Greek Rule -- The Ptolemies & Seleucids
(332 - 168 BC) by Al Maxey. Covers:
(Alexander) (The Diadochoi) (Ptolemy I) (Ptolemy II) (Ptolemy III) (Ptolemy IV) (Ptolemy V) (Antiochus III) (Seleucus IV) (Antiochus IV)
Greek Rule -- The Ptolemies & Seleucids
(332 - 168 BC) by Al Maxey. Covers:
(Alexander) (The Diadochoi) (Ptolemy I) (Ptolemy II) (Ptolemy III) (Ptolemy IV) (Ptolemy V) (Antiochus III) (Seleucus IV) (Antiochus IV)
(Bible History Online)
In 332, the Macedonian king Alexander the Great conquered Egypt and gave a new capital to the old kingdom along the Nile, Alexandria. After his death (11 June 323), his friend Ptolemy became satrap of Egypt, and started to behave himself rather independently. When Perdiccas, the regent of Alexander's mentally unfit successor Philip Arridaeus arrived in 320, he was defeated. This marked the beginning of Egypt's independence under a new dynasty, the Ptolemies (or Lagids). Ptolemy accepted the royal title in 306. The fourteen kings of this dynasty were all called Ptolemy and are numbered by modern historians I to XV (Ptolemy VII never reigned). A remarkable aspect of the Ptolemaic monarchy was the prominence of women (seven queens named Cleopatra and four Berenices), who rose to power when their sons or brothers were too young. This was almost unique in Antiquity. Another intriguing aspect was the willingness of the Ptolemies to present themselves to the Egyptians as native pharaohs (cf. the pictures below, some of which are in Egyptian style). This was less unique: the Seleucid dynasty that reigned the Asian parts of Alexander's empire did the same.
History of Israel: Hellenistic and Maccabean Rulers
Rulers in the Hellenistic and Maccabean eras. By Felix Just S.J. Ph.D. Dates (all BCE) refer to years of rule, not lifespans. Some dates are uncertain or only approximate; overlapping dates are due to co-regencies.
- from Shepherd's Historical Atlas (1929)
- from Shepherd's Historical Atlas
- Herod the Great's Kingdon Divided Among His Sons in 4BC
(Bible History Online)
This map reveals the Roman provinces belonging to Marc Antony, Italy and the Roman provinces belonging to Octavian, the territories belonging to Cleopatra's children, and the boundary between Antony and Octavian.
Alexander the Great gold stater, silver tetradrachm, and bronze hemiobol. These were powerful coins. They not only influenced the future of all subsequent coinage on three continents, they also depicted some powerful symbols, most notably Herakles (Hercules to the Romans), the ancient world's most powerful mythological hero, Zeus, king of the Olympian gods, Athena, the goddess who combined within her sphere both wisdom and warfare, and Nike, goddess of victory.
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C.
Silver tetradrachm, Price 3857, M��ller -, SNG Cop -, EF, Susa mint, 17.182g, 26.2mm, 225o, posthumous, c. 316 - 311 B.C.; obverseHerakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse BASILEWS ALEXANDROU, Zeus enthroned left, eagleextended in right, long vertical scepter in left, wreath left, AI (above strut) over RP monogram under throne; nice-style, well centered, sharp, and fantastic sculptural high-relief;
Obv: Athena. Rev: Nike placing Wreath. Diameter: 18 mm diameter (about the size of a US Penny)
SILVER TETRADRACHM - 310 BC, Minted by Ptolemy as Satrap of Egypt
The Ptolemaic empire was founded by Ptolemy I after the death of Alexander the Great. Ptolemy I was a boyhood friend of Alexander and his most trusted general. After Ptolemy successfully completed the Persian war, Alexander granted him the area of Egypt. He founded an empire that lasted almost 300 years. The empire ended with Cleopatra VII, the Queen of the Nile. This coin was minted shortly after Alexander's death and before Ptolemy assumed the reign as King (Pharaoh) of Egypt. Obv: Alexander the Great in Elephant Skin Cap Rev: Athena Brandishing Spear and Shield Diameter: 27 mm diameter (little larger than a US Quarter and twice as thick)
Bible History Online - Alexander the Great Coin (Biblical Archaeology)
This coin reveals scenes of Alexander the Great's life. The top image depicts Alexander being crowned by Nike, the goddess of victory. The bottom image depicts Alexander on his horse Busephalus at the Jhelum River attacking Porus on his war elephant. Porus was trying to stop Alexander from crossing the river until the monsoon, which would delay him until after the summer months. In 336 BC when Darius II was king of Persia he battled against Alexander the Great and was defeated twice. The two famous battles were the Battle of Issus in 333 BC and the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC. This marked the end of the Archaemenid Empire and the rise of Greece as a world power. Alexander conquered the world and died in Babylon in 323 BC. This coin depicting Alexander the Great is an important discovery in Biblical Archaeology and the period of Greek history.
Kings of Macedon Demetrius I Poliorcetes (294-288 B.C.) Silver Tetradrachm Coin
Weight 16.8 g. Diameter: 29 mm. Obverse: Diademed and horned head of the Macedonian king Demetrios I Poliorctes, son of one of the most capable Alexander's generals Antigonus I "the one-eyed", right. Reverse: BA�UI�NE�[�U �GHMHTPIOY, Nude Poseidon standing left with right foot on rock, holding trident in left hand, monograms in outer fields. Superb portrait, well centered extremely desirable silver coin struck in high relief.
Kings of Macedonia coins: Philip III Arrhidaios Silver Tetradrachm Coin
Philip III Arrhidaeus (323-317 B.C.) Silver Tetradrachm Babylon Mint Weight 17 g. Diameter 27 mm. Obverse: Head of Herakles right wearing lion skin right. Revese: Zeus seated left, holding eagle and scepter.
Ptolemaic Kings of Egypt: Arsinoe II, Wife of Ptolemy II, Oktadrachm
Arsinoe II wife of Ptolemy II Philadelphus or Arsinoe III wife of Ptolemy IV Philopator Gold Oktadrachm (struck under Ptolemy VI or VIII, ca. 180-116 B.C.) Obverse: Diademed and draped bust of the Macedonian queen of Egypt Arsinoe right, with lotus-tipped scepter over shoulder, 'k' behind her. Reverse: AP�UINOH�U �XI�NA�GEL�XOY, filleted double cornucopia. Beautiful heavy gold octadrachm with a powerful portrait of the first mortal woman ever to appear on a coinage. Struck on a full large flan in excessive high relief, excellent example of one of the largest gold coins struck during entire Hellenistic Period. Extremely rare ancient gold.
Ptolemaic Kings of Egypt: Ptolemy II Philadelphus Tetradrachm Coin
Ptolemy II Philadelphos (285-246 B.C.) Silver Tetradrachm Weight 14 g. Diameter 27 mm.
Obverse: Diademed bust of Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Ptolemaic ruling dynasty, right. Reverse:
Ã‚ÃÃ"Ã‰Ã‹Ã…Ã™Ã" ÃÃ"ÃÃ‹Ã…ÃŒÃÃ‰ÃÃ•, Eagle i superb extra high relief, standing left on thunderbolt. Stunning
portrait in very high relief, nicely toned beautiful expression Hellenistic Ptolemaic silver.
Ptolemaic Kings of Egypt: Ptolemy XII or XIII Neos Dionysios Tetradrachm Coin
Ptolemy XII or XIII Neos Dionysios (80-58; 55-51 B.C.) Silver Tetradrachm Weight 13.4g. Diameter 25 mm.
Obverse: Diademed bust of Ptolemy XII or XIII Neos Dionysios right. Reverse: Ã‚ÃÃ"Ã‰Ã‹Ã…Ã™Ã" ÃÃ"ÃÃ‹Ã…ÃŒÃÃ‰ÃÃ•,
eagle standing left on thunderbolt. Rare coin of a scarce Ptolemaic king.
Ptolemaic Kings of Egypt �V Ptolemy II Philadelphos Tetradrachm Coin
Ptolemy II Philadelphos (285-246 B.C.) Bronze Weight 5.4g. Diameter 18 mm.
Obverse: Diademed and horned bust of Ptolemy I Soter as Zeus Ammon right. Reverse: Ã‚ÃÃ"Ã‰Ã‹Ã…Ã™Ã"
ÃÃ"ÃÃ‹Ã…ÃŒÃÃ‰ÃÃ•, eagle standing left on thunderbolt. Nice brick-red patina.
N18055 Coin, Tetradrachm, silver, Ptolemy I, Soter, Alexandria mint, Ancient Greek, Egypt, c 305-283 BC
Coin, Tetradrachm, silver, Ptolemy I, Soter, Alexandria mint, Ancient Greek, Egypt, c.305-283 BC. Disc of sliver with designs in relief on both sides. Obverse: Diademed head of Ptolemy I right wearing aegis around his neck, all within a circle of dots. Reverse: Eagle on thunderbolt left, ancient greek inscription "coin of King Ptolemy", 'P' and monogram within a circle of dots in field left.
Egypt, Ptolemy III: Ancient Greek Coins
Ancient Coinage of Egypt, Ptolemy III Ptolemy III Euergetes ("Benefactor"), King of Egypt 246-221 BC.
Egypt, Ptolemy IV, Ancient Coins Index with Thumbnails
Egypt, Ptolemy V, Ancient Greek Coins
Coins of the Ancient Egyptians: Ptolemaic Dynasty: 323 -30 BC
Egypt, Ptolemy VI, Ancient Greek Coins
After Alexander the Great's death, Egypt was administred by Ptolemy, one of his friends and generals. In 305 B.C. Ptolemy crowned himself king, establishing one of the most important and flourishing hellenistic monarchies. The culture was a complex mixture of egyptian and greek traditions, best represented by the famous city of Alexandria. As all other hellenistic kingdoms, Egypt suffered a slow decline in parallel with the mighty rising of Rome, and it's end witnessed the great story of Queen Cleopatra, Julius Caesar and Marc Antony.
Egypt, Ptolemy VIII, Ancient Coins Index with Thumbnails
Egypt, Ptolemy IX, Ancient Greek Coins
Coin Page: 107-106 BC Ptolemy IX Soter Silver Tetradrachm Alexandria Mint Egypt
Image Tags: Obverse: Diademed head of Ptolemy I right, wearing aegis, Reverse: Eagle standing left on thunderbolt; in field to left, regnal date LI. PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS
Egypt, Ptolemy X, Ancient Greek Coins
Egypt, Ptolemy XII, Ancient Greek Coins
An Excessively Rare Silver Tetradrachm of Marc Antony and Cleopatra, Circa 36-34 BC
This excessively rare silver tetradrachm is believed by numismatic scholars to have been struck sometime between 36 and 34 BC, most likely at a mint in Syria where they often Summered. Michael Grant thinks it most likely that it was struck in 34 BC in connection with the great Donations of that year, in which Antony conferred much of the Eastern Mediterranean in a whole series of titles, territories and overlordships upon Cleopatra and her children. Obverse: Bust of Cleopatra facing right attired in her royal robes and diadem, wearing a necklace probably of large pearls which supports a pendant, the bust surrounded by Greek legend BACILICCA KLEOPATRA THEA NEOTERA = 'The Younger Queen Goddess Cleopatra'. Reverse: Bare head of Marc Antony facing right, surrounded by Greek legend ANTWNIOC AYTOKPATWP TPITON TPIWN ANDPWN = 'Antony Imperator Third Proclamation'. Mean Diameter: 26.5 mm. (1.04"). Weight: 15.10 gm. (0.472 Troy oz.). Metal composition: Nearly pure silver with natural toning. References: Michael Grant, Cleopatra, 1992, Barnes & Noble, pps. 168, 175 where he discusses the facts surrounding the issuance of this coin. Also, Burnett, Amandry & Ripolles, Roman Provincial Coinage, Volume I, # 4094, published jointly by the British Museum Press and the Bibliotech National, 1992.
Cleopatra Images: Coins
Cleopatra, Roman Imperatorial Coins
Egyptian Bronze Coin of Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II
This large (30mm) bronze coin dates to the co-rule of Ptolemy VI Philometor with his sister (and wife), Cleopatra II, between 176-145 B.C. Ptolemy VI had an eventful reign marked by the increasing influence of Rome in Egyptian politics. From 169-164 B.C., Ptolemy VI ruled as part of a triumvirate composed of himself, his sister/wife, and his younger brother, Ptolemy VIII Physcon. Infighting between the siblings led to Ptolemy VI's temporary expulsion from Egypt in 164, leading him to go to Rome and beg for support. The famous senator Cato the Elder backed his claim, and Ptolemy VI was restored in 163. The remainder of his co-rule is characterized by distrust and political maneuverings between the siblings that further weakened the Ptolemaic Empire.
Roman Coins of Antony and Cleopatra
Egypt, Cleopatra VII �V Ancient Greek Coins
Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Tetradrachm of Seleucus I, 300""280 B.C.; Seleucid. Iran, excavated at Pasargadae Silver Money""as a means of exchange, a mode of payment, and a standard of value""was in use in the ancient Near East long before the invention of coinage in Lydia during the seventh century B.C. Early Mesopotamian texts record payments of silver weighed in shekels (about 8.3 grams), minas (about 500 grams), and talents, or donkey-loads (about 30 kilograms), but the value of objects was also converted into equal-value weights of grain, copper, and tin. The connection between money and weight continued in coins; a drachm, for example, weighed about 4.3 grams, a tetradrachm (4 drachms) about 17 grams
Late 3rd-early 2nd century BC in the British Museum
4 Drachma Silver Coin of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Left side portrayed as Zeus. Right side portrayed as Zeus Enthroned carrying the Goddess Nike (Victory). The legend reads:"King Antiochus. God Manifest, Bearing Victory.
Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery Information Center.
The classical portrait on the obverse of this tetradrachm coin echoes that of Alexander the Great, although it dates from the reign of Antiochus VII, some 200 years later. From 138 to 129 BC, he ruled a kingdom approximating modern-day Syria.The reverse design shows the goddess Athena, with helmet, spear and shield; on her outstretched hand is a tiny figure of Victory, holding a wreath.The reverse inscription translates as 'Of Antiochus the Benevolent'.
This large silver coin is an Ancient Jewish coin, the Antiochus VII Tetradrachm, from a period in Old Testament times when the Kingdom of Syria ruled Israel. Hand-Minted, Well Preserved Larger silver coins from Greek-Syrian times were known as Tetradrachms for their official size and silver content. A defining moment in Jewish independence came when the Syrian King, Antiochus VII allowed the Jewish people to produce this official silver coinage.These unusually large Silver Coins were hand-minted in Old Testament times from 129 B.C. to 138 B.C. and are unusually well preserved for 2,000 year old coins.
Scarce Prutah of Hasmoneans Alexander Jannaeus. 103-76 BC, Yehonatan the King. Obverse side: Lily surrounded by Hebrew inscription (Yehonatan the King). Reverse side: Inverted anchor within circle and Greek inscription ALEXANDROU BASILEWS (Alexander the king). Reference: Hendin 467
Hasmoneans lepton of John Hyrcanus I, Hasmoneans, John Hyrcanus I. 127-104 BC. AE Lepton. Obverse side: Palm branch with Hebrew (Yehochanan the High Priest and the council of the Jews). Reverse side: Lily within circle of dots. Scarce because of its small size. Reference: Hendin 458.0
(Mattatayah) 37-40 BCE.
Prutah coin of Mattathias Antigonus (Mattatayah) 37-40 BCE. Obverse side: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons and ear of barley inserted between the horns. Border of dots. Reverse side: Retrograde Hebrew inscription "˜Mattatayah' surrounded by wreath and border of dots. Reference: Hendin 483.
Prutah of Hasmoneans Alexander Jannaeus. 103-76 BCE
Prutah of Hasmoneans Alexander Jannaeus. 103-76 BCE, Yehonatan the high priest. Obverse side: Five lines of Hebrew inscription "Yehonatan the high priest and council of the Jews" surrounded by wreath. Reverse side (off center): Double cornucopiae and pomegranate between the horns. Reference: Hendin 474.
Prutah of Hasmoneans Alexander Jannaeus.
Scarce Prutah of Hasmoneans Alexander Jannaeus. 103-76 BC, Yehonatan the King. Obverse side: Lily surrounded by Hebrew inscription (Yehonatan the King). Reverse side: Inverted anchor within circle and Greek inscription ALEXANDROU BASILEWS (Alexander the king). Reference: Hendin 467.
Hasmoneans lepton of John Hyrcanus I Hasmoneans, John Hyrcanus I. 127'104 BC. AE Lepton. Obverse side: Palm branch with Hebrew (Yehochanan the High Priest and the council of the Jews). Reverse side: Lily within circle of dots. Scarce because of its small size. Reference: Hendin 458
Like all ancient kings, Alexander claimed that the gods were his ancestors. Already in the fifth century, the Macedonian kings said that they descended from Perdiccas, who descended from Temenos, a king of Argos; and he was great-grandchild of Hyllus, the son of Heracles. The oldest source for this family tree can be found in book eight of the Histories of the Greek researcher Herodotus of Halicarnassus (text).
After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BCE, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi. One of them was his friend Seleucus, who became king of the eastern provinces - more or less modern Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon, together with parts of Turkey, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. His kingdom had two capitals, which he founded in c.300: Antioch in Syria (pictures) and Seleucia in Mesopotamia. Babylon was another important city. The empire was, like the empire of Alexander, actually the continuation of the empires before: the Assyrian, Babylonian, and the Achaemenid Empire.
According to the account of 1 Maccabees, the High Priests at Jerusalem appointed by Antiochus were involved in systematically changing the traditions of the Jews that were based on the laws of Moses, to make them conform to Greek beliefs. A gymnasium was constructed in Jerusalem, and instead of learning their ancient law, the priests engaged in wrestling contests in the Greek fashion, which meant they were naked. Those who were circumcised endeavoured to conceal it. A general history of the reign of Antiochus IV is given by Morkholm.
Jerusalem: In Search of the Maccabees by By Jacqueline Schaalje. As is well known, the Jewish holiday of Chanukah is based on historic events. From the year 180 BCE until 161 BCE the Maccabees rebelled against the Syrian king Antiochus IV who persecuted the Jews. At the end of the period, after the rebels had conquered Judah and Jerusalem, the Temple was re-inaugurated.Generations-long struggles against the Syrian hegemony followed, at the end of which emerged the first Israeli kings, the Hasmonean dynasty (2ndto 1st Century BCE). They were the descendants of the Maccabees.
Towards Pompey the Roman people must have had, from the very beginning, the feeling which the Prometheus of Aeschylus has towards Heracles, when, having been saved by him, he says: "I hate the sire, but dearly love this child of his."1 For never have the Romans manifested so strong and fierce a hatred towards a general as they did towards Strabo, the father of Pompey; while he lived, indeed, they feared his talent as a soldier, for he was a very warlike man, 2 but when he was killed by a thunderbolt,2 and his body was on its way to the funeral pyre, they dragged it from its bier and heaped insults upon it. On the other hand, no Roman ever enjoyed a heartier goodwill on the part of his countrymen, or one which began sooner, or reached a greater height in his prosperity, or remained more constant in his adversity, than Pompey did. 3 And whereas there was one sole reason for the hatred felt towards Strabo, namely, his insatiable desire for money, there were many reasons for the love bestowed on Pompey; his modest and temperate way of living, his training in the arts of war, his persuasive speech, his trustworthy character, and his tact in meeting people, so that no man asked a p119favour with less offence, or bestowed one with a better mien. For, in addition to his other graces, he had the art of giving without arrogance, and of receiving without loss of dignity.
The holiday originated when Judah the Maccabee and his followers reclaimed the temple in the village of Modi'in from Syrian King Antiochus IV. The temple was cleansed and prepared for rededication. The Hebrew word Hanukkah means "dedication." When the sacred temple Menorah (candelabra) was relit, there was only enough sacred oil to burn for one day. Yet, according to tradition, the oil miraculously lasted eight days until more purified oil could be found.
Overview: Hanukkah History Hanukkah is one of the few Jewish holidays not mentioned in the Bible. The story of how Hanukkah came to be is contained in the books of 1 and 2 Maccabees, which are not part of the Jewish canon of the Hebrew Bible. These books tell the story of the Maccabees, a small band of Jewish fighters who liberated the Land of Israel from the Syrian Greeks who occupied it. Under the reign ofAntiochus IV Epiphanes, the Syrian Greeks sought to impose their Hellenistic culture, which many Jews found attractive. By 167 B.C.E, Antiochus intensified his campaign by defiling the Temple in Jerusalem and banning Jewish practice. The Maccabees--led by the five sons of the priest Mattathias, especially Judah--waged a three-year campaign that culminated in the cleaning and rededication of the Temple.
The Maccabee Rebellion. Devastating Desecraton. "The period of Alexander, who took possession of Israel in 332 [B.C.E.], passed off fairly quietly for the Hebrews. Their troubles came during the struggle between the Diadochi, since both the Seleucids and the Ptolemies coveted southern Syria and it only finally became a possession of the former in 195 [B.C.E.].""The Hebrews of Israel remained markedly hostile to the ideas and practices which had grown up among other peoples. Their resistance to the introduction of Gentile rites and customs into Jerusalem was the background of many famous scenes in their rebellion. Meanwhile all their writings in the last centuries of the Old Testament period emphasize their firm resolve to defend their traditions jealously and to keep their people apart from the world around them."
In the autumn of 319, Antipater died, the regent of the brother of Alexander the Great and his baby son Alexander. A year before, he had divided Alexander's empire: Ptolemy was recognized as the ruler of a virtually independent Egypt, Antigonus Monophthalmus was made supreme commander of the Macedonian forces in Asia, and Antipater was sole ruler of Macedonia proper. His death led to great changes among the Diadochi. The historian Diodorus of Sicily describes the events (World history 18.48-50). The translation was made by M.M. Austin
After the death of Alexander the Great, his half-witted brother Philip Arridaeus became king; a general named Perdiccas was made regent (323-320), and later succeeded by Antipater (320-319) and Polyperchon. King Philip was married to Eurydice, who tried to prevent that he was used by his regents, and played an important role to replace Polyperchon with Cassander. One of Philip's enemies was his step-mother Olympias, who tried to make her grandson Alexander IV king, and sided with Cassander's enemy Polyperchon. Early in 318, war broke out between the two women. The story is told by Diodorus of Sicily (World history, 19.11). The translation was made by Russel Geer.
After the death of Alexander the Great on June 11, 323, Perdiccas was appointed as regent for Alexander's half-witted brother Philip Arridaeus and his baby son Alexander. Soon, Perdiccas lost control of the empire, and he had to fight a civil war against rebel officers like Ptolemy, Antipater, andCraterus. Perdiccas' most important ally was Eumenes of Cardia, who defeated Craterus. However, Perdiccas himself was assassinated and Antipater divided the empire again (settlement of Triparadisus, 320; text). He made Antigonus Monophthalmus supreme commander in Asia, and ordered him to fight against Eumenes. The story is told by Plutarch of Chaeronea in his Life of Eumenes. The anonymous translation belongs to the Dryden series.
In June 316, the duel between Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes started. The first general wanted to be sole ruler in the empire that had once been Alexander's, the latter had started as a defender of the rights of the official king, Philip Arridaeus, who was by now dead. Nevertheless,Eumenes continued the struggle. In January 315, Antigonus was victorious. The story is told by several authors, and one of them is the Roman biographer Cornelius Nepos (100-24 BCE), whose Life of Eumenes was translated by John S. Watson. The quoted text is section 8-10.
In the spring of 314, the Third War of the Diadochi broke out. Antigonus Monophthalmus, who ruled great parts of Asia between the Hellespont and the Hindu Kush, had to fight against a coalition of Cassander of Macedonia,Lysimachus of Thrace, Ptolemy of Egypt, and Seleucus, who had once beensatrap of Babylonia but had been expelled by Antigonus. One of Antigonus' diplomatic initiatives was the proclamation of the independence of the Greek towns, which would seriously handicap Cassander. The story is told in theWorld History of Diodorus of Sicily (19.61-62). The present translation was made by M.M. Austin.
In 311, the Diadochi concluded a peace treaty. Ptolemy and Lysimachuswere confirmed in their territories, Egypt and Thrace; Cassander andAntigonus Monophthalmus remained supreme commanders of theMacedonian forces in Europe and Asia; the Greek towns were recognized by all parties as 'free and autonomous' (but Cassander kept garrisons at several places); and it was agreed that the boy king Alexander IV, son ofAlexander the Great and Roxane, would become sole ruler of the entire empire when he came of age, in 305. The result was, of course, that the royals were killed as soon as possible. Diodorus of Sicily tells the story in hisWorld history (19.105.1-4); the translation was made by M.M. Austin.
Between 314 and 311, Antigonus Monophthalmus, the strongest of the generals who were contending for the inheritance of Alexander the Great, fought the Third Diadoch War against Ptolemy of Egypt, Lysimachus of Thrace, and Cassander of Macedonia. In 311, he agreed to a peace treaty. An inscription found in Scepsis in the Troad contains the text of a letter he sent to the Greek towns to explain his behavior: he had not crushed Ptolemy and agreed to unfair demands by Cassander, because he wanted to settle the affairs in Greece as soon as possible. The translation was made by M.M. Austin.
In 320, Seleucus had been appointed as satrap of Babylonia, but Antigonus Monophthalmus had expelled him in the spring of 315. In May 311, Seleucus recaptured Babylon. This was the beginning of the Babylonian War, which was to last until the late summer of 309. Antigonus first sent his son Demetrius against one of the largest citie of the world. The story is told by Diodorus of Sicily (World History, 19.90-93); the translation was made by Russel M. Geer.
In May 311, Seleucus unexpectedly captured Babylon, the greatest city in the world and one of the most important parts in the empire of Antigonus Monophthalmus. In the autumn of 311, he sent his son Demetrius to expell Seleucus. His expedition did not reach its aims. The story is told by Diodorus of Sicily (World history, 19.100.5-7). The translation was made by Russel Geer.
The Babylonian Diadochi Chronicle (BCHP 3; a.k.a. ABC 10, Chronicle 10) is one of the historiographical texts from ancient Babylonia. It deals with the history of the Diadochi, the successors of Alexander the Great, and theBabylonian war between the generals Seleucus and Antigonus Monophthalmus.
Few generals have received the honors that Demetrius I Poliorcetes, son ofAntigonus Monophthalmus, received in 307 when he liberated Athens. It was an important event in the Fourth War of the Diadochi (the successors ofAlexander the Great), because Demetrius and his father were called kings. A year later, they themselves assumed the title. The story is told by Plutarch of Chaeronea in his Life of Demetrius (8-10). The translation was made by M.M. Austin.
Demetrius' victory over Ptolemy at Salamis in 306 gave him and his fatherAntigonus Monophthalmus so much credit, that it was widely believed that they would reunite the empire of Alexander the Great. With some justification, the two men accepted the royal title; after all, the descendants of Alexander were by now all dead. The other Diadochi followed immediately. The story is told by Plutarch of Chaeronea in his Life of Demetrius 18. The translation was made by M.M. Austin.
In 305, Antigonus Monophthalmus, one of the Diadochi (successors ofAlexander the Great), sent out his son Demetrius to capture the city and island of Rhodes. It controlled the entrance to the Aegean Sea, and its capture was necessary if Antigonus wanted to liberate Greece andMacedonia. Diodorus of Sicily tells about the siege in his World History20.81 and 20.100. The translation was made by M.M. Austin.
n 338 BCE, king Philip II of Macedonia defeated the army of the Greek towns at Chaeronea (text) and went to Corinth, where he founded the Greek League. The Greek towns were to stop fighting each other and share the burdens of a common war against Persia, in which Philip was to be their general (text; Eventually, Alexander the Great was the commander). In 303, Demetrius I Poliorcetes, one of the Diadochi, organized a similar League: this time, the common enemy was the Macedonian ruler Cassander, and Demetrius was to be the general. There was a body of councilors (representing the towns, the larger ones having more than one representative) who had to vote on the League's policy; five presidents oversaw the Council's meeting. Part of the League's charter can be read on an inscription from Epidaurus, which was translated by M.M. Austin.
In the autumn 304, Demetrius I Poliorcetes invaded Greece, where he liberated the towns that were garrisoned by Cassander. Two years later, the two kings faced each other in southern Thessaly (between modern AlmirÃ³s and SoÃºrpi), but no battle was fought, because both sides knew that the real decision was to be made in the battle between Antigonus Monophthalmusand Lysimachus... (This rationalism is typical for warfare in this period.) After some time, Cassander and Demetrius concluded an armistice. The story is told by Diodorus of Sicily (World history, 19.100.5-7). The translation was made by Russel Geer.
In 298, the ruler of Macedonia, Cassander, died. His two brothers now divided the kingdom: Antipater received the western and Alexander the eastern half. Immediately, they started to quarrel. Alexander felt threatened, and in 294 invited two men to come to his assistance: Demetrius I Poliorcetess and Pyrrhus of Epirus. Pyrrhus was the first to intervene. In 294, he invaded Macedonia and restored the balance of power between the two brothers. He had just left the stage, when Demetrius entered. The story is told by Plutarch of Chaeronea, Life of Demetrius 36-37. The translation was made by John Nalson and belongs to the Dryden series.
Lysimachus (361-281) was one of the Diadochi, the generals who contested the inheritance of Alexander the Great. After the king's death, he was madesatrap of Thrace, and fruitlessly fought to enlarge his power. Nevertheless, he accepted the royal title in 305. In the next couple of years, he greatly expanded his power in the Greek world and conquered the rich country that is now Turkey. However, the wars in Thrace were less successful: both his son Agathocles and Lysimachus himself were captured. However, this was balanced by his successes in Asia, and he became very rich and powerful, and tried to conquer Macedonia, with some success. Eventually, he also conquered Thessaly. His career is described by Pausanias, a Greek author who lived in the second century CE. The translation of Pausanias' Description of Greece1.9.5-10 was made by M.M. Austin.
Seleucus had served under Alexander the Great and was vizier after his death. In 320, he was made satrap of Babylonia. Although he lost possession of his satrapy between 315 and 311, he grew out to be one of the most powerful monarchs after Alexander. The Greek historian Appian of Alexandria describes Seleucus' career in several chapters of his History of the Syrian War, which are here quoted in the translation of M.M. Austin.
Just when the situation in the hellenistic empires seemed to be stabilized, the Galatians invaded Greece. The deepest cause was the collapse of the kingdom that had once been Lysimachus': when this king was killed in 281, the tribes in the buffer zone in the north sided with the barbarous Galatians, who now found the way to the south open. These Galatians belonged to the La TÃ¨ne-culture, which is often called 'Celtic'. The story is told by Pausanias (Guide for Greece 10.19.4-23.9); his source may or may not be Hieronymus of Cardia. The translation was made by Peter Levi.
LXX Greek Text
Apocrypha means 'hidden things' in Greek. The Apocryphical books of the Bible fall into two categories: texts which were included in some canonical version of the Bible at some point, and other texts of a Biblical nature which have never been canonical.
Noncanonical Literature "" OT Apocrypha
Noncanonical Literature "" OT Pseudepigrapha
Welcome To Pseudepigrapha, Apocrypha and Sacred Writings. I have an interest in all documents that even might be classified as Holy. While there are a lot of sites out there that have portions of what I am interested in, this site is a collection of all I have found.
Trinity College in the University of Toronto Library & Archives for Intertestamental Literature and Apocrypha
Septuagint (sometimes abbreviated LXX) is the name given to the Greek translation of the Jewish Scriptures. The Septuagint has its origin in Alexandria, Egypt and was translated between 300-200 BC. Widely used among Hellenistic Jews, this Greek translation was produced because many Jews spread throughout the empire were beginning to lose their Hebrew language. The process of translating the Hebrew to Greek also gave many non-Jews a glimpse into Judaism. According to an ancient document called the Letter of Aristeas, it is believed that 70 to 72 Jewish scholars were commissioned during the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus to carry out the task of translation. The term "Septuagint" means seventy in Latin, and the text is so named to the credit of these 70 scholars.
Electronic Resources for the Study of the Septuagint and Old Greek Versions - Introduction
THE SEPTUAGINT, derived from the Latin word for "seventy," can be a confusing term, since it ideally refers to the third-century BCE Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, executed in Alexandria, Egypt. But the full story behind the translation and the various stages, amplifications, and modifications to the collection we now call the Septuagint is complicated. The earliest, and best known, source for the story of the Septuagint is the Letter of Aristeas, a lengthy document that recalls how Ptolemy (Philadelphus II [285""247 BCE]), desiring to augment his library in Alexandria, Egypt, commissioned a translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek. Ptolemy wrote to the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem, and arranged for six translators from each of the twelve tribes of Israel. The seventy-two (altered in a few later versions to seventy or seventy-five) translators arrived in Egypt to Ptolemy's gracious hospitality, and translated the Torah (also called the Pentateuch: the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures) in seventy-two days. Although opinions as to when this occurred differ, 282 BCE is a commonly received date.
The scope of this article takes in those compositions which profess to have been written either by Biblical personages or men in intimate relations with them. Such known works as the Shepherd of Hermas, the Epistle of Barnabas, the Didache (Teaching) of the Twelve Apostles, and the Apostolic Canons and Constitutions, though formerly apocryphal, really belong to patristic literature, and are considered independently. It has been deemed better to classify the Biblical apocrypha according to their origin, instead of following the misleading division of the apocrypha of the Old and New Testaments. Broadly speaking, the apocrypha of Jewish origin are coextensive with what are styled of the Old Testament, and those of Christian origin with the apocrypha of the New Testament.
The importance of the Septuagint Version is shown by the following considerations: The Septuagint is the most ancient translation of the Old Testament and consequently is invaluable to critics for understanding and correcting the Hebrew text (Massorah), the latter, such as it has come down to us, being the text established by the Massoretes in the sixth century A.D. Many textual corruptions, additions, omissions, or transpositions must have crept into the Hebrew text between the third and second centuries B.C. and the sixth and seventh centuries of our era; the manuscripts therefore which the Seventy had at their disposal, may in places have been better than theMassoretic manuscripts.
(Bible History Online)
The bronze empire, that was also described as a leopard with four wings. It ruled from 331 BC to 168 BC under the leadership of Alexander the Great. He defeated Darius III of Persia.
The Greek Empire lasted from 331 BC to 168 BC. The kingdom was divided among his generals, the diadochi. But they fought among themselves for the kingdom...
"Whoever has not seen Jerusalem in its splendor has never seen a fine city.""" Babylonian Talmud (Succah, 51b)
Hellenistic World After the Breakup of Alexander's Empire 310 BC
Roman Empire During the Peace of the Second Triumphurate of Marcus Antonius, Octavian and Lepidus 40 B.C.
Map showing the general state of the Hellenistic World during the Third Diadoch War. The war began after Seleucus was expelled from Babylon by Antigonus - how much control either of then had over the eastern satrapies is uncertain. Control of the Greek cities of Asia Minor is not indicated.
Map showing the general state of the Hellenistic World towards the end of the Fourth Diadoch War (307-301BC). Exactly how much control Seleucus had over the eastern parts of his empire, or Antigonus over parts of Asia Minor is not clear. Control of the Greek cities of Asia Minor is not indicated.
MAP "" Maccabean Kingdom of Judea (Israel) in the time of Jannaeus
The Kingdom of the Seleucids under Antiochus III (193 BCE)
Lysimachus was a Macedonian companion of Alexander the Great before he became king. During Alexander's campaigns in Asia he served as a member of Alexander's bodyguard, but he only came to prominence after Alexander's death. In the initial distribution of provinces at Babylon in 323 BC, Lysimachus was given Thrace, the crucial land bridge between Macedonian and Asia. There he played an important but perhaps underappreciated role in maintaining the security of Greece against attack from the north and from rebellions in Thrace, one of which broke out in 323, preventing him from playing a role in the Lamian War.
Macedonian King of Thrace. Lysimachus (c. 361-281 B.C.) was a member of Alexander's Companion cavalry who particularly distinguished himself in India. Following Alexander's death he became governor of Thrace. After Perdiccas had rejected the hand of Antipater's daughter Nicaea, Lysimachus married her and in 315 he joined the coalition of Ptolemy, Seleucus, and Cassander againstAntigonus.
The First King of Ancient Egypt's Ptolemaic Dynasty. By Jimmy Dunn In the ancient world, there is no surprise that military men often became rulers. These men, most of whom rose through the military ranks, usually had considerable administrative skills and had proved themselves to be leaders. Almost certainly the first man to unite Egypt at the dawn of civilization was a military man who became king, and this tradition has been followed throughout the history of the world, up unto our present times.
Ptolemy I Soter was the ruler of Egypt (323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. In 305 BC he took title of King.The son of Lagus, a Greek nobleman of Eordaea, he was one of Alexander the Great's most trusted generals, and among the seven "body-guards" attached to his person. He played a principal part in the later campaigns of Alexander in Afghanistan and India. At the Susa marriage festival in 324, Alexander had him marry the Persian princess Artacama, but we find no further mention of her. When Alexander died in 323, Ptolemy is said to have instigated the resettlement of the empire made at Babylon. He was now appointed satrap of Egypt under the nominal kings Philip Arrhidaeus and the young Alexander IV.
The Second King of Egypt's Greek Period. By Jimmy Dunn. In about 285 BC, Ptolemy I Soter probably took as his co-ruler one of his sons by Berenice, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who became the sole ruler of Egypt and the rest of his father's empire upon the elder king's death in about 282 BC. He took the Egyptian name, Meryamun Setepenre, which means "Beloved of Amun, Chosen of Re"... His reign can only be described as successful, considering the expansion of his possessions around the Mediterranean, the internal stability in Egypt, and the fulfillment of many of his father's imaginative projects, such as the Pharos Lighthouse and the Alexandrian University and Library
[308-246 BCE] Son of Ptolemy I who consolidated Alexandria's control of Israel & north Africa and developed it as a major center of Greek culture. Yet, in politics Ptolemy II was less influenced by Greek tradition than the Egyptian cult of the Pharaohs. Not only did he promote the worship of his deceased parents as gods, he also portrayed himself & his sister consort as sibling deities [theoi adelphoi]. The ruler cult that he actively sponsored was mimicked by later Seleucid [e.g., Antiochus III & IV] & Roman rulers [e.g., Caligula & Nero] as well as by his own descendents.
The Third, The Third King Of Egypt's Ptolemaic Dynasty. Ptolemy III Euergetes (Benefactor), the third ruler of Egypt'sPtolemaic Dynasty, was the son of Ptolemy II Philadelphus by one of his early wives named Arsinoe. However, his father apparently abandoned this first Arsinoe to marry his full sister, who was also named Arsinoe and who is frequently referred to as Arsinoe II. It was she who raised Ptolemy III Euergetes in his blood mothers place. He succeeded to the throne at about the age of 30, taking the Egyptian name Iwaennetjerwysenwy Sekhemankhre Setepamun, which means, "Hear of the [two] Benificent Gods, Chosen of Ptah, Powerful is the South of Re, Living Image of Amun". Jimmy Dunn.
Ptolemy (Ptolemaios) III Euergetes (Benefactor) Ptolemy III Euergetes I, (Ptolemaeus III) (Evergetes, Euergetes) (246 BC-222 BC). The third ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, he was the eldest son of Ptolemy II of Egypt Philadelphus and Arsinoe II of Egypt. He came to power in 246 BC upon the death of his father. He is most noted for his invasions of the northern kingdom of Syria which he commenced upon the murder of his eldest sister Berenice Phernophorus.
The Fourth King of Egypt's Greek Period. Under the Ptolemies, there was no real national foundation established for their rule in Egypt as the successor and son ofPtolemy III Euergetes, Ptolemy IV Philopator took the throne. These kings had been viewed by the local Egyptians with nothing more positive than resentful acquiescence. Basically, the Ptolemies had run Egypt as a private estate for their own benefit and gratification, even though we can say that they produced some amazing results, at least in Alexandria. Thus, the Egyptians needed only a weakening of control at the top to produce a whole string of violent insurrections, intended to reestablish the old pharaonic tradition and shift the cultural center of gravity back to Memphis. Jimmy Dunn
Ptolemy IV Philopator: king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 222 to 204.
The Fifth King of Egypt's Ptolemaic Period. Ptolemy V Epiphanes ("manifest"), the fifth king of EgyptPtolemaic Period began life precariously. His father, Ptolemy IV Philopator was a weak king who died at the relatively young age of 41, after a dissolute life shrouded by controlling advisors. After his mother, Arsinoe III's death at the hands of his father's advisers, Sosibius and Agathocles, these same people took custody of the child, who was then only five years old. However, when the Alexandria mob found out about the murder of his mother, they lynched Agathocles (Sosibius disappears from the record at about the time of his accession tot he throne) in about October of 203 BC, leaving him to be raised by one ambitious adviser after another. This caused near anarchy, particularly in Upper Egypt. In fact, what Ptolemy V inherited from his father was considerable trouble. Jimmy Dunn
Ptolemy V Epiphanes: king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 205 to 180.
Cleopatra I Syra (204-176): queen of the Ptolemaic Empire.
Cleopatra I Syra, queen of Egypt, daughter of Antiochus III king of Syria presumably by his first wife Laodice III, born between c. 219 and 210, and probably before 212, engaged to Ptolemy V king of Egypt 196, married to him in 194/3 at Raphia, mother of Ptolemy VI, Ptolemy VIII and presumably of Cleopatra II, incorporated in the dynastic cult with Ptolemy V in 194/3 as the Manifest Gods, Qeoi EpifaneiV, senior coruler with Ptolemy VI September 180, died between 9 Mesore year 3 = 10 September 178 and 9 Thoth year 5 = 14 October 177.
The Ptolemies in Egypt provide us with an interesting dynasty fraught with all manner of intrigue. After the death of Ptolemy V Epiphanes the Dynasty becomes even more complicated. Jimmy Dunn
Cleopatra II (c.189-c.115): queen of the Ptolemaic Empire.
Cleopatra II (Greek:ÃŠÃ«Ã¥Ã-Ã°ÃœÃ´Ã±Ã¡, c.185 BC - 116) was a queen of Egypt, and the daughter of Ptolemy V and Cleopatra I. Following the death of their mother (175), she was married to her brother, Ptolemy VI. They and their brother, Ptolemy VIII, were co-rulers of Egypt from 171 BC to 164. In 170, Antiochus IV of Syria invaded Egypt, resulting in a war which Egypt eventually won with Rome's help in 168. She became regent for her son Ptolemy VII on her husband's death in 145, and married her other brother, Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II the next year, whereupon Ptolemy Euergetes slew his nephew/stepson and made himself king. In 142 he took her younger daughter, his niece, Cleopatra III, as wife without divorcing his sister and made his new wife joint ruler.
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator was an Egyptian king of the Ptolemaic period. His reign is controversial, and it is possible that he did not reign at all, but was only granted royal dignity posthumously.
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Tryphon (also known as Physcon, meaning potbelly, Ptolemy the Younger and Ptolemy Kakergetes) was the eighth ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. The reign of Ptolemy VIII has been referred to as a disaster in every way, and Ptolemy VIII has often been called a tyrant and repulsive. Acording to Athenaeus Deipnosophistani (XII 549e), "Through indulgence in luxury his body had become corrupted with fat and with a belly to measure it with one's arm....." Jimmy Dunn
Cleopatra III: queen of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 116 to 101, first withPtolemy IX Soter Lathyros, later with Ptolemy X Alexander.
Egypt: Rulers, Kings and Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt: Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros). 116-107 & 88-80 B.C. Ptolemaic Dynasty. Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros) were co-regents during the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Cleopatra III was the niece of Physcon (Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) and was married to him while her mother was still his official wife. She bore Physcon two sons - Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter II (Lathyros) and Ptolemy X Alexander I as well as three daughters, Cleopatra IV, Cleopatra Tryphaena, and Cleopatra Selene.
Ptolemy IX Soter Lathyros: king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 116 to 107 (with Cleopatra III) and from 88 to 81.
King of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 107 to 88...
Information about Cleopatra Berenice III the queen of the Ptolemaic Empire.
Information about Ptolemy XI Alexander: king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled briefly in 80.
Information about Ptolemy XII Auletes ('the flutist'): king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 80 to 58 and from 55 to 51.
Egypt: Rulers, Kings and Pharaos of Ancient Egypt: Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XII. In the springtime of 51 BC, Ptolemy Auletes died and left his kingdom in his will to his eighteen year old daughter, Cleopatra, and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII who was twelve at the time. Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as well as a younger sister, Arsinoe IV. There were two younger brothers as well, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. It is thought that Cleopatra VI may have died as a child and Auletes had Berenice beheaded. At Ptolemy Auletes' death, Pompey, a Roman leader, was left in charge of the children.
Cleopatra VII: The End of Laxism. Ptomely XII Auletes died in 51 BC leaving the power in the hands of his two oldest children: Cleopatra VII (18 years old) and Ptolemy XIII (10 years old).Following the Egyptian tradition, Cleopatra got married with her own brother. At the age of 18, she became the ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt. A very heavy destiny for this young promising queen. Descendant of the Greek culture, she inherited the Greek knowledge brought by Alexander the Great and the Egyptian culture. She had knowledge in litterature, mathematics, astronomy, medecine,... She could even ride a horse. All that knowledge wouldn't have been useful if she wasn't talented for languages. She could speak easily with people from neightbouring countries without translators. She was also the first Ptolemy to speak the Egyptian language. All above these talents, she had a great sense of humour. The ideal woman, isn't she ?
Cleopatra VII was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She was the last Pharaoh of Egypt. The Ptolemies were Macedonian in decent, but ruled as Egyptians, as Pharaohs. What is often not associated with Cleopatra was her brilliance and her devotion to her country. She was a quick-witted woman who was fluent in nine languages, however, Latin was not one of them. She was a mathematician and a very good businesswoman. She had a genuine respect for Caesar, whose intelligence and wit matched her own. Antony on the other hand almost drove her insane with his lack of intelligence and his excesses. She dealt with him and made the most of what she had to do. She fought for her country.
Information about Ptolemy XIII: king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 50 to 47 as co-ruler and rival of Cleopatra VII.
Information about Ptolemy XIV: king of the Ptolemaic Empire, from 47 to 44 co-ruler of Cleopatra VII.
Maceonian King of Asia Seleucus (c. 358-281 B.C.), son of Antiochus (one of Philip's generals), fought in the Companion cavalry and later became commander of the crack heavy infantry formation, the Hypaspistae. He took Perdiccas' side immediately after Alexander's death, but was later instrumental in his murder following the failure of the Egyptian campaign. Antipater appointed him governor of Babylon in 321.
Seleucus I Nicator ('victor'): one of the Diadochi, founder of the Seleucid Empire, ruled from 311 to 281 BC.
Son of Seleucus I & co-regent of eastern provinces (Armenia, Mesopotamia & Persia) from 292-281 BCE. No sooner had he inherited control of the western provinces (281 BCE), than Gallic invasions of Asia Minor forced him to form an alliance with his rival Antigonus II of Macedonia.
Antiochus I Soter ('the savior'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 281 to 261.
Antiochos II Theos ('the god'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 261 to 246.
Seleucus II Callinicus ('bautiful victor'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 246 to 225 or 224
Seleucus III Keraunos ('thunderbolt'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 225 or 224 to 222 BC.
- Antiochus III Megas ('the Great'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 222 to187.
Antiochus III the Great (Megas), (c. 241 - 187 BC, ruled 223 - 187 BC), younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus, became ruler of the Seleucid kingdom as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC. (His traditional designation, the Great, stems from a misconception of Megas Basileus (Great king), the traditional title of the Persian kings, which he adopted.)
Seleucus IV Philopator ('father lover'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 187 to 175.
Since the third son of Antiochus III was not in direct line for the Seleucid throne, he was sent to Rome as a hostage after his father's defeat by the Romans (189 BCE) . Fourteen years later (175 BCE) his older brother, Seleucus IV, secured his release shortly before being murdered by his own chief minister. Antiochus avenged his brother's death & claimed the throne instead of his nephew, Demetrius, who was a 12 year old hostage in Rome. When Ptolemy VI sought to occupy Israel, Antiochus moved swiftly to defeat & claim control of most of Egypt & Cyprus (169BCE). Despite these victories, however, Roman intervention on behalf of the Ptolemaic kingdom deprived him of all his territorial gains. His retreat (166 BCE) set the stage for the Jewish revolt led by Judah Maccabee (165 BCE).
Antiochus V Eupator (c. 173 BC - 162 BC, reigned 164 -162 BC), was only nine when he succeeded as head of the Seleucid dynasty, following the death in Persia of his father Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Regent for the boy was the general Lysias who had been left in charge of Syria by Epiphanes. Lysias was however seriously challenged by other generals and was therefore in a precarious situation. To make matters worse, the Roman senate kept Demetrius, the son of Seleucus IV and the righteous heir to the throne, as a hostage. By threatening to release him, the senate could easily control the Seleucid government.
Demetrius I Soter ('the savior'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 161 to 150.
Rival of Demetrius I who (ca. 153 BCE) claimed to be son of Antiochus IV... Balas attracted the support of a loose coalition of Egypt, Rome, Pergamum, Cappodocia & Judea -- all of which were interested in weakening the Seleucid dynasty. In return for Judean support he appointed Judah Maccabee's brother, Jonathan, high priest, giving legitimacy to the Hasmonean family's de facto rule in Jerusalem...
Demetrius II: king of ancient Macedonia, ruled 239-229.
Antiochus VI Dionysus: name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 145/144 to 140 BC.
Antiochus VII Sidetes: name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 138 to 129 BC.
The originator of the Maccabean rebellion. His genealogy is given as follows in the First Book of Maccabees, the most authentic source: "Mattathias, the son of John, the son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joiarib, from Jerusalem; and he dwelt at Modin" (I Macc. ii. 1). Josephus ("Ant." xii. 6, Â§ 1) traces the genealogy back for one generation further, mentioning Asamoneus (= HasmonÃ"us) after Simon. But this HasmonÃ"us should not be considered as Mattathias' great-grandfather, but merely as a distant ancestor of the whole house, since only so is it comprehensible why both Greek and rabbinical sources of the following period call the whole house that of the Hasmoneans. The fact, moreover, that the names John and Simeon recur in the family in the very next generation after Mattathias, while the name "HasmonÃ"us" is not found in historic times, is a proof that the first bearer of this name belongs to antiquity.
Shakespeare portrays - with gentle comedy - Pompey as the font of all military wisdom. Cicero - who generally supported Pompey but whose private letters are venomous about his failings - could still claim, when civil war began, that he would die for him. When the poet Lucan wrote his great epic of the Civil Wars in the age of Nero, Pompey had become the Republican hero and Caesar, the villain.
(106 BC - 48 BC) Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus is best known in history as a member of the First Triumvirate with Gaius Julius Caesar and Marcus Licinius Crassus. He was awarded the cognomen MAGNUS as a result of extraordinary military skill demonstrated at a very early age. His interest was less in politics than in military endeavors and as a result he became an unwitting tool in the hands of Caesar's enemies.
The Silent Centuries. The Hasmonean Dynasty Growth and Decay (135 "" 63 BC) by Al Maxey. For the first several years of his rule, John Hyrcanus was little more than a pawn in the hands of Antiochus VII. With the death of Antiochus VII in 128 BC, however, the people of Judea again proclaimed -- and managed to achieve -- their independence. Thus began the famous Hasmonean Dynasty (although some scholars insist it actually began with John's father Simon).
Old Testament Life and Literature (1968) WITH Simon (141-135) a new era dawned for the Jews, and for the first time since the Babylonian conquest, they breathed the pure air of freedom. The atmosphere was charged with expectation. Simon seized the important port city of Gaza, providing Judah with a direct outlet to the Mediterranean world. Treaties were made with Rome and Sparta. Jewish coins were struck. Trade and industry increased and the arts were encouraged. A pro-Hellenistic, aristocratic, priestly group, later to be called the Sadducees, began to take form. The Hasidim tended to merge with other nationalists to become the nucleus of the religio-political party later called Pharisees.
Diadochi ('successors'): name of the first generation of military and political leaders after the death of the Macedonian king and conquerorAlexander the Great in 323. To settle the question whether his empire should disintegrate or survive as a unity, and, if so, under whose rule, they fought four full-scale wars. The result, reached by 300, was a division into three large parts, which more or less coincided with Alexander's possessions in Europe, Asia, and Egypt. During the next quarter of a century, it was decided whether these states could endure. As it turned out, there were no great territorial changes, although there were dynastic changes. After 280, the period of state-forming came to an end.
Alexander's Successors: The Settlement at Babylon (323-322). Alexander died in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BCE, in Babylon. Next day, his generals met to discuss the new situation. Under normal circumstances, they, as representatives of the Macedonian nation, had to choose a new king, and the obvious candidate would be the brother of the dead king,Arridaeus. However, he was illegitimate, epileptic, and considered mentally unfit to rule. As a consequence, it was difficult to reach a solution.
At the end of book ten his History of Alexander the Great of Macedonia,Quintus Curtius Rufus describes what happened in the days followingAlexander's death: Perdiccas was chosen as regent for Alexander's brotherArridaeus, and was, therefore, Alexander's successor. The chapters section 6-10 are given here in the translation of John Yardley.
The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for almost 900 years. After 300 years of rule by the Macedonian Ptolemies, Egypt was incorporated into the Roman Empire in 30 BC, and was ruled first from Rome and then from Constantinople until the Persian and Arab conquests in 616 and 639 respectively. In 332 BC Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, conquered Egypt, with little resistance from the Persians. He was welcomed by the Egyptians as a deliverer. He visited Memphis, and went on pilgrimage to the oracle of Amun at the Oasis of Siwa. The oracle declared him to be the son of Amun. He conciliated the Egyptians by the respect which he showed for their religion, but he appointed Greeks to virtually all the senior posts in the country, and founded a new Greek city, Alexandria, to be the new capital. The wealth of Egypt could now be harnessed for Alexander's conquest of the rest of the Persian Empire. Early in 331 BC he was ready to depart, and led his forces away to Phoenicia. He left Cleomenes as the ruling monarch to control Egypt in his absence. Alexander never returned to Egypt.
Hasmonean Revolt Against Seleucid Rule. We know little about life in Israel during the period of about 300 years between the time of the return from Babylon and the time of the taking over of the country by the Seleucids. We do know that religious observance was so important that they would not even defend themselves when attacked on the Sabbath (the weekly day of rest) so as not to desecrate it. The Seleucid rulers started a process of hellenisation. Among the Jewish leadership were those who served the Seleucid rulers by offering greater annual taxes for the sake of obtaining personal power. They collected them from the people. At the same time they weakened and opposed the influence of the Jewish religion so as to weaken the people. It was of course the people who suffered and who became more and more discontented.
Ptolemaic Dynasty - Ptolemy I - XV "" Cleopatra. This period is confusing due to all of the co-regencies. Scholars are not always in agreement on the order of reigns and, in some case, the reigns themselves, from Ptolemy VI through Ptolemy XI. In any event, Egypt's authority and wealth was intact until the death of Cleopatra, at which time, Egypt was overpowered by Rome.
The House of Ptolemy: Kings, Queens and the Rest of the Royal Ptolemies. Chronological List of Ptolemaic rulers
Cleopatra VII, Ptolemy XIII, Ptolemy IV, Ptolemy XV Caesarion. In 51 BC, Cleopatra assumed power at the age of 17. She was required to marry so she took her brother, Ptolemy XIII, as her husband. He was only 12 by that time. Cleopatra soon dropped him from official documents and regarded herself as the sole ruler. Few years later, Ptolemy XIII challenged his sister-wife in order to oust her. Two court officials, Pothinus and Achilles, helped him. Cleopatra was alarmed in time so she fled to Syria, then she returned at Pelusium and was on standby.
The Hellenistic period is one of the most controversial in the history of Iran. The Greek or Macedonian dynasties were never fully accepted as more than occupants, and in hindsight their reign has been neglected. In the West, where the Hellenistic kings were defeated by Rome, most historians tend to look down on them as degenerated tyrants. The criticism is not wholly unfounded, but in many aspects the kingdoms of the age were vital and dynamic states with an eclectic and progressive view of the different cultures they embraced. The Seleucid Empire was by far the largest of them and its ambition was no less than to maintain the great empire of Alexander in the east. Jens Jakobsson
The period from the book of Malachi at the end of our Old Testament to the opening of Matthew at the beginning of our New Testament comprises about 400 years. These 400 "silent years" were only silent in the sense that there were no prophets from God who were writing Scripture. They were years which brought about dramatic and sweeping changes throughout the ancient world. These changes began with the arrival of a conqueror from the west known as Alexander the Great.
Following the conquests of Alexander the Great and his early death in 323 B.C., his empire was divided by four of his generals. Israel initially fell under the rule of Seleucus, who held authority over Syria, but soon passed to Ptolemy, who had gained authority over Egypt. This period under the "Ptolemies" from 301 to 198 B.C. was generally one of peace for the Jews. However, in 198 B.C. the Seleucid king Antiochus III, also known as Antiochus the Great, re-conquered Israel. At the death of Antiochus III, his son Seleucus IV took the Syrian throne for twelve years after which another son of Antiochus III, Antiochus IV Epiphanes (illustrious) rose to power in 175 B.C.
The gospel accounts in the New Testament speak periodically of a race of people called Samaritans. No effort is made by the gospel writers to cover up the historic enmity that had developed between this group and the Jewish people. John, the writer of the fourth gospel account, makes clear mention of this as he relates an encounter between Jesus and a Samaritan woman: "The Samaritan woman said to Him, "˜You are a Jew and I am a Samaritan woman. How can you ask me for a drink?' (For Jews do not associate with Samaritans.)" (John 4:9). So just who were the Samaritans, and why did the Jews hate them so, and vice versa?
The first thirty-five verses of the eleventh chapter of Daniel paint a prophetic scenario so overwhelmingly in accord with subsequently recorded history that many interpreters have found the passage a basis for denying the traditional dating of the book. I am not among them. I hold strongly to the traditional authorship and dating of Daniel as a book written by the man Daniel sometime before 530 BC. I believe there is substantial external and internal evidence to support this view as well as convincing rebuttal of the assertions made by the traditional view's detractors. This evidence will be offered in another paper soon to be posted.
Jewish History from Alexander to the Death of Seleucus IV Eupator (333-175 BCE). The Diadochan Period. After a seventh month siege, from January to August 332, Alexander took control of the city of Tyre; the city was burnt and some 30,000 survivors, mostly women and children, while another 2,000 men capable of bearing arms were crucified (Diod. 17.46.4; Arr. 2.24.5-6; Curt. Ruf. 4.4.17). With the exception of Josephus (to be discussed below), nothing is said about the Jews by those ancient historians who wrote about Alexander (Ant. 11.8.1-7; 304-347). Arrian merely records, "The remainder of Syria known as Israel had already come over to him" (see 2.25.4; 20.4-5). This implies that the Jews and other peoples occupying Israel had already allied themselves with the Macedonian invaders before the fall of Tyre. From Tyre Alexander (and his army) advanced along the coast unopposed until he arrived in Gaza, still held by the Persians. The city refused him entry, so that Alexander was forced to lay siege to it.
Brief Account of Events Said to Have Occurred. Although little is known of events in Israel before Antiochus IV Epiphanes, from this point on, there are fairly detailed and reliable sources of information on Jewish history. Unfortunately, there is some confusion about the order of events in Jewish sources and a problem correlating these with the Hellenistic sources.
Hasmonean Rule From Jonathan to the Death of Simon (160-134 BCE). Brief Account of Events Said to Have Occurred. After Judas' death, there followed a period when the Maccabean movement was out of power (160-53 BCE). In 153 BCE, Jonathan, Judas' brother and replacement regained popular support. Jonathan took advantage of internal weakness within the Seleucid kingdom to take political control of Jerusalem and Judea. In Syria, in 153-52 BCE, a rival to the throne, Alexander Balas, forced Demetrius I to offer an alliance to Jonathan, which he accepted, but Alexander Balas then made an even better offer to Jonathan. In 150 BCE, Demetrius I was defeated in battle by Alexander Balas. Thus, Jonathan became both political ruler and High Priest.
The Hasmonean Dynasty from (John) Hyrcanus to (Salome) Alexandra (134 - 67 BCE). Ptolemy, the man who murdered the father of (John) Hyrcanus and two brothers, also attempted to murder (John) Hyrcanus and take power; Hyrcanus prevailed over him after a protracted conflict, but lost his mother to Ptolemy, who had held her hostage. Antiochus VII Sidetes demanded that (John) Hyrcanus surrender territory taken by Simon, and successfully waged war against the Jewish state, besieging Jerusalem. (John) Hyrcanus was forced to pay indemnity for the territory seized by his father. After this less than promising start to his reign, however, (John) Hyrcanus maintained the borders of the state inherited from his father and even expanded them.
Jewish and Roman histories begin to intersect at this point, so that one cannot discuss Jewish history without discussing Roman history (The reverse is not as true, of course). When Salome died in 67 BCE, there arose a conflict between Hyrcanus II and his brother Aristobolus II over who would become both High Priest and king. The people opted for Aristobolus II, but the matter did not end there. Hyrcanus II, backed by Antipater, an Idumean, and the army of the Nabataean king, Aretas, who had lost much territory to the Jews, demanded that Hyrcanus II be reinstated as High Priest and made king.
In 49 BCE, in Rome, a civil war erupted between Pompey and Julius Caesar. At first, Hyrcanus II and Antipater supported Pompey, as most from the east did, but quickly switched allegiances, when it was discovered that Caesar and his allies had been victorious over Pompey, who had fled to Egypt but who was murdered in 48 BCE in Egypt. In gratitude for the help given to Caesar, he appointed Hyrcanus as ethnarch of the Jews in 47 BCE and Antipater procurator.
The Reign of Herod the Great, King of the Jews (37 - 4 BCE)
- From 37 until 4 BCE, Herod reigned in Jerusalem and gradually, with the approval of the Romans, expanded his kingdom; his kingdom included both Jews and Gentiles, but he did not follow the Hasmonean policy of forcibly converting gentiles to Judaism. Early in his reign, Antonius and Octavian had a falling out, which led to another civil war. In 31 BCE, Octavius, with the support of the Roman senate, fought and defeated Antonius at the battle of Actium in Greece; both Antonius and Cleopatra managed to escape and arrived in Alexandria; but, when they realized that there was no way of escaping Octavius, they committed suicide. Herod convinced the victorious Octavius to confirm him in his former position as King of the Jews. Herod had serious trouble with his family and his court in general; he was not greatly appreciated by the Jews generally, which bothered him. In a desire to aggrandize himself and perpetuate his memory, he undertook many expensive building projects in parts of his kingdom and beyond. In 19 BCE, Herod undertook to rebuild and enlarge the Temple in Jerusalem. (See Testament of Moses  for an unflattering description of Herod's reign presented as a prophecy.)
By Steve and Terri White. With the ten northern tribes scattered over the former Assyrian Empire, and most of Judah remaining in Persia, only a tiny remnant returned to Jerusalem in 538 B.C. It was this group that rebuilt the temple and the walls of Jerusalem under the leadership of Ezra (the priest), Nehemiah, and Zerubbabel (descendant of David). Because of many delays and obstacles, it took about 100 years to finish the work. Life under Persian rule was relatively peaceful and prosperous.
By Ernest L. Martin Ph.D., To many people, the teachings of the New Testament seem so foreign to those found in the Old Testament. In fact, it seems on the surface that the authors of the New Testament books almost lived in a different world than the prophets, kings and priests who composed the Old Testament writings. And in one way of looking at it, this is true. The types of writings which make up the New Testament are of a fundamentally different kind than those of the earlier Testament. However, all the writings of Scripture originate from the same source and both sections were inspired by the Spirit of YHWH. It is most important to understand that both the Old and the New Testaments complement one another and their full messages cannot be comprehended without both sections relying totally on each other. But, in order to blend the two together in a compatible way, the 400 year span known as the "Intertestament Period" must be studied and understood. Once this is done, it will be seen how sensible the New Testament teaching really is and how dependent it is upon that of the Old Testament. As the apostle Paul said, even the doctrines which comprised "the Mystery" (given to Paul and others only after 63 B.C.E.), are founded on "the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief cornerstone" (Ephesians 2:20).
The Bible and Archaeology - The Intertestamental Period: Daniel's Prophecies Come to Pass
- by Mario Seiglie. This series has traced the history of the Old Testament from Genesis through the captivity of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah, describing archaeological finds and historical accounts that have confirmed and illuminated the biblical account. In this issue we show more evidence that confirms the accuracy of the Bible accounts by picking up the story with the Intertestamental period: the time between the testaments, when the events described in the books of the Old Testament were completed but before the events that introduced the four Gospels.
Religious Groups of the Intertestamental Period by Al Maxey
Judaism was certainly no exception to the human tendency toward sectarianism. The various sects or factions within the Jewish religion all considered themselves to be good, honorable, godly people, and to be devoted followers of Divine Law. However, their beliefs and practices were often quite diverse, which would frequently lead to quarreling, hatred, and division .... and at times even to death. It was very similar to the situation found among believers today --- each group claiming to be genuine followers of the Lord and His teaching, and yet hopelessly divided over various perceptions, preferences, and practices peculiar to their faction of Christianity. As is the case with God's people today, these various sects (and their sectarian spirit) led to a deplorable state of affairs within Judaism, which too often resulted in the people of God being mocked and scorned by the people of the world.
By Mitchell G. Bard. Of the various factions that emerged under Hasmonean rule, three are of particular interest: the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes.
Party representing the religious views, practises, and hopes of the kernel of the Jewish people in the time of the Second Temple and in opposition to the priestly Sadducees. They were accordingly scrupulous observers of the Law as interpreted by the Soferim, or Scribes, in accordance with tradition. No true estimate of the character of the Pharisees can be obtained from the New Testament writings, which take a polemical attitude toward them (see New Testament), nor from Josephus, who, writing for Roman readers and in view of the Messianic expectations of the Pharisees, represents the latter as a philosophical sect. "Perisha" (the singular of "Perishaya") denotes "one who separates himself," or keeps away from persons or things impure, in order to attain the degree of holiness and righteousness required in those who would commune with God
The nature and status of all of the various religious groups which arose after the fall of Judah (eg Pharisees, Sadducees, Boethusians, Essenes, Zealots, Samaritans; there were probably many others) are shrouded in obscurity. Although we have writings which are arguably sectarian in outlook, we have few contemporary descriptions of the varieties of Jewish faith. A few Roman authors offer descriptions, which are probably little more than "travellers' tales" (eg Pliny, NH 5.73); the Jewish philosopher Philo mentions some groups in passing; and in three broadly similar passages the Jewish historian Josephus sketches the views of what he describes as the three major Jewish sects -- Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes -- on a small range of issues, likening them to the Greek philosophical schools of Stoics, Epicureans and Pythaogreans well-known to his readers.
No materials survive from the Sadducees themselves. Our only sources are the Christian Bible (New Testament), Josephus (BJ 2.119, 164--66; Ant 13.171--73, 293--98; 18.11; 16--17; 20.199; Vit. 10--11) and scattered rabbinic texts of varying value. These are all to a greater or lesser extent hostile. It is therefore impossible to derive a balanced view of this group. Their name has been derived from TSADDIQ ("righteous") and from the name Zadok (either the high priest or another). They have been seen as a primarily religious group (of priestly conservatives); as the Judean aristocracy (again through a supposed link with the priesthood) and as a political party. They have been identified by some scholars (and by some of the later rabbinic traditions) with the Boethusians, an equally obscure group whose major difference with the Pharisees appears to have been over the calendar. Attempts to link the Sadducees with some of the Qumran writings (the Dead Sea Scrolls) depend on circular assumptions about the nature and beliefs of the group.
Examination of Their Distinctive Doctrines. Apart from the repulsively carnal form which it had taken, there is something absolutely sublime in the continuance and intensity of the Jewish expectation of the Messiah. It outlived not only the delay of long centuries, but the persecutions and scattering of the people; it continued under the disappointment of the Maccabees, the rule of a Herod, the administration of a corrupt and contemptible Priesthood, and, finally, the government of Rome as represented by a Pilate; nay, it grew in intensity almost in proportion as it seemed unlikely of realisation.
One of three leading Jewish sects mentioned by Josephus as flourishing in the second century B.C., the others being the Pharisees and the Sadducees. Concerning their origin, history, and tenets there has been much inconclusive controversy. The only ancient authorities we have are a few paragraphs in Philo Judeaeus, a somewhat lengthier description in Josephus, and a scanty notice in Pliny. The following synopsis is derived mainly from the first two.
By Cleve A. Johnson. Since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947 scholars have spent years studying them and the nearby ruins of Qumran. It has been assumed by most scholars that the community of Qumran was an Essene group and that they were responsible for the Dead Sea Scrolls. In the past several years much debate has arisen concerning whether or not the community at Qumran was part of the Essene sect and whether or not the members of the community wrote the Scrolls or if the community was only responsible for hiding them.
Jewish religious-political faction of Judah, existing for a period of about 70 years or possible more, in the 1st century CE. The Zealots achieved fairly little, except to trigger heavy Roman control over the Jews and the closing off of Jerusalem to Jews. But they were the main actors in one of the central legends in Jewish history: the defence of Masada and the subsequent collective suicide.
Alexander the Invincible, later renamed by the Romans, Alexander III The Great of Macedon. Alexander accomplished greater deeds than any other ruler before or after him. This project is dedicated to the most charismatic and heroic king of all times. Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (Alexander the Great, Alexander III of Macedon) (356-323 B.C.), King of Macedonia, was born in late July 356 BC in Pella, Macedonia, he was one of the greatest military genius in history. He conquered much of what was then the civilized world, driven by his divine ambition of the world conquest and the creation of a universal world monarchy.
Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), the king of Macedonia that conquered the Persian empire and annexed it to Macedonia, is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He is the first king to be called "the Great." Alexander is supposed to have been fair skinned, with a ruddy tinge to his face and chest. Plutarch stated that he had a pleasing scent. Like all Macedonians, Alexander liked his liquor, but his fondness for wine also caused some of his outbursts of rage. Alexander liked drama, the flute and the lyre, poetry and hunting, but what he truly wanted in his life, was a glory and valor, rather than easy living and riches. He was not fond of athletic contests, according to Plutarch.
King of Macedonia and Conqueror of the Persian Empire. Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He was inspiration for later conquerors such as Hannibal the Carthaginian, the Romans Pompey and Caesar, and Napoleon. Alexander was born in 356 BC in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia. He was son of Philip II, King of Macedonia, and Olympias, the princess of neighboring Epirus. He spent his childhood watching his father transforming Macedonia into a great military power, winning victory after victory on the battlefields throughout the Balkans. When he was 13, Philip hired the Greek philosopher Aristotle to be Alexander's personal tutor. During the next three years Aristotle gave Alexander a training in rhetoric and literature and stimulated his interest in science, medicine, and philosophy, all of which became of importance in Alexander's later life.
an-tip'-a-ter (Antipatros): One of two envoys sent by the senate of the Jews to the Romans and Spartans (1 Macc 12:16; 14:22). (Bible-History Online)
Antipater was a senior Macedonian general under both Philip II and Alexander the Great. He outlived Alexander, and played an important role in holding his empire together until his death of natural causes in 319 BC. He was a conservative Macedonian, apparently unenthusiastic for Alexander's adventures in Asia, but loyal to the royal family. He was also a close friend and correspondent of Aristotle.
The story of Antipater's life is virtually the story of Macedonia itself. He was an indispensable part of the glorious reigns of both Philip and Alexander and witnessed the rise of his homeland from a backwater to the greatest power in the world. He was born at the very beginning of the fourth century, probably in 398 BC Over fifteen years older than Philip II, the monarch with whom his career would be inextricably linked, his life began in the era of Xenophon and Socrates when the Spartan victory in the Peloponnesian war was a very recent memory.
her-ka'-nus (Hurkanos): "Son of Tobias, a man of great dignity," who had a large sum of money deposited in the Temple of Jerusalem when Heliodorus was sent to confiscate it in 187 BC (2 Macc 3:11 ff). (Bible-History Online)
Johanan [John] Hyrcanus (d.104 BCE) Grandson of Mattathias of Modein and chief architect of Judean dominance of Israel. The youngest and only surviving son of Simon Thassi succeeded his father as high priest in 134 BCE. He was the fourth Hasmonean to rule Jerusalem. But his tenure began with a year-long Syrian siege that forced him agree to tear down the city's fortifications and renew tribute the Greek emperor [133 BCE]
by Richard Gottheil and Meyer Keyserling High priest; prince of the Hasmonean family; born about 175; died 104 (SchÃ¼rer). He was a wise and just ruler and a skilful warrior. As a young man he distinguished himself as a general in the war against the Syrian general Cendebeus, whom he defeated. That John was given the surname "Hyrcanus" on account of this victory, is a tradition to which GrÃ¤tz and others attribute historical significance. When his father, Simon Maccabeus, was assassinated at Jericho by his son-in-law Ptolemy, John succeeded in escaping from those sent by Ptolemy to murder him also. From Gadara, where he at that time lived, John hastened to Jerusalem, where the people gladly received him as Simon's successor (135). He never assumed the title of king, being content with that of high priest. The beginning of his reign was not happy. He could not avenge the murder of his father, for Ptolemy, whom he had shut up in the fort Dagon, subjected Hyrcanus' mother to cruel tortures on the walls of the fort whenever her son attempted to attack it. Hyrcanus, therefore, raised the siege after several months, although his mother bore the tortures with heroic determination, and encouraged him to punish the murderer. Finally, however, she was put to death, as was, presumably, an imprisoned brother also; while Ptolemy himself fled to Rabbath Ammon (Philadelphia; 135 B.C. ).
by Felix Just S...J. Ph.D. PTOLEMIES (rulers in Egypt) mentioned in the Bible (Deuterocanonical books) and Apocrypha:Ptolemy I "Soter" (a.k.a. Ptolemy Lagi) - one of the Greek generals who fought each other in the Wars of the Diodochi (not directly named, but alluded to in the dreams and visions of Daniel 2:3, 41-43; 7:20a, 24a; 8:8, 22); founder of the dynasty that rules Egpyt and surrounding territories for most of the three centuries before Christ; founded the famous library of Alexandria.[Ptolemy II "Philadelphus" - advanced the hellenization of Egypt and the prominence of Alexandria; had the Septuagint (LXX) translated; not mentioned in Bible][Ptolemy III "Euergetes" - not mentioned in the Bible]Ptolemy IV "Philopator" - (3 Macc 1:2; 3:12; 7:1)[Ptolemy V "Epiphanes" - his crowning is commemorated on teh Rosetta Stone; not mentioned in the Bible]
The Maccabees (166-129 BCE) by Mitchell Bard. The death of Alexander the Great of Greece in 323 BCE led to the breakup of the Greek empire as three of his generals fought for supremacy and divided the Middle East among themselves... Ptolemy secured control of Egypt and the Land of Israel. Seleucus grabbed Syria and Asia Minor, and Antigonus took Greece.
Israel was sandwiched between the two rivals and for the next 125 years Seleucids and Ptolemies battled for the prize. The former finally won in 198 B.C. when Antiochus III defeated the Egyptians and incorporated Judea into his empire. Initially, he continued to allow the Jews autonomy, but after a stinging defeat at the hands of the Romans he began a program of Hellenization that threatened to force the Jews to abandon their monotheism for the Greeks' paganism... Antiochus backed down in the face of Jewish opposition to his effort to introduce idols in their temples, but his son, Antiochus IV, who inherited the throne in 176 B.C. resumed his father's original policy without excepting the Jews. A brief Jewish rebellion only hardened his views and led him to outlaw central tenets of Judaism such as the Sabbath and circumcision, and defile the holy Temple by erecting an altar to the god Zeus, allowing the sacrifice of pigs, and opening the shrine to non-Jews.
Maccabees or Machabees (both: m kÂ´ b z) (KEY) , Jewish family of the 2d and 1st cent. B.C. that brought about a restoration of Jewish political and religious life. They are also called Hasmoneans or Asmoneans after their ancestor, Hashmon. The Maccabees appear in history as the family of a priest, Mattathias, dwelling in Modin, who opposed the Hellenizing tendencies of the Syrian ruler Antiochus IV. Antiochus had taken advantage of factionalism among the Jews and had stripped and desacralized the Temple and begun a religious persecution. Mattathias, after killing an apostate Jew who took part in a Greek sacrifice, killed the royal enforcing officer. With his five sons he fled to the mountains and was joined by many Hasidim. Thus began a guerrilla war.
- Maccabees(a hammer), The. This title, which was originally the surname of Judas, one of the sons of Mattathias, was afterward extended to the heroic family of which he was one of the noblest representatives. Asmonaeans or Hasmonaeans is the Proper name of the family, which is derived from Cashmon, great grandfather of Mattathias. The Maccabees were a family of Jews who resisted the authority of Antiochus Epiphanes king of Syria and his successors who had usurped authority over the Jews, conquered Jerusalem, and strove to introduce idolatrous worship. (Bible History Online)
by Rabbi Shimon Apisdorf. Close your eyes and picture Arnold Schwartzenegger: His Uzi has just jammed, he's got one arm in a sling, he's about to take on 300 bad guys all at once - and he's wearing a yarmulka. That's who Judah Maccabee was! Two thousand years ago, one family led by one man stood between the mighty Greek army and the conquest of the Jewish people. The family was the Hasmoneans, and the man was Judah Maccabee.
Second leader of the Judean revolt against the Greco-Syrian empire [166 BCE]. Westerners have traditionally referred to the third son of Mattathias of Modein by the Latinate form of his name: Judas Maccabeus. A Judean priest, he assumed command of Judean resistance to Greek forces after his father's death [165 BCE]. His defeat of the Greek governor of Samaria led to even more stunning victories over larger Greek armies at Beth-horon & Emmaus
Jonathan Maccabaeus was leader of the Hasmonean Dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. He is called also Apphus (ἈÃ°Ã¶Ã-ῦÃ² (Syriac, image)) = "the dissembler" or "the diplomat", in allusion to a trait prominent in him; 1 Maccabees ii. 5).Jonathan Maccabeus was one of the sons of Mattathias Maccabaeus. His father was a Kohen credited as the founding figure of the rebellion of the Maccabees against Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Seleucid Empire. However Mattathias died in 167 BCE while the rebellion was only beginning.
Herod (73-4 BCE) was the pro-Roman king of the small Jewish state in the last decades before the common era. He started his career as a general, but the Roman statesman Mark Antony recognized him as the Jewish national leader. During a war against the Parthians, Herod was removed from the scene, but the Roman Senate made him king and gave him soldiers to seize the the throne. As 'friend and ally of the Romans' he was not a truly independent king; however, Rome allowed him a domestic policy of his own. Although Herod tried to respect the pious feeling of his subjects, many of them were not content with his rule, which ended in terror. He was succeeded by his sons.
her'-ud: The name Herod (Herodes) is a familiar one in the history of the Jews and of the early Christian church. The name itself signifies "heroic," a name not wholly applicable to the family, which was characterized by craft and knavery rather than by heroism. The fortunes of the Herodiam family are inseparably connected with the last flickerings of the flame of Judaism, as a national power, before it was forever extinguished in the great Jewish war of rebellion, 70 AD. The history of the Herodian family is not lacking in elements of greatness, but whatever these elements were and in whomsoever found, they were in every ease dimmed by the insufferable egotism which disfigured the family, root and branch. (Bible History Online)
Herod was the name of many rulers mentioned in the N.T. and in history. It was known long before the time of thebiblical Herods. (See SchÃ¼rer, "Hist. of the Jewish People", etc., Div. I, v. I, p. 416, note.) The Herods connected with the early history of Christianity are the following:Herod, surnamed the Great, called by GrÃ¤tz "the evil genius of the Judean nation" (Hist., v. II, p. 77), was a son ofAntipater, an IdumÃ"an (Jos., "Bel. Jud.", I, vi, 2). The IdumÃ"ans were brought under subjection by John Hyrcanus towards the end of the second century B. C., and obliged to live as Jews, so that they were considered Jews (Jos., "Ant.", XIII, ix, 4). Yet Antigonus called Herod a half-Jew (Jos., "Ant.", XIV, xv, 2, and note in Whiston), while the Jews, when it furthered their interests, spoke of Herod their king as by birth a Jew (Jos., "Ant." XX, viii, 7). Antipater, the father of Herod, had helped the Romans in the Orient, and the favour of Rome brought the Herodian family into great prominence and power.
Antigonus the Successor "Diadochoi" by Ben Martinez Alexander's death in Babylon on (June 10, 323 B.C.) left the empire without a direct heir at the time of his death, since Alexander had an unborn child with a Bactrian princess Roxane. The vast empire that Alexander conquered with the sword was loosely held together and after his death the leading officers present in Babylon came together to discuss who was going to exercise power on behalf of the Argead dynasty until a king was named. Perdiccas was in the strongest position to assume the role, having been Alexander's chief lieutenant during the last months of his riegn... Plus Periccas own report that Alexander gave him his ring, its seal the symbol of the state. Perdiccas with the ring given to him by Alexander and acting as a Chiliarch(Vizier) summoned the council of generals to find a successor to Alexander's empire.
Antigonus I Monophthalmus (one-eyed) was one of Alexander the Great's most important generals, and one of the most able of his successors. He came closer than any of his colleagues to reuniting Alexander's empire during the wars of the Diadochi (successors), eventually falling to a coalition that saw most of his fellow successors unite against him. He was the son of a Macedonian nobleman, and a commander in the army that Alexander the Great led into Asia in 334 BC.
Period of Alexander the Great - General of Alexander - Founder of the Great Library of Alexandria. Ptolemy was one of Alexander the Great's boyhood friends and became one of his most trusted generals. He played a principal part in the campaigns of Alexander in Afghanistan and India.When Alexander the Great died Ptolemy took charge of one third of all the land that Alexander had conquered, becoming satrap (governor) of Cyrenaica and Egypt.
Cassander was the son of Antipater. He was a minor figure during the reign of Alexander the Great, but after the death of his father rose to be ruler and then king of Macedonia. Antipater was the regent of Macedonia during Alexander's expedition to the east. In 324 BC he had been summoned to Alexander's court at Babylon, and Craterus sent west to replace him. Rather than travel in person, Antipater sent his son Cassander. Alexander and Cassander formed an immediate dislike of each other, so severe that Cassander was suspected of having poisoned the king.
Cassander (c. 355-297 B.C.) as son of Antipater did not accompany the Macedonian army on its invasion of Asia, but remained in Europe during his father's regency over Macedonia and Greece. Displeased at his father's choice of Polyperchon for his successor, he set himself to oust his rival from the regency and sought help from Antigonus in Asia Minor.
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By Alfred Edersheim. The political connection of the Grecian world, and, with it, the conflict with Hellenism, may be said to have connected with the victoriuos progress of Alexander the Great through the then known world (333 B..C.). [1 We do not here discuss the question, whether or not Alexander really entered Jersalem. Jewish legend has much to tell of him, and reports many supposed inquiries on his part or discussions betweem him and the Rabbis, that prove at least the deep impression which his appearance had made, and the permanent results which followed from it.] It was not only that his destruction of the Persian empire put end to the easy and peaceful allegiance which Judaea had owned to it for about two centuries, but that the establishment of such a vast Hellenic empire. as was the aim of Alexander, introduced a new element into the world of Asia. Everywhere the old civilisationgave way before the new. So early as the commencement of the second century before Christ, Israel was already surrounded, north, east, and west, with a girdle of Hellenic cities, while in the interior of the land itself Grecianism had its foothold in Galilee and was dominant in Samaria. But this is not all. After continuing the frequent object of contention between the rulers of Egypt and Syria, Israel ultimately passed from Egyptian to Syrian domination during the reign of Seleucus IV. (187-175 B.C.). His successor was that Antiochus IV., Epiphanes (175-164), whose reckless determination to exterminate Judaism, and in its placeto substitute Hellenism, led to the Maccabean rising. Mad as this attempt seems,it could scarcely have been made had there not been in Israel itself a party to favour his plans. In truth, Grecianism, inits worst form, had long before made its way, slowly but surely, into the highest quarters. For the proper understanding of this history its progress must be briefly indicated.
By Jack Kilmon, Text and Images [Intertestimental]
Until this section is finished being indexed into the main database you can click here to see a list of links including the Bible History Online general resources on this subject, although many of these links are outdated. [Intertestimental History]
From Bible History Online Part One - The Intertestimental Period 400 - 4 BC. HISTORICAL TIME CHART (Historical with an emphasis on Judaism) 3 Part Series. Note: The dating is approximate and follows certain events in Israel, Rome, Greece, Persia, Egypt, and China. The Notes in blue are a commentary on the effects of hellenization on the Jewish people.
From Bible History Online Part Two - The Intertestimental Period 400 - 4 BC. HISTORICAL TIME CHART (Historical with an emphasis on Judaism) 3 Part Series. Note: The dating is approximate and follows certain events in Israel, Rome, Greece, Persia, Egypt, and China. The Notes in blue are a commentary on the effects of hellenization on the Jewish people.
From Bible History Online Part Three - The Intertestimental Period 400 - 4 BC. HISTORICAL TIME CHART (Historical with an emphasis on Judaism) 3 Part Series. Note: The dating is approximate and follows certain events in Israel, Rome, Greece, Persia, Egypt, and China. The Notes in blue are a commentary on the effects of hellenization on the Jewish people.
With the silence of Malachi and the voice of John the Baptist there is a period of some 400 years. This period has sometimes been called the Silent Years. But that can be misleading because there was much going on during this time. The Silence was with God's inspired writers, not with God's work. Electronic Christian Media
Warren Doud, Grace Notes [Intertestimental]