaissance rhetoric. Sometimes it is difficult to see the forest (the big picture) of rhetoric because of the trees (the hundreds of Greek and Latin terms naming figures of speech, etc.) within rhetoric. Mormon work with good overview for the beginner and expert [Glossary]

Link: http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/silva.htm

Bible Versions

This index lists 96 versions of the Scriptures. There are versions with just the New Covenant, others the Old Covenant, some with the Apocrypha, etc. [Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/default.htm

The Abbreviated Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/TAB.htm

An American Translation (Beck)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/AAT.htm

An American Translation (Smith-Goodspeed)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/SGAT.htm

Amplified Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/AB.htm

The Aramaic Bible (Targums)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/ABT.htm

Aramaic New Covenant

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/ANCJ.htm

The Authentic New Testament

Hugh J. Schonfield, an eminent Jewish scholar, worked for thirty years on his version of the original Greek text. He is also the translator of a later version, The Original New Testament. He was a historian, not a theologian. Thus, this is a non-ecclesiastical version. He avoids ecclesiastical terms, using such words as immersion, community, envoy, supervisor, and administrator instead of baptism, church, apostle, bishop, and deacon, respectively. In general, modern speech has been used, but with some exceptions. [Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/ant.htm

The Basic Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/TBB.htm

The Bible Reader

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/TBR.htm

Cassirer New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/CNT.htm

Centenary Translation of the New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/CTNT.htm

Charles Kingsley Williams New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/WPE.htm

Common English New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/CENT.htm

Concordant Literal New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/CLNT.htm

Confraternity of Christian Doctrine Translation

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/CCDT.htm

Contemporary English Version

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/CEV.htm

Coptic Version of the New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/CVNT.htm

The Coverdale Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/TCB.htm

Darby Holy Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/DHB.htm

The Dartmouth Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/TDB.htm

The Documents of the New Testament

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/DNT.htm

Douay-Rheims Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/DRB.htm

The Emphasized Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/EBR.htm

The Emphatic Diaglott

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/EDW.htm

English Version for the Deaf (Easy-to-Read Version)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/EVD.htm

English Version of the Polyglott Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/EVPB.htm

The Geneva Bible

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/TGB.htm

God's Word (Today's Bible Translation)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/GW.htm

The Holy Bible in Modern English

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/HBME.htm

Holy Bible, Revised Version

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/HBRV.htm

Holy Scriptures (Harkavy)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/HSH.htm

Holy Scriptures (Menorah)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/HSM.htm

Inspired Version

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/IV.htm

Interlinear Bible (Greene)

[Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/versions/IB.htm

The Jesus Seminar Under Fire

by Greg Koukl. The "Jesus Seminar" is a group of self-described scholars who have determined Jesus probably only said 20% of the quotes attributed to him by Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John. Greg puts their method, which includes voting with colored beads, "under fire." [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.str.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=5380

Was the New Testament Influenced by Pagan Religions?

by Ronald Nash. Many Christian college students have encountered criticisms of Christianity based on claims that early Christianity and the New Testament borrowed important beliefs and practices from a number of pagan mystery religions. Since these claims undermine such central Christian doctrines as Christ's death and resurrection, the charges are serious. But the evidence for such claims, when it even exists, often lies in sources several centuries older than the New Testament. Moreover, the alleged parallels often result from liberal scholars uncritically describing pagan beliefs and practices in Christian language and then marveling at the striking parallels they think they've discovered. [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/cri/cri-jrnl/crj0169a.txt

The Resurrection of Jesus

by Jeffrey B. Russell. All of us, whether we believe it or not, will rise from the dead in our own bodies. This is the teaching of Orthodox Judaism, and it is the teaching of Orthodox Christianity. Easter is the day that Jesus of Nazareth rose, in his body, from the dead. Easter is crucial to every citizen of this earth, this state, and this university, because if Jesus did not rise from the dead, Christianity is false: it must go. But if he did rise from the dead, that is the single most important event in all of time. We none of us can escape the power of the claim of the Resurrection. [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.veritas-ucsb.org/library/russell/resurrection.html

The Gospels As Historical Sources

For Jesus,The Founder Of Christianity by R. T. France [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.leaderu.com/truth/1truth21.html

The Inspiration, Inerrancy, and Authority of the Bible

by Ron Rhodes. Biblical inspiration may be defined as God's superintending of the human authors so that, using their own individual personalities (and even their writing styles), they composed and recorded without error His revelation to man in the words of the original autographs. Inspiration means that "the Holy Spirit of God superintended the human writers in the production of Scripture so that what they wrote was precisely what God wanted written." [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://home.earthlink.net/~ronrhodes/Inspiration.html

The Resurrection of Theism

by William Lane Craig. "I think it is clear as a result of these contributions that philosophical theism is very much alive and well today-indeed, when one recalls the bleak days of the "Death of God" movement in the sixties, it is not unfair to speak of a veritable resurrection of theism." [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.leaderu.com/truth/3truth01.html

CIN Message Boards: Apologetics

Catholic Information Network (CIN) [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.cin.org/apol.html

Confirmation Outside the Bible

Is there any confirmation of Biblical events from written sources outside the Bible? Author: Bryant Wood of Associates for Biblical Research [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christiananswers.net/q-abr/abr-a009.html

Manuscript Evidence for the Bible

By Dr. Ron Rhodes. Compared to any other piece of ancient literature we have dozens of times more manuscripts for the Bible, with many being far closer in time to the originals than for other ancient literature. If no one goes around doubting if we have accurate copies of the writings of Aristotle, Herodotus, Josephus, etc., then how reasonable is it to dismiss the accuracy of the transmission of the Bible? [Manuscripts] [Answers and Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://home.earthlink.net/~ronrhodes/Manuscript.html

Manuscript Evidence for the Bible

By Dr. Ron Rhodes. Compared to any other piece of ancient literature we have dozens of times more manuscripts for the Bible, with many being far closer in time to the originals than for other ancient literature. If no one goes around doubting if we have accurate copies of the writings of Aristotle, Herodotus, Josephus, etc., then how reasonable is it to dismiss the accuracy of the transmission of the Bible? [Manuscripts] [Answers and Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://home.earthlink.net/~ronrhodes/Manuscript.html

Man-Made Structures and the Bible

From ChristianAnswers.Net, by Dr. Bryant Wood. A list of some of the palaces, forts, towers, etc. mentioned in the Bible that have been found and excavated in modern times. [Answers and Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.christiananswers.net/q-abr/abr-a005.html

Christ`s Garden Tomb at Calvary

The Garden Tomb is one of the two strongest possibilities for the burial place of Jesus Christ after He was crucified at Calvary (see How Did Jesus Christ Die?). It was discovered by Charles Gordon in the 1880s. [Images] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.keyway.ca/htm2002/gardntom.htm

Proving the Historic Jesus

Nice essay by Harry V. Martin. Including historical records, Jewish writing, and findings. Note: Unfortunately he concludes his message by discrediting the New Testament's reliability [Historical Evidence] [Jesus in History]

Link: http://www.sonic.net/sentinel/rhjesus.html

Grammatical-Historical Hermeneutics

Interpret Grammatically, Historically and Critically. By Gary DeLashmutt and Dennis McCallum

Link: http://www.xenos.org/essays/herme.htm

A Chronological Study of Paul's Ministry

Link: http://www.xenos.org/classes/chronop.htm

Bible History

Until this section is finished being indexed into the main database you can click here to see a list of links including the Bible History Online general resources on this subject, although many of these links are outdated. [Bible History]

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/bi_hist.htm

Evolution & Science

Until this section is finished being indexed into the main database you can click here to see a list of links including the Bible History Online general resources on this subject, although many of these links are outdated. [Evolution & Science]

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/creation.htm

Childrens Resources

Until this section is finished being indexed into the main database you can click here to see a list of links including the Bible History Online general resources on this subject. [Childrens Resources]

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/cr_child.htm

The History of the English Bible

Brief History. Wycliff, Tyndale, Coverdale, and others. [English Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.greatsite.com/timeline-english-bible-history/index.html

The Transmission of the Bible to English Timeline

Brief Sketch. 500 BC-1984 AD. [English Versions] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.greatsite.com/timeline-english-bible-history/index.html#timeline

A full-size 15th century Gutenberg image

Nice image. 15th century AD. [English Versions] [Images] [Bible History]

Link: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gutenberg_Bible.jpg

A full-size 15th century Gutenberg

Nice image. 15th century AD. [English Versions] [Images] [Bible History]

Link: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gutenberg_Bible.jpg

Erasmus' Greek New Testament of 1516

Nice image. 16th century AD. [English Versions] [Images] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.supakoo.com/rick/ricoblog/2005/04/16/EditionsOfErasmusGreekNewTestament.aspx

Erasmus' Greek New Testament of 1516

Nice image. 16th century AD. [English Versions] [Images] [Bible History]

Link: http://smu.edu/bridwell/publications/ryriecatalog/5_2ab.htm

The King James Version of 1611

Nice image. 1611 AD. [English Versions] [Images] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.bible-researcher.com/studybible-heb.html

The King James Version of 1611

Nice image. 1611 AD. [English Versions] [Images] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.bible-researcher.com/studybible-heb.html

Illuminated scroll of Esther of the 17th century

Nice image. 17th century AD. [Manuscripts] [Images] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.jewishmuseum.cz/images/exhibitions/osvitku/03.gif

Illuminated scroll of Esther of the 17th century

Nice image. 17th century AD. [Manuscripts] [Images] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.flash.net/~bibleetc/esther.jpg

Illuminated scroll of Esther of the 17th century

Judaic Treasures of the Library of Congress: An Illuminated Megillah [Manuscripts] [Images] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/loc/Megillah1.html

How Did We Get Here? (A Cyber Debate)

Phillip E. Johnson v. Kenneth R. Miller

Link: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/odyssey/debate/

Miracles and Modern Scientific Thought

by Norman Geisler

Link: http://www.leaderu.com/truth/1truth19.html

Is Science a Threat or Help to Faith?

by J.P. Moreland

Link: http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/cri/cri-jrnl/crj0180a.txt

Astronomical Evidences for the God of the Bible

by Hugh Ross

Link: http://www.origins.org/articles/ross_astroevidgodbible.html

Design and the Anthropic Principle

by Hugh Ross [Science & Scripture] [Evolution & Science]

Link: http://www.reasons.org/resources/apologetics/design.shtml

The Shell Game of Evolution and Creation

by Hugh Ross [Science & Scripture] [Evolution & Science]

Link: http://www.reasons.org/resources/apologetics/shellgame.shtml

Quantum Mechanics, a Modern Goliath

by Hugh Ross [Science & Scripture] [Evolution & Science]

Link: http://www.origins.org/articles/ross_modgoliath.html

A Brief Look at A Brief History of Time

by Hugh Ross [Science & Scripture] [Evolution & Science]

Link: http://www.reasons.org/resources/apologetics/brieflook.shtml?main

Following the Evidence

by Gregory Koukl [Science & Scripture] [Evolution & Science]

Link: http://www.str.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=5252

God & Evolution and Mother Nature

by Gregory Koukl. What is the problem with evolutionists referring to "Mother Nature?" [Science & Scripture] [Evolution & Science]

Link: http://www.str.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=5268

Scientific Evidence for the Existence of God

by Dr. Walter Bradley [Science & Scripture] [Evolution & Science]

Link: http://www.leaderu.com/real/ri9403/evidence.html

How to Sink a Battleship

A call to separate materialist philosophy from empirical science by Phillip E. [Science & Scripture] [Evolution & Science]

Link: http://www.origins.org/mc/resources/ri9602/johnson.html

The Religion of the Blind Watchmaker

by Phillip E. Johnson[Science & Scripture] [Evolution & Science]

Link: http://www.leaderu.com/real/ri9203/watchmkr.html

What is Darwinism?

by Phillip E. Johnson[Science & Scripture] [Evolution & Science]

Link: http://www.origins.org/pjohnson/whatis.html

Molecular Machines

Experimental Support for the Design Inference by Michael Behe [Science & Scripture] [Evolution & Science]

Link: http://www.arn.org/docs/behe/mb_mm92496.htm

Darwin Under the Microscope

by Michael Behe [Science & Scripture] [Evolution & Science]

Link: http://www.arn.org/docs/behe/mb_dm11496.htm

Do Extraordinary Events Require Extraordinary Evidence?

by G. Brady Lenardos

Link: http://home.earthlink.net/~gbl111/extraord.htm

Contemporary Scholarship and Historical Evidence

William Lane Craig. "Man," writes Loren Eisley, "is the Cosmic Orphan." He is the only creature in the universe who asks, Why? Other animals have instincts to guide them, but man has learned to ask questions. "Who am I?" he asks. "Why am I here? Where am I going?" [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.leaderu.com/truth/1truth22.html

The New Science of Archaeology

Literally scores of additional discoveries of archaeology could be cited as corroboration of Bible history. Examples of archaeological illustration of the Old Testament are continually increasing as new discoveies are being made. The claims of disbelieving critics have been completely exploded Archaeology has abundantly confirmed Bible history many times over. The clear message is that we can rely on the Bible record. It is consistently historical in every detail. The Bible challenges disbelieving critics to prove it false. Many have tried desperately to do so-and failed. God's Word cannot be broken (John 10:35)! The Bible in not the work of fallible man. It is not a book of ancient fables.It is truly the infallible word of God! "Thy word is truth," Jesus declared in John 17:17. Archaeology has lent its voice in support of this unassailable fact! [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://dejnarde.ms11.net//archa.htm

The Historicity of the Empty Tomb of Jesus

The Resurrection by by William Lane Craig [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.leaderu.com/offices/billcraig/docs/tomb2.html

The Bodily Resurrection of Jesus

The Resurrection by by William Lane Craig [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.leaderu.com/offices/billcraig/docs/bodily.html

The Guard at the Tomb

The Resurrection by by William Lane Craig [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.leaderu.com/offices/billcraig/docs/guard.html

Evidence for the Resurrection

The Resurrection by by Josh McDowell [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.leaderu.com/everystudent/easter/articles/josh.html

Easter: Myth, Hallucination, or History

The Resurrection by Edwin Yamauchi [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.leaderu.com/everystudent/easter/articles/yama.html

The Battle for the Resurrection

An Interview with Norman Geisler [Answers & Evidence] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/cri/cri-nwsl/crn0041a.txt

Overview of Banias

Click on sites with images. [Banias (Caesarea Philippi)] [Galilee and the Golan] [Archaeology] [New Testament City Studies]

Link: http://www.antiquities.org.il/eng//

Cities Mentioned in the New Testament

[Archaeology] This page contains links to archaeological sites from the New Testament period. Cities specifically mentioned in the New Testament are included, along with sites related to the social world of the New Testament, either historically (e.g., Masada) or architecturally (e.g., Ostia). There is also a series of links to various maps of the Ancient Near East, a section devoted to epigraphic resources, and a search engine directly linked to the Argos database of the ancient world.

Link: http://catholic-resources.org/Bible/NT_Geography.htm

An Overview of NT Geography

PALESTINE (and Its Environs) during the Lifetimes of Jesus & Paul; mostly ruled by the Herodian Dynasty. Roman PROVINCES important during the Expansion of Christianity in the First Century.

Link: http://catholic-resources.org/Bible/NT_Geography.htm

Cities Excavated in Israel

(Click on Sites with Images) [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.antiquities.org.il/sites_gallery_eng.asp

Cities Excavated in Israel

(Click on Sites with Images) [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.antiquities.org.il/sites_gallery_eng.asp

New Testament Papyri & Codices

2nd""10th Centuries, NT Papyri, Collections of Papyri, Greek Codices of the Bible, Text Types. (Manuscripts) [Bible History]

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/papyri.html

Archaeology and Genesis: What Does the Record Show?

by Mario Seiglie [Bible History]

Link: http://www.gnmagazine.org/issues/gn07/archaeologygenesisrecord.htm

Archaeology and the Book of Exodus: Exit From Egypt

Archaeologists have made many significant discoveries that make the book of Exodus and the Israelistes` time in Egypt come alive. by Mario Seiglie [Bible History]

Link: http://www.gnmagazine.org/issues/gn09/archaeologyexodusexitegypt.htm

Archaeology and the Book of Exodus: Exit From Egypt

Archaeologists have made many significant discoveries that make the book of Exodus and the Israelistes` time in Egypt come alive. by Mario Seiglie [Bible History]

Link: http://www.gnmagazine.org/issues/gn09/archaeologyexodusexitegypt.htm

Leviticus

Matthew Henry`s Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible (Book Studies) [Bible History]

Link: http://www.studylight.org/com/mhc-com/

Numbers

Matthew Henry`s Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible (Book Studies) [Bible History]

Link: http://www.searchgodsword.org/com/mhc-con/view.cgi?book=nu

Luke: The Gospel of the Gentiles.

By: Bob Deffinbaugh. The author, Luke, was a doctor, and a traveling companion of Paul, whose second inspired account (the Book of Acts) is the only recorded history of the birth of the church, and of the expansion of the gospel from Jerusalem to the "uttermost part of the earth." (New Testament Studies) [Bible History]

Link: http://www.bible.org/series.php?series_id=18

CLARKE`S COMMENTARY - HAGGAI

Brief study in Haggai from The Adam Clarke Commentary (Old Testament Studies) [Bible History]

Link: http://www.studylight.org/com/acc/view.cgi?book=hag&chapter=001

CLARKE`S COMMENTARY - JOB 38

[O.T. Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.studylight.org/com/acc/view.cgi?book=job&chapter=038

2nd Kings

Matthew Henry`s Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible [O.T. Studies] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.ccel.org/ccel/henry/mhc2.xii.i.html

Extra-Biblical Historical Evidence of Jesus

ANCIENT NON-CHRISTIAN SOURCES. GNOSTICS SOURCES. LOST WORKS QUOTED IN OTHER SOURCES. ANCIENT CHRISTIAN SOURCES (extra-biblical). Accurate Quotes. Carlisle Church of Christ [Historical Evidence] [Jesus in History]

Link: http://www.carlislecofc.org/extrabiblical.htm

Extra-Biblical Historical Evidence of Jesus

ANCIENT NON-CHRISTIAN SOURCES. GNOSTICS SOURCES. LOST WORKS QUOTED IN OTHER SOURCES. ANCIENT CHRISTIAN SOURCES (extra-biblical). Accurate Quotes. Church of Christ [Historical Evidence] [Jesus in History]

Link: http://www.westarkchurchofchrist.org/library/extrabiblical.htm

Archaeology & The Jewish Temple Inscriptions

Archaeology & The Temple Inscriptions of The House of Yahweh [Archaeology] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.excel.net/~hoy/t-inscr/tinscr.html

The Byt Yhwh Ostracon

A tax receipt uncovered from 900-700 BC revealing the Temple as the House of Yahweh. It is translated as saying, "According to your order, Ashyahu, the king, to give by the hand of [Z]echaryahu silver of Tarshish for the house of Yahweh 3 shekels." [Archaeology] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/westsem/bytyhwh.html

The House of Yahweh Inscription

This recently published inscription documents an offering brought to the Temple in Yerusalem which it specifically Names the Temple as: Bayit Yahweh -- House of Yahweh. This is the earliest reference to the Temple found to date, outside of the scriptures. [Archaeology] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.excel.net/~hoy/t-inscr/lbinscr.html

The Text of the Hebrew Bible

the question of our knowledge of the development of the text of the Hebrew Bible is of paramount importance for studying and understanding this collection. What evidence do we have for original Hebrew texts that underlie our modern interpretations? How do we know that modern translators are working with an "authentic" text? Since we are dealing with a collection of religious literature, sacred scripture, that Jewish and Christian communities understand to be, in some sense, `the word of God`, it is vitally important to establish that the text being studied or read is `authentic`. [Manuscripts] [Bible History]

Link: http://www.bible-researcher.com/hebrewtext1.html

P52: A Fragment of the Gospel of John

[Papyri] [Manuscripts] [Images of New Testament Texts]
a.k.a. John Rylands P457;
This is the oldest known manuscript fragment of the New Testament.
DESCRIPTION
Language: Greek
Medium: papyrus
Size: 3.5 inches long; 2.5 inches wide; Length: 7 lines on each side
Approximate Date: c. 125""150 CE
Place of Discovery: Egypt
Date of Discovery/Acquisition: 1920
Acquirer: Bernard P. Grenfell
Current Location: John Rylands Library,Manchester, England
Inventory Number: Rylands Greek Papyrus 457
Manuscript Number: P52
Manuscript Family: Alexandrian

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/johnpap.html

Second Temple Synagogue Literary Archive

a collection of ancient literary references to Second Temple synagogues. In keeping with current scholarly practices, only sources contemporaneous with the Second Temple period are cited.

Link: http://www.pohick.org/sts/lit.html

Jericho

A recent photograph of the synagogue-remains found near Jericho and a mikveh [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.pohick.org/sts/jericho.html

Archaeological Sites

In one sense the entire Levant is an immense archaeological site. It is not possible for us to provide details on all the important sites let alone all sites. So, we decided to begin with some sites to which we have taken student groups as part of their study of archaeology and the Bible. We will branch out as we have the time and resources. The archaeology of the New Testament refers to the excavation, preservation, and analysis of the material culture of biblical peoples during the New Testament period (ca. 4 BC - AD 135). This, of course, entails the study of socio-cultural systems outside the Levant including Asia Minor, Greece, Rome, and even as far as Spain and Roman Britain. The archaeology of the Hebrew Scriptures, that of the Old Testament in Christian terminology, refers to that of the Tanach. Interestingly, some Israeli archaeologists narrowly construe biblical archaeology to be that of the Hebrew Scriptures. We, of course, disagree preferring a much broader focus. [Archaeology] [Sites]

Link: http://www.bibarch.com/ArchaeologicalSites/ArchSites.html

Biblos Multilingual: Online Parallel Bible

[Bible Search] [Various Versions]

Link: http://biblos.com/

Search the NIV and Other Versions

NIV; NASB; RSV; KJV; Darby; YLT; World English. [Bible Search] [Various Versions]

Link: http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?

Search or Browse the Latin Vulgate

ARTFL Project University of Chicago - Latin Vulgate Bible [Bible Search] [Various Versions]

Link: http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/efts/ARTFL/public/bibles/vulgate.search.html

The Four Gospels in Harmony

[Bible Search] [Various Versions]

Link: http://www.ministryserver.com/bible/lectures/5003.htm

Four-Color Synopsis

The 3 synoptic gospel parallels [Various Versions]

Link: http://www.mindspring.com/~scarlson/synopt/harmony/

The Resurrection

Influence on the Church in the First Decades by Jirair S. Tashjian: "In 1 Corinthians 15, the earliest New Testament writing to discuss Christ's resurrection, Paul tells us what the resurrection meant to Christians in the first 25 years of church history."

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/resurrection.html

The Needy In Jewish Tradition

by Dennis Bratcher: "Jewish laws and traditions concerning treatment of the poor, widows, orphans, travelers, and others in need, grew directly from biblical commands. The Bible repeatedly expresses the obligation to help those who, for whatever reason, could not help themselves."

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/needy.html

John: Jesus, the Son of God

by David Griffiths

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/john/index.php

Romans: Good News for All

by David Griffiths

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/romans/index.php

Galatians: Book of Liberty

by David Griffiths

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/galatians/index.php

Ephesians: Living as His Body

by David Griffiths

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/ephesians/index.php

Philippians: Shared Secrets of a Happy Fellowship

by David Griffiths

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/philippians/index.php

Colossians: Our Christ Centred Faith

by David Griffiths

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/colossians/index.php

1 Thessalonians: Looking for the Returning Lord

by David Griffiths

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/1thess/index.php

2 Thessalonians: Looking for the returning Lord (Part 2)

by David Griffiths

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/2thess/index.php

Philemon: A Practical Letter

by David Griffiths

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/philemon/index.php

Hebrews: All Glorious Saviour

by David Griffiths

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/hebrews/index.php

James: Practical Themes

by David Griffiths

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/james/index.php

The Capernaum Synagogue

Aside from various references to Capernaum in the Gospels, the earliest literary attestation of Capernaum is from Josephus, who refers to the village in connection with a fertile spring. The Jewish historian reports he spent a night there with a fever during the second year of the Jewish War. For centuries, Capernaum has traditionally been identified as a site located on the northwestern shore of the Sea of Galilee, about three miles west of the upper Jordan River. In 1838, Edward Robinson correctly identified there the remains of a synagogue that was partly excavated by Charles Wilson between 1865 and 1866.

Link: http://www.pohick.org/sts/capernaum.html

Masada

Also known as es-Sebbeh, Horvot Mezada, Mesada, Mezada, Sebbeh, The Stronghold. The summit of Masada sits 190 feet (59 m) above sea level and about 1500 feet (470 m) above the level of the Dead Sea. The mountain itself is 1950 feet (610 m) long, 650 feet (200 m) wide, 4250 feet (1330 m) in circumference, and encompasses 23 acres. The "Snake Path" climbs 900 feet (280 m) in elevation. From the west, the difference in height is 225 feet (70 m). [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/masada.htm

Gamla

Nice Overview of the Synagogue with images and info. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/gamla.htm

Herodium

Also known as el-Fureidis, Har Hordos, Herodeion, Herodion, Jebel Fureidis. Constructed over a small pre-existing hill, the Herodium was a fortress for Herod to quickly flee to from Jerusalem and a luxurious palace for his enjoyment. He chose to be buried here and the mountain is the shape of a tumulus. Herod's tomb has not been discovered in the recent excavations. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/herodium.htm

Qumran

Also known as Kh. Mird, Kh. Qumran, Goumran, Gumran, City of Salt(?), Ir ha-Melah(?), Secacah(?), Kumran, Mesad, Mesad Hasidim (?), Oumran, Qumeran. Khirbet Qumran 10 miles south of Jericho, Qumran was on a "dead-end street" and provided a perfect location for the isolationist sect of the Essenes to live. The site was excavated by Catholic priest Roland deVaux from 1953-56. More recent excavations of the site have taken place under the direction of Hanan Eshel. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/qumran.htm

Synagogues of the World - Jerusalem

The Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakai synagogue is on Mishmeret Kehuna Street in the Old City. It served as the center of the Sephardic community and, to this day, the Chief Sephardic Rabbi, the Rishon LeZion, ceremoniously assumes his office here. The Ben-Zakai is named after the Second Temple sage Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakai, as legend deems this spot as the location of his Beit Midrash, study hall. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/synjeru.html

Delos Synagogue

Nice Overview of the Synagogue with images and info. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.pohick.org/sts/delos.html

Ostia Synagogue

Nice Overview of the Synagogue with images and info. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.pohick.org/sts/ostia.html

Egypt Synagogue

Nice Overview of the Synagogue with images and info. [Archaeology]

Link: http://i-cias.com/egypt/cairo08.htm

Cyrenaica Synagogue

Nice Overview of the Synagogue with images and info. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.pohick.org/sts/cyrenaica.html

Bosporus Kingdom

Nice Overview of the Jewish presence with images and info. The Bosporus Kingdom encompassed the coastal areas of the eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula where the straights of Kerch (the Cimmerian Bosporus) connect the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov. Homer characterized the early Cimmerian inhabitants of this region as living in a country of darkness that was situated on the northern edge of the populated world. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.pohick.org/sts/bosporus.html

Mesopotamia to 2500 BC

[Ancient Map]

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/mesopotamia-to-2500-bce

Africa, 2500 to 1500 BC

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/africa-2500-to-1500-bce

Sargon's Empire

[Ancient Map]

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/sargons-empire-2340-to-2284-bce

West Asia to 1200 BC

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/west-asia-to-1200-bce

Israel to Judah 733 BC

Map of Ancient Israel

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/israel-and-judah-to-733-bce

India to 500 BC

Map of Ancient India

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/india-to-500-bce

Shang Civilization, 1200 BC

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/shang-civilization-1200-bce

China, 256 to 200 BC

China's Warring States 245 to 235 BC

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/chinas-warring-states-245-to-235-bce

Europe

Map of Europe

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/europe

The Empire of Cyrus II

[Ancient Map]

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/cyrus-ii-empire-of-559-to-530-bce

The Aegean Region, to 300 BC

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/aegean-region-to-300-bce

Greece

(Map)

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/greece-600s-to-400s-bce

Alexander in the East

(Map)

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/alexander-in-the-east-334-to-323-bce

The Empire of Asoka

(Map)

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/ashoka-empire-of-269-to-232-bce

Han China, circa 100 BC

(Map)

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/han-china-circa-100-bce

Italy and Sicily

(Map)

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/italy-and-sicily-400-to-200-bce

The Roman Empire, A.D. 12

(Map)

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/roman-empire-ce-12

The Roman Empire, A.D. 150

(Map)

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/roman-empire-ce-150

Judaea, Galilee, Idumaea

(Map)

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/judea-galilee-idumea-1st-century-bce

The Sassanid Empire

(Map)

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/sassanid-empire-224-to-379-ce

The Roman Empire, A.D. 500

(Map)

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/roman-empire-ce-500

The Gupta Empire

(Map)

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/gupta-empire-320-to-550-ce

China, Korea and Japan

(Map)

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/china-korea-and-japan-1st-to-5th-century-ce

Africa, to A.D. 500

(Map)

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps

Oceania

(Map)

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/oceania

Chronological Table

Timeline Overview from Goodnews Christian Ministry.

Link: http://members.aol.com/ecsl/chronology.htm

New Testament Timeline

How long was the ministry of Jesus? When was Paul converted? When did Peter baptize the first Roman Centurion? How many missionary journeys did Paul conduct and when did they occur?

Link: http://www.biblestudy.org/beginner/timelinent.html

THE FORMATION OF THE CANON: THE NEW TESTAMENT

"The determination of the Canon of the New Testament was not the result of any pronouncement, either by an official of the Church or by an ecclesiastical body. Rather, the Canon was determined by the use of these books throughout all of the Churches during the first and second centuries. The establishment of the Canon was the process by which formal recognition was given to the writings of Scripture already recognized as authoritative."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/15ntcanon.html

TRANSMISSION OF THE BIBLE

"The accuracy of the present-day Hebrew version of the Old Testament is a result of the fastidious care with which the Sopherim and the Masoretes transmitted it. The Sopherim copied manuscripts of the Hebrew Scriptures from about 300 B.C. until A.D. 500. According to the Talmud, they came to be called "Sopherim" because, in their endeavor to preserve the text from alteration or addition, they counted the number of words in each section of Scripture, as well as the number of verses and paragraphs. The accuracy of the present-day Greek version of the New Testament has resulted from the comparison of thousands of manuscripts by textual critics who have been able to separate them into families on the basis of certain variations that each manuscript family has in common. The principles of textual criticism enable scholars to determine which versions of the text are predecessors of the others, thereby coming close to the original reading."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/16trans.html

The Importance And Validity Of Christian Apologetics

"The validity of Christian apologetics, or of the defense of the gospel, is taken for granted in the New Testament. This is particularly clear in the book of Acts, which is filled with accounts of the defense of the faith by Peter and John, Stephen, Paul, and other leaders of the Church, all of whom were prepared to lay down their very lives in the defense of the Gospel. Not all of the early Christian leaders were intellectuals, but all of them defended the Gospel. The task of apologetics is for all Christians. All people have the same questions, whether they are sophisticated or naive and whether they are well- educated or not."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/1validity.html

The Long Day Of Joshua

"One of the evidences for the historicity of the long day recorded in Joshua 10:13 and reiterated in Habakkuk 3:11 lies in the large body of traditions from many parts of the world according to which there was a long day (or night, or evening, depending upon the location) at about the same time that Joshua lived."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/7longday.html

Jonah and History

"Many people feel that the account given in the Bible of Jonah is legendary, since even if there were a fish big enough to swallow a man, certainly no man would be able to survive three days in its digestive tract and then escape to the outside world. However, again and again, Jesus referred to this as a historical event, and even pointed to it as a foreshadowing of his own death and resurrection. There are, however, several documented accounts of people who have been swallowed by whales and large fish, and have lived to tell about it, even after several days. The preservation of the name "Yunas" or "Jonah" at the ruins of Nineveh also confirms the historicity of the Jonah story. As soon as modern discoverers unearthed the mound that had been known for centuries by the name of "Neby Yunas," they found beneath it the ruined palaces of the kings of Nineveh."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/8jonah.html

The Fulfillment Of Prophecy

"The fulfillment of the prophecies of the Bible is a vast subject. In fact, the Messianic prophecies alone have provided enough material for the publication of many books. Other books have been written solely about the Old Testament prophecies concerning certain cities or about certain world empires, while still others consider the fulfillment of Biblical prophecies in the twentieth century. Some authors have identified more than 300 Old Testament passages that are cited by the New Testament as having been fulfilled by Jesus Christ."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/9proph.html

Pitcairn's Island

"The story of the Pitcairn Bible is a testimony both to the providence of God and to the value of the Bible in saving society from chaos. Ginny Hastings has written of it, "with no law to guide them, the mutineers of the Bounty turned an island paradise into a living hell of sexual abuse, drunkenness and murder. Their society was on the brink of collapse when one of the men discovered an ancient book from the Bounty."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/10island.html

Manuscript Attestation Of The Old Testament

There are many important old manuscripts of the Old Testament. This deals in brief with Cairo Codex, Leningrad Codex, Aleppo Codex, the Septuagint, the Masoretic text, and the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/13manuscript.html

The Formation Of The Canon: The Old Testament

"The Hebrew Scriptures were recognized as authoritative at their inception, and were immediately accepted as such by the Jewish people. The acceptance of the Pentateuch, for example, is recorded in Deuteronomy 32:46-47, and in Joshua 1:7,8. As a matter of course, the Church of the first century regarded the Hebrew Scriptures as inspired. Jesus, in Luke 24:44, refers to the Law, the prophets, and the psalms (or the writings) as divinely authoritative and canonical. The Jews accepted all of the 39 books of the Old Testament as inspired. A confirmation of public opinion along these lines was made at the synod at Jamnia." Also mentions briefly about Philo, Josephus, and Origen.

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/14otcanon.html

The Inspiration And Authority Of The Bible

"In II Timothy 3:16, it is stated that "all Scripture is inspired by God." The Greek word , translated here "inspired by God," literally means "God-breathed." That is, the Scriptures are a product of the creative activity of the divine breath. As Alan Stibbs has observed, this "indicates that Scripture has in its origin this distinctive hallmark, that it owes its very existence to the direct creative activity of God himself."1 It is this same divine breath that brought about the creation of the heavens: "By the word of the Lord were the heavens made, their starry host by the breath of his mouth" (Psalm 33:6). God's breath is "the irresistible outflow of His power."2 The divine breath also brought about the creation of man: "And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul" (Genesis 2:7). The mystery of inspiration has often been compared to the mystery of the incarnation. Just as Jesus is both divine and human, so the Scriptures are both divine and human. To emphasize one at the expense of the other is to fall into heresy."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/17auth.html

The Claims Of The Bible Concerning Itself

"The Biblical narratives carry with them the claim of authenticity for the events they describe. The Scriptures claim to be valid in an absolute sense, such that all counterclaims are excluded. If we do not subordinate ourselves to it, we are in rebellion against God."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/18claims.html

The Claims Of The Old Testament For Itself

"It becomes obvious, as one considers factors of this kind, that the Old Testament claims for itself, not only that the words of the prophets were preserved and considered to be equal in authority with the law of Moses, but that both were considered to be the words of Jehovah Himself."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/19claimsot.html

Christ's Use Of The Bible

"Jesus Christ assumed the absolute authority of the Old Testament as God's Word. When he quoted from it to establish anything, he considered the case closed, and that was the end of the matter."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/20jcuse.html

The New Testament's View Of Itself

"The New Testament writers recognized their own writings as Scripture. Paul, in II Corinthians 3:5,6 states that his competency comes from God. In fact, according to Paul, the very words that he used were taught by the Spirit:"

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/22ntview.html

Problems With The Denial Of The Bible's Claims For Itself

"It is certainly impossible to accept the Scriptures as authoritative for some purposes, but then to reject the claims of those Scriptures concerning themselves. If the Scriptures are suspect in their repeated claims for themselves, then on what basis can it be said that they have integrity on any other matter? If we are going to say that mankind has any basis for optimism, and if we base this statement upon the fact that we have the Judaeo-Christian Bible, then if we are going to have any integrity at all, we will have to accept the claims that the Bible consistently makes for itself. To do otherwise is do violence to the integrity of the foundation for that optimism and to throw the entire matter into serious question."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/23prob.html

Views Of The Bible Throughout History

"It is evident from the literature of the Christian Church from the time of the Apostolic Fathers onward, that the Church has always considered the Bible to be trustworthy in its affirmations about itselfl."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/24hview.html

The Bible: Is It Factually True, Or Merely Religiously True?

"The Bible claims that the miracles recorded within it really happened. If we reject this Biblical claim, then we reject the integrity of the Bible. If we do not accept the miracles, then the Bible cannot be accepted as trustworthy, because it consistently attests to these miracles."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/25fact.html

Does The Bible Employ Cultural Accommodation?

"Many theologians suggest that whatever truth may be found in the Bible is relative to the world view of the culture in which it was written. According to them, God has accommodated himself to the mistaken notions of the ancient Near East in His communication to us through the Bible. This viewpoint was never widely held until the rise of liberal theology in the eighteenth century,1 and assumes that God either cannot or does not communicate with us in such a way as to give us truth unencumbered with the false ideas of the people whom he inspired. The theory of cultural accommodation is therefore the result of an antisupernaturalistic bias which is incompatible with the Bible's treatment of itself."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/26culture.html

Biblical Criticism

"According to the Documentary hypothesis, the Biblical claims for the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch are false. Rather, the first five books of the Bible are made up of many fragments by different authors. The earliest, the Jahwist (J), was an unknown writer who lived in the Southern Kingdom of Judah in about 850 B.C., either 440 or 600 years after the time of Moses, depending upon one's dating of the Exodus. The Elohist (E) was supposed to have been an unknown writer in the Northern Kingdom of Israel who lived around 750 B.C. The writings of J and E were combined a hundred years later by an unknown redactor. Then, according to this hypothesis, in 621 B.C., the Deuteronomic writer (D) composed the book of Deuteronomy during the reforms of King Josiah. Finally, in about 570 B.C., the Priestly writer (P) wrote various sections of the Pentateuch concerned with genealogical lists and the details of the sacrificial system. These views, which were advocated by Julius Wellhausen, gained a strong foothold in the field of Biblical studies during the twentieth century, despite the fact that both the Pentateuch and many other parts of the Bible specifically state that Moses wrote the Pentateuch. However, there is abundant evidence disconfirming the Documentary hypothesis."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/27crit.html

The History Of Biblical Criticism

"A careful study of the history of Biblical Criticism will demonstrate that this discipline has its roots in attempts to overthrow the authority of the Bible in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, particularly in France, where the libertines challenged the Christian consensus that prevailed almost universally in Europe at that time.1 For example, Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677), in his Tractatus-theologico-politicus (1670), sought to find contradictions in the Pentateuch in order to undermine the prevailing viewpoint of the Bible as infallible." Also mentions Spinoza, Hugo Grotius, and Jean LeClerc.

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/28hcrit.html

The Bible And The Rules Of Legal Evidence

"Many critics of the authenticity of documents included within the Old and New Testaments base their contentions upon principles of literary criticism. The use of modern higher Biblical criticism, employing the methods of literary criticism in establishing date and authorship of canonical and extra-canonical documents, is highly questionable."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/29legal.html

Reason And Observation, Or God's Word?

The Basis For Authority: Reason And Observation, Or God'S Word: "In seventeenth and eighteenth century Europe, a great deal of emphasis began to be placed upon reason as the primary criterion to be used in the determination of truth. Prior to this time, revelation, as given to us in the Scriptures, was considered to be the means by which truth was determined. If the Biblical claims are valid, then the Bible's authority must reign supreme if there are apparent conflicts between its statements and that which has been determined on the basis of reason, experience, or observation."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/30basis.html

The Claims Of Christ

According to the New Testament accounts, Jesus, during His ministry, often predicted that He would be raised from the dead, He claimed to have authority to forgive sins, to be Teacher and Lord, to be the Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament, to be equal with God, etc.

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/32claims.html

The Divinity Of Christ

Jesus is not the only one who attests to His divinity. All of the Scriptures attest to it. In fact, the Hebrew prophets expected the Messiah to be God, and that He would walk on the earth as a man. He received worship, and said "if you do not believe that "I AM" you will die in your sins."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/33div.html

Problems With The Denial Of Christ's Claims

"If Christ's claims were false, then he could not have been a good man, since he thought of Himself as God. It is interesting that, throughout all of history, Jesus has been considered a model of humility. Yet, if He was not whom He claimed to be, then He was the very opposite of humble."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/34prob.html

Miracles: Are They Possible?

"According to C. S. Lewis, reason itself cannot be explained purely in terms of naturalism. If the reasoning process is a purely naturalistic phenomenon, then its results cannot be trusted, and it becomes highly questionable whether there is any possibility of arriving at truth through it."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/35mir.html

David Hume On Miracles

"Twentieth-century philosophers usually consider David Hume's essay, "Of Miracles," to have dealt the decisive death-blow to any belief either in the supernatural or in the miracles of the Bible. Because Hume's arguments against miracles merely assume the conclusions that he draws, he only begs the question without demonstrating his point." Includes excerpts from Hume.

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/36hume.html

Miracles Throughout History

"Many people argue against the miracles of the Bible by asking why there have been no miracles since the time the Bible was written. However, there is an abundance of evidence that miracles have been happening throughout the history of the Church. Many of the other early church fathers referred to the operation of the miraculous gifts of the Spirit, and recorded other miraculous phenomena which took place in their day, including demonic activity."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/37mir.html

Demonology And The Existence Of God

"If Satan exists, then we have powerful evidence for the validity of the Scriptural claims concerning supernatural activity. The demonic activity that has taken place in all ages is a testimony to the existence of a powerful spiritual force opposed to God."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/40dem.html

The Historical Evidence For Noah's Ark

Many quotes and references to sightings. The existence of the ark on Mt. Ararat is also mentioned by Theophilus of Antioch (c. 115-185), who stated, "and of the ark, the remains are to this day to be seen in the Arabian mountains."3 A similar statement is made by Epiphanius of Salamis (c. 315-403), who said, "Do you seriously suppose that we are unable to prove our point, when even to this day the remains of Noah's Ark are shown in the country of the Kurds?"4

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences2/08ark.html

Illustrations of the Miracles of Jesus

Bible Images: Illustrations of the Miracles of Lord Jesus. [Blueletter Bible Maps and Images]

Link: http://www.blueletterbible.org/images/bible_images/Miracles/leper_healed1.html

Five Books of Moses

Bible Images: Five Books of Moses. The Creation (engraving) The Judgement of Adam and Eve (engraving) The Deluge (engraving) Noah's Sacrifice (engraving) Melchizedek Blessing Abraham (engraving) Parting of Lot and Abraham (engraving) Abraham's Sacrifice: Jehovah Jirah (engraving) The Departure of Rebekah (engraving) Joseph Interprets Pharaoh's Dream (engraving) The Exposure of Moses (engraving) The Finding of Moses (engraving) Miriam's Song (engraving) Moses and the Brazen Serpent (engraving) Moses on Mount Pisgah (engraving) Death of Moses on Mount Nebo (engraving)[Blueletter Bible Maps and Images]

Link: http://www.blueletterbible.org/images/bible_images/Moses/h_gen_1_1a.html

Kings and Chronicles

Bible Images: Kings and Chronicles. [Blueletter Bible Maps and Images]

Link: http://www.blueletterbible.org/images/bible_images/Kings/david_saul1.html

Taylor's Life of Christ

Bible Images: Taylor's Life of Christ. [Blueletter Bible Maps and Images]

Link: http://www.blueletterbible.org/images/bible_images/Taylor/teach_multitudes.html

Capture of Lachish by Sennacherib

Bible Images: Capture of Lachish by Sennacherib (clay tablet). [Blueletter Bible Maps and Images]

Link: http://www.blueletterbible.org/images/bible_images/History/lachish.html

Story of Samson

Bible Images: Story of Samson. [Blueletter Bible Maps and Images]

Link: http://www.blueletterbible.org/images/bible_images/Samson/samson_lion1.html

Song of Solomon

Bible Images: Song of Solomon. [Blueletter Bible Maps and Images]

Link: http://www.blueletterbible.org/images/bible_images/Song/sgs_1_1_1.html

Ruth and Naomi (engraving)

Bible Images: Book of Ruth. Ruth and Naomi (engraving) [Blueletter Bible Maps and Images]

Link: http://www.blueletterbible.org/images/bible_images/Ruth/ruth_naomi1.html

Book of Daniel

Bible Images: Book of Daniel. [Blueletter Bible Maps and Images]

Link: http://www.blueletterbible.org/cgi-bin/images_read.pl?from=index&htmln=images/bible_images/Daniel/daniel_template.html&htmla=0&first=Bible&l

Illustrations Concerning the Temple & Tabernacle

Bible Images: Illustrations Concerning the Temple. [Blueletter Bible Maps and Images]

Link: http://www.blueletterbible.org/images/bible_images/Temple/wailing.html

Bible Maps

Bible Maps - The Interactive Bible (Black and White High Res)

Link: http://www.bible.ca/maps/

Genesis - Book of Firsts

Genesis - Book of Firsts by David Griffiths [Four Eleven Foundation]

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/genesis/index.php

Exodus - Book of Redemption

Exodus - Book of Redemption by David Griffiths [Four Eleven Foundation]

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/exodus/index.php

Leviticus: Book of Service

Leviticus: Book of Service - by David Griffiths [Four Eleven Foundation]

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/leviticus/index.php

Judges: Book of Faithlessness and Deliverance

Judges: Book of Faithlessness and Deliverance - by David Griffiths [Four Eleven Foundation]

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/judges/index.php

1 & 2 Samuel: First and Second books of Monarchy

1 & 2 Samuel: First and Second books of Monarchy - by David Griffiths [Four Eleven Foundation]

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/samuel/index.php

1 & 2 Kings: Third and Fourth books of Monarchy

1 & 2 Kings: Third and Fourth books of Monarchy - by David Griffiths [Four Eleven Foundation]

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/kings/index.php

Nehemiah: God's Businessman

Nehemiah: God's Businessman - by David Griffiths [Four Eleven Foundation]

Link: http://www.4-11.org/books/nehemiah/index.php

Search the Bible (RSV)

Link: http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/rsv/simple.html

Search the Bible (RSV)

Link: http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/rsv/simple.html

Search the Bible (KJV)

Link: http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/studybible/simple.html

Browse the Bible by Book, Chapter, and Verse (KJV)

Browse from a list of every Book of the Bible, once your selection is made you can browse by chapter and verse.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/

Search Chapter and Verse (KJV)

Link: http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/studybible/citation.html

Survey of Old Testament History

A general survey of Old Testament History with a timeline and certain topics. The Christian Resource Institute

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

The Spread of Christianity

The Bible Knowledge Accelerator #4-The Spread of Christianity by Rusty Russell: Jesus dying on a Roman cross was not the end but the beginning. His followers were Jewish and would spread a message called the "gospel" meaning "good news" starting in Jerusalem and spreading to the farthest parts of the known world. Their message was: Jesus, a lowly Jewish carpenter from the despised city of Nazareth, was rejected by His own Jewish nation and crucified by the Roman governor was indeed the Messiah and the Savior of mankind, who rose from the dead and anyone who would accept Him would be forgiven of all sins and would rise with Him in glory. Those who spread the message were scorned by their own nation as well, and also by the Greek and Roman cultures who referred to the message as "superstitious rabble." Yet the message spread to all who had open hearts throughout the whole world and, as Jesus had promised, the Holy Spirit would enter into their hearts and lives. As Christianity spread the "Christians" were fiercly persecuted and shortly after the message went out it became a capital offense to be a Christian. Yet Christianity survived all the slander, hatred and persecutions and after approximately 300 years it broke the power of its greatest adversary in the world, the Roman Empire. Christianity was destined to spread and it would transform the whole Greco-Roman world.

Link: https://bible-history.com/bka/downloads.htm

Date and Authenticity of the New Testament

In the early twentieth century, most scholars dated the New Testament documents as follows: Matthew, A.D. 851; Mark, A.D. 60-652; Luke, A.D. 80-853; John, A.D. 90-954; Pauline Epistles, A.D. 48-645.

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/12date.html

Date and Authenticity of the New Testament

In the early twentieth century, most scholars dated the New Testament documents as follows: Matthew, A.D. 851; Mark, A.D. 60-652; Luke, A.D. 80-853; John, A.D. 90-954; Pauline Epistles, A.D. 48-645.

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/12date.html

The Historical Trustworthiness of the Bible

"The trustworthiness of the Bible's historical statements has been corroborated again and again both through archaeological discoveries and through close correlation of the Bible's content with other independent ancient sources."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/3trust.html

Historical Trustworthiness of the Bible

The trustworthiness of the Bible's historical statements has been corroborated again and again both through archaeological discoveries and through close correlation of the Bible's content with other independent ancient sources. A comprehensive study of this topic would be far beyond the scope of these lectures, but for the purpose of illustration, it will be possible to examine briefly the accuracy of Luke as a historian.

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/3trust.html

The Historical Trustworthiness of the Bible

"The trustworthiness of the Bible's historical statements has been corroborated again and again both through archaeological discoveries and through close correlation of the Bible's content with other independent ancient sources."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/3trust.html

Date and Authenticity of the New Testament

In the early twentieth century, most scholars dated the New Testament documents as follows: Matthew, A.D. 851; Mark, A.D. 60-652; Luke, A.D. 80-853; John, A.D. 90-954; Pauline Epistles, A.D. 48-645.

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/12date.html

THE VERIFIABILITY OF HISTORY

THE VERIFIABILITY OF HISTORY: EVERY EVENT HAS COLLATERAL CIRCUMSTANCES AND CONSEQUENCES. "The life of Christ made an indelible imprint on all of humanity, yet that this should have happened at all is in itself a miracle. "That this man of poor and uncultivated stock should remake the basis of philosophy and open out to the world of the future an unknown territory of thought; that this simple son of a declining people, born in an obscure district in a small Roman province, this nameless Jew like all those others despised by the Procurators of Caesar, should speak with a voice that was to sound above those of the Emperors themselves, these are the most surprising facts of history."3 In our own day and age we live with these consequences of the life of Christ. Whether we like it or not, he made an indelible mark upon all of humanity. If we deny his existence, not only do we do violence to the fabric of history, but we deny what is presently the case."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/6verify.html

WHY THE BIBLE CANNOT BE LEGEND

"This makes history verifiable, and enables us to investigate any historical claim. Moveover, the events of history are inextricably interwoven. Every event that actually takes place is interconnected with all others that occur at the same time and place. To deny the historicity of a single event requires a re- explanation of all of the circumstances surrounding its occurrence. Biblical history and secular history are completely interrelated. They interpenetrate each other to such a degree that it is impossible to divorce them. A denial of Biblical history would entail a denial of what is known about secular history, because both are interwoven into the same fabric. The facts recorded in the Old Testament, including the supernatural events, are integral to the secular history of Israel and the nations that surrounded her before the time of Christ. In the same way, the facts recorded in the New Testament are integral to the history of the Roman Empire. If we did not take the Bible at face value, it would be difficult to explain the rise of Christian faith in the midst of persecution in the Roman Empire until it eventually became the preferred religion almost three hundred years later."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/2legend.html

THE AMAZING SURVIVAL OF THE WORD OF GOD

"Unchanged and unchangeable, this Bible stands for centuries, unconcerned about the praise and the reproach of men. With sublime freedom it strides through the history of mankind, dismisses entire nations with a glance, with a word, in order to tarry a long time with the deeds of a shepherd. It rises like an angel to heights that make peoples, passing hither and thither, appear like swarms of grasshoppers, yea, all nations like a drop in a bucket."

Link: http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/11survival.html

Striding Lion

Iraq: Babylon, Processional Avenue north of the Ishtar Gate Neo-Babylonian Period; Reign of Nebuchadnezzar II, ca. 604-562 B.C. Molded brick with polychrome glaze; Purchased in Berlin, 1931. "This colorful striding lion, its mouth opened in a threatening roar, once decorated a side of the 'Processional Way' in ancient Babylon (the Biblical city of Babel). The 'Processional Way' led out of the city through a massive gate named for the Mesopotamian goddess of love and war, Ishtar, whose symbol was the lion. Each year, during the celebration of the great New Year Festival, the images of the city's deities were carried out through the Ishtar Gate and along the 'Processional Way' past some 120 lions such as this one to a special festival house north of the city."

Link: https://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/HIGH/OIM_A7481.html

Female Figurine from Ur

Iraq: Tell Asmar, Trench D; Ur III/Isin-Larsa Period, ca. 2100-1800 B.C. Baked clay. Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1935-6. "Figurines like this one have been found in the excavated remains of Mesopotamian houses, temples, and other public buildings of the early second millennium B.C. They have no definite divine attributes and their exact function is not known. This female has characteristic broad, flat hips, a large and elaborately incised pubic triangle, and prominent breasts with applied disk-shaped nipples."

Link: https://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/HIGH/OIM_A17892.html

Who were the Pharisees and Sadducees?

The two most well-known Jewish sects from the time of Jesus Christ. The Bible refers often to the Sadducees and Pharisees, especially in the New Testament as Jesus was in constant conflict with them. The Sadducees and Pharisees comprised the ruling class of spiritual Israel. There are many similarities between the two groups but important differences between them as well.

Link: http://www.gotquestions.org/Sadducees-Pharisees.html

Ancient - Biblical websites

Provides vast resources chosen and rated by the editors [Ancient History]

Link: http://www.besthistorysites.net/AncientBiblical.shtml

Jesus Before Annas and Caiaphas by Alfred Edersheim

THE CROSS AND THE CROWN, THURSDAY NIGHT, BEFORE ANNAS AND CAIAPHAS, PETER AND JESUS. By Alfred Edersheim

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSBefore_Annas_and_Caiaphas.htm

Annas

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSInternational_Standard_B00000013.htm

Caiaphas

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSInternational_Standard_B00000014.htm

Annas

The New Testament Greek Lexicon

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSThe_New_Testament_Greek_00000015.htm

Caiaphas

The New Testament Greek Lexicon

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSThe_New_Testament_Greek_00000016.htm

Annas

Hitchcock's Bible Names

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSHitchcocks_Bible_Names__Annas.htm

Caiaphas

Hitchcock's Bible Names

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSEncyclopedias.htm

Annas

Unger's Bible Dictionary

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSUngers_Bible_Dictionary__Annas.htm

Caiaphas

Unger's Bible Dictionary

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSUngers_Bible_Dictionary__Caiapha.htm

Annas

Easton's Bible Dictionary

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSEastons_Bible_Dictionary__Annas.htm

Caiaphas

Easton's Bible Dictionary

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSDictionaries.htm

Annas

Smith's Bible Dictionary

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSSmiths_Bible_Dictionary__Annas.htm

Caiaphas

Smith's Bible Dictionary

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSSmiths_Bible_Dictionary__Caiapha.htm

The Paradox of the Priesthood

The priesthood under Annas and Caiphas was part of the fullness of times (Gal. 4.4) and it's pride, power and false piety reached complete fruition in their phony trial of the Son of God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSConclusion.htm

Annas

Hitchcock's Bible Names

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSHitchcocks_Bible_Names__Annas.htm

The Tax Collectors

Jesus made himself a friend of men, even of the tax collectors and the worst of sinners. He set a new precedent among the Jews by accepting and associating with the tax collectors. He ate with them (Mark 2:16), He offered salvation to them (Luke 19:9), and He even chose a tax collector (Matthew) as one of His twelve disciples (Matt 9:9).

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/index.html

Tax Collectors - Overview

Ancient Jewish writings reveal some interesting views of Rabbis toward the tax collectors

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSOverview.htm

History of The Tax Collector

The Tax Collector or Tax Gatherer is the Greek word "telones" and the King James Version of the Bible translates the word "publican." He was contracted by Rome to collect taxes for the government during New Testament times.

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSHistory.htm

Customs of the Tax Collectors

"The tax collector could walk up to any traveler, on any road within his district and ask him to drop all of his goods in order to exact tax."

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSCustoms.htm

Tiberius Denarius Tribute Penny

Coins (Image)

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSTiberius_Denarius.htm

Matthew - New Testament Tax Collectors

The call of Matthew (Levi) and his reception in honor of Jesus.

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSMatthew.htm

Jesus and the Tax Collectors

Jesus made himself a friend of men, even of the tax collectors and the worst of sinners. He set a new precedent among the Jews by accepting and associating with the tax collectors. He ate with them (Mark 2:16), He offered salvation to them (Luke 19:9), and He even chose a tax collector (Matthew) as one of His twelve disciples (Matt 9:9).

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSJesus_and_the_Tax_Collectors.htm

Publican and Taxes

Smith's Bible Dictionary

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSSmiths.htm

Publican and Taxes

Easton's Bible Dictionary

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSEastons.htm

Tax Collector

Strong's Concordance

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSStrongs.htm

PUBLICAN

Vine's Expository Dictionary

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSVines.htm

TAX, TAXING

The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSISBE.htm

Custom-House Officers, Taxation, Publicans

Chapter 4 - Travelling in Israel--Roads, Inns, Hospitality, Custom-House Officers, Taxation, Publicans Sketches of Jewish Social Life (Ch 4) by Edersheim

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSEdersheim.htm

The Well Hated Tax Collector

Conclusion and Devotional

Link: https://bible-history.com/taxcollectors/TAXCOLLECTORSConclusion.htm

Audio Bible on 62 CD-Rom's

Both the Old and New Testaments on 62 CD-Rom's beautifully packaged in 4 albums. By purchasing both the Old and New Testaments at the same time, you can save over $30.00 + Free Shipping.

Link: http://www.merchantamerica.com/bible/index.php?ba=product_enlarge&product_id=15454

Audio Bible on One CD-Rom

This is Scourby's newest addition and it's a one of a kind product (Free Shipping); there is nothing like it in the world. It contains the complete narration by Alexander Scourby, as well as the complete text. It has a full search engine and a 13,000 word Greek and Hebrew Lexicon. It also has an electronic bookmark to make Bible reading easy and fun.

Link: http://www.merchantamerica.com/bible/index.php?ba=product_enlarge&product_id=15453

High Priests of New Testament Times

Brief overview of the history of the high priesthood through New Testament times.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests

List of Jewish High Priests

The Jewish High Priests from 200 B.C to the Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSList_of_Jewish_High_Priests.htm

Spiritual Leaders of Jerusalem

in New Testament times. The Priests and Scribes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSSpiritual_Leaders.htm

Annas

High Priest of Israel from 6 to 15 A.D.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSAnnas.htm

Caiaphas

Caiaphas was the official high priest during the ministry and trial of Jesus.

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSCaiaphas.htm

Brief History from Alexander to Herod (A. Edersheim)

AN ABSTRACT OF JEWISH HISTORY FROM THE REIGN OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT TO THE ASCENSION OF HEROD By Alfred Edersheim

Link: https://bible-history.com/HighPriests/NTHIGHPRIESTSEdersheim__Brief_History.htm

The Darby Bible

This zip file contains an e-text of The Darby Bible, A literal translation of the Old Testament (1890) and the New Testament (1884) By John Nelson Darby (1800-82).

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=Darby

Greek New Testament.

E-texts of the Greek New Testament. Bible -- N.T. -- Greek language

Link: http://www.wabashcenter.wabash.edu/resources/result_browse.aspx?topic=630&pid=619

Strong's Dictionary of Hebrew Words

This zip file contains an e-text of Strong's/AV (Old Testament only)

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=StrongsHebrew

1833 Noah Webster Bible

This zip file contains an e-text of the Webster Bible - In 1833 Noah Webster, America's first grammarian and founding father of American education, who had mastered 20 languages including Hebrew and Greek, published the King James Authorized Version "with amendments to the language".

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=Webster

Weymouth New Testament in Modern Speech

This zip file contains an e-text of the Weymouth New Testament in Modern Speech, Third Edition 1913 - These files were produced by keying for use in the Online Bible. Proofreading was performed

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=Weymouth

Young's Literal Translation of the Holy Bible

This zip file contains an e-text of the Young's Literal Translation of the Holy Bible by Robert Young, 1862, 1887, 1898 (author of the Young's Analytical Concordance)

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=YLT

Electronic Texts (Bible Related)

best online Bibles; Gospel harmonies and parallels; other text related links [Links to Other e-Text Bible Sites]

Link: http://www.wabashcenter.wabash.edu/resources/result_browse.aspx?topic=637&pid=619

The Douay-Rheims Bible Project

The Douay-Rheims Bible is a Catholic version of the Bible. [Links to Other e-Text Bible Sites]

Link: http://www.intratext.com/X/ENG0011.htm

Vincent Broman - Greek New Testament

An annotated gateway to Greek New Testament Web Resources including texts, fonts, grammars, lexica, discussion list and software. Part of the New Testament Gateway by Dr Mark Goodacre, Dept of Theology, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. Editions in machine-readable form Stephanus (Robert Etienne`s) 1550 edition, Scrivener`s 1894 edition, Parsed and lemmatized Stephanus with Scrivener variants, Oxford 1873 Textus Receptus of John, The Robinson-Pierpont Majority Text, Tischendorf`s 8th major edition, Plain Westcott-Hort edition Unix format, Nestle-Aland 26th/27th edition, Westcott-Hort edition combined with NA26 variants. [Links to Other e-Text Bible Sites]

Link: http://www.ntgateway.com/greek/

e-texts in many languages

arabic, chinese, danish, english, finnish, french, german, greek, hebrew, latin, swahili, swedish, tagalog, turkish [Links to Other e-Text Bible Sites]

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModDisp.jsp?modType=Bibles

Medieval Studies - Etexts

Full Text Sources from Stanford University [Links to Other e-Text Bible Sites]

Link: http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/ssrg/medieval/fulltext.html

The World English Bible (WEB)

The World English Bible is a Modern English update of the American Standard Version of 1901. [Links to Other e-Text Bible Sites]

Link: http://www.ebible.org/bible/WEB/

The Word of God in Spanish

New Testaments of the following Spanish Bibles: Valera 1858 & 1862, Parts of Fransisco de Enzinas 1543. In the making... Reina 1865, 1602, & Valera 1569. [Links to Other e-Text Bible Sites]

Link: http://www.valera1909.com

Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia

This zip file contains the Ashley S. Johnson's Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia. This electronic edition was prepared during February 1996 from the second edition of the book. The first edition of Johnson's book was published in 1893; the second edition in 1896. The second edition was later reprinted under the title `The Busy Man Bible Encyclopedia'. [e-Text Bible Study Aids]

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=CBC

Class Notes On Sacred History

This zip file contains the Class Notes On Sacred History by J. W. McGarvey. [e-Text Bible Study Aids]

Link: http://www.mun.ca/rels/restmov/texts/jwmcgarvey/class1/CNSH100.HTM

The Gospel Series - Studying the life of Jesus

This series is designed to study the life of Jesus from the four Gospels in the Bible using a harmony of the Gospels to get a complete account of the life of Jesus.

Link: http://www.dyeager.org/gospels/

The Skeptic Series - Who is Jesus Christ?


Opening Arguments
Errors in the Bible
The Virgin Birth and the genealogies of Jesus
The Preservation of the Bible
Did Jesus claim to be God?
Did Jesus die on the cross?
The Resurrection
Closing Arguments
The Verdict

Link: http://www.dyeager.org/skeptic/

The Full Bible Text

Brought to you by Calvary Chapel Library. Nicely laid out for easy online viewing.

Link: http://calvarychapel.com/library/bible/00.htm

The Full Bible Text

Brought to you by Calvary Chapel Library. Nicely laid out for easy online viewing.

Link: http://calvarychapel.com/library/bible/00.htm

John Calvin - Selected Commentaries

Brought to you by Calvary Chapel Library. Nicely laid out for easy online viewing.

Link: https://coursebible.com/john-calvin

Daily Light on the Daily Path

This zip file contains the Daily Light on the Daily Path: A Devotional Textbook for Every Day of the Year, In the Very Words of Scripture. Prepared by Jonathan Bagster [1813-1872] and Other Members of His Family. [e-Text Bible Study Aids]

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=Daily

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary

This zip file contains the Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary. These Dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. No Illustrations.[e-Text Bible Study Aids]

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=Easton

Fourfold Gospel

This zip file contains the Fourfold Gospel or A Harmony of the Four Gospels, by J. W. McGarvey, LL.D. and Philip Y. Pendleton, A.B.. [e-Text Bible Study Aids]

Link: http://www.mun.ca/rels/restmov/texts/jwmcgarvey/tfg/TFG000I.HTM

Guide To Bible Study

This zip file contains the Guide To Bible Study by J. W. McGarvey, 1829-1911. [e-Text Bible Study Aids]

Link: http://www.mun.ca/rels/restmov/texts/jwmcgarvey/guide/GBS00A.HTM

Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

This zip file contains the Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible. Matches the printed edition as published by Moody Press, 28th printing. [e-Text Bible Study Aids]

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=MHC

Nave's Topical Bible

This zip file contains the Nave's Topical Bible. Nave's Topics were originally produced by Orville J. Nave, A.M., D.D., LL.D. while serving as a Chaplain in the United States Army. [e-Text Bible Study Aids]

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=Nave

The People's New Testament

This zip file contains The People's New Testament by B. W. Johnson. Notes and commentary on the New Testament. [e-Text Bible Study Aids]

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=PNT

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

This zip file contains Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament. A.T. Robertson, A.M., D.D., LL. D., Litt.D. 6 Volumes, 1930-33. Vol 1,2,3,4 Public Domain -- Copy Freely. Volume 5 (c) 1932. Used by permission. [Copyright expires Dec. 31, 2006.] Volume 6 (c) 1933. Used by permission. [Copyright expires Dec. 31, 2007.] [e-Text Bible Study Aids]

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=RWP

Fifty-Two Bible Lessons

This zip file contains A Series of Fifty-Two Bible Lessons for the use of Intermediate and Advanced Classes in the Sunday-School, by J. W. McGarvey, 1889. [e-Text Bible Study Aids]

Link: http://www.mun.ca/rels/restmov/texts/jwmcgarvey/fbl/FBL00A.HTM

Spurgeon Morning & Evening

This zip file contains Morning & Evening: Daily Readings by Charles Spurgeon. [e-Text Bible Study Aids]

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=SME

Strong's Dictionary of Greek Words

This zip file contains Strong's Dictionaries of Hebrew and Greek Words, taken from, Strong's Exhaustive Concordance by James Strong, S.T.D., LL.D., 1890. [e-Text Bible Study Aids]

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=StrongsGreek

Full Text Databases

A List of Online Text Databases. This page lists the online/full-text databases available to students, faculty, and staff of Webster University and Eden Theological Seminary. [e-Text]

Link: http://library.webster.edu/databases/database.html

Matthew Henry: Concise Commentary On The Whole Bible

Brought to you by Calvary Chapel Library. Nicely laid out for easy online viewing.

Link: http://calvarychapel.com/library/henry-matthew/0.htm

RA Torrey: New Topical Textbook

Brought to you by Calvary Chapel Library. Nicely laid out for easy online viewing.

Link: http://calvarychapel.com/library/torrey-ra/ntt/0.htm

Timeline: The United Kingdom Through The Captivity

Brought to you by Calvary Chapel Library. Nicely laid out for easy online viewing.

Link: http://calvarychapel.com/library/timelines/monarchs-kings.htm

Timeline: Roman Emperors

Brought to you by Calvary Chapel Library. Nicely laid out for easy online viewing.

Link: http://calvarychapel.com/library/timelines/monarchs-roman.htm

Modern Map of Israel

Interactive Map. Nicely laid out for easy online viewing.

Link: http://www.eyeonisrael.com/map_Israel.html

Abraham

by RW Hayes (34k) [html format]

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/abraham_rik_hayes.htm

Evolution or Creation?

by RW Hayes (34k) [html format]

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/evolution_or_creation_rik_hayes.htm

Feast Days

by RW Hayes (52k) [html format]

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/feast_days_rik_hayes.htm

Passover and Unleavened bread

by RW Hayes (62k) [html format]

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/passover_rik_hayes.htm

The Sons of God were they Angles or Men?

by RW Hayes (29k) [html format]

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/sons_of_god_rik_hayes.htm

The Trinity/Holy Spirit

by RW Hayes (33k) [html format]

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/trinity_holy_spirit_rik_hayes.htm

Truth Of God: There is Only One God One Church

by RW Hayes (36k) [html format]

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/truth_of_god_rik_hayes.htm

Should A Woman Have Her Head Uncovered In Church ?

by RW Hayes (14k) [html format]

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/women_head_covered_rik_hayes.htm

1769 KJB w/ Strong Numbers and Morphology

This e-text 1769 edition of the 1611 AV, King James Version.

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=KJV

1611 AV, King James Version

This zip file contains an e-text of the 1769 edition of the 1611 AV, King James Version.

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=KJV

Bible In Basic English

1949 - 1964 Bible In Basic English.

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=BBE

Bible In Basic English.

This zip file contains an e-text of the 1949/1964 Bible In Basic English.

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=BBE

bbe.zip 1.54MB

This zip file contains an e-text of the 1949/1964 Bible In Basic English.

Link: http://www.crosswire.org/sword/modules/ModInfo.jsp?modName=BBE

Glossary of terms related to Judaism

Prepared by Robert A. Kraft, University of Pennsylvania

Link: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~rs002/glossind.html

Vine`s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

These Dictionary topics are from W.E. Vine`s M.A., Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words published in 1940 and without copyright. [searchable] [complete]

Link: http://www.menfak.no/bibel/vines.html

Bartlett, John. 1901. Familiar Quotations

Passages, Phrases, and Proverbs traced to their original sources. [General] [Quotations]

Link: http://www.bartleby.com/100/

Adam & Eve

Adam and Eve are treated throughout the Bible as historical people and not simply as fables, fictional characters or parables of mans moral failure. The author of Genesis goes out of his way to establish the historicity of the account by listing in detail the location of the garden in proximity to the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people2.htm

Noah

The Weld-Blundell Prism, found in 1922, contains the oldest known outline of world history written 100 years before Abraham. Written in 2170 B.C. listing ten kings before the flood with extremely long reigns as the biblical record indicates. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people3.htm

Abraham

Abram was the son of Terah a descendant of Shem. They lived in Ur of the Chaldees and Abram was born here. At some point in his early life Terah and all the family moved up the Euphrates river to settle in Haran. It was about 600 miles north west from Ur. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people4.htm

Moses

While Moses is not mentioned outside the Old Testament there are veiled references to him in the names of Egyptian monarchs like Tuthmoses III. Moses lived 300 years after the death of Joseph, and was raised up by God to lead Israel out of the slavery of Egypt. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people5.htm

Kings of Israel

Kings of Israel & Judah, Statistics of the Kings, articles, timeline, map. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people6.htm

Surrounding Nations

The most comprehensive list of foreign nations known to the Hebrews is that given in Genesis 10 in the form of a genealogical table of the descendants of Shem, Ham and Jepheth. The descendants are nations not individuals, and broadly speaking they form three geographical groups, the northern nations (japheth), the southern nations (Ham), the middle nations (Shem). Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people7.htm

David

Covers a range of topics throughout David's life. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people8.htm

Elijah & Elisha

Covers a range of topics throughout the lives of Elijah & Elisha. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people9.htm

Isaiah

While Isaiah did write the book of Isaiah this is not all that he wrote. He had written a complete journal of Uzziah's reign and most of the major events of Hezekiah but these have not been preserved according to God's plan. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people10.htm

Jeremiah

More is revealed about Jeremiah's life and personality through his writings than any other Old Testament prophet. Jeremiah was the son of Hilkiah a priest from Anathoth, a small town just Northeast of Jerusalem. Jeremiah 1:1 God had called him to be a prophet in the thirteenth year of King Josiah (627/6 B.C.) Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people11.htm

Jewish leaders

The joint work of Ezra and Nehemiah had been to complete the Torah, or Law, and to enforce obedience to it. Historically, that work followed the lines of Josiah's reform, and like it the whole force of the law was directed against idolatry, and tended to centralise worship in Jerusalem. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people12.htm

John the Baptist

He is called the Baptist Matthew 3:1 and the baptiser Mark 6:14 to distinguish him from other John's and emphasise the distinctive ministry which he had. He was born about 7 B.C. to elderly parents named Zechariah and Elizabeth. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people13.htm

Apostle Peter

More is know about him than any other apostle. A native of Bethsaida in Galilee he was a fisherman. He probably was in business with his brother Andrew and James and John, sons of Zebedee. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people14.htm

Apostle Paul

Paul was a Jew, born of Jewish parents in the city of Tarsus, in the province of Cilicia, and was known in his early years as Saul of Tarsus. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people15.htm

Disciples

This is a transliteration of the Greek word apostolos. It means 'One who is sent'. In secular Greek it refers to a naval expedition. The idea was that an apostle was one who was sent as a special representative of Christ. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/people16.htm

Sacrificial System

It did not have power to remove sin, but was typical of the one great sacrifice of Christ, and to Him it pointed forward. It is noteworthy that when the three main offerings were offered together, the sin offering always preceded the burnt offering, and the burnt the peace offerings. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/custom2.htm

Coins references - bibliography

Nicely done, in color. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]

Link: http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/reference/reference1.html

Covenants & Treaties

A Covenant then is an agreement between two parties, a greater to a lesser of unequal status made on certain terms. One party performs it, the other fulfils it. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/custom3.htm

Feasts & Festivals

The great lesson of the book of Leviticus is that the Holy God must have a Holy people, and that this holiness must embrace the whole of life. The New Testament principle is the same 'whether you eat or drink or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God'. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/custom4.htm

Weights & Measures

Hebrew coinage was the basis of the weights for the Jews. These were the Gerah, Beka, Pim, Shekel, Mina, and Talent. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/custom5.htm

Ancient Greece Glossary

Brief. Ancient Greece

Link: http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~stephan/Renault/last.glossary.html

About the Bible Links and Articles

Accuracy; Contradictions; Archaeology; Inspiration; Inerrancy; History. Restoration Light Bible Study Services

Link: http://ac.reslight.net/

On Bible "Errors" and "Contradictions":

A Defense of the Inerrancy of Scripture

Link: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/7273/biblicalcontradictions.html

Sepphoris—A City Set On a Hill

(Pastoral Bible Institute) - Archaeological discussion of two potential sites for the "city set on a hill" allusion of Jesus in his Sermon on the Mount. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.heraldmag.org/literature/arch_1.htm

Origin of the Bible

The Bible is more wonderful and unique than any other book in the world. This is apparent from a variety of ways. No one man or group of men planned the Bible. It was written in different lands over a period of 1600 years. The very existence of such a book is an overwhelming proof that the Bible is not of man, but that it is a production of God. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/history2.htm

Bible Translations

Acommon questions that is often asked is which translation should I use there are so many of them. First it must be acknowledged that not all translations are of the same quality and theological level. Those who need to use modern translations of the Bible the most are those who don't know Greek and Hebrew and therefore are not able to pass judgment on technical questions of the text. Unfortunately those who need them most are the least able to evaluate them critically. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/history4.htm

Glossary - The Life of Jesus

From Abel to Zebulun. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/jesus/jesusGlossary.htm

New Testament Palestine Map and Glossary

Israel cities in 1st century Israel. From Abelane to Zia. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/glossary/ntcities.cfm

New Testament Palestine City Search

Israel cities in 1st century Israel. From Abelane to Zia. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/glossary/search.cfm

Mount Ararat Comparison

Mount Ararat is where Noah's Ark came to rest (Gen 8:4). This illustration reveals Mount Ararat (16,873 feet above sea level) in comparison to other mountains mentioned in the Bible.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/mount_ararat_comparison.html

Map of Ancient Aram

Aram Damascus was the most important of the Aramean kingdoms in the 9th-8th centuries B.C.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_ancient_aram_damascus.html

Jerusalem: From Town to Metropolis

Over time, the Judean capital city of Jerusalem grew and expanded well beyond the small boundaries of the City of David. At first, the Temple Mount was an addition to the city and was, apparently, fortified in some way (which still remains unknown). Later, the process of expansion "beyond the walls" occured after the population continued to increase. The Bible mentions the names of residential neighborhoods outside the City of David, such as Mishneh (Kings II 22;14) and Makhtesh (Zephania 1;11). The main growth in population occurred around 721 C.E., when the Northern Israelite kingdom of Israel was destroyed by Assyria and the refugees fled to the Southern Israelite kingdom of Judea; and in 701 C.E., when King Sennacherib of Assyria led a military campaign, conquering the coastal cities of the Land of Israel. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.usm.maine.edu/maps/exhibit1/theme7.html

The Jebusite Foundation

During the 1960's the British archeologist Kathleen Kenyon excavated the eastern slope of the city's hill. She succeeded in exposing, at the middle of the slope, the remains of the solid Jebusite defense wall that King David had to overcome in his conquest of Jerusalem. Only the small section pictured was exposed during the excavation. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.jstor.org/pss/544661

The Wide Wall from the Jewish Quarter

This wall, which was discovered by Professor Avigad, is an impressive archaeological testimony of the fortification effort by King Hezekiah. The length of the segment of the exposed wall is 65 meters, and its width is 7 meters. The wall is assumed to be from the period of Hezekiah, because clay fragments identified with that period were found near the wall. Underneath the wall, remnants of houses were found which also date to that same time period. This is an example of fortification in times of emergency, as Isaiah the prophet aptly describes the situation: "...and ye numbered the houses of Jerusalem, and ye broke down the houses to fortify the wall." (Isaiah 22;10). [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/Sites/BroadWall.html

Money

The first recorded account of official minting of Jewish money was under Antiochus VII who gave Simon Maccabees the permission to produce a coin with his own mark on it. 1 Maccabees. 15:6 140 B.C. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/custom6.htm

The Ancient Wall inside today's Jewish Quarter

This wide wall is located in the heart of the reconstructed Jewish quarter of today's Old City. A segment of it was left exposed in the quarter so that visitors could easily see it and gain an insight into the strength of the fortification. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/jewishquarter.htm

The Jewish Calendar

The Israelites would often designate the time by the type of growing season. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/custom7.htm

Creation

The act of creation is given in terms of fiat and fulfillment. There is the command 'let there be' and then the fulfillment 'then there was'. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/event2.htm

The Fall

The fall of man is recorded in detail for us in Genesis 3. It is presented as history and not legend, fable or parable. 2 Corinthians 11:3; John 8:44 The names of places, rivers and other locations are identified to provide its historicity. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/event3.htm

The Flood

There can be no greater event in the early period of the Old Testament which has stirred more controversy than the flood found in Genesis 6-9. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/event4.htm

Excavations in the City of David

The City of David is located on the Ophel hill, a hill sloping southward from the southeastern side of the Temple Mount. Today the Ophel is an archaeological garden, open to the public for study tours. Extensive excavations in this area, carried out since 1968, cut through about 2,500 years of history and include some 25 layers. Important finds from the First (960 - 587 BCE) and Second Temple periods (515 BCE - 70 CE), Roman times (63 BCE - 324 CE), the Byzantine era (324 - 638) and the early Muslim period (7th C.) show how the city's successive rulers used the remains of their predecessors' structures for their own buildings. Four additional biblical sites are located in this area: the Gihon Spring, Warren's Shaft, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.cityofdavid.org.il/Gallery_eng.asp?id=62

The Exodus

Israel was under the bondage of Egypt for 430 years. The account can be found in Exodus 1-7 . Then God had fulfilled his promise to Abraham, Israel had become a great nation, and now it was time to fulfil the second part of the promise and provide a homeland. The journey out of the land of Egypt has been called the Exodus coming from two words 'EX' meaning 'out of' and 'Hodos' meaning 'road'. It is the road out of Egypt or the departure. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/event5.htm

Giving of the Law

Law in Israel existed long before the Ten Commandments were given even though there is no formal account in Scripture. However it is clear from the early chapter of Genesis that there were laws and regulations which were binding on the people of God. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/event6.htm

The Conquest Under Joshua

The Conquest is concerned primarily with the entering of the people of Israel into the Land of Promise under Joshua. The record is found in the first twelve chapters of the book of Joshua and continued in the book of the Judges. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/event7.htm

Building of the Tabernacle

God directed the people of Israel to construct a dwelling place for Himself in the midst of the people so they would know of his abiding presence and guidance. Moses was given the particulars on Mt. Sinai and construction began shortly after. Exodus 36:8ff; 40 Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/event8.htm

King Solomon's Temple

Biblical Data In the midst of great prosperity in the land of Israel, King Solomon built a temple for the name of the Lord God. 'And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms from the river unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of Egypt: they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life.' 1 Kings 4:21 Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/arch6.htm

Divided Kingdom

From the days when Israel demanded a king like the other nations, not recognising that Yahweh was their king, Israel had been heading toward conflict. 2 Samuel 20 With the increase of Idolatry in Israel through Solomon's wives, God purposed to divide the kingdom in two in order to preserve for himself a people who would be faithful. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/event10.htm

The Exile

The term that is usually used for the Exile is Captivity. There were two major captivities of Jews recorded in the Bible. Israel was taken into Captivity in 732 B.C. by the Assyrians and Judah in 605 B.C. by the Babylonians. Each of them took place in stages over a period of time. Both were brought upon the people of God as judgment for disobedience to the word and Covenant of God. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/event11.htm

Pentecost

The name is derived from the Greek word for 'fiftieth' (pentecostos) because it was seven weeks after Passover that the 'Feast of Weeks' Exodus 34:22 Deuteronomy 16:10 or the 'Feast of Harvest' Exodus 23:15-22 was observed. It marked the end of the barley harvest and the beginning of the wheat harvest. It was one of the three occasions in the year on which male Israelites were to appear before the Lord but it was much less observed as an occasion of pilgrimage than the feasts of Passover and Tabernacle. Numbers 28:26-31 Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/event13.htm

Paul's Missionary Journey's

The setting apart of missionaries was accompanied by fasting and praying and the symbolic laying on of hands to indicate the presence of the Holy Spirit in and upon the ministry of God's servants. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/event14.htm

Noah's Ark

God commanded Noah to build an ark to deliver Noah, his immediate family and every kind of animal from a universal flood which destroyed every living creature which lived upon the earth because of mans wickedness. Genesis 6 The word in Hebrew means chest, box or boat and is the same word used of the basket which Moses was placed in on the Nile river. Exodus 2:3. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/object2.htm

The Tabernacle

God directed the people of Israel to construct a dwelling place for Himself in the midst of the people so they would know of his abiding presence and guidance. Moses was given the particulars on Mt. Sinai and construction began shortly after. Exodus 36:8ff; 40. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/object3.htm

The Cross

It appears that it was originally a Persian practice which was learned by the Carthaginians and later applied by the Romans as the means of delivering capital punishment. Among the Romans it was rarely used on her own citizens but rather was reserved for slaves, robbers, and insurrectionists in the provinces under her rule. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/object5.htm

Musical Instruments

In the Old Testament we see music richly woven into the fabric of the life and worship of the people of God. The Jewish handbook for the Hebrew was the Psalms, and it expresses the great heritage of Jewish piety, as well as giving the New Testament believers a beautiful source for Christian song. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/object6.htm

Weapons of War

Though we have no definite information on the subject, there seems to have been some sort of military organisation among the children of Israel while they were in Egypt. Study follows throught to Babylon. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/object7.htm

Archaeology and the Bible

Covers several topics. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/arch1.htm

Hebrew, Greek and Aramaic

Covers several topics. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/lang1.htm

Map of Palestine`s Physical Features

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_palestine_physical_features.html

Map of the Territory of Ancient Palestine

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_palestine_territory.html

Map of the Territory of Benjamin

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_palestine_benjamin.html

Map of Jerusalem

New Testament

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_jerusalem.html

Map of the Ancient Near East

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_ancient_near_east.html

Map of Lower Galilee

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_lower_galilee.html

Map of Upper Galilee

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_upper_galilee.html

Map of the Northern Negev

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_northern_negev.html

Map of Palestine`s Bodies of Water

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_palestine_bodies_of_water.html

Map of Palestine`s Samaria

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_palestine_central_samaria.html

Map of Asia

In New Testament times Asia referred to a Roman province located at the western part of what came to be known as Asia Minor.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_asia.html

Map of Palestine's Northern Coastal Plain

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_palestine_coastal_plain_north.html

Map of Palestine`s Southern Coastal Plain

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_palestine_coastal_plain_south.html

Map of Palestine`s Natural Divisions

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_palestine_natural_divisions.html

Map of Palestine's Judea

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_palestine_judea.html

Map of Samuel`s Circuit

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_palestine_samuels_circuit.html

Map of Philistine Cities and Areas of Expansion

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_philistine_cities_expansion.html

Map of Philistine and the Valley of Sorek

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_philistine_valley_sorek.html

Apocrypha

The word means hidden and conveys the idea that the contents of such books is secret or hidden and only for an elite group. Thus this word have come to be indicate writings as false or non-canonical having no inspired authority. The Jewish Rabbi's called such writings the outside books. While this generally refers to the thirteen books between the Old Testament and New Testament known as the Old Testament Apocrypha there are other groups of Apocrypha writings known as The Apocrypha Old Testament and Modern Apocrypha writings. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/history5.htm

How to Study the Bible

There are a number of important qualifications that are needed to adequately study the scriptures. In fact you can't properly study Scripture without them. The Scriptures are spiritual and only those who are spiritually qualified can understand them. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/history3.htm

Pentateuch

The term Pentateuch is the Greek name given to the first five books of the Old Testament. It comes from two Greek words, Pente meaning five and Teuchos meaning book or volume. It represents a five volume book. The books are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. They are called the Five Books of Moses because Moses has been ascribed as their author. The Jews called these books Torah, or the law and originally consisted of one scroll or book. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/books2.htm

Historical Books

The second section of the Old Testament is the historical narratives. This section would include the books of Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah. There were two major groups which occupied the land of Israel in the early days of Israel's conquest. They were the Amorites and Canaanites. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/books3.htm

Wisdom Literature

A distinctive Old Testament literature is what is called the Poetical books or wisdom literature. The Poetical books are Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/books4.htm

The Prophets

From 800-400 B.C. there was the flowering of the age of Prophecy. They can be broken down into several divisions. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/books5.htm

Gospels

The four works called the Gospels are really four records of one Gospel. However the Gospel is not to be thought as only limited to the accounts of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The Gospel is found through out the Bible and especially the rest of the New Testament. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/books6.htm

Acts

The purpose of Acts is stated in Acts 1:8. ' But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.' The remainder of the Book of Acts carries out this commission following the geographic description of our Lord. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/books7.htm

Epistles

Pauline Epistles, Doctrinal Epistles, Prison Epistles, Pastoral Epistles, General Epistles. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/books8.htm

Revelation

Revelation is perhaps the most controversial Book of the whole Bible. It has been studied and examined from the early Church to the present day, with four major interpretations. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/books9.htm

Names of God

The Bible has many names for God and they are windows through which His character is seen. The names of God tell us many wonderful things about Him. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/theme2.htm

Ten Commandments

The voice of God announced these words in the hearing of the whole assembly of Israel at the foot of Mt. Sinai. Deuteronomy 5:22 The finger of God inscribed them on both sides of the two stone tablets Exodus 31:18; 32:15 which Moses received on the mountain forty days after the making of the covenant. These were not the creation of Moses but rather the direct revelation of God. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/theme3.htm

O.T. Hebrew Poetry

A distinctive Old Testament literature is what is called the Poetical books or wisdom literature. The Poetical books are Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/theme3.htm

Prayers of the Bible

A simple definition of Prayer would be 'A celebration of God's perfection's and Work.' This finds expression in the elements of Prayer. The model for Prayer is given for us in what is commonly called the Lord's Prayer. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/theme5.htm

Prayers of the Bible

A simple definition of Prayer would be 'A celebration of God's perfection's and Work.' This finds expression in the elements of Prayer. The model for Prayer is given for us in what is commonly called the Lord's Prayer. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/theme5.htm

Kingdom of God

The Hope of Israel was the hope of the coming Kingdom of God. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/theme6.htm

Miracles

The term miracle is a general term used to describe extraordinary workings of God in the world during certain times of man's history. However there are several terms used in Greek and Hebrew to describe what is commonly called miracle. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/theme7.htm

Miracles

The term miracle is a general term used to describe extraordinary workings of God in the world during certain times of man's history. However there are several terms used in Greek and Hebrew to describe what is commonly called miracle. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/theme7.htm

Parables

Literally the word Parabole means a placing alongside of. It places a story alongside a spiritual truth in hopes of shedding light on its meaning. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/theme8.htm

The Church

Ecclesia is the Greek word that is translated church. To the Greeks it meant any kind of gathering which was convenient. An assembly to hear a message and make a decision about it. The New Testament took this term and baptised it into the faith. It comes from two Greek words. EK=Out of and kaleo=To call. Electronic Christian Media

Link: http://www.abu.nb.ca/ecm/topics/theme9.htm

Western Wall of the Temple Mount

The Western Wall is one of the few surviving sections of the huge Temple Mount enclosure built by King Herod 2,000 years ago. After the destruction of the second temple by the Romans in 70 C.E., the Western Wall gradually became a Jewish holy place "by proxy," and symbolizes not only he mourning for the destroyed Temple , but also the eternal hope of redemption. The western wall is 20 meters high. The seven lower layers, some 7 meters in height, are constructed of huge stones, cut in the special fashion typical of Herod. Additional layers, from later periods , are found on top of those laid by Herod. Further layers from the second temple period are still buried. Extensive excavations have been carried out on this site since the six-day war. The Western Wall owes its significance to its close proximity to Judaism's holiest place, the Holy of Holies on the Temple Mount. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://mosaic.lk.net/g-wall.html

The Temple of Herod

The Temple of Herod was a massive structure located in Jerusalem. It was built at the order of King Herod during the second period of King Herod's reign (25-13 BCE ). During this time, the king initiated a major building and rebuilding program, and this was by far the most famous of all projects. Autumn Veazey [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.biblestudy.org/biblepic/picture-of-second-temple-in-jerusalem.html

The Temple Mount

For centuries, the crown jewel of the city has been the Temple Mount, which is located atop Mount Moriah across the Kidron Valley from the Mount of Olives. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-temple-mount.htm

Dome of the Rock

The third most important shrine in Islam, built in 683 C.E. by Ommayad Caliph Abd El-Malik Ibn Marwan. Built on Mount Moriah and named after the large rock inside the mosque where, according to tradition, Isaac was prepared for sacrifice, and from where Mohammed rose to heaven. The rock is also considered the foundation stone of the Temple. Below is found "The Cave of the Prophets." [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-dome-of-the-rock.htm

Dome of the Rock (article)

The third most important shrine in Islam, built in 683 C.E. by Ommayad Caliph Abd El-Malik Ibn Marwan. Built on Mount Moriah and named after the large rock inside the mosque where, according to tradition, Isaac was prepared for sacrifice, and from where Mohammed rose to heaven. The rock is also considered the foundation stone of the Temple. Below is found "The Cave of the Prophets." Mauriah Conway [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://jeru.huji.ac.il/ee21.htm

Western Wall Tunnel Location Diagram)

Legend:
1. New entrance to tunnel;
2. Moslem Quarter;
3. Via Dolorosa;
4. Lions' Gate;
5. Temple Mount;
6. Christian Quarter;
7. Church of the Holy Sepulchre;
8. Path of the tunnel;
9. Jewish Quarter;
10. Western Wall Plaza;
11. Western Wall

The entire western wall of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem has been completely revealed for the first time since 70 C.E. Excavations have uncovered all 490 metres of the wall that once formed the western girder of ancient Jerusalem's great Temple and the entire stonework that formed the basis of the original Temple mount in now exposed. An ancient Hasmonean water tunnel, built about 120 B.C.E. and later blocked by Herod's builders in also visible for the first time and is one of the rare Hasmonean finds uncovered to date in Jerusalem. One of the most unexpected archaeological finds disclosed by the excavation is that Herod did not complete the entire construction of the Temple mount as historians and archaeologists believed to this day. A change in the type of masonry used at the northern end of the western wall is evidence that Herod built all but the last stages of construction of the Temple mount. Instead of the polished stones with characteristic Herodian masonry marks, part of the original stonework is roughly hewn. One of the mysteries uncovered during the excavation is the presence of massive stones that measure some 14 metres in length, 3 metres in height, and are estimated to be 2 metres thick and to weigh over 300 tons. No one can explain how these gigantic rocks were transported to the site. Walking along the tunnel, you can see the rock escarpment of the long lost Antonia fortress at the northern end of the western wall built by the Maccabees. This imposing building complex existed for only a few decades before it was demolished by he Romans followinn the fall of the Temple. The Tunnel is wide enough for one person to pass at a time, leading to a one-way route exiting at the beginning of the Via Dolorosa. We have made special arrangements to visit the tunnel. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/1990_1999/1998/7/The%20Western%20Wall%20Tunnel%20-%20Update

Temple Mount

The Temple Mount compound, which occupies about a sixth of the territory of the Old City, is sacred to the two monotheistic religions: Judaism and Islam. The mountain is identified with the place where Isaac was sacrificed. It is here that the first and second temples were built. After the destruction of the second temple, the mountain remained desolate until the Moslem conquest in the year 638. The Muslims have constructed various sites on the mountain. Some of the more famous ones are: the gilded Dome of the Rock and El-Aqsa Mosque. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-temple-mount.htm

Mount of Olives - Dominus Flevit Church

Christian tradition has it that after Jesus had left Bethphage on his way to Jerusalem, he passed through this place. It is on this site that the city of Jerusalem appeared to him, following a speech bemoaning the destiny of the city. This is echoed in the name of the church, which means in Latin: "The Lord Cried." This tradition traces back to Byzantine times. On constructing the new church in 1954, a large cemetery was uncovered further to the east, which dates from the age of the second Temple. In the courtyard lie sarcophagi, some of which carry inscriptions in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, with names like Zechariyah, Jesus, Mary, and "˜Azariyah. The alter, both in the new church and in the ancient church, faced towards the west, namely the Temple mount, not towards the east as usual. The modern aspe has an arched window through which the old city and temple mount loom up. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.wgz.org/chromatic/mideast/dominus_flevit.html

Mount of Olives (article)

Through the Lion's Gate in the eastern wall of Old Jerusalem and east, across the Kidron Valley, lies the Mount of Olives. Also called Olivet (Hebrew name, Har Hamishha), the Mount of Olives is not a mountain at all, but a slope blending into other slopes. Despite this, it is the tallest of the mountains and hills around Jerusalem, rising approximately 2,900 feet above sea level. Mary Beach [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.biblewalks.com/Sites/MountOlives.html

Mount of Olives Travel Info

Through the Lion's Gate in the eastern wall of Old Jerusalem and east, across the Kidron Valley, lies the Mount of Olives. Also called Olivet (Hebrew name, Har Hamishha), the Mount of Olives is not a mountain at all, but a slope blending into other slopes. Despite this, it is the tallest of the mountains and hills around Jerusalem, rising approximately 2,900 feet above sea level. Mary Beach [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.trekker.co.il/english/mount_of_olives/

Church of All Nations at Foot of Mount of Olives

The Church of All Nations ('The Basilica of the Agony") is situated at the foot of the Mount of Olives, the site of a Jewish cemetery in use since ancient times. The church was built in the early 1920s on the remains of a 5th century Byzantine structure and a later Crusader church. Designed by the Italian architect Antonio Barluzzi, the basilica features twelve cupolas, each representing one of the twelve sponsoring nations. The Rock of the agony where, according to Christian tradition, Jesus knelt to pray, is the central feature of the basilica. Much of the original Byzantine mosaic pavement has been preserved and foundations of the Crusader church can be seen in the garden among the ancient olive trees. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-church-of-all-nations.htm

The Garden of Gethsemane

The Garden of Gethsemane is located across the Kidron valley to the east of Jerusalem and on the western slope of the Mount of Olives. The word Gethsemane means "oil press" or "olive press" which leads scholars to believe that the garden was a grove of olive trees in which was located an oil press. Susan Clayton [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.allaboutarchaeology.org/garden-of-gethsemane-faq...htm

Via Dolorosa

Via Dolorosa, which means the way of suffering, was the way which those condemned to death by the Romans had to proceed along, carrying the cross on their backs, with a sign bearing the prisoner's name and his charges. Jesus' Via Dolorosa started from the place of his trial and ended with his crucifixion in Golgotha and his burial at the Holy Sepulchre. The tradition relating to Jesus' walking along the Via Dolorosa had its origin in Byzantine times and at first the procession would be held from Gethsemane to Golgotha. It was during the period of the crusades, in the 13th century, that the present Via Dolorosa tradition evolved. There are 14 stations along the Via Dolorosa, nine of which are on the road and the remaining five within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. STATION 1 - JESUS IS CONDEMNED TO DEATH; STATION 2 - JESUS RECEIVES THE CROSS; STATION 3 - JESUS FALLS FOR THE FIRST TIME; STATION 4 - JESUS MEETS HIS GRIEVING MOTHER; STATION 5 - SIMON OF CYRENE CARRIES THE CROSS; STATION 6 - VERONICA WIPES THE FACE OF JESUS; STATION 7 - JESUS FALLS FOR THE SECOND TIME; STATION 8- JESUS SPEAK TO THE WOMEN OF JERUSALEM; STATION 9 - JESUS FALLS FOR THE THIRD TIME; STATION 10 - JESUS IS STRIPPED OF HIS GARMENTS; STATION 11 - JESUS IS NAILED TO THE CROSS; STATION 12 - JESUS DIES ON THE CROSS; STATION 13 - JESUS' BODY IS TAKEN FROM THE CROSS; STATION 14-JESUS IS LAID IN THE HOLY SEPULCHRE. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-via-dolorosa.htm

Via Dolorosa (article)

To Christians, the city of Jerusalem holds particular significance because it was the site of Christ's condemnation, crucifixion. And burial. The Via Dolorosa is the traditional route that Jesus is thought to have taken from Pilate's hall to Golgotha. Latin for "way of sorrows," (Beers 328) the Via Dolorosa is a commemoration of Christ's arduous journey. The path is made up of fourteen different stations of the cross, each of which recounts a particular point along the way. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.atlastours.net/holyland/via_dolorosa.html

Church of the Holy Sepulchre

This is the holiest Christian site in Jerusalem. The church was first built in the 4th century by Emperor Constantine's mother Helena over the site of a Roman pagan temple to Venus. The present building is Crusader (12th century) and contains the last five stations of the cross. The church is divided among several denominations, each responsible for its own section. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/holysepulcher.htm

Church of the Holy Sepulchre (article)

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is located in the northwest quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. It is believed to be built on the site of the tomb where Jesus was buried and resurrected in 33 AD. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-church-of-holy-sepulchre.htm

Garden Tomb

The Garden Tomb is part of "Skull Hill," a rock-hewn tomb, and a tranquil garden, first identified by General Gordon in the 19th century. Some have supported it as the place of Jesus' crucifixion and burial. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/gardentomb.htm

Garden Tomb (article)

In 1883, British general Charles Gordon discovered a beautiful garden tomb. A stone outcropping jutting out nearby resembled what Gordon believed Calvary must look like. The site is located along Nablus Road, just outside the walls of the Old City, northwest of the Damascus Gate. Gordon concluded that this could be the location of the crucifixion and burial of Jesus. However, its authenticity is often doubted [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sandalphon.com/gtcross.html

Mount Zion - General View

The name "Mount Zion" now refers to the part of the western hill south of the Old City beyond Zion Gate. In the Old Testament period, the name was used for the lower eastern hill, now known as the City of David. The present Mount Zion is bordered on the west and south by the Hinnom Valley and on the east by the Tyropean Valley. Although now outside the city walls, Mt. Zion was within the city walls in the late second Temple period (2nd century B.C.E.- 70 C.E.). As the tradtional site of King David's tomb it has long been the focus of Jewish pilgrimage. The area also contains several sites sacred to Christianity: the room of the last supper (the Upper Room), the Church of St. Peter in Gallicantu, and the Dormition Abbey. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://jesus-messiah.com/html/zion-mount.html

Mount Zion - article

Geographically, the mountain known as Zion is an elongated triangular plateau that forms the ridge between the Kidron valley to the east and the Tyropoean valley to the west. Rising slightly above the surounding Judean countryside and flanked to the east by a constant water supply from the Gihon spring, this mount was most likely chosen as a habitation for its natural features as a citadel. Jared Washam [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.crystalinks.com/zion.html

Traditional Upper Room

According to tradition (going back only to the 10th century), this is the place where Jesus celebrated the Passover feast with his disciples before he was arrested. Also according to tradition he appeared here after his resurrection. The hall was constructed by the Crusaders. The Fransciscans who bought it in 1335 introduced some changes in it. At the beginning of the 15th century, the Jews sought to buy the site because the Tomb of David is located on the lower floor. This attempt entailed a conflict between Jews and Christians. Eventually in 1551, the Muslims took possession of the site and transformed it into a mosque with "prayer niches" which can still be seen today. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sanhotim20002000/2531018751/

Yad Vashem--Valley of Destroyed Communities

The Valley of the Destroyed Communities is the latest addition (1993) to the Yad Vashem complex, Israel's central memorial to the six million Jews killed in the Holocaust of World War II. It consists of a maze of courtyards (each representing a country or geographical region), on whose walls are inscribed the names of cities and towns where Jewish communities flourished before the advent of the Nazi regime in Germany. Viewed from the air, the structure approximates the shape of the map of Europe. The national institution for research and documentation of the Holocaust, Yad Vashem includes a museum, the Hall of the Names, and the Avenue of Righteous Gentiles. It is dedicated to perpetuating the memory of the Jews who perished in the Nazi Holocaust (1939-1945). [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yad_Vashem

Artist's Conception of City of David

The City of David is located on the Ophel hill, a hill sloping southward from the southeastern side of the Temple Mount. Today the Ophel is an archaeological garden, open to the public for study tours. Extensive excavations in this area, carried out since 1968, cut through about 2,500 years of history and include some 25 layers. Important finds from the First (960 - 587 BCE) and Second Temple periods (515 BCE - 70 CE), Roman times (63 BCE - 324 CE), the Byzantine era (324 - 638) and the early Muslim period (7th C.) show how the city's successive rulers used the remains of their predecessors' structures for their own buildings. Four additional biblical sites are located in this area: the Gihon Spring, Warren's Shaft, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.forallbelievers.org/CityofDavid3207.jpg

The Gihon Spring

In a land as dry as the Land of Israel, the main consideration in determining the location of a city or village, is its proximity to the nearest water source. The only permanent water source of ancient Jerusalem was the Gihon Spring. Its name is derived from the fact that it doesn't flow steadily, but rather in random eruptions with lapses in between them (Giha in Hebrew means eruption). The Gihon Spring is located in a cave on the eastern side of the City of David. To provide access to the water during times of siege, shafts were hewn through the rocky hillside of David's City from inside the city's walls. Warren's Shaft is such a shaft. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://dqhall59.com/gihon.htm

The Gihon Spring (blog)

An early 19th century explorer, Charles Warren, discovered a tunnel leading to the Gihon Spring. Warren's Shaft seen here can be visited on a tour of the City of David, and the steps of the ancient Jerusalemites can be retraced to the well. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://blog.bibleplaces.com/uploaded_images/fa54e299e424_DC27/GihonSpringtb1107055664.jpg

Hezekiah's Tunnel

The most magnificent waterworks of ancient Jerusalem is Hezekiah's Tunnel. The tunnel is hewn inside the hill in order to protect the access to water from enemies. It channels the water from the Gihon fountainhead to the Shiloah pool, which was within the new walls of the city built by Hezekiah. King Hezekiah built the tunnel in preparation for the Assyrian siege: "This same Hezekiah also stopped the upper watercourse of Gihon, and brought it straight down to the west side of the city of David." (Chronicles II, 32;30) The external entrance to the Gihon spring was hidden: "... and many people gathered together, and they stopped up all of the fountains" (Chronicles II, 32; 4). Then the waters of the Gihon were channeled through the tunnel to the Shiloah Pool, also built by Hezekiah (Kings II, 20; 20). The pool was located outside the original fortifications of the City of David (Chronicles II, 32; 30), but within the wall that Hezekiah had built. This is the main reason for thereconstruction of the southern part of the wall. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/heztunnel.htm

Sketch of Valleys, Walls, and Gates of Jerusalem

The three valleys that almost surround the Old City are mentioned many times in the Bible. They are the Tyropean, Kidron, and Hinnom Valleys. The Tyropean Valley is located just to the west of the Ophel. It is difficult to see today because it has been filled in during construction and reconstruction in the Old City. The Kidron Valley is located between the Mount of Olives and the Temple Mount. All travelers coming to Jerusalem from the east pass through this valley. The Hinnom Valley is located just south of the Old City. This was the place where the city's garbage dump was located. Jesus made smbolic reference to the unfaithful being cast into "gehenna," thus using the Hinnom Valley as a symbol or example of a wasted or worthless life. The present walls of the Old City were built by the Ottoman ruler Suliman the Magnificent, between 1537-1542 C.E. The walls of the time of Jesus were further to the south than the walls of today. The Old City is divided into four sections: the Christian Quarter to the northwest, the Muslim Quarter to the northeast, the Armenian Quarter to the southwest, and the Jewish Quarter to the southeast. If you are interested in seeing images of all the gates of the Old City, see "Gates of the Old City." [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: https://bible-history.com/jerusalem/firstcenturyjerusalem_the_land_of_jerusalem.html

Jerusalem Yields natural waterworks

For more than 100 years, archaeologists and historians have puzzled over the haphazard routes, slopes and dimensions of two underground water supply systems discovered beneath the remains of ancient Jerusalem. Although most researchers regard the subterranean waterworks as the products of early, error-prone engineers and construction workers, a new analysis indicates that residents of the holy city skillfully altered a natural network of underground channels and tunnels to ensure a dependable water supply. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_/ai_11703027

The Gihon Spring, Hezekiah's Tunnel, and the Pool of Siloam

Excavations found a tower system built over the Gihon spring, from which water could be raised up to those in the city. The next two photos show those ruins. The photos are taken about midway up the tower, the top one looking up, the lower one looking down toward where a water pool once was. It is believed that the tower was orginally built even prior to the time of the Judges, by the Cannanite people living in the land (circa 1800's BC). [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.bibleistrue.com/qna/pqna21.htm

Gates of the Old City - Golden Gate

Golden Gate The Mercy (Golden) Gate (Bab el Rahmeh) appears in the legends of all three religions. An early Jewish tradition holds that it is through that gate that the Messiah will enter jerusalem. According to Christian tradition, Jesus made made his last entry to Jerusalem through the Mercy Gate. The Muslims refer to it as the Gate of Mercy and believe it to be the gate referred to in the Koran, through which the just will pass on the Day of Judgment (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/GoldGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Golden Gate

Herod's Gate The first name was given to the gate by pilgrims, who erroneously believed that it led to Herod's palace. It is also known in Arabic as the Flower Gate (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/HeroGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Lion's Gate

Lion's Gate Known in Hebrew as the Lion's Gate. Legend has it that the lions engraved on both sides of the gate were placed there by the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, because he had dreamed that he would be devoured by lions unless he built a wall around the Holy City for the defence of the citizens (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/LionGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Zion Gate

Zion Gate The western gate of the Old City, named after Mount Zion. In Arabic it is known as "the Prophet David's Gate", because one passes through King David's tomb on Mount Zion(Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/ZionGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Damascus Gate

Damascus Gate The most massive and ornate of all of Jerusalem's gates. The road running off it leads to Shechem (Nablus) and then to Damascus (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/DamaGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Jaffa Gate

Jaffa Gate this gate is the principal entrance to the Old City. Its name in Arabic is Bab-el-Khalil, the gate of Hebron, as the main road to Hebron started here. It was also called Jaffa Gate because the road to Jaffa and the coast also started from it (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/JaffGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - Dung Gate

Dung Gate The Dung Gate is mentioned in the book of Nehemiah as a dispatch point for the city's refuse. It would appear that it was through this gate that the refuse was removed from the city (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/DungGate.jpg

Gates of the Old City - the Valley Gate (Sha'ar HaGai )

Sha'ar HaGai Nehemiah mentions that he began his trip to the city from Sha'ar HaGai. The name refers to a site on the way to Jerusalem. The Hebrew name Sha'ar HaGai is a translation of the Arabic Bab el Wad, the Valley Gate, which leads to Jerusalem (Photo by Duby Tal and Moni Haramati) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem from Furman Univ.]

Link: http://www.md.huji.ac.il/vjt/ShaHagai.jpg

The Valley of Hinnom

The Valley of Hinnom is located outside of Jerusalem to the southwest of the city walls. This valley, along with the Kidron Valley, was in ancient times one of the major defenses guarding the Holy city. Kendra Howard [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.palestineremembered.com/GeoPoints/Silwan_1593/Picture_10222.html

Lion's Gate Photo

Known in Hebrew as the Lion's Gate. Legend has it that the lions engraved on both sides of the gate were placed there by the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, because he had dreamed that he would be devoured by lions unless he built a wall around the Holy City for the defense of the citizens. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.1000pictures.com/view.htm?cpaz/jerusalem+f34-bar-123.jpg+x1024+y768

Jaffa Gate Photo

Jaffa Gate is the principal entrance to the Old City. Its name in Arabic is Bab-el-Khalil, the gate of Hebron, as the main road to Hebron started here. It was also called Jaffa Gate because the road to Jaffa and the coast also started from it [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.rickriordan.com/jaffa_gate.htm

Dung Gate

The Dung Gate is mentioned in the book of Nehemiah as a dispatch point for the city's refuse. It would appear that it was through this gate that the refuse was removed from the city. Notice the Western Wall just above the Dung Gate and the Temple Mount in the background. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.rickriordan.com/dung_gate.htm

Map of Sinai Peninsula

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_sinai_peninsula.html

Map of Canaan - Tribal Portions

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_canaan_tribal_portions.html

Map of Achaia

Region of Greece on the north coast of the Peloponnesus. Paul spent much time there and expressed his love toward the churches in Achaia.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_achaia.html

Map of Adriatic Sea

Paul journeyed on this sea on his way to Rome and was shipwrecked on the island of Malta (Acts 27:27)

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_adriatic_sea.html

Map of Pharaonic Egypt

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_pharaonic_egypt.html

Map of the Amalekites Territory

Throughout Biblical history the Amalekites were enemies of the Israelites. They were the first adversaries that the Israelites encountered after crossing the Red Sea. According to archaeology the Amalekites disappeared from history after the northern kingdom of Judah conquered the Negeb territory in the 10th century B.C.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_of_amalekites_territory.html

Map of the Ammonites Territory

The Ammonites (sons of Ammon) according to the Bible originated because of an incestuous relationship between Lot (Abraham's nephew) and his younger daughter (Gen 19:38). Archaeology reveals that the Ammonites dwelt east of the Jordan River and settled there at the beginning of the 13th century B.C.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_of_ammonites_territory.html

Map of Amorite Settlements

The Amorites dwelt in various locations within Israel during the 18th-17th centuries B.C.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_amorite_settlements.html

Map of the Territory of Asher

This territory contained some of the richest soil in all of the country. Asher did not succeed in driving out the Canaanite inhabitants.

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_asher_territory.html

Map of Ancient Nubia

Link: https://bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_nubia.html

Sennacherib's Account

The same account as the Bible event was recorded for the library at Nineveh and the clay tablet of the record is now in the British Museum. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch11.htm

Ruins of Babylon

The same account as the Bible event was recorded for the library at Nineveh and the clay tablet of the record is now in the British Museum. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch12.htm

The Dead Sea Scrolls

Probably the most valuable of these documents is the `Isaiah Scroll`. Some 23 feet long and made of leather, it is a remarkable testimony to the textual accuracy of the Bible as we know it today. Modern methods of estimating the age of the scroll and its flax, or linen cover, reveal the fact that it is a transcription of the complete text of the book of Isaiah made in about 100 B.C. AT SOME POINT rather early in the spring of 1947, a Bedouin boy called Muhammad the Wolf was minding some goats near a cliff on the western shore of the Dead Sea. Climbing up after one that had strayed, he noticed a cave that he had not seen before and he idly threw a stone into it. There was an unfamiliar sound of breakage. The boy was frightened and ran away. But he later came back with another boy, and together they explored the cave. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblebasics.co.uk/bb2.htm

Pool of Bethesda

The Pool of Bethesda is adjacent to St. Anne's Church. It is mentioned in the Gospel of John (5:2ff.) in conjunction with Jesus' healing of a paralyzed man. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.allaboutarchaeology.org/pool-of-bethesda-faq.htm

The Pool of Bethesda and the Church of St. Anne (article)

Further in the chapter, we read that Jesus heals the sick man found at the pool. "Bethesda", which means a spring fed pool with five porches, is Hebrew in origin, coming from the word "Chesda", meaning house of mercy. The supposed remains of the pool of Bethesda are on the east side of Jerusalem, contiguous on one side to St. Stephen's gate and on the northern side is the area of the temple mount. It is believed to be 120 paces long and 40 paces wide and about 8 feet deep but contains no water. On its west end are some old dammed up arches which are connected to the five porches mentioned in the verses. There is some discussion among scholars that there are only three or four porches instead of five. During the Roman Period, a temple dedicated to the god Serapis was located on this site. Anne Stanford [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.atlastours.net/holyland/st_anne_church_and_bethesda_pool.html

Space Radar of Jerusalem Region

This space radar image shows the area surrounding the Dead Sea along the West Bank between Israel and Jordan. The yellow area at the top of the image is the city of Jericho. A portion of the Dead Sea is shown as the large black area at the top right side of the image. The Jordan River is the white line at the top of the image which flows into the Dead Sea. Jerusalem, which lies in the Judaean Hill Country, is the bright, yellowish area shown along the left center of the image. Just below and to the right of Jerusalem is the town of Bethlehem. The city of Hebron is the white, yellowish area near the bottom of the image. (The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 3, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour.) [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.godweb.org/maps/134.htm

Map of Jerusalem Region and Surrounding Area

During the stay in Jerusalem we will make day-trips to sites in the Jerusalem region and we will make several visits to sites on the way from Jerusalem to Tiberius on the Sea of Galilee. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Facts%20About%20Israel/Israel%20in%20Maps/Jerusalem%20and%20Surrounding%20Area

Recent Discoveries at Ashkelon (article)

By David Schloen, Assistant Professor of Syro-Palestinian Archaeology The Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations The Oriental Institute The University of Chicago

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/ASH/NN_Spr95/NN_Spr95.html

The Hazor Excavations

Some past excavation details as well as seasonal reports. a joint project of the Hebrew University, Complutense University of Madrid and the Israel Exploration Society. Currently being excavated are Israelite private and administrative buildings, a Canaanite high place and a large palace. Impressive works of art and four cuneiform tablets - part of Hazor's archives - have been unearthed in the past 6 seasons.

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/reports.htm

The Hazor Excavations (History of Hazor)

Hazor comprises of two distinct sections: The upper city (the acropolis) and the lower city (the fortified enclosure) lying close to the north. Hazor was the largest site of the Biblical period of Israel. It was approximately 10 times the size of Jerusalem in the days of David and Solomon. (Canaanite and Israelite Hazor with some photos).

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/history.htm

The Hazor Excavations (Picture Gallery)

Hazor comprises of two distinct sections: The upper city (the acropolis) and the lower city (the fortified enclosure) lying close to the north. Hazor was the largest site of the Biblical period of Israel. It was approximately 10 times the size of Jerusalem in the days of David and Solomon. (Canaanite and Israelite Hazor with some photos).

Link: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~hatsor/gallery.htm

Tel Hazor - Find a Dig

For several millennia during the Bronze and Iron Ages, history tells us that Hazor was the city in northern Israel and perhaps one of the greatest cities in all of the Eastern Mediterranean. Hazor and its kings are mentioned in the militaristic boasts and diplomatic correspondences of ancient Near Eastern rulers, while the Book of Joshua famously refers to Hazor as "the head" of all the Canaanite kingdoms. Even after the Israelites had conquered and resettled the city, Hazor still dwarfed the rest of the major cities of the Israelite kingdom of David and Solomon, including Jerusalem. Hazor remained a principle settlement in the northern kingdom of Israel until the Assyrian ruler Tiglath-Pileser III destroyed the city in 732 B.C.

Link: http://www.findadig.com/digs/tel_hazor

Western Wall Photo

The Western Wall is one of the few surviving sections of the huge Temple Mount enclosure built by King Herod 2,000 years ago. After the destruction of the second temple by the Romans in 70 C.E., the Western Wall gradually became a Jewish holy place "by proxy," and symbolizes not only he mourning for the destroyed Temple , but also the eternal hope of redemption. The western wall is 20 meters high. The seven lower layers, some 7 meters in height, are constructed of huge stones, cut in the special fashion typical of Herod. Additional layers, from later periods , are found on top of those laid by Herod. Further layers from the second temple period are still buried. Extensive excavations have been carried out on this site since the six-day war. [Archaeology] [Images of selected sites in Jerusalem]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-western-wall-pictures/

Books of the Bible With a Brief Outline

Old Testament and New Testament Books overview.

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/r_books.htm

Biblical and Historical Time Chart

2090 BC - 150 AD Abraham to Tertullian.

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/r_time.htm

Detailed Intertestamental Timeline With Notes on Judaism

400 BC - 4 BC Socrates to the death of Herod.

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/r_inter.htm

A List of the Judges in Israel

Shamgar to Samuel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/r_judge.htm

A List of the Kings of Israel and Judah

19 kings of Israel (all were wicked) and 20 kings of Judah (8 were good).

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/r_kings.htm

Messianic Prophecies List

List of Some Key Messianic Prophecies in the Old Testament

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/r_mess.htm

The Prophets of Israel and Judah With Notes

From Jonah to Malachi

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/r_proph.htm

Blood Atonement

This is perhaps the most difficult truth for mankind to accept, that the life of an innocent victim would be slaughtered on behalf of the guilty. To fully understand this we need to go back to the garden of Eden in the Book of Genesis.

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/r_blood.htm

Yom Kippur - The Great Day of Atonement

One day each year the High Priest would draw aside the Veil and enter the Holy of Holies to make atonement (Heb. Kafar) and cover the nations sins from the judgement of God and receive forgiveness. It took place on the 10th day of the 7th month, Tishri. By our calendar that would be around the end of September or early October.

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/r_blood.htm

Ephesus - A Panoramic Virtual Tour

Extensive arrangement of text and images focusing on ancient Ephesus. HISTORICAL SITES IN TURKEY [Images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.sailturkey.com/panoramas/ephesus/

Archaeology and History Attest to the Bible's Reliability

By Richard M. Fales, Ph.D. [from the Biblical and American Archaeologist]

Link: http://www.drfalesbaa.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=23&Itemid=31

Who was the Pharoah Akhenaten,

The Heretic King (1372-1354 BC) By Richard M. Fales, Ph.D. [from the Biblical and American Archaeologist]

Link: http://www.drfalesbaa.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=24&Itemid=31

Ark of the Covenant - Pharaoh Pillages the Temple

"Who is the Pharoah that Pillaged the Temple of Jerusalem and did he really steal the Ark of the Covenant?" By Richard M. Fales, Ph.D. [from the Biblical and American Archaeologist]

Link: http://www.drfalesbaa.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=25&Itemid=31

The Dig At Bet Shean

In this area lies the 80 metre (263 feet ) high tel of Beth-shean, one of the oldest cities in Bible Lands. The remains of twenty layers of settlement have been found going back more than three thousand years B.C. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch3.htm

Egypt At The Time Of Moses

Bricks for building were made from clay and strengthened with straw; this was a manufacturing method employed in Egypt over 1,000 years before Christ. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch4.htm

Josephus' description of Sebastos

The historian Flavius Josephus, who was born around 7 or 8 CE, published a history of the Jewish War between 75 and 79 CE and a history of the Jewish people in 93-94 CE. Both these works contain a detailed description of the city of Caesarea and its harbour, Sebastos. Despite certain inevitable inaccuracies, the data contained in these descriptions has been of great value in assisting the reconstruction of the layout and appearance of the harbour in the Flavian period. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

Link: http://park.org/Canada/Museum/caesarea/Joseph.html

Harbor Chronology. (Caesarea)

A brief historical chronology of the harbor from primary documents by Dr. Avner Raban, Center for Maritime Studies University of Haifa, Israel [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

Link: http://hoopermuseum.earthsci.carleton.ca//caesarea/chrono.html

The House Of David

At Tel Dan in upper Galilee in Northern Israel a fragment of an inscription on basalt stone has been uncovered. It was part of the paving near the entrance of the outer gate of the ancient city of Dan. In 1992, in order to tidy up the site for presentation to visitors, a heap of debris was removed which dated from the time of the Assyrian destruction of the city by Tiglath-pileser lll - no doubt a legacy of his campaign against northern Israel. [2 Kings 15v29] Unexpectedly, a hitherto unknown gateway to the city was uncovered. The entrance led to a courtyard where stood a low stone platform large enough to take a throne. This possibly marked the place where the king would sit on ceremonial occasions. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch5.htm

Ophir

`Gold from Ophir for Beth-horon 30 Shekels` is the translation of an inscription on a potsherd that was found at Tell Qasileh (near Tel Aviv). The exact location of Ophir remains a mystery, although there have been many ideas put forward by Bible students. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch6.htm

Moab

The Moabite stone was discovered in 1868. It was found in the land of Moab and was carved with an inscription. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch7.htm

Tel Mardikh

On this site of a 4,000 year old fortification, perhaps the most remarkable `find` of the century has been uncovered - 18,000 fired clay and rock tablets relating to the economy, administration and international dealings of this once great empire of Ebla. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch8.htm

Black Obelisk From Assyria

The Black Obelisk was discovered by Henry Layard in 1845 and describes the campaigns of Shalmanezer 111 of Assyria who reigned at about 850 B.C. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch9.htm

Hezekiah`s Aqueduct

A tunnel was constructed from the spring at Gihon - what is now called the Virgin`s Fountain - under the city walls and through the rock to the southern end of the city of Jerusalem, to the pool of Siloam. This would be a difficult feat in these days of sophisticated surveying and measuring equipment. It was even more remarkable for the times of Hezekiah, because the impending invasion meant there was very little time and gangs of workmen had to start from either end. When the tunnel was complete, the spring outside the city was blocked up and the water flowed into the city. [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch10.htm

The Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins

The VCRC is an innovative project based on the collaboration of private coin collectors and dealers and a college professor who wants to create a useful resource for his students, other teachers and their students, and the general public. The images and initial descriptions are provided by collectors and professional numismatists, allowing us to present a more extensive database of coins that would otherwise be possible. [Biblical and Other Coins]

Link: http://vcrc.austincollege.edu/

Archaeology and the Bible

Can the Bible be trusted? If we are to study its pages and read what it has to say to us in our daily situation and current events, we must be convinced that it is a book with power to change lives, to lift people up, and to give hope. We must believe in its authenticity and in its inspiration and understand its history and meaning, before it can have any impact on our minds and lives.

Link: http://www.amazingdiscoveries.org/archaeology.html

Maps of the Roman World

in the First Century C.E. [Century One Foundation Bookstore]

Link: http://www.centuryone.com/rmnwrd.html

An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors "Welcome to De Imperatoribus Romanis, a web site which simply allows its users to retrieve short biographical essays of all the Roman emperors from the accession of the Emperor Augustus to the death of the Emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus. Each essay on this site,which is peer reviewed, is written by a scholar and is accompanied by a bibliography,illustrations, and footnotes". [Rome] [Political Resources]

Link: http://www.roman-emperors.org/

Tektonitron Encyclopedia Apologetica

Apologetics site with answers and evidences on a number of difficult subjects.

Link: http://www.tektonics.org/index2.html

Tektonitron Encyclopedia Apologetica

Apologetics site with answers and evidences on a number of difficult subjects. Tekton Apologetics Ministries is committed to providing scholarly answers to serious questions which are often posed on major and minor elements of the Christian faith. We believe in the importance of sound Christian doctrine which is based on a careful exegetical analysis of scriptures from the Holy Bible. We also believe that it is important to incorporate the findings of various theological and scientific disciplines in order to properly assess the veracity of scriptural evidences, and to carefully evaluate issues which are relevant to the Church as a whole.

Link: http://www.tektonics.org/index2.html

Blood Atonement

This is perhaps the most difficult truth for mankind to accept, that the life of an innocent victim would be slaughtered on behalf of the guilty. To fully understand this we need to go back to the garden of Eden in the Book of Genesis. By Rusty Russell, Bible History online

Link: https://bible-history.com/tabernacle/TAB4Blood_Atonement.htm

Pontius Pilate

The fifth Roman procurator of Judea (ruled 26-36 AD), who issued the official order sentencing Jesus to death by crucifixion. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/jesus/jesusuntitled00000472.htm#f174968a

Pontius Pilate

The fifth Roman procurator of Judea (ruled 26-36 AD), who issued the official order sentencing Jesus to death by crucifixion. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/jesus/jesusuntitled00000472.htm#f174968a

Kinship in Bible Times

From Dr. K. C. Hanson, "The social domain of kinship covers a broad range of institutions: genealogy and descent, marriage and divorce, and dowry-systems and inheritance. Because kinship in the ancient Mediterranean impacted virtually every part of life and every other social domain, it is fundamental for readers of the Bible to have a solid grasp of how kinship functioned in these cultures. While one might assume that "family" is a straightforward concept determined by biology, it is, in fact, a social construction."

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ARTICLES/kinship.html

Census Edict for Roman Egypt

This document shows a census ordered by Gaius Vibius Maximus, the Rmoan Prefectus of Egypt. GREEK TEXT (from Hunt & Edgar 1934:108), TRANSLATION by K. C. Hanson (Adapted from Hunt & Edgar). Language: Greek; Medium: papyrus; Length: 21 lines of writing; Genre: Official Edict; Date: 104 CE; Place of Discovery: Egypt Date of Discovery: ? Current Location: British Museum, London.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/greek/census.html

Marriage Contract From Egypt

This Greek document shows a Marriage Contract From Egypt written in 13 BC. It mentions Caesar Augustus and a Roman Drachma. (Thermion & Apollonius)

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/greek/marriage.html

Divorce Agreement from Egypt

This Greek document shows a Marriage Contract From Egypt written in 13 BC. It mentions Caesar Augustus and a Roman Drachma.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/greek/divorce.html

Widow's Petition Ostracon

This pottery was discovered with 8 lines of Hebrew text. Legal Petition written around the 9th""7th centuries BC.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/westsem/petition.html

Chronology of Roman Rulers

Chronology of Roman Rulers (200 BCE""565 CE). By Dr. K.C. Hanson

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PTJ/ptj3.html

Chronology of Roman Rulers

Chronology of Roman Rulers (200 BCE""565 CE). By Dr. K.C. Hanson

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PTJ/romanrulers.html

Marcus Aurelius Statue

Roman Emperor (161-180 CE) Roman marble Pergamon Museum, Berlin Reconstructed at and on loan to J. Paul Getty Museum Los Angeles, California photo ©K. C. Hanson 2002. This exhibition features the conservation of a statue of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius, who ruled the Roman Empire from A.D. 161 to 180. The statue belongs to the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, and the conservation was a collaboration between the Pergamon and the Getty Museum. [photos and text] (The J. Paul Getty Trust)

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/marcus.html

The Pilate Inscription

The Pilate Inscription [text & interpretation] Language: Latin; Medium: limestone; Size: 82 centimeters high 65 centimeters wide; Length: 4 lines of writing; Genre: Building Dedication Dedicator: Pontius Pilate (praefect of Judea) Approximate Date: 26-37 CE; Place of Discovery: Caesarea, Israel; Date of Discovery: 1961; Current Location: Israel Museum(Jerusalem)

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/latin/pilate.html

Josephus' References to Crucifixion

"Josephus (b. 37 C.E.) is our best literary source for the practice of crucifixion in Israel during the Greco-Roman period. As a general in command of the Jewish forces of Galilee in the Great Revolt against Rome (66-73 C.E.), he reports his attempts to save the lives of three crucified captives by appealing directly to the Roman general Titus. One survived the cross under a physician's care, the other two could not be saved." by Dr. James D. Tabor

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/cruc-josephus.html

Josephus' References to Crucifixion

"Josephus (b. 37 C.E.) is our best literary source for the practice of crucifixion in Israel during the Greco-Roman period. As a general in command of the Jewish forces of Galilee in the Great Revolt against Rome (66-73 C.E.), he reports his attempts to save the lives of three crucified captives by appealing directly to the Roman general Titus. One survived the cross under a physician's care, the other two could not be saved." by Dr. James D. Tabor

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/cruc-josephus.html

Josephus' References to Crucifixion

Crucifixion in Antiquity - The Jewish Roman World of Jesus by Joe Zias. "Undoubtedly, one of the cruelest and most humiliating forms of punishment in the ancient world was, according to ancient sources, crucifixion. The Jewish historian Josephus best described it following the siege of Jerusalem by the Romans in AD 66-70 as "the most wretched of deaths."1 Whereas in Seneca's Epistle 101 to Lucilius, he argues that suicide is preferable to the cruel fate of being put on the cross." Zias cites references from Josephus, Plutarch, Rufus, and others. Joe Zias was the Curator of Archaeology/Anthropology for the Israel Antiquities Authority from 1972 to 1997.

Link: http://www.religiousstudies.uncc.edu/JDTABOR/cruc-josephus.html

Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Palestine

Selected texts from Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Israel by Dr. James D. Tabor. ARCHELAUS'S ETHNARCHY IS REDUCED INTO A [ROMAN] PROVINCE. THE SEDITION OF JUDAS OF GALILEE. THE THREE SECTS. THE DEATH OF SALOME. THE CITIES WHICH HEROD AND PHILIP BUILT. PILATE OCCASIONS DISTURBANCES. TIBERIUS PUTS AGRIPPA INTO BONDS BUT CAIUS FREES HIM FROM THEM, AND MAKES HIM KING. HEROD ANTIPAS IS BANISHED. CAIUS COMMANDS THAT HIS STATUE SHOULD BE SET UP IN THE TEMPLE ITSELF; AND WHAT PETRONIUS DID THEREUPON.

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/palestine.html

Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Palestine

Selected texts from Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Israel by Dr. James D. Tabor. ARCHELAUS'S ETHNARCHY IS REDUCED INTO A [ROMAN] PROVINCE. THE SEDITION OF JUDAS OF GALILEE. THE THREE SECTS. THE DEATH OF SALOME. THE CITIES WHICH HEROD AND PHILIP BUILT. PILATE OCCASIONS DISTURBANCES. TIBERIUS PUTS AGRIPPA INTO BONDS BUT CAIUS FREES HIM FROM THEM, AND MAKES HIM KING. HEROD ANTIPAS IS BANISHED. CAIUS COMMANDS THAT HIS STATUE SHOULD BE SET UP IN THE TEMPLE ITSELF; AND WHAT PETRONIUS DID THEREUPON.

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/palestine.html

Josephus on John the Baptizer

Selected texts from Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Israel by Dr. James D. Tabor. Antiquities of the Jews XVIII Chapter 5. HEROD THE TETRARCH MAKES WAR WITH ARETAS, THE KING OF ARABIA, AND IS BEATEN BY HIM AS ALSO CONCERNING THE DEATH OF JOHN THE BAPTIST. HOW VITELLIUS WENT UP TO JERUSALEM; TOGETHER WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF AGRIPPA AND OF THE POSTERITY OF HEROD THE GREAT.

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/john.html

Josephus on John the Baptizer

Selected texts from Josephus on early 1st Century Roman Israel by Dr. James D. Tabor. HEROD THE TETRARCH MAKES WAR WITH ARETAS, THE KING OF ARABIA, AND IS BEATEN BY HIM AS ALSO CONCERNING THE DEATH OF JOHN THE BAPTIST. HOW VITELLIUS WENT UP TO JERUSALEM; TOGETHER WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF AGRIPPA AND OF THE POSTERITY OF HEROD THE GREAT.

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/palestine.html

Josephus on the Death of James

Selected texts from Josephus on the Death of James, brother of Jesus, in 62 C.E. by Dr. James D. Tabor. Josephus, Antiquities Book 20: chapter 9 CONCERNING ALBINUS UNDER WHOSE PROCURATORSHIP JAMES WAS SLAIN; AS ALSO WHAT EDIFICES WERE BUILT BY AGRIPPA.

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/james.html

Josephus on the Death of James

Selected texts from Josephus on the Death of James, brother of Jesus, in 62 C.E. by Dr. James D. Tabor. Josephus, Antiquities Book 20: chapter 9 CONCERNING ALBINUS UNDER WHOSE PROCURATORSHIP JAMES WAS SLAIN; AS ALSO WHAT EDIFICES WERE BUILT BY AGRIPPA.

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/james.html

Standard Chronology

Standard Chronology according to Judaism by Dr. James D. Tabor. Timeline of events, Ancient Empires, Roman Emperors, and Herodian Rulers

Link: http://www.uncc.edu/jdtabor/chronology.html

View of the Roman Siege Camp at the foot of Masada.

[images] [Israel]

Link: http://the-travel-chronicles.com/images/masada/roman%20camp.jpg

A Scene from the Gilgamesh Epic

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. A scene from the Gilgamesh Epic Tablet 11: The Flood Narrative ? century BC. Gilgamesh (cylinder seal impression).

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/gilgtab.html

Broken Ossuaries at the Mount of Olives

[images] [Israel]

Link: http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/imagenes_biblianazar/esp_bi20.jpg

Assyrian Officers

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Assyrian Officers; 8th century BC; bas relief; Pergamon Museum, Berlin.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/assyrians5.html

The Valley of Hinnom- Gehenna!

Getting Oriented In The Hinnom Valley (Jerusalem) Locating The Solomonic Temple "And go forth unto the valley of the son of Hinnom, which is by the entry of the east gate, and proclaim there the words that I shall tell thee," Jeremiah 19:2 KJV [images] [Israel]

Link: http://members.fortunecity.com/brianshouse/briansannex/hinnomvalley.html

Beth Shean Roman period ruins.

[images] [Israel]

Link: http://www.israelimages.com/searchresult.php?comefrom=catsub&src_text_arr[]=343

Beth Shean Roman period ruins 2

The public toilets at Beth Shean [images] [Israel]

Link: http://realtravel.com/tiberias-photos-p16555-7547178.html

Assyrian Spearmen

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Assyrian Soldiers #1: Spearmen; bas relief; 8th century BC; Pergamon Museum, Berlin

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/assyrians1.html

Shamshi-Adad V

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Shamshi-Adad V; Assyrian Emperor; (reigned 823""811 BC); limestone stele; Pergamon Museum, Berlin

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/king3.html

Esarhaddon

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Esarhaddon; Assyrian Emperor; (ruled 681""669 BC); stele; Pergamon Museum, Berlin

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/king1.html

Esarhaddon and Vassals

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Esarhaddon; Assyrian Emperor; (ruled 681""669 BC); with Tirhaka (Ethiopian King of Egypt); and Ba'alu (King of Tyre); dolerite stele; 3.22 meters high; Pergamon Museum, Berlin

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/king2.html

Assyrian Warrior King

Assyrian Cavalry (bas relief)7th century BC

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/assywk9.jpg

Dr. K. C. Hanson's Photo Galleries

Map of the Ancient Near East from Dr. K. C. Hanson's home page.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/

Simple Topographical Map of Israel

[Maps] [Israel]

Link: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/7987/maps.html

Maps of the Tel Rhov Dig

[Maps] [Israel] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/7987/maps.html

Maps of the Tel Rhov Dig

The 1997-1998 Excavations at Tel Rehov: Preliminary Report [Israel Exploration Journal 49 (1999), 1-42]Amihai Mazar, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Archaeology, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91904, Israel With the participation of Dan Browning, John Camp, M. Caplan, SeJin Koh, Robert Mullins, Nava Panitz-Cohen, Yoav Shor, Amir Sumakai-Fink, Dalit Weinblatt and Adi Ziv-Esudri [Maps] [Israel] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.rehov.org/Rehov/publications/index1.htm

Map of Near Eastern Sites

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. Oriental Institute expeditions have worked in virtually every region of the Near East, excavating the remains of these ancient cultures and studying and recording their monuments. The scattering of red dots (each representing a site where the Institute has worked) on the map attests to the broad range of that involvement.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/

Map of Near Eastern Sites

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. Oriental Institute expeditions have worked in virtually every region of the Near East, excavating the remains of these ancient cultures and studying and recording their monuments. The scattering of red dots (each representing a site where the Institute has worked) on the map attests to the broad range of that involvement.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/site.html

Map of Sites in Southern Syria and Palestine

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. ORIENTAL INSTITUTE MAP SERIES - LEVANT SITE MAP. This Map enlarges to 300 dpi for a great picture.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/levant.html

Map of Sites in Southern Syria and Palestine

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. ORIENTAL INSTITUTE MAP SERIES - LEVANT SITE MAP. This Map enlarges to 300 dpi for a great picture.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/levant.html

Ancient Near East Site Maps

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background.

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/INFO/MAP/ANE_Maps.html

Ancient Egypt - Nubia History

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: https://oi.uchicago.edu/museum-exhibits/history-ancient-nubiaearch/lab/map/maps/egypt.html

Ancient Egypt - Nubia History

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: https://oi.uchicago.edu/museum-exhibits/history-ancient-nubia

Ancient Iran Site Map

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/iran.html

Ancient Iran Site Map

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/iran.html

Ancient Iraq Site Map

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/iraq.html

Ancient Sudan & Nubia Site Map

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/sudan.html

Ancient Syria Site Map

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/syria.html

Ancient Turkey Site Map

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/maps/turkey.html

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago

The directory contains a TABLE OF CONTENTS (Website Query/Search), ABZU (Index to Ancient Near Eastern Resources on the Internet), THE MUSEUM, MUSEUM EDUCATION, & STORE (SUQ), ELECTRONIC, RESOURCES, RESEARCH & PROJECTS, DEPARTMENTS, and PUBLICATIONS.

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/default.html

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago

The directory contains a TABLE OF CONTENTS (Website Query/Search), ABZU (Index to Ancient Near Eastern Resources on the Internet), THE MUSEUM, MUSEUM EDUCATION, & STORE (SUQ), ELECTRONIC, RESOURCES, RESEARCH & PROJECTS, DEPARTMENTS, and PUBLICATIONS.

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/default.html

Map of Trade Routes and Empires

Map of Trade Routes and great empires of the 1st Century AD.

Link: http://www.dalton.org/groups/rome/RMap2.html

Topographical Maps of Sites in Palestine

Topographical Maps of Israel. Inscriptions of the Land of Israel: Browse by Maps. This map goes into great detail with AUTOCAD renderings of the site, with links to inscriptions and pictures.

Link: http://www.palestineremembered.com/Acre/Maps/Story584.html

Topographical Maps of Sites in Palestine

Topographical Maps of Israel. Inscriptions of the Land of Israel: Browse by Maps. This map goes into great detail with AUTOCAD renderings of the site, with links to inscriptions and pictures.

Link: http://www.palestineremembered.com/Acre/Maps/Story584.html

Map of Ancient Jerusalem

Ancient Jerusalem: From the University of Texas Map Collection (not copyrighted) note: Solomon's time.

Link: https://coursebible.com/maps/map-of-ancient-jerusalem

Holyland Model of Ancient Jerusalem

The scale of the Holyland Model is 1:50 (2 cm. = 1m., 1/4 in. = 1 ft.). The model was produced using the same materials that were used in the times of the original construction, such as marble, stone, wood, copper and iron. The model was completed in 1969. The sources used in planning the model were the Mishna, the Tosephtha, the Talmud, the writings of Jesephus and the New Testament. The construction of the model is due to the initiative and resources of Mr. Hans Kroch. The archaeological and topographical data were supplied by Prof. M. Avi-Yonah, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, one of the foremost authorities on the subject. Since construction, the site is continuously updated according to the latest archaeological findings.

Link: http://www.holylandnetwork.com/temple/model.htm

Harmony of the Gospels

This chart organizes events from the life of Christ. The events are in approximate chronological order. When an event appears in more than one gospel, the parallel accounts are grouped together.

Link: http://www.lifeofchrist.com/life/harmony.html

Kinship in Bible Times

From Dr. K. C. Hanson, "The social domain of kinship covers a broad range of institutions: genealogy and descent, marriage and divorce, and dowry-systems and inheritance. Because kinship in the ancient Mediterranean impacted virtually every part of life and every other social domain, it is fundamental for readers of the Bible to have a solid grasp of how kinship functioned in these cultures. While one might assume that "family" is a straightforward concept determined by biology, it is, in fact, a social construction."

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ARTICLES/kinship.html

Ba'al Worship in the Old Testament

Ba'al Worship in the Old Testament Brief survey of the mythical background of Canaanite Ba'al worship and its impact on Israelite religion. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament/baal

Travelers and Strangers

"Hospitality" in the Middle East. Short article dealing with the implications of Near Eastern social customs relating to travelers and resident aliens. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/travelers.html

Speaking the Language of Canaan

A paper dealing with the Israelite appropriation of metaphors, symbols, and conceptual categories from the "pool" of ancient Middle Eastern culture, noting both the similarities and differences, and the implications both for understanding the OT, as well as for addressing the modern conflict of science and religion. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/langcaan.html

Comparison of World Views

Comparison of World Views: Perception of the Physical World A graphic to go with the article "Speaking the Language of Canaan," under the sub-category of Manners & Customs, comparing various ways of understanding and talking about the physical world. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/worldview.html

Israel's Codes of Conduct

Israel's Codes of Conduct Compared to Surrounding Nations A comparison of Israel's social laws as based on the Ten Words (Ten Commandments) with those of surrounding nations; while they shared many aspects, Israel's laws differed in three important ways.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/lawcodes.html

The Symbolism of Vine in Scripture

Short article examining OT uses of the metaphor of vine and vineyard as background for John's account of Jesus as the true vine. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/vine.html

Map of Iron Age Sites

[Archaeology] [Israel]

Link: http://www.biblemysteries.com/images/philarch1.gif

Tax Collectors and Sinners

Short article identifying these two groups in the social background of 1st century AD Judaism. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.crivoice.org/tax.html

John The Baptist

John The Baptist: The Man And His Influence. Short article on John the Baptist and his setting in 1st century Judaism. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/johnbaptist.html

Inheritance Practices

Inheritance Practices in the First Century Era. Short article providing background for Luke's story of the Prodigal son. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/inheritance.html

Inheritance Practices

Inheritance Practices in the First Century Era. Short article providing background for Luke's story of the Prodigal son. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/inheritance.html

Glossary of terms related to Judaism

Glossary of Judaism - Jewish Glossary, Jewish Terms - ReligionFacts

Link: http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/glossary.htm

Roman Political Rulers of Palestine

First Century Roman Political Rulers of Israel. A table of Roman Emperors, Procurators, and Kings who governed Israel in the New Testament era. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.crivoice.org/romanrul.html

Roman Political Rulers of Palestine

First Century Roman Political Rulers of Israel. A table of Roman Emperors, Procurators, and Kings who governed Israel in the New Testament era. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.crivoice.org/romanrul.html

The Resurrection Influence on the Early Church

The Resurrection: Influence on the Church in the First Decades. Short article examining the idea of the resurrection of Jesus in the context of first century thought, and its Christian expression mainly from 1 Corinthians 15. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.crivoice.org/resurrection.html

The Needy in Jewish Tradition

Brief look at the development from biblical persepctives of ways of dealing with the poor and needy in Judaism. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/needy.html

A Threshing Floor near Bethlehem

In this photo, the harvested grain stalks are stacked by the threshing floor awaiting threshing. While this threshing floor has been constructed at the edge of an open field, threshing floors in the ancient world were often carved directly into the rock. Biblical tradition recalls that the site for the temple in Jerusalem was originally a threshing floor that David purchased from Araunah the Jebusite (2 Sam 24:18-23; or Ornan in 2 Chron 21:20-23). There are references in this account to the threshing sledges, the oxen, and even the already threshed wheat. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.crivoice.org/phototour/pthresh.html

Olive Tree on the Mount of Olives

Olive Tree on the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem. Jesus is seen many times in the gospel accounts at the Mount of Olives. He prayed in the garden of Gethsemene which means "olive press." From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.crivoice.org/phototour/polivetree.html

The Laws Of The Basic Principles Of The Torah

THE TEXT USED FOR THIS TRANSLATION WAS THE RAMBAM LE'AM, PUBLISHED BY MOSSAD HA'RAV KOOK, JERUSALEM.

Link: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Principles_of_Judaism.html

A Watchtower in a Field

A Watchtower in a Field. Watchtowers were often used in Bible times as a "lookout" place, usually built in a field or vineyard. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/phototour/ptower.html

A Potter at His Wheel in Hebron

A potter was a common occupation in the Biblical world (Jer 18:3-4). While the very rich could afford vessels of silver, gold, or carved stone, or even of glass by Roman times, most people used common fired clay vessels for everyday use and storage (2 Tim 2:20). These might range from simple plates or cups to very large pots for storing grain or wine (in the Roman era called amphora). They also became frequently used metaphors in Scripture. God is the Potter, we are the clay. From Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.crivoice.org/phototour/ppotter.html

Herod's Temple in Jerusalem

Reconstructed Scale Model from the Holyland Hotel in Jerusalem.

Link: http://www.holylandnetwork.com/temple/model_18.htm

Jerash, Main Roman Street

From Christian Resource Institute. The greatest systematic road builders of the ancient world were the Romans, who were very aware of the military, economic, and administrative advantages of a good road system. The Romans began their road-making task in 334 BC and by the peak of the empire had built nearly 53,000 miles of road connecting their capital with the frontiers of their enormous empire.

Link: http://www.crivoice.org/phototour/pjerashst.html

Steps to the Mikveh, Qumran

Steps leading down to the Mikveh, or ritual emersion baths, at the settlement of Qumran at the northwestern edge of the Dead Sea in the Jordan Valley.

Link: http://www.crivoice.org/phototour/pmikveh.html

Mount Tabor

Photo from Christian Resource Institute. Mount Tabor, Hebrew HAR TAVOR, Arabic JABAL AT-TUR, historic elevation of northern Israel, in Lower Galilee near the edge of the Plain of Esdraelon ('Emeq Yizre'el). Though comparatively low (1,929 feet [588 m]), it dominates the level landscape around it, leading to the biblical expression 'like Tabor among the mountains' (Jeremiah 46:18). Mount Tabor is the traditional site of the Transfiguration of Jesus.

Link: http://www.crivoice.org/phototour/ptabor.html

The View from Mount Nebo

Photo from Christian Resource Institute. "This is the Jordan Valley as seen from the top of Mount Nebo in the Transjordan region (the modern Kingom of Jordan). The Jordan river is the faint diagonal line in the center of the photo, and the land beyond is Israel, the modern nation of Israel. This view is toward the northwest in the direction of Shechem (Samaria)." This was the mountain where Moses viewed the promised land.

Link: http://www.crivoice.org/phototour/pnebo.html

The Valley of Jezreel and Plain of Esdralon

Map provided from Christian Resource Institute. "There was so much bloodshed in these plains that both Jezreel and Megiddo became synonymns for violence and bloodshed, and could even become symbols for the judgement of God (Hos 1:4-5). The Mountain of Megiddo, in Hebrew har megiddo anglicized into Armageddon, became the ultimate symbol for warfare and conflict." The name Jezreel, which means "God sows."

Link: http://www.crivoice.org/phototour/pjezreel.html

Cities in the Time of Joshua

Map provided by Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.crivoice.org/phototour/pjoshuacity.html

Frequently Asked Questions About Scripture

Apologetics: Defending the Faith Blessed Virgin Mary Canon Law Catholic Doctrine and Catechetics Eastern Catholic Churches History and the Catholic Tradition Liturgy and Sacred Music Moral Theology Natural Family Planning Philosophy Pro-Life Issues Scripture, Divine Revelation Spiritual Theology & Questions

Link: http://www.ewtn.com/expert/expertfaqframe.asp?source=/ewtn/experts/conference.htm

Frequently Asked Questions About Scripture

Over the years International Bible Society has received many questions about the Bible. Listed below are numerous answers to these questions. We hope you find these interesting and helpful.

Link: http://www.ibs.org/bibles/about/index.php

The Abbreviations BCE and BC

From Christian Resource Institute FAQ. "The designations BCE and CE are simply a different way to write the traditional BC and AD. The basis of our modern calendar was developed by Christian monks in the Middle Ages who decided to begin numbering years with the birth of Christ, and designate that year "0" (most historians agree that they miscalculated the year and the actual date of the birth of Christ was between 6 BC and 4 BC by the present calendar). Years following year 0 were designated AD, for the Latin anno Domini, "in the year of the Lord. Years counting backward before year 0 came to be designated BC, before Christ."

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/bce.html

The Abbreviations BCE and BC

From Christian Resource Institute FAQ. "The designations BCE and CE are simply a different way to write the traditional BC and AD. The basis of our modern calendar was developed by Christian monks in the Middle Ages who decided to begin numbering years with the birth of Christ, and designate that year "0" (most historians agree that they miscalculated the year and the actual date of the birth of Christ was between 6 BC and 4 BC by the present calendar). Years following year 0 were designated AD, for the Latin anno Domini, "in the year of the Lord. Years counting backward before year 0 came to be designated BC, before Christ."

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/bce.html

The Abbreviations BCE and BC

From Christian Resource Institute FAQ. "The designations BCE and CE are simply a different way to write the traditional BC and AD. The basis of our modern calendar was developed by Christian monks in the Middle Ages who decided to begin numbering years with the birth of Christ, and designate that year "0" (most historians agree that they miscalculated the year and the actual date of the birth of Christ was between 6 BC and 4 BC by the present calendar). Years following year 0 were designated AD, for the Latin anno Domini, "in the year of the Lord. Years counting backward before year 0 came to be designated BC, before Christ."

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/bce.html

Sheol, Hell, and the Dead

From Christian Resource Institute FAQ. A short answer to the question about death, hell, and the grave according to Scripture.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/dead.html

Sheol, Hell, and the Dead

From Christian Resource Institute FAQ. A short answer to the question about death, hell, and the grave according to Scripture.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/dead.html

God as a "Jealous" God

From Christian Resource Institute FAQ. A short answer to the question about God as a "jealous" God.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/jealous.html

Did God Order the Massacre of Canaanites?

From Christian Resource Institute FAQ. A short answer to the question, "Did God Order the Massacre of Canaanites?"

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/killcanaanites.html

Old Testament Sacrifice: Magic or Sacrament?

Short essay from Christian Resource Institute. Deals with the subject of sacrifice and rituals on the ancient "yom kippur" the day of atonement.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/sacrifice.html

Old Testament Sacrifice: Magic or Sacrament?

Short essay from Christian Resource Institute. Deals with the subject of sacrifice and rituals on the ancient "yom kippur" the day of atonement.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/sacrifice.html

Torah and the Old Testament Law

Short essay from Christian Resource Institute. Torah As Holiness: Old Testament "Law" as Response to Divine Grace.

Link: http://www.crivoice.org/torahholiness.html

Social Ethics in the Prophets

Short theological essay from Christian Resource Institute. Deals with the prophets and the practical application of social ethics in the community.

Link: https://coursebible.com/biblical-theology/social-ethics-in-the-prophets

Social Ethics in the Prophets

Short theological essay from Christian Resource Institute. Deals with the prophets and the practical application of social ethics in the community.

Link: https://coursebible.com/biblical-theology/social-ethics-in-the-prophets

Bible Knowledge Accelerator #2- Brief Survey of the O.T.

From Bible History Online This is a very simple overview of the history of the Old Testament from the creation of the world to the destruction and rebuilding of Jerusalem. It follows the major people and events of the Old Testament in chronological order.

Link: https://bible-history.com/bka/bka2.htm

The Books of the Bible

From The Four Eleven Foundation: A very simple survey of several of the Books of the Bible - by David Griffiths.

Link: http://www.4-11.org/bible.php

The Complete King James Version

The Complete King James Version: Old and New Testaments and Apocrypha

Link: http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/studybible/browse.html

The Complete King James Version

Old and New Testaments and Apocrypha.

Link: http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/studybible/browse.html

The Complete Revised Standard Version

Old and New Testaments and Apocrypha.

Link: http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/rsv/browse.html

Die Bibel, Martin Luther Translation

Full texts of the Old and New Testaments.

Link: http://www.hti.umich.edu/relig/luther/browse.html

Ba'al Ugaritic god of Storms & War

Ba'al Ugaritic god of Storms & War From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Ba'al Ugaritic God of Storms & War (14th century BC) Louvre Museum, Paris

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/baal.html

Ba'al Ugaritic god of Storms & War

Ba'al Ugaritic god of Storms & War From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Ba'al Ugaritic God of Storms & War (14th century BC) Louvre Museum, Paris

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/baal.html

Ugaritic Clay Tablet

From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Ugaritic clay tablet From Sapanu. Banco de Datos Filolsgicos Semmticos Noroccidentales (CSIC-Instituto de Filologma, Madrid) note: The Semitic language of ancient Ugarit closely related to Phoenician and Hebrew

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/ugtab.html

Ugaritic god Ba'al

From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Ba'al Ugaritic god of Storms & War; 14th century BC. Bronze & gold statue. Note: The adjective "Ugaritic" is characteristic of the ancient city of Ugarit.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/baal2.html

Aramean Queen (?) with servant

From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Aramean Queen(?)and servant; funerary stele; 8th century BC (Berlin VA 2995) Pergamon Museum, Berlin. Note: Aramaean is in Latin Aramaeus, from Greek Aramaios, from Hebrew `ArAm Aramaic, ancient name for Syria, a Semitic people of the second millennium B.C. in Syria and Upper Mesopotamia.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/queen.html

Canaanite Lions

From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Canaanite Lions; basalt stele; 14th century BC. Discovery: 1928 in Beth-Shean/Sythopolis (Tel el-Husn). Current Location: Israel Museum (Jerusalem) Hanson has a couple good verses from the Bible on the page. One reads: "Then Samson went down with his father and mother to Timnah, and he came to the vineyards of Timnah. And behold, a young lion roared against him; and the spirit of Yahweh came upon him powerfully, and he tore the lion apart as one tears a goat-kid. And he had nothing in his hand." (Judges 14:5-6)

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/lions.html

The Habakkuk Commentary from Qumran

From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. 1QpHab: The Habakkuk Pesher (The Commentary on Habakkuk from Qumran, Cave 1).

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/1qphab.html

The main street in Ancient Corinth

[images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://lh4.ggpht.com/_iR7DKXFwE1o/Rgwq4O33L2I/AAAAAAAAAE8/2f0BahP4sjQ/HPIM0695.JPG

The main street in Ancient Corinth

Photo [images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.shunya.net/Pictures/Greece/Corinth/Corinth1.jpg

Model of Herod's Temple

From K. C. Hanson's Gallery of Photos of Syria & Israel. Model of Herod's Temple; Holyland Hotel, Jerusalem. Note: The model shows Jerusalem as it must have looked in 63 AD., the end of the Second Temple era, just before the Romans destroyed the Temple in 70 AD. The models construction was supervised by Prof. Michael Avi Yonah and was based on descriptions of the city given by Flavius Josephus, the Talmuds, the Mishna, the Tosephtha, recent archaeological discoveries, and contemporary sources. Jesus called this "My Father's House."

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/temple.html

The famous Corinth Canal

shortens the voyage from the Adriatic to Piraeus by 200 miles [images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.galenfrysinger.com/corinth_canal_greece.htm

The famous 'Pilate' inscription of Ceasarea

This stone was discovered at Caesarea. Its inscription commemorates Pilate's erection and dedication of a Tiberium, a temple to the divine genius of Tiberius, the Roman Emperor during Pilate's tenure in office. It reveals the extent to which Romanization had advanced in Caesarea and replaced Jewish worship. Ironically, Tiberius himself forbade his worship in Rome but allowed it in the eastern parts of the empire. The fact that the inscription is written in Latin is also a sign of Romanization since Greek was still the language of international affairs, and the locals in Judea spoke Aramaic or Hebrew. [Jesus] [Archaeology]

Link: http://cojs.org/cojswiki/Pontius_Pilate’s_Tiberium_Inscription,_26-36_CE

The Flood Narrative From the Gilgamesh Epic

Translation by E.A. Speiser, in Ancient Near Eastern Texts (Princeton, 1950)

Link: http://www.pseudepigrapha.com/pseudepigrapha/gilgamesh.html

The Hammurabi Stele Text

THE HAMMURABI STELE. Partially Retold in English, by Stan Rummel, Director of The Humanities Program, Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, Texas. "In the following selections, I have frequently changed the grammar and sequence of words from that of the original text, and I have omitted sections of material, so that what is given will read comprehensibly in English. I have grouped regulations by topical categories for discussion, rather than simply following their numerical sequence." Also includes an image: Detail of the top of the Hammurabi Stele, picturing King Hammurabi coming before the god Shamash.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/hammurabi.html

Mars Hill

In classical times, the Areopagus functioned as the chief homicide court of Athens. Ares was supposed to have been tried here by the Gods for the murder of Poseidon's son Alirrothios. Another legend states that the hill was the site of the trial of Orestes for killing his stepmother and her lover, Clytemnestra and Aegisthus. In pre-classical times (before the 5th century BC), the Areopagus was the council of elders of the city, like the Roman Senate. Like the Senate, its membership derived from those who had held high public office, in this case that of Archon. In 462 BC, Ephialtes put through reforms which deprived the Areopagus of almost all its functions except that of a murder tribunal. Approach to Mars Hill. © Howard Chalkley At the foot of the Areopagus was a temple dedicated to the Erinyes where murderers used to find shelter so as not to face the consequences of their actions. Near the Areopagus was also constructed the basilica of Dionysius Areopagites. [images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/greece/athens-areopagus-mars-hill.htm

Ossuaries found in Dominus Flevit on Mount of Olives

[images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://holylandarchive.com/photos_src/IJNTML06_800.jpg

Ossuaries from Temple Mount Excavation

[images] [Archaeology]

Link: http://research.haifa.ac.il/~hecht/ossuaries.jpg

Manumission and Bridewealth Document

Manumission and Bridewealth Document (14th cent. BCE?)TRANSLATION by K. C. Hanson (Adapted from Finkelstein 1969:546). Language: Akkadian; Medium: Clay tablet; Size: 43 centimeters long 5 centimeters wide; Length: 25 lines of writing Genre: Manumission & Marriage Contract Approximate Date: 14th cent. BCE? Place of Discovery: Ugarit acropolis, Ras Shamra, Syria Date of Discovery: 1936 Current Location: Musée National d'Alep Aleppo, Syria.

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/manumission.html

Ishtar Gate Inscription

Dedicatory Inscription on the Ishtar Gate, Babylon; TRANSLATION (Adapted from Marzahn 1995:29-30)Language: Akkadian Medium: glazed brick Size: c. 15 meters high c. 10 meters wide Length: 60 lines of writing Genre: Dedication Inscription Dedicator: Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylonia (reigned 605""562 BCE) Approximate Date: 600 BCE Place of Discovery: Babylon (near modern Baghdad, Iraq) Date of Excavation: 1899""1914 Current Location: Pergamon Museen (Berlin, Germany)

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/ishtarins.html

Megiddo

[images] [Israel]

Link: http://www.tau.ac.il/~archpubs/megiddo/index.html

The headwaters of the Jordan at Banias.

[images] [Israel]

Link: http://www.bibleplaces.com/images/Dan_headwaters_of_Jordan_tb_n011500_wr.jpg

Gilgamesh Epic

From K. C. Hanson's Photo Gallery of Mesopotamia. Gilgamesh Epic Tablet 11: The Flood Narrative ? century BC

Link: http://www.kchanson.com/PHOTOS/gilgtab.html

Oriental Institute Table of Contents

Multiple images and Maps (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/OI_TOC.html

EGYPT - Abu Simbel

Photographic Archive Series (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/gallery/pa_egypt_bees_abu_simbel/

Translation glossary

Biblical terms

Link: http://www.geocities.com/bible_translation/glossary.htm

Palace Complex: Structures, Reliefs, and Inscriptions

PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Palace_Darius.html

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Palace_Complex.html

The Apadana

PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Palace_Darius.html

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Apadana.html

PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN

Palace of Darius, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Palace_Darius.html

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Palace_Darius.html

Palace of Darius

PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Palace_Darius.html

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Palace_Darius.html

The Throne Hall

PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Palace_Darius.html

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/museum/collections/pa/persepolis/throne_hall.html

The Throne Hall

PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Palace_Darius.html

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Throne_Hall.html

The Gate of Xerxes

PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Gate_Xerxes.html

The Treasury

PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Treasury.html

The Palace of Xerxes

PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Palace_Xerxes.html

Cuneiform Tablets

PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Tablets.html

Seals and Seal Impressions

PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Seals.html

Survey of Old Testament History

A menu page for access to short summaries of OT History as a background for biblical interpretation. The history is organized around eight major periods: The Patriarchal Era (1800-1290), Exodus and the Period of the Judges (1290-1050), Early Israelite Monarchy (1050-750), Assyrian Dominance (750-640 BC), The Rise of Babylon and Exile (640-538), The Persian Period and Return (538-323), The Greek Wars/Maccabean Period (323-63), The Rise of Rome (63-3). Outline and Menu from Christian Resource Institute.

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

The Old Testament

Topical Studies on the subjects in certain books of the Old Testament from Christian Resource Institute. Includes: The Torah, The Prophets, and The Writings.

Link: https://coursebible.com/old-testament

The New Testament

Topical Studies on the subjects in certain books of the New Testament from Christian Resource Institute.

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

The New Testament

Topical Studies on the subjects in certain books of the New Testament from Christian Resource Institute.

Link: https://coursebible.com/new-testament

Key Biblical Dates

A list of significant biblical dates to provide a framework for the flow of biblical History from Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/keydates.html

Israelite Prophets Date Chart

Chart of the ministry dates of the major prophets of the Old Testament from Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/prophetschart.html

Israelite Kings Date Chart

Chart of the reigns of kings of the United Monarchy and the Divided Kingdoms of Israel and Judah to the fall of Jerusalem (1050 - 586 BC), color coded to show good and bad kings, as well as those deposed or assassinated; from Christian Resource Institute.

Link: http://www.cresourcei.org/israelitekings.html

Types of Manuscripts

An Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism at Robert Waltz Site. [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.skypoint.com/~waltzmn/intro.html#MSTypes

Printed Versions of the New Testament

An Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism at Robert Waltz Site. [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.skypoint.com/~waltzmn/intro.html#Printed

The Practice of Textual Criticism

An Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism at Robert Waltz Site. [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.skypoint.com/~waltzmn/intro.html#Practice

List of New Testament Manuscripts

An Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism at Robert Waltz Site. [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.skypoint.com/~waltzmn/intro.html#MSList

The Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism

Robert Waltz site. Conceived by Rich Elliott of Simon Greenleaf University [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.skypoint.com/~waltzmn/

Examples of How Textual Critics Resolve Variants

Some Sample Variant Readings and How Critics Resolve Them. The purpose of New Testament Textual Criticism is to recover the original New Testament text. This, obviously, requires the textual critic to resolve variants. This entry gives an assortment of variants, plus descriptions of how they have been resolved by various scholars . [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.skypoint.com/~waltzmn/Examples.html

American Standard Version 1901 Edition

This document is from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College. [Bible Versions] [Study Tools

Link: http://www.ccel.org/bible/asv/

The Septuagint with Apocrypha

Greek and English by Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton transcribed by Nelson Chin and placed in Public Domain, 1999 This document is from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College. [Bible Versions] [Study Tools

Link: http://www.ccel.org/bible/brenton/

Czech Bible Version

This document is from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College. [Bible Versions] [Study Tools

Link: http://www.ccel.org/bible/czech/

Authority of the Bible

Probe Ministries, Patrick Zukeran [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.probe.org/site/c.fdKEIMNsEoG/b.4227389/k.6202/Authority_of_the_Bible.htm

Thy Word is Truth

Christian Research Newsletter, Dr. Walter Martin[New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/cri/cri-nwsl/web/crn0062a.html

The Inerrancy of the Bible

Grace Notes [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics/inerrancy.html

Bibliology: The Doctrine of the Written Word

Biblical Studies Foundation, J. Hampton Keathley III [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.bible.org/docs/theology/biblio/biblio.htm

Are the Biblical Documents Reliable?

Leadership U, Jimmy Williams [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/bib-docu.html

Survey of Bible Doctrine: The Bible

Biblical Studies Foundation, Sid Litke, Th.M. [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.bible.org/docs/theology/biblio/bible.htm

World Wide Study Bible

The Study Bible developed and located around the world! About Genesis -- Bible - Encarta Concise Encyclopedia Genesis -- Easton's Bible Dictionary, Pentateuch -- Catholic Encyclopedia Scripture Anglo-Saxon -- The Junius Manuscript (Labyrinth Library: Old English) Commentary Commentary on the Whole Bible (1706) -- Matthew Henry Sermons The Method of Faith -- Ray C. Stedman Reference Library Notes Class Notes on Sacred, History, Vol.1 (1893) -- J.W. McGarvey (1829-1911) Article References biblical literature -- EncyclopÃ"dia Britannica Online Doctrinal Value by Rev. D. Hague -- The Fundamentals, Vol. 1 ch. XIV (1909) Poetry Genesis A & B - Kennedy Translation (1916) -- OMACL - Codex Junius 11 (ca AD 650-950) More Scripture Literal Translation (1976) -- by Jay P. Green, Sr. - Introduction New English Translation (1996) -- NET Bible - Biblical Studies Press This document is from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College. [Bible Study Tools]

Link: http://www.ccel.org/wwsb/

Development of the NT canon

collected and organized by Glenn Davis [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.ntcanon.org/

Early Lists of the Books of the New Testament

The following lists are taken directly from [Metzger] and [Schneemelcher]. Collected and organized by Glenn Davis [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.ntcanon.org/lists.shtml

Early Christian Authorities

collected and organized by Glenn Davis [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.ntcanon.org/authorities.shtml

Apocryphal New Testament Writings

collected and organized by Glenn Davis [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.ntcanon.org/writings.shtml

Cross Reference Table: Writings and Authorities

collected and organized by Glenn Davis [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.ntcanon.org/table.shtml

Lists of the early Books of the New Testament

collected and organized by Glenn Davis [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.ntcanon.org/lists.shtml

The Bibles of Constantine

collected and organized by Glenn Davis [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.ntcanon.org/Bibles_of_Constantine.shtml

Map of Early Christianity

collected and organized by Glenn Davis [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.ntcanon.org/mapsmall.shtml

Closing the Canon in the West

collected and organized by Glenn Davis [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.ntcanon.org/closing-west.shtml

Closing the Canon in the East

collected and organized by Glenn Davis [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.ntcanon.org/closing-east.shtml

Canon of the New Testament

from the online Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913. [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03274a.htm

New Testament Canon

Glen Davis [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.ntcanon.org/index.shtml

Noncanonical Homepage

at The Wesley Center For Applied Theology at Northwest Nazarene College This site has English translations of many non-canonical writings. [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://wesley.nnu.edu/biblical_studies/noncanon/fathers.htm

Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts

The main focus of the web is on the process used to study the ancient manuscripts upon which the New Testament is based. While the language discussed is Greek, almost everything is explained with transliterations into English and, where applicable, translations from standard English Bibles. Web Brown University. Has some images of Codex Sinaiticus. [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.earlham.edu/~seidti/iam/interp_mss.html

Codex Sinaiticus

[New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.codex-sinaiticus.net/en/

Codex Hierosolymitanus (1056 CE)

[New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.ntcanon.org/codex_Hierosolymitanus.shtml

Guide to Early Church Documents

Institute for Christian Leadership [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/christian-history.html

Christian Classics Ethereal Library

Wheaton College Early Church Fathers. [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.ccel.org

Fathers of the Church

New Advent Catholic Supersite The 38-volume Edinborough edition of writings from the first 800 years of the Church. [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/

The Emergence of the New Testament Canon

Daniel F. Lieuwen. From the Orthodox Christian Information Center. [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.orthodox.net/faq/canon.htm

SKETCHES OF CHURCH HISTORY

From AD 33 to the Reformation. by the late REV. J. C ROBERTSON, M.A., CANON OF CANTERBURY [Church History)

Link: https://bible-history.com/texts/church-history.zip

ZChurch Bible Dictionary & Glossary

Great glossary tool for Bible related subjects.

Link: http://www.zchurch.com/bibleglossary/index.htm

View of East Stairway of the Apadana, looking northwest

PERSEPOLIS AND ANCIENT IRAN, Multiple images (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI_Cover_72dpi.html

Oriental Institute Tabler of Contents

Multiple images and Maps (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu

Link: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/OI_TOC.html

Write Like a Babylonian

see your monogram in cuneiform, the way an ancient Babylonian might have written it. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology

Link: http://www.upennmuseum.com/cuneiform.cgi

Road to Caesarea

Caesarea. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Caesarea4.jpg

Scribes, Pharisees, Sadducees, and The Sanhedrin

Warren Doud, Grace Notes [Intertestimental]

Link: http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics/jewishsystem.html

Is the Bible Reliable?

by Bob and Gretchen Passantino [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.answers.org/bible/reliable.html

We Can Trust the Bible

Biblical Studies Foundation, Lehman Strauss, Litt.D., F.R.G.S. [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.bible.org/docs/theology/biblio/trust.htm

Why So Many Versions?

Biblical Studies Foundation, Daniel B. Wallace, Ph.D. [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.bible.org/page.php?page_id=663

The Sufficiency of Scripture and Modern Psychology

Robert E. Hempy Jr., Th.M. [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.galaxie.com/article.php?article_id=3228

The Canonicity Question

Xenos, Dennis McCallum and Gary DeLashmutt [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.xenos.org/essays/canon.htm

Verbal Plenary Inspiration

Xenos, Dennis McCallum and Gary DeLashmutt [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.xenos.org/classes/papers/vpi.htm

Why Respond to Gail Riplinger?

Biblical Studies Foundation, James White [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.bible.org/page.asp?page_id=664

Grammatical-Historical Hermeneutics For Lay Readers

Xenos, Gary DeLashmutt and Dennis McCallum [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.xenos.org/essays/herme.htm

Hermeneutical Systems

Xenos, Dennis McCallum and Gary DeLashmutt [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.xenos.org/essays/hermsys.htm

The Conspiracy Behind the New Bible Translations

This is the first in a series of occasional short essays from the "Professor's Soap Box." It is not intended to be a detailed exposition; rather, it is meant to give you food for thought and to challenge some popular ideas. Biblical Studies Foundation, Daniel B. Wallace, Ph.D. [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.bible.org/page.asp?page_id=706

The Christian Canon

Leadership U, Don Closson [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/xn-canon.html

The Adequacy of Scripture

Biblical Studies Foundation, Greg Herrick [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.bible.org/docs/splife/sm-niv/sm02.htm

The Conspiracy Behind the New Bible Translations

Biblical Studies Foundation, Daniel B. Wallace, Ph.D. [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.bible.org/page.php?page_id=706

Does the Bible Teach "Sola Scriptura"?

Christian Research Journal, Kenneth R. Samples [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/cri/cri-jrnl/web/crj0037a.html

The Old Testament Canon

Grace Notes [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.realtime.net/~wdoud/topics/canon.html

The Written Word

Diane Dew [New Testament Canon]

Link: http://www.dianedew.com/wrtnword.htm

Noah's Ark: Its Final Berth

Christian Information Ministries, Bill Crouse [Biblical Archaeology]

Link: http://www.fni.com/cim/technicals/noah.txt

Christian Information Ministries

Christian Information Ministries, Bill Crouse. Bill has led several teams in search for the Ark and is considered to be one of the world's foremost scholars in Ark studies. Recently, he contributed several chapters to the book: The Explorers of Ararat, edited by B. J. Corbin and Rex Geissler. [Biblical Archaeology]

Link: http://www.christianinformation.org/crouse.html

Arqueogeografia

Links [Biblical Archaeology]

Link: http://www.pmministries.com/ceninvestiga/arqueogeografia.htm

Ancient Lands of the Bible

Have you ever read some of the places in the Bible and wondered where they were located, today? It only takes a few moments to realize there are places mentioned in the Bible that we cannot find on a map, today. Over the years, these places have changed names. You can tell how some of them have changed because they still look a little or sound a little like their ancient names. However, some of them don't look or sound anything like the original names. I've compiled a list of ancient biblical countries or peoples and their current names or regions. Below that list there is a list of ancient cities and where they are located. [Biblical Archaeology]

Link: http://www.jcsm.org/biblelessons/AncientLands.htm

Archaeology and the Bible

a list of questions and answers pertaining to archaeological evidence related to Biblical events, provided by ChristianAnswers.Net [Biblical Archaeology]

Link: http://www.christiananswers.net/archaeology/home.html

BibArch

focus on people of the Levant and other regions related to the biblical record. [Biblical Archaeology]

Link: http://www.bibarch.com/

Biblical Resources: Archaeology of Ancient Cultures

on one of four pages of general biblical resources, provided by Prof. Torrey Seland of Volda College, Norway. [Biblical Archaeology]

Link: http://www.torreys.org/bible/

Internet Resources

for the Study of Judaism and Christianity: Archaeology from the University of Pennsylvania [Biblical Archaeology]

Link: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rs/resources.html#archaeology

Links to other Bible and Archaeology Sites

These links are taken from Digger Doyle's favorite archaeology links. [Biblical Archaeology]

Link: http://www.digbible.org/links.html

Bible Archaeology

a summary of "the wealth of information that has literally been unearthed by the spades of patient, dedicated people which helps to confirm the historical accuracy of the Bible". [Biblical Archaeology]

Link: http://www.biblelight.org/arch1.htm

Olive Culture in Ancient Israel

by David Eitam [Biblical Archaeology]

Link: http://www.gemsinisrael.com/e_article000008705.htm

Scrolls from the Dead Sea

: The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Scholarship an exhibit at the Library of Congress, Washington, DC. [Biblical Archaeology]

Link: http://sunsite.unc.edu/expo/deadsea.scrolls.exhibit/intro.html

Lands of the Bible in Modern Times

a modern map of Biblical lands. [Biblical Maps]

Link: http://www.cynet.com/Jesus/JeruMap.htm

Map of Near East Archaeological Sites

shows sites at which the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute has worked. [Biblical Maps]

Link: http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/lab/map/

Evangelicals and The Canon of The New Testament

Evangelicals and The Canon of The New Testament Biblical Studies Foundation [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.bible.org/docs/theology/biblio/canon.htm

The Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism

Robert Waltz site. Conceived by Rich Elliott of Simon Greenleaf University [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.skypoint.com/~waltzmn/

An Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism

Robert Waltz Site. [New Testament Studies] [Church History]

Link: http://www.skypoint.com/~waltzmn/intro.html

Caesarea Cave

Caesarea. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Caesarea3.jpg

Caesarea Aqueduct

Caesarea. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/aquacaesa.jpg

Caesarea Amphitheater

Caesarea. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/amphcaesar.jpg

Aqueduct

Caesarea. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/aquacaesa2.jpg

Mount Tabor

Mount Tabor. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Tabor.jpg

Jordan River

Jordan River. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Jordan%20River.jpg

Sea of Galilee

Sea of Galilee. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Galilee.jpg

Capernaum

Capernaum. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Capaurnum.jpg

Ruins of part of Jericho wall

Jericho. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Ruins%20of%20part%20of%20Jericho%20wall.jpg

Old Jerusalem's Eastern Gate

Eastern Gate. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Old%20Jerusalem.jpg

Kidron Valley

Kidron Valley. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Kidron%20Valley.jpg

Temple Mount

Holy Land. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Temple%20Mount.jpg

The Wailing Wall

Holy Land. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/The%20Wailing%20Wall.jpg

Shrine of the Book

Holy Land. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Shrine%20of%20the%20Book.jpg

Model of Jerusalem

Holy Land. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Temple%20Model.jpg

The Masada 1

Holy Land. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/masada1.jpg

The Masada 2

Holy Land. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/View%20from%20top%20of%20Masada.jpg

Qumran

Holy Land. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Qumran.jpg

Old Jerusalem's Eastern Gate

Holy Land. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Old%20Jerusalem.jpg

Pool of Bethesda

Holy Land. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Bethesda.jpg

Garden Tomb

Holy Land. Bible Images

Link: http://www.dramaticimpact.com/Holy%20Land%20Tours/Images/Garden%20Tomb2.jpg

Apologetics Information Ministry

Resources: Outlines: Apologetics The Deity of Jesus Essentials of the Faith Faith and Reason General & Special Revelation God and Logic The Great Commission The Use of Questions Papers: Acts & Archaeology A Critique of Reincarnation Experientialism The Five Gospels Justification The Life of J. G. Machen Logical Coherence & Post-Modernism Logic & Post-Modernism Make Disciples The Nature & Necessity of Logic Political Correctness The Trustworthiness of the Bible Bibliographies: Abortion Apologetics Bible Difficulties Bible Reliability Biblical Authority Biblical Hermeneutics Christianity, Government, and Public Policy Creation Cults Ethics Existence of God Jehovah's Witnesses Jesus is No Myth Jesus' Resurrection Logic Mormonism The New Age The Occult The Problem of Evil Roman Catholicism Theology Thinking and Reason The Trinity Who Will Be Saved?

Link: http://www.apologeticsinfo.org/

Wheaton University: Christian Classics Ethereal Library

Text accuracy is not consistantly high, but many Christian resources are available. Classic Christian books in electronic format, selected for your edification. There is enough good reading material here to last you a lifetime, if you give each work the time it deserves! All of the books on this server are believed to be in the public domain in the United States unless otherwise specified. Copy them freely for any purpose. Outside of the US, check your local copyright laws.

Link: http://www.ccel.org/

The Tech Classics Archive

This site provides English translations of Greek and Roman documents. Many, if not all, are in HTML format, but they do not have paragraph indexing.

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/

Classics at Oxford

This site has a lot of Electronic texts, of mixed languages and textual accuracy. Some of the text is not accessable from the WEB.

Link: http://www.classics.ox.ac.uk/resources/www/etexts.asp

The Old Testament - A Brief Overview

A very basic overview of the Old Testament. Understanding the Bible is often difficult for the average reader usually because of the unfamiliar names of people and cultures of the ancient world. For the most part the Bible is very easy to understand. My desire is to paint the broad strokes and give sort of a panorama of Biblical history. I hope you enjoy it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/

Glossary of Latin Words

Brief Glossary of Latin words. Pages range from 25kb to 200 kb. [Latin Glossary]

Link: https://bible-history.com/latin

Herod Images

This is an image directory of images that I found around the Internet of Herod and his sons. You can browse the directory. It contains coins, images, maps, satellite photos and more. There will be more coming soon.

Link: https://bible-history.com/people/herod/

Loeb Classical Library

The Loeb Classical library provides texts which are not available through other sources, and many if not all of the books are printed with both the original language and an English translation. Their book list can also be used as a resource to obtain a list of ancient authors, and what they wrote.

Link: http://www.hup.harvard.edu/loeb/index.html

The Mansoor Amarna Collection

Primarily a site related to the scientific arguments about the authenticity of the Mansoor Amarna artifacts

Link: http://www.mansooramarnacollection.com/

Assyrian Texts

Provides a way to purchase texts of new translations of Assyrian texts

Link: http://www.helsinki.fi/science/saa/cna.html

Perseus Project

Provides an extensive resource information for GREEK literature and culture. Greek texts and English translations are available, as well as Greek translation tools. An extensive picture collection is provided, both of archaeological sites and artifacts. CD ROMS are available for purchase (MAC format).

Link: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/

University of Virginia

SGML Text - This site stores documents in SGML, but provides them to WEB brousers as HTML. It has very little ancient documents, but the few it has are provided with HTML chapter markers which allow easy indexing of the documents.

Link: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/english.html

Wheaton University: Christian Classics

Text accuracy is not consistantly high, but many Christian resources are available.

Link: http://www.ccel.org

EIKON Image Database for Biblical Studies

The EIKON Image Database for Biblical Studies is a faculty-library initiative at Yale Divinity School that provides digital resources for teaching and research in the field of Biblical studies.

Link: http://research.yale.edu:8084/divdl/eikon/

An Outline of The Life of Jesus in Harmony

The Birth of John the Baptist to The Resurrection. Comparison of all four gospel accounts with a growing database of historical notes. Bible History Online.

Link: https://bible-history.com/jesus/jesusAn_Outline_of_The_Life_of_Jesus.htm

Herod the GREAT

Herod "the Great" was a very complex man, a man of many contradictions. He was cruel to many and helpful to some. He seems to have been insecure and even paranoid that others close to him were after his power. Herod was a man with a passion for building. Drawing from primary sources, this paper seeks to give a fairly well rounded picture of Herod, the ruler and the man. by Gretchen A. Shapiro

Link: http://www.tparents.org/Library/Religion/OTA/OTA-Other/Herod.htm