Bible Books

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Greek Name of the Book of Daniel

Greek Name - Danil (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of the Book of Daniel

Main Theme - The final kingdom of the Messiah

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in the Book of Daniel

Types and Shadows - In Daniel Jesus was the fourth man in the fiery furnace

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Daniel in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Dan...

Hosea in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hos...

Summary of The Book of Hosea

The prophet Hosea had a real-life situation that God used to illustrate his problem with the nation of Israel. Hosea's adulterous wife had broken his heart, and this is exactly what the children of Israel had done to God when they played the harlot with other gods. Later when her adulterous affairs had led her to be sold on the slave block, Hosea was willing to buy her back for he could not give her up. This dramatically illustrated Israel's situation for soon they would be conquered by the Assyrians and then sold into slavery because they had forgotten their God. The prophet Hosea spoke about a future blessing in which God will restore Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hos...

Outline of The Book of Hosea

Quick Overview of Hosea. – – 1 – – Hosea's marriage to a harlot illustrates Israel and their sin – – 2 – – Israel suffers for their harlotry – – 3 – – Israel's future restoration – – 4 – – Ephraim's idolatry – – 5-6 – – God's chastisement and future mercy – – 7-13 – – the Lord's judgment upon Israel – – 14 – – the restoration of Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Hos...

Introduction to The Book of Hosea

Story of Hosea and his unfaithful wife, Gomer. Represents God's love and faithfulness and Israel's spiritual adultery. Israel will be judged and restored.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of The Book of Joel

Quick Overview of Joel. – – 1: 1-2:27 – – The plague of locusts – – 2:38-3:21 – – the approaching day of the Lord.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

History of The Book of Hosea

The prophet Hosea was commanded by God to marry a wife of harlotry because Israel hath committed great harlotry. He was sent by God to prophesy about the northern King of Israel. Hosea ministered to Israel for a great length of time (over 50 years), and they were his primary target although he does mention four kings of Judah (Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah). The northern kingdom of Israel was enjoying tremendous prosperity during the reign of Jeroboam II, yet when he died various kings came to the throne for a brief period of time and then many were assassinated. The problem with the northern kingdom was that they were idolaters, and every one of their kings were evil whether they prospered or not. The people were making sacrifices on heathen altars, adultery was prevalent, and ritualistic prostitution abounded. Hosea attributed their wretchedness to a lack of knowledge, not a lack of intellectual knowledge, but lacking a relationship with the living God. Yet God loves his people with an everlasting love in spite of their corruption.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Main Divisions of The Book of Hosea

In Hosea 1-3, the faithless actions of Israel toward God are illustrated by the relationship between Hosea and his adultress wife, Gomer. The names of his children indicate the attitude of God toward Israel. The first is named "Jezreel" after the city which was the scene of Jehu's brutality and which signified that God would punish his people. Lo-Ruhamah (Not pitied) and Lo-Ammi (Not my people) are the names given to the two other children, signifying the estrangement which was the inevitable result of the actions of Israel. God's love is illustrated in Hosea's willingness to buy his wife back from the practice of harlotry - though she could not continue in her harlotry while he was with her. The second division of the prophecy, found in Hosea 4-14, presents a detailed picture of the depths of depravity to which Israel had gone, with alternating passages of reproof, threats of punishment, and assurances of restoration.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of The Book of Hosea

Main Theme - The apostasy of Israel. My people are bent on backsliding from Me. Though they call to the Most High, none at all exalt Him. "How can I give you up, Ephraim? How can I hand you over, Israel? . . . My heart churns within Me; my sympathy is stirred. . . "I will heal their backsliding, I will love them freely, for My anger has turned away from him." Hosea 11:7-8, 14:4

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of The Book of Hosea

Greek Name - Osee (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of The Book of Hosea

Author - Hosea (According to Jewish Tradition)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus The Book of Hosea

Types and Shadows - In Hosea Jesus is the faithful husband who bought His wife back from the slave block.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of The Book of Joel

The prophet Joel showed up in Israel during a time of the most terrible plague of locusts in the nation's history. Joel came and prophesied to the land of Judah before the plague came. He warned the people of Judah that the devastation was going to sweep across the land very soon. He called for a season of fasting, mourning, and repentance. He warned them of God's judgment in the imagery of the impending invasion of locusts. He called the people of Judah and Jerusalem to weep over the sins, and to fast and repent because the day of the Lord is approaching. Soon the plague came and devastated the whole land and its effects were clearly seen and felt. The locusts came like a storm, they darkened the skies and every green thing was left barren. There was no hope of escape and they left utter decimation in their path. Joel seized upon the imagery of the locusts as a type of the greater judgement that would come on "the Day of the Lord" in the last days: Alas for the day! For the day of the LORD is at hand; it shall come as destruction from the Almighty . . . The LORD gives voice before His army, for His camp is very great; for strong is the One who executes His word. For the day of the LORD is great and very terrible; who can endure it? Joel 1:15, 2:11. Joel also gave a message of hope and prophesied of great blessings that would follow and the glories of the Messiah's kingdom.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

History of The Book of Joel

The name "Joel" means "Jehovah is God." Other than his name and the fact that he was the son of Pethuel, there is little known about this man Joel, other than the fact that he wrote a very powerful book. Although it is not certain it seems that he prophesied around 800 BC during a time when Judah was experiencing prosperity and security. God was kind enough to give ample warning before such a devastating judgment. When the plague of locusts came the land of Judah suffer dramatically, and what followed after was a time of famine drought. The plague was described by Joel in four stages, and Joel pointed to the greater judgment that was to swarm upon the nation if they did not turn from their ways and seek the Lord with their whole heart. He called them to fast, and to repent, and to weep over their sins (Joel 2:12). Joel also gave a promise of hope and spoke of the great blessings that would follow in the kingdom of the Messiah.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

The New Testament and The Book of Joel

Joel described the coming day of the Lord. In the New Testament after the resurrection of Jesus Christ and on the day of Pentecost Peter rose to speak to the people of Israel regarding the last days. Peter described what they were seeing as that which was spoken by the prophet Joel (Acts 2:16). The church age has always been seen by Christians as a time to be alert and aware that the Lord is returning in judgment. Today is the day of salvation, the door is open and the fields are white unto harvest. (John 4:35) but one day Jesus will be taking vengeance on them that know not God, and obey not the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ (2 Thessalonians 1:8).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of The Book of Joel

Greek Name - Joel (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of The Book of Joel

Author - Joel (According to the Bible and Jewish Tradition)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of The Book of Joel

Date - 800 BC Approximately. Although it is not certain it seems that he prophesied around 800 BC during a time when Judah was experiencing prosperity and security. God was kind enough to give ample warning before such a devastating judgment.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Contents of The Book of Joel

Main Divisions include: Joel 1 - The terrible plague of locusts Joel 2:1-27 - The coming day of the Lord, repentance, and restoration Joel 2:28-3:21 - The outpouring of the Holy Spirit, judgment upon the nations.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of The Book of Joel

Main Theme - The Kingdom of Judah. Joel 2:1-3 - Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm in my holy mountain: let all the inhabitants of the land tremble: for the day of the LORD cometh, for [it is] nigh at hand; A day of darkness and of gloominess, a day of clouds and of thick darkness, as the morning spread upon the mountains: a great people and a strong; there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be any more after it, [even] to the years of many generations. A fire devoureth before them; and behind them a flame burneth: the land [is] as the garden of Eden before them, and behind them a desolate wilderness; yea, and nothing shall escape them.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in The Book of Joel

Types and Shadows - In Joel the day of Jesus is at hand!

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Joel in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Joe...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah

God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces. They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/black-obelisk/...

Type of Jesus in the Book of Jeremiah

Types and Shadows - In Jeremiah Jesus is the Lord our righteousness

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

The Book of Jeremiah in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jer...

Outline of the Book of Lamentations

Quick Overview of Lamentations. – –1 – – a destroyed Jerusalem cries out for mercy – – 2 – –the Lord's chastisement and the effects – – 3 – – a cry from the heart of a chastened people – – 4 – – the horrors surrounding the siege and the fall of the city of Jerusalem – – 5 – – a lament and prayer for the restoration of Jerusalem.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of the Book of Lamentations

The book contains five poems that depict the condition of the forsaken city of Jerusalem which had been burnt to the ground and utterly demolished by the Babylonians on the ninth of Av in the Jewish calendar in 586 BC, in contrast to the magnificent splendor that it once possessed. The reason for God's chastisement on the people of Judah and on the city of Jerusalem are spelled out in the form of an appeal made to God to remember the great suffering of his people and to take vengeance upon the conquerors of His city and the people of Judah.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

The 5 Poems of the Book of Lamentations

The five lament poems are outlined here: Lamentations 1 - Jerusalem's desolation is lamented Lamentations 2 - God's wrath against the city of Jerusalem Lamentations 3 - God's faithfulness is acknowledged Lamentations 4 - God's faithfulness is viewed as chastisement Lamentations 5 - God's faithfulness is worthy of trust

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of the Book of Lamentations

Author - Jeremiah (According to the Bible and Jewish Tradition). The first four poems are arranged in an acrostic form with each containing 22 verses which correspond with the 22 consonants of the Hebrew alphabet. In chapter 3 each letter of the Hebrew alphabet is allotted 3 of the 66 verses which comprise the poem. Some conclude that the reason for this was because Israel had sinned from beginning to end (A-Z, or in the Hebrew aleph-tav). Jeremiah, who wrote the lamentations was an eyewitness of the events, and this brought him great sorrow for he knew the people, he knew the city, he knew the children, and he knew the festivities that existed among the people of Judah. Interesting note: The Jewish translators of the Septuagint (LXX) attribute Jeremiah as the author of the Lamentations, and so do other ancient translations: The Aramaic Targum, the Latin Vulgate, and the Syriac Peshitta, and the Babylonian Talmud.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Hebrew Name and Meaning of the Book of Lamentations

In the Hebrew the word for the name of the book of Lamentations is "Eikah" which means "How." How could this happen?

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of the Book of Lamentations

Main Theme - 5 Poetic laments over the destruction of Jerusalem

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in the Book of Lamentations

Types and Shadows - In Lamentations Jesus is the weeping prophet who wept over Jerusalem for her blindness.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Lamentations in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Lam...

Ezekiel in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Eze...

Summary of The Book of Ezekiel

Ezekiel prophesied to the the Jewish captives in Babylon. The Babylonians had invaded Judah three times and each time they took prisoners back to Babylon. The first invasion was in 607 BC and Daniel was taken as a captive to Babylon. The second invasion was in 597 BC and Ezekiel was taken as a captive to Babylon, and in 586 BC Jerusalem was destroyed and all the survivors were taken as captives to Babylon. Ezekiel was married to a beautiful woman who was "the desire of his eyes" and God told him but his beloved wife was going to die on the very same day that Jerusalem was to be destroyed. As a sign to the Jews is a cure was commanded not to mourn his wife's death. He was to prepare himself as God had prepared himself for the death of his beloved city (Ezekiel 24:15-22). God spoke many prophecies through Ezekiel using words, parables, visions, and similitudes (strange things to point to something greater). Ezekiel also prophesied about the false shepherds in Jerusalem and God said that he will be the true Shepherd Messiah and there will be a future outpouring of the Holy Spirit and a re- gathering of Israel in the land. Ezekiel also predicted the downfall of those nations that were hostile to Judah. Ezekiel 16 is probably the most remarkable chapter concerning the love of God for his people in spite of their continuing idolatry.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of The Book of Ezekiel

Quick Overview of Ezekiel. – –1-3 – – the call of Ezekiel as a prophet – –4-24 – – Ezekiel's prophecies against Jerusalem – – 25-32– –Ezekiel's prophecies against the nations– – 33-48 – – Ezekiel's prophecies of the future restoration of Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

History of The Book of Ezekiel

The prophet Ezekiel taken captive during the time when the Babylonians began their captivity of Judah during the time of the reign of king Jehoichin, which was about 11 years before Nebuchadnezzar conquered Jerusalem. Ezekiel was one of the Jewish captives who was brought to the land of Babylon and settled on the banks of the river Chebar. While he was by this river and the "land of the Chaldeans" he had a prophetic vision and received his call to be a prophet to the people in exile. This all happened in the fourth month of the "fifth year of king Jehoiachin's captivity" (595 BC). There is one interesting note that Ezekiel makes when he mentions that he married a woman in the land of Babylon and had a house, and that he lost his wife on the very day that the Babylonian siege of Jerusalem took place. Something else that is interesting is that the prophecies of Ezekiel address the Jews in Jerusalem and the events taking place over there, as though he was in Jerusalem, but he was actually in Babylon.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Jewish Tradition and The Book of Ezekiel

According to Jewish tradition Ezekiel was murdered in Babylon by a Jewish prince whom Ezekiel accused of idolatry, Ezekiel was supposedly buried on the banks of the Euphrates River.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Major Divisions in The Book of Ezekiel

The major divisions within the book of Ezekiel reveal the purpose of this ministry. In the first half of the book of Ezekiel (Ezekiel 1-33) Judah is accused of breaking all of God's commandments, and they are warned by God that they will be destroyed if they persist in their sins. After Ezekiel's announcement of Jerusalem's destruction the book of Ezekiel focuses on an entirely different subject, which is one of comfort and encouragement to the heartbroken Jews.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Symbolism in The Book of Ezekiel

The siege of Jerusalem is portrayed in four symbolical acts (Ezekiel 4-7). In the first of these, Ezekiel evidently drew a picture of a city under siege, indicating that this was soon to be the condition of Jerusalem. After this, Ezekiel lay on his side for a great number of days, announcing that the nation was to be punished for its sins. By eating an inferior type of food which had been cooked on animal dung, Ezekiel predicted the famine which would accompany the siege. In the final act, Ezekiel shaved his head, burning his hair, striking it with a sword and scattering it to the winds, indicating the fate of the inhabitants of Jerusalem. Ezekiel 6 and 7 contain additional oracles concerning Israel's sin and imminent doom. 3) Visions of idolatry in Jerusalem and the resultant judgment and destruction of that city (Ezekiel 8-11).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Main Prophecies in The Book of Ezekiel

I. Israel's sin and impending judgment, uttered before the final captivity (Ezekiel 1-24). II. Prophecies against the nations of Am-mon, Moab, Edom, Philistia, Tyre, Sidon and Egypt (Ezekiel 25-32). III. Prophecies concerning the restoration of Israel, uttered after the destruction of Jerusalem at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of The Book of Ezekiel

Greek Name - Iezekiel (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of The Book of Ezekiel

Author - Ezekiel (According to the Bible and Jewish Tradition)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of The Book of Ezekiel

Author - Ezekiel (According to the Bible and Jewish Tradition)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of The Book of Ezekiel

Main Theme - The final restoration of Israel

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Types of Jesus in The Book of Ezekiel

Types and Shadows - In Ezekiel Jesus is the son of man

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of the Book of Daniel

The prophet Daniel was actually taken captive during the Babylonian invasion on Jerusalem, the first attack in 607 BC. When Daniel came to Babylon he became a chief minister at Nebuchadnezzar's royal court. He became known as a man who could interpret dreams and visions. God did mighty miracles through Daniel that impressed King Nebuchadnezzar himself, so much so that he worshiped the Jewish God. Later when the Medes and Persians conquered Babylon King Cyrus ruled the Persian Empire. He also had visions that Daniel had given interpretation to. some of the great miracles mentioned in the Bible happened in the book of Daniel: the fiery furnace, the handwriting on the wall, and Daniel in the lion's den. Daniel can be seen in the Bible as the Empire predicting prophet, because he accurately predicted the world governing empires before they came on the scene, first Babylon, second Persia, third Greece, fourth Rome, and in the last days would be another Roman empire where the antichrist would arise. At this time the Messiah will return and set up his everlasting kingdom. Daniel also predicted the exact day and year the Messiah would die. There is also a prophecy Daniel refers to as the 70th week, which speaks of a seven-year period in the future that will mark the second coming of the Messiah (Son of Man) coming with the clouds of heaven.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of Daniel

Quick Overview of Daniel. – –1-6 – – the prophetic ministry of Daniel from King Nebuchadnezzar and Babylon to King Cyrus and Persia– – 7-12– – the visions of Daniel during the reigns of Belshazzar of Babylon, Darius and Cyrus of Persia.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

History of the Book of Daniel

Daniel was among the Jewish captives who were brought to Babylon from Jerusalem after Nebuchadnezzar conquered the city. Daniel was still a youth but apparently of high status (Daniel 1:3). He was of such a high status that he was considered one of the wise men of the court of Babylon .He was quickly recognized in Babylon for his devotion to the one God Yahweh, and he refused to eat of the "dainties" which were brought to him by the king's servants. He also became recognized as the interpreter of dreams (Daniel 1:8- 16), because when King Nebuchadnezzar being disturbed by a dream asked his own wise men to interpret they could not. Daniel offered to give the king the interpretation and the King was very appreciative to Daniel, he was so impressed that he allowed Daniel to rise to a place of great prominence in Babylon. Later when Babylon fell to the Persians the Jews had new masters over them, and Daniel was quickly recognized as a very special man and he had favor with the king of Persia. This caused many of those in authority to scrutinize Daniel and to look for flaws in his character and they could not find any. They developed a plot which forced the King to have Daniel thrown in the lion's den. The King recognizing their treachery and hoped for Daniel's deliverance, and when the Lord saved Daniel from the mouth of the lions Darius ordered his own leaders to be thrown into the lion's den and they were torn in pieces immediately.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Daniel the Empire Predicting Prophet

Daniel is clearly seen in the Bible as the Empire predicting prophet. He was an interpreter of dreams, and God revealed through his interpretations his plans for the kingdoms that would rise to power in world history. At that time Babylon was in power, and in fact a world governing Empire in the ancient world. But Daniel said that Babylon would be defeated by the Medes and the Persians who would become a world governing empire. Then Greece would come and dominate the world, and after Greece the Romans would become a world governing empire. Then Daniel predicted that way in the future a final world governing empire would rise that would be like Rome, but different in that it would consist of 10 kings, and then finally 1 king who would rise to power. This 1 king would be a man referred to in the Bible as the antichrist. This would all take place in the final seven-year period known as the 70th week of Daniel. At its consummation the Lord will return, he will crush the enemy, and he will set up a kingdom, an everlasting kingdom, which will never be destroyed.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

The 70 weeks of Daniel

The 70 weeks in Daniel are mentioned in Daniel 9, and they refer to a prophecy of Daniel where he claims that the king of Persia will release the Jews to rebuild their Temple in Jerusalem. When he makes this decree the Jews are to begin counting, and after 70 weeks (7 year periods or 490 years) the kingdom of the Messiah will be established on earth. But something interesting would happen, at the end of the 69th week (483 years) the Messiah will be "cut off" which indicates His death. The final seven year period is suddenly thrown into the future, to the time of the end of the world. This final seven year period is described in the book of Revelation as a time of the Messiah taking back the earth. It is divided into two 3 1/2 year periods and directly in the middle is when the antichrist sets up his throne in Jerusalem and reveals himself as God. Certain portions of this final seven years are mentioned in other prophetic books of the Bible like Zechariah.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of the Book of Daniel

Daniel was the author of this book according to Jewish tradition, and this was confirmed by Jesus himself, but there has been considerable criticism about the book of Daniel because of the accuracy of the prophecies. Many claim that these had to been written after the fact, and that Daniel could not possibly have known so much detail about the future. The first major critic of the genuineness of the book of Daniel was Porphyry of Tyre, a Greek philosopher of the third century AD who claimed that the book of Daniel had been written by a person living in the second century BC during the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes. His main reason for rejecting the book of Daniel was centered around the person of Antiochus Epiphanes, whom Daniel claimed was a prototype of the Antichrist. Daniel's prophecies written a few hundred years prior but were very very accurate in their detail. Many other critics have tried to discredit the book of Daniel, but the Bible and history have confirmed that Daniel was the author of this book, and therefore was written at the time of the Persian Empire (sixth century BC).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Main Promises in the Book of Daniel

The book of Daniel assures God's people that their situation in exile would not be permanent, that God would keep his promise to Abraham, he would keep his promise through Jeremiah the prophet that they would return after 70 years. And he would also keep his promise that the Jews would still be the channel through which all nations would be blessed. The book of Daniel is a grand tribute to the providence of God and His lordship of history and the universe.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Main Divisions in the Book of Daniel

Daniel is divided into two sections of six chapters each. Daniel 1-6 are largely historical, explaining how Daniel came to be in the court of Nebuchadnezzar and of his rise to power. It tells of Nebuchadnezzar's dream of the image which Daniel interpreted to refer to the current kingdom and three world powers which would arise after it and of the kingdom of God "a kingdom which shall never be destroyed" which would arise during the era of the last of these great empires. This section also includes the account of the deliverance of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego from the fiery furnace and of the handwriting on the wall which spelled out the defeat of Belshazzar at the hands of the Medes and the Persians. The second section, Daniel 8-12, describes visions which Daniel received concerning the great world powers of the future and the kingdom of God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in The Book of Ecclesiastes

Types and Shadows - In Ecclesiastes Jesus is true fulfillment

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Solomon and Worldly Pleasure

Solomon had thoroughly experienced all avenues of pleasure, all avenues of sensuality, all avenues of wealth, honor, folly, and the pursuit of knowledge. He also sinned in giving way to every excess of life which his position made possible and comes to the realization of the uselessness of it all. He concludes that the result of his efforts have been made him empty and that there is nothing new under the sun, but all is part of the endless, frustrating circularity. His attitude was spoken in the recurring phrase, "vanity of vanities, all is vanity, saith the preacher." In Ecclesiastes, the world is convicted of its vanity by one who has drunk of every spring.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Solomon's Conclusion

The conclusion which Solomon "the preacher" reaches is that in such an empty and unsatisfying world where disappointment, trouble and death cannot be avoided, a quiet enjoyment of God's gifts is the only real wisdom. The man who is truly wise will "fear God and keep his commandments" (12:13-14), making the best of things as he finds them and trusting in the providence of God. This secret should be understood early in life. An understanding of this will provide one with great pleasure in life. The book of Ecclesiastes profoundly illustrates the idea that a life apart from God is a life without meaning.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of the Song of Solomon

Quick Overview of Song of Solomon. – –1:1-2:7 – – the bride and her beloved – – 2:8-3:5 – – the lovers seek out and find one another – – 3:6-4:16 – – the bridegroom pursues his bride– – 5:1-7:9 – – the bride waits earnestly for the bridegroom – – 7:10-8:14 – – the lovers reunite and their love is consummated.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of the Book of the Song of Solomon

It is clear that this poem is a wedding song and it reveals the glories of love. It exalts physical love, erotic love, and everything about love. The time is springtime and two lovers are full of passion and delight. The words in the poem are very descriptive and romantic. When their love is finally consummated the bond is so durable that nothing can destroy it. The poem is clearly describing God's love for his people, he is the bridegroom and his people are his bride. He is deeply in love with them and ultimately there will be a wedding day, and how excited they both are for that day.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Main Divisions of the Book of the Song of Solomon

Chapter 1:1-2:7 - The bride expresses her deep desire to be with her lover and sings praises about him. Chapter 2:8-3:5 - The affections between the bride and her lover becomes more intimate, and she pours out more praise on the one she loves was very elaborate and exquisite analogies from nature. Chapter 3:6-5:1 - King Solomon gives his praise, as does the bride, and the engagement takes place. Chapter 5:2-6:9 - The bridegroom goes away for a period of time, and during his absence the bride longs for his return and continues to give him praises. Chapter 6:10-8:4 - This section contains some very descriptive verses describing the beauty of the bride. Chapter 8:5-14 - The conclusion deals with the durable eternal bond of consummated love.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of the Book of the Song of Solomon

Greek Name - Asma Asmaton (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of the Book of the Song of Solomon

Author - Solomon (According to Tradition). The first verse of the Book of the Song of Solomon mentions King Solomon as its author, and this is why it is often called the Song of Solomon. It is also referred to as Canticles (Latin) or the Song of Songs (Hebrew) because it is considered the finest of all songs.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of the Book of the Song of Solomon

Date - 1014 BC Approximately. There is no way to know the exact historical circumstances behind this event. We know it was Solomon because it mentions him by name, but it is uncertain whether he married a Shulamite woman of Israel, or Pharaoh's daughter. Others have included a third person, a shepherd who the girl of Shulam is in love with despite the kings desire for her. This book was included in the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Hebrew Canon) and was known in the time of Jesus as part of the Hebrew Scriptures though some critics doubt it should be in the Bible.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Song of Songs Importance to the Jews

The Song of Solomon was so important to the Jews that one of the most famous rabbi's in history, Rabbi Aqiba (90-135 AD) said that "the entire world, from the beginning until now, does not outweigh the day in which Shiyr Hashirim (Song of Songs) was given to Israel."

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in the Song of Solomon

Types and Shadows - In the Song of Solomon Jesus is the husband who loves His beautiful bride and will return to consummate the marriage.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Song of Solomon in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Son...

Summary of the Book of Isaiah

Isaiah prophesied during one of the worst times in the history of Israel. The Israelites had become so corrupt God was going to remove them out of His sight. He raised up the Assyrian army to be an unmerciful, barbaric, ruthless, an unstoppable war machine. Their military tactics are still applauded today by those who understand the art of war. God called them from their distant land to come and destroy the Jews living in the north, and take them away from their homeland. Isaiah was living in Judah, in the city of Jerusalem during a time when King Uzziah had died. Isaiah prophesied during the reign of King Uzziah, King Jotham, King Ahaz, King Hezekiah, and probably King Manasseh of Judah. His prophetic ministry lasted from about 760 BC until about 720 BC. Isaiah chapter 6 records a powerful vision that Isaiah received of God the King on his throne, and the king called Isaiah to prophesy to His people. This was Isaiah's call to ministry as a prophet of God and it is interesting that it was at a time when king Uzziah had just died. King Uzziah was faithful servant of the Lord and people felt secure under his leadership, but when he died there was almost a panic. This is when the Lord showed Isaiah who was really on the throne. Isaiah was terrified at the sight of God's holiness (Isaiah 6) and when the Lord called him and asked him who will go with this message and Isaiah said "here am I, send me." Isaiah warned Jerusalem about her idolatry, and her foreign alliances, but they scorned him. They did not listen to his warnings and quickly destroy their instruments of idolatry. He prophesied about the Assyrians who would destroy the northern kingdom, they were also good to come to Jerusalem but God would deliver them. But he also told them that eventually the city will be destroyed and captured by the Babylonians, and that a Persian ruler named Cyrus would release the Jews from captivity. Isaiah prophesied more about the Messiah than any other book in the Old Testament. He also described in great detail the blessings of the future kingdom of the Messiah. His coming would be as a lion bringing the day of God's wrath, but he would also first come as a savior who would die for the sins of the people. This was Isaiah's message, the humility and beauty of the Savior.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of Isaiah

Quick Overview of Isaiah. – –1-12 – – Isaiah's prophecies regarding Judah and Jerusalem– – 13-23 – –Isaiah's prophecies against the enemies of Judah– – 24-27– – Isaiah's prophecies concerning establishing the kingdom – – 28-35 – – Isaiah's prophecies regarding Judah and Assyria– – 36-39 – – historical appendix – – 40 – – Isaiah's prophecies concerning God's redemption – – 41 – – Isaiah's prophecies concerning God's vindication– – 42 – –Isaiah's prophecies concerning the servant of the Lord – – 43-45– – Isaiah's prophecies concerning the restoration of Judah – –46-48 – – Isaiah's prophecies concerning idolatry – – 49-57 – – Isaiah's prophecies the Messiah – – 58-66 – – Isaiah's prophecies about the future glory of Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Was There a Deutero Isaiah?

Was There a Deutero-Isaiah or Second Isaiah? There have been many critics who challenged the historicity of the Scriptures, and implied that the Bible is not the word of God. This is also true with the book of Isaiah, critics have identified problems in the books unity and authorship. A large number of critics make a case that Isaiah 1-39 and Isaiah 40-66 are two separate books written by two entirely different men. They refer to the second book as "Deutero- Isaiah" or "Second Isaiah" and they speculate that it was written during the Babylonian captivity, and the people that the author is addressing our different than in the first book. They also maintain that Isaiah is never mentioned as the author in the second book. but there are too many reasons for believing that Isaiah was the author of the whole book from Isaiah 1 through Isaiah 66. Jewish history and Jewish tradition never recognized anything other than one book, and one author. The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls identify Isaiah as one scroll, and thus one book. Judaism and Christianity also recognize Isaiah as one book and one author. The writing style of Isaiah is seen throughout both sections, and the people who are being addressed would apply more to Judah went to those captive in Babylon. There is also mention of Temple services in existence, which were not in existence what they were captive in Babylon. For these reasons and others, and for the fact that Jesus never recognized more than one Isaiah we must conclude that Isaiah was the author of his one book. It is important to understand this about the book of Isaiah because critics are always looking for something in which they might attack the Bible, especially the book of Isaiah because there are so many prophecies pointing to the life and ministry and even the death of the Lord Jesus Christ.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of the Book of Isaiah

Author - Isaiah (According to the Bible, Jesus, and Jewish Tradition). There was only one Isaiah according to the Hebrew Scriptures. There is little information about the personal life of the Prophet Isaiah. He was married to a woman called the prophetess (Isaiah 8:3), she bore him two sons (Isaiah 7:3 and Isaiah 8:3). According to Jewish tradition Isaiah was martyred by the wicked King Manasseh who placed him in the hollow trunk of a carob tree and was sawn in two. many believe also that it was Isaiah who was referred to in the book of Hebrews in the New Testament regarding a hero of faith "sawn asunder" (Hebrews 11:37).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

The Two Main Divisions in the Book of Isaiah

SECTION 1: Isaiah 1-39 1 ) Prophecies centered around Judah and Jerusalem (Isaiah 1:1-12:6). Included in this section are a description of the glories of the Messianic Age (Isaiah 2-4 ) and the account of the call of Isaiah (Isaiah 6 ). In Isaiah 7-12, although Isaiah is dealing primarily with various invasions which threaten Judah, reference is made to the wonderful child "Immanuel" and to the glorious age when a king of the Davidic line would institute a benevolent rule over a world without discord and wars. 2 ) Prophecies of judgment on the foreign and hostile nations of Babylon, Philistia, Moab, Damascus, Ethiopia, Egypt, Dumah, Arabia and Tyre (Isaiah 3-23 ). 3 ) The Apocalypse of Isaiah: the judgment of God against the world's sin and the ultimate destruction of the earth (Isaiah 24-27). Despite the dreadful nature of the punishment which was to come, this section is marked by a note of triumph and trust (see Isaiah 26). 4) Prophecies concerning the relations of Judah and Jerusalem to Egypt and Assyria (Isaiah 28-33). In this section is contained a series of six messages of woe, directed first against one and then another of the weaknesses of Judah's national life (Isaiah 28:1-29; 29:1- 14; 29:15-24; 30:1-17; 31:1- 32 : 20; 33 : 1-24). The character of the Messianic Age is also further described (Isaiah 32:1-18). 5 ) The doom of Edom and the redemption of Israel (Isaiah 34-35). Isaiah 35 is a beautiful picture of the ultimate triumph of the spiritual Zion. 6 ) The reign of Hezekiah (Isaiah 36-39 ). This section is in the nature of an historical appendix recording the overthrow of the Assyrian army (Isaiah 36- 37), Hezekiah's sickness and recovery (Isaiah 38), and containing a prophecy of the Babylonian captivity (Isaiah 39 ). SECTION II: Isaiah 40-66 7 ) God's sovereign and providential control over history, which will be manifest in his ultimate overthrow of Babylon at the hands of Cyrus (Isaiah 40:18). Two passages of especial interest in this section are the first "suffering servant" passage, apparently alluding to the office of the Messiah (Isaiah 42:1-9), and Isaiah's sarcastic appraisal of the folly of idol worship (Isaiah 44:6-23). 8 ) The redemption which is possible through suffering and sacrifice (Isaiah 49-55).. This division centers mainly around the three "suffering servant" passages which it contains The first is concerned with the difficulty of his task and his rejection by those to whom he is sent (Isaiah 44:1-13). The second (Isaiah 50:4-9) speaks of the obedience and trust of the "servant" and the blessings which are to follow his work. The third is the classic passage from Isaiah 52:13-53:12, which describes the life, suffering and ultimate triumph of the servant. 9 ) The triumph of the kingdom of God and God's universal reign (Isaiah 56-66). The sins which are prevalent in Isaiah's day are discussed in chs. 56-59. A glorious song of the Messianic Age fills Isaiah 60-62. The book closes, with a prayer for mercy and pardon (Isaiah 63-64) and God's answer to this prayer in the form of the promise of a new heaven and a new earth (Isaiah 65-66).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of the Book of Isaiah

Greek Name - Esaias (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date and Time Period of the Book of Isaiah

Date - 760 - 720 BC Approximately. Isaiah prophesied during the reign of King Uzziah, King Jotham, King Ahaz, King Hezekiah, and probably King Manasseh of Judah. His prophetic ministry lasted from about 760 BC until about 720 BC.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of the Book of Isaiah

Main Theme - The kingdom of the Messiah

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in the Book of Isaiah

Types and Shadows - In Isaiah Jesus is the Lord on the throne in Isaiah 6 and the suffering servant of Isaiah 53

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

How Many Isaiah's According To The Dead Sea Scrolls?

"The Isaiah scrolls were the first Biblical texts found, and the first to receive serious study. There is no hint in either of these scrolls of a deutero or trito-Isaiah, to use the language of modern scholarship. The advocate of two or three Isaiah's may suggest that the book was put in its present form prior to the writing of the Qumran manuscripts, but the fact remains that our oldest pre-Christian manuscripts bear witness to the text substantially as we have it in our printed Hebrew Bibles." - Charles Pfeiffer

Link: https://bible-history.com/quotes/how-man...

Isaiah in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Isa...

Outline of the Book of Jeremiah

Quick Overview of Jeremiah. – –1 – – the call of Jeremiah– – 1-20– –Jeremiah's prophecies against Judah under the reigns of Josiah and Jehoiachim– – 21-39 – –Jeremiah's prophecies against Judah until the fall of Jerusalem– – 40-45 – – Jeremiah's prophecies after the fall of Jerusalem – – 46-51 – – Jeremiah's prophecies against the surrounding nations – – 52 – – the historical appendix.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of the Book of Jeremiah

The prophet Jeremiah prophesied to the Jews in Jerusalem and Judah about 50 years before Jerusalem would fall and be destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. Jeremiah continually preached against the folly of idolatry and pleaded with the people the Word of God, "what injustice have you found in me?" he cried, why have you gone far from me and followed idols, and have become idolaters?, I brought you into a beautiful country to eat of its fruit and its goodness, but you have defiled my land and made my heritage and abomination. Jeremiah warned that Jerusalem would be destroyed and the Jews would be taken away as captives to the land of Babylon. The words of Jeremiah were violently rejected and he was continually persecuted, but God warned them at the beginning of his ministry not to be afraid of their faces. While Jeremiah was in prison grieving over the sins of his people the Lord came to him and said "behold, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant" (Jeremiah 31). Soon afterwards Jerusalem was indeed destroyed in 586 BC as Jeremiah prophesied. But he claimed that their captivity would only last 70 years and then they would return to their land. Jeremiah also prophesied against the pagan nations around Israel. Later he was forced to go and live in the land of Egypt and there is no record of what happened to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Main Prophecies in the Book of Jeremiah

1) The impending destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon; 2) the possibility of averting this destruction by repentance; 3) the submitting to Babylonian rule after it becomes apparent that domination is inevitable; 4) Babylon herself will be destroyed, never to rise again; and 5) Judah will return from captivity and eventually achieve an unsurpassed glory.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

History of the Book of Jeremiah

The prophet Jeremiah began his ministry during the reign of King Josiah, and he prophesied the Word of the Lord until the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BC when Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon came and destroyed the city and her Temple (Jeremiah 1), and he continued to prophesy even after this event. Jeremiah began ministering in 627 BC during the reign of King Josiah, he was the "son of Hilkiah, of the priests that were in Anathoth" which was a city near Jerusalem. When the Lord called him he was very young (Jeremiah 1:6), and the Lord revealed to him that his word would be rejected and yet he was not to be afraid of their faces. They also learned that an enemy from the North would come and bring about the destruction of Jerusalem (Jeremiah 1:11-16), and this time it would not be the Assyrians as with the northern kingdom of Israel, but it would be the Babylonians. All the kings who reigned during the time of Jeremiah were: Josiah, Jehoa-haz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin and Zedekiah and Jerusalem was destroyed in the 11th year of the reign of king Zedekiah in 586 BC. The event of the burning of the city of Jerusalem and of the Temple of Solomon is found in 2 Kings 25:8,9 and Jeremiah 52:12-13. Jeremiah was quick to obey God and to reveal to the children of Israel in Judah their sins, and as God had warned him he was hated with much hostility both in his hometown of Anathoth and in Jerusalem (Jeremiah 11:18-23). It even indicates that his own family "dealt treacherously" with him (Jeremiah 12:6), but this was a calm before the storm for Jeremiah who was known as the weeping prophet. Because of his fearless prophesying during the reigns of the next four kings of Judah, and the fact that he predicted the destruction of Jerusalem because of the people's sins he was hated all the more. He went into hiding because of the wrath of Jehoiakim who had cut up his book of prophecies and burned them. Judah finally went into a first wave of captivity by the Babylonians under Jehoiachin, and they placed Zedekiah in his stead as a puppet king. Eventually Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon but was warned by Jeremiah not to do so (Jeremiah 27:12). Finally the inevitable happened, on the terrifying day of Av 9 in the Jewish calendar Nebuchadnezzar's forces destroyedthe Temple of Solomon and the city of Jerusalem making true all of Jeremiah's prophecies about the Babylonian invasion. Jeremiah stayed in Jerusalem but finally was forced to go to Egypt and his companion and secretary, Baruch came with him. They are in Egypt, in the city of Tahpanhes we have the last mention of Jeremiah's life, and after this there is no information and nothing is certain. His book was completed and he lived a very long life. According to Christian tradition the Jews at Tahpanhes, hating him for his prophecies stoned him to death. There is also a Jewish tradition that when Nebuchadnezzar had conquered Egypt, Jeremiah and Baruch had escaped to the land of Judea where they were allowed to die in peace.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of the Book of Jeremiah

Greek Name - Ieremias (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of the Book of Jeremiah

Author - Jeremiah (According to the Bible and Jewish Tradition). The book of Jeremiah is recognized as his own writings and a complete book just like the book of Isaiah. In Jeremiah 36:1-2, 4, 8, 32 it is written that Jeremiah collected his own writings and prophecies, some speculate that he put the book together with Baruch in the land of Egypt but there is no way to know for certain.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date and Time Period of the Book of Jeremiah

Date - 629 BC Approximately. The prophet Jeremiah began his ministry during the reign of King Josiah, and he prophesied the Word of the Lord until the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BC when Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon came and destroyed the city and her Temple (Jeremiah 1), and he continued to prophesy even after this event.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of The Book of Job

The big question in the book of Job is why do the righteous suffer? But this is not actually the main question in the book, the big question is seen in Job 1:9-11..."Why does Job remain faithful to God?" The book goes on with the story about God and Satan arguing over Jobs reasons for obeying God and Job has various catastrophes which causes him to lose everything in order to test him of his faithfulness as to whether or not Job is serving God because of His wealth and God"s blessings of prosperity. There are also jobs friends who make a case against Job siding with what Satan was accusing Job of, their point of view was the Job was only serving God because of his wealth and prosperity. Job continually refutes them. Joe desired to know the reason for his suffering and God remains silent concerning this. Instead the Lord asks Job questions that are too difficult for Job to answer, and God's point is that there are many things that Job will experience and mankind experiences in life that do not have a clear explanation, and it is more wise to not question God's wisdom. Gervis situation was no different than what is common to man.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job...

Main events in The Book of Job

The principal events in Job are: The beginning prologue Job 1:1-2:13. Dialogs and debates 3:1-27:23. Job's complaint 3:1-26 The first debate: 1-14:22 The second debate 15:1-21:34 The third debate 22:1-27:23 What is wisdom 28:1-28 The speeches 29:1-42:6 Job's speech 29:1-31:40 Elihu's speech 32:1-37:24 Yahweh's speech 38:1-42:6

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job...

Hebrew Name of The Book of Job

Hebrew Name - Iyov "object of enmity" (meaning uncertain)

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job...

Greek Name of The Book of Job

Greek Name - Iob (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job...

Author of The Book of Job

Author - Job (According to Tradition). It is uncertain exactly when the book was written and who wrote it but Jewish tradition says Job was its author.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job...

Date of The Book of Job

Date - 2180 BC Approximately. It is uncertain exactly when the book was written and who wrote it but Jewish tradition says Job was its author. It is interesting that the name of Yahweh appears over and over in the book of Job, and his name was unknown prior to the time of Moses (Exodus 6:2-3). The name of the Egypt is used in poetic form a couple times (Job 9:12-13, Job 26:12-13) and when it is used this way there is implications that the author of the book new about the exodus from Egypt.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of The Book of Job

Main Theme - Trusting the Lord in the midst of evil and suffering

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in The Book of Job

Types and Shadows - In Job Jesus is the ever-living redeemer

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of Psalms

Quick Overview of Psalms. – –(Psalms 1-41– Book 1) – – (Psalms 42-72 – Book 2) – – (Psalms 73-89 – Book 3) – – (Psalms 90-106 – – Book 4) – – (Psalms 107-150 – – Book 5).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of The Book of Psalms

Psalms is divided into five books : Psalms 1-41, which witness to David's life and faith; Psalms 42-72, a group of historical writings; Psalms 73-99, ritual psalms; Psalms 90-106, reflecting pre-captivity sentiment and history; and Psalms 107-150, dealing with the captivity and return to Jerusalem. These five books are often regarded as the devotional counterpart to the five books of Moses (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of The Book of Psalms

Greek Name - Psalmoi (Greek form of the Hebrew mizmor, meaning instrument songs)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of The Book of Psalms

Author - David (According to Tradition). David went to many experiences in his life that he wrote about, especially when he was hunted down by King Saul from place to place like a Partridge in the wilderness. David was a young shepherd, he knew what it was like to tend his flock and to guard them from predators, this gave him a beautiful imagery for the Lord the great Shepherd. David was also a musician, a man of war, a king, a father, a husband, a friend, and many more. He repented over his sin in Psalm 51, acknowledging himself to be a sinner before God and God alone. God called David a man after my own heart and these experiences allowed him to share with the reader, a man who knew the heart of God. David was a master at finding different ways to praise God in life experiences and the book of Psalms is a wonder book for those who want to know how to please God. He was filled with the Holy Spirit (1 Samuel 16:13). There is no doubt the David wrote most of the Psalms, and the ones that he did not write are in his style as well.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of The Book of Psalms

Date - 1056 BC Approximately. It is impossible to determine exactly how the Psalms were compiled and collected, and dating them is also difficult for most of the Psalms. Some of the Psalms are commemorating victories, while others are historical, remembering the Lord and God's people in past events. Other Psalms are prophetic and look to the future and the coming of the Messiah, as well as the heavenly kingdom. There are Psalms of affliction, lamentation and remorse over sin, as well as songs of Thanksgiving and trusting the Lord. Some of the songs were chosen to be good for reciting on certain Jewish holy days, like the Sabbath, or Passover, the feast of Tabernacles, etc. There are titles on about 100 of the Psalms, the titles are so old that they cannot be understood even in the second century BC. Some of the titles point to the source of the Psalm, while others point to a certain purpose, or a certain melody, or something related to music.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in The Book of Psalms

Types and Shadows - In Psalms Jesus is the One worthy of all praise

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Interesting Facts in The Book of Psalms

The book of Psalms is the longest book in the Bible. The 119th Psalm is a longest chapter in the whole Bible. The 117th Psalm is the shortest chapter in the Bible and located in the middle. When the Old Testament is quoted in the New Testament by someone, over one third of all the quotes are from the Psalms.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

The Book of Psalms in the Picture Study Bible

Bible Study information on the book of psalms with images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Psa...

Outline of the Book of Proverbs

Quick Overview of Proverbs. – –1:1-6 – – the introduction and purpose of the book – – 1:7-9:18 – – wisdom and folly are examined – – 10:1-22:16 – – wisdom does good – – 22:17-24:34 – – the words of the wise – – 25:1-29:27 – – the Proverbs of Solomon are collected by Hezekiah's servants – – 30:1-33 – – the messages of Agur – – 31:1-31 – – the sayings of King Lemuel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of the Book of Proverbs

Proverbs 1:1 indicates that the whole collection was called "the Proverbs of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel." Technically a proverb is a profound maxim or epigrammatic saying that, if pondered on for a length of time there is deep meaning associated with it. Proverbs was not uncommon in the ancient world, but the concept of fearing a single God who is the only God and the giver of life, was completely foreign in a world filled with polytheism. Solomon was the son of David who was chosen to build the Temple. His name comes from the Hebrew word for peace (shalom), and he is recognized in the Bible as the ultimate peacemaker King in the history of the kingdom of Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Solomon's Wisdom

Solomon's Wisdom. David had chosen Solomon to sit upon the throne of Israel and serve the Lord. After Solomon had removed his enemies, he allied with the Pharaoh of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter to be his wife. Solomon had thought intensely about his task to build a house for the Lord, the Temple in Jerusalem. He went to offer sacrifices to the Lord at Gibeon and that night the Lord appeared to him in a dream saying "ask what you will and I will give it to you" and Solomon said "you have shown great mercy to your servant David, my father, even as he walked before you in truth and justice and with an upright heart. You have continued your great mercy toward him and given him a son to sit on his throne, as it is today. And now, O Lord God, you have made your servant King succeeding David, my father. I am but a child, and know not how to act. You have chosen me to be king over so many that they cannot be counted. Give me, therefore, an understanding heart, to judge your people and to discern between good and evil." The Lord was pleased with Solomon's request and said, "because you have not asked for long life or riches, nor for the death of your enemies, but have asked wisdom for yourself to discern what is right, I have done for you as you asked, and have given you a wise and understanding heart, so much so that you are unlike anyone before you, nor shall there be anyone like you after. Yes, and the things also which you did not ask, I have given you: that is, riches and glory, so that you are incomparable with all previous kings. And if you will walk in my ways, and keep my precepts and my commandments, as your father, I will lengthen your life." (see 1 Kings 3 and 2 Chronicles 1).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of the Book of Proverbs

The book of Proverbs not only names Solomon as the author in the very first verse, but there are other verses that indicate that Solomon was the person responsible for the Proverbs (Proverbs 10:1; Proverbs 25:1). The book of Kings indicates that Solomon was blessed with wisdom from God (1 Kings 4:29), he was a man of humility (1 Kings 3:7), and a great diplomat (1 Kings 3:16-28; 1 Kings 5:12) to such an extent that people came from all over the world to hear his wisdom (1 Kings 4:30; 1 Kings 10:1-13). The book of Kings also indicates that Solomon wrote over 3000 proverbs (1 Kings 4:32), and this is many more than the book of Proverbs contains.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Main Divisions of the Book of Proverbs

Proverbs 1-9, Solomon addresses the young. His words are arranged in a series of discourses in praise of wisdom. A personification of Wisdom speaks as an instructor, warning against all manner of folly. The proverbs in this section are arranged with more continuity than is seen in succeeding chapters. Proverbs 10-22:16 are the "proverbs of Solomon," and this section is usually thought to be the original nucleus around which the remainder of the book was constructed. Proverbs 22:17-24 :22 contains advice for those in responsible positions, calling it "the words of the wise." Proverbs 24:23-29 are designated as "the proverbs of Solomon which the wise men of Hezekiah copied out." These are in the form of detached statements, although there are occasional signs of continuity. There are also sayings on related subjects such as rulers, sluggards and fools. Proverbs 30, the sayings of Agur, and Proverbs 31, the great chapter on womanhood which purports to come from the mother of King Lemuel which was constructed in acrostic form, the verses beginning with the successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet. This last chapter completes this book of Hebrew wisdom.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in the Book of Proverbs

Types and Shadows - In Proverbs Jesus is true wisdom

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

The Book of Proverbs in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Pro...

The Book of Ecclesiastes in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information about Ecclesiastes, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ecc...

Outline of The Book of Ecclesiastes

Quick Overview of Ecclesiastes. – –1:1-2:26 – – the preachers first sermon: the futility of human wisdom– – 3:1-5:20 – –the preachers second sermon: life's unfulfilling disappointments – – 6:1-8:17 – – the preachers third sermon: the futility of wealth and fame – – 9:1-12:8 – – the preachers fourth sermon: God is in control of the futility's in life – – 12:9-14 – – the preachers conclusion: true fulfillment in life comes from fearing God and obeying His Word.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ecc...

Summary of The Book of Ecclesiastes

The word Ecclesiastes is the Greek equivalent for the Hebrew word Koheleth, or the preacher. Solomon was the wisest man in the world, people came from all over the world to hear his wisdom. He built the Temple in Jerusalem, he was the son of King David, and he was chosen to impart his wisdom to us in the book of Ecclesiastes. Solomon had thoroughly experienced all avenues of pleasure, all avenues of sensuality, all avenues of wealth, honor, folly, and the pursuit of knowledge. He also sinned in giving way to every excess of life which his position made possible and comes to the realization of the uselessness of it all. He concludes that the result of his efforts have been made him empty and that there is nothing new under the sun, but all is part of the endless, frustrating circularity. His attitude was spoken in the recurring phrase, vanity of vanities, all is vanity, saith the preacher. In Ecclesiastes, the world is convicted of its vanity by one who has drunk of every spring. The conclusion which Solomon "the preacher" reaches is that in such an empty and unsatisfying world where disappointment, trouble and death cannot be avoided, a quiet enjoyment of God's gifts is the only real wisdom. The man who is truly wise will "fear God and keep his commandments" (12:13-14), making the best of things as he finds them and trusting in the providence of God. This secret should be understood early in life. An understanding of this will provide one with great pleasure in life. The book of Ecclesiastes profoundly illustrates the idea that a life apart from God is a life without meaning.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ecc...

Solomon's Main Messages in The Book of Ecclesiastes

Sermon 1: The vanity of human wisdom, Sermon 2: Appreciate the divine laws governing life, Sermon 3: There is no fulfillment in any earthly pleasures or wealth, Sermon 4: God will deal with the worlds injustices, Conclusion: fear the Lord and to obey his word.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ecc...

Author of The Book of Ecclesiastes

Author - Solomon (According to the Bible, Jesus, and Tradition). The book of Ecclesiastes was written by Solomon who was the wisest man in the world, and in fact he was the embodiment of pure wisdom.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of The Book of Ecclesiastes

Greek Name - Ekklesiastes (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of The Book of Ecclesiastes

Theme - All pursuits in life are empty except fearing God and obeying His Word

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in of the Book of Chronicles

Types and Shadows - In Chronicles Jesus is the builder of the house of God

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in of the Book of Chronicles

Types and Shadows - In Chronicles Jesus is the builder of the house of God

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

The Book of 1 Chronicles in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+C...

The Book of 2 Chronicles in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+C...

The Book of Ezra in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Ezr...

Outline of The Book of Ezra

Quick Overview of Ezra. – –1-6 – –The return of the Jews to the land of Israel under the leadership of Zerubbabel, to the rebuilding of the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. – –7-10 – – The arrival of Ezra in Jerusalem, Ezra reforms religion and government, (note the prophecies of Haggai and Zechariah correspond with this time period).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of The Book of Ezra

The Book of Ezra covers events in later Jewish Biblical history, for example the return of the Jews from exile under Zerubbabel, and the rebuilding of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem. It also covers the arrival of Ezra in Jerusalem, Ezra reforms religion and government, (note the prophecies of Haggai and Zechariah correspond with this time period). The main events include: 1) The return of the exiles to Jerusalem at the decree of Cyrus, 546 BC (Ezra 1-2 ). 2 ) The work of rebuilding the temple begun, brought to a standstill through the efforts of heathen neighbors, and finally completed at the urging of Haggai and Zechariah (Ezra 3-6). 3 ) Ezra's return to Jerusalem for the purpose of restoring the temple service (Ezra 7-8). 4 ) The problem of mixed marriages, which threatened to plunge the Jews into the same course of idolatry which had brought about their original downfall (Ezra 9-10).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of The Book of Ezra

Greek Name - Esdras (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of The Book of Ezra

Author - Ezra (According to Tradition).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

History of The Book of Ezra

The Hebrew traditions treated the books of Ezra and Nehemiah is one book, although they were probably separated in the Bible. The book of Ezra bears the name of an individual who was a descendent of the priest Hilkiah who had helped initiate reforms in the time of Josiah (2 Kings 22:8). Ezra returned from the Babylonian captivity in 457 BC which was 80 years after the first group of Jews had returned to Israel under the leadership of Zerubbabel (13 years before Nehemiah). Ezra was both a priest and a scribe and he had a single purpose, to purify the worship of the Lord among the Hebrews based on the law of Moses. The Jews have regarded Ezra as the second greatest hero in the history of Israel, after Moses. The most important observation about the book of Ezra is to see how God fulfills his Word, and the prophets spoke continually about the restoration of the people of Israel to the land of their inheritance, after the captivity. God did miracles in the hearts of foreign monarchs like Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, and Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes. He fulfilled his purposes through great leaders like Joshua, Zerubbabel, Haggai, Zechariah, Ezra, and Nehemiah to bring about the rebuilding of the wall in Jerusalem, and the Temple of Solomon, and the reestablishment of the law of Moses. The book of Ezra along with Nehemiah provide for us all the history among the Jews between 536 BC and 430 BC. The accomplishments of Ezra focuses on the period from 536 two 456 BC, and Nehemiah begins his mission in 445 BC with a detailed description of 12 years of events.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of The Book of Ezra

Date - From 536-456 BC Approximately

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of The Book of Ezra

Main Theme of Ezra - The return from the captivity

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in The Book of Ezra

Types and Shadows - In Ezra Jesus is the one who led the captives out

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of The Book of Nehemiah

Quick Overview of Nehemiah. – –1-2 – –Nehemiah is commissioned to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem and departs Shushan. – – 3- 7:4 – –The rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem in the midst of opposition – – 7:5-12 – – Nehemiah's ordinances bring about the first reformation – – 13 – –the second reformation of the people under Nehemiah

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of The Book of Nehemiah

Nehemiah made his journey to Jerusalem in about 445 BC, and he was not a priest or a scribe like Ezra was but he was a governor with authority given to him by the Persian king Artaxerxes to rebuild the walls and the city of Jerusalem for the Jewish people. He was originally cupbearer for the king of Persia (Nehemiah 2:1). Nehemiah completed the task in 52 days despite all the opposition from the foreigners who it settled in the land of Judah during the captivity. The book of Nehemiah shows how God fulfilled his words written by the prophets concerning the return of the people of Israel from 70 years of captivity, and returned again to the land of their inheritance. In order to accomplish his divine will he change the hearts of the great kings of the ancient world, Cyrus Darius and Artaxerxes of Persia. He also worked through leaders like Joshua Zerubbabel Haggai Zechariah Ezra and Nehemiah in order to rebuild the wall of the city of Jerusalem and reestablish the law of Moses. The books of Ezra and Nehemiah reveal to us the history of the Jews between 536 BC and 430 BC. The book of Nehemiah covers the period from 445 BC for the next 12 years.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of The Book of Nehemiah

Greek Name - Neemias (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of The Book of Nehemiah

Author - Nehemiah (Ezra and Nehemiah were treated as one book in Jewish Tradition).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of The Book of Nehemiah

Date - From 455-420 BC Approximately. The books of Ezra and Nehemiah reveal to us the history of the Jews between 536 BC and 430 BC. The book of Nehemiah covers the period from 445 BC for the next 12 years.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of The Book of Nehemiah

Main Theme of Nehemiah - The rebuilding of Jerusalem

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in The Book of Nehemiah

Types and Shadows - In Nehemiah Jesus is the one who led the captives out

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

The Book of Nehemiah in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Neh...

The Book of Nehemiah Main Events

The main events covered in the Book of Nehemiah are: 1 ) Nehemiah's journey to Jerusalem, made possible by Artaxerxes, for the purpose of re-building the wall (Nehemiah 1-2). 2 ) A list of the builders and the repairing of the gate (Nehemiah 3). 3 ) The rebuilding of the wall in spite of op-position led by Sanballat, Tobiah and Geshem (Nehemiah 4:1-7:4). 4 ) The register of those who returned with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 7). 5 ) The public reading and exposition of the book of the Law (Nehemiah 8). 6 ) The national repentance and the covenant of obedience (Nehemiah 9:1-10 :39). 7 ) Lists of inhabitants (Nehemiah 11:1-12:26). 8 ) Dedication of the wall and organization of the temple services (Nehemiah 12:27-47). 9 ) Nehemiah's reforms of abuses connected with tithes, the sabbath and mixed marriages (Nehemiah 13).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of Esther

Quick Overview of Esther. – –1-2 – –The exaltation of a female Jewish captive named Esther to the throne of Persia, Esther's uncle Mordecai overhears a plot against the king's life – – 3 – – Haman is promoted to Prime Minister in Persia, Haman's hatred of Mordecai, Haman's plan to destroy the Jews. – – 4-10 – – Haman's plans are foiled, Mordecai is exalted, the institution of the feast of Purim to commemorate God's great deliverance of the Jews from annihilation.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of the Book of Esther

The book of Esther was written during a time when the Persian Empire ruled the world and Ahasuerus (probably Xerxes I) was the king of Persia. The events in the book of Esther probably took place around 521-495 BC. This was during a time just before the wall of Jerusalem was rebuilt. The book of Esther clearly demonstrates God's love for his people even when they are in a foreign land far away from the land of their inheritance. One interesting point is that the name of God is never mentioned in the book of Esther, nor is there any mention of any kind of worship. The reason for this is uncertain but most likely it would have been forbidden to mention the name of the God of Israel. For whatever reason this is, there are clear intimations of God especially when you hear the words of Mordecai "who knows whether you have not come to the kingdom for such a time as this" (Esther 4:14). In the book of Esther we discover the origin of the Jewish feast of Purim, as well as some very important historical information concerning the Jews while they were in captivity, as well as their deliverance from total annihilation while in the land of Persia. The Septuagint version of the Hebrew text contains 107 extra verses that nearly all scholars agree were written later than the Hebrew canon based on internal and external evidence.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of the Book of Esther

Greek Name - Aster (after the Persian word for star)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of the Book of Esther

Author - Mordecai (According to Jewish tradition)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of the Book of Esther

Date - From 521-495 BC Approximately. The book of Esther was written during a time when the Persian Empire ruled the world and Ahasuerus (probably Xerxes I) was the king of Persia. The events in the book of Esther probably took place around 521- 495 BC. This was during a time just before the wall of Jerusalem was rebuilt.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of the Book of Esther

Main Theme of Esther - The Jews in Captivity were saved from annihilation by a Jewish queen

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in the Book of Esther

Types and Shadows - In Esther Jesus is the Mordecai and savior of his people

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

The Book of Esther in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Est...

The Book of Job in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible featuring Job with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job...

Outline of The Book of Job

Quick Overview of Job. – –1-2– –The historical background of Job – – 3-31 – – Job's dialogue with his three friends – – 32- 37 – – the speeches of Elihu – – 38-41 – – God intervenes and gives His speech– – 42 – – the conclusion of this matter

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Job...

The Book of 1 Samuel in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1+S...

The Book of 2 Samuel in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+S...

The Book of 1 Kings in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/1-k...

The Book of 2 Kings in the Picture Study Bible

Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/2+K...

Summary of The Book of 1 Kings

The time period extends from the anointing of King Solomon (1015 BC) throughout the history of Israel and Judah all the way to the death of Jehoiachin after he was freed from Babylonian imprisonment (561 BC). The book of 1 Kings begins with Solomon, and not David or Saul because the books of Samuel cover their lives. Under King Solomon the dominion of Israel extended from the Euphrates River all the way to the Mediterranean Sea and down to the Egyptian border (1 Kings 4:21). At the end of each the kingdoms of Israel and Judah the remaining kings were not seeking God and became a sad remnant who were puppets of either Egypt or Assyria or Babylon until they were finally uprooted and taken away. The beginning of all of their problems happened after the death of Solomon when his sons Rehoboam and Jeroboam divided the kingdom, 10 of the tribes went with Jeroboam to the north (Israel), and 2 of the tribes remained with Rehoboam in the south (Judah). All 19 of Israel's Kings followed the heathen nations and were idol worshipers and evil, leading Israel into sin bringing upon themselves the wrath of God. They were destroyed and taken captive to Assyria in 722 BC. In the southern kingdom of Judah 8 out of their 20 Kings sought the Lord and the rest forsook him also bring the wrath of God when the Babylonian captivity took place under King Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of The Book of 2 Kings

The time period extends from the anointing of King Solomon (1015 BC) throughout the history of Israel and Judah all the way to the death of Jehoiachin after he was freed from Babylonian imprisonment (561 BC). The book of 1 Kings begins with Solomon, and not David or Saul because the books of Samuel cover their lives. Under King Solomon the dominion of Israel extended from the Euphrates River all the way to the Mediterranean Sea and down to the Egyptian border (1 Kings 4:21). At the end of each the kingdoms of Israel and Judah the remaining kings were not seeking God and became a sad remnant who were puppets of either Egypt or Assyria or Babylon until they were finally uprooted and taken away. The beginning of all of their problems happened after the death of Solomon when his sons Rehoboam and Jeroboam divided the kingdom, 10 of the tribes went with Jeroboam to the north (Israel), and 2 of the tribes remained with Rehoboam in the south (Judah). All 19 of Israel's Kings followed the heathen nations and were idol worshipers and evil, leading Israel into sin bringing upon themselves the wrath of God. They were destroyed and taken captive to Assyria in 722 BC. In the southern kingdom of Judah 8 out of their 20 Kings sought the Lord and the rest forsook him also bring the wrath of God when the Babylonian captivity took place under King Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of The Book of 2 Kings

Quick Overview of 1 Kings. – –1-11 – –The peaceful and prosperous reign of King Solomon, the idolatry of King Solomon, the death of King Solomon.– – 12-22 – – The division of the people of Israel into two kingdoms, The Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of The Book of 1 Kings

Quick Overview of 1 Kings. – –1-11 – –The peaceful and prosperous reign of King Solomon, the idolatry of King Solomon, the death of King Solomon.– – 12-22 – – The division of the people of Israel into two kingdoms, The Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of The Book of 2 Kings

Quick Overview of 2 Kings. – –1-17 – –The history of the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah until the deportation of Israel by the Assyrians in 722 BC.– – 18-25 – – The history of the kingdom of Judah until the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians in 586 BC and the deportation of the people of Judah.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of The Book of Kings

Greek Name - basilia (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of The Book of Kings

Greek Name - basilia (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of The Book of Kings

Author - Jeremiah (According to Tradition). According to Hebrew tradition Jeremiah was the author, and wrote shortly after the events have taken place.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of The Book of Kings

Author - Jeremiah (According to Tradition). According to Hebrew tradition Jeremiah was the author, and wrote shortly after the events have taken place.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of The Book of Kings

Date - From 1015-562 BC Approximately. It is difficult to give a precise chronology of the books of Kings. According to Hebrew tradition Jeremiah was the author, and wrote shortly after the events have taken place. The Books of Chronicles record the events of the same time period from a different perspective.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of The Book of Kings

Date - From 1015-562 BC Approximately. It is difficult to give a precise chronology of the books of Kings. According to Hebrew tradition Jeremiah was the author, and wrote shortly after the events have taken place. The Books of Chronicles record the events of the same time period from a different perspective.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of The Book of 1 Kings

Theme of 1 Kings - The division of the kingdom

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of The Book of 2 Kings

Main Theme of 2 Kings - The history of Israel and Judah

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in The Book of 2 Kings

Types and Shadows - In Kings Jesus is the peaceful King

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in The Book of 2 Kings

Types and Shadows - In Kings Jesus is the peaceful King

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of 1 Chronicles

Quick Overview of 1 Chronicles. – –1-9 – –Genealogical tables from Adam to the time of Ezra. – – 10-29– –the dual history of King Saul and King David (in connection with the book of Samuel).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of 2 Chronicles

Quick Overview of 2 Chronicles. – – 2 Chronicles 1-9 – – the reign of King Solomon (in connection with the book of Kings). – – 10-36 – – the history of various kings in the kingdom of Judah from the division of the kingdom to the Babylonian captivity (in connection with the second book of Kings).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of the Book of 1 Chronicles

The Book of First Chronicles covers a series of genealogies and then the history of the last days of King Saul and the early years of King David. Some of the main events include: 2) The return of the ark to Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 13-16). Included in this section is the account of the misfortune of Uzzah, who was killed when he reached forth to save the ark from falling (1 Chronicles 13). 3) David purposes to build the temple but is forbidden because of the great amount of bloodshed to which he has been a party (1 Chronicles 17). 4) The account of David's conquests (1 Chronicles 18-20). 5) The census and the plague (1 Chronicles 21). 6) David's preparations for building the temple (1 Chronicles 22). Although David was himself forbidden to build a temple for God, he set about to collect the necessary materials for such a temple, that the task of his son Solomon might be easier. 7) Designation of the duties of the Levites (1 Chronicles 23). 8) Organization of the government (1 Chronicles 24). 9) David's last words and his death (1 Chronicles 28-29).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of the Book of 2 Chronicles

The Book of Second Chronicles covers the reign of King Solomon and the history of various kings in the kingdom of Judah from the division of the kingdom to the Babylonian captivity. Some the main events include: 1) The revolt of the ten tribes and the reign of Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 10- 12). 2) The reign of Abijah (2 Chronicles 13). 3) The reign of Asa (2 Chronicles 14-16). This was a period of prosperity in Judah as Asa instituted a number of moral and religious reforms, establishing himself as a servant of the Lord. 4) The reign of Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 17-20). This king was also diligent in his efforts to serve God. He made considerable efforts to acquaint his people with the Law. 5) The reigns of Jehoram and Ahaziah (2 Chronicles 21:1- 22:9). 6) The reign of Athaliah, the only queen of Judah (2 Chronicles 22:10-23:21). 7) The reign of Joash (2 Chronicles 24). Ascending to the throne at the age of seven, Joash, advised by the high priest Jehoida, brought about the restoration of true worship. After Jehoida's death, however, Joash himself slipped into the worship of idols. 8) Amaziah, Uzziah, Jotham and Ahaz (2 Chronicles 25-28). 9) The reign of Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 29-32). After beginning his rule with a great religious restoration, Hezekiah helped his nation to regain a measure of power and glory. 10) Manasseh and Amon (2 Chronicles 33). 11) The reign of Josiah (2 Chronicles 34-35). In the eighteenth year of a reign that began when he was only eight years old, Josiah began the most sweeping religious reforms which Judah had ever known. During the renovation of the temple, the "book of the Law" was found, encouraging the people greatly in this time of revival. 12) The last days of Judah (2 Chronicles 36). After a brief reign by Jehoahaz, the throne was taken by Jehoiakim, who reigned for eleven years. During this period he was a vassal alternatively to Egypt and Babylon. In an effort to revolt against the Babylonian rule, he lost his life. He was succeeded by Jehoiachin, who reigned only three months, after which he was carried to Babylon, where he lived a number of years. The last of the Judean kings was Zedekiah. Nebuchadnezzar had already plundered Jerusalem of much of its treasures and a considerable number of its most promising men. This took place in two raids, in 606 and 597 BC. In 586 BC, during the reign of Zedekiah, the Babylonians struck once again, this time leaving none but the poorest class of people to remain in Jerusalem. Five years later, the Babylonians came to collect about 750 more captives, even after a number, including Jeremiah, had fled to Egypt (Jeremiah 43).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Hebrew Name and Meaning of the Book of Chronicles

Hebrew Name - Divrei Hayamim "Words of the Days". The books of Chronicles were originally one book, as in the case of Samuel and Kings. The Hebrew title is translated the "words of the days", yet the word Chronicles is mainly adopted by a theologian named Jerome who thought that they ought to bear the title from the Greek word for time which is "Chronos". This title created a distraction from the true meaning and purpose of this wonderful book.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Hebrew Name and Meaning of the Book of Chronicles

Hebrew Name - Divrei Hayamim "Words of the Days". The books of Chronicles were originally one book, as in the case of Samuel and Kings. The Hebrew title is translated the "words of the days", yet the word Chronicles is mainly adopted by a theologian named Jerome who thought that they ought to bear the title from the Greek word for time which is "Chronos". This title created a distraction from the true meaning and purpose of this wonderful book.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of the Book of Chronicles

Greek Name - Paralipomenon (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of the Book of Chronicles

Greek Name - Paralipomenon (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of the Book of Chronicles

Author - Ezra (According to Tradition). Hebrew tradition credits Ezra has the author of the books of Chronicles, in the beginning of the books trace the genealogical records all the way back to Adam which took place in approximately 4004 BC.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of the Book of Chronicles

Author - Ezra (According to Tradition). Hebrew tradition credits Ezra has the author of the books of Chronicles, in the beginning of the books trace the genealogical records all the way back to Adam which took place in approximately 4004 BC.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of the Book of Chronicles

Main Theme of 1 Chronicles - The reign of King David

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of the Book of 2 Chronicles

Theme of 2 Chronicles - The history of the Southern Kingdom of Judah

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of The Book of Joshua

The author of the Book of Joshua was Joshua according to the Bible and tradition.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of The Book of Joshua

Date - From 1451 to 1425 BC Approximately

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of jesus in The Book of Joshua

Types and Shadows - In Joshua Jesus is the captain of the LORD's host

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of Judges

Quick Overview of Judges. – –1-2 – –How the Israelites reacted after the death of Joshua. – – 3-16 – – The sin of the Israelites and the oppression by their enemies, thirteen Hebrew judges and the deliverance they brought. – –17-21 – –a description of how idolatry entered into Israel and how corruption followed during the early history of this time period.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of the Book of Judges

Greek Name - Krites (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of the Book of Judges

Author - Samuel (According to Tradition)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of the Book of Judges

Date - From 1425 to 1120 BC Approximately

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of the Book of Judges

Main Theme - 7 cycles of idolatry, oppression, repentance, and deliverance during the first 300 years in the land of Canaan

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in the Book of Judges

Types and Shadows - In Judges Jesus is the great judge and deliverer of His people

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

The Book of Judges in the Picture Study Bible

Judges background, archaeology, maps, and images.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jud...

Greek Name for The Book of Ruth

Greek Name - Oiktos (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of The Book of Ruth

Author - Samuel (According to Tradition)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of The Book of Ruth

Main Theme - The beginning of the lineage of Christ seen in this faithful woman who was a Moabite

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in The Book of Ruth

Types and Shadows - In Ruth Jesus is the kinsman redeemer (Heb. Goel)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of the Book of 1 Samuel

Samuel is the name of the books in the ancient Hebrew text, because he was the author and the main character in the early portions in the first book, and because of his role as a prophet of God known from Dan to Beersheba, who had anointed and had the biggest influence on the lives of King Saul and King David. The Lord raised up the prophet Samuel at a time in the history of Israel when they were disunited as a people and very determined to have a king reign over them. God made Samuel a great man, he was a Judge (1 Samuel 7:6, 15-17), and a Prophet (1 Samuel 3:20) and became God's chosen link between the periods of the Judges and the United Kingdom. According to Jewish tradition the books were written by Samuel himself. They deal with the period in Jewish history from the time of Othniel the Judge through the reign of King David in the 11th and 10th centuries BC. This is of course one of the most important and significant times in the history of Israel, because their government changed from a system of tribes and judges to a kingdom by which the king would rule according to God's laws.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of the Book of 2 Samuel

Samuel is the name of the books in the ancient Hebrew text, because he was the author and the main character in the early portions in the first book, and because of his role as a prophet of God known from Dan to Beersheba, who had anointed and had the biggest influence on the lives of King Saul and King David. The Lord raised up the prophet Samuel at a time in the history of Israel when they were disunited as a people and very determined to have a king reign over them. God made Samuel a great man, he was a Judge (1 Samuel 7:6, 15-17), and a Prophet (1 Samuel 3:20) and became God's chosen link between the periods of the Judges and the United Kingdom. According to Jewish tradition the books were written by Samuel himself. They deal with the period in Jewish history from the time of Othniel the Judge through the reign of King David in the 11th and 10th centuries BC. This is of course one of the most important and significant times in the history of Israel, because their government changed from a system of tribes and judges to a kingdom by which the king would rule according to God's laws.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of 1 Samuel

Quick Overview of 1 Samuel. – –1-4 – –The problems and the high priesthood of Eli, The birth of Samuel, Samuels calling as a prophet, the corruption of Eli's sons, The death of Eli. – – 5-12 – – the history of Samuel – – 13-31 – – the history of Saul.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of 2 Samuel

Quick Overview of 2 Samuel. – –1-10 – –The prosperity and victories of King David, – – 11-19 – – David's grievous sins, the consequences of David's actions, the rebellion of Absalom and his death. – – 20-34 – – David's restoration upon the throne, the sin of David in numbering the people, David's punishment, David's intercession and sacrifice.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Hebrew Name and Meaning of the Book of 1 Samuel

Hebrew Name - Shemuel "asked of God". The original ancient Hebrew manuscripts recorded the books of Samuel as only one book. The first time these books were divided was in the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures, and they were referred to as the First and Second Books of Kingdoms. 1 and 2 Kings were referred to as the Third and Fourth Books of Kingdoms. When looking closely at the King James version of the Bible the titles are still arranged in this way.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Hebrew Name and Meaning of the Book of 2 Samuel

Hebrew Name - Shemuel "asked of God". The original ancient Hebrew manuscripts recorded the books of Samuel as only one book. The first time these books were divided was in the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures, and they were referred to as the First and Second Books of Kingdoms. 1 and 2 Kings were referred to as the Third and Fourth Books of Kingdoms. When looking closely at the King James version of the Bible the titles are still arranged in this way.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of the Book of 1 Samuel

Greek Name - Samoeul (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Greek Name of the Book of 2 Samuel

Greek Name - Samoeul (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of the Book of 1 Samuel

Author - Samuel (According to Tradition)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of the Book of 2 Samuel

Author - Samuel (According to Tradition)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of the Book of 2 Samuel

Author - Samuel (According to Tradition). The original ancient Hebrew manuscripts recorded the books of Samuel as only one book. The first time these books were divided was in the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures, and they were referred to as the First and Second Books of Kingdoms. 1 and 2 Kings were referred to as the Third and Fourth Books of Kingdoms. When looking closely at the King James version of the Bible the titles are still arranged in this way.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of the Book of 1 Samuel

Date - From 1171-1015 BC Approximately

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of the Book of 2 Samuel

Date - From 1171-1015 BC Approximately

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of the Book of 1 Samuel

Main Theme of 1 Samuel - The beginning of the kingdom

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of the Book of 2 Samuel

Main Theme of 2 Samuel - David, God's chosen king

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in the Books of Samuel

Types and Shadows - In Samuel Jesus is God's anointed King

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in the Books of Samuel

Types and Shadows - In Samuel Jesus is God's anointed King

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Author of the Book of Genesis

The Author of the Book of Genesis was Moses

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of the Book of Genesis

The Date of the Book of Genesis was the period from 4004 to 1635 BC Approximately

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of the Book of Genesis

The theme of the Book of Genesis is The Founding of the Hebrew Nation

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus within the Book of Genesis

Types and Shadows - In Genesis Jesus is the seed of the woman

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of The Book of Numbers

Quick Overview of Numbers. – –1-4 – –The numbering of the Israelites, the organizing of the Israelites into tribes and companies, the offices of the Levites while serving in the Tabernacle. – – 5-10 – – The establishing of various civil and ceremonial laws. – – 11-21 – – The murmuring of the Israelites in the wilderness on their way to Mount Sinai. – – 22-36 – – The encampment of the Israelites on the plains of Moab.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Hebrew Name and Meaning for the Book of Exodus

The Hebrew Name for the Book of Exodus is "V'elleh Shemoth" which means "these are the names"

Link: https://bible-history.com/biblestudy/old...

Type of Jesus within the Book of Exodus

Types and Shadows - In Exodus Jesus is the Lamb of God

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of the Book of Exodus

The main theme of the Book of Exodus is God's Covenant with the Hebrew Nation

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of Leviticus

Quick Overview of Leviticus. – –1-7 – –God's laws concerning sacrifices. – – 8-10 – – God's ceremonial laws regarding the priesthood. – – 11-22 – – God's ceremonial laws concerning purification. – – 23-27 – – God's laws regarding the sacred feasts and festivals, tithes, offerings, sabbatical and jubilee years, vows, and more.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of the Book of Leviticus

Theme - God's Laws for the Hebrew Nation

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of jesus in the Book of Leviticus

Types and Shadows - In Leviticus Jesus is the High Priest

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Leviticus in the Picture Study Bible

Information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Lev...

Author of the Book of Numbers

The author was Moses according to the Bible. Jesus also confirmed Moses as the author of the first 5 books of the Bible.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of the Book of Numbers

Date - From 1490-1451 BC Approximately

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of the Book of Numbers

Theme - The Journey to the Promised Land

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in the Book of Numbers

Types and Shadows - In Numbers Jesus is the Pillar of Cloud by Day and the Pillar of Fire by Night.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

The Book of Numbers in the Picture Study Bible

Numbers background, archaeology, maps, and images.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Num...

The Book of Deuteronomy in the Picture Study Bible

Deuteronomy background, archaeology, maps, and images.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Deu...

Outline of The Book of Deuteronomy

Quick Overview of Deuteronomy. – –1-4 – –Moses repeats the history of the children of Israel, – – 5-26 – – Moses repeats the moral law (10 Commandments), the ceremonial law (sacrifices and offerings) and the civil law (judicial laws, dietary codes, punishments, etc.). – – 27-34 – – history of the the life of Moses and briefly about his death.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Hebrew Name and Meaning of The Book of Deuteronomy

Hebrew Name - elleh haddebharim "these are the words"

Link: https://bible-history.com/biblestudy/old...

Author of The Book of Deuteronomy

The authorship of Deuteronomy belongs to Moses according to the Bible. Jesus also confirmed Mosaic authorship.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Theme of The Book of Deuteronomy

Main Theme - Reminders of God's Covenant

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Type of Jesus in The Book of Deuteronomy

Types and Shadows - In Deuteronomy Jesus is the prophet like unto Moses

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

The Book of Joshua in the Picture Study Bible

Joshua background, archaeology, maps, and images.

Link: https://bible-history.com/studybible/Jos...

Outline of The Book of Joshua

Quick Overview of Joshua. – –1-11 – –The conquest of the land of Canaan. – – 12-22 – – the dividing of the promised land among the tribes of Israel, the appointment of the cities of refuge. – – 23-24 – – the assembling of the nation of Israel, Joshua's last appeal and exhortation, Joshua's death and burial.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Hebrew Name and Meaning of The Book of Joshua

Hebrew Name of Joshua - Yehoshua "Yahweh is salvation"

Link: https://bible-history.com/biblestudy/old...

Greek Name of The Book of Joshua

Greek Name - Iesous (Greek form of the Hebrew)

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of The Book of Judges

In the book of Judges we can see the first 300 years of the history of Israel, from the time of the death of Joshua to the time of Samuel the last of the Judges. All of the events mentioned in the book of Judges are not meant to be given in a strict chronological order and it is impossible to determine exact dates. Everything that took place happened really on a local level in the land of Israel and not necessarily on a national level. The first two chapters deal with the death of Joshua and after his death and the generation surrounding him, "there arose another generation after them, who did not know the Lord or the work which he had done for Israel" (Judges 2:10). This generation of Israelites, and every generation after that during this time period fell into idolatry, they forgot the commands of God and there is a severe decline morally and spiritually. As each generation unfolded idolatry would prevail, a foreign invasion would take place and oppress the people of Israel in that local area, they would cry out to God for help, and God would send a deliverer. This cycle happened seven times in the book of Judges and speak clearly about the cycle of sin and its consequences, as well as God's love and willingness to send help when his people cry out to him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of Judges

Quick Overview of Judges. – –1-2 – –How the Israelites reacted after the death of Joshua. – – 3-16 – – The sin of the Israelites and the oppression by their enemies, thirteen Hebrew judges and the deliverance they brought. – –17-21 – –a description of how idolatry entered into Israel and how corruption followed during the early history of this time period.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of The Book of Ruth

This beautiful book is like a calmness in the middle of a turbulent storm, when reminiscing on all the violence and enemy invasions recorded in the books of Joshua and Judges. The book of Ruth deals more with real life in ancient Israel and not necessarily the warfare in the previous book, although the events actually took place during the period of the Judges (Ruth 1:1). The date that the book was written is not given, and there is no mention as to who the author is, but it is most likely Samuel, who is the traditionally accepted author. The book of Ruth traces the messianic line of King David back to Ruth, who was a Moabitess, and the book gives us a beautiful understanding of how God rewards faithfulness and devotion.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of Ruth

Quick Overview of Ruth. – –1 – –The sorrows brought on the family of Elimelech because of the famine. – – 2 – – the return of Naomi to the land of Israel, Naomi's daughter-in- law. – – 3-4 – – the marriage of Ruth and Boaz, the messianic genealogy from Judah to David.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Genesis Types: 2. The Offering of Abel, A Type of the Sacrifice of Christ

(Genesis 4) Abel’s offering was an expression of his faith in God’s Word. "And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof" (Genesis 4:4). "By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain" (Hebrews 11:4). Abel’s faith must have been based upon a divine instruction given to Adam and Eve and their family; namely, for sinful man to approach a holy God, he must do so by offering an animal sacrifice. A sinner today must approach God by faith in the offering of Jesus on Calvary’s cross as atonement for sin. Abel’s offering was acceptable unto God. "The Lord had respect unto Abel and to his offering" (Genesis 4:4). The Lord regarded with favor Abel’s approach to Him through an offering because he came in the divinely appointed way. He came bringing the divinely acceptable offering for sinners. Any sinner coming to God in penitence, and pleading only the merits of Christ and His sacrifice on Calvary, will be accepted by God. The offering of Abel was not like that of Cain. "And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the Lord" (Genesis 4:3). Cain was self-righteous, not thinking it was necessary to approach God as a sinner needing a sacrifice, but rather offered God the fruit of the ground, the result of his own labors. His actions are typical of many modern men who think God will accept them on the ground of their good works, instead of coming to God as lost sinners needing a Saviour. "For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: not of works, lest any man should boast" (Ephesians 2:8, 9). The offering of Abel was a blood sacrifice, and thus prefigured Calvary. "And to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel" (Hebrews 12:24). "That [blood of Abel" here means the blood of his sacrifice, which was a type of the better blood of Jesus shed on the cross. It was this blood that was lacking in the offering of Cain. "Without shedding of blood is no remission [i.e.], of sin]" (Hebrews 9:22). In my hand no price I bring; Simply to Thy cross I cling. [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Genesis Types: 4. The Ark of Noah, A Type of God’s Salvation

(Genesis 6-8) The ark was a refuge from the Flood, even as God’s salvation is a refuge from God’s wrath against sin. The Flood was God’s visitation of righteous judgment against the awful sinning of mankind. "And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually" (Genesis 6:5). But the family of Noah was provided for within the ark. "Which sometime were disobedient, when once the long suffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by [through water" (I Peter 3:20). God’s ark of salvation, provided by Jesus through His death on the cross, is a most remarkable refuge today for sinners who look to Christ for salvation. "Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in him" (Psalm 2:12). Even as Noah’s family found a place of safety inside the ark, so believers today find security "in Christ." Once the family of Noah was inside the ark, they were safe from the flood waters. "And the Lord shut him in" (Genesis 7:16). The Lord shut the door against the storm waters. And now all those who take refuge in Christ and abide in Him find in Him a place of security and shelter from life’s storms. "Your life is hid with Christ in God" (Colossians 3:3). The ark took the full force of the floods of rain, even as God’s punishment for sinners fell upon Jesus on the cross. "And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters" (Genesis 7:18). The ark rode upon the storm waters, and they beat upon it with awful fury, but all within were sheltered. And this is a type of what Christ had to endure on our behalf on Calvary’s cross. "For the transgression of my people was he stricken" (Isaiah 53:8). Instead of the stroke falling upon the sinners who deserved it, it fell upon Jesus, the sinless One. All who seek refuge in Him find shelter from God’s righteous wrath against iniquity. God invited Noah and his family into the ark, even as the Lord invites sinners to enter His ark of salvation today. "And the Lord said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark" (Genesis 7:1). Noah’s family in going into the ark accepted God’s gracious invitation. And the Lord invites men today to enter His ark of salvation. Revelation 22:17 is the last invitation in the Bible: "And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely." [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Genesis Types: 3. The Translation of Enoch, A Type of the Translation of Believers

(Genesis 5:21-24) Enoch’s life pleased God because he walked with God in faith. "And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him" (Genesis 5:24). "By faith Enoch was translated that he should not see death; and was not found, because God had translated him: for before his translation he had this testimony, that he pleased God" (Hebrews 11:5). Enoch, the greatgrandfather of Noah, walked with God by faith so that the Lord was pleased. Enoch was translated before the judgment of the Flood came upon the world. The Hebrews’ account has the significant words: "And was not found." Men of Enoch’s day searched for him but found him not. The reason they could not find him was because God had translated him without his having to go through the experience of death. It was not long until the great Flood was to devastate the world, but Enoch was gone to Heaven before this great event took place. What happened to Enoch was a type of the translation of believers at Christ’s coming. "For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord" (I Thessalonians 4:16, 17). "Then shall two be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left. Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left" (Matthew 24:40, 41). Believers living when Christ comes will be translated without their seeing death, like Enoch was. Men shall look for them as they did for Enoch but shall not find them. When believers are caught up, then shall the judgments of the Book of Revelation begin to be poured out upon the earth. Thus true believers shall escape these judgments. "Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man" (Luke 21:36). [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Genesis Types: 5. Melchizedek, A Type of Christ as King and Priest

(Genesis 14:18-20) Who was Melchizedek? When Abraham returned from his victorious battle with the five kings, having rescued Lot, we find Melchizedek going out to meet him. "And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the most high God. And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram of the most high God, possessor of heaven and earth" (Genesis 14:18, 19). This strange character was called king of Salem, meaning King of Peace. Doubtless he was king of the city of Jerusalem of that day. He also had the title of Priest of the Most High God. Melchizedek was a type of Christ as King. The meaning of his name is king of righteousness, and he was called king of Salem which probably refers to the old city of Jerusalem. At his second coming, Christ will be a righteous king. "But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked" (Isaiah 11:4). Melchizedek’s being King of Peace typifies Christ’s reign of peace on earth at His return. Isaiah 9:6 calls Him "Prince of Peace." Wars shall cease when He becomes earth’s King of kings. Melchizedek was a type of Christ as Priest. "Without father, without mother, without descent [i.e.], pedigree as a priest], having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but made like unto the Son of God; abideth a priest continually" (Hebrews 7:3). Melchizedek can typify Christ as Priest because as a priest he had no recorded genealogy; he had no record of the beginning of his life or of the end of his life. Thus he fittingly pictures Christ our Priest, who had no human father, and who was and still is eternal. "But this man, because he continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood. Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them" (Hebrews 7:24, 25). Let us go to Christ as our ever-living Priest, and trust Him to save us completely and forever. [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Genesis Types: 6. Events in the Life of Isaac That Point to Christ

(Genesis 21, 22, 24). His birth was supernatural and so is a type of Christ’s birth. "And the Lord visited Sarah as he had said, and the Lord did unto Sarah as he had spoken. For Sarah conceived, and bare Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to him" (Genesis 21:1, 2). Sarah was ninety, and Abraham about one hundred. Thus the birth of Isaac was indeed supernatural. God performed a miracle to fulfill His promise to Abraham and Sarah that they should have a son. In this respect the birth of Isaac was a type of the birth of Jesus. "And the angel answered and said unto her. The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God" (Luke 1:35). Actually, Jesus was the Son of God and not the son of Joseph. Jesus was virgin-born, thus His birth was supernatural. Of course, we must be careful to note that the birth of Isaac and that of Jesus were not alike in every respect, but both were supernatural births. The one was a type of the other in this respect only. Isaac’s being offered up by his father is a type of Christ’s death on Calvary. He was considered to be the only son of Abraham. "And said, By myself have I sworn, saith the Lord, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son" (Genesis 22:16). These were the words of the Lord Himself. Isaac gave himself willingly. There is no record of his refusing to be tied on the altar as a sacrifice. In the same way Jesus gave Himself willingly to die. "Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I may take it again. No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again" (John 10:17, 18). His being received back as it were from the dead is a type of the resurrection of Christ. "By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac: and he that had received the promises offered up his only begotten son, of whom it was said, That in Isaac shall thy seed be called: accounting that God was able to raise him up, even from the dead; from whence also he received him in a figure" (Hebrews 11:17-19). In God’s sight Abraham offered up his son Isaac, and then received him back as it were from the dead. And this was a type of Christ rising from the tomb triumphant over death. The seeking of a wife for Isaac is a type of the divine seeking for those who will be united to Christ. Abraham’s servant who sought a wife for Isaac is a type of the Holy Spirit who seeks those who are to become the Church, Christ’s Bride. "And Abraham said unto his eldest servant of his house, that ruled over all that he had, Put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh: and I will make thee swear by the Lord the God of heaven and the God of the earth, that thou shalt not take a wife unto my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I dwell: but thou shalt go unto my country, and my kindred, and take a wife unto my son Isaac" (Genesis 24:2-4). The servant used the testimony concerning Isaac to win Rebekah for his master, Isaac. "And he said, I am Abraham’s servant. And the Lord hath blessed my master greatly; and he is become great: and he hath given him flocks, and herds, and silver, and gold, and menservants, and maidservants, and camels, and asses. And Sarah my master’s wife bare a son to my master when she was old: and unto him hath he given all that he hath" (Genesis 24:34-36). In order to win Rebekah, the servant talked about how rich Isaac’s father was. And all that wealth was to be inherited by Isaac, and this would be shared by her if she married him. Similarly, the Holy Spirit uses testimony concerning Christ to win those who become a part of the Bride of Christ. "Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he will not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will show you things to come. He shall glorify me; for he shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you. All things that the Father hath are mine" (John 16:13-15). Christ’s Father in Heaven is rich, and all that wealth is His, and will be shared by those who make up the Church, His Bride. Thus the Spirit paints a picture of Christ to the one who is ready to receive Christ as his Saviour. From the time Rebekah consented to marry Isaac until the wedding took place is a type of the life of believers until the marriage supper of the Lamb is celebrated in Heaven. The servant took the things of Isaac and showed them unto Rebekah. "And the servant brought forth jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment, and gave them to Rebekah" (Genesis 24:53). Thus does the Holy Spirit take the things of Christ and show them unto believers. "Therefore said I, that he [i.e.], the Holy Spirit shall take of mine, and shall show it unto you" (John 16:15). The things of Christ are to be found in His Word. Rebekah did not see Isaac until their marriage, but loved him because of the testimony of the servant. Thus we have not seen Jesus with our physical sight, but we love Him because of the testimony of the Holy Spirit. "Whom having not seen, ye love; in whom, though now ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory" (I Peter 1:8). As Isaac came out to meet Rebekah, so Christ will come down from Heaven at the rapture to meet His Bride in the air and escort her to Heaven. "And Isaac went out to meditate in the field at the eventide: and he lifted up his eyes, and saw, and, behold, the camels were coming" (Genesis 24:63). Thus Isaac met the caravan, and escorted his bride to her new home. And Christ will do this for His Church, the Bride, for whom He is coming down from Heaven. "For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord" (I Thessalonians 4:16, 17). We shall ride on the clouds of Heaven with Christ to our home in Heaven. The marriage of Isaac and Rebekah is a type of the future marriage of Christ and His Bride, the Church, at Christ’s return. "And Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah’s tent, and took Rebekah, and she became his wife; and he loved her" (Genesis 24:67). And this is a type of that happy event in the happy future of true believers in Christ which John describes for us in Revelation 19:7, 9: "Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honor to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready. And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints. And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb." [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Genesis Types: 7. Jacob’s Ladder, A Type of Christ as the Way to Heaven

(Genesis 28:10-22) Jesus claimed to be Jacob’s ladder. "And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven: and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it" (Genesis 28:12). Jesus made His claim in relation to this incident in John 1:51: "And he saith unto him [i.e., Nathanael], Verily, verily, I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man." Jesus was saying: "I am Jacob’s ladder; I am the link between heaven and earth." On another occasion He said: "I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me" (John 14:6). Jacob’s ladder was a ladder of grace, and thus is an appropriate type of Christ and His salvation. Jacob’s ladder reached all the way to Heaven from where an unworthy man was lying asleep. He was fleeing from his brother Esau after having received the blessing from Isaac by deception. Jacob might well have said: "I do not deserve such a vision." In a similar way every truly saved person feels like saying: "I deserve to go to Hell, but I am going to Heaven because Jesus died for me. I am only a sinner saved by grace." "Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus" (Romans 3:24). Jacob’s ladder reached down to a needy person, even as Christ today has opened the way of help for needy souls. The angels ascending the ladder represent the taking up to Heaven requests for things needed. The angels descending the ladder represent the bringing down of Heaven’s help in time of need to the one praying. Jesus is the ladder upon which the angels ascend and descend. All true prayer is in Jesus’ name. "Let us therefore come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need" (Hebrews 4:16). Jacob’s ladder was like Christ because it brought down to earth the promise of Heavens blessings. A fitting climax to the vision was God’s voice speaking to Jacob from the top of the ladder, promising many blessings. This message ended thus: "Behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee in all places whither thou goest, and will bring thee again into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of" (Genesis 28:15). God’s promise included just what Jacob needed. And that is like God’s promise to Christians in Philippians 4:19: "My God shall supply all your need according to his riches in glory by Christ Jesus." [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Genesis Types: 8. The Character and Experiences of Joseph That Typify the Saviour

(Genesis 37-45) Joseph was beloved of his father; and Jesus is God’s beloved Son. "Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age: and he made him a coat of many colors" (Genesis 37:3). Joseph was his father’s favorite son. God has many sons, because every believer is a son of God. But Jesus is Son of God in a unique sense, and therefore He is God’s well-beloved Son. God spoke at the baptism of Jesus: "And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased" (Matthew 3:17). Joseph was hated by his brothers; and Jesus was hated by the Jewish leaders of His day. "And when his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren, they hated him, and could not speak peaceably unto him" (Genesis 37:4). It was jealousy that caused this spirit of hate in Joseph’s brothers. In John 15:24, 25 Jesus tells us the attitude of the Jewish leaders toward Him: "If I had not done among them the works which none other man did, they had not had sin: but now have they both seen and hated both me and my Father. But this cometh to pass, that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause." These men were jealous of Jesus, even as Joseph’s brothers were jealous of him. And jealousy led to hate. God promised Joseph a place of rulership; even as the Lord promised Jesus as Messiah a place of kingship. This promise to Joseph, of course, came to him in the dreams which he had. "And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us? And they hated him yet the more for his dreams, and for his words" (Genesis 37:8). The great Messianic promise in Isaiah 9:6 contains these tremendous predictions: "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The Everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace." The statement, "The government shall be upon his shoulder," and the title, "Prince of Peace," both speak of rulership or kingship. At His first coming Jesus was a spiritual King; and at His second coming He will be a material Ruler over the nations. Joseph was cast into a pit, but he was delivered out of it; and Jesus descended into the pit of Hades, the abode of the dead, but came forth triumphant over death. "And I they took him, and cast him into a pit: and the pit was empty, there was no water in it" (Genesis 37:24). This pit was probably a cistern where all the water had been used up. Then in verse 28 we read: "And they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit." Joseph spent a time in this pit, but was not left there indefinitely. This stay in the pit pictures Christ’s visit to Hades. "Wherefore he saith, When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave I gifts unto men. (Now that he ascended, what is it but that he also descended first into the lower parts of the earth? He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, that he might fill all things)" (Ephesians 4:8-10). When Jesus died, His body lay in the tomb, but His spirit went to Hades. After He left Hades, He took the spirits of the righteous dead from Sheol or Hades up to Heaven. Now Hades is the abode of the unrighteous dead only. Joseph was sold for twenty pieces of silver; and Jesus was sold by Judas for thirty pieces of silver. "Then there passed by Midianites merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver: and they brought Joseph into Egypt" (Genesis 37:28). How similar this was to what happened to Jesus! "And said unto them, What will you give me, and I will deliver him unto you? And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver" (Matthew 26:15). Joseph was falsely accused and imprisoned; and similarly Jesus was arrested and condemned by false testimony. "And it came to pass, when his master heard the words of his wife, which she spake unto him, saying, After this manner did thy servant to me; that his wrath was kindled. And Joseph’s master took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king’s prisoners were bound: and he was there in the prison" (Genesis 39:19, 20). Joseph was condemned on a false charge and had to suffer imprisonment. The arrest and condemnation of Jesus was on the same basis. "For many bare false witness against him, but their witness agreed not together" (Mark 14:56). False witnesses played a large part in the trial of Jesus. In prison Joseph was placed between two prisoners; he foretold the release of the one and the destruction of the other; and this is a type of Jesus dying on the cross between two thieves, promising the one entrance into paradise, while the other one perished in his sins. Two of Pharaoh’s officers were in prison with Joseph. Joseph interpreted the dream which each one of these men had. He foretold as a result of the dreams that the chief butler would be restored to his position with the king, and that the chief baker would be executed. The story of what happened is told in Genesis 40, and is a picture of a similar experience of Jesus, although the two events were not exactly alike. John 19:18 says: "Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst." In Luke 23:39-43 is the account of these two thieves on either side of the cross of Jesus. One of them railed on Jesus, while the other one acknowledged his own sin and the righteousness of Jesus. Verse 42 tells us what he said to Jesus and Jesus’ answer: "And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom. And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, Today shalt thou be with me in paradise." Jesus announced the salvation of one of these thieves, and the other perished without Christ. Joseph dealt with his brethren in such a way as to bring them to repentance for their sin against him; and Christ will allow the Jews to go through great trials in order that them may be brought to repentance for their sin against Him. "And Joseph saw his brethren and he knew them, but made himself strange unto them, and spake roughly unto them; and he said unto them, Whence come ye? And they said From the land of Canaan to buy food" (Genesis 42:7). Since their rejection of Christ, the Jews have been scattered oven all the world. But when they confess their sins and the sin of rejecting Messiah, then the Lord will bring them back to Palestine in blessing. "If they shall confess their iniquity, and the iniquity of their fathers, with their trespass which they trespassed against me, and that also they have walked contrary unto me . . . Then will I remember my covenant with Jacob, and also my covenant with Isaac, and also my covenant with Abraham will I remember; and I will remember the land" (Leviticus 26:40, 42). It was during the years of famine that Joseph revealed himself to his brethren; and it will be during the time of Jacob’s trouble that Christ will reveal Himself to the Jewish remnant of that day. His brothers came to Egypt for food in the time of famine, and it was then that Joseph made known his identity unto them. During the Great Tribulation period preceding the millennial rule of Christ, the Jews will in time of great persecution and deep distress seek the Lord and find Him, and Christ will be revealed unto them as their Messiah and Saviour. "I will go and return to my place, till they acknowledge their offense, and seek my face: in their affliction they will seek me early" (Hosea 5:15). [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Exodus Types: 1. The Passover, A Type of the Cross

(Exodus 12-13) The Passover was to the Jews their day of independence, even as the cross of Christ means to the Christian his freedom from the bondage of sin. "And the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you" (Exodus 12:1, 2). Passover was like New Year’s Day or like the American July Fourth or Independence Day. On this day they celebrated deliverance from Egyptian bondage. And because of the cross, the Christian has deliverance from bondage to sin. "Whosoever committeth sin is the servant [slave] of sin" (John 8:34). "If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed" (John 8:36). "But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world" (Galatians 6:14). Because Jesus died upon it, the cross has been transformed from a thing of shame to a thing of glory. The Passover provided salvation for the Jewish household, even as Christ provides salvation for the family of the believer. "Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house" (Exodus 12:3). "Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the passover" (Exodus 12:21). Killing the Passover lamb was a family matter, providing protection for the family against the loss of its firstborn. Even so, the salvation of Jesus makes salvation possible for all the household of the one who believes in Jesus. "And they said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house" (Acts 16:31). Is your home covered by the blood of Jesus? Beneath the blood-stained lintel I with my children stand; A messenger of judgment is passing through the land; There is no other refuge from the destroyer’s face - Beneath the blood-stained lintel shall be our hiding-place. the tenth to the fourteenth day before it was slain; and Jesus was the fulfillment of all this. "Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats: and ye shall keep it up to the fourteenth day of the same month" (Exodus 12:5, 6). As the Passover lamb was to be a male of the first year, so Jesus died at the age of thirty-three in the prime of His manhood. Like the lamb, Jesus was without blemish, morally. The lamb was kept until the fourteenth day under scrutiny looking for possible faults. Even so, Jesus was under scrutiny the last few days before His crucifixion, yet Pilate said of Him, "I find no fault in him" (Luke 23:4). The Passover lamb was killed the same time of day as Jesus was put to death by crucifixion. "And the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening" (Exodus 12:6). "In the evening," means literally in the Hebrew, "between the two evenings." The first Jewish evening began at noon, and the second at sunset. The lamb was slain midway between noon and sunset or about three o’clock in the afternoon. Jesus hung on the cross from the third hour to the ninth hour, or six hours. He was in three hours of light from nine o’clock till noon, and in three hours of darkness from noon till three o’clock. He died at three o’clock. The sprinkling of the blood of the Passover lamb is a type of the application of the blood of Jesus to the heart of the believer. "And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it" (Exodus 12:7). "And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning" (Exodus 12:22). The Israelites showed their faith in God’s provision for them by sprinkling the blood as instructed. This is a type of the Christian’s appropriation of Christ’s blood for his salvation. "Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience" (Hebrews 10:22). Let us see to it that our heart’s door is sprinkled with Christ’s blood. Only then will we be safe from judgment for sin in the day of reckoning. The eating of the Passover meal is a symbol of the Lord’s Supper. "And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it" (Exodus 12:8). "Eat the flesh" means appropriation and fellowship. "Roast with fire" means judgment. "Unleavened bread" means without sin. And when the "bitter herbs" were eaten, the Israelites were remembering their former bondage and thanking God for deliverance from it. "Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us: therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth" (I Corinthians 5:7, 8). And Paul also wrote in his instructions regarding the Lord’s Supper: "But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup." The "passing over" of the judgment angel is a type of deliverance from judgment through Christ. "For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the Lord. And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt" (Exodus 12:12, 13). "For the Lord will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the Lord will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you" (Exodus 12:23). Judgment fell upon the Passover lamb, and the firstborn escaped judgment. "Even Jesus, which delivered us from the wrath to come" (I Thessalonians 1:10). Jesus on the cross received God’s wrath in our place. "Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life" (John 5:24). The believer in Jesus escapes the judgment of God for sin’s penalty. Jewish parents were to answer their children’s questions about the meaning of the Passover; and Christian parents should answer their children’s questions regarding the meaning of the Lord’s Supper. "And it shall come to pass, when ye come to the land which the Lord will give you, according as he has promised, that ye shall keep this service. And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by this service? That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the Lord’s passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses" (Exodus 12:25-27). The questions of the children gave opportunity to the parents to explain the reason for the Passover celebration. And when our children ask questions about the ordinance of the Lord’s Supper, let us take time to explain the reason for it, because it gives us a glorious opportunity to teach an important truth. "And ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath: but bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord" (Ephesians 6:4). [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Exodus Types: 2. Crossing the Red Sea, A Type of Turning the Back on the World

(Exodus 14-15) Egypt, a type of the world. "By faith Moses, when he was come to years, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter; choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season" (Hebrews 11:24, 25). Israel in Egypt is a type of the sinner living in the world before he is converted to God. The bondage of Egypt, a type of the bondage of sin. "And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigor" (Exodus 1:14). One day the Jews said to Jesus: "We be Abraham’s seed, and were never in bondage to any man" (John 8:33). In verse 34 Jesus answered them: "Whosoever committeth sin is the servant [slave] of sin." In other words, sin is a terrible taskmaster. Israel’s deliverance from Egypt, a type of the believer’s deliverance from the world of sin. Israel’s deliverance under God came through the instrumentality of a deliverer-Moses. "This Moses . . . the same did God send to be . . . a deliverer" (Acts 7:35). Moses is thus a type of Christ our Deliverer. The deliverance is wrought by God’s power. "And brought thee out in his sight with his mighty power out of Egypt" (Deuteronomy 4:37). Paul tells about our deliverance from the World: "Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son" (Colossians 1:13). As Moses under God’s power delivered Israel from Egypt, so Christ is our Deliverer from the sins of the world. The Red Sea crossing, a type of Christian baptism. "Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; and were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea" (I Corinthians 10:1, 2). When Israel crossed through the Red Sea, they were saying goodbye to Egypt, they were dying to the bondage of Egypt. This is a symbol of baptism. "Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death; that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life" (Romans 6:4). The convert of Christ is saying when he is baptized, "Goodbye, old world, and your sinful pleasures." He is dying to the old life of sin, and is rising to live a new life in Christ. [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Exodus Types: 3. The Manna, A Type of God’s Provision Through Christ and the Word

(Exodus 16) The children of Israel needed the manna in the wilderness as Gods children need the Bible every day. "I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day" (Exodus 16:4). In the wilderness this great people needed a supply of bread from Heaven, and they needed it every single day. "And Moses said, Let no man leave of it till the morning. Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left of it until the morning and it bred worms, and stank: and Moses was wroth with them" (Exodus 16:19, 20). We need a fresh study of God Word every day. Yesterday’s experience becomes stale today The prophet learned to feast on the Word: "Thy words were found, and I did eat them; and thy word was unto me the joy and rejoicing of mine heart" (Jeremiah 15:16). Israel gathered manna in the early morning; and the best time for Bible reading is early in the day. "And they gathered it every morning, every man according to his eating: and when the sun waxed hot, it melted" (Exodus 16:21). If Israel did not gather the manna early in the morning, by the time the sun became hot, it melted. Similarly, if the Word is not read early in the morning, other things crowding in will be apt to melt away the opportunity. "The Lord God hath given me the tongue of the learned [taught ones] that I should know how to speak a word in season to him that is weary: he wakeneth morning by morning, he wakeneth mine ear to hear as the learned [taught ones]" (Isaiah 50:4). We are taught from the Word in order that we may help others who are in need of help. Israel used the manna during their entire wilderness experience; and we must depend upon the Word during all of life’s pilgrimage. "And the children of Israel did eat manna forty years, until they came to a land inhabited; they did eat manna, until they came unto the borders of the land of Canaan" (Exodus 16:35). Even so Christians need the Bible through all of the experiences of life up to Heaven’s portals. "Teach me, O Lord, the way of thy statutes; and I shall keep it unto the end" (Psalm 119:33). The Lord Jesus Christ is the antitype of the manna that came down from Heaven. "Then said the Lord unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you" (Exodus 16:4). Jesus Christ Himself claimed to be the fulfillment of the manna which came down from Heaven. "Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not that bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world" (John 6:32, 33). The manna satisfied the hunger of the Israelites; and Christ satisfies the hungry hearts of men who trust Him. Exodus 16:3 tells of Israel’s hunger: "For ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger." Verse 4 tells how the hunger was satisfied: "I will rain bread from heaven for you." And Jesus claimed to do the same thing for the hearts of men, "And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst" (John 6:35). The manna was mysterious in character; and so is the salvation of Jesus in some respects. "And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, It is manna [i.e., "What is it?"], for they wist not what it was. And Moses said unto them, This is the bread which the Lord hath given you to eat" (Exodus 16:15). And even as the manna was mysterious in its character and origin, so the Lord Jesus indicated that His salvation was likewise mysterious. "The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit" (John 3:8). In some respects the wind is mysterious, and so the work of the Spirit of God in the New Birth is unseen and mysterious, but nonetheless real. The manna came down to where the people were; and the salvation of Jesus is available to all who will take it. "And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground" (Exodus 16:14). The manna lay where it was easy to reach and gather. And so the Gospel of our salvation is easy of access. "But the righteousness which is of faith speaketh on this wise, Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down from above:) or, Who shall descend into the deep? (that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead.) But what saith it? The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is, the word of faith, which we preach" (Romans 10:6-8). The manna had to be gathered by individuals, and so salvation today must be appropriated by each individual person for himself. "This is the thing which the Lord hath commanded, Gather of it every man according to his eating, an omer for every man" (Exodus 16:16). Individual faith in Christ is required: "He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life" (John 3:36). The manna was despised by some of the Israelites, as the salvation of Jesus is despised by some men today. "And the mixed multitude that was among them fell a lusting: and the children of Israel also wept again, and said, Who shall give us flesh to eat? We remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlic: but now our soul is dried away: there is nothing at all, besides this manna, before our eyes" (Numbers 11:4-6). They were making light of that upon which their sustenance depended. How like many in modern times who are doing nothing about the salvation of their immortal souls! "How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation" (Hebrews 2:3) [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Exodus Types: 4. Water from the Rock, A Type of Christ’s Gift of the Holy Spirit

(Exodus 17) Even as Israel was in desperate need of water to quench thirst; so do men need the water of life to satisfy their thirsty souls. "And there was no water for the people to drink" (Exodus 17:1). And water was a necessity. And thirsty souls can go to God and receive satisfaction through faith in Christ resulting in the New Birth. "Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters" (Isaiah 55:1). Regeneration by the Holy Spirit is the only work that can satisfy men’s hearts. Instead of blaming God for their predicament, the Israelites should have looked to God for water, as men should today. "Wherefore is this that thou hast brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst?" (Exodus 17:3). Theirs would indeed have been a terrible situation if Moses had not gone to God on their behalf and secured water for them. Many times these days we find men putting the blame for their troubles upon their Creator, instead of going to Him for the solution to their problems. "And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst, come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely" (Revelation 22:17). With such a gracious invitation as this, there is no need for men to die of thirst. Water was supplied from the smitten rock. The death of Christ makes possible a living well of water through the indwelling Spirit. "Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink. And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel" (Exodus 17:6). The smitten rock brought forth water for the people. Thus the smitten Christ on the cross opened up a well of water through the presence of the Holy Spirit in the regenerated heart of man. "But whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life" (John 4:14). The rock from which their water came followed the Israelites in the wilderness; and so Christ goes with believers to satisfy their needs. "And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ" (I Corinthians 10:4). Even so, Christ goes with those who trust Him as Saviour. He never forsakes them but is with them to help them. "For he hath said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee. So that we may boldly say, The Lord is my helper" (Hebrews 13:5, 6). Water from the rock was more than a well, it was a river; and the believer who is filled with the Spirit becomes a river of water. "He clave the rocks in the wilderness, and gave them drink as out of the great depths. He brought streams also out of the rock, and caused waters to run down like rivers" (Psalm 78:15, 16). A river of water came forth from that rock in the wilderness to supply the needs of everyone. And Jesus gave us a promise that abundantly matches that in the spiritual realm. "Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink. He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. (But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive" (John 7:37- 39). More than a well, the Spirit-filled Christian becomes an overflowing fountain, which becomes a river of living water. Some Christians do not have enough of the water of life to supply their own need, while others have enough for their own need, but not enough for others. The Spirit-filled Christian has enough for himself and for others. [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Exodus Types: 5. The Pillar of Cloud and of Fire, Type of the Protection and Guidance of the Holy Spirit

(Exodus 13:20-22; 14:19, 20) The pillar of cloud and of fire was an indication of God’s presence with Israel in the wilderness; even as the Holy Spirit’s activity in believers is proof of God’s presence with them. "And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire" (Exodus 13:21). By day everyone could know that God was present with His people because of the pillar of cloud, and by night this became the pillar of fire. And it is the work of the Holy Spirit in a believer that lets the world around know that God is with him. "But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his" (Romans 8:9). The pillar of cloud and of fire was given Israel after redemption from Egypt by blood; as the Holy Spirit is given to those who have been saved by Christ’s blood. Redemption by the blood of the Passover lamb is found in Exodus 12. The pillar of cloud and fire is described in Exodus 13:21f. The order here is important. The order is similar in the first chapter of Ephesians: "In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins . . . In whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise" (Ephesians 1:7, 13). We are first redeemed by Christ’s blood, and then sealed by His Spirit. The pillar of cloud and of fire served Israel as a protection from her enemies; like the Holy Spirit gives believers victory over their foes. "And the angel of God which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of die cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them: and it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these: so that the one came not near the other all the night" (Exodus 14:19, 20). The pillar of cloud and fire stood between the Israelites and the pursuing army of the Egyptians as a wonderful protection. And the Holy Spirit does just that for the believer who trusts in His keeping power from the enemy. "This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfill the lust of the flesh. For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would. But if ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not under the law" (Galatians 5:16-18). In our warfare against the world, the flesh, and the Devil, the blessed Holy Spirit will, if we trust Him to do so, protect us from these enemies, and give us victory over them. The pillar of cloud and of fire was given Israel for the purpose of guidance; as the Holy Spirit is given the Christian to guide him. "And when the cloud was taken up from the tabernacle, then after that the children of Israel journeyed: and in the place where the cloud abode, there the children of Israel pitched their tents" (Numbers 9:17). Israel journeyed or camped according to the movement or abiding of the pillar of cloud and of fire. Today the Holy Spirit guides the believer. "For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God" (Romans 8:14). The Spirit guides through inward impressions, through Scripture passages, and through providential circumstances. In various ways He makes it clear to the child of God the way he should travel, the decision he should render, the choice he should make. The pillar of cloud was given Israel to serve as a covering from the heat by day; even as the Holy Spirit is the believers covering in the stress and strain of excessive trials. "He spread a cloud for a covering" (Psalm 105:39). This is no doubt a reference to the pillar of cloud which protected the Israelites from the hot burning sun of the desert. It was a canopy from the desert heat. And when the early church had excessive persecution, the Spirit served them as a covering. "Then had the churches rest throughout all Judea and Galilee and Samaria, and were edified; and walking in the fear of the Lord, and in the comfort of the Holy Ghost, were multiplied" (Acts 9:31). The Holy Spirit became a comfort to them following a time of great persecution. The pillar of fire served Israel as a light by night; and so the Spirit illuminates the Christian’s way. "Thou leddest them in the day by a cloudy pillar; and in the night by a pillar of fire, to give them light in the way wherein they should go" (Nehemiah 9:12). It was like a great searchlight, making the way that lay ahead clear to see. And concerning the work of the Holy Spirit Jesus said: "Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth" (John 16:13). The Holy Spirit illuminates the Word as we study its teachings, and He also illuminates our pathway. He makes everything clear. Holy Ghost with light divine, Shine upon this heart of mine; Chase the shades of night away, Turn my darkness into day. God spoke to Israel from the cloud, as the Spirit speaks to the churches today. "He spake unto them in the cloudy pillar" (Psalm 99:7). The divine messages came to Israel direct from this overhead cloud. And if we have ears to hear, the Spirit of God will often speak to our hearts in these modern days of crisis. "He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches" (Revelation 2:29). May God give to us listening ears to hear what He has to say to us! The pillar of cloud and of fire was not taken away from Israel during her wilderness days; and the Holy Spirit will abide with believers forever. "Yet thou in thy manifold mercies forsookest them not in the wilderness: the pillar of the cloud departed not from them by day, to lead them in the way; neither the pillar of fire by night, to show them light, and the way wherein they should go" (Nehemiah 9:19). All through the forty years of wilderness experiences God took not away from Israel the pillar of cloud by day and the pillar of fire by night. Concerning the Holy Spirit, Jesus said: "And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you forever" (John 14:16). As our Comforter or Helper, the Holy Spirit abides with us to protect us and to guide us in the way. [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Exodus Types: 6a. The Tabernacle In the Wilderness, A Manifold Type of Christ and His Church

(Exodus 25-40) God had a detailed plan for making the Tabernacle; and He has a plan for the life of every member of His Church. "And look that thou make them after their pattern, which was showed thee in the mount" (Exodus 25:40). The plans for the construction of the Tabernacle were given to Moses on Mount Sinai, and Moses saw to it that they were carried out in the building and making of it. Concerning God’s plan for our lives, Paul has this to say: "For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained [or planned] that we should walk in them" (Ephesians 2:10). Since God has a plan for our lives, how important that we find out what His plan is, and then proceed to carry it out! The Tabernacle was a type of God’s presence with His people of Israel and with Christians today. "And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them" (Exodus 25:8). The Tabernacle was always placed in the center of Israel’s camp, and there in the heart of His people’s dwelling-place, God was present, in His sanctuary. The Church is God’s sanctuary now. "In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit" (Ephesians 2:22). God dwells in the heart of His Church through His Spirit. The tabernacle was a picture of Jesus Christ and His salvation. "And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us" (John 1:14). The word dwelt is rendered "tabernacled" in the margin. When He was here on earth, Jesus was tabernacling among us. He was fulfilling many of the types which we find so interesting in the Tabernacle in the wilderness. Thus we see Him and His salvation pictured plainly in many of the details of that Tabernacle. The Israelites gave material for the Tabernacle in the spirit Christians should give to God’s work in these modern times. "And they came, every one whose heart stirred him up, and everyone whom his spirit made willing, and they brought the Lord’s offering to the work of the tabernacle of the congregation, and for all his service, and for the holy garments" (Exodus 35:21). "The children of Israel brought a willing offering unto the Lord, every man and woman, whose heart made them willing to bring for all manner of work, which the Lord had commanded to be made by the hand of Moses" (Exodus 35:29). "And they spake unto Moses, saying, The people bring much more than enough for the service of the work, which the Lord commanded to make" (Exodus 36:5). [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Exodus Types: 6b. The Tabernacle In the Wilderness, A Manifold Type of Christ and His Church

There was no compulsion from without to get the Israelites to give. Their own hearts stirred them up to give. Their own spirits made them willing to give. They brought much more than was needed for the task. It is this kind of giving that is very much needed in all phases of the work of the Lord in these days. Spirit-filled workmen built the Tabernacle; and Spirit- filled Christians should carry on every phase of activity in the church. "And Moses said unto the children of Israel, See, the Lord hath called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah; and he hath filled him with the Spirit of God, in wisdom, in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship; and to devise curious works, to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass, and in the cutting of stones, to set them, and in carving of wood, to make any manner of cunning work. And he hath put in his heart that he may teach, both he, and Aholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan. Them hath he filled with wisdom of heart, to work all manner of work, of the engraver, and of the cunning workman, and of the embroiderer, in blue, and in purple, in scarlet, and in fine linen, and of the weaver, even of them that do any work, and of those that devise cunning work" (Exodus 35:30-35). God gave to these men who made the Tabernacle and its furnishings wisdom and skill by His Holy Spirit. And in the early church Spirit-filled men were sought out to perform all the tasks of the Lord. "Then the twelve called the multitude of the disciples unto them, and said, It is not reason that we should leave the word of God, and serve tables. Wherefore brethren, look ye out among you seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Spirit and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business" (Acts 6:2, 3). The height of the fence that enclosed the Tabernacle courtyard was five cubits (seven and onehalf feet); and was thus like that of a sheepfold where only a robber would attempt to climb over. "And the height in the breadth was five cubits, answerable to the hangings of the court" (Exodus 38:18). This fence was seven and a half feet high, and sufficient to keep out intruders. It reminds us of the sheepfold Christ spoke about: Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber. But he that entereth in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep" (John 10:1, 2). Only by the God-appointed way through the courtyard gate, bringing an offering, could anyone enter into where God’s presence was, in the days of the Tabernacle. The white linen hangings of the courtyard fence pictured the holiness of God, which bars the sinner except he come in through Christ the door. "There shall be hangings for the court of fine twined linen" (Exodus 27:9). God is a holy God and cannot countenance sin in His presence. "Thou art of purer eyes than to behold evil, and canst not look on iniquity" (Habakkuk 1:13). The sinner must be barred from God’s presence except he come in through Christ the Door of his salvation. "I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and find pasture" (John 10:9). The brass sockets that held the pillars of the courtyard fence were a symbol of judgment on sin, and the silver chapiters, fillets, and hooks, were a type of redemption. "And the sockets for the pillars were of brass; and the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver; and the overlaying of their chapiters of silver; and all the pillars of the court were filleted with silver" (Exodus 38:17). The pillars were the posts, the chapiter was the top of the post. The fillet was the rod upon which the curtain was hung, and the hooks were used to hang the curtains. The sockets were the foundation of the posts and were of brass. Brass was a symbol of judgment: "And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters" (Revelation 1:15). This pictures Christ coming in judgment at His return to earth. Silver is a type of redemption: "If there be yet many years behind, according unto them he shall give again the price of his redemption out of the money that he was bought for" (Leviticus 25:51). This speaks of the silver redemption money. In I Peter 1:18, 19 we are told that we are "not redeemed with . . . silver and gold . . . but with the precious blood of Christ." An Israelite, after looking at the brass sockets (type of judgment upon sin), could follow the silver fillets (type of redemption) around the corner of the courtyard and thus be led to the gateway where an entrance could be made if an offering for sin was brought. The gateway into the courtyard was wide and beautiful, and those entering had to bring a sacrifice; and all this is typical of Christ as our Door. "And for the gate of the court shall be an hanging of twenty cubits" (Exodus 27:16). The gate was twenty cubits, or thirty feet, wide by seven and one-half feet high. It was wide enough to accommodate all who wished to enter. Today salvation is for "whosoever believeth" (John 3:16). The beautiful hangings of the gate way are described in verse 16: "And for the gate of the court shall be an hanging of twenty cubits, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, wrought with needle work." The blue pictures the deity of Christ; the purple, His royalty; the scarlet, His humanity and His sacrifice; and the white linen, His holiness. [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Exodus Types: 6c. The Tabernacle In the Wilderness, A Manifold Type of Christ and His Church

Those entering this door must bring a sacrifice. "If his offering be a burnt sacrifice of the herd, let him offer a male without blemish: he shall offer it of his own voluntary will at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the Lord" (Leviticus 1:3). Let us look at the New Testament application of this, "But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ" (Ephesians 2:13). "For by one offering he hath perfected forever them that are sanctified" (Hebrews 10:14). Our access to the presence of God is through Christ as our Door, and through the offering He made on our behalf, whose blood gives us nearness to God. The gateway was the only entrance into the courtyard of the tabernacle; even as Christ is the only way of salvation. "I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and out and find pasture" (John 10:9). "Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved" (Acts 4:12). There was only one way to gain the presence of the holy God of Israel in Old Testament times, and there is only one way to God’s presence today, and that way is through Christ and His sacrifice for us. The brazen altar was a type of Calvary’s cross. This altar was the first article to be seen after entering the courtyard. "And thou shalt make an altar of shittim [acacia] wood, five cubits long, and five cubits broad; the altar shall be foursquare: and the height thereof shall be three cubits. And thou shalt make the horns of it upon the four corners thereof: his horns shall be of the same: and thou shalt overlay it with brass . . . And thou shalt make for it a grate of network of brass" (Exodus 27:1, 2, 4). Brass overlaid the wood, and the grate network was also of brass. Brass is a type of judgment upon sin, as we have already seen. In the offering for sin, God’s judgment falls upon the one sacrificed. "For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him" (II Corinthians 5:21). The shape of the altar was foursquare. The four sides, pointing north, east, south, and west, and thus symbolizing a perfect sacrifice for all people, most certainly point to Christ’s sacrifice. The horns of the altar were used to bind the sacrifices (see Psalm 118:27), to sprinkle blood upon them (see Exodus 29:12), and to provide a place of refuge (see I Kings 1:50). In Old Testament times if a man was really guilty, then taking hold of the horns of the altar did not spare him. But in Christ sinners have a real place of refuge if they come in faith and penitence. "That by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us" (Hebrews 6:18). The offerings made at the brazen altar are a type of the offering of Christ on Calvary’s cross. There were five different offerings (see Leviticus 1-7; also Chapter III "Types in Leviticus"). The principle of identification was important in connection with these offerings. "And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt offering before the Lord: it is a sin offering" (Leviticus 4:24). The one who has sinned thus accepts the animal as his substitute by laying his hands upon its head. [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Exodus Types: 6d. The Tabernacle In the Wilderness, A Manifold Type of Christ and His Church

Here is what was done with the offerings, with some variation in connection with certain offerings. - First, the blood was shed and atonement made. - Then, the blood was sprinkled and the atonement appropriated. The victim was burned, the fire picturing judgment upon sin. - Then part of the meat was eaten by the priests symbolizing fellowship based on forgiveness. "But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin" (I John 1:7). The laver used by the priests for washing is a type of cleansing for the Christian worker. The laver was located midway between the brazen altar and the main part of the Tabernacle itself. "Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and his foot also of brass, to wash withal: and thou shalt put it between the tabernacle of the congregation and the altar, and thou shalt put water therein. For Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet thereat: when they go into the tabernacle of the congregation, they shall wash with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn offering made by fire unto the Lord" (Exodus 30:18-20). The priests were required to wash themselves before going into the Tabernacle, or before ministering at the altar. The material the laver was made from was the brass looking glasses which had been offered by the women. "And he made the laver of brass, and the foot of it of brass, of the looking glasses of the women assembling, which assembled at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation" (Exodus 38:8). This reminds us of James’ statement that the law or the Word is like a mirror. "But whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed" (James 1:25). The New Testament constitutes all believers as priests. "And hath made us kings and priests" (Revelation 1:6). But it is important that priests be clean. The psalmist asked the question how to be cleansed. "Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way? by taking heed thereto according to thy word" (Psalm 119:9). First John 1:9 promises cleansing after confession: "If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness." After he is conscious of any sin, every Christian worker should confess his sin immediately and be forgiven and cleansed. Only thus is he prepared to serve the Lord. The Tabernacle itself did not rest upon the sand, but rather upon a mass of silver sockets, with each upright board resting on two sockets; so each one of us must rest himself upon Christ for salvation. "And forty sockets of silver he made under the twenty boards; two sockets under one board for his two tenons [pegs], and two sockets under another board for his two tenons" (Exodus 36:24). Each board was fastened securely to the sockets by means of pegs. The foundation of the Tabernacle was actually the combination of all of these silver sockets, picturing redemption through Christ as our foundation. "For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ" (I Corinthians 3:11). Every individual sinner who hopes to be saved must rest upon Christ for his salvation. The arrangement of the material in the walls of the Tabernacle symbolizes the unity of believers. "And he made boards for the tabernacle of shittim [acacia wood, standing up . . . And he made bars of shittim wood . . . And he made the middle bar to shoot through the boards from the one end to the other. And he overlaid the boards with gold, and made their rings of gold to be places for the bars, and overlaid the bars with gold" (Exodus 36:20, 31, 33, 34). The boards stood upright. The bars were horizontal placed in rings. The middle bar went through from end to end. The purpose was to hold all together. This typifies the unity of believers. "Endeavoring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace" (Ephesians 4:3). This unity is based on the presence and work of the Holy Spirit. The outside covering of the Tabernacle of badgers’ skins is a type of what Christ is to the average unsaved person. "And a covering above of badgers’ skins [sealskins, margin: porpoise skins]" (Exodus 26:14). This skin was no doubt a rough, shaggy, and repulsive-looking skin. This pictures Christ in relation to most unsaved people, to whom Christ is not at all attractive. This reminds us of the words of the prophet Isaiah in predicting concerning the Messiah: "For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground: he hath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him. He is despised and rejected of men, a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not" (Isaiah 53:2, 3). The next to the outside covering of the Tabernacle of rams’ skins dyed red is a type of what Christ is to God. "A covering for the tent of rams’ skins dyed red" (Exodus 26:14). Rams were used in the voluntary burnt offering. Thus this covering represents Christ’s voluntary consecration to do God’s will. "I delight to do thy will, O my God: yea, thy law is within my heart" (Psalm 40:8). This consecration led to the cross. It indicates Christ was acceptable to God in His life and ministry, and in His sacrificial death for us. The next to the inside covering of the Tabernacle of goats’ hair is a type of what Christ has done for us. "Thou shalt make curtains of goats’ hair to be a covering upon the tabernacle" (Exodus 26:7). In Palestine during Bible times the average goat was black, not white. A goat was sacrificed as a sin offering on the great Day of Atonement. Part of this curtain would hang over in front of the Tabernacle (v. 9). This would suggest to the Israelite forgiveness because of the death of a substitute (a goat). Thus it is a type of Christ’s death for us. "Christ died for our sins" (I Corinthians 15:3). The beautiful inside covering of the Tabernacle is a type of what Christ is to believers. "Moreover thou shalt make the tabernacle with ten curtains of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet: with cherubim of cunning work shalt thou make them" (Exodus 26:1). There were ten curtains fastened together to make one covering. The white linen suggests Christ’s holiness; the blue, His deity; the purple, His royalty; the scarlet, His humanity and sacrificial death; and the cherubim (see Genesis 3:24) who were guards or watchers, picture the keeping power of Christ. All this and more - Christ is to the believer! [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Exodus Types: 6e. The Tabernacle In the Wilderness, A Manifold Type of Christ and His Church

We come now to the main part of the Tabernacle on the inside. Here are two rooms, the first a larger room into which only priests might enter for their service, and the second a smaller room where only the high priest could enter. God manifested His presence in this latter room. The first room was called the Holy Place, and the second room was called the Holy of Holies. The golden candlestick (lampstand) located on the left side of the Holy Place, represents the union between Christ and believers. "And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made: his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same" (Exodus 25:31). The central shaft or stem represents Christ, and the branches represent believers. The branches were not stuck on, or soldered on, or glued on. Rather they were one and the same piece with the central shaft or stem. Even so there is vital union between Christ and true believers. This suggests the reference of Christ to the Vine and the branches in John 15. The first result of the union with Christ thus typified is shining. "Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid. Neither do men light a candle [lamp], and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick [lampstand]; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house. Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven" (Matthew 5:1416). His lamp am I, to shine where He shall say, And lamps are not for sunny rooms, Nor for the light of day; But for dark places of the earth, Where shame and crime and wrong have birth; Or for the murky twilight gray Where wandering sheep have gone astray; Or where the light of faith grows dim, And souls are groping after Him. - Annie Johnson Flint The second result of union with Christ as pictured by the lampstand is fruit-bearing. The bowls, knops, and flowers suggest different stages in the process of growing fruit, i.e., almonds. And the Lord expects fruit from us as His followers who are united to Him. "Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit; so shall ye be my disciples" (John 15:8). The fruits of the Spirit as listed in Galatians 5:22, 23 should all be present in our lives, and if they are, then there will be converts to Christ. Such fruitfulness glorifies Christ. The fuel used by the candlestick (lampstand) is a type of the Holy Spirit as the source of the believers power for living and serving. "And thou shalt command the children of Israel, that they bring thee pure oil olive beaten for the light, to cause the lamp to burn always" (Exodus 27:20). Absolutely pure olive oil was used in this lamp. And in the Bible oil is a type of the Holy Spirit. "How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power: who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil; for God was with him" (Acts 10:38). If Jesus was anointed with the Holy Spirit, how much more do we need to be anointed with Him for effective service. The table of shewbread, located on the right side of the Holy Place, is a type of the Lord’s Supper, or feeding on Christ. "Thou shalt also make a table of shittim [acacia] wood: two cubits shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof . . . And thou shalt set upon the table shewbread before me alway" (Exodus 25:23, 30). "Every sabbath he shall set it in order before the Lord continually, being taken from the children of Israel by an everlasting covenant. And it shall be Aaron’s and his sons’; and they shall eat it in the holy place: for it is most holy unto him of the offerings of the Lord made by fire by a perpetual statute" (Leviticus 24:8, 9). The word shewbread means "presence-bread." It was kept in God’s presence. For wheat to become fine flour it must go through the process of sifting, rubbing, pounding, grinding, crushing, bruising. All this is descriptive of what Christ suffered on our behalf. "But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed" (Isaiah 53:5). Unleavened bread was used for the table of shewbread, suggesting that Christ was without sin. The bread was baked with fire, symbolizing the sufferings of Christ for us. The bread was changed every sabbath day, and thus no stale bread was allowed. So there is need for fresh, upto- date Christian experience. The priests ate the bread that was removed, thus picturing fellowship with God because of sins forgiven. The Lord’s Supper means feeding on Christ. "Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you" (John 6:53). This means to appropriate the result of His death in our daily experience. The golden altar of incense, located directly in front of them veil, is a type of Christian prayer to God. "And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon: of shittim wood shalt thou make it . . . And Aaron shall burn thereon sweet incense every morning: when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn incense upon it. And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at even, he shall burn incense upon it, a perpetual incense, before the Lord throughout your generations" (Exodus 30:1, 7, 8). The high priest was to burn incense on this altar morning and evening. Incense in the Bible represents the prayers of God’s people. "Let my prayer be set forth before thee as incense; and the lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice" (Psalm 141:2) "And when he had taken the book, the four beasts and four and twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps, and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints" (Revelation 5:8). "And the smoke of the incense, which came with the prayers of the saints, ascended up before God out of the angel’s hand" (Revelation 8:4). [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Exodus Types: 6f. The Tabernacle In the Wilderness, A Manifold Type of Christ and His Church

The altar of incense was situated just in front of the veil separating the Holy Place from the Holy of Holies. The Ark and God’s presence were on the other side of the veil. The veil of the Tabernacle is a type of Christ’s humanity. "And thou shalt make a veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet,; and fine twined linen of cunning work: with cherubim shall it be made" (Exodus 26:31). The blue is a symbol of Christ’s deity, the purple, His royalty; the scarlet, His death; the white linen, His sinlessness; and the cherubim suggest His heavenly origin. The purpose of the veil was to separate the Holy of Holies from the Holy Place. The approach into God’s presence was limited in those days. Christ by His incarnation and death has made a way for us into the presence of God. "By a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh" (Hebrews 10:20). Here we are told the veil is a symbol of Christ’s flesh, i.e., His humanity. But His humanity without His death could not have opened the way into God’s presence. The rending of the veil in the Temple when Christ died symbolizes the opening of the way into the Holy of Holies for us. "Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent" (Matthew 27:50, 51). The veil in Herod’s Temple was a strong fabric four inches thick and sixty feet high. Hebrews 10:19 gives the spiritual significance of this great event: "Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus." Thus the death of Christ has opened the way into God’s very presence for every believer in Jesus. The Holy of Holies is a type of Heaven. Hebrews 9:24 teaches us this: "For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us." The Holy of Holies was a perfect cube, and therefore a type of the New Jerusalem. This room was ten cubits or fifteen feet each way. The Temple of Solomon was twice these dimensions. And John sees the New Jerusalem as a cube. And the city lieth foursquare, and the length is as large as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs [1500 miles]. "The length and the breadth and the height of it are equal" (Revelation 21:16). The Holy of Holies was a room where the color gold predominated, and therefore, is a type of the New Jerusalem. Brass predominated in the Tabernacle courtyard, but in the Holy of Holies the side walls were of gold, the Ark of the Covenant was gold, the cherubim gold. This is true of Heaven. "And the building of the wall of it was of jasper: and the city was pure gold, like unto clear glass" (Revelation 21:18). The Holy of Holies had as its only source of light the Shekinah glory of God’s presence, and is therefore a type of the New Jerusalem. "And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof" (Revelation 21:23). God’s presence and Christ’s presence do away with all need for any other system of lighting. The Ark of the Covenant was the place in the Tabernacle where God’s presence was manifested. "So the people sent to Shiloh, that they might bring from thence the ark of the covenant of the Lord of hosts, which dwelleth between the cherubim" (I Sam. 4:4). "Give ear, O Shepherd of Israel, thou that leadest Joseph like a flock; thou that dwellest between the cherubim, shine forth" (Psalm 80:1). It is clear from these Scriptures that the presence of the Lord shone forth from between the two cherubim of the Ark of the Covenant. Here was the place where His presence was manifested. The mercy seat, or the lid of the Ark, and the most sacred place in the Tabernacle, was a type of God’s throne. "The Lord reigneth; let the people tremble: he sitteth between the cherubim; let the earth be moved" (Psalm 99:1) "And thou shalt make a mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof" (Exodus 25:17). The mercy seat was not of wood covered over with gold like much of the Tabernacle furniture was, but was rather a slab of pure gold as long and as wide as the Ark. Thus the mercy seat was represented to be God’s throne, and the rest of the Ark His footstool. "And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim which are upon the ark" (Exodus 25:22). The mercy seat is a type of Heavens "throne of grace" because blood was sprinkled upon it as atonement for sin. "Then shall he kill the goat of the sin offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the veil, and do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the mercy seat, and before the mercy seat" (Leviticus 16:15). Once a year, on the Day of Atonement the high priest sprinkled blood on the mercy seat. The cherubim were heavenly beings with outstretched wings, looking toward the mercy seat where the blood was sprinkled. As guardians of righteousness (cf. Genesis 3:24), they were satisfied since judgment had fallen upon a substitute, and thus the sinner was forgiven. The meaning of the term mercy seat is "propitiatory," or "a place of propitiation," or "a place of atonement" or "covering over of sins." Thus it was a place where sin was atoned for or covered over. In Old Testament times sin was covered over, but on the cross sin was done away. "Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: whom God set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God" (Romans 3:24, 25). Atonement through Christ’s blood was made known by Christ in Heaven. "For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us" (Hebrews 9:24). Thus the mercy seat is a type of God’s throne of grace. "Let us therefore come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need" (Hebrews 4:16). The tables of the law inside the Ark are a type of God’s law written on the hearts of believers. "And the ark of the covenant overlaid round about with gold, wherein was . . . the tables of the covenant" (Hebrews 9:4). The prophet Jeremiah foretold a day when Israel would have these tables of the law, not just kept inside the Ark, but rather written on the hearts of the people. "But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the Lord, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people" (Jeremiah 31:33). The New Testament application of this truth is given in Hebrews 10:16: "This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the Lord, I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them." Actually, the law was kept underneath the blood-sprinkled mercy seat. When a person trusts Christ and loves Him, he keeps God’s laws out of sheer love for him. The pot of manna inside the Ark is a type of God’s provision for the needs of Christians. "Wherein was the golden pot that had manna" (Hebrews 9:4). This was a reminder that God provided for the Israelites all during their wilderness journeys, and is a type of God’s providing for us today. "Give us this day our daily bread" (Matthew 6:11). "But my God shall supply all your need according to his riches glory by Christ Jesus" (Philippians 4:19). A special promise of "hidden manna" was promised to overcomers in Revelation 2:17: "To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna." Aaron’s rod that budded, laid up in the Ark, is a type fruitful service for God’s servants. "And Aaron’s rod the budded" (Hebrews 9:4). This rod, which overnight blossomed and bore almonds in order to vindicate the priesthood of Aaron, pictures fruitful service for God among Christian workers by the supernatural power of the Holy Spirit. (See section on "Aaron’s Rod That Budded" in "Types in Numbers.") "Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear mud fruit; so shall ye be my disciples" (John 15:8). [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Exodus Types: 7. The High Priest and His Garments, A Type of Christ as Our Priest

(Exodus 28, 39) Christ is declared to be our High Priest by the New Testament. "Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus" (Hebrews 3:1). Here is New Testament warrant for considering Christ as the antitype and the Jewish high priest as the type. The ephod, or outer garment, of the high priest is a type of Christ’s qualifications for being our Priest. "And he made the ephod of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen. And they did beat the gold into thin plates, and cut it into wires, to work it in the blue, and in the purple, and in the scarlet, and in the fine linen, with cunning work" (Exodus 39:2, 3). The fine twined linen, picturing Christ’s holiness, was the first essential of His Priesthood. The gold pictures His divine glory; the blue, His deity; the purple, His royalty; and scarlet, His humanity and death. The two shoulder pieces are described in Exodus 39:4, 6, 7: "They made shoulder pieces for it, to couple it together: by the two edges was it coupled together . . . And they wrought onyx stones inclosed in ouches of gold, graven, as signets are graven, with the names of the children of Israel. And he put them on the shoulders of the ephod, that they should be stones for a memorial to the children of Israel." The ephod had two shoulder pieces or straps, thus coupling the front and back parts together. There was an onyx stone on each shoulder piece, and on each stone was engraved the names of six of the tribes of Israel. The names of the tribes were thus carried on the shoulders of the high priest when lie went into the presence of God in the Holy of Holies. This is a type of believers today being carried on the shoulders of Christ our omnipotent Priest who is responsible for our salvation. Shoulders symbolize power and responsibility. (Cf. Isaiah 9:6; Deuteronomy 33:12; Luke 15:4, 5). The girdle of the high priest is a type of the readiness of Christ to be our Priest. "And the curious girdle of the ephod, which is upon it, shall be of the same, according to the work thereof; even of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen" (Exodus 28:8). This girdle was made of the same material and of the same piece as the ephod. To the Oriental, the girdle symbolized readiness for service. "He riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments; and took a towel and girded himself. After that he poureth water into a basin and began to wash the disciples’ feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded" (John 13:4, 5). Thus when we see Christ girded as our Priest, we know He is ready to serve us. The breastplate of the high priest is a type of Christ representing us before God. The description of the breastplate is given in Exodus 28:15f. It was made of the same material. It was twice as long as wide, and doubled to form a bag that would be foursquare. It contained twelve precious stones, four rows of three in a row. "And the stones shall be with the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names" (v. 21). Thus the high priest bore the names of the tribes upon his heart when he went into God’s presence , to intercede for them. This typifies Christ as our High Priest bearing our names before the Lord. "For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us" (Hebrews 9:24). The Urim and Thummim of the high priest are a type of the guidance of Christ through His Holy Spirit. "And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and them Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron’s heart when he goeth in before the Lord: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the Lord continually" (Exodus 28:30). The word Urim means "light," and the word Thummim means "perfection." These were a part of the breastplate by which means the high priest obtained judgments or decisions for the people regarding God’s will. The Bible does not make clear the exact method that was used in securing answers from the Lord. It has been suggested by some Bible students that the diamond was used, and that it would flash a light to indicate "Yes," and remain darkened to indicate "No." Joshua sought guidance from the Lord in this way. (Cf. Numbers 27:21.) grants to His followers. "I am the light of the world, he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life" (John 8:12). This guidance comes through the action of the Holy Spirit: "When he, the Spirit of truth is come, he will guide you into all truth" (John 16:13). The robe of the ephod of the high priest is a type of Christ interceding for us. "And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of blue" (Exodus 28:31). It was worn between the coat and ephod. The material was of blue, with a hole at the top for the head, like a jersey. Around the lower hem were balls of blue, purple, scarlet-shaped like pomegranates -and also there were small golden bells. They alternated, a bell and a pomegranate, etc. The pomegranates typified fruit, and the bells typified testimony. For every bell there was a pomegranate. The purpose of the bells was to let the people know when the high priest entered the Holy of Holies that he was still alive and that his offering was accepted. Though Christ our High Priest once died for us, we know that He rose again and now represents us before the Father. "He ever liveth to make intercession for us" (Hebrews 7:25). The embroidered coat or inner garment of the high priest is a type of the inner life of Christ which was pleasing unto God. "And thou shalt embroider the coat of fine linen" (Exodus 28:39). This garment was of fine linen woven in checker work, or honeycomb form. This was the first garment to be put on and thus served as a body coat or undershirt. The fine linen is, of course, a type of the righteousness of Christ. The checker work, which was well pleasing to the eye, indicated that the inner as well as the outer life of Christ was well pleasing in God’s sight. Jesus once said: "I do always those things that please him" (John 8:29). The miter or turban of the high priest is a type of the holiness of Christ as our Priest. "And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD. And thou shalt put it on a blue lace, that it may be upon the miter; upon the forefront of the miter it shall be. And it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead, that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the Lord" (Exodus 28:36-38). This was a headband wound around the head. Upon it was a plate of pure gold upon which was engraved the words: "HOLINESS TO THE LORD." This symbolized the holiness of Jesus in representing believers. His holiness becomes ours, "that they may be accepted before the Lord." Without it we would not have access to God’s presence. "For such an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens" (Hebrews 7:26). [Old Testament Types - FHW]

Link: https://bible-history.com/images/files/t...

Book of Leviticus in Wikipedia

Leviticus (Greek: Λευιτικός, "relating to the Levites") or Vayikra (Hebrew: ויקרא‎, literally "and He called") is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, and the third of five books of the Torah/Pentateuch. Leviticus contains laws and priestly rituals, but in a wider sense is about the working out of God's covenant with Israel set out in Genesis and Exodus-what is seen in the Torah as the consequences of entering into a special relationship with God (specifically, Yahweh). These consequences are set out in terms of community relationships and behaviour. The first 16 chapters and the last chapter make up the Priestly Code, with rules for ritual cleanliness, sin- offerings, and the Day of Atonement, including Chapter 12, which mandates male circumcision. Chapters 17–26 contain the Holiness Code, including the injunction in chapter 19 to "love one's neighbor as oneself" (the Great Commandment). The book is largely concerned with "abominations", largely dietary and sexual restrictions. The rules are generally addressed to the Israelites, except for several prohibitions applied equally to "the strangers that sojourn in Israel."...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Le...

Gospel of Luke in Wikipedia

The Gospel According to Luke (Greek: Κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, kata Loukan euangelionτὸ εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν, to euangelion kata Loukan), generally shortened to the Gospel of Luke, is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels. This synoptic gospel is an account of the life and ministry of Jesus of Nazareth. It details his story from the events of his birth to his Ascension. The author is traditionally identified as Luke the Evangelist.[1] Certain popular stories, such as the Prodigal Son and the Good Samaritan, are found only in this gospel. This gospel also has a special emphasis on prayer, the activity of the Holy Spirit, and joyfulness.[2] According to the preface[3] the purpose of Luke is to write a historical account[4], while bringing out the theological significance of the history.[5] The author portrays Christianity as divine, respectable, law-abiding, and international...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Lu...

Book of Malachi in Wikipedia

Malachi (or Malachias, מַלְאָכִי, Malʾaḫi, Mál'akhî) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, written by the prophet Malachi. Possibly this is not the name of the author, since Malachi means 'my messenger' or 'my angel' in Hebrew. The last of the twelve minor prophets (canonically), the final book of the Hebrew Bible in Christian, but not Jewish tradition is commonly attributed to a prophet by the name of Malachi. Although the appellation Malachi has frequently been understood as a proper name, its Hebrew meaning is simply "My [i.e., God's] messenger" (or 'His messenger' in the Septuagint). This sobriquet occurs in the superscription at 1:1 and in 3:1, although it is highly unlikely that the word refers to the same character in both of these references. Thus, there is substantial debate regarding the identity of the author of the biblical book of Malachi. The Jewish Targum identifies Ezra (or Esdras) as the author of Malachi. St. Jerome suggests this may be because Ezra is seen as an intermediary between the prophets and the 'great synagogue'. There is, however, no historical evidence to support this claim...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ma...

Gospel of Mark in Wikipedia

The Gospel According to Mark (Greek: κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Μᾶρκον, to euangelion kata Markon), commonly shortened to the Gospel of Mark, is the second book of the New Testament. This Canonical account of the life of Jesus is one of the Synoptic Gospels. It was thought to be an epitome, and accordingly, its place as the second gospel in most Bibles. However, most contemporary scholars now regard it as the earliest of the canonical gospels[1] (c 70).[2] The Gospel of Mark narrates the ministry of Jesus of Nazareth from his baptism by John the Baptist to the resurrection and it concentrates particularly on the last week of his life (chapters 11–16, the trip to Jerusalem). Its swift narrative portrays Jesus as a heroic man of action,[2] an exorcist, a healer and miracle worker. It calls him the Son of Man[3], the Son of God[4], and the Messiah or Christ...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_ma...

Gospel of Matthew in Wikipedia

The Gospel According to Matthew (Greek: κατὰ Ματθαῖον εὐαγγέλιον, kata Matthaion euangelion, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ματθαῖον, to euangelion kata Matthaion), commonly shortened to the Gospel of Matthew, is one of the four Canonical gospels and is the first book of the New Testament. This synoptic gospel is an account of the life, ministry, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. It details his story from his genealogy to his Great Commission.[1][2] The Gospel of Matthew is closely aligned with first-century Judaism, and has been linked to the Jewish-Christian Gospels. It stresses how Jesus fulfilled Jewish prophecies.[3] Certain details of Jesus' life, of his infancy in particular, are related only in Matthew. His is also the only gospel to mention the Church or ecclesia.[3] Matthew emphasizes obedience to and preservation of biblical law.[4] Since this gospel has rhythmical and often poetical prose,[5] it is well suited for public reading, making it a popular liturgical choice.[6] Most scholars believe the Gospel of Matthew was composed in the latter part of the first century by a Jewish Christian.[7] Christian tradition holds the author was the apostle named Matthew. Early Christian writings state that Matthew the Apostle also wrote the Hebrew Gospel...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ma...

Book of Micah in Wikipedia

Micah of Moresheth (most likely the same city as Moresheth- Gath, mentioned in Micah) prophesied during the days of King Hezekiah of Judah. This paraphrase of Jeremiah 26:18 contains practically everything we know of the Prophet himself. Moresheth-Gath was most likely a small town in southwestern Judah, though this has yet to be confirmed. Some scholars argue over how much of the book of Micah can be attributed to Micah himself. There is general consensus that the majority of chapters 1–3 are in fact Micah’s own (excluding 2:12–13). The remaining passages are seen by some as redactions. This will be further argued in the section on controversy. Some Old Testament scholars, for example Dr Bruce Waltke in IVP`s 'New Bible Commentary', defend Micah's authorship of the entire book. It is generally agreed that Micah composed chapters 1 through 3; some scholars hold that chapter 6 and sections of chapter 7 were also written by the historical Micah. The primary reasons given are because chapters 3–5 foretell of events in the 6th century BCE and chapters 6–7 have elements of a universal religious outlook which was not widely present in Judaism until much later...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Mi...

Book of Nahum in Wikipedia

The book of Nahum is a book in the Hebrew Bible. It stands seventh in order among what are known as the twelve Minor Prophets. Nahum prophesied, according to some, in the beginning of the reign of Ahaz (740s BC). Others, however, think that his prophecies are to be referred to the latter half of the reign of Hezekiah (700s BC). Probably the book was written in Jerusalem, where he witnessed the invasion of Sennacherib and the destruction of his host (2 Kings 19:35). And still others support the idea that the "book of vision" was written shortly before the fall of Nineveh (612 BCE). This theory is evidenced by the fact that the oracles must be dated after the Assyrian destruction of Thebes in 663 BCE as this event is mentioned in Nah 3:8...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Na...

Book of Nehemiah in Wikipedia

The Book of Nehemiah, sometimes called the Second Book of Ezra, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. It is historically regarded as a continuation of the Book of Ezra,[1] and the two are frequently taken together as Ezra-Nehemiah. Traditionally, the author of this book is believed to be Nehemiah himself. The date at which the book was written was probably about 431 - 430 BC, when Nehemiah had returned the second time to Jerusalem after his visit to Persia. [show] Part of a series of articles on the Hebrew Bible The book consists of four parts: An account of the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem, and of the register Nehemiah had found of those who had returned from Babylon. Details describe how Nehemiah became governor of Judah[2]; various forms of opposition generated by Sanballat and others; describes earlier return under Zerubbabel[3] (ch. 1-7). An account of the state of religion among the Jews during this time (8-10). Increase of the inhabitants of Jerusalem; the census of the adult male population, and names of the chiefs, together with lists of priests and Levites (11-12:1-26). Dedication of the wall of Jerusalem, the arrangement of the temple officers, and the reforms carried out by Nehemiah (12:27-ch. 13)...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ne...

Book of Numbers in Wikipedia

The Book of Numbers (Greek: Αριθμοί arithmoi meaning "numbers") or Bəmidbar (Hebrew: במדבר, literally "In the desert [of]") is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah/Pentateuch. This book may be divided into three parts: The numbering of the people at Sinai, and preparations for resuming their march (1–10:10). An account of the journey from Sinai to Moab, the sending out of the spies and the report they brought back, the murmurings (eight times) of the people at the hardships by the way, and the subsequent exile into the wilderness for 40 years (10:11–21:20). The transactions in the plain of Moab before crossing the Jordan River (21:21–36). In Numbers, the priests are instructed to bless the nation of Israel as follows: "May Yahweh bless you, and keep you. May Yahweh let his face shine on you and be gracious to you. May Yahweh show you his face and bring you peace."[1] This priestly blessing is regularly performed during Jewish services,[2] on Jewish holidays, and sometimes by parents over their own children before the Friday Shabbat meal...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Nu...

Book of Obadiah in Wikipedia

The Book of Obadiah is found in the Hebrew Bible, where it is the shortest book, only one chapter long. Its authorship is generally attributed to a person named Obadiah, which means "servant (or worshipper) of the Lord". Obadiah is classified as a "minor prophet" in the Christian Bible due to the brevity of the writing (only 21 verses) and the content (prophetic material). An Old Testament prophet was not only a person believed to have been given divine insight into future events, but also believed to be a person whom the Lord used to declare his word. The first nine verses in the book foretell total destruction in the land of Edom at the hand of the Lord. Obadiah writes that this destruction will be so complete that it will be even worse than a thief who comes at night, for not even a thief would destroy everything. The Lord will allow all allies of Edom to turn away and help chase Edom out of its land. Verses ten through fourteen explain that when Israel (the Lord’s chosen people) was attacked, Edom refused to help them, thus acting like an enemy. What is even worse is that Edom and Israel share a common blood line through their founders who were brothers, Jacob and Esau. Because of this gross neglect of a relative, Edom will be covered with shame and destroyed forever. The final verses, fifteen through twenty-one, depict the restoration of Israel and the wiping out of the Edomites. Verse eighteen says that there will be no survivors from the house of Esau once the destruction is complete. Israel will become a holy place and its people will return from exile and inhabit the land once inhabited by the Edomites. The final verse of the prophecy places the Lord as King who will rule over all the mountains of Edom...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ob...

Epistle to Philemon in Wikipedia

The Epistle of Paul to Philemon, usually referred to simply as Philemon, is a prison letter to Philemon from Paul of Tarsus. Philemon was a leader in the Colossian church. This letter, which is one of the books of the New Testament, deals with forgiveness. It is now generally regarded as one of the undisputed works of Paul. It is the shortest of Paul's extant letters, consisting of only 335 words in the original Greek text and 25 verses in modern English translations...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ph...

Epistle to the Philippians in Wikipedia

The Epistle of Paul to the Philippians, usually referred to simply as Philippians, is the eleventh book in the New Testament. Biblical scholars agree that it was written by St. Paul to the church of Philippi. This authentic Pauline letter was written c 62.[1]Paul's composition of Philippians is "universally accepted" (Beare, p. 1) by the academic community, both ancient and modern. It is possible that the kenosis passage in Philippians 2:5-11 may have been a Christian hymn that Paul quoted. Philippians 2:5-11:...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ph...

Book of Proverbs in Wikipedia

The Book of Proverbs (in Hebrew: מִשְלֵי Mishlay) is a book of the Hebrew Bible. The original Hebrew title of the book of Proverbs is "Míshlê Shlomoh" ("Proverbs of Solomon"). When translated into Greek and Latin, the title took on different forms. In the Greek Septuagint (LXX) the title became "paroimai paroimiae" ("Proverbs"). In the Latin Vulgate the title was "proverbia", from which the English title of Proverbs is derived...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Pr...

Book of Psalms in Wikipedia

Psalms (Hebrew: Th'hilliym; Modern: Tehillim‎, תְהִלִּים, or "praises") is a book of the Hebrew Bible. Taken together, its 150 sacred poems express virtually the full range of Israel's faith. The word psalms is derived from the Greek ψαλμοί (psalmoi), perhaps originally meaning "songs sung to a harp", from psallein "play on a stringed instrument"....

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ps...

Book of Revelation in Wikipedia

The Book of the Revelation of John is the last in the collection of documents which constitute the New Testament (the second of the two major divisions of the Christian Bible). It is also known as Revelation, Revelations, the Book of Revelation, the Apocalypse of John, and the Apocalypse. These titles come from the Greek, apokalypsis, meaning revelation, which is the first word of the book. The word apocalypse is also used for other works of a similar nature, and the style of literature (genre) is known as apocalyptic literature. Such literature is "marked by distinctive literary features, particularly prediction of future events and accounts of visionary experiences or journeys to heaven, often involving vivid symbolism."[1] The Book of Revelation is the only apocalyptic document in the New Testament canon, though there are short apocalyptic passages in various places in the gospels and the epistles...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Re...

Epistle of Paul to the Romans in Wikipedia

The Epistle of Paul to the Romans, usually referred to simply as Romans, is the sixth book in the New Testament. Biblical scholars agree that it was written by the Apostle Paul to explain that Salvation is offered through the Gospel of Jesus Christ. It is by far the longest of the Pauline epistles, and is considered his "most important theological legacy"...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ro...

Book of Ruth in Wikipedia

The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות‎; Sephardic, Israeli Hebrew: [məɡiˈlat rut]; Ashkenazi Hebrew: [məˈɡɪləs rus]; "the Scroll of Ruth") is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. It is a rather short book, in both Jewish and Christian scripture, consisting of only four chapters...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ru...

Song of Songs in Wikipedia

The Song of Songs (Hebrew, שיר השירים, Shir ha-Shirim), is a book of the Hebrew Bible-one of the five megillot (scrolls)- found in the last section of the Tanakh, known as the Ketuvim (or "writings"). It is also known as the Song of Solomon, Solomon's Song of Songs, or as Canticles, the latter from the shortened and anglicized Vulgate title Canticum Canticorum (Latin, "Song of Songs").[1] It is known as Āisma in the Septuagint, which is short for Āisma āismatōn (Greek, ᾌσμα ᾀσμάτων, "Song of Songs").[2] The protagonists of the Song of Songs are a woman (identified in one verse as "the Shulamite")[3] and a man, and the poem suggests movement from courtship to consummation. For instance, the man proclaims: "As the lily among thorns, so is my love among the daughters." The woman answers: "As the apple tree among the trees of the wood, so is my beloved among the sons. I sat down under his shadow with great delight, and his fruit was sweet to my taste."[4][5] Additionally, the Song includes a chorus, the "daughters of Jerusalem."...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Song_of_So...

Epistle to Titus in Wikipedia

The Epistle of Paul to Titus, usually referred to simply as Titus, is one of the three Pastoral Epistles (with 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy), traditionally attributed to Saint Paul, and is part of the New Testament. It describes the requirements and duties of elders and bishops...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ti...

Book of Zechariah in Wikipedia

The Book of Zechariah is a book of the Hebrew Bible attributed to the prophet Zechariah. Zechariah’s ministry took place during the reign of Darius the Great (Zechariah 1:1 ), and was contemporary with Haggai in a post-exilic world after the fall of Jerusalem in 586/7 BC.[1] Ezekiel and Jeremiah wrote prior to the fall of Jerusalem, while continuing to prophesy in the earlier exile period. Scholars believe Ezekiel, with his blending of ceremony and vision, heavily influenced the visionary works of Zechariah 1-8.[2] Zechariah is specific about dating his writing (520-518 BC)...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ze...

Book of Zephaniah in Wikipedia

The superscription of the Book of Zephaniah attributes its authorship to "Zephaniah son of Cushi son of Gedaliah son of Amariah son of Hezekiah, in the days of King Josiah son of Amon of Judah" (1:1, NRSV). All that is known of Zephaniah comes from the text. The superscription of the book is lengthier than most and contains two features. The name Cushi, Zephaniah’s father, means ‘Ethiopian’. In a society where genealogy was considered extremely important because of God's covenant with Abraham and his descendants, the author may have felt compelled to establish his Hebrew lineage. In fact, this lineage is traced back to Hezekiah, who was king of Judah. The author of Zephaniah does not shrink from condemning the Cushites or Ethiopians. Chapter 2:12 contains a succinct but unequivocal message: "You also, O Ethiopians, / Shall be killed by my sword." Zephaniah’s family connection with King Hezekiah may have also legitimized his harsh indictment of the royal city in 3:1-7...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ze...

Summary of the Book of Genesis

Genesis is the title given to the first book of the Pentateuch by its Greek translators. The word means "origin" or "beginning"; truly, Genesis is a book of beginnings. It describes the beginning of man and the universe which he inhabits, the beginning of sin, the consequent beginning of an effort at redemption, and the beginning of the Hebrew nation through whom this redemption was to come. The book of Genesis, together with the early chapters of Exodus, describes the steps which led to the establishment of the theocracy. Two ideas are seen to be predominant in this book- the people of God and the promised land. Genesis has a character which is both special and universal. It embraces the entire world as it speaks of God as the Lord of the whole human race; yet, as an introduction to Jewish history, it makes the universal interest subordinate to the national. Its design is to show how God first revealed himself to the patriarchs of the Hebrew race in order to make of them a people who would serve as his witnesses on the earth. This is the inner principle of unity which pervades the entire book. The contents of Genesis may be conveniently outlined in the following manner: I. The Beginnings of History (1-11), II. The Story of Abraham (12-25), III. The Story of Isaac (25:19-26; 35), IV. The Story of Jacob and Esau (27:1-37:1), V. The Story of Joseph (37-50).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of The Book of Exodus

The second book of the Pentateuch bears its name because of the subject matter of the first half of the book - the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt. The word, "exodus" is derived from a Greek word meaning "going out." Hundreds of years elapsed between the time of the events described in the closing chapters of Genesis and those of the beginning of Exodus. The exact number of years between the migration of Jacob into Egypt until the exodus is given as 430 (12:40-41). At the close of Genesis, Israel was living in the fertile land of Goshen and was being fed from the granaries of the Pharaoh. In Exodus, the Hebrews are seen as slaves of the Egyptians, without national consciousness or apparent religious purpose. Exodus shows the development of Israel into a real nation, as God began the first stages of fulfillment of His promise to Abraham. After the first seven verses of the book, noting the increase and prosperity of Israel, Exodus is seen to fall into seven rather distinct sections : 1 ) The sufferings of Israel (1:8-7:7). This section includes the birth, education and flight of Moses; his call to be deliverer of his people and his consequent return from Midian to Egypt; and his first ineffectual attempts to prevail upon Pharaoh to let the Israelites go, which resulted only in an increase in their burdens. 2 ) A manifestation of God's providential guidance of Israel, illustrated by the ten plagues (7:8-13:16). This section also includes the account of the observance of the first Passover (ch. 12). 3) The guiding of the people of Sinai (13:17-18:27), which tells of the departure and the miraculous crossing of the Red Sea. This section also contains a narrative of the principal events on the journey from the Red Sea to Sinai, including the coming of the manna, the observance of the Sabbath, the supply of water from the rock at Rephidim and the advice of Jethro concerning the civil government of the great mass of people. 4) The making of the covenant at Sinai, together with the reception of the Ten Commandments (19:1-24:18). The laws recorded in this section regulated the religious, civil, and social life of the Israelites. 5 ) Directions for the building of the tabernacle (24:18-31:18). 6 ) The renewing of the covenant after the sinful actions of the Israelites in connection with the making of the golden calf (32:1-35:3). 7 ) The actual building and dedication of the tabernacle of the Lord (35:4-40:38 ), under the supervision of the two master craftsmen, Bezalel and Oholiab. Exodus is a book of redemption in which God delivers His people out of bondage and brings them into a special relationship with Himself.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Date of The Book of Exodus

The accepted date of the writing of the Book of Exodus was from 1635 to 1490 BC approximately.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of Genesis

Quick Survey of Genesis. – –1-2 – –The creation of the universe, the world, all living things, and man. The conditions of man in paradise. – –3 – –The original sin of Adam and Eve, and God casting them out of paradise. – –4-5 – – The history of Adam and his descendents all the way to the time of Noah and the flood. – –6-7 – – The exceeding wickedness of all mankind, the destruction of the world by the flood, and Gods preservation of Noah and his family. – – 8-9 – – The restoration of the world, God's covenant to Noah for all mankind and the rainbow, the prophecy of Noah. – –10 – – The repopulation of the world and the table of Nations by the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, Japheth and their descendents. – –11 – – The building of the Tower of Babel, Nimrod, the confusion of tongues, and God scattering mankind throughout the world. – –12-25 – – The history and migration of Abraham and his family as pilgrims in the land of Canaan. – –26-27 – – The history of Isaac and his family. – –28-36 – – The history of Jacob and his family. – –37- 40 – – The history of Joseph and his brothers. – –41-50– – The history of Joseph's exaltation by God in the land of Egypt and God's incredible plan for the Hebrews.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Outline of the Book of Exodus

Quick Overview of Exodus. – –1 – –The slavery and oppression of the Hebrews in Egypt. – –2-3 – –The birth of Moses and his education in ancient Egypt, The life and calling of Moses to be the Hebrew deliverer of Israel. – –4-11 – – Moses and Aaron approached the Pharaoh of Egypt, the hardening of Pharaoh's heart, the plagues of Egypt. – –12-13 – – The First Passover, The Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. – –14-15 – – The miracle of the parting of the Red Sea, The destruction of the Egyptian army. – –16-18 – –The journey to Mount Sinai, the manna, the Sabbath, water from the rock, Jethro. – –19-31 – – The giving of the law from God to Moses on Mount Sinai. – –32- 33 – – The sin of the golden calf, the consequences of idolatry. – – 34-40 – – The unbroken tables of the law written on stone, the building of the tabernacle.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of The Book of Leviticus

In the Septuagint (The Greek version of the Hebrew Old Testament), the third book of the Pentateuch bears the title "Levitikon" ("pertaining to the Levites"), an adjective modifying the word "book." The Levites were the tribe from which the priests and others prominent in the worship services were chosen, in lieu of the firstborn sons of all the tribes (Num. 3:45). Leviticus fills an integral role in the Pentateuch. Just as it is necessary to be familiar with Exodus in order to understand Leviticus, some knowledge of Leviticus is necessary if one is to understand the religious activities of the Jews as portrayed in Numbers, Deuteronomy, and the rest of the Old Testament. The purpose of Leviticus may be defined as calling attention to the disparity between God's holiness and man's sinfulness and providing concrete steps whereby man might restore the fellowship which has been lost as a result of his own defilement. The laws connected with this restoration are varied. They are both general and specific; they seek, in one way or another, to govern the whole life of the people of God. In this sense, Leviticus is the most thoroughly legalistic book in the entire Old Testament. Throughout its laws is seen the unyielding demand: "Ye shall be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy." On the other hand, the climax of the book is clearly ch. 16, in which instructions are given for the Day of Atonement. On this day, God provided his people with a ceremony by means of which all of their sins for the previous year were counted as forgiven. The mercy which God displays in this service so foreshadows the work of Christ that the 16th chapter has been called "the most consummate flower of Messianic symbolism." In addition to the laws, there are also some historical sections, but these, too, are closely connected with the priesthood. They include the consecration of the priests in chs. 8 and 9, the sin and punishment of Nadab and Abihu (ch. 10), and the stoning of a blasphemer (24: 10ff'). In this connection, it is interesting to note that only one mention is made of the Levites and that in an incidental manner (25:32ff). The book may be divided as follows : 1 ) Laws concerning Sacrifice (1-7). In this section five types of offerings are discussed: burnt offerings, meal offerings, peace offerings, sin offerings and guilt offerings. This is filled out by a discussion of the sin offering as it is to be observed by various classes of individuals. 2 ) An historical section featuring the consecration of the priests (8-9) and the sin of Nadab and Abihu (ch. 10). 3 ) A section on laws of purification from ceremonial uncleanness (11-15). These furnish instructions as to the appropriate sacrifices and ordinances for ridding oneself of impurity. 4) The Day of Atonement (ch. 16). 5 ) Laws dealing with the conduct of God's people (17-20). These include various religious and ethical laws designed to accent the separation between Israel and the heathen nations. 6) Laws concerning the holiness of the priests (21-22). 7 ) A discussion of holy days and feasts (23-24). Included in this section are the Sabbath, Passover, the feasts of first fruits and harvest, Pentecost, the Day of Atonement and the feast of Tabernacles. 8 ) The Sabbatical and Jubilee Years (ch. 25). 9 ) Promises and threats connected with obedience to the laws (ch. 26). 10) An appendix containing the laws concerning vows (ch. 27).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of The Book of Numbers

This book takes its name from the fact that it contains the account of the two census enumerations of the congregation of Israel in chs. 1-4 and ch. 26. The title, however, is interesting since there is really no connection with these "numberings." The original Hebrew title, "in the wilderness," is greatly to be preferred, as the book is certainly more a vital history of the events of the period of wanderings than a catalogue of lifeless statistics. Numbers follows naturally after Leviticus in the sequence of the books of the Pentateuch. After receiving the laws at Sinai, the journey to which was described in Exodus, the Israelites were ready to continue their march to Canaan. This book tells of their preparations, their sin in failing to trust in God and the resultant thirty-seven years of wanderings through the rough wilderness. At the end of the book, they are once again at the edge of Canaan, where they receive instructions for the conquest and division of the land. The principle divisions of the book are as follows: 1) The preparation for the departure from Sinai (1:1-10:10). The events described here took place in nineteen days. In this time a census was taken of all men who were over twenty and who could serve in military efforts (1-4). The total obtained was 603,550 (1:46). This would indicate that the total population of the group was probably near three million. The census was followed by the cleansing and blessing of the congregation (5-6), the offering of gifts from the various tribes (7), the consecration of the Levites (8) and the observance of the Passover at Sinai (9:1-14). 2 ) The journey from Sinai to Kadesh-barnea (10:11-14:45). This section includes the account of the coming of the quail (11), the rebellion against Moses by Miriam and Aaron (12), and the fateful mission of the spies (13, 14). 3) The wanderings of the desert wilderness (15-19). As noted above, this covered a period of thirty-seven years, from the end of the second to the beginning of the fortieth year in the wilderness. Ch. 15 includes various laws and a record of capital punishment for Sabbath breaking. The rebellion of Korah (ch. 16) and the budding of Aaron's rod (ch. 17) are also mentioned here. 4) The history of the last year, from the second arrival of the Israelites at Kadesh till they reach "the plains of Moab by Jordan near Jericho" (20-36: 13) . Notable sections of this are the story of Balaam (22:2-24:25), the zeal of Phinehas (ch. 25) , the second census (26:1-51), instructions for dividing the land (26:52-27: 11), the appointment of Joshua as Moses' successor (27: 12-23), various laws concerning offerings and vows ( 28-30 ), the war with Midian ( ch. 31), the settlement of the tribes east of the Jordan (ch. 32) , a review of the locations at which Israel had camped during their wanderings (33: 1-49), more instructions concerning the conquest and division of Canaan (33:50-34:29 ), the appointment of the cities of refuge (ch. 35) and instructions concerning the marriage of land-owning Israelite women (ch. 36).

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of The Book of Deuteronomy

The word "Deuteronomy" is taken from the Greek word for "the second law" or "the law repeated." The book is written in the form of discourses which Moses delivered to the people in the plains of Moab on the eve of their entrance into the promised land of Canaan. These discourses are addressed to every member of the congregation of Israel and not just to a small segment, such as the Levites. The discourses are not a second law in the sense of being a different law; neither are they to be taken merely as a recapitulation of those things recorded in Exodus, Leviticus, and Deuteronomy. They are rather a forceful presentation of the most essential aspects of God's revelation with an emphasis on the spiritual principle of the law and its fulfillment, as well as a development and application of the law to circumstances which would face the Israelites in their new life in Canaan. These discourses were spoken in the eleventh month of the last year of Israel's wanderings, the fortieth year after leaving Egypt. In the first speech (1:1-4:43), Moses strives briefly, but earnestly, to warn the people against the sins which had kept their fathers from entering the promised land. In order to stress the necessity of obedience, he recapitulates the chief events of the last forty years in the wilderness, emphasizing the role which disobedience and lack of trust had played in the afflictions of the Israelites. The second discourse (4:44-26:19) enters more fully into the precepts of the Law. It may be viewed as the body of the whole address, the former being an introduction. This section is hortatory and legal, consisting of a review of Israel's moral and civil statutes, testimonies and judgments. This discourse is broken into two main sections : 1) chs. 5-11, an exposition of the Ten Commandments and 2) chs. 12-26, a group of special statutes on various matters, containing a strong ethical and religious emphasis. The third discourse (27:1-31:30) deals primarily with the blessings of obedience and the curses of disobedience. Moses now speaks in conjunction with the elders of the people and with the priests and the Levites, whose office it would be to carry out the ceremony which Moses describes in this discourse. The place selected for the ceremony was the spot in the center of the land where the first altar to God had been erected. As soon as they passed over the Jordan, the people were commanded to set up great stones on Mt. Ebal. These were to be covered with plaster and inscribed with the law of God. They were also to build an altar, which seems to have been distinct from the stones, although it is difficult to be certain about this. Then the twelve tribes were to be divided between the two hills. Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Joseph and Benjamin were to station themselves on Mt. Gerizim to recite the blessings which God promised them if they would remain faithful to him. Across on Mt. Ebal, Reuben, Gad, Asher, Zebulun and Naphtali were to speak the curses with which the Lord had threatened disobedience. After completing these discourses, Moses encouraged the people to follow their new leader, Joshua, and to go across and take the land which had been promised to Abraham. He wrote down the Law in a book and turned it over to the priests, who were to keep it as a perpetual reminder for all the people (31:9-13). It was to be read every seventh year, when the people assembled for the feast of Tabernacles. At the command of the Lord, Moses and Joshua appeared before God at the tent of meeting. There God told them of the future infidelity of Israel and instructed Moses to leave the people a song which they were to learn and which was to serve as a witness for God against them. This song of Moses is recorded in ch. 32; it recounts the blessings which God has bestowed on his people and the corrupt manner in which they have responded to his beneficence. Ch. 33 contains Moses' blessing on the people and ch. 34 records the brief account of the death of this great leader of Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

Summary of The Book of Joshua

This book is named for its chief character, Joshua, whose name means "Jehovah is salvation." The Greek form of this name is Jesus. The first appearance of Joshua is as the leader of the forces of Israel against Amalek (Ex. 17:8ff). The manner in which he is introduced into the story indicates that he was already well established as a leader. Later, he accompanied Moses to the foot of Mt. Sinai, but did not make the ascent with him (Ex. 24). In Ex. 32-33 he is also found in close association with Moses. No doubt, the years which he spent with Moses greatly influenced his spiritual development. The aspect of his life for which Joshua is most often remembered is his having brought back a positive report from the land of Canaan after serving as one of twelve men sent to spy out the land (Num.13). From this it can be seen that the experience and spirit which were Joshua's equipped him well for his duties and responsibilities as the leader, of God's people. The book may be regarded as consisting of three parts which may be analyzed as follows : 1) The Conquest of Canaan (1-12). This includes the preparation for and crossing of the Jordan (1-4). After the crossing, they camped at Gilgal. Here they circumcised all the males who were born in the wilderness, as circumcision had not been observed since the departure from Egypt. Gilgal was also the scene of the keeping of the Passover and the cessation of the manna. 5:13-6:27 tells of the miraculous destruction of Jericho and the salvation of Rahab. The crime and punishment of Achan is discussed in ch. 7. In ch. 8, the narrative records the avenging of the defeat which Israel had suffered at the hands of Al because of the sin of Achan. The latter portion of this chapter tells of the setting up of the stones on Mount Ebal. The stratagem of the Gibeonites is the topic of ch. 9. In ch. 10 is contained the story of the conquest of Southern Canaan, with the aid of Joshua's long day. Chs. 11-12 describe the conquest of Northern Canaan and give a list of the defeated kings. 2) The Distribution of the Territory (13-22). This provides a record of the area which was assigned to the various tribes (13-19), the appointment of the six cities of refuge (ch. 20) and the forty-eight cities of the Levites (ch. 21), as well as the departure of the Transjordanic tribes to their home. 3) Joshua's farewell addresses (23-24). The first of these is a speech of encouragement and warning. The second recalls the history of Israel, with emphasis on divine interventions on their behalf. At the close of this speech, Joshua issued the famous statement, "choose you this day whom you will serve . . . but as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord" (24:15). The book closes with an account of the renewal of the covenant and the death of Joshua and Eleazer.

Link: https://bible-history.com/old-testament/...

2 Chronicles in Wikipedia

The Books of Chronicles (Hebrew Divrei Hayyamim, דברי הימים, Greek Paralipomenon, Παραλειπομένων) are part of the Hebrew Bible. In the Masoretic Text, it appears as the first or last book of the Ketuvim (the latter arrangement also making it the final book of the Jewish bible). Chronicles largely parallels the Davidic narratives in the Books of Samuel and the Books of Kings.[1] It appears in two parts (I & II Chronicles), immediately following 1 & 2 Samuel and 1 & 2 Kings as a summary of them with minor details sometimes added. The division of Chronicles and its place in the Christian canon of the Old Testament are based upon the Septuagint...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2_Chronicl...

2 Corinthians in Wikipedia

The Second Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians, usually referred to simply as Second Corinthians and often written 2 Corinthians, is the 8th book of the New Testament. The book, originally written in Greek, is a letter from Paul of Tarsus to the Christians of Corinth, Greece...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2_Corinthi...

2 John in Wikipedia

The Second Epistle of John, usually referred to simply as Second John and often written 2 John, is a book of the New Testament attributed to John the Evangelist, traditionally thought to be the author of the Gospel of John and the other two epistles of John. This Epistle is the shortest book (by verse) in the Bible, comprising a mere thirteen verses...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2_John...

2 Kings in Wikipedia

The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer melakhim, ספר מלכים‎) are books included in the Hebrew Bible. They were originally written in Hebrew and are recognised as scripture by Judaism and Christianity. According to Biblical chronology, the events in the Books of Kings occurred between the 10th and 6th centuries BCE. The books contain accounts of the kings of the ancient Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy) and the Kingdom of Judah. They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession of Solomon until the subjugation of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians (apparently a period of about four hundred and fifty-three years). The Books of Kings synchronize with 1 Chronicles 28 – 2 Chronicles 36:21. While in the Chronicles greater prominence is given to the priestly or Levitical office, in the Kings greater prominence is given to the royal and prophetic offices. Kings appears to have been written considerably earlier than Chronicles and as such is generally considered a more reliable historical source...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2_Kings...

2 Peter in Wikipedia

The Second Epistle of Peter, usually referred to simply as Second Peter and often written 2 Peter, is a book of the New Testament of the Bible, traditionally ascribed to Saint Peter, but in modern times widely regarded as pseudonymous. It is the first New Testament book to treat other New Testament writings as scripture, 2 Peter was one of the last letters included in the New Testament canon; it quotes from and adapts Jude extensively, identifies Jesus with God, and addresses a threatening heresy which had arisen because the end and salvation had not occurred...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2_Peter...

Books of Samuel in Wikipedia

The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Sh'muel ספר שמואל‎) are part of the Hebrew Bible. The work was originally written in Hebrew, and the Book(s) of Samuel originally formed a single text, as they are often considered today in Jewish bibles. Together with what is now referred to as the Book(s) of Kings, the translators who created the Greek Septuagint divided the text into four books, which they named the Books of the Kingdoms. In the Latin Vulgate version, these then became the Books of the Kings, thus 1 and 2 Samuel were referred to as 1 and 2 Kings, with 3 and 4 Kings being what are called 1 and 2 Kings by the King James Bible and its successors...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2_Samuel...

2 Thessalonians in Wikipedia

The Second Epistle of Paul to the Thessalonians, often referred to as Second Thessalonians and written 2 Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It is traditionally attributed to Paul, because it begins, "Paul, and Silvanus, and Timothy, unto the church of the Thessalonians in God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ;" (2 Thess. 1:1 ) and ends, "The salutation of Paul with mine own hand, which is the token in every epistle: so I write" (2 Thess. 3:17 )...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2_Thessalo...

2 Timothy in Wikipedia

The Second Epistle of Paul to Timothy, usually referred to simply as Second Timothy and often written 2 Timothy, is one of the three Pastoral Epistles traditionally attributed to Saint Paul, and is part of the New Testament. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia affirms Paul's authorship and documents the fact that a vast majority of the early church fathers attest to Paul's authorship of all the pastoral epistles. Most conservative biblical scholars agree. However, many modern biblical scholars argue that 2 Timothy was not written by Paul but by an anonymous follower, after Paul's death in the First Century...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2_Timothy...

3 John in Wikipedia

The Third Epistle of John, usually referred to simply as Third John and often written 3 John, is a book of the New Testament attributed to John the Evangelist, traditionally thought to be the author of the Gospel of John and the other two epistles of John. This Epistle is the shortest book in the Bible. Indications within the letter suggest a genuine private letter, composed to Gaius to commend a party of Christians led by Demetrius, who were strangers to the place where he lived, and who had gone on a mission to preach the gospel (verse 7). The purpose of the letter is to encourage and strengthen Gaius, and to warn him against the party headed by Diotrephes, who refuses to cooperate with the presbyteros who is writing...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3_John...

Acts of the Apostles in Wikipedia

The Acts of the Apostles (Latin: Acta Apostolorum), usually referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; Acts outlines the history of the Apostolic Age. The author is traditionally identified as Luke the Evangelist. While the precise identity of the author is debated, the general consensus is that this work was composed by a (Koine) Greek speaking Gentile writing for an audience of Gentile Christians. The Early Church Fathers wrote that Luke was a physician in Antioch and an adherent of the Apostle Paul. Luke is said to have written the volume entitled Acts of the Apostles...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acts...

Book of Amos in Wikipedia

The Book of Amos is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. Amos was the first biblical prophet whose words were recorded in a book, an older contemporary of Hosea and Isaiah.[1] He was active c. 750 BCE during the reign of Jeroboam II.[1] He lived in the kingdom of Judah but preached in the northern kingdom of Israel.[1] His major themes of social justice, God's omnipotence, and divine judgment became staples of prophecy.[1] Without dispute, the Book of Amos has been accepted as canonical by Jews, the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholics, and Protestants...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Am...

Colossians in Wikipedia

The Epistle of Paul to the Colossians, usually referred to simply as Colossians, is the 12th book of the New Testament. It was written, (according to the text), by Paul the Apostle to the Church in Colossae, a small Phrygian city near Laodicea and approximately 100 miles from Ephesus in Asia Minor.[1]. During the first generation after Jesus, Paul's epistles to various churches helped establish early Christian theology. Written in the 50s while Paul was in prison, Colossians is similar to Ephesians, also written at this time.[2] Increasingly, critical scholars ascribe the epistle to an early follower writing as Paul. The epistle's description of Christ as pre-eminent over creation marks it, for some scholars, as representing an advanced christology not present during Paul's lifetime.[3] Defenders of Pauline authorship cite the work's similarities to Philemon, which is broadly accepted as authentic...

Publix weekly ad, Kroger weekly ad, aldi ad, Walgreens weekly ad

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossians...

Book of Daniel in Wikipedia

The Book of Daniel (Hebrew: דניאל) is a book in the Hebrew Bible originally written in Hebrew and Aramaic. The book revolves around the figure of Daniel, who tradition holds wrote the book. The book in part tells the story of how Daniel, a Judean, becomes chief of the magicians (4:9) in the court of Nebuchadrezzar II, the ruler of Babylon from 605 to 562 BCE during the Babylonian Captivity, a period when Jews were deported and exiled to Babylon following the Siege of Jerusalem of 597 BCE. In contrast to the traditional belief that the book was written around the time of those events,[1] some modern biblical scholars figure that the Book of Daniel was likely written or redacted during the Maccabean Age[2] and that "the arguments for a date shortly before the death of Antiochus IV Epiphanes in 164 are overwhelming."[3] Others scholars, however, are less definite, suggesting that "the most likely time of composition is somewhere between the beginning of the second century BCE and the coming of Pompey"[4] and that "evidence for a more specific date is not available."[4] Yet other scholars argue for a third or fourth century date...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Da...

Book of Deuteronomy in Wikipedia

Deuteronomy (Greek: Δευτερονόμιον, "second law") or Devarim (Hebrew: דְּבָרִים‎, literally "things" or "words") is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fifth of five books of the Jewish Torah/Pentateuch. A large part of the book consists of five sermons delivered by Moses reviewing the previous forty years of wandering in the wilderness, and the future entering into the Promised Land. Its central element is a detailed law-code by which the Israelites are to live within the Promised Land. Theologically the book constitutes the renewing of the covenant between Yahweh, the Jewish God, and the "Children of Israel". One of its most significant verses is considered to be Deuteronomy 6:4 , which constitutes the Shema, a definitive statement of Jewish identity: "Hear, O Israel: the LORD (YHWH) (is) our God, the LORD is one." Traditionally seen as recording the words of God given to Moses,[1] modern scholarship dates the book to the late 7th century BC, a product of the religious reforms carried out under king Josiah, with later additions from the period after the fall of Judah to the Babylonian empire in 586 BC...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deuteronom...

Ecclesiastes in Wikipedia

Ecclesiastes (often abbreviated Ecc) (Hebrew: קֹהֶלֶת‎, Kohelet, variously transliterated as Kohelet, Qoheleth, Koheles, Koheleth, or Coheleth) is a book of the Hebrew Bible. The English name derives from the Greek translation of the Hebrew title. The main speaker in the book, identified by the name or title Qohelet, introduces himself as "son of David, and king in Jerusalem." The work consists of personal or autobiographic matter, at times expressed in aphorisms and maxims illuminated in terse paragraphs with reflections on the meaning of life and the best way of life. The work emphatically proclaims all the actions of man to be inherently "vain", "futile", "empty", "meaningless", "temporary", "transitory", or "fleeting," depending on translation, as the lives of both wise and foolish men end in death. While Qohelet clearly endorses wisdom as a means for a well-lived earthly life, he is unable to ascribe eternal meaning to it. In light of this perceived senselessness, he suggests that one should enjoy the simple pleasures of daily life, such as eating, drinking, and taking enjoyment in one's work, which are gifts from the hand of God...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecclesiast...

Ephesians in Wikipedia

The Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians, usually referred to simply as Ephesians, is the tenth book of the New Testament. Its authorship has traditionally been credited to Paul, but it is now widely accepted by critical scholarship to be "deutero- Pauline," that is, written in Paul's name by a later author strongly influenced by Paul's thought.[1][2][2][3][3][4] Bible scholar Raymond E. Brown asserts that about 80% of critical scholarship judges that Paul did not write Ephesians.[5]:p.47, and Perrin and Duling[6] say that of six authoritative scholarly references, "four of the six decide for pseudonymity, and the other two (PCB and JBC) recognize the difficulties in maintaining Pauline authorship. Indeed, the difficulties are insurmountable."...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ephesians...

Book of Esther in Wikipedia

The Book of Esther is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. The Book of Esther or the Megillah is the basis for the Jewish celebration of Purim. Its full text is read aloud twice during the celebration, in the evening and again the following morning. The Biblical Book of Esther is set in the third year of Ahasuerus, a king of Persia. The name Ahasuerus is equivalent to Xerxes, both deriving from the Persian Khashayarsha, thus Ahasuerus is usually identified as Xerxes I (486-465 BCE), though Ahasuerus is identified as Artaxerxes in the later Greek version of Esther (as well as by Josephus, the Jewish commentary Esther Rabbah, the Ethiopic translation and the Christian theologian Bar-Hebraeus who identified him more precisely as Artaxerxes II [1]). The Book of Esther tells a story of palace intrigue and genocide thwarted by a Jewish queen of Persia...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Es...

Book of Exodus in Wikipedia

Exodus (Greek: ἔξοδος, exodos, meaning "departure") or Shemot (Hebrew: שמות‎, literally "names") is the second book of the Hebrew Bible, and the second of five books of the Torah/Pentateuch. Moses leads the Hebrews out of Egypt and through the wilderness to the Mountain of God: Mount Sinai. There Yahweh, through Moses, gives the Hebrews their laws and enters into a covenant with them, by which he will give them the land of Canaan in return for their faithfulness. The book ends with the construction of the Tabernacle. According to tradition, Exodus and the other four books of the Torah were written by Moses. Modern biblical scholarship places its final textual form in the mid 5th century BCE, although a minority but important view would consider it a product of the Hellenistic period...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ex...

Ezekiel in Wikipedia

According to religious texts, Ezekiel (Hebrew: יְחֶזְקֵאל‎, Y'khizqel, IPA: [jəħ.ezˈqel]), "God will strengthen" (from חזק, khazaq, [kħaˈzaq], literally "to fasten upon", figuratively "strong", and אל, el, [ʔel], literally "strength", figuratively "Almighty"), was a priest in the Bible who prophesied for 22 years sometime in the 6th century BC in the form of visions while exiled in Babylon, as recorded in the Book of Ezekiel. Christianity regards Ezekiel as a prophet. Judaism considers the Book of Ezekiel a part of its canon, and regards Ezekiel as the third of the major prophets. Islam speaks of a prophet named Dhul-Kifl, who is most commonly identified with Ezekiel...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ezekiel...

Book of Ezekiel in Wikipedia

The Book of Ezekiel is a book of the Hebrew Bible, and also recognized as divinely inspired (and therefore canonical) by most denominations of Christianity. The book derives its name from the prophet Ezekiel, a prophet from the sixth-century BC.[1] This book records Ezekiel's preaching. His name (Hb. Yekhezqe’l) means "God strengthens" or "May God strengthen". Ezekiel lived out his prophetic career among the community of exiled Judeans in Babylon. He belonged to the priestly class and was married (see Ezk. 24:15-24 ), but it is doubtful whether he had any children. The frequent use of vivid, symbolic language causes this book to have much in common with the Book of Revelation in the New Testament...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ez...

Book of Ezra in Wikipedia

The Book of Ezra is a book of the Hebrew Bible. It is the record of events occurring at the close of the Babylonian captivity, especially The Return to Zion. At one time, it included the Book of Nehemiah, and the Jews regarded them as one volume. The two are still distinguished in the Vulgate version as I and II Esdras. The book is divided into two principal parts: The history of the first return of exiles, in the first year of Cyrus the Great (536 BCE), till the completion and dedication of the new Temple in Jerusalem, in the sixth year of Darius (515 BCE). From the close of the sixth to the opening of the seventh chapter there is a period of about sixty years. The history of the second return under Ezra, in the seventh year of Artaxerxes Longimanus, and of the events that took place at Jerusalem after Ezra's arrival there. The book thus contains memorabilia connected with the Jews, from the decree of Cyrus to the reformation by Ezra (456 BCE), extending over a period of about eighty years. A more literal understanding does not have the sixty-year gap and the seventh year of 'Artaxerxes' is really the seventh year of Darius...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ez...

Epistle to the Galatians in Wikipedia

The Epistle of Paul to the Galatians, usually referred to simply as Galatians, is the ninth book of the New Testament. It is a letter from Paul of Tarsus to a number of Early Christian communities in the Roman province of Galatia in central Anatolia. The author is principally concerned with the controversy surrounding Gentile Christians and the Mosaic Law within Early Christianity, see also Paul of Tarsus and Judaism. Along with the Epistle to the Romans, it is the most theologically significant of the Pauline epistles, and has been particularly influential in Protestant thought...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistle_to...

Book of Genesis in Wikipedia

The Book of Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, "birth", "origin," from Hebrew: בְּרֵאשִׁית, Bereishit, "in the beginning")[1] is the first book of the Hebrew Bible, the first of five books of the Torah, which are called the Pentateuch in the Christian Old Testament. Genesis contains some of the best known biblical stories, including the Hebrew account of the creation of the world, Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, Noah's Ark, the Tower of Babel, the Call of Abraham, Abraham and the sacrifice of Isaac, Esau and Jacob, the marriage of Jacob, Jacob and Laban, Sarah and Pharaoh, Sarah and Abimelech, the battle of the Vale of Siddim, Sodom and Gomorrah, Jacob's wrestling with the angel at Peniel, Joseph and his coat of many colours, Joseph and the interpretation of Pharaoh's dreams, Onan and his sin, the seduction of Lot by his daughters, the Blessing of Jacob, the purchase of the cave of Machpelah, and others. Structurally, it consists of the "primeval history" (chapters 1–11 ) and cycles of Patriarchal stories (chapters 12–50 )-Abraham, Isaac, Jacob (renamed, Israel), and concluding with Joseph. Modern critical scholarship believes that the Book of Genesis reached its final form in the 5th century BC, with a previous history of composition reaching back into the 6th and 7th centuries...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ge...

Book of Habakkuk in Wikipedia

The Book of Habakkuk is the eighth book of the 12 minor prophets of the Hebrew Bible.[1] It is attributed to the prophet Habakkuk, and was probably composed in the late 7th century BCE. A copy of chapters 1 and 2 (of 3) is included in the Habakkuk Commentary, found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. Chapters 1-2 are a dialog between Yahweh and the prophet. The central message, that "the just shall live by his faith" (2:4), plays an important rule in Christian thought. It is used in the Epistle to the Romans 1:17, Galatians 3:11, and the Epistle to the Hebrews 10:38 as the starting point of the concept of faith.[1] Chapter 3 may be an independent addition, now recognized as a liturgical piece, but was possibly written by the same author as chapters 1 and 2...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ha...

Book of Haggai in Wikipedia

The Book of Haggai is a book of the Hebrew Bible, written by the prophet Haggai. It was written in 520 BCE some 18 years after Cyrus had conquered Babylon and issued a decree in 538 BCE allowing the captive Jews to return to Judea. He saw the restoration of the temple as necessary for the restoration of the religious practices and a sense of peoplehood after a long exile. It consists of two simple, comprehensive chapters. The object of the prophet is generally urging the people to proceed with the rebuilding of the second Jerusalem temple in 521 BCE after the return of the deportees. Haggai attributes a recent drought to the peoples' refusal to rebuild the temple, which he sees as key to Jerusalem’s glory. The book ends with the prediction of the downfall of kingdoms, with one Zerubbabel, governor of Judah, as the Lord’s chosen leader. The language here is not as finely wrought as in some other books of the minor prophets, yet the intent seems straightforward...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ha...

Book of Hebrews in Wikipedia

The Epistle to the Hebrews is one of the books in the New Testament. Its author is anonymous. The primary purpose of the Letter to the Hebrews is to exhort Christians to persevere in the face of persecution. The central thought of the entire Epistle is the doctrine of the Person of Christ and his role as mediator between God and humanity. No author is internally named. Since the earliest days of the Church, the authorship has been debated and still is unknown.[1]The Epistle to the Hebrews was thought by some in antiquity such as Clement of Alexandria (Fragments from Eusebius Ecclesiastical History Book VI)[2] to be by Paul. The epistle opens with an exaltation of Jesus as "the radiance of God's glory, the express image of his being, and upholding all things by his powerful word."[1:3 ] The epistle presents Jesus with the titles "pioneer" or "forerunner," "Son" and "Son of God," "priest" and "high priest."[3] It has been described as an "intricate" New Testament book.[4]...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_He...

Book of Hosea in Wikipedia

The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. It stands first in order among what are known as the twelve Minor Prophets. Hosea (הושֵעַ) prophesied during a dark and melancholic era of Israel's history, the period of the Northern Kingdom's decline and fall in the 8th century BC. The apostasy of the people was rampant, having turned away from God in order to serve the calves of Jeroboam II (see 1 K 12.26-30; Ho 8.4-6) and Baal, a Canaanite god of fertility. The figures of marriage and adultery are common in the Hebrew Bible as representations of the relationship between God and the people of Israel. Here we see the apostasy of Israel and its punishment, with its future repentance, forgiveness, and restoration...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ho...

Book of Isaiah in Wikipedia

The Book of Isaiah (Hebrew: ספר ישעיה‎) is a book of the Bible traditionally attributed to the Prophet Isaiah, who lived in the second half of the 8th century BC.[1] In the first 39 chapters, Isaiah prophesies doom for a sinful Judah and for all the nations of the world that oppose God. The last 27 chapters prophesy the restoration of the nation of Israel. This section includes the Songs of the Suffering Servant, four separate passages that Christians believe prefigure the coming of Jesus Christ, and which are otherwise traditionally thought to refer to the nation of Israel. This second of the book's two major sections also includes prophecies of a new creation in God's glorious future kingdom.[2] There is considerable debate about the dating of the text; one widely accepted critical hypothesis suggests that much if not most of the text was not written in the 8th century BC.[3] Tradition ascribes the Book of Isaiah to a single author, Isaiah himself. Modern scholarship suggests the text has two or three authors. This later author or authors, and their work or works, are known as Deutero- or Second Isaiah and Trito- or Third Isaiah respectively...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Is...

Book of James in Wikipedia

The Epistle of James, usually referred to simply as James, is a book in the New Testament. The author identifies himself as "James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ". The epistle may not be a true piece of correspondence between specific parties, but rather an example of wisdom literature formulated as a letter for circulation. The work is considered New Testament wisdom literature because, "like Proverbs and Sirach, it consists largely of moral exhortations and precepts of a traditional and eclectic nature."[1] Similarly, the Catholic Encyclopedia says, "the subjects treated of in the Epistle are many and various; moreover, St. James not infrequently, whilst elucidating a certain point, passes abruptly to another, and presently resumes once more his former argument."...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ja...

Book of Jeremiah in Wikipedia

The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirməyāhū in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaism's Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianity's Old Testament. It was originally written in a complex and poetic Hebrew (apart from verse 10:11, curiously written in Biblical Aramaic), recording the words and events surrounding the life of the Jewish prophet Jeremiah who lived at the time of the destruction of Solomon's Temple (587/6 BC) in Jerusalem during the fall of the Kingdom of Judah at the hands of Babylonia...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Je...

Book of Job in Wikipedia

The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב‎ ʾ iyov) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. It relates the story of Job, his trials at the hands of Satan, his theological discussions with friends on the origins and nature of his suffering, his challenge to God, and finally a response from God. The Book itself comprises a didactic poem set in a prose framing device and has been called "the most profound and literary work of the entire Old Testament".[1] The Book itself, along with its numerous exegeses, are attempts to address the problem of evil, i.e. the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of God...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Jo...

Book of Joel in Wikipedia

The Book of Joel is part of the Hebrew Bible. Joel is part of a group of twelve prophetic books known as the Minor Prophets or simply as The Twelve; the distinction 'minor' indicates the short length of the text in relation to the larger prophetic texts known as the "Major Prophets"...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Jo...

Gospel of John in Wikipedia

The Gospel According to John (Κατὰ Ἰωάννην εὐαγγέλιον, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, kata Iōannēn euangelion, to euangelion kata Iōannēn), commonly referred to as The Gospel of John, is an account of the life and ministry of Jesus of Nazareth. It details the story of Jesus from his Baptism to his Resurrection. In the standard order of the canonical gospels, it appears fourth, after the synoptic gospels Matthew, Mark and Luke. The Gospel's authorship is anonymous. However, in chapter 21 it is stated that it derives from the testimony of the 'Disciple whom Jesus loved', identified by Early Church tradition with John the Apostle, one of Jesus' Twelve Apostles. It is closely related in style and content to the three surviving Epistles of John such that most commentators routinely treat the four books together.[1]:p.63 Scholarly opinion is divided as to whether these epistles are the work of the evangelist himself or of his followers writing in his name. The epistles are addressed to a particular but unnamed church community. Most scholars presume that the Gospel, too, is addressed to the specific circumstances of that community. The evangelist urges his church to beware of internal factions and to reject false teaching. He seeks to strengthen the church community's resolution in the face of hostility and persecution from the Jewish leadership of the synagogue. It is now widely accepted that the discourses are concerned with the actual issues of the church and synagogue debate at the time when the Gospel was written."[1]:p.53 It is notable that, in the gospel, the community still appears to define itself primarily against Judaism, rather than as part of a wider Christian church. Lindars points out that Christianity started as a movement within Judaism, but he says that gradually Christians and Jews became bitterly opposed to one another...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Jo...

Book of Jonah in Wikipedia

The Book of Jonah (Hebrew: Sefer Yonah) is a book in the Hebrew Bible. It tells the story of a Hebrew prophet named Jonah ben Amittai who is sent by God to prophesy the destruction of Nineveh but tries to escape the divine mission.[1] Set in the reign of Jeroboam II (786-746 BCE), it was probably written in the post-exilic period, sometime between the late fifth to early fourth century BC.[2] The story has an interesting interpretive history (see below) and has become well-known through popular children’s stories. In Judaism it is the Haftarah for the afternoon of Yom Kippur due to its story of God's willingness to forgive those who repent...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Jo...

Book of Joshua in Wikipedia

The Book of Joshua (Hebrew: Sefer Y'hoshua ספר יהושע‎) is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible. This book stands as the first in the Former (or First) Prophets covering the history of Israel from the possession of the Promised Land to the Babylonian Captivity. The book of Joshua contains a history of the Israelites from the death of Moses to that of Joshua. After Moses' death, Joshua, by virtue of his previous appointment as Moses' successor, received from God the command to cross the Jordan River. In execution of this order Joshua issues the requisite instructions to the stewards of the people for the crossing of the Jordan; and he reminds the Reubenites, Gadites, and the half of Manasseh of their pledge given to Moses to help their brethren...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Jo...

Epistle of Jude in Wikipedia

The Epistle of Jude, usually referred to simply as Jude, is the penultimate book of the New Testament and is attributed to Jude, the brother of James the Just (who was called "the brother of Jesus"). The letter of Jude was one of the disputed books of the Canon. Although its canonical status was contested, its authenticity was never doubted by the Early Church. The links between the Epistle and 2 Peter, its use of the Apocryphal Books, and its brevity raised concern...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ju...

Book of Judges in Wikipedia

The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. It appears in the Tanakh and in the Christian Old Testament. Its title refers to its contents; it contains the history of Biblical judges (not to be confused with modern judges), who helped rule and guide the ancient Israelites, and of their times. As Judges stands today, the last judge it mentions is Samson, and although there are two further stories, the traditional view is that Samson's exploits probably synchronise with the period immediately preceding Eli, who was both high priest and judge. Both academic views and traditional thought hence view the narrative of the judges as ending at Samson, picking up again at 1 Samuel 1:1 to consider Eli, and continuing through to 1 Samuel 7:2. As for the stories at the end of the Book, which are set in the same time period as the judges but discuss people other than the judges, there is much affinity between these and the Book of Ruth, and many people believe Ruth originally belonged amongst them. There were thirteen Biblical Judges...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Ju...

Book of Lamentations in Wikipedia

The Book of Lamentations (Hebrew: אֵיכָה‎, Eikha, ʾēḫā(h)) is a book of the Hebrew Bible. In Judaism it is traditionally recited on the fast day of Tisha B'Av and in Christianity it is traditionally read during Tenebrae of the Holy Triduum. It is called in the Hebrew canon 'Eikhah, meaning "How," being the formula for the commencement of a song of wailing. It is the first word of the book (see 2 Sam. 1:19-27). The Septuagint adopted the name rendered "Lamentations" (or "Threnoi Hieremiou", abbreviated "Thren." in some Latin commentaries, from the Greek threnoi = Hebrew qinoth) now in common use, to denote the character of the book, in which the prophet mourns over the desolations brought on Jerusalem and the Holy Land by the Chaldeans. In the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) it is placed among the Ketuvim, the Writings. Many people believe Jeremiah was the author, but they still to this day, do not know for sure...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_La...

Books of Chronicles in Wikipedia

The Books of Chronicles (Hebrew Divrei Hayyamim, דברי הימים, Greek Paralipomenon, Παραλειπομένων) are part of the Hebrew Bible. In the Masoretic Text, it appears as the first or last book of the Ketuvim (the latter arrangement also making it the final book of the Jewish bible). Chronicles largely parallels the Davidic narratives in the Books of Samuel and the Books of Kings.[1] It appears in two parts (I & II Chronicles), immediately following 1 & 2 Samuel and 1 & 2 Kings as a summary of them with minor details sometimes added. The division of Chronicles and its place in the Christian canon of the Old Testament are based upon the Septuagint...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1_Chronicl...

1 Corinthians in Wikipedia

The First Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians, usually referred to simply as First Corinthians and often written 1 Corinthians, is the seventh book of the New Testament. The book, originally written in Greek, was a letter from Paul of Tarsus and Sosthenes to the Christians of Corinth, Greece. This epistle contains some of the best-known phrases in the New Testament, including (depending on the translation) "all things to all men" (9:22), "without love, I am nothing" (13:2), "through a glass, darkly" (13:12), and "when I was a child, I spoke as a child, I felt as a child, I thought as a child" (13:11)...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1_Corinthi...

1 John in Wikipedia

The First Epistle of John, usually referred to simply as First John and often written 1 John, is a book of the New Testament. This fourth catholic or "general" epistle is attributed to John the Evangelist, traditionally thought to be the author of the Gospel of John and the other two Epistles of John. This Epistle was written in Ephesus between the years 100-110.[1] The work was written to counter the heresies that Jesus did not come "in the flesh," but only as a spirit. It also defined how Christians are to discern true teachers: by their ethics, their proclamation of Jesus in the flesh, and by their love.[1]...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1_John...

Books of Kings in Wikipedia

The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer melakhim, ספר מלכים‎) are books included in the Hebrew Bible. They were originally written in Hebrew and are recognised as scripture by Judaism and Christianity. According to Biblical chronology, the events in the Books of Kings occurred between the 10th and 6th centuries BCE. The books contain accounts of the kings of the ancient Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy) and the Kingdom of Judah. They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession of Solomon until the subjugation of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians (apparently a period of about four hundred and fifty-three years). The Books of Kings synchronize with 1 Chronicles 28 – 2 Chronicles 36:21. While in the Chronicles greater prominence is given to the priestly or Levitical office, in the Kings greater prominence is given to the royal and prophetic offices. Kings appears to have been written considerably earlier than Chronicles and as such is generally considered a more reliable historical source...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1_Kings...

1 Peter in Wikipedia

The First Epistle of Peter, usually referred to simply as First Peter and often written 1 Peter, is a book of the New Testament. It has traditionally been held to have been written by Saint Peter the apostle during his time as bishop of Rome or Bishop of Antioch, though neither title is used in the epistle. The letter is addressed to various churches in Asia Minor suffering religious persecution...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1_Peter...

Books of Samuel in Wikipedia

The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Sh'muel ספר שמואל‎) are part of the Hebrew Bible. The work was originally written in Hebrew, and the Book(s) of Samuel originally formed a single text, as they are often considered today in Jewish bibles. Together with what is now referred to as the Book(s) of Kings, the translators who created the Greek Septuagint divided the text into four books, which they named the Books of the Kingdoms. In the Latin Vulgate version, these then became the Books of the Kings, thus 1 and 2 Samuel were referred to as 1 and 2 Kings, with 3 and 4 Kings being what are called 1 and 2 Kings by the King James Bible and its successors...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1_Samuel...

1 Thessalonians in Wikipedia

The First Epistle of Paul to the Thessalonians, usually referred to simply as First Thessalonians and often written 1 Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The first letter to the Thessalonians was likely the first of Paul's letters, probably written by the end of A.D. 52[1], making it, so far as is now known, the oldest extant Christian document...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1_Thessalo...

1 Timothy in Wikipedia

The First Epistle of Paul to Timothy, usually referred to simply as First Timothy and often written 1 Timothy, is one of three letters in New Testament of the Bible often grouped together as the Pastoral Epistles, the others being Second Timothy and Titus. The letter, traditionally attributed to Saint Paul, consists mainly of counsels to his younger colleague and delegate Timothy regarding his ministry in Ephesus (1:3). These include instructions on the forms of worship and organization of the Church, the responsibilities resting on its several members, including episcopoi (overseers or bishops) and diaconoi ("deacons"); and secondly of exhortation to faithfulness in maintaining the truth amid surrounding errors (iv.iff), presented as a prophecy of erring teachers to come...

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1_Timothy...

Book of Zechariah in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE Few books of the Old Testament are as difficult of interpretation as the Book of Zechariah; no other book is as Messianic. Jewish expositors like Abarbanel and Jarchi, and Christian expositors such as Jerome, are forced to concede that they have failed "to find their hands" in the exposition of it, and that in their investigations they passed from one labyrinth to another, and from one cloud into another, until they lost themselves in trying to discover the prophet's meaning. The scope of Zechariah's vision and the profundity of his thought are almost without a parallel. In the present writer's judgment, his book is the most Messianic, the most truly apocalyptic and eschatological, of all the writings of the Old Testament. 1. The Prophet: Zechariah was the son of Berechiah, and the grandson of Iddo (Zec 1:1,7). The same Iddo seems to be mentioned among the priests who returned from exile under Zerubbabel and Joshua in the year 536 BC (Neh 12:4; Ezr 2:2). If so, Zechariah was a priest as well as a prophet, and presumably a young man when he began to preach. Tradition, on the contrary, declares that he was well advanced in years. He apparently survived Haggai, his contemporary (Ezr 5:1; 6:14). He was a poet as well as a prophet. Nothing is known of his end. The Targum says he died a martyr. 2. His Times and Mission: The earliest date in his book is the 2nd year (520 BC) of the reign of Darius Hystaspis, and the latest, the 4th year of the same king's reign (Zec 1:1,7; 7:1). Though these are the only dates given in his writings, it is possible of course that he may have continued active for several additional years. Otherwise, he preached barely two years. The conditions under which he labored were similar to those in Haggai's times. Indeed, Haggai had begun to preach just two months before Zechariah was called. At that time there were upheavals and commotions in different parts of the Persian empire, especially in the Northeast Jeremiah's prophecies regarding the domination of Babylon for 70 years had been fulfilled (Jer 15:11; 29:10). The returned captives were becoming disheartened and depressed because Yahweh had not made it possible to restore Zion and rebuild the temple. The foundations of the latter had been already laid, but as yet there was no superstructure (Ezr 3:8-10; Zec 1:16). The altar of burnt offering was set up upon its old site, but as yet there were no priests worthy to officiate in the ritual of sacrifice (Ezr 3:2,3; Zec 3:3). The people had fallen into apathy, and needed to be aroused to their opportunity. Haggai had given them real initiative, for within 24 days after he began to preach the people began to work (Hag 1:1,15). It was left for Zechariah to bring the task of temple-building to completion. This Zechariah did successfully; this, indeed, was his primary mission and work...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/Z/ZECHARI...

The Book of Zechariah in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The book of Zechariah, in its existing form, consists of three principal parts, vis. chs. 1-8; chs. 9-11; chs. 12-14. 1. The first of these divisions is allowed by the critics to be the genuine work of Zechariah the son of Iddo. It consists, first, of a short introduction or preface in which the prophet announces his commission; then of a series of visions, descriptive of all those hopes and anticipations of which the building of the temple was the pledge and sure foundation and finally of a discourse, delivered two years later, in reply to questions respecting the observance of certain established fasts. 2. The remainder of the book consists of two sections of about equal length, chs. 9-11 and 12-14, each of which has an inscription. (1) In the first section he threatens Damascus and the seacoast of Israel with misfortune, but declares that Jerusalem shall be protected. (2) The second section is entitled "The burden of the word of Jehovah for Israel." But Israel is here used of the nation at large, not of Israel as distinct from Judah. Indeed the prophecy which follows concerns Judah and Jerusalem, in this the prophet beholds the near approach of troublous times, when Jerusalem should be hard pressed by enemies. But in that day Jehovah shall come to save them an all the nations which gather themselves against Jerusalem shall be destroyed. Many modern critics maintain that the later chapters, from the ninth to the fourteenth, were written by some other prophet, who lived before the exile. The prophecy closes with a grand and stirring picture. All nations are gathered together against Jerusalem, and seem already sure of their prey. Half of their cruel work has been accomplished, when Jehovah himself appears on behalf of his people. He goes forth to war against the adversaries of his people. He establishes his kingdom over all the earth. All nations that are still left shall come up to Jerusalem, as the great centre of religious worship, and the city; from that day forward shall be a holy city. Such is, briefly, an outline of the second portion of that book which is commonly known as the Prophecy of Zechariah. Integrity. -Mede was the first to call this in question. The probability that the later chapters, from the ninth to the fourteenth, were by some other prophet seems first to have been suggested to him by the citation in St. Matthew. He rests his opinion partly on the authority of St. Matthew and partly-on the contents of the later chapters, which he considers require a date earlier than the exile. Archbishop Newcombe went further. He insisted on the great dissimilarity of style as well as subject between the earlier and later chapters and he was the first who advocated the theory that the last six chapters of Zechariah are the work of two distinct prophets.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/Z/Zecha...

Zechariah in Smiths Bible Dictionary

1. The eleventh in order of the twelve minor prophets. He is called in his prophecy the son of Berechiah and the grandson of Iddo, whereas in the book of Ezra, Ezr 5:1; 6:14 he is said to have been the son of Iddo. It is natural to suppose as the prophet himself mentions his father's name, whereas the book of Ezra mentions only Iddo, that Berechiah had died early, and that there was now no intervening link between the grandfather and the grandson. Zechariah, like Jeremiah and Ezekiel before him, was priest as well as prophet. He seems to have entered upon his office while yet young, Zec 2:4 and must have been born in Babylon whence he returned with the first caravan of exiles under Zerubbabel and Jeshua. It was in the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, that he first publicly discharged his office. In this he acted in concert with Haggai. Both prophets had the same great object before them; both directed all their energies to the building of the second temple. To their influence we find the rebuilding of the temple in a great measure ascribed. If the later Jewish accounts may be trusted, Zechariah, as well as Haggai, was a member of the Great Synagogue. The genuine writings of Zechariah help us but little in our estimate of his character. Some faint traces, however, we may observe in them, of his education in Babylon. He leans avowedly on the authority of the older prophets, and copies their expressions. Jeremiah especially seems to have been his favorite; and hence the Jewish saying that "the spirit of Jeremiah dwelt in Zechariah." But in what may be called the peculiarities of his prophecy, he approaches more nearly to Ezekiel and Daniel. Like them he delights in visions; like them he uses symbols and allegories rather than the bold figures and metaphors which lend so much force and beauty to the writings of the earlier prophets. Generally speaking, Zechariah's style is pure, and remarkably free from Chaldaisms...

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/Z/Zecha...

Zechariah in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Jehovah is renowned or remembered. (1.) A prophet of Judah, the eleventh of the twelve minor prophets. Like Ezekiel, he was of priestly extraction. He describes himself (1:1) as "the son of Berechiah." In Ezra 5:1 and 6:14 he is called "the son of Iddo," who was properly his grandfather. His prophetical career began in the second year of Darius (B.C. 520), about sixteen years after the return of the first company from exile. He was contemporary with Haggai (Ezra 5:1). His book consists of two distinct parts, (1) chapters 1 to 8, inclusive, and (2) 9 to the end. It begins with a preface (1:1-6), which recalls the nation's past history, for the purpose of presenting a solemn warning to the present generation. Then follows a series of eight visions (1:7-6:8), succeeding one another in one night, which may be regarded as a symbolical history of Israel, intended to furnish consolation to the returned exiles and stir up hope in their minds. The symbolical action, the crowning of Joshua (6:9-15), describes how the kingdoms of the world become the kingdom of God's Christ. Chapters 7 and 8, delivered two years later, are an answer to the question whether the days of mourning for the destruction of the city should be any longer kept, and an encouraging address to the people, assuring them of God's presence and blessing. The second part of the book (ch. 9-14) bears no date. It is probable that a considerable interval separates it from the first part. It consists of two burdens. The first burden (ch. 9-11) gives an outline of the course of God's providential dealings with his people down to the time of the Advent. The second burden (ch. 12-14) points out the glories that await Israel in "the latter day", the final conflict and triumph of God's kingdom. (2.) The son or grandson of Jehoiada, the high priest in the times of Ahaziah and Joash. After the death of Jehoiada he boldly condemned both the king and the people for their rebellion against God (2 Chr. 24:20), which so stirred up their resentment against him that at the king's commandment they stoned him with stones, and he died "in the court of the house of the Lord" (24:21). Christ alludes to this deed of murder in Matt. 23:35, Luke 11:51. (See ZACHARIAS -T0003862 [2].) (3.) A prophet, who had "understanding in the seeing of God," in the time of Uzziah, who was much indebted to him for his wise counsel (2 Chr. 26:5). Besides these, there is a large number of persons mentioned in Scripture bearing this name of whom nothing is known. (4.) One of the chiefs of the tribe of Reuben (1 Chr. 5:7). (5.) One of the porters of the tabernacle (1 Chr. 9:21). (6.) 1 Chr. 9:37. (7.) A Levite who assisted at the bringing up of the ark from the house of Obededom (1 Chr. 15:20-24). (8.) A Kohathite Levite (1 Chr. 24:25). (9.) A Merarite Levite (1 Chr. 27:21). (10.) The father of Iddo (1 Chr. 27:21). (11.) One who assisted in teaching the law to the people in the time of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 17:7). (12.) A Levite of the sons of Asaph (2 Chr. 20:14). (13.) One of Jehoshaphat's sons (2 Chr. 21:2). (14.) The father of Abijah, who was the mother of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:1). (15.) One of the sons of Asaph (2 Chr. 29:13). (16.) One of the "rulers of the house of God" (2 Chr. 35:8). (17.) A chief of the people in the time of Ezra, who consulted him about the return from captivity (Ezra 8:16); probably the same as mentioned in Neh. 8:4, (18.) Neh. 11:12. (19.) Neh. 12:16. (20.) Neh. 12:35,41. (21.) Isa. 8:2.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/Z/Zech...

The Book of Zechariah in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The Jewish saying was, "the spirit of Jeremiah dwelt in Zechariah." Like Ezekiel and Daniel, Zechariah delights in symbols, allegories, and visions of angels ministering before Jehovah and executing His commands on earth. Zechariah, like Genesis, Job, and Chronicles, brings Satan personally into view. The mention of myrtles (representing the then depressed Jewish church, Zechariah 1:11) accords with the fact of their non mention before the Babylonian exile (Nehemiah 8:15); contrast the original command as to the trees at the feast of tabernacles, "palms, and willows of the brook" Esther's name Hadassah means "myrtle". (See MYRTLE.) Joshua's filthy garments (Zechariah 3) were those assumed by the accused in Persian courts; the white robe substituted was the caftan, to this day put upon a state minister in the East when acquitted. Some forms and phrases indicate a late age (as 'achath used as the indefinite article). Zechariah encouraged the Jews in rebuilding the temple by unfolding the glorious future in contrast with the present depression of the theocracy. Matthew (Matthew 27:9) quotes Zechariah 11:12 as Jeremiah's words. Doubtless because Zechariah had before his mind Jeremiah 18:1-2; Jeremiah 32:6-12; Zechariah's prophecy is but a reiteration of the fearful oracle of Jeremiah 18-19, about to be fulfilled in the destruction of the Jewish nation. Jeremiah, by the image of a potter's vessel (the symbol of God's absolute power over His creatures: Romans 9:21; Isaiah 45:9; Isaiah 64:8), portrayed their ruin in Nebuchadnezzar's invasion. Zechariah repeats this threat as about to be fulfilled again by Rome for their rejection of Messiah Matthew, by mentioning Jeremiah, implies that the field of blood now bought by "the reward of iniquity" in the valley of Hinnom was long ago a scene of doom symbolically predicted, that the purchase of it with the traitor's price renewed the prophecy and revived the curse. The mention of Ephraim and Israel as distinct from Judah, in chapters 10 to 14, points to the ultimate restoration, not only of the Jews but of the northern Israelite ten tribes, who never returned as a body from their Assyrian captivity, the earnest of which was given in the numbers out of the ten tribes who returned with their brethren of Judah from the Babylonian captivity under Cyrus. There are four parts:...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/Z/Zec...

Zechariah in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

1. Eleventh of the 12 minor prophets. Son of Berechiah, grandson of Iddo; Ezra (Ezra 5:1; Exr 6:14) says son of Iddo, omitting Berechiah the intermediate link, as less known, and perhaps having died early. Zechariah was probably, like Ezekiel, priest as well as prophet, Iddo being the priest who returned with Zerubbabel and Joshua from Babylon (Nehemiah 12:4; Nehemiah 12:16). His priestly birth suits the sacerdotal character of his prophecies (Zechariah 6:13). He left Babylon, where he was born, very young. Zechariah began prophesying in youth (Zechariah 2:4), "this young man. In the eighth month, in Darius' second year (520 B.C.), Zechariah first prophesied with Haggai (who began two months earlier) in support of Zerubbabel and Shealtiel in the building of the temple, which had been suspended under Pseudo-Smerdis Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:24; Ezra 5:1-2; Ezra 6:14). The two, "Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo" the priest prophet, according to a probable tradition composed psalms for the liturgy of the temple: Psalms 137; 146 to 148, according to Septuagint; Psalm 125, 126 (See NEHEMIAH) according to the Peshito; Psalm 111 according to Vulgate. The Hallelujah characterizes the post exile psalms, it occurs at both beginning and end of Psalms 146 to 150; these are all joyous thanksgivings, free from the lamentations which appear in the other post exile psalms. Probably sung at the consecration of the walls under Nehemiah; but Hengstenberg thinks at the consecration of the second temple. Jewish tradition makes Zecharia a member of the great synagogue. frontZECHARIAH, BOOK OF.) 2. Firstborn son of Meshelemiah, a Korhite, keeper of the N. gate of the tabernacle under David (1 Chronicles 9:21; 1 Chronicles 26:2; 1 Chronicles 26:14, "a wise counsellor".)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/Z/Zec...

Zephaniah in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(hidden by Jehovah). 1. The ninth in order of the twelve minor prophets. His pedigree is traced to his fourth ancestor, Hezekiah, Zep 1:1 supposed to be the celebrated king of that name. The chief characteristics of this book are the unity and harmony of the composition, the grace, energy and dignity of its style, and the rapid and effective alternations of threats and promises. The general tone of the last portion is Messianic, but without any specific reference to the person of our Lord. The date of the book is given in the inscription--viz, the reign of Josiah, from 642 to 611 B.C. It is most probable moreover, that the prophecy was delivered before the eighteenth year of Josiah. 2. The son of Maaseiah, Jer 21:1 and sagan or second priest in the reign of Zedekiah. (B.C. 588.) He succeeded Jehoida, Jer 29:25,26 and was probably a ruler of the temple, whose office it was, among others, to punish pretenders to the gift of prophecy. Jer 29:29 On the capture of Jerusalem he was taken and slain at Riblah. Jer 52:24,27; 2Ki 25:18,21 3. Father of Josiah, 2, Zec 6:10 and of Hen, according to the reading of the received text of Zec 6:14

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/Z/Zepha...

Zephaniah in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Jehovah has concealed, or Jehovah of darkness. (1.) The son of Cushi, and great-grandson of Hezekiah, and the ninth in the order of the minor prophets. He prophesied in the days of Josiah, king of Judah (B.C. 641-610), and was contemporary with Jeremiah, with whom he had much in common. The book of his prophecies consists of: (a) An introduction (1:1-6), announcing the judgment of the world, and the judgment upon Israel, because of their transgressions. (b) The description of the judgment (1:7-18). (c) An exhortation to seek God while there is still time (2:1-3). (d) The announcement of judgment on the heathen (2:4-15). (e) The hopeless misery of Jerusalem (3:1-7). (f) The promise of salvation (3:8-20). (2.) The son of Maaseiah, the "second priest" in the reign of Zedekiah, often mentioned in Jeremiah as having been sent from the king to inquire (Jer. 21:1) regarding the coming woes which he had denounced, and to entreat the prophet's intercession that the judgment threatened might be averted (Jer. 29:25, 26, 29; 37:3; 52:24). He, along with some other captive Jews, was put to death by the king of Babylon "at Riblah in the land of Hamath" (2 Kings 25:21). (3.) A Kohathite ancestor of the prophet Samuel (1 Chr. 6:36). (4.) The father of Josiah, the priest who dwelt in Jerusalem when Darius issued the decree that the temple should be rebuilt (Zech. 6:10).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/Z/Zeph...

Zephaniah in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

zef-a-ni'-a (tsephanyah, tsephanyahu, "Yah hath treasured"): (1) The prophet. See ZEPHANIAH, BOOK OF. (2) A Levite or priest (1 Ch 6:36 (Hebrew 6:21)), called in some genealogies "Uriel" (1 Ch 6:24; 15:5,11). (3) Judean father or fathers of various contemporaries of Zechariah, the prophet (Zec 6:10,14). (4) A priest, the second in rank in the days of Jeremiah. He was a leader of the "patriotic" party which opposed Jeremiah. Nevertheless, he was sent to the prophet as a messenger of King Zedekiah when Nebuchadnezzar was about to attack the city (Jer 21:1) and at other crises (Jer 37:3; compare 29:25,29; 2 Ki 25:18). That he continued to adhere to the policy of resistance against Babylonian authority is indicated by the fact that he was among the leaders of Israel taken by Nebuzaradan before the king of Babylon, and killed at Riblah (2 Ki 25:18 parallel Jer 52:24).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/Z/ZEPHANI...

Book of Zephaniah in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. The Author. 1. Name: The name "Zephaniah" (tsephanyah; Sophonias), which is borne by three other men mentioned in the Old Testament, means "Yah hides," or "Yah has hidden" or "treasured." "It suggests," says G. A. Smith, "the prophet's birth in the killing time of Manasseh" (2 Ki 21:16). 2. Ancestry: The ancestry of the prophet is carried back four generations (Zeph 1:1), which is unusual in the Old Testament (compare Isa 1:1; Hos 1:1); hence, it is thought, not without reason (Eiselen, Minor Prophets, 505), that the last-mentioned ancestor, Hezekiah, must have been a prominent man--indeed, no other than King Hezekiah of Judah, the contemporary of Isaiah and Micah. If Zephaniah was of royal blood, his condemnation of the royal princes (1:8) becomes of great interest. In a similar manner did Isaiah, who in all probability was of royal blood, condemn without hesitation the shortcomings and vices of the rulers and the court. An ancient tradition declares that Zephaniah was of the tribe of Simeon, which would make it impossible for him to be of royal blood; but the origin and value of this tradition are uncertain. Zephaniah lived in Judah; that he lived in Jerusalem is made probable by the statement in 1:4, "I will cut off .... from this place," as well as by his intimate knowledge of the topography of the city (1:10,11). 3. Life: For how long he continued his prophetic activity we do not know, but it is not improbable that, as in the case of Amos, his public activity was short, and that, after delivering his message of judgment in connection with a great political crisis, he retired to private life, though his interest in reforms may have continued (2 Ki 23:2)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/Z/ZEPHANI...

The Book of Zephaniah in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The bulk of the book forms the introduction to the grand closing consummation under Messiah (Zephaniah 1:2 to 3:8; Zephaniah 3:9-20). I. Threat of judgments (Zephaniah 1:2-7). On whom they shall fall (Zephaniah 1:8-11). Nearness and awfulness of the day of the Lord, and impossibility of escape (Zephaniah 1:12-18). Call to the apostate nation to repentance, and to the meek and righteous to exercise those graces which may avert the day of wrath (Zephaniah 2:1-3). Motive to it: God's coming judgments on Israel's foes, the Philistines, Moabites, Ammonites (the land of which three nations the remnant of Jehovah's people shall possess), Ethiopians, and Nineveh, which shall be a desolation; "He will famish all the gods of the earth (by destroying the nations worshipping them), and men shall worship Him" each in his own house (Zephaniah 2:4-15). The call being slighted and even Jerusalem being unreformed of her filthiness by the judgments on surrounding nations, the just God is constrained to chastise her (Zephaniah 3:1-7). In all this the Chaldaeans' name, the executioners of God's vengeance on Judah, is not mentioned as in Jeremiah, for the latter being nearer the fulfillment prophesies more explicitly. II. After her chastisement Jehovah invites the pious remnant of the Jews to wait upon Him, as He is about to interpose for Judah and Jerusalem against the nations gathered against her (Zechariah 12-14). "The remnant of Israel shall no longer do iniquity. The Lord her God shall rejoice over her with joy, and make her a praise among all people," who in consequence shall "all call upon Him and serve Him with one consent" (Zephaniah 3:8-20). The style is graphic and vivid, and the language pure and free from Aramaisms. Zephaniah 2:14 corresponds to Isaiah 34:11; Zephaniah 2:15 corresponds to Isaiah 47:8; Zephaniah 3:10 corresponds to Isaiah 18:1; Zephaniah 2:8 corresponds to Isaiah 16:6; Zephaniah 1:5 corresponds to Jeremiah 8:2; Zephaniah 1:12 corresponds to Jeremiah 48:11. Romans 15:6 apparently refers to Zephaniah 3:9.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/Z/Zep...

Zephaniah in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

("Jehovah hath hidden") (Psalm 27:5; Psalm 83:3). 1. Ninth of the minor prophets; "in the days of Josiah," between 642 and 611 B.C. "Son of Cushi, the son of Gedaliah, the son of Amariah, the son of Hizkiah." The specification of his father, grandfather, and great grandfather, implies he was sprung from men of note. The omission of the designation "king," or "king of Judah," is against the notion that the "Hizkiah" means king Hezekiah (compare Proverbs 25:1; Isaiah 38:9). He prophesied in the former part of Josiah's reign. In Zephaniah 2:13-15 he foretells Nineveh's fall (625 B.C.), therefore his prophesying was before 625 B.C.; and in Zephaniah 1:4-6 threatens "cutting off" to "the remnant of Baal" and "the name of the frontCHEMARIMS with the priests "; see Hosea 10:5 margin, "and them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops, and them that worship and that swear by the Lord, and that swear by Malcham." Fulfilled by Josiah (2 Kings 23:4-5). Josiah's reformation was begun in the 12th year of his reign, and was completed in the 18th. Zephaniah in denouncing the different forms of idolatry paved the way for Josiah's work, and probably cooperated with the king from the 12th to the 18th year. Jewish tradition says that Zephaniah had as his colleagues Jeremiah, labouring in the thoroughfares and market places, and Huldah the prophetess in the college in Jerusalem. His position among the prophets, and his quotations from Joel, Amos, and Isaiah, indicate the correctness of the date assigned to him in Zephaniah 1:1. In Zephaniah 1:8, "I will punish the king's children" must refer to coming judgments on the foreseen idolatries of the younger members of the royal family (Jeremiah 22:19; Jeremiah 39:6; 2 Kings 23:31-32-36-37; 2 Chronicles 36:5-6; 2 Kings 20:18). Not only the masses, but even princes, should not escape the penalty of idolatry. "The remnant of Baal" (Zephaniah 1:4) implies that Josiah's reformation was already begun but not completed. 2. "The second priest" or sagan, next to the high priest. Son of Maaseiah. Sent by Zedekiah to consult Jeremiah (Jeremiah 21:1). Succeeded to Jehoiada who was in exile. Appealed to by Shemaiah in a letter from Babylon to punish Jeremiah with imprisonment and the stocks for declaring the captivity would be long (Jeremiah 29:25-26; Jeremiah 29:29). Zephaniah read the letter to Jeremiah. This fact and Shemaiah's upbraiding Zephaniah for want of zeal against Jeremiah imply that Zephaniah was less prejudiced against Jeremiah than the others. This was the reason for the king's choosing him as messenger to the prophet (Jeremiah 37:3). Slain by Nebuchadnezzar as an accomplice in Zedekiah's rebellion (Jeremiah 52:24; Jeremiah 52:27). Jeremiah 52:3. Father of Hen or Josiah (Zechariah 6:14). Zechariah 6:4. Ancestor of Samuel and Heman; a Kohathite Levite (1 Chronicles 6:36), called Uriel 1 Chronicles 6:24.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/Z/Zep...

Nehemiah in Easton's Bible Dictionary

comforted by Jehovah. (1.) Ezra 2:2; Neh. 7:7. (2.) Neh. 3:16. (3.) The son of Hachaliah (Neh. 1:1), and probably of the tribe of Judah. His family must have belonged to Jerusalem (Neh. 2:3). He was one of the "Jews of the dispersion," and in his youth was appointed to the important office of royal cup-bearer at the palace of Shushan. The king, Artaxerxes Longimanus, seems to have been on terms of friendly familiarity with his attendant. Through his brother Hanani, and perhaps from other sources (Neh. 1:2; 2:3), he heard of the mournful and desolate condition of the Holy City, and was filled with sadness of heart. For many days he fasted and mourned and prayed for the place of his fathers' sepulchres. At length the king observed his sadness of countenance and asked the reason of it. Nehemiah explained it all to the king, and obtained his permission to go up to Jerusalem and there to act as _tirshatha_, or governor of Judea. He went up in the spring of B.C. 446 (eleven years after Ezra), with a strong escort supplied by the king, and with letters to all the pashas of the provinces through which he had to pass, as also to Asaph, keeper of the royal forests, directing him to assist Nehemiah. On his arrival he set himself to survey the city, and to form a plan for its restoration; a plan which he carried out with great skill and energy, so that the whole was completed in about six months. He remained in Judea for thirteen years as governor, carrying out many reforms, notwithstanding much opposition that he encountered (Neh. 13:11). He built up the state on the old lines, "supplementing and completing the work of Ezra," and making all arrangements for the safety and good government of the city. At the close of this important period of his public life, he returned to Persia to the service of his royal master at Shushan or Ecbatana...

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/N/Nehe...

Nehemiah in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(See EZRA; MALACHI.) 1. Son of Hachaliah, seemingly of Judah, as his kinsman Hanani was so (Nehemiah 1:2); and Jerusalem was "the place of his fathers' sepulchres" (Nehemiah 2:3). Probably he was of David's lineage, as his name varied appears in it, "Naum" (Luke 3:25), and his kinsman's name too, Hananiah, son of Zerubbabel (1 Chronicles 3:19); his "fathers' sepulchres" would be those of David's royal line. Cupbearer of Artaxerxes (Longimanus) according to his own autobiography, at Susa or Shushan, the principal Persian palace; Ecbatana was the royal summer residence, Babylon the spring, Persepolis the autumn, and Susa the winter. In Artaxerxes' 20th year Hanani with other Jews came from Jerusalem, reporting that the remnant there were in great affliction, the wall broken down, and the gates burned. Sorrow at the news drove him to fasting in expression of sadness, and prayer before the God of heaven, who alone could remedy the evil. His prayer (Nehemiah 1:4-11) was marked by importunate continuity, "day and night" (compare Isaiah 62:6-7; Luke 18:7), intercession for Israel, confession of individual and national sin, pleading that God should remember His promises of mercy upon their turning to Him, however far cast out for transgression; also that He should remember they are His people redeemed by His strong hand, therefore His honour is at stake in their persons; and that Nehemiah and they who pray with him desire to fear God's name (Isaiah 26:8; contrast Psalm 66:18; compare Daniel 9, Leviticus 26:33-39; Deuteronomy 4:25-31); lastly he asks God to dispose Artaxerxes' heart to "mercy" (Proverbs 21:1). "Let Thine ear ... Thine eyes be open ... hear the prayer," is an allusion to Solomon's prayer (1 Kings 8:28-29). After four months (Nehemiah 1:1; Nehemiah 2:1), from Chisleu to Nisan, of praying and waiting, in Artaxerxes' 20th year Nehemiah with sad countenance ministered as his cupbearer...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/N/Neh...

Book of Numbers in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. Title and Contents. 1. Title: Styled in the Hebrew Bible bemidhbar, "in the wilderness," from the 5th word in Nu 1:1, probably because of recording the fortunes of Israel in the Sinaitic desert. The 4th book of the Pentateuch (or of the Hexateuch, according to criticism) was designated Arithmoi in the Septuagint, and Numeri in the Vulgate, and from this last received its name "Numbers" in the King James Version, in all 3 evidently because of its reporting the 2 censuses which were taken, the one at Sinai at the beginning and the other on the plains of Moab at the close of the wanderings. 2. Contents: Of the contents the following arrangement will be sufficiently detailed: (1) Before leaving Sinai, Nu 1:1 through 10:10 (a period of 19 days, from the 1st to the 20th of the 2nd month after the exodus), describing: (a) The numbering and ordering of the people, Numbers 1 through 4. (b) The cleansing and blessing of the congregation, Numbers 5; 6. (c) The princes' offerings and the dedication of the altar, Numbers 7; 8. (d) The observance of a second Passover, Nu 9:1-14. (e) The cloud and the trumpets for the march, Nu 9:15 through 10:10. (2) From Sinai to Kadesh, Nu 10:11 through 14:45 (a period of 10 days, from the 20th to the 30th of the 2nd month), narrating: (a) The departure from Sinai, Nu 10:11-35. (b) The events at Taberah and Kibroth-hattaavah, Numbers 11. (c) The rebellion of Miriam and Aaron, Numbers 12. (d) The mission of the spies, Numbers 13; 14. (3) The wanderings in the desert, Numbers 15 through 19 (a period of 37 years, from the end of the 2nd to the beginning of the 40th year), recording: (a) Sundry laws and the punishment of a Sabbath breaker, Numbers 15. (b) The rebellion of Korah, Numbers 16. (c) The budding of Aaron's rod, Numbers 17. (d) The duties and revenues of the priests and Levites, Numbers 18. (e) The water of separation for the unclean, Numbers 19. (4) From Kadesh to Moab, Numbers 20; 21 (a period of 10 months, from the beginning of the 40th year), reciting: (a) The story of Balaam, Nu 22:2 through 24:25. (b) The zeal of Phinehas, Numbers 25. (c) The second census, Nu 26:1-51...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/N/NUMBERS...

Book of Numbers in Smiths Bible Dictionary

the fourth book of the law or Pentateuch. It takes its name in the LXX. and Vulgate (whence our "Numbers") from the double numbering or census of the people, the first of which is given in chs. 1-4, and the second in ch. 28. Contents. -- The book may be said to contain generally the history of the Israelites from the time of their leaving Sinai, in the second year after the exodus till their arrival at the borders of the Promised land in the fortieth year of their journeyings It consists of the following principal divisions: 1, The Preparations for the departure from Sinai. Nu 1:1 ... 10:10 2. The journey from Sinai to the borders of Canaan. ch. Nu 10:11 ... 14:45 3. A brief notice of laws and events which transpired during the thirty-seven years wandering in the wilderness. ch. Nu 15:1 ... 19:22 4. The history of the last year, from the second arrival of the Israelites in Kadesh till they reached "the plains of Moab by Jordan near Jericho." ch, Nu 20:1 ... 36:13 Integrity. --This, like the other books of the Pentateuch, is supposed by many critics to consist of a compilation from two or three or more earlier documents; but the grounds on which this distinction of documents rests are in every respect most unsatisfactory, and it may, in common with the preceding books and Deuteronomy, be regarded as the work of Moses. The book of Numbers is rich in fragments of ancient poetry, some of them of great beauty and all throwing an interesting light on the character of the times in which they were composed. Such, for instance, is the blessing of the high priest. ch. Nu 6:24-26 Such too are chants which were the signal for the ark to move when the people journeyed, and for it to rest when they were about to encamp. In ch. 21 we have a passage cited from a book called the "Book of the Wars of Jehovah." This was probably a collection of ballads and songs composed on different occasions by the watch-fires of the camp, and for the most part, though not perhaps exclusively, in commemoration of the victories of the Israelites over their enemies.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/N/Numbe...

Book of Numbers in Easton's Bible Dictionary

the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew be-midbar, i.e., "in the wilderness." In the LXX. version it is called "Numbers," and this name is now the usual title of the book. It is so called because it contains a record of the numbering of the people in the wilderness of Sinai (1-4), and of their numbering afterwards on the plain of Moab (26). This book is of special historical interest as furnishing us with details as to the route of the Israelites in the wilderness and their principal encampments. It may be divided into three parts: 1. The numbering of the people at Sinai, and preparations for their resuming their march (1-10:10). The sixth chapter gives an account of the vow of a Nazarite. 2. An account of the journey from Sinai to Moab, the sending out of the spies and the report they brought back, and the murmurings (eight times) of the people at the hardships by the way (10:11-21:20). 3. The transactions in the plain of Moab before crossing the Jordan (21:21-ch. 36). The period comprehended in the history extends from the second month of the second year after the Exodus to the beginning of the eleventh month of the fortieth year, in all about thirty-eight years and ten months; a dreary period of wanderings, during which that disobedient generation all died in the wilderness. They were fewer in number at the end of their wanderings than when they left the land of Egypt. We see in this history, on the one hand, the unceasing care of the Almighty over his chosen people during their wanderings; and, on the other hand, the murmurings and rebellions by which they offended their heavenly Protector, drew down repeated marks of his displeasure, and provoked him to say that they should "not enter into his rest" because of their unbelief (Heb. 3:19). This, like the other books of the Pentateuch, bears evidence of having been written by Moses. The expression "the book of the wars of the Lord," occurring in 21:14, has given rise to much discussion. But, after all, "what this book was is uncertain, whether some writing of Israel not now extant, or some writing of the Amorites which contained songs and triumphs of their king Sihon's victories, out of which Moses may cite this testimony, as Paul sometimes does out of heathen poets (Acts 17:28; Titus 1:12)."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/N/Numb...

Book of Numbers in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The book takes its name from the numberings (Numbers 1 and Numbers 26). The Hebrew name it from its first word waedaber, or its first distinctive word Bemidbar. It narrates Israel's stay in the desert from the law giving at Sinai (Leviticus 27:34) to their mustering in Moab's plains before entering Canaan. The parts are four: (1) Preparations for breaking up the camp at Sinai to march to Canaan (Numbers 1 - 10:10). (2) March from Sinai to Canaan's border; repulse by the Amorites (Numbers 10:11-14:45). (3) Selected incidents and enactments during the 38 years' penal wandering (Numbers 15:1-19:22). (4) Last year in the desert, the 40th year after the Exodus (Numbers 20:1-36;Numbers 20:13). Israel's first encampment near Kadesh was at Rithmah (from retem, the "broom") in midsummer, in the second year after the Exodus; there for 40 days they awaited the spies' report (Numbers 13:20; Numbers 13:25-26; Numbers 33:18-19, from verses 20 to 36 are the stages of penal wandering). On the first month of the 40th year they are at Kadesh once more. The tabernacle and Moses remained at Kadesh on the first occasion, while Israel attempted to occupy Canaan too late (Numbers 14:44). For a long period ("many days") they stayed still here, after failure, in hope God would yet remit the sentence (Deuteronomy 1:45-46). Then they "compassed Mount Seir (the wilderness of Paran) many days," until that whole generation died (Deuteronomy 2:1). The 17 stations belong to that dreary period (Numbers 33:19-36). The people spread about the ridges of Paran, while the tabernacle and camp moved among them from place to place. At the second encampment at Kadesh they stayed three or four months (Numbers 20:1 with Numbers 1:22-28; Numbers 33:38). Miriam died, and was buried there...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/N/Num...

Book of Obadiah in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

Obadiah is the shortest book in the Old Testament. The theme of the book is the destruction of Edom. Consequent upon the overthrow of Edom is the enlargement of the borders of Judah and the establishment of the kingship of Yahweh. Thus far all scholars are agreed; but on questions of authorship and date there is wide divergence of opinion. 1. Contents of the Book: (1) Yahweh summons the nations to the overthrow of proud Edom. The men of Esau will be brought down from their lofty strongholds; their hidden treasures will be rifled; their confederates will turn against them; nor will the wise and the mighty men in Edom be able to avert the crushing calamity (Ob 1:1-9). (2) The overthrow of Edom is due to the violence and cruelty shown toward his brother Jacob. The prophet describes the cruelty and shameless gloating over a brother's calamity, in the form of earnest appeals to Edom not to do the selfish and heartless deeds of which he had been guilty when Jerusalem was sacked by foreign foes (Ob 1:10-14). (3) The day of the display of Yahweh's retributive righteousness upon the nations is near. Edom shall be completely destroyed by the people whom he has tried to uproot, while Israel's captives shall return to take possession of their own land and also to seize and rule the mount of Esau. Thus the kingship of Yahweh shall be established (Ob 1:15-21)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/O/OBADIAH...

Obadiah in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

o-ba-di'-a (`obhadhyah, more fully `obhadhyahu, "servant of Yahweh"): (1) The steward or prime minister of Ahab, who did his best to protect the prophets of Yahweh against Jezebel's persecution. He met Elijah on his return from Zarephath, and bore to Ahab the news of Elijah's reappearance (1 Ki 18:3- 16). (2) The prophet (Ob 1:1). See OBADIAH, BOOK OF. (3) A descendant of David (1 Ch 3:21). (4) A chief of the tribe of Issachar (1 Ch 7:3). (5) A descendant of Saul (1 Ch 8:38; 9:44). (6) A Levite descended from Jeduthun (1 Ch 9:16), identical with Abda (Neh 11:17). (7) A chief of the Gadites (1 Ch 12:9). (8) A Zebulunite, father of the chief Ishmaiah (1 Ch 27:19). (9) One of the princes sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the law in Judah (2 Ch 17:7). (10) A Merarite employed by Josiah to oversee the workmen in repairing the temple (2 Ch 34:12). (11) The head of a family who went up with Ezra from Babylon (Ezr 8:9). (12) One of the men who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh 10:5). (13) A gate-keeper in the days of Nehemiah (Neh 12:25). The name "Obadiah" was common in Israel from the days of David to the close of the Old Testament. An ancient Hebrew seal bears the inscription "Obadiah the servant of the King."

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/O/OBADIAH...

Obadiah in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(servant of the Lord), 1. A man whose sons are enumerated in the genealogy of the tribe of Judah. 1Ch 3:21 (B.C. 470.) 2. A descendant of Issachar and a chief man of his tribe. 1Ch 7:3 (B.C. 1014.) 3. One of the six sons of Azel, a descendant of Saul. 1Ch 8:33; 9:44 (B.C. 720.) 4. A Levite, son of Shemaiah, and descended from Jeduthun. 1Ch 9:16; Ne 12:25 5. The second of the lion-faced Gadites who joined David at Ziklag. 1Ch 12:9 (B.C. 1054.) 6. One of the Princes of Judah in the reign of Jehoshaphat. 2Ch 17:7 (B.C. 909.) 7. The son of Jehiel, of the sons of Joab, who came up in the second caravan with Ezra. Ezr 8:9 8. A priest, or family of priests, who settled the covenant with Nehemiah. Ne 10:5 9. The fourth of the twelve minor prophets. We know nothing of him except what we can gather from the short book which bears his name. The question of his date must depend upon the interpretation of the 11th verse of his prophecy. He there speaks of the conquest of Jerusalem and the captivity of Jacob as having occurred, He probably refers to the captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, B.C. 688. It must have been uttered at some time in the five years which intervened between B.C. 588 and 583. The book of Obadiah is a sustained denunciation of the Edomites, melting into a vision of the future glories of Zion when the arm of the Lord should have wrought her deliverance and have repaid double upon her enemies. 10. An officer of high rank in the court of Ahab. 1Ki 18:3 He was a devout worshipper of Jehovah, and at the peril of his life concealed over a hundred prophets during the persecution by Jezebel; 1Ki 18:3-16 (B.C. 904.) 11. The father of Ishmaiah who was chief of the tribe of Zebulun in David's reign. 1Ch 27:19 (B.C. before 1014.) 12. A Merarite Levite in the reign of Josiah, and one of the overseers of the workmen in the restoration of the temple. 2Ch 34:12 (B.C.623.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/O/Obadi...

Book of Obadiah in Easton's Bible Dictionary

consists of one chapter, "concerning Edom," its impending doom (1:1-16), and the restoration of Israel (1:17-21). This is the shortest book of the Old Testament. There are on record the account of four captures of Jerusalem, (1) by Shishak in the reign of Rehoboam (1 Kings 14:25); (2) by the Philistines and Arabians in the reign of Jehoram (2 Chr. 21:16); (3) by Joash, the king of Israel, in the reign of Amaziah (2 Kings 14:13); and (4) by the Babylonians, when Jerusalem was taken and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 586). Obadiah (1:11-14) speaks of this capture as a thing past. He sees the calamity as having already come on Jerusalem, and the Edomites as joining their forces with those of the Chaldeans in bringing about the degradation and ruin of Israel. We do not indeed read that the Edomites actually took part with the Chaldeans, but the probabilities are that they did so, and this explains the words of Obadiah in denouncing against Edom the judgments of God. The date of his prophecies was thus in or about the year of the destruction of Jerusalem. Edom is the type of Israel's and of God's last foe (Isa. 63:1-4). These will finally all be vanquished, and the kingdom will be the Lord's (comp. Ps. 22:28).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/O/Obad...

Obadiah in Easton's Bible Dictionary

servant of the Lord. (1.) An Israelite who was chief in the household of King Ahab (1 Kings 18:3). Amid great spiritual degeneracy he maintained his fidelity to God, and interposed to protect The Lord's prophets, an hundred of whom he hid at great personal risk in a cave (4, 13). Ahab seems to have held Obadiah in great honour, although he had no sympathy with his piety (5, 6, 7). The last notice of him is his bringing back tidings to Ahab that Elijah, whom he had so long sought for, was at hand (9-16). "Go," said Elijah to him, when he met him in the way, "go tell thy lord, Behold, Elijah is here." (2.) A chief of the tribe of Issachar (1 Chr. 7:3). (3.) A descendant of Saul (1 Chr. 8:38). (4.) A Levite, after the Captivity (1 Chr. 9:16). (5.) A Gadite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:9). (6.) A prince of Zebulun in the time of David (1 Chr. 27:19). (7.) One of the princes sent by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people in the law (2 Chr. 17:7). (8.) A Levite who superintended the repairs of the temple under Josiah (2 Chr. 34:12). (9.) One who accompanied Ezra on the return from Babylon (Ezra 8:9). (10.) A prophet, fourth of the minor prophets in the Hebrew canon, and fifth in the LXX. He was probably contemporary with Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Of his personal history nothing is known.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/O/Obad...

Obadiah in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

("worshipper of Jehovah"; Arabic: Abdallah.) 1. One of Israhiah's "five" sons, of Issachar (1 Chronicles 7:3). But as four only are mentioned, Kennicott with four manuscripts omits "and the sons of Israhiah," thus making him brother not father of Obadiah, and both sons of Uzzi. Syriac and Arabic have our text, but "four." 2. 1 Chronicles 8:38; 1 Chronicles 9:44. 3. 1 Chronicles 9:16; Nehemiah 12:24-25. 4. 1 Chronicles 3:21. 5. 1 Chronicles 12:8-9. 6. 2 Chronicles 17:7. 7. Ezra 8:9. 8. Nehemiah 10:5. 9. Over Ahab's house. A kind of lord high chamberlain or mayor of the palace (1 Kings 18:3). As there were saints in Nero's palace (Philemon 1:13; Philemon 4:22), so they were in wicked Ahab's palace. Had not his value as a servant made him necessary to Ahab, his piety would have destroyed him. The pressure of the drought in the third year was such that Ahab could trust none so well as Obadiah to search throughout the land for water to preserve his "beasts," his stud of "horses and mules." Ahab cared more for these than for his perishing subjects! In a corrupt court, in spite of the persecuting idolatrous queen Jezebel, "Obadiah feared Jehovah," not merely a little but "greatly." So much so that he dared to hide from her fury 100 prophets, feeding them by fifty in a cave (compare on love to the Lord's brethren, Matthew 25:40). Ahab went in one direction in search of water, Obadiah another by himself. The latter was startled by the sudden appearance of Elijah, who had disappeared since his first announcement of the drought coming at his word (1 Kings 17:1). Obadiah knew him and reverently fell on his face saying, "art thou that my lord Elijah?"...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/O/Oba...

Epistle to Philemon in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

This most beautiful of all Paul's Epistles, and the most intensely human, is one of the so-called Captivity Epistles of which Ephesians, Colossians, and Philippians are the others. Of these four PHILIPPIANS (which see) stands apart, and was written more probably after the other three. These are mutually interdependent, sent by the same bearer to churches of the same district, and under similar conditions. 1. Place of Writing: There is some diversity of opinion as to the place from which the apostle wrote these letters. Certain scholars (Reuss, Schenkel, Weiss, Holtzmann, Hilgenfeld, Hausrath and Meyer) have urged Caesarea in opposition to the traditional place, Rome. The arguments advanced are first that Onesimus would have been more likely to have escaped to Caesarea than to Rome, as it is nearer Colosse than Rome is, to which we may reply that, though Caesarea is nearer, his chance of escape would have been far greater in the capital than in the provincial city. Again it is said that as Onesimus is not commended in Ephesians, he had already been left behind at Colosse; against which there are advanced the precarious value of an argument from silence, and the fact that this argument assumes a particular course which the bearers of the letters would follow, namely, through Colosse to Ephesus. A more forcible argument is that which is based on the apostle's expected visit. In Phil 2:24 we read that he expected to go to Macedonia on his release; in Philem 1:22 we find that he expected to go to Colosse. On the basis of this latter reference it is assumed that he was to the south of Colosse when writing and so at Caesarea. But it is quite as probable that he would go to Colosse through Philippi as the reverse; and it is quite possible that even if he had intended to go direct to Colosse when he wrote to Philemon, events may have come about to cause him to change his plans. The last argument, based on the omission of any reference to the earthquake of which Tacitus (Ann. xiv.27) and Eusebius (Chron., O1, 207) write, is of force as opposed to the Rom origin of the letters only on the assumption that these writers both refer to the same event (by no means sure) and that the epistles. were written after that event, and that it was necessary that Paul should have mentioned it. If the early chronology be accepted it falls entirely, as Tacitus' earlier date would be after the epistles. were written. In addition we have the further facts, favorable to Rome, that Paul had no such freedom in Cuesarea as he is represented in these epistles as enjoying; that no mention is made of Philip who was in Caesarea and a most important member of that community (Acts 21:8), and finally that there is no probability that so large a body of disciples and companions could have gathered about the apostle in his earlier and more strict imprisonment, at Caesarea. We may therefore conclude that the Captivity Epistles were written from Rome, and not from Caesarea...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/P/PHILEMO...

Philemon in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

fi-le'-mon, fi-le'-mun (Philemon): Among the converts of Paul, perhaps while at Ephesus, was one whom he calls a "fellow-worker," Philemon (Philem 1:1). He was probably a man of some means, was celebrated for his hospitality (Philem 1:5-7) and of considerable importance in the ecclesia at Colosse. It was at his house (Philem 1:2) that the Colossian Christians met as a center. It is more than probable that this was a group of the Colossian church rather than the entire ekklesia. His wife was named Apphia (Philem 1:2); and Archippus (Philem 1:2) was no doubt his son. From Col 4:17 we learn that Archippus held an office of some importance in Colosse, whether he was a presbyter (Abbott, ICC), or an evangelist, or perhaps the reader (Zahn), we cannot tell. He is called here (Philem 1:2) Paul's "fellow-soldier." The relation between the apostle and Philemon was so close and intimate that Paul does not hesitate to press him, on the basis of it, to forgive his slave, Onesimus, for stealing and for running away. See PHILEMON, EPISTLE TO. Tradition makes Philemon the bishop of Colosse (Apostolical Constitutions, vii, 46), and the Greek Martyrology (Menae) for November 22 tells us that he together with his wife and son and Onesimus were martyred by stoning before Androcles, the governor, in the days of Nero. With this the Latin Martyrology agrees (compare Lightfoot, Ignatius, II, 535). This evidence, however, is unsatisfactory and cannot be trusted as giving unquestionable facts as to Philemon. The only sure information is that in the epistle bearing his name.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/P/PHILEMO...

Philemon in Smiths Bible Dictionary

the name of the Christian to whom Paul addressed his epistle in behalf of Onesimus. He was a native probably of Colosse, or at all events lived in that city when the apostle wrote to him: first, because Onesimus was a Colossian, Col 4:9 and secondly because Archippus was a Colossian, Col 4:17 whom Paul associates with Philemon at the beginning of his letter. Phm 1:1,2 It is related that Philemon became bishop of Colosse, and died as a martyr under Nero. It is evident from the letter to him that Philemon was a man of property and influence, since he is represented as the head of a numerous household, and as exercising an expensive liberality toward his friends and the poor in general. He was indebted to the apostle Paul as the medium of his personal participation in the gospel. It is not certain under what circumstances they became known to each other. It is evident that on becoming a disciple he gave no common proof of the sincerity and power of his faith. His character as shadowed forth in the epistle to him, is one of the noblest which the sacred record makes known to us.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/P/Phile...

Philemon in Easton's Bible Dictionary

an inhabitant of Colosse, and apparently a person of some note among the citizens (Col. 4:9; Philemon 1:2). He was brought to a knowledge of the gospel through the instrumentality of Paul (19), and held a prominent place in the Christian community for his piety and beneficence (4-7). He is called in the epistle a "fellow-labourer," and therefore probably held some office in the church at Colosse; at all events, the title denotes that he took part in the work of spreading a knowledge of the gospel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/P/Phil...

The Epistle of Paul to Philemon in Smiths Bible Dictionary

is one of the letters which the apostle wrote during his first captivity at Rome A.D. 63 or early in A.D. 64. Nothing is wanted to confirm the genuineness of the epistle: the external testimony is unimpeachable; nor does the epistle itself offer anything to conflict with this decision. The occasion of the letter was that Onesimus, a slave of Philemon, had run away from him to Rome, either desiring liberty or, as some suppose, having committed theft. Phm 1:18 Here he was converted under the instrumentality of Paul. The latter; intimately connected with the master and the servant, was naturally anxious to effect a reconciliation between them. He used his influence with Onesimus, ver. 12, to induce him to return to Colosse and place himself again at the disposal of his master. On his departure, Paul put into his hand this letter as evidence that Onesirnus was a true and approved disciple of Christ, and entitled as such to received, not as a servant but above a servant, as a brother in the faith. The Epistle to Philemon has one peculiar feature --its aesthetical character it may be termed --which distinguishes it from all the other epistles. The writer had peculiar difticulties to overcame; but Paul, it is confessed, has shown a degree of self-denial and a fact in dealing with them which in being equal to the occasion could hardly be greater.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/P/Phile...

Epistle to Philemon in Easton's Bible Dictionary

was written from Rome at the same time as the epistles to the Colossians and Ephesians, and was sent also by Onesimus. It was addressed to Philemon and the members of his family. It was written for the purpose of interceding for Onesimus (q.v.), who had deserted his master Philemon and been "unprofitable" to him. Paul had found Onesimus at Rome, and had there been instrumental in his conversion, and now he sends him back to his master with this letter. This epistle has the character of a strictly private letter, and is the only one of such epistles preserved to us. "It exhibits the apostle in a new light. He throws off as far as possible his apostolic dignity and his fatherly authority over his converts. He speaks simply as Christian to Christian. He speaks, therefore, with that peculiar grace of humility and courtesy which has, under the reign of Christianity, developed the spirit of chivalry and what is called 'the character of a gentleman,' certainly very little known in the old Greek and Roman civilization" (Dr. Barry). (See SLAVE -T0003458.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/P/Phil...

Philemon in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

A Christian householder who hospitably entertained the saints (Philemon 1:7) and befriended them with loving sympathy at Colossae, for Onesimus and Archippus were Colossians (Colossians 4:9; Colossians 4:17; Philemon 1:1-2; Philemon 1:10); to whom Paul wrote the epistle. He calls Philemon "brother," and says "thou owest unto me even thine own self," namely, as being the instrument of thy conversion (Philemon 1:19); probably during Paul's long stay at the neighboring Ephesus (Acts 19:10), when "all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus." Colossians 2:1 shows Paul had not in person visited Colosse, though he must have passed near it in going through Phrygia on his second missionary tour (Acts 16:6). The character which Paul gives Philemon for "love and faith toward the Lord Jesus and all saints," so that "the bowels of the saints were refreshed by him," and Paul had "confidence in his obedience that he would do even more than Paul said" is not mere politic flattery to induce him to receive his slave Cnesimus kindly, but is the sincere tribute of the apostle's esteem. Such Christian masters, treating their slaves as "above servants" (Philemon 1:16), "brothers beloved both in the flesh and in the Lord," mitigated the evil of slavery and paved the way for its abolition. In the absence of a regular church building, Philemon opened his house for Christian worship and communion (Philemon 1:2; compare Romans 16:5). He "feared God with all his house," like Abraham (Genesis 18:19), Joshua (Joshua 24:15), and Cornelius (Acts 10:2,). The attractive power of such a religion proved its divine origination, and speedily, in spite of persecutions, won the world.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/P/Phi...

Epistle to Philemon in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Anthenticity of. Origen (Hom. 19, Jer. 1:185) quotes it as Paul's. Tertullian (Marcion 5:21), "the brevity of this epistle is the cause of its escaping Marcion's falsifying hands." Eusebius (E. H. 3:25) ranks it among "the universally acknowledged (homologoumena) epistles of the canon." Jerome (Prooem. Philemon iv. 442) argues against those who thought its Subject beneath an apostle. Ignatius (Ephesians 2, Magnes. 12) alludes to Philemon 1:20. Compare Polycarp 1 and 6. The catalogues, the Muratori Fragment, the list of Athanasius (Ep. 39), Jerome (Ep. 2 ad Paulin.), the council of Laodicea (A.D. 364), and the third of Carthage (A.D. 397) support it. Its brevity accounts for the few quotations from it in the fathers. Paley (Hor. Paul.) shows its authenticity from the undesigned coincidences between it and the epistle to the Colossians. Place and time of writing. The same bearer Onesimus bore it and epistle to Colossians; in the latter (Colossians 4:7-9) Tychicus is joined with Onesimus. Both address Archippus (Philemon 1:2; Colossians 4:17). Paul and Timothy stand in both headings. In both Paul writes as a prisoner (Philemon 1:9; Colossians 4:18). Both were written at Rome during the early and freer portion of Paul's first imprisonment, A.D. 62; in Philemon 1:22 he anticipates a speedy release. AIM. This epistle is a beautiful sample of Christianity applied to every day life and home relations and mutual duty of master and servant (Psalm 101:2-7). Onesimus of Colosse, (Colossians 4:9), Philemon's slave, had fled to Rome after defrauding his master (Philemon 1:18). Paul there was instrumental in converting him; then persuaded him to return (Philemon 1:12) and gave him this epistle, recommending him to Philemon's favorable reception as henceforth about to be his "forever," no longer unprofitable but, realizing his name, "profitable to Paul and Philemon" (Philemon 1:11; Philemon 1:15). Not until Philemon 1:10, and not until its end, does the name occur. Paul skillfully makes the favorable description precede the name which had fallen into so bad repute with Philemon; "I beseech thee for my son whom I begat in my bonds, Onesimus." Trusting soon to be free Paul begs Philemon to prepare him a lodging at Colosse. Paul addresses this epistle also to Apphia, who, from its domestic subject, is supposed to have been Philemon's wife, and to Archippus, a minister of the Colossian (Colossians 4:17) church, and supposed to be Philemon's relative and inmate of his house...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/P/Phi...

Epistle to the Philippians in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. Paul and the Church at Philippi. Paul was on his second missionary journey in the year 52 AD. He felt that he was strangely thwarted in many of his plans. He had had a most distressing illness in Galatia. The Spirit would not permit him to preach in Asia, and when he essayed to enter Bithynia the Spirit again would not suffer it. Baffled and perplexed, the apostle with his two companions, Silas and Timothy, went on to the seacoast and stopped in Troas. Here at last his leading became clear. A vision of a man from Macedonia convinced him that it was the will of God that he should preach in the western continent of Europe. The way was opened at once. The winds were favorable. In two days he came to Neapolis. At once he took the broad paved way of the Via Egnatia up to the mountain pass and down on the other side to Philippi, a journey of some 8 miles. There was no synagogue at Philippi, but a little company of Jews gathered for Sabbath worship at "a place of prayer" (proseuche, Acts 16:13), about a mile to the West of the city gate on the shore of the river Gangites (see PROSEUCHA). Paul and his companions talked to the women gathered there, and Lydia was converted. Later, a maid with the spirit of divination was exorcised. Paul and Silas were scourged and thrown into prison, an earthquake set them free, the jailer became a believer, the magistrates repented their treatment of men who were Roman citizens and besought them to leave the city (Acts 16:6-40). Paul had had his first experience of a Roman scourging and of lying in the stocks of a Roman prison here at Philippi, yet he went on his way rejoicing, for a company of disciples had been formed, and he had won the devotion of loyal and loving hearts for himself and his Master (see PHILIPPI). That was worth all the persecution and the pain. The Christians at Philippi seem to have been Paul's favorites among all his converts. He never lost any opportunity of visiting them and refreshing his spirit with their presence in the after- years. Six years later he was resident in Ephesus, and having sent Titus to Corinth with a letter to the Corinthians and being in doubt as to the spirit in which it would be received, he appointed a meeting with Titus in Macedonia, and probably spent the anxious days of his waiting at Philippi. If he met Titus there, he may have written 2 Corinthians in that city (2 Cor 2:13; 7:6). Paul returned to Ephesus, and after the riot in that city he went over again into Macedonia and made his third visit to Philippi. He probably promised the Philippians at this time that he would return to Philippi to celebrate the Easter week with his beloved converts there. He went on into Greece, but in 3 months he was back again, at the festival of the resurrection in the year 58 AD (Acts 20:2,6). We read in 1 Tim 1:3 that Paul visited Macedonia after the Roman imprisonment. He enjoyed himself among the Philippians. They were Christians after his own heart. He thanks God for their fellowship from the first day until now (Phil 1:5). He declares that they are his beloved who have always obeyed, not in his presence only, but much more in his absence (Phil 2:12). With fond repetition he addresses them as his brethren, beloved and longed for, his joy and crown, his beloved (Phil 4:1). This was Paul's favorite church, and we can gather from the epistle good reason for this fact...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/P/PHILIPP...

Epistle to the Philippians in Smiths Bible Dictionary

was St. Paul from Rome in A.D. 62 or 63. St. Paul's connection with Philippi was of a peculiar character, which gave rise to the writing of this epistle. St. Paul entered its walls A.D. 52. Ac 16:18 There, at a greater distance from Jerusalem than any apostle had yet penetrated, the long-restrained energy of St, Paul was again employed in laying the foundation of a Christian church, Philippi was endeared to St. Paul not only by the hospitality of Lydia, the deep sympathy of the converts, and the remarkable miracle which set a seal on his preaching, but, also by the successful exercise of his missionary activity after a long suspense, and by the happy consequences of his undaunted endurance of ignominies which remained in his memory, Phm 1:30 after the long interval of eleven years. Leaving Timothy and Luke to watch over the infant church, Paul and Silas went to Thessalonica, 1Th 2:2 whither they were followed by the alms of the Philippians, Phm 4:16 and thence southward. After the lapse of five years, spent chiefly at Corinth and Ephesus, St. Paul passed through Macedonia, A.D. 57, on his way to Greece, and probably visited Philippi for the second time, and was there joined by Timothy. He wrote at Philippi his second Epistle to the Corinthians. On returning from Greece, Ac 20:4 he again found a refuge among his faithful Philippians, where he spent some days at Easter, A.D. 58, with St. Luke, who accompanied him when he sailed from Neapolis. Once more, in his Roman captivity, A.D. 62, their care of him revived-again. They sent Epaphroditus bearing their alms for the apostle's support, and ready also to tender his personal service. Phm 2:25 St. Paul's aim in writing is plainly this: while acknowledging the alms of the Philippians and the personal services of their messenger, to give them some information respecting his own condition, and some advice respecting theirs. Strangely full of joy and thanksgiving amidst adversity, like the apostle's midnight hymn from the depth of his Philippian dungeon, this epistle went forth from his prison at Rome. In most other epistles he writes with a sustained effort to instruct, or with sorrow, or with indignation; he is striving to supply imperfect or to correct erroneous teaching, to put down scandalous impurity or to schism in the church which he addresses. But in this epistle, though he knew the Philippians intimately and was not blind to the faults and tendencies to fault of some of them, yet he mentions no evil so characteristic of the whole Church as to call for general censure on his part or amendment on theirs. Of all his epistles to churches, none has so little of an official character as this.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/P/Phili...

Epistle to Philippians in Easton's Bible Dictionary

was written by Paul during the two years when he was "in bonds" in Rome (Phil. 1:7-13), probably early in the year A.D. 62 or in the end of 61. The Philippians had sent Epaphroditus, their messenger, with contributions to meet the necessities of the apostle; and on his return Paul sent back with him this letter. With this precious communication Epaphroditus sets out on his homeward journey. "The joy caused by his return, and the effect of this wonderful letter when first read in the church of Philippi, are hidden from us. And we may almost say that with this letter the church itself passes from our view. To-day, in silent meadows, quiet cattle browse among the ruins which mark the site of what was once the flourishing Roman colony of Philippi, the home of the most attractive church of the apostolic age. But the name and fame and spiritual influence of that church will never pass. To myriads of men and women in every age and nation the letter written in a dungeon at Rome, and carried along the Egnatian Way by an obscure Christian messenger, has been a light divine and a cheerful guide along the most rugged paths of life" (Professor Beet). The church at Philippi was the first-fruits of European Christianity. Their attachment to the apostle was very fervent, and so also was his affection for them. They alone of all the churches helped him by their contributions, which he gratefully acknowledges (Acts 20:33-35; 2 Cor. 11:7-12; 2 Thess. 3:8). The pecuniary liberality of the Philippians comes out very conspicuously (Phil. 4:15). "This was a characteristic of the Macedonian missions, as 2 Cor. 8 and 9 amply and beautifully prove. It is remarkable that the Macedonian converts were, as a class, very poor (2 Cor. 8:2); and the parallel facts, their poverty and their open-handed support of the great missionary and his work, are deeply harmonious. At the present day the missionary liberality of poor Christians is, in proportion, really greater than that of the rich" (Moule's Philippians, Introd.). The contents of this epistle give an interesting insight into the condition of the church at Rome at the time it was written. Paul's imprisonment, we are informed, was no hindrance to his preaching the gospel, but rather "turned out to the furtherance of the gospel." The gospel spread very extensively among the Roman soldiers, with whom he was in constant contact, and the Christians grew into a "vast multitude." It is plain that Christianity was at this time making rapid advancement in Rome. The doctrinal statements of this epistle bear a close relation to those of the Epistle to the Romans. Compare also Phil. 3:20 with Eph. 2:12, 19, where the church is presented under the idea of a city or commonwealth for the first time in Paul's writings. The personal glory of Christ is also set forth in almost parallel forms of expression in Phil. 2:5-11, compared with Eph. 1:17-23; 2:8; and Col. 1:15-20. "This exposition of the grace and wonder of His personal majesty, personal self- abasement, and personal exaltation after it," found in these epistles, "is, in a great measure, a new development in the revelations given through St. Paul" (Moule). Other minuter analogies in forms of expression and of thought are also found in these epistles of the Captivity.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/P/Phil...

Epistle to the Philippians in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

INTERNAL EVIDENCE. The style, thought, and doctrine agree with Paul's. The incidental allusions confirm his authorship. Paley (Hor. Paul. 7) instances the mention of the object of Epaphroditus' journey to Rome, his sickness; the Philippian contribution to Paul's wants (Philemon 1:7; Philemon 2:25-30; Philemon 4:10-18); Timothy's having been long with Paul at Philippi (Philemon 1:1; Philemon 2:19); Paul's being for long a prisoner at Rome (Philemon 1:12-14; Philemon 2:17-28); his willingness to die for Christ (Philemon 1:23, compare 2 Corinthians 5:8); the Philippians having seen his maltreatment at Philippi (Philemon 1:29-30; Philemon 2:1-2). EXTERNAL EVIDENCE. Polycarp (ad Philipp. 3 and 11, A.D. 107); so that Christians who heard Paul's epistle read for the first time may have spoken with Polycarp. Marcion in Tertullian (A D. 140) acknowledges its authenticity. So the Muratorian Fragment; Irenaeuns (adv. Haer, 4:18, section 4); Clemens Alex. (Paedagog. 1, 1:10); the epistle to the churches of Lyons and Vienne (A. D. 177) in Eusebius (H. E., 5:2); Tertullian (Resurr. Carnis, 23); Origen (Celsus, 1, 3:122); Cyprian (Testim. against the Jews, 3:39). OBJECT. To thank them for contributions sent by Epaphroditus, who in returning takes back the epistle. Also to express Christian sympathy, and to exhort to imitation of Christ in humility and lowly love, instead of existing dissensions, as between Euodias and Syntyche (Philemon 4:2), and to warn against Judaizers. In this epistle alone are no positive censures; no doctrinal error or schism had as yet sprung up. DIVISIONS. I. Address: his state as a prisoner, theirs, his sending Epaphroditus to them (Philippians 1; 2). Epaphroditus probably was a presbyter of the Philippian church, who cheered Paul in iris imprisonment by bringing the Philippian token of love and liberality. By the fatigues of the journey that "brother, companion in labour, and fellow soldier" brought on himself dangerous sickness (Philemon 2:25-30). But now being well he "longed" to return to his Philippian flock and relieve them of their anxiety about him. So Paul takes the opportunity of sending an epistle by him. II. Caution against Judaizers, contrasting his own former legalism with his present following Christ as his all (Philippians 3)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/P/Phi...

Book of Proverbs in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

I. The Book's Account of Itself. 1. Title and Headings: At the beginning, intended apparently to cover the whole work, stands the title: "The proverbs of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel." It seemed good to the compilers, however, to repeat, or perhaps retain an older heading, "The proverbs of Solomon" at Prov 10, as if in some special sense the collection there beginning deserved it; and at Prov 25 still another heading occurs: "These also are proverbs of Solomon, which the men of Hezekiah king of Judah copied out." All these ascribe the proverbs to Solomon; but the heading (30:1), "The words of Agur the son of Jakeh; the oracle," and the heading (31:1), "The words of king Lemuel; the oracle which his mother taught him," indicate that authorship other than that of Solomon is represented; while the mention of "the words of the wise" (1:6; 22:17), as also the definite heading, "These also are sayings of the wise" (24:23), ascribe parts of the book to the sages in general. The book is confessedly a series of compilations made at different times; confessedly, also, to a considerable extent at least, the work of a number, perhaps a whole guild, of writers. 2. Authorship or Literary Species?: It is hazardous to argue either for or against a specific authorship; nor is it my intention to do so. The question naturally arises, however, in what sense this book, with its composite structure so outspoken, can lay claim to being the work of Solomon. Does the title refer to actual personal authorship, or does it name a species and type of literature of which Solomon was the originator and inspirer--as if it meant to say "the Solomonic proverbs"? We may work toward the answer of this question by noting some literary facts...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/P/PROVERB...

Book of Proverbs in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The title of this book in Hebrew is taken from its first word, mashal, which originally meant "a comparison." It is sometimes translated parable, sometimes proverb as here. The superscriptions which are affixed to several portions of the book, in chs. Pr 1:1; 10:1; 25:1 attribute the authorship of those portions to Solomon the son of David, king of Israel. With the exception of the last two chapters, which are distinctly assigned to other author it is probable that the statement of the superscriptions is in the main correct, and that the majority of the proverbs contained in the book were uttered or collected by Solomon. Speaking roughly, the book consists of three main divisions, with two appendices:-- 1. Chs. 1-9 form a connected didactic Wisdom is praised and the youth exhorted to devote himself to her. This portion is preceded by an introduction and title describing the character and general aim of the book. 2. Chs. 10-24 with the title "The Proverbs of Solomon," consist of three parts: Pr 10:1-22; Pr 10:16 a collection of single proverbs and detached sentences out of the region of moral teaching and worldly prudence; Pr 22:17- 24; Pr 22:21 a more connected didactic poem, with an introduction, Pr 22:17-22 which contains precepts of righteousness and prudence; Pr 24:23-34 with the inscription "These also belong to the wise," a collection of unconnected maxims, which serve as an appendix to the preceding. Then follows the third division chs. 25-29, which, according to the superscription, professes to be collection of Solomon's proverbs, consisting of single sentences, which the men of the court of Hezekiah copied out. The first appendix, ch. 30, "The words of Agur the son of Jakeh," is a collection of partly proverbial and partly enigmatical sayings; the second, ch. 31, is divided into two parts, "The words of King Lemuel," vs. 1-6, and an alphabetical acrostic in praise of a virtuous woman, which occupies the rest of the chapter. Who was Agur and who was Jakeh, are questions which have been often asked and never satisfactorily answered. All that can be said of the first is that he was an unknown Hebrew sage, the son of an equally unknown Jakeh, and that he lived after the time of Hezekiah. Lemuel, like Agur, is unknown. It is even uncertain whether he is to be regarded as a real personage, or whether the name is merely symbolical. The Proverbs are frequently quoted or alluded to in the New Testament and the canonicity of the book thereby confirmed. The following is a list of the principal passages:-- Pr 1:16 compare Roma 3:10,15 Pr 3:7 compare Roma 12:16 Pr 3:11,12 compare Hebr 12:5,6, see also Reve 3:19 Pr 3:34 compare Jame 4:6 Pr 10:12 compare 1Pet 4:8 Pr 11:31 compare 1Pet 4:18 Pr 17:13 compare Roma 12:17; 1The 5:15; 1Pet 3:9 Pr 17:27 compare Jame 1:19 Pr 20:9 compare 1Joh 1:8 Pr 20:20 compare Matt 15:4; Mark 7:10 Pr 22:8 (LXX.), compare 2Cor 9:7 Pr 25:21,22 compare, Roma 12:20 Pr 26:11 compare, 2Pet 2:22 Pr 27:1 compare, Jame 4:13,14...

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/P/Prove...

Book of Proverbs in Easton's Bible Dictionary

a collection of moral and philosophical maxims of a wide range of subjects presented in a poetic form. This book sets forth the "philosophy of practical life. It is the sign to us that the Bible does not despise common sense and discretion. It impresses upon us in the most forcible manner the value of intelligence and prudence and of a good education. The whole strength of the Hebrew language and of the sacred authority of the book is thrown upon these homely truths. It deals, too, in that refined, discriminating, careful view of the finer shades of human character so often overlooked by theologians, but so necessary to any true estimate of human life" (Stanley's Jewish Church). As to the origin of this book, "it is probable that Solomon gathered and recast many proverbs which sprang from human experience in preceeding ages and were floating past him on the tide of time, and that he also elaborated many new ones from the material of his own experience. Towards the close of the book, indeed, are preserved some of Solomon's own sayings that seem to have fallen from his lips in later life and been gathered by other hands' (Arnot's Laws from Heaven, etc.) This book is usually divided into three parts: (1.) Consisting of ch. 1-9, which contain an exhibition of wisdom as the highest good. (2.) Consisting of ch. 10-24. (3.) Containing proverbs of Solomon "which the men of Hezekiah, the king of Judah, collected" (ch. 25-29). These are followed by two supplements, (1) "The words of Agur" (ch. 30); and (2) "The words of king Lemuel" (ch. 31). Solomon is said to have written three thousand proverbs, and those contained in this book may be a selection from these (1 Kings 4:32). In the New Testament there are thirty- five direct quotations from this book or allusions to it.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/P/Prov...

Book of Proverbs in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

mishlee, plural of maashaal, "comparison" or "likeness." The Christian fathers (Clement, Ep. Cor. 1:57; Hegesippus, Irenaeus in Eusebius H. E. 4:22) entitle it "Wisdom, the sum of all virtues" (Panareros sophia). Pithy sayings (compare David's quotation, 1 Samuel 24:13), like similes or with a figure. The comparison is either expressed or left for the hearer to supply. So Balaam's "parable" is prophecy in figurative language (Numbers 23:7-10; 1 Samuel 10:12; Ezekiel 12:22-23; Ezekiel 17:2-3; Ezekiel 18:2; Ezekiel 20:49; Ezekiel 24:3; Luke 4:23). In Job 27:1 "parable" (Job 29:1) means a figurative, sententious, weighty embodiment of wisdom, not in this case short, but containing Job's whole argument (Psalm 49:4, maashaal). In Proverbs 1:6 "dark sayings" (chidah) are another form of proverbs, the enigmatical obscurity being designed to stimulate reflection (Habakkuk 2:6; Judges 14; 1 Kings 10:1; 2 Chronicles 9:1; Ezekiel 17:2; Psalm 78:2); the melitsah (Proverbs 1:6), "interpretation" (so Chald. and Vulgate versions), for which Gesenius translated "a saying that needs an interpreter," i.e. enigmatical (Habakkuk 2:6). For instance (Proverbs 12:27), "the slothful man roasteth not that which he took in hunting" requires discernment to see the point of comparison and the application; the slothful man is too lazy to hunt, and therefore has nothing to roast (compare 2 Thessalonians 3:10). "Proverb" is with Jesus' disciples equivalent to an obscure saying (John 16:29). Canonicity. The Book of Proverbs is found in all Jewish lists among the ketubim, "writings" (hagiographa), the third division of Scripture. The Talmud (Baba Bathra, 14 b.) gives the order, Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations, Daniel, Esther, Ezra (including Nehemiah), Chronicles. The New Testament quotes and so canonizes (Proverbs 1:16; Romans 3:10; Romans 3:15. Proverbs 3:7; Romans 12:16. Proverbs 3:11-12; Hebrews 12:5-6; Revelation 3:19. Proverbs 3:34; James 4:6. Proverbs 10:12; 1 Peter 4:8. Proverbs 11:31; 1 Peter 4:17-18. Proverbs 17:13; Romans 12:17; 1 Thessalonians 5:15; 1 Peter 3:9. Proverbs 17:27; James 1:19. Proverbs 20:9; 1 John 1:8. Proverbs 20:20; Matthew 15:4. Proverbs 22:8; 2 Corinthians 9:6; Galatians 6:7; Galatians 6:9. Proverbs 25:21-22; Romans 12:20. Proverbs 26:11; 2 Peter 2:22. Proverbs 27:1; James 4:13)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/P/Pro...

Book of Psalms in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. Introductory Topics. 1. Title: The Hebrew title for the Psalter is cepher tehillim, "book of praises." When we consider the fact that more than 20 of these poems have praise for their keynote, and that there are outbursts of thanksgiving in many others, the fitness of the Hebrew title dawns upon us. As Ker well says, "The book begins with benediction, and ends with praise--first, blessing to man, and then glory to God." Hymns of praise, though found in all parts of the Psalter, become far more numerous in Books IV and V, as if the volume of praise would gather itself up into a Hallelujah Chorus at the end. In the Greek version the book is entitled in some manuscripts Psalmoi, in others Psalterion, whence come our English titles "Psalms," and "Psalter." The Greek word psalmos, as well as the Hebrew mizmor, both of which are used in the superscriptions prefixed to many of the separate psalms, indicates a poem sung to the accompaniment of stringed instruments. The title mizmor is found before 57 psalms. The Psalter was the hymnal of the Jewish nation. To individual psalms other titles are sometimes prefixed, such as shir, "song"; tehillah, "praise"; tephillah, "prayer," etc. The Psalter was both prayerbook and hymnal to the Jewish people. It was also a manual for the nurture of the spiritual life in private as well as public worship. 2. Place in the Canon: The Psalms were placed in the kethubhim or "Writings," the third group of the Hebrew Scriptures. As the chief book of the kethubhim, the Psalter appears first in the great majority of German manuscripts, though the Spanish manuscripts place Psalms after Chronicles, and the Talmud puts Ruth before Psalms. There has never been any serious question as to the right of the Psalter to a place in the Canon of Scripture. The book is possibly more highly esteemed among Christians than by the Jews. If Christians were permitted to retain only one book in the Old Testament, they would almost certainly choose Psalms. By 100 BC, and probably at a much earlier date, the Book of Psalms was completed and recognized as part of the Hagiographa, the 3rd division of the Hebrew Bible...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/P/PSALMS,...

Book of Psalms in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The present Hebrew name of the book is Tehill'im, "Praises;" but in the actual superscriptions of the psalms the word Tehillah is applied only to one, Ps 145:1 ... which is indeed emphatically a praise-hymn. The LXX. entitled them psalmoi or "psalms," i.e., lyrical pieces to be sung to a musical instrument. The Christian Church obviously received the Psalter from the Jews not only as a constituent portion of the sacred volume of Holy Scripture, but also as the liturgical hymn-book which the Jewish Church had regularly used in the temple. Division of the Psalms. --The book contains 150 psalms, and may be divided into five great divisions or books, which must have been originally formed at different periods. Book I. is, by the superscriptions, entirely Davidic nor do we find in it a trace of any but David's authorship. We may well believe that the compilation of the book was also David's work. Book II. appears by the date of its latest psalm, Ps 46:1 ... to have been compiled in the reign of King Hezekiah. It would naturally comprise, 1st, several or most of the Levitical psalms anterior to that date; and 2d, the remainder of the psalms of David previously uncompiled. To these latter the collector after properly appending the single psalm of Solomon has affixed the notice that "the prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended." Ps 72:20 Book III., the interest of which centers in the times of Hezekiah stretches out, by its last two psalms, to the reign of Manasseh: it was probably compiled in the reign of Josiah. It contains seventeen psalms, from Psal 73- 89 eleven by Asaph, four by the sons of Horah, one (86) by David, and one by Ethan. Book IV. contains the remainder of the psalms up to the date of the captivity, There are seventeen, from Psal 90-106 --one by Moses, two by David, and the rest anonymous. Book V., the psalms of the return, contains forty-four, from Psal 107-180 --fifteen by David, one by Solomon and the rest anonymous. There is nothing to distinguish these two books from each other in respect of outward decoration or arrangement and they may have been compiled together in the days of Nehemiah. Connection of the Psalms with Israelitish history. --The psalm of Moses Psal 90, which is in point of actual date the earliest, faithfully reflects the long, weary wanderings, the multiplied provocations and the consequent punishments of the wilderness. It is, however, with David that Israelitish psalmody may be said virtually to commence. Previous mastery over his harp had probably already prepared the way for his future strains, when the anointing oil of Samuel descended upon him, and he began to drink in special measure, from that day forward, of the Spirit of the Lord. It was then that, victorious at home over the mysterious melancholy of Saul and in the held over the vaunting champion of the Philistine hosts, he sang how from even babes and sucklings God had ordained strength because of his enemies. Psal 8. His next psalms are of a different character; his persecutions at the hands of Saul had commenced. When David's reign has begun, it is still with the most exciting incidents of his history, private or public, that his psalms are mainly associated...

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/P/Psalm...

Psalms in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The psalms are the production of various authors. "Only a portion of the Book of Psalms claims David as its author. Other inspired poets in successive generations added now one now another contribution to the sacred collection, and thus in the wisdom of Providence it more completely reflects every phase of human emotion and circumstances than it otherwise could." But it is specially to David and his contemporaries that we owe this precious book. In the "titles" of the psalms, the genuineness of which there is no sufficient reason to doubt, 73 are ascribed to David. Peter and John (Acts 4:25) ascribe to him also the second psalm, which is one of the 48 that are anonymous. About two-thirds of the whole collection have been ascribed to David. Psalms 39, 62, and 77 are addressed to Jeduthun, to be sung after his manner or in his choir. Psalms 50 and 73- 83 are addressed to Asaph, as the master of his choir, to be sung in the worship of God. The "sons of Korah," who formed a leading part of the Kohathite singers (2 Chr. 20:19), were intrusted with the arranging and singing of Ps. 42, 44-49, 84, 85, 87, and 88. In Luke 24:44 the word "psalms" means the Hagiographa, i.e., the holy writings, one of the sections into which the Jews divided the Old Testament. (See BIBLE -T0000580.) None of the psalms can be proved to have been of a later date than the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, hence the whole collection extends over a period of about 1,000 years. There are in the New Testament 116 direct quotations from the Psalter. The Psalter is divided, after the analogy of the Pentateuch, into five books, each closing with a doxology or benediction: (1.) The first book comprises the first 41 psalms, all of which are ascribed to David except 1, 2, 10, and 33, which, though anonymous, may also be ascribed to him. (2.) Book second consists of the next 31 psalms (42- 72), 18 of which are ascribed to David and 1 to Solomon (the 72nd). The rest are anonymous. (3.) The third book contains 17 psalms (73-89), of which the 86th is ascribed to David, the 88th to Heman the Ezrahite, and the 89th to Ethan the Ezrahite. (4.) The fourth book also contains 17 psalms (90- 106), of which the 90th is ascribed to Moses, and the 101st and 103rd to David. (5.) The fifth book contains the remaining psalms, 44 in number. Of these, 15 are ascribed to David, and the 127th to Solomon. Ps. 136 is generally called "the great hallel." But the Talmud includes also Ps. 120-135. Ps. 113-118, inclusive, constitute the "hallel" recited at the three great feasts, at the new moon, and on the eight days of the feast of dedication. "It is presumed that these several collections were made at times of high religious life: the first, probably, near the close of David's life; the second in the days of Solomon; the third by the singers of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 20:19); the fourth by the men of Hezekiah (29, 30, 31); and the fifth in the days of Ezra." The Mosaic ritual makes no provision for the service of song in the worship of God. David first taught the Church to sing the praises of the Lord. He first introduced into the ritual of the tabernacle music and song. Divers names are given to the psalms. (1.) Some bear the Hebrew designation _shir_ (Gr. ode, a song). Thirteen have this title. It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight line or in a regular strain. This title includes secular as well as sacred song. (2.) Fifty-eight psalms bear the designation (Heb.) _mitsmor_ (Gr. psalmos, a psalm), a lyric ode, or a song set to music; a sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument. (3.) Ps. 145, and many others, have the designation (Heb.) _tehillah_ (Gr. hymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God. (4.) Six psalms (16, 56-60) have the title (Heb.) _michtam_ (q.v.). (5.) Ps. 7 and Hab. 3 bear the title (Heb.) _shiggaion_ (q.v.).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/P/Psal...

Psalms in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

(See DAVID; POETRY.) The Hebrew designation tehillim, "praises" or hymns," occurring only in the title of Psalm 145 and about 30 times in the body of the Psalms, applies only to some not to all the psalms. The glorification of God is the design of them all, even the penitentiary and precatory psalms; but tehilliym applies strictly to praise songs alone, tephillowt to the prayer songs; Psalm 17; Psalm 72 end, closing the second book of Psalms, Psalm 86; 90; 102 title. No one Hebrew title comprehends all. The Greek Septuagint has given the title "Psalms" (from psalloo "to play an instrument") applied to the whole collection. The Hebrew mizmor designates 65 psalms; in the Syriac version it comprises the whole (from zaamar "to decorate"), psalms of artificial, adorned structure (Hengstenberg). "A rhythmical composition" (Lowth). "Psalms," the designation most applicable to the whole book, means songs accompanied by an instrument, especially the harp (1 Chronicles 16:4-9; 2 Chronicles 5:12-13). Shir, "a joyful thanksgiving song," is prefixed only to some. The various kinds are specified in Ephesians 5:19; "psalms (accompanied by an instrument), hymns (indirect praise of God), ... spiritual songs (joyous lyric pieces; contrast Amos 8:10)." TITLES. Their genuineness is confirmed by their antiquity (which is proved by their being unintelligible to the Septuagint translators of the Hebrew into Greek), and by their presence in the greatest number of manuscripts, and in fragments of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion. Their obscurity and occasional want of connection with the psalm's contents (as title Psalm 34) are incompatible with their origination from forgers. The orientals, moreover, usually prefix titles to poems (Habakkuk 3:1; Isaiah 38:9); so David (2 Samuel 23:1). The enigmatical titles, found only in the psalms of David and of David's singers, accord with Eastern taste. They are too "poetical, spirited, and profound for any later collector" (Hengstenberg). So David's "bow song" (2 Samuel 1:18), his enigmatical designation for "the song on him expert with the bow" (2 Samuel 1:22)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/P/Psa...

Revelation of John in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE The last book of the New Testament. It professes to be the record of prophetic visions given by Jesus Christ to John, while the latter was a prisoner, "for the word of God and the testimony of Jesus" (Rev 1:9), in PATMOS (which see), a small rocky island in the Aegean, about 15 miles West of Ephesus. Its precursor in the Old Testament is the Book of Dnl, with the symbolic visions and mystical numbers of which it stands in close affinity. The peculiar form of the book, its relation to other "apocalyptic" writings, and to the Fourth Gospel, likewise attributed to John, the interpretation of its symbols, with disputed questions of its date, of worship, unity, relations to contemporary history, etc., have made it one of the most difficult books in the New Testament to explain satisfactorily. I. Title and General Character of Book. 1. Title: "Revelation" answers to apokalupsis, in Rev 1:1. The oldest form of the title would seem to be simply, "Apocalypse of John," the appended words "the divine" (theologos, i.e. "theologian") not being older than the 4th century (compare the title given to Gregory of Nazianzus, "Gregory theologian"). The book belongs to the class of works commonly named "apocalyptic," as containing visions and revelations of the future, frequently in symbolical form (e.g. the Book of Enoch, the Apocalypse of Bar, the Apocalypse of Ezr; see APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE), but it is doubtful if the word here bears this technical sense. The tendency at present is to group the New Testament Apocalypse with these others, and attribute to it the same kind of origin as theirs, namely, in the unbridled play of religious fantasy, clothing itself in unreal visional form...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/R/REVELAT...

Revelation, 1-2 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. The Nature of Revelation. 1. The Religion of the Bible the Only Supernatural Religion: The religion of the Bible is a frankly supernatural religion. By this is not meant merely that, according to it, all men, as creatures, live, move and have their being in God. It is meant that, according to it, God has intervened extraordinarily, in the course of the sinful world's development, for the salvation of men otherwise lost. In Eden the Lord God had been present with sinless man in such a sense as to form a distinct element in his social environment (Gen 3:8). This intimate association was broken up by the Fall. But God did not therefore withdraw Himself from concernment with men. Rather, He began at once a series of interventions in human history by means of which man might be rescued from his sin and, despite it, brought to the end destined for him. These interventions involved the segregation of a people for Himself, by whom God should be known, and whose distinction should be that God should be "nigh unto them" as He was not to other nations (Dt 4:7; Ps 145:18). But this people was not permitted to imagine that it owed its segregation to anything in itself fitted to attract or determine the Divine preference; no consciousness was more poignant in Israel than that Yahweh had chosen it, not it Him, and that Yahweh's choice of it rested solely on His gracious will. Nor was this people permitted to imagine that it was for its own sake alone that it had been singled out to be the sole recipient of the knowledge of Yahweh; it was made clear from the beginning that God's mysteriously gracious dealing with it had as its ultimate end the blessing of the whole world (Gen 12:2,3; 17:4,5,6,16; 18:18; 22:18; compare Rom 4:13), the bringing together again of the divided families of the earth under the glorious reign of Yahweh, and the reversal of the curse under which the whole world lay for its sin (Gen 12:3). Meanwhile, however, Yahweh was known only in Israel. To Israel God showed His word and made known His statutes and judgments, and after this fashion He dealt with no other nation; and therefore none other knew His judgments (Ps 147:19 f). Accordingly, when the hope of Israel (who was also the desire of all nations) came, His own lips unhesitatingly declared that the salvation He brought, though of universal application, was "from the Jews" (Jn 4:22). And the nations to which this salvation had not been made known are declared by the chief agent in its proclamation to them to be, meanwhile, "far off," "having no hope" and "without God in the world" (Eph 2:12), because they were aliens from the commonwealth of Israel and strangers from the covenant of the promise...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/R/REVELAT...

Revelation, 3-4 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

III. The Modes of Revelation. 1. Modes of Revelation: Theophany may be taken as the typical form of "external manifestation"; but by its side may be ranged all of those mighty works by which God makes Himself known, including express miracles, no doubt, but along with them every supernatural intervention in the affairs of men, by means of which a better understanding is communicated of what God is or what are His purposes of grace to a sinful race. Under "internal suggestion" may be subsumed all the characteristic phenomena of what is most properly spoken of as "prophecy": visions and dreams, which, according to a fundamental passage (Nu 12:6), constitute the typical forms of prophecy, and with them the whole "prophetic word," which shares its essential characteristic with visions and dreams, since it comes not by the will of man but from God. By "concursive operation" may be meant that form of revelation illustrated in an inspired psalm or epistle or history, in which no human activity--not even the control of the will--is superseded, but the Holy Spirit works in, with and through them all in such a manner as to communicate to the product qualities distinctly superhuman. There is no age in the history of the religion of the Bible, from that of Moses to that of Christ and His apostles, in which all these modes of revelation do not find place. One or another may seem particularly characteristic of this age or of that; but they all occur in every age. And they occur side by side, broadly speaking, on the same level. No discrimination is drawn between them in point of worthiness as modes of revelation, and much less in point of purity in the revelations communicated through them. The circumstance that God spoke to Moses, not by dream or vision but mouth to mouth, is, indeed, adverted to (Nu 12:8) as a proof of the peculiar favor shown to Moses and even of the superior dignity of Moses above other organs of revelation: God admitted him to an intimacy of intercourse which He did not accord to others. But though Moses was thus distinguished above all others in the dealings of God with him, no distinction is drawn between the revelations given through him and those given through other organs of revelation in point either of Divinity or of authority. And beyond this we have no Scriptural warrant to go on in contrasting one mode of revelation with another. Dreams may seem to us little fitted to serve as vehicles of divine communications. But there is no suggestion in Scripture that revelations through dreams stand on a lower plane than any others; and we should not fail to remember that the essential characteristics of revelations through dreams are shared by all forms of revelation in which (whether we should call them visions or not) the images or ideas which fill, or pass in procession through, the consciousness are determined by some other power than the recipient's own will. It may seem natural to suppose that revelations rise in rank in proportion to the fullness of the engagement of the mental activity of the recipient in their reception. But we should bear in mind that the intellectual or spiritual quality of a revelation is not derived from the recipient but from its Divine Giver. The fundamental fact in all revelation is that it is from God. This is what gives unity to the whole process of revelation, given though it may be in divers portions and in divers manners and distributed though it may be through the ages in accordance with the mere will of God, or as it may have suited His developing purpose--this and its unitary end, which is ever the building up of the kingdom of God. In whatever diversity of forms, by means of whatever variety of modes, in whatever distinguishable stages it is given, it is ever the revelation of the One God, and it is ever the one consistently developing redemptive revelation of God...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/R/REVELAT...

Revelation of St. John in Smiths Bible Dictionary

the last book of the New Testament. It is often called the Apocalypse, which is its title in Greek, signifying "Revelation," 1. Canonical authority and authorship. --The inquiry as to the canonical authority of the Revelation resolves itself into a question of authorship. Was St. John the apostle and evangelist the writer of the Revelation? The evidence adduced in support of his being the author consists of (1) the assertions of the author and (2) historical tradition. (1) The author's description of himself in the 1st and 22d chapters is certainly equivalent to an assertion that he is the apostle. He names himself simply John, without prefix or addition. is also described as a servant of Christ, one who had borne testimony as an eye-witness of the word of God and of the testimony of Christ. He is in Patmos for the word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ. He is also a fellow sufferer with those whom he addresses, and the authorized channel of the most direct and important communication that was ever made to the Seven Churches of Asia, of which churches John the apostle was at that time the spiritual governor and teacher. Lastly, the writer was a fellow servant of angels and a brother of prophets. All these marks are found united in the apostle John, and in him alone of all historical persons. (2) A long series of writers testify to St. John's authorship: Justin Martyr (cir. 150 A.D.), Eusebius, Irenaeus (A.D. 195), Clement of Alexandria (about 200), Tertullian (207), Origen (233). All the foregoing writers, testifying that the book came from an apostle, believed that it was a part of Holy Scripture. The book was admitted into the list of the Third Council of Carthage, A.D. 397. 2. Time and place of writing. --The date of the Revelation is given by the great majority of critics as A.D. 95-97. Irenaeus says: "It (i.e. the Revelation) was seen no very long time ago, but almost in our own generation, at the close of Domitian's reign. Eusebius also records that, in the persecution under Domitian, John the apostle and evangelist was banished to the Island Patmos for his testimony of the divine word. There is no mention in any writer of the first three centuries of any other time or place, and the style in which the messages to the Seven Churches are delivered rather suggests the notion that the book was written in Patmos. 3. Interpretation. --Modern interpreters are generally placed in three great divisions: (a) The Historical or Continuous exposition, in whose opinion the Revelation is a progressive history of the fortunes of the Church from the first century to the end of time. (b) The Praeterist expositors, who are of opinion that the Revelation has been almost or altogether fulfilled in the time which has passed since it was written; that it refers principally to the triumph of Christianity over Judaism and Paganism, signalized in the downfall of Jerusalem and of Rome. (c) The Futurist expositors, whose views show a strong reaction against some extravagances of the two preceding schools. They believe that the whole book, excepting perhaps the first three chapters, refers principally, if not exclusively, to events which are yet-to come. Dr.Arnold in his sermons "On the Interpretation of Prophecy" suggests that we should bear in mind that predictions have a lower historical sense as well as a higher spiritual sense; that there may be one or more than one typical, imperfect, historical fulfillment of the prophecy, in each of which the higher spiritual fulfillment is shadowed forth more or less distinctly.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/R/Revel...

Book of Revelation in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The Apocalypse, the closing book and the only prophetical book of the New Testament canon. The author of this book was undoubtedly John the apostle. His name occurs four times in the book itself (1:1, 4, 9; 22:8), and there is every reason to conclude that the "John" here mentioned was the apostle. In a manuscript of about the twelfth century he is called "John the divine," but no reason can be assigned for this appellation. The date of the writing of this book has generally been fixed at A.D. 96, in the reign of Domitian. There are some, however, who contend for an earlier date, A.D. 68 or 69, in the reign of Nero. Those who are in favour of the later date appeal to the testimony of the Christian father Irenaeus, who received information relative to this book from those who had seen John face to face. He says that the Apocalypse "was seen no long time ago." As to the relation between this book and the Gospel of John, it has been well observed that "the leading ideas of both are the same. The one gives us in a magnificent vision, the other in a great historic drama, the supreme conflict between good and evil and its issue. In both Jesus Christ is the central figure, whose victory through defeat is the issue of the conflict. In both the Jewish dispensation is the preparation for the gospel, and the warfare and triumph of the Christ is described in language saturated with the Old Testament. The difference of date will go a long way toward explaining the difference of style." Plummer's Gospel of St. John, Introd.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/R/Reve...

The Revelation of St. John in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Authorship and authenticity. The writer calls himself John (Revelation 1:1; Revelation 1:4; Revelation 1:9; Revelation 22:8). Justin Martyr (Dial. 308, A.D. 139-161) quotes it as the apostle John's work, referring to the millennium and general resurrection and judgment. Justin held his controversy with the learned Jew Trypho at Ephesus, John's residence 35 years previously; he says "the Revelation was given to John, one of the twelve apostles of Christ." Melito, bishop of Sardis (A.D. 171), one of the seven churches whose angel was reproved (Revelation 3:1), is said by Eusebius (H.E. iv. 26) to have written on the Revelation of John. So, Theophilus of Antioch (A.D. 180) quoted from the Revelation of John (Eusebius iv. 26), also Apollonius of Asia Minor in the end of the second century. Irenaeus (A.D. 195), a hearer of Polycarp (John's disciple, probably the angel of the Smyrnean church, Usher), quotes repeatedly Revelation as the apostle John's writing (Haer. iv. 20, section 11; 21, section 3; 30, section 4; 5:26, section 1; 30, section 3; 35, section 2). In v. 30, section 1 he quotes the beast's number 666 (Revelation 13:18) as in all the old copies, and orally confirmed to him by persons who had seen John, adding "we do not hazard a confident theory as to Antichrist's name, for if it had been necessary that his name should be proclaimed openly at this present time it would have been declared by him who saw the apocalyptic vision, for it was seen not long ago, but almost in our generation, toward the end of Domitian's reign." In writing "against heresies" ten years after Polycarp's martyrdom he quotes Revelation 20 times as inspired Scripture. These are testimonies of those contemporary with John's immediate successors, and connected with the region of the seven churches to which Revelation is addressed. Tertullian of northern Africa (A.D. 220, Adv. Marcion iii. 14, 24) quotes the apostle John's description of the sword proceeding out of Christ's mouth (Revelation 19:15), and the heavenly city (Revelation 21). See also De Resurr. 27; De Anima 8:9; De Praescr. Haeretic, 33...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/R/Rev...

Epistle to the Romans in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE This is the greatest, in every sense, of the apostolic letters of Paul; in scale, in scope, and in its wonderful combination of doctrinal, ethical and administrative wisdom and power. In some respects the later Epistles, Ephesians and Colossians, lead us to even higher and deeper arcana of revelation, and they, like Romans, combine with the exposition of truth a luminous doctrine of duty. But the range of Roman is larger in both directions, and presents us also with noble and far-reaching discussions of Christian polity, instructions in spiritual utterance and the like, to which those Epistles present no parallel, and which only the Corinthian Epistles rival. 1. Its Genuineness: No suspicion on the head of the genuineness of the Epistle exists which needs serious consideration. Signs of the influence of the Epistle can be traced, at least very probably, in the New Testament itself; in 1 Peter, and, as some think, in James. But in our opinion Jas was the earlier writing, and Lightfoot has given strong grounds for the belief that the paragraph on faith and justification (Jas 2) has no reference to perversions of Pauline teaching, but deals with rabbinism. Clement of Rome repeatedly quotes Romans, and so do Ignatius, Polycarp, Justin. Marcion includes it in his list of Pauline Epistles, and it is safe to say in general Romans "has been recognized in the Christian church as long as any collection of Paul's Epistles has been extant" (A. Robertson, in HDB, under the word). But above all other evidences it testifies to itself. The fabrication of such a writing, with its close and complex thought, its power and marked originality of treatment, its noble morale, and its spiritual elevation and ardor, is nothing short of a moral impossibility. A mighty mind and equally great heart live in every page, and a soul exquisitely sensitive and always intent upon truth and holiness. Literary personation is an art which has come to anything like maturity only in modern times, certainly not before the Renaissance. In a fully developed form it is hardly earlier than the 19th century. And even now who can point to a consciously personated authorship going along with high moral principle and purpose?...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/R/ROMANS,...

Epistle to the Romans in Smiths Bible Dictionary

1. The date of this epistle is fixed at the time of the visit recorded in Acts 20:3 during the winter and spring following the apostle's long residence at Ephesus A.D. 58. On this visit he remained in Greece three months. 2. The place of writing was Corinth. 3. The occasion which prompted it,,and the circumstances attending its writing, were as follows:--St. Paul had long purposed visiting Rome, and still retained this purpose, wishing also to extend his journey to Spain. Etom. 1:9-13; 15:22-29. For the time, however, he was prevented from carrying out his design, as he was bound for Jerusalem with the alms of the Gentile Christians, and meanwhile he addressed this letter to the Romans, to supply the lack of his personal teaching. Phoebe, a deaconess of the neighboring church of Cenchreae, was on the point of starting for Rome, ch. Ro 16:1,2 and probably conveyed the letter. The body of the epistle was written at the apostle's dictation by Tertius, ch. Ro 16:22 but perhaps we may infer, from the abruptness of the final doxology, that it was added by the apostle himself. 4. The origin of the Roman church is involved in obscurity. If it had been founded by St. Peter according to a later tradition, the absence of any allusion to him both in this epistle and in the letters written by St. Paul from Rome would admit of no explanation. It is equally clear that no other apostle was like founder. The statement in the Clementines --that the first tidings of the gospel reached Rome during the lifetime of our Lord is evidently a fiction for the purposes of the romance. On the other hand, it is clear that the foundation of this church dates very far back. It may be that some of these Romans, "both Jews and proselytes," present. On the day of Pentecost Ac 2:10 carried back the earliest tidings of the new doctrine; or the gospel may have first reached the imperial city through those who were scattered abroad to escape the persecution which followed on the death of Stephen. Ac 8:4; 11:10 At first we may suppose that the gospel had preached there in a confused and imperfect form, scarcely more than a phase of Judaism, as in the case of Apollos at Corinth, Ac 18:25 or the disciples at Ephesus. Ac 19:1-3 As time advanced and better-instructed teachers arrived the clouds would gradually clear away, fill at length the presence of the great apostle himself at Rome dispersed the mists of Judaism which still hung about the Roman church. 5. A question next arises as to the composition of the Roman church at the time when St. Paul wrote. It is more probable that St. Paul addressed a mixed church of Jews and Gentiles, the latter perhaps being the more numerous. These Gentile converts, however, were not for the most part native Romans. Strange as the: paradox appears, nothing is more certain than that the church of Rome was at this time a Greek and not a Latin church. All the literature of the early Roman church was written in the Greek tongue. 6. The heterogeneous composition of this church explains the general character of the Epistle to the Romans. In an assemblage so various we should expect to find, not the exclusive predominance of a single form of error, but the coincidence of different and opposing forms. It was: therefore the business of the Christian teacher to reconcile the opposing difficulties and to hold out a meeting-point in the gospel. This is exactly what St. Paul does in the Epistle to the Romans. 7. In describing the purport of this epistle we may start from St. Paul's own words, which, standing at the beginning of the doctrinal portion, may be taken as giving a summary of the contents. ch. Ro 1:16,17 Accordingly the epistle has been described as comprising "the religious philosophy of the world's history "The atonement of Christ is the centre of religious history. The epistle, from its general character, lends itself more readily to an analysis than is often the case with St. Paul's epistles. While this epistle contains the fullest and most systematic exposition of the apostle's teaching, it is at the same time a very striking expression of his character. Nowhere do his earnest and affectionate nature and his tact and delicacy in handling unwelcome topics appear more strongly than when he is dealing with the rejection of his fellow country men the Jews. Internal evidence is so strongly in favor of the genuineness of the Epistle to the Romans that it has never been seriously questioned.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/R/Roman...

Epistle to the Romans in Easton's Bible Dictionary

This epistle was probably written at Corinth. Phoebe (Rom. 16:1) of Cenchrea conveyed it to Rome, and Gaius of Corinth entertained the apostle at the time of his writing it (16:23; 1 Cor. 1:14), and Erastus was chamberlain of the city, i.e., of Corinth (2 Tim. 4:20). The precise time at which it was written is not mentioned in the epistle, but it was obviously written when the apostle was about to "go unto Jerusalem to minister unto the saints", i.e., at the close of his second visit to Greece, during the winter preceding his last visit to that city (Rom. 15:25; comp. Acts 19:21; 20:2, 3, 16; 1 Cor. 16:1-4), early in A.D. 58. It is highly probable that Christianity was planted in Rome by some of those who had been at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:10). At this time the Jews were very numerous in Rome, and their synagogues were probably resorted to by Romans also, who in this way became acquainted with the great facts regarding Jesus as these were reported among the Jews. Thus a church composed of both Jews and Gentiles was formed at Rome. Many of the brethren went out to meet Paul on his approach to Rome. There are evidences that Christians were then in Rome in considerable numbers, and had probably more than one place of meeting (Rom. 16:14, 15). The object of the apostle in writing to this church was to explain to them the great doctrines of the gospel. His epistle was a "word in season." Himself deeply impressed with a sense of the value of the doctrines of salvation, he opens up in a clear and connected form the whole system of the gospel in its relation both to Jew and Gentile. This epistle is peculiar in this, that it is a systematic exposition of the gospel of universal application. The subject is here treated argumentatively, and is a plea for Gentiles addressed to Jews. In the Epistle to the Galatians, the same subject is discussed, but there the apostle pleads his own authority, because the church in Galatia had been founded by him. After the introduction (1:1-15), the apostle presents in it divers aspects and relations the doctrine of justification by faith (1:16-11:36) on the ground of the imputed righteousness of Christ. He shows that salvation is all of grace, and only of grace. This main section of his letter is followed by various practical exhortations (12:1-15:13), which are followed by a conclusion containing personal explanations and salutations, which contain the names of twenty-four Christians at Rome, a benediction, and a doxology (Rom. 15:14-ch. 16).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/R/Roma...

Epistle to the Romans in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

AUTHENTICITY, GENUINENESS. Peter (2 Peter 3:15-16) quotes Romans 2:4, calling it "Scripture." The epistles of Clement (Cor. 35) and Polycarp (ad Philippians 6) quote respectively Romans 1:29-32 and Romans 14:10-12. Irenaeus (iv. 27, section 2) quotes it as Paul's (Romans 4:10-11). Melito's "Hearing of Faith" is entitled from Romans 10 or Galatians 3:2-3. The Muratorian Canon, Syriac and Old Latin versions, have it. Heretics admitted its canonicity; so the Ophites (Hippol. Haer. 99; Romans 1:20-26); Basilides (238, Romans 8:19-22; Romans 5:13-14); Valentinus (195, Romans 8:11); the Valentinians Heracleon and Ptolemaeus; Tatian (Orat. 4, Romans 1:20), and Marcion's canon. The epistle of the churches of Vienne and Lyons (Eusebius, H. E. v. 1; Romans 8:18); Athenagoras (13, Romans 12:1; Romans 12:37; Romans 1:24); Theophilus of Antioch (Autol. 79, Romans 2:6; Romans 2:126; Romans 13:7-8). Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria often quote it. DATE AND PLACE OF WRITING. Paul wrote while at Corinth, for he commends to the Romans Phoebe, deaconess of Cenchreae, the port of Corinth (Romans 16:1-2). He was lodging at Gaius' house (Romans 16:23), a chief member of the Corinthian church (1 Corinthians 1:14). Erastus, "treasurer" ("chamberlain", KJV), belonged to Corinth (2 Timothy 4:20; Acts 19:22). The time was during his visit in the winter and spring following his long stay at Ephesus (Romans 20:3); for he was just about to carry the contributions of Macedonia and Achaia to Jerusalem (Romans 15:25-27; compare Acts 20:22), just after his stay at Corinth at this time (Acts 24:17; 1 Corinthians 16:4; 2 Corinthians 8:1-2; 2 Corinthians 9:1, etc.). His design of visiting Rome after Jerusalem (Romans 15:23-25) at this particular time appears incidentally from Acts 19:21. Thus, Paul wrote it in his third missionary journey, at the second of the two visas to Corinth recorded in Acts. He remained then three months in Greece. He was on the point of sailing to Jerusalem when obliged to alter his purpose; the sea therefore was by this time navigable. It was not late in the spring, for, after passing through Macedon and visiting the coast of Asia Minor, he still expected to reach Jerusalem by Pentecost (Acts 20:16). He must therefore have written the epistle to the Romans early in spring, A.D. 58. Thus, it is logically connected with the epistles to the Galatians and Corinthians. He wrote 1 Corinthians before leaving Ephesus; 2 Corinthians on his way to Corinth; and Galatians at Corinth, where also he wrote Romans. Hence, the resemblance of these two epistles in style and substance. The epistle to the Galatians and the two almost contemporaneous epistles to the Corinthians are the most intense in feeling and varied in expression of Paul's epistles...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/R/Rom...

The Book of Ruth in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

1. Order in the Canon: The place which the Book of Ruth occupies in the order of the books of the English Bible is not that of the Hebrew Canon. There it is one of the five meghilloth or Rolls, which were ordered to be read in the synagogue on 5 special occasions or festivals during the year. In printed editions of the Old Testament the megilloth are usually arranged in the order: Cant, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiates, Esther. Ruth occupied the second position because the book was appointed to be read at the Feast of Weeks which was the second of the 5 special days. In Hebrew manuscripts, however, the order varies considerably. In Spanish manuscripts generally, and in one at least of the German school cited by Dr. Ginsburg (Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, London, 1897, 4), Ruth precedes Cant; and in the former Ecclesiastes is placed before Lamentations. The meghilloth constitute the second portion of the kethubhim or Haigographa, the third great division of the books of the Hebrew Scriptures. The Talmud, however, dissociates Ruth altogether from the remaining meghilloth, and places it first among the Hagiographa, before the Book of Psalms. By the Greek translators the book was removed from the position which it held in the Hebrew Canon, and because it described events contemporaneous with the Judges, was attached as a kind of appendix to the latter work. This sequence was adopted in the Vulgate, and so has passed into all modern Bibles...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/R/RUTH,+T...

Ruth in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

rooth (ruth; Rhouth): The name Ruth is found in the Old Testament only in the book which is so entitled. It is a contraction for re'uth perhaps signifying "comrade," "companion" (feminine; compare Ex 11:2, "every woman of her neighbor"). OHL, 946, explains the word as an abstract noun = "friendship." The Book of Ruth details the history of the one decisive episode owing to which Ruth became an ancestress of David and of the royal house of Judah. From this point of view its peculiar interest lies in the close friendship or alliance between Israel and Moab, which rendered such a connection possible. Not improbably also there is an allusion to this in the name itself. 1. History: The history lies in the period of the Judges (Ruth 1:1), at the close of a great famine in the land of Israel. Elimelech, a native of Bethlehem, had, with his wife Naomi and two sons, taken refuge in Moab from the famine. There, after an interval of time which is not more precisely defined, he died (Ruth 1:3), and his two sons, having married women of Moab, in the course of a further ten years also died, and left Orpah and Ruth widows (Ruth 1:5). Naomi then decided to return to Israel, and her two daughters-in- law accompanied her on her way (Ruth 1:7). Orpah, however, turned back and only Ruth remained with Naomi, journeying with her to Bethlehem, where they arrived "in the beginning of barley harvest" (Ruth 1:22). The piety and fidelity of Ruth are thus early exhibited in the course of the narrative, in that she refused to abandon her mother-in-law, although thrice exhorted to do so by Naomi herself, on account of her own great age and the better prospects for Ruth in her own country. Orpah yielded to persuasion, and returned to Moab; but Ruth remained with Naomi. At Bethlehem Ruth employed herself in gleaning in the field during the harvest and was noticed by Boaz, the owner of the field, a near kinsman of her father-in-law Elimelech. Boaz gave her permission to glean as long as the harvest continued; and told her that he had heard of her filial conduct toward her mother-in-law. Moreover, he directed the reapers to make intentional provision for her by dropping in her way grain from their bundles (Ruth 2:15 f). She was thus able to return to Naomi in the evening with a whole ephah of barley (Ruth 2:17). In answer to questioning she explained that her success in gleaning was due to the good-will of Boaz, and the orders that he had given. She remained accordingly and gleaned with his maidens throughout the barley and wheat harvest, making her home with her mother- in-law (Ruth 2:23). Naomi was anxious for the remarriage of Ruth, both for her sake and to secure compliance with the usage and law of Israel; and sent her to Boaz to recall to him his duty as near kinsman of her late husband Elimelech (Ruth 3:1 f). Boaz acknowledged the claim and promised to take Ruth in marriage, failing fulfillment of the legal duty of another whose relationship was nearer than that of Boaz himself (Ruth 3:8-13). Naomi was confident that Boaz would fulfill his promise, and advised Ruth to wait in patience...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/R/RUTH/...

Book of Ruth in Smiths Bible Dictionary

contains the history of Ruth, as narrated in the preceding article. The main object of the writer is evidently to give an account of David's ancestors; and the book was avowedly composed long after the time of the heroine. See Ru 1:1; 4:7,17 Its date and author are quite uncertain. Tradition is in favor of Samuel. It is probable that the books of Judges, Ruth, Samuel and Kings originally formed but one work. The book of Ruth clearly forms part of the books of Samuel, supplying as it does the essential point of David's genealogy and early family history, and is no less clearly connected with the book of Judges by its opening verse and the epoch to which the whole book relates.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/R/Ruth,...

Ruth in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(a female friend) a Moabitish woman, the wife, first of Mahlon, second of Boaz, the ancestress of David and Christ,and one of the four women who are named by St. Matthew in the genealogy of Christ. A severe famine in the land of Judah induced Elimelech, a native of Bethlehem -- ephratah, to emigrate into the land of Moab, with his wife Naomi, and his two sons, Mahlon and Chilion. This was probably about the time of Gideon, B.C. 1250. At the end of ten years Naomi now left a widow and childless, having heard that there was plenty again in Judah, resolved to return to Bethlehem, and her daughter-in-law Ruth returned with her. They arrived at Bethlehem just at the beginning of barley harvest, and Ruth, going out to glean, chanced to go into the field of wheat, a wealthy man and a near kinsman of her father-in-law, Elimelech. Upon learning who the stranger was, Boaz treated her with the utmost kindness and respect, and sent her home laden with corn which she had gleaned. Encouraged by this incident, Naomi instructed Ruth to claim at the hand of Boaz that he should perform the part of her husband's near kinsman, by purchasing the inheritance of Elimelech and taking her to be his wife. With all due solemnity, Boaz took Ruth to be his wife, amidst the blessings and congratulations of their neighbors. Their son, Obed, was 'the father of Jesse, who was the father of David.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/R/Ruth/...

The Book of Ruth in Easton's Bible Dictionary

was originally a part of the Book of Judges, but it now forms one of the twenty-four separate books of the Hebrew Bible. The history it contains refers to a period perhaps about one hundred and twenty-six years before the birth of David. It gives (1) an account of Naomi's going to Moab with her husband, Elimelech, and of her subsequent return to Bethlehem with her daughter-in-law; (2) the marriage of Boaz and Ruth; and (3) the birth of Obed, of whom David sprang. The author of this book was probably Samuel, according to Jewish tradition. "Brief as this book is, and simple as is its story, it is remarkably rich in examples of faith, patience, industry, and kindness, nor less so in indications of the care which God takes of those who put their trust in him."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/R/Ruth...

Ruth in Easton's Bible Dictionary

a friend, a Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, whose father, Elimelech, had settled in the land of Moab. On the death of Elimelech and Mahlon, Naomi came with Ruth, her daughter-in-law, who refused to leave her, to Bethlehem, the old home from which Elimelech had migrated. There she had a rich relative, Boaz, to whom Ruth was eventually married. She became the mother of Obed, the grandfather of David. Thus Ruth, a Gentile, is among the maternal progenitors of our Lord (Matt. 1:5). The story of "the gleaner Ruth illustrates the friendly relations between the good Boaz and his reapers, the Jewish land system, the method of transferring property from one person to another, the working of the Mosaic law for the relief of distressed and ruined families; but, above all, handing down the unselfishness, the brave love, the unshaken trustfulness of her who, though not of the chosen race, was, like the Canaanitess Tamar (Gen. 38:29; Matt. 1:3) and the Canaanitess Rahab (Matt. 1:5), privileged to become the ancestress of David, and so of 'great David's greater Son'" (Ruth 4:18-22).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/R/Ruth...

Ruth in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

From Reuth, feminine of Reu, "friend." In beautiful contrast to Judges' end in internecine bloodshed, the book of Ruth is a picture of a peaceful, virtuous, filial obedience, and the rich reward of choosing the Lord at the sacrifice of all else. Orpah's end is shrouded in darkness, while Ruth is remembered to all generations as chosen ancestress of Messiah. Boaz' name is immoralized by linking himself with the poor Moabitess, while the kinsman who would not mar his own inheritance is unknown. Goethe said of this book, "we have nothing so lovely in the whole range of epic and idyllic poetry." Ruth is an instance of natural affection made instrumental in leading to true religion. A "blossom of pagandom stretching its flower cup desiringly toward the light of revelation in Israel." OBJECT. In Rth 4:18-22 the author shows his aim, namely, to give a biographical sketch of the pious ancestors of David the king. The book contains the inner and spiritual background of the genealogies so prominent in Scripture. The family life of David's ancestors is sketched to show how they walked in single hearted piety toward God, and justice and love, modesty and purity towards man. "Ruth the Moabite, great-greatgrandmother of David, longed for the God and people of Israel with all the deepest earnestness of her nature, and joined herself to them with all the power of love. Boaz was an Israelite without guile, full of holy reverence for every ordinance of God and man, and full of benevolent love and friendliness toward the poor pagan woman. From such ancestors was the man descended in whom all the nature of Israel was to find its royal concentration and fullest expression." (Auberlen)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/R/Rut...

Song of Songs in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE The full title in Hebrew is "The Song of Songs, which is Solomon's." The book is called by some Canticles, and by others Solomon's Song. The Hebrew title implies that it is the choicest of all songs, in keeping with the dictum of Rabbi `Aqiba (90-135 AD) that "the entire world, from the beginning until now, does not outweigh the day in which Canticles was given to Israel." I. Canonicity. Early Jewish and Christian writers are silent as to the Song of Songs. No use is made of it by Philo. There is no quotation from it in the New Testament, nor is there any clear allusion to it on the part of our Lord or the apostles. The earliest distinct references to the Song of Songs are found in Jewish writings of the 1st and 2nd centuries AD (4 Esdras 5:24,26; 7:26; Ta`anith 4:8). The question of the canonicity of the Song was debated as late as the Synod of Jamnia (circa 90 AD), when it was decided that Canticles was rightly reckoned to "defile the hands," i.e. was an inspired book. It should be borne in mind that the Song of Songs was already esteemed by the Jews as a sacred book, though prior to the Synod of Jamnia there was probably a goodly number of Jewish teachers who did not accept it as canonical. Selections from Canticles were sung at certain festivals in the temple at Jerusalem, prior to its destruction by Titus in 70 AD (Ta`anith 4:8). The Mishna pronounces an anathema on all who treat Canticles as a secular song (Sanhedhrin, 101a). The latest date for the composition of the Song of Songs, according to critics of the advanced school, is toward the close of the 3rd century BC. We may be sure that it was included in the Kethubhim before the ministry of our Lord, and so was for Him a part of the Scriptures. II. Text. Most scholars regard the text of Canticles as comparatively free from corruption. Gratz, Bickell, Budde and Cheyne have suggested a good many emendations of the traditional text, a few of which commend themselves as probable corrections of a faulty text, but most of which are mere guesses without sufficient confirmation from either external or internal evidence. For details see Budde's able commentary, and articles by Cheyne in JQR and Expository Times for 1898-99 and in the The Expositor, February, 1899...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SONG+OF...

Canticles in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(Song of Songs), entitled in the Authorized Version THE SONG OF SOLOMON. It was probably written by Solomon about B.C. 1012. It may be called a drama, as it contains the dramatic evolution of a simple love-story. Meaning.-- The schools of interpretation may be divided into three: the mystical or typical, the allegorical, and the literal. 1. The mystical interpretation owes its origin to the desire to find a literal basis of fact for the allegorical. This basis is either the marriage of Solomon with Pharoah's daughter or his marriage with an Israelitish woman, the Shulamite. 2. The allegorical. According to the Talmud the beloved is taken to be God; the loved one, or bride, is the congregation of Israel. In the Christian Church the Talmudical interpretation, imported by Origen, was all but universally received. 3. The literal interpretation. According to the most generally-received interpretation of the modern literalists, the Song is intended to display the victory of humble and constant love over the temptations of wealth and royalty. Canonicity.-- The book has been rejected from the Canon by some critics; but in no case has its rejection been defended on external grounds. It is found in the LXX. and in the translations of Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion. It is contained in the catalog given in the Talmud,a nd in the catalogue of Melito; and in short we have the same evidence for its canonicity as that which is commonly adduced for the canonicity of any book of the Old Testament.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/C/Canti...

Song of Solomon in Easton's Bible Dictionary

called also, after the Vulgate, the "Canticles." It is the "song of songs" (1:1), as being the finest and most precious of its kind; the noblest song, "das Hohelied," as Luther calls it. The Solomonic authorship of this book has been called in question, but evidences, both internal and external, fairly establish the traditional view that it is the product of Solomon's pen. It is an allegorical poem setting forth the mutual love of Christ and the Church, under the emblem of the bridegroom and the bride. (Compare Matt. 9:15; John 3:29; Eph. 5:23, 27, 29; Rev. 19:7-9; 21:2, 9; 22:17. Compare also Ps. 45; Isa. 54:4-6; 62:4, 5; Jer. 2:2; 3:1, 20; Ezek. 16; Hos. 2:16, 19, 20.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/S/Solo...

Solomon in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Shlomoh in Hebrew. Second child of David by Bathsheba. Josephus makes Solomon last born of David's sons (Ant. 7:14, section 2). His history is contained in 2 Samuel 12:24-25; 1 Chronicles 22:6-16; 1 Chronicles 22:1 Kings 1-11; 2 Chronicles 1-9. The leading events of his life were selected, under inspiration: namely, his grandeur, extensive commerce, and wisdom, etc. (1 Kings 9:10-10:29), from "the book of the Acts of Solomon"; his accession and dedication of the temple (1 Kings 1 - 1 Kings 8:66) from "the book of Nathan the prophet"; his idolatry and its penal consequences (1 Kings 11) from "the book of Ahijah the Shilonite and the visions of Iddo the seer." Psalm 72 was his production under the Spirit. Its objective character accords with Solomon's other writings, whereas subjective feeling characterizes David's psalms. Solomon's glorious and wide kingdom typifies Messiah's. The Nile, Mediterranean, and Euphrates, were then Israel's bounds (1 Kings 4:21; 2 Chronicles 9:26) as promised in Genesis 15:18; Deuteronomy 11:24. From thence Messiah is to reign to the ends of the earth (Deuteronomy 11:8; Isaiah 9:5-6; Isaiah 11; Zechariah 9:10; see Micah 5:4; Numbers 24:19). "The song of degrees," i.e. for Israelites going up to the great feasts at Jerusalem (Psalm 127), was also Solomon's. It has no trace of the sadness which pervades "the songs of degrees" without titles, and which accords with the post captivity period. The individual comes into prominence here, whereas they speak more of the nation and church. The theme suits Solomon who occupied chiefly the domestic civic territory. The main thought answers to Proverbs 10:22, "so God giveth His beloved sleep," i.e. undisturbed repose and wealth without the anxieties of the worldly, in a way they know not how (Mark 4:27). So God gave to His beloved S. in sleep (Hengstenberg supplies "in"); Matthew 6:25; Matthew 6:34. Jedidiah ("beloved of Jehovah," Psalm 127:2) was his God- given name (Psalm 60:5). Solomon evidently refers (Psalm 60:2) to his own experience (1 Kings 3:5-13; 1 Kings 4:20- 25), yet in so unstudied a way that the coincidence is evidently undesigned, and so confirms the authenticity of both psalm and independent history. (See PROVERBS; CANTICLES, THE SONG OF SOLOMON; ECCLESIASTES, THE BOOK OF.)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/S/Sol...

Solomon in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. Early Life. Solomon was the son of David and Bath-sheba, and became the 3rd king of Israel. 1. Name and Meaning: He was so named by his mother (2 Sam 12:24, Qere; see TEXT AND MANUSCRIPTS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT; TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT), but by the prophet Nathan, or by his father (Vulgate), he was called Jedidiah--"loved of Yahweh." The name "Solomon" is derived from the root meaning "to be quiet" or "peaceful," and Solomon was certainly the least warlike of all the kings of Israel or Judah, and in that respect a remarkable contrast to his father (so 1 Ch 22:9). His name in Hebrew compares with Irenaeus in Greek, Friedrich in German, and Selim in Arabic; but it has been suggested that the name should be pronounced shillumah, from the word denoting "compensation," Bath-sheba's second son being given in compensation for the loss of the first (but see 3, below). 2. Sources: The oldest sources for the biography of Solomon are doubtless the "Annals of Solomon" referred to in 1 Ki 11:41, the "history of Nathan the prophet," the "prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite" and the "visions of Iddo the seer," mentioned in 2 Ch 9:29, all which may be merely the relative sections of the great book of the "Annals of the Kings" from which our Books of Kings and Chronicles are both derived. These ancient works are, of course, lost to us save in so far as they have been embodied in the Old Testament narrative. There the life of South is contained in 2 Sam 12:24 f; 1 Ki 1 through 11; 1 Ch 22 through 2 Ch 9. Of these sources 2 Sam 12:24 f and 1 Ki 1; 2 are much the oldest and in fact form part of one document, 2 Sam 9 through 20; 1 Ki 1; 2 dealing with the domestic affairs of David, which may well be contemporary with the events it describes. The date of the composition of the Books of Chronicles is about 300 BC--700 years after the time of Solomon--and the date of the Books of Kings, as a completed work, must, of course, be later than the exile. Nothing of importance is gained from citations from early historians in Josephus and later writers. Far and away the best source for, at least, the inner life of Solomon would be the writings ascribed to him in the Old Testament, could we be sure that these were genuine (see below)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/S/SOLOMON...

Solomon in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(peaceful). I. Early life and occasion to the throne. -- Solomon was the child of David's old age, the last born of all his sons. 1Ch 3:5 The yearnings of the "man of war" led him to give to the new-horn infant the name of Solomon (Shelomoth, the peaceful one). Nathan, with a marked reference to the meaning of the king's own name (David, the darling, the beloved one), calls the infant Jedidiah (Jedid'yah), that is, the darling of the Lord. 2Sa 11:24,25 He was placed under the care of Nathan from his earliest infancy. At first, apparently, there was no distinct purpose to make him the heir. Absalom was still the king's favorite son, 2Sa 13:37; 18:33 and was looked on by the people as the destined successor. 2Sa 14:13; 15:1-6 The death of Absalom when Solomon was about ten years old left the place vacant, and David pledged his word in secret to Bath-sheba that he, and no other, should be the heir. 1Ki 1:13 The words which were spoken somewhat later express, doubtless, the purpose which guided him throughout. 1Ch 28:9, 20 His son's life should not he as his own had been, one of hardships and wars, dark crimes and passionate repentance, but, from first to last, be pure, blameless, peaceful, fulfilling the ideal of glory and of righteousness after which he himself had vainly striven. The glorious visions of Ps 72:1 ... may be looked on as the prophetic expansion of these hopes of his old age. So far,all was well. Apparently his influence over his son's character was one exclusively for good. Nothing that we know of Bath-sheba lends us to think of her as likely to mould her son's mind and heart to the higher forms of goodness. Under these influences the boy grew up. At the age of ten or eleven he must have passed through the revolt of Absalom, and shared his father's exile. 2Sa 15:16 He would be taught all that priests or Levites or prophets had to teach. When David was old and feeble, Adonijah, Solomon's older brother attempted to gain possession of the throne; but he was defeated, and Solomon went down to Gihon and was proclaimed and anointed king. A few months more and Solomon found himself, by his father's death, the sole occupant of the throne. The position to which he succeeded was unique. Never before, and never after, did the kingdom of Israel take its place among the great monarchies of the East. Large treasures, accumulated through many years, were at his disposal. II. Personal appearance. --Of Solomon's personal appearance we have no direct description, as we have of the earlier kings. There are, however, materials for filling up the gap...

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/S/Solom...

Solomon in Easton's Bible Dictionary

peaceful, (Heb. Shelomoh), David's second son by Bathsheba, i.e., the first after their legal marriage (2 Sam. 12). He was probably born about B.C. 1035 (1 Chr. 22:5; 29:1). He succeeded his father on the throne in early manhood, probably about sixteen or eighteen years of age. Nathan, to whom his education was intrusted, called him Jedidiah, i.e., "beloved of the Lord" (2 Sam. 12:24, 25). He was the first king of Israel "born in the purple." His father chose him as his successor, passing over the claims of his elder sons: "Assuredly Solomon my son shall reign after me." His history is recorded in 1 Kings 1-11 and 2 Chr. 1-9. His elevation to the throne took place before his father's death, and was hastened on mainly by Nathan and Bathsheba, in consequence of the rebellion of Adonijah (1 Kings 1:5-40). During his long reign of forty years the Hebrew monarchy gained its highest splendour. This period has well been called the "Augustan age" of the Jewish annals. The first half of his reign was, however, by far the brighter and more prosperous; the latter half was clouded by the idolatries into which he fell, mainly from his heathen intermarriages (1 Kings 11:1-8; 14:21, 31). Before his death David gave parting instructions to his son (1 Kings 2:1-9; 1 Chr. 22:7-16; 28). As soon as he had settled himself in his kingdom, and arranged the affairs of his extensive empire, he entered into an alliance with Egypt by the marriage of the daughter of Pharaoh (1 Kings 3:1), of whom, however, nothing further is recorded. He surrounded himself with all the luxuries and the external grandeur of an Eastern monarch, and his government prospered. He entered into an alliance with Hiram, king of Tyre, who in many ways greatly assisted him in his numerous undertakings. (See HIRAM For some years before his death David was engaged in the active work of collecting materials (1 Chr. 29:6-9; 2 Chr. 2:3-7) for building a temple in Jerusalem as a permanent abode for the ark of the covenant. He was not permitted to build the house of God (1 Chr. 22:8); that honour was reserved to his son Solomon. (See TEMPLE -T0003610.)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/S/Solo...

Epistle to Titus in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

TITUS or TITIUS JUSTUS (Titos or Titios Ioustos (Acts 18:7)): Titus or Titius--for the manuscripts vary in regard to the spelling--was the prenomen of a certain Corinthian, a Jewish proselyte (sebomenos ton Theon). See PROSELYTE). His name seems also to indicate that he was a Roman by birth. He is altogether a different person from Titus, Paul's assistant and companion in some of his journeys, to whom also the Epistle to Titus is addressed. Titus or Titius Justus was not the "host of Paul at Corinth" (HDB, article "Justus," p. 511), for Luke has already narrated that, when Paul came to Corinth, "he abode with" Aquila and Priscilla (Acts 18:3). What is said of Titius Justus is that when the Jews in Corinth opposed themselves to Paul and blasphemed when he testified that Jesus was the Christ, then Paul ceased to preach the gospel in the Jewish synagogue as he had formerly done, and "he departed thence, and went into the house of a certain man named Titus Justus, one that worshipped God, whose house joined hard to the synagogue" (Acts 18:7). "Titius Justus was evidently a Roman or a Latin, one of the coloni of the colony Corinth. Like the centurion Cornelius, he had been attracted to the synagogue. His citizenship would afford Paul an opening to the more educated class of the Corinthian population" (Ramsay, Paul the Traveler and the Rom Citizen, 256). Paul's residence in Corinth continued for a year and a half, followed without a break by another period indicated in the words, he "tarried after this yet many days" (Acts 18:11,18), and during the whole of this time he evidently used the house of Titius Justus, for the purposes both of preaching the gospel and of gathering the church together for Christian worship and instruction, "teaching the word of God among them" (Acts 18:11). Titius Justus, therefore, must have been a wealthy man, since he possessed a house in which there was an apartment sufficiently large to be used for both of these purposes; and he himself must have been a most enthusiastic member of the church, when in a period of protracted difficulty and persecution, he welcomed Paul to his house, that he might use it as the meeting-place of the church in Corinth.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/T/TITUS,+...

Titus in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

ti'-tus (Titos (2 Cor 2:13; 7:6,13 ff; 8:6,16,23; 12:18; Ga1:2:1,3; 2 Tim 4:10; Tit 1:4)): 1. One of Paul's Converts: A Greek Christian, one of Paul's intimate friends, his companion in some of his apostolic journeys, and one of his assistants in Christian work. His name does not occur in the Acts; and, elsewhere in the New Testament, it is found only in 2 Corinthians, Galatians, 2 Timothy and Titus. As Paul calls him "my true child after a common faith" (Tit 1:4), it is probable that he was one of the apostle's converts. 2. Paul Refuses to Have Him Circumcised: The first notice of Titus is in Acts 15:2, where we read that after the conclusion of Paul's 1st missionary journey, when he had returned to Antioch, a discussion arose in the church there, in regard to the question whether it was necessary that Gentile Christians should be circumcised and should keep the Jewish Law. It was decided that Paul and Barnabas, "and certain other of them," should go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. The "certain other of them" includes Titus, for in Gal 2:3 it is recorded that Titus was then with Paul. The Judaistic party in the church at Jerusalem desired to have Titus circumcised, but Paul gave no subjection to these persons and to their wishes, "no, not for an hour; that the truth of the gospel might continue with you" (Gal 2:5). The matter in dispute was decided as recorded in Acts 15:13-29. The decision was in favor of the free promulgation of the gospel, as preached by Paul, and unrestricted by Jewish ordinances. Paul's action therefore in regard to Titus was justified. In fact Titus was a representative or test case. It is difficult and perhaps impossible to give the true reason why Titus is not mentioned by name in the Acts, but he is certainly referred to in 15:2...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/T/TITUS/...

Epistle to Titus in Smiths Bible Dictionary

There are no specialties in this epistle which require any very elaborate treatment distinct from the other Pastoral Letters of St. Paul. It was written about the same time and under similar circumstances with the other two i.e., from Ephesus, in the autumn of 67 in the interval between Paul's two Roman imprisonments.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/T/Titus...

Titus in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Our materials for the biography of this companion of St. Paul must be drawn entirely from the notices of him in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, the Galatians, and to Titus himself, combined with the Second Epistle to Timothy. He is not mentioned in the Acts at all. Taking the passages in the epistles in the chronological order of the events referred to, we turn first to Ga 2:1,3 We conceive the journey mentioned here to be identical with that (recorded in Acts 15) in which Paul and Barnabas went from Antioch to Jerusalem to the conference which was to decide the question of the necessity of circumcision to the Gentiles. Here we see Titus in close association with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch. He goes with them to Jerusalem. His circumcision was either not insisted on at Jerusalem, or, if demanded, was firmly resisted. He is very emphatically spoken of as a Gentile by which is most probably meant that both his parents were Gentiles. Titus would seem on the occasion of the council to have been specially a representative of the church of the uncircumcision. It is to our purpose to remark that, in the passage cited above, Titus is so mentioned as apparently to imply that he had become personally known to the Galatian Christians. After leaving Galatia., Ac 18:23 and spending a long time at Ephesus, Ac 19:1; 20:1 the apostle proceeded to Macedonia by way of Troas. Here he expected to meet Titus, 2Co 2:13 who had been sent on a mission to Corinth. In this hope he was disappointed, but in Macedonia Titus joined him. 2Co 7:6,7,13-15 The mission to Corinth had reference to the immoralities rebuked in the First Epistle, and to the collection at that time in progress, for the poor Christians of Judea. 2Co 8:6 Thus we are prepared for what the apostle now proceeds to do after his encouraging conversations with Titus regarding the Corinthian church. He sends him back from Macedonia to Corinth, in company with two other trustworthy Christians, bearing the Second Epistle, and with an earnest request, ibid. 2Co 8:6,17 that he would see to the completion of the collection. ch. 2Co 8:6 A considerable interval now elapses before we come upon the next notices of this disciple. St. Paul's first imprisonment is concluded, and his last trial is impending. In the interval between the two, he and Titus were together in Crete. Tit 1:5 We see Titus remaining in the island when St. Paul left it and receiving there a letter written to him by the apostle. From this letter we gather the following biographical details. In the first place we learn that he was originally converted through St. Paul's instrumentality. Tit 1:4 Next we learn the various particulars of the responsible duties which he had to discharge. In Crete, he is to complete what St. Paul had been obliged to leave unfinished, ch. Tit 1:5 and he is to organize the church throughout the island by appointing presbytery in every city. Next he is to control and bridle, ver. 11, the restless and mischievous Judaizers. He is also to look for the arrival in Crete of Artemas and Tychicus, ch. Tit 3:12 and then is to hasten to join St. Paul at Nicopolis, where the apostle purposes to pass the winter. Zenas and Apollos are in Crete, or expected there; for Titus is to send them on their journey, and to supply them with whatever they need for it. Whether Titus did join the apostle at Nicopolis we cannot tell; but we naturally connect the mention of this place with what St. Paul wrote, at no great interval of time afterward, in the last of the Pastoral Epistles, 2Ti 4:10 for Dalmatia lay to the north of Nicopolis, at no great distance from it. From the form of the whole sentence, it seems probable that this disciple had been with St. Paul in Rome during his final imprisonment; but this cannot be asserted confidently. The traditional connection of Titus with Crete is much more specific and constant, though here again we cannot be certain of the facts. He said to have been permanent bishop in the island, and to have died there at an advanced age. The modern capital, Candia, appears to claim the honor of being his burial-place. In the fragment by the lawyer Zenas, Titus is called bishop of Gortyna. Lastly, the name of Titus was the watchword of the Cretans when they were invaded by the Venetians.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/T/Titus...

Epistle to Titus in Easton's Bible Dictionary

was probably written about the same time as the first epistle to Timothy, with which it has many affinities. "Both letters were addressed to persons left by the writer to preside in their respective churches during his absence. Both letters are principally occupied in describing the qualifications to be sought for in those whom they should appoint to offices in the church; and the ingredients of this description are in both letters nearly the same. Timothy and Titus are likewise cautioned against the same prevailing corruptions, and in particular against the same misdirection of their cares and studies. This affinity obtains not only in the subject of the letters, which from the similarity of situation in the persons to whom they were addressed might be expected to be somewhat alike, but extends in a great variety of instances to the phrases and expressions. The writer accosts his two friends with the same salutation, and passes on to the business of his letter by the same transition (comp. 1 Tim. 1:2, 3 with Titus 1:4, 5; 1 Tim.1:4 with Titus 1:13, 14; 3:9; 1 Tim. 4:12 with Titus 2:7, 15).", Paley's Horae Paulinae. The date of its composition may be concluded from the circumstance that it was written after Paul's visit to Crete (Titus 1:5). That visit could not be the one referred to in Acts 27:7, when Paul was on his voyage to Rome as a prisoner, and where he continued a prisoner for two years. We may warrantably suppose that after his release Paul sailed from Rome into Asia and took Crete by the way, and that there he left Titus "to set in order the things that were wanting." Thence he went to Ephesus, where he left Timothy, and from Ephesus to Macedonia, where he wrote First Timothy, and thence to Nicopolis in Epirus, from which place he wrote to Titus, about A.D. 66 or 67. In the subscription to the epistle it is said to have been written from "Nicopolis of Macedonia," but no such place is known. The subscriptions to the epistles are of no authority, as they are not authentic.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/T/Titu...

Titus in Easton's Bible Dictionary

honourable, was with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch, and accompanied them to the council at Jerusalem (Gal. 2:1-3; Acts 15:2), although his name nowhere occurs in the Acts of the Apostles. He appears to have been a Gentile, and to have been chiefly engaged in ministering to Gentiles; for Paul sternly refused to have him circumcised, inasmuch as in his case the cause of gospel liberty was at stake. We find him, at a later period, with Paul and Timothy at Ephesus, whence he was sent by Paul to Corinth for the purpose of getting the contributions of the church there in behalf of the poor saints at Jerusalem sent forward (2 Cor. 8:6; 12:18). He rejoined the apostle when he was in Macedonia, and cheered him with the tidings he brought from Corinth (7:6-15). After this his name is not mentioned till after Paul's first imprisonment, when we find him engaged in the organization of the church in Crete, where the apostle had left him for this purpose (Titus 1:5). The last notice of him is in 2 Tim. 4:10, where we find him with Paul at Rome during his second imprisonment. From Rome he was sent into Dalmatia, no doubt on some important missionary errand. We have no record of his death. He is not mentioned in the Acts.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/T/Titu...

The Epistle to Titus in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

frontTIMOTHY, EPISTLES TO.) Genuineness. Ignatius (Tralles, 3) uses "behaviour" (katasteema), in the New Testament found only in Titus 2:3. Clement of Rome quotes it, Ep. ad Cor. 2 Irenaeus, i. 16, section 3, calls it Paul's epistle. Theophilus (ad Autol. iii. 14) quotes it as Scripture. Justin Martyr in the second century alludes to Titus 3:4 (Dial. contra Tryph. 47). Compare Clem. Alex. Strom. 1:350, and Tertullian Praescr. Haer. 6. Time and place of writing. Paul wrote this epistle on his way to Nicopolis, where he intended wintering, and where he was arrested shortly before his martyrdom A.D. 67. The tone so closely resembles (See 1 TIMOTHY that if the latter, as appears probable, was written at Corinth the epistle to Titus must have been so too, the epistle to Timothy shortly after Paul's arrival at Corinth, the epistle to Titus afterwards when he resolved on going to Nicopolis. The bearers of his epistles to Ephesus and Crete respectively would have an easy route from Corinth; his own journey to Nicopolis too would be convenient from Corinth. Seeds of Christianity may have been carried to Crete shortly after the first Pentecost by Peter's hearers (Acts 2:11). Paul doubtless furthered the gospel cause during his visit there on his way to the hearing of his appeal to Caesar, before his first imprisonment at Rome (Acts 27:7), etc. He visited Crete again after his first imprisonment, probably on his way to Miletus, Colosse, and Ephesus, from which latter Alford thinks he wrote to Titus; thence by Troas to Macedon and Corinth (2 Timothy 4:20), the more probable place of writing the epistle to Titus; thence to Nicopolis in Epirus. Titus in his missions for Paul to Corinth had probably thence visited Crete, which was within easy reach. He was thus suited to superintend the church there, and carry on Paul's work by completing the church's organization. Paul in this epistle follows up the instructions he had already given by word of mouth. Paul's visit to Crete may possibly also have been from Corinth, to which he in that case would return. Doctrine. The Pauline doctrines of the grace of God providing the atonement in Christ (Titus 2:10-13), free justification (Titus 3:5-7) producing holiness of life by the regenerating and renewing Spirit, and expectancy of Christ's coming in glory, are briefly but emphatically put forward. The abruptness and severity of tone, caused by the Cretan irregularities, are tempered by a loving and gracious recognition of our high privileges which flow from the grace of "God our Saviour." As the Father is nowhere said to "give Himself for us," and as ONE Greek article binds together "the great God" and "our Saviour" (Titus 2:13, "the glorious appearing of Him who is at once the great God ceded our Saviour") Jesus must be God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/T/Tit...

Titus in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Paul's companion in missionary tours. Not mentioned in Acts. A Greek, and therefore a Gentile (Galatians 2:1; Galatians 2:3); converted through Paul (Titus 1:4), "mine own son after the common faith." Included in the "certain other of them" who accompanied the apostle and Barnabas when they were deputed from the church of Antioch to consult the church at Jerusalem concerning the circumcision of Gentile converts (Acts 15:2), and agreeably to the decree of the council there was exempted from circumcision, Paul resisting the attempt to force Titus to be so, for both his parents were Gentile, and Titus represented at the council the church of the uncircumcision (contrast TIMOTHY who was on one side of Jewish parentage: Acts 16:3.) He was with Paul at Ephesus (Acts 19), and was sent thence to Corinth to commence the collection for the Jerusalem saints, and to ascertain the effect of the first epistle on the Corinthians (2 Corinthians 7:6-9; 2 Corinthians 8:6; 2 Corinthians 12:18); and there showed an unmercenary spirit. Next, Titus went to Macedon, where he rejoined Paul who had been eagerly looking for him at Troas (Acts 20:1; Acts 20:6; 2 Corinthians 2:12-13); "Titus my brother" (2 Corinthians 7:6; 2 Corinthians 8:23), also "my partner and fellow helper concerning you." The history (Acts 20) does not record Paul's passing through Troas in going from Ephesus to Macedon, but it does in coming from that country; also that he had disciples there (Acts 20:6-7) which accords with the epistle (2 Corinthians 2:12): an undesigned coincidence confirming genuineness. Paul had fixed a time with Titus to meet him at Troas, and had desired him, if detained so as not to be able to be at Troas in time, to proceed at once to Macedon to Philippi, the next stage on his own journey. Hence, though a wide door of usefulness opened to Paul at Troas, his eagerness to hear from Titus about the Corinthian church led him not to stay longer there, when the time fixed was past, but to hasten on to Macedon to meet Titus there...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/T/Tit...

Book of Joshua in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. Title and Authorship. The name Joshua signifies "Yahweh is deliverance" or "salvation" (see JOSHUA). The Greek form of the name is Jesus (Iesous, Acts 7:45; Heb 4:8). In later Jewish history the name appears to have become popular, and is even found with a local significance, as the designation of a small town in Southern Israel (yeshua`], Neh 11:26). The use of the title by the Jews to denote the Book of Joshua did not imply a belief that the book was actually written or dictated by him; or even that the narratives themselves were in substance derived from him, and owed their authenticity and reliability to his sanction and control. In the earliest Jewish literature the association of a name with a book was not intended in any case to indicate authorship. And the Book of Joshua is no exception to the rule that such early writings, especially when their contents are of a historical nature, are usually anonymous. The title is intended to describe, not authorship, but theme; and to represent that the life and deeds of Joshua form the main subject with which the book is concerned. II. Contents. With regard to the contents of Joshua, it will be found to consist of two well-marked divisions, in the first of which (Joshua 1-2) are narrated the invasion and gradual conquest under the command of Joshua of the land on the West of the Jordan; while the 2nd part describes in detail the allotment of the country to the several tribes with the boundaries of their territories, and concludes with a brief notice of the death and burial of Joshua himself. 1. Invasion and Conquest of Western Israel: Joshua 1: Renewal of the Divine promise to Joshua and exhortation to fearlessness and courage (1:1-9); directions to the people to prepare for the passage of the river, and a reminder to the eastern tribes (Reuben, Gad, and half and Manasseh) of the condition under which they held their possession beyond Jordan; the renewal by these tribes of their pledge of loyalty to Moses' successor (1:10-18)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JOSHUA,...

Joshua in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

I. Form and Significance of Name. The name Joshua, a contracted form of Jehoshua (yehoshua`), which also appears in the form Jeshua (yeshua`, Neh 8:17), signifies "Yahweh is deliverance" or "salvation," and is formed on the analogy of many Israelite names, as Jehoiakim (yehoyaqim), "Yahweh exalteth," Jehohanan (yehochanan), "Yahweh is gracious," Elishua or Elisha ('elishua`, elisha`), "God is deliverance," Elizur ('elitsur), "God is a rock," etc. In the narrative of the mission of the spies in Nu 13, the name is given as Hoshea (hoshea`, 13:8,16; compare Dt 32:44), which is changed by Moses to Joshua (Nu 13:16). In the passage in Deuteronomy, however, the earlier form of the name is regarded by Dr. Driver (Commentary in the place cited.) as an erroneous reading. The Greek form of the name is Jesus (Iesous, Acts 7:45; Heb 4:8, the Revised Version (British and American) "Joshua," but the King James Version "Jesus" in both passages), and this form appears even in the passages cited above from Nehemiah and Deuteronomy. In Nu 13:8,16, however, Septuagint has Hause. The name occurs in later Jewish history, e.g. as that of the owner of the field in which the ark rested after its return from the land of the Philistines (1 Sam 6:14,18), and appears to have become especially frequent after the exile (Ezr 2:40; Zec 3:1ab, etc.). It is also found (Jeshua) with a local signification as the name of one of the "villages" in Southern Judea, where the repatriated Jews dwelt after their return from Babylon (Neh 11:26). II. History of the Life of Joshua. The narrative of the life of Joshua, the son of Nun, is naturally divided into two parts, in which he held entirely different positions with regard to the people of Israel, and discharged different duties. In the earlier period he is the servant and minister of Moses, loyal to his leader, and one of his most trusted and valiant captains. After the death of Moses he himself succeeds to the leadership of the Israelite host, and conducts them to a settlement in the Promised Land. The service of the earlier years of his life is a preparation and equipment for the office and responsibility that devolved upon him in the later period...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JOSHUA+...

Book of Joshua in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Named from Joshua the son of Nun, who is the principal character in it. The book may be regarded as consisting of three parts: 1. The conquest of Canaan; chs. 1-12. 2. The partition of Canaan; chs. 13-22. 3. Joshua's farewell; chs. 23,24. Nothing is really known as to the authorship of the book. Joshua himself is generally named as the author by the Jewish writers and the Christian fathers; but no contemporary assertion or sufficient historical proof of the fact exists, and it cannot be maintained without qualification. The last verses, ch. Jos 24:29-33 were obviously added at a later time. Some events, such as the capture of Hebron, of Debir, Jos 15:13- 19 and Judg 1:10-15 of Leshem, Jos 19:47 and Judg 18:7 and the joint occupation of Jerusalem, Jos 15:63 and Judg 1:21 probably did not occur till after Joshua's death. (It was written probably during Joshua's life, or soon after his death (B.C. 1420), and includes his own records, with revision by some other person not long afterward.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/Joshu...

Joshua in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(saviour, or whose help is Jehovah). His name appears in the various forms of HOSHEA, OSHEA, JEHOSHUA, JESHUA and JESUS. 1. The son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim. 1Ch 7:27 (B.C. 1530-1420.) He was nearly forty years old when he shared in the hurried triumph of the exodus. He is mentioned first in connection with the fight against Amalek at Rephidim, when he was chosen by Moses to lead the Israelites. Ex 17:9 Soon afterward he was one of the twelve chiefs who were sent, Nu 13:17 to explore the land of Canaan, and one of the two, ch. Nu 14:6 who gave an encouraging report of their journey. Moses, shortly before his death, was directed, Nu 27:18 to invest Joshua with authority over the people. God himself gave Joshua a charge by the mouth of the dying lawgiver. De 31:14,23 Under the direction of God again renewed, Jos 1:1 Joshua assumed the command of the people at Shittim, sent spies into Jericho, crossed the Jordan, fortified a camp at Gilgal, circumcised the people, kept the passover, and was visited by the Captain of the Lord's host. A miracle made the fall of Jericho more terrible to the Canaanites. In the great battle of Beth-horon the Amorites were signally routed, and the south country was open to the Israelites. Joshua returned to the camp at Gilgal, master of half of Israel. He defeated the Canaanites under Jabin king of Hazor. In six years, six tribes, with thirty-one petty chiefs, were conquered. Joshua, now stricken in years, proceeded to make the division of the conquered land. Timnath-serah in Mount Ephraim was assigned as Joshua's peculiar inheritance. After an interval of rest, Joshua convoked an assembly from all Israel. He delivered two solemn addresses, recorded in Jos 23:24 He died at the age of 110 years, and was buried in his own city, Timnath-serah. 2. An inhabitant of Beth-shemesh, in whose land was the stone at which the milch-kine stopped when they drew the ark of God with the offerings of the Philistines from Ekron to Beth-shemesh. 1Sa 6:14,18 (B.C. 1124.) 3. A governor of the city who gave his name to a gate of Jerusalem. 2Ki 23:8 (In the reign of Josiah, B.C. 628.) 4. Jeshua the son of Jozadak. Hag 1:14; 2:12; Zec 3:1 etc.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/Joshu...

The Book of Joshua in Easton's Bible Dictionary

contains a history of the Israelites from the death of Moses to that of Joshua. It consists of three parts: (1.) The history of the conquest of the land (1-12). (2.) The allotment of the land to the different tribes, with the appointment of cities of refuge, the provision for the Levites (13-22), and the dismissal of the eastern tribes to their homes. This section has been compared to the Domesday Book of the Norman conquest. (3.) The farewell addresses of Joshua, with an account of his death (23, 24). This book stands first in the second of the three sections, (1) the Law, (2) the Prophets, (3) the "other writings" = Hagiographa, into which the Jewish Church divided the Old Testament. There is every reason for concluding that the uniform tradition of the Jews is correct when they assign the authorship of the book to Joshua, all except the concluding section; the last verses (24:29-33) were added by some other hand. There are two difficulties connected with this book which have given rise to much discussion, (1.) The miracle of the standing still of the sun and moon on Gibeon. The record of it occurs in Joshua's impassioned prayer of faith, as quoted (Josh. 10:12-15) from the "Book of Jasher" (q.v.). There are many explanations given of these words. They need, however, present no difficulty if we believe in the possibility of God's miraculous interposition in behalf of his people. Whether it was caused by the refraction of the light, or how, we know not. (2.) Another difficulty arises out of the command given by God utterly to exterminate the Canaanites. "Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?" It is enough that Joshua clearly knew that this was the will of God, who employs his terrible agencies, famine, pestilence, and war, in the righteous government of this world. The Canaanites had sunk into a state of immorality and corruption so foul and degrading that they had to be rooted out of the land with the edge of the sword. "The Israelites' sword, in its bloodiest executions, wrought a work of mercy for all the countries of the earth to the very end of the world."...

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/J/Josh...

Joshua in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Jehovah is his help, or Jehovah the Saviour. The son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, the successor of Moses as the leader of Israel. He is called Jehoshua in Num. 13:16 (A.V.), and Jesus in Acts 7:45 and Heb. 4:8 (R.V., Joshua). He was born in Egypt, and was probably of the age of Caleb, with whom he is generally associated. He shared in all the events of the Exodus, and held the place of commander of the host of the Israelites at their great battle against the Amalekites in Rephidim (Ex. 17:8-16). He became Moses' minister or servant, and accompanied him part of the way when he ascended Mount Sinai to receive the two tables (Ex. 32:17). He was also one of the twelve who were sent on by Moses to explore the land of Canaan (Num. 13:16, 17), and only he and Caleb gave an encouraging report. Under the direction of God, Moses, before his death, invested Joshua in a public and solemn manner with authority over the people as his successor (Deut. 31:23). The people were encamped at Shittim when he assumed the command (Josh. 1:1); and crossing the Jordan, they encamped at Gilgal, where, having circumcised the people, he kept the Passover, and was visited by the Captain of the Lord's host, who spoke to him encouraging words (1:1-9). Now began the wars of conquest which Joshua carried on for many years, the record of which is in the book which bears his name. Six nations and thirty-one kings were conquered by him (Josh. 11:18-23; 12:24). Having thus subdued the Canaanites, Joshua divided the land among the tribes, Timnath- serah in Mount Ephraim being assigned to himself as his own inheritance. (See SHILOH -T0003375; PRIEST -T0003001.) His work being done, he died, at the age of one hundred and ten years, twenty-five years after having crossed the Jordan. He was buried in his own city of Timnath-serah (Josh. 24); and "the light of Israel for the time faded away." Joshua has been regarded as a type of Christ (Heb. 4:8) in the following particulars: (1) In the name common to both; (2) Joshua brings the people into the possession of the Promised Land, as Jesus brings his people to the heavenly Canaan; and (3) as Joshua succeeded Moses, so the Gospel succeeds the Law. The character of Joshua is thus well sketched by Edersheim:, "Born a slave in Egypt, he must have been about forty years old at the time of the Exodus. Attached to the person of Moses, he led Israel in the first decisive battle against Amalek (Ex. 17:9, 13), while Moses in the prayer of faith held up to heaven the God-given 'rod.' It was no doubt on that occasion that his name was changed from Oshea, 'help,' to Jehoshua, 'Jehovah is help' (Num. 13:16). And this name is the key to his life and work. Alike in bringing the people into Canaan, in his wars, and in the distribution of the land among the tribes, from the miraculous crossing of Jordan and taking of Jericho to his last address, he was the embodiment of his new name, 'Jehovah is help.' To this outward calling his character also corresponded. It is marked by singleness of purpose, directness, and decision...He sets an object before him, and unswervingly follows it" (Bible Hist., iii. 103)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/J/Josh...

The Epistle of Jude in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE The Writer: The writer of this short epistle calls himself Jude or Judas (Ioudas. His name was a common one among the Jews: there were few others of more frequent use. Two among the apostles bore it, namely, Judas, mentioned in Jn 14:22 (compare Lk 6:16), and Judas Iscariot. Jude describes himself as "a servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James" (Jude 1:1). The James here mentioned is no doubt the person who is called "the Lord's brother" (Gal 1:19), the writer of the epistle that bears his name. Neither of the two was an apostle. The opening sentence of Jude simply affirms that the writer is a "servant of Jesus Christ." This, if anywhere, should be the appropriate place for the mention of his apostleship, if he were an apostle. The appellation "servant of Jesus Christ" "is never thus barely used in an address of an epistle to designate an apostle" (Alford). Phil 1:1 has a similar expression, "Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ," but "the designation common to two persons necessarily sinks to the rank of the inferior one." In other instances "servant" is associated with "apostle" (Rom 1:1; Tit 1:1). Jude 1:17,18 speaks of the "apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ; that they said to you"-- language which an apostle would hardly use of his fellow- apostles. In Mk 6:3 are found the names of those of whom Jesus is said to be the brother, namely, James and Joses, and Judas and Simon. It is quite generally held by writers that the James and Judas here mentioned are the two whose epistles are found in the New Testament. It is noteworthy, however, that neither of them hints at his relationship with Jesus; their unaffected humility kept them silent. Jude mentions that he is the "brother of James," perhaps to give authority and weight to his words, for James was far more distinguished and influential than he. The inference seems legitimate that Jude addresses Christians among whom James was highly esteemed, or, if no longer living, among whom his memory was sacredly revered, and accordingly it is altogether probable that Jude writes to the same class of readers as James-- Jewish Christians. James writes to the "Twelve Tribes of the Dispersion." Jude likewise addresses a wide circle of believers, namely, the "called, beloved in God the Father, and kept for Jesus Christ" (1:1). While he does not designate a special and distinct class, yet as James's "brother," as belonging to the family of Joseph, and as in some true sense related to the Lord Jesus Himself, it seems probable, if not certain, that his Epistle was intended for Christian Hebrews who stood in urgent need of such testimony and appeal as Jude offers...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JUDE,+T...

Jude in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

jood (Ioudas): Brother of the Lord, and author of the Epistle of Jude.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JUDE/...

Epistle of Jude in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Its author was probably Jude, one of the brethren of Jesus, the subject of the preceding article. There are no data from which to determine its date or place of writing, but it is placed about A.D. 65. The object of the epistle is plainly enough announced ver. 3; the reason for this exhortation is given ver. 4. The remainder of the epistle is almost entirely occupied by a minute depiction of the adversaries of the faith. The epistle closes by briefly reminding the readers of the oft-repeated prediction of the apostles --among whom the writer seems not to rank himself --that the faith would be assailed by such enemies as he has depicted, vs. Jude 1:17-19 exhorting them to maintain their own steadfastness in the faith, vs. Jude 1:20,21 while they earnestly sought to rescue others from the corrupt example of those licentious livers, vs. Jude 1:22,23 and commending them to the power of God in language which forcibly recalls the closing benediction of the epistle to the Romans. vs. Jude 1:24,25 cf. Roma 16:25-27 This epistle presents one peculiarity, which, as we learn from St. Jerome, caused its authority to be impugned in very early times --the supposed citation of apocryphal writings. vs. Jude 1:9,14,15 The larger portion of this epistle, vs. Jude 1:3-16 is almost identical in language and subject with a part of the Second Epistle of Peter. 2Pe 2:1- 19

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/Jude,...

Book of Judges in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

3. Contents: The Book of Jdg consists of 3 main parts or divisions, which are readily distinguished. (1) Introductory, Judges 1 through 2:5. A brief summary and recapitulation of the events of the conquest of Western Israel, for the most part parallel to the narrative of Joshua, but with a few additional details and some divergences from the earlier account, in particular emphasizing (Jdg 1:27-36) the general failure of the Israelites to expel completely the original inhabitants of the land, which is described as a violation of their covenant with Yahweh (Jdg 2:1-3), entailing upon them suffering and permanent weakness. The introductory verse (Jdg 1:1), which refers to the death of Joshua as having already taken place, seems to be intended as a general indication of the historical period of the book as a whole; for some at least of the events narrated in Jdg 1 through 2:5 took place during Joshua's lifetime. (2) The Central and Main Portion, Judges 2:6 through 16. A series of narratives of 12 "judges," each of whom in turn, by his devotion and prowess, was enabled to deliver Israel from thralldom and oppression, and for a longer or shorter term ruled over the people whom he had thus saved from their enemies. Each successive repentance on the part of the people, however, and their deliverance are followed, on the death of the judge, by renewed apostasy, which entails upon them renewed misery and servitude, from which they are again rescued when in response to their prayer the Lord "raises up" for them another judge and deliverer. Thus the entire history is set as it were in a recurrent framework of moral and religious teaching and warning; and the lesson is enforced that it is the sin of the people, their abandonment of Yahweh and persistent idolatry, which entails upon them calamity, from which the Divine long-suffering and forbearance alone makes for them a way of escape...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JUDGES,...

Epistle of Jude in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The author was "Judas, the brother of James" the Less (Jude 1:1), called also Lebbaeus (Matt. 10:3) and Thaddaeus (Mark 3:18). The genuineness of this epistle was early questioned, and doubts regarding it were revived at the time of the Reformation; but the evidences in support of its claims are complete. It has all the marks of having proceeded from the writer whose name it bears. There is nothing very definite to determine the time and place at which it was written. It was apparently written in the later period of the apostolic age, for when it was written there were persons still alive who had heard the apostles preach (ver. 17). It may thus have been written about A.D. 66 or 70, and apparently in Israel. The epistle is addressed to Christians in general (ver. 1), and its design is to put them on their guard against the misleading efforts of a certain class of errorists to which they were exposed. The style of the epistle is that of an "impassioned invective, in the impetuous whirlwind of which the writer is hurried along, collecting example after example of divine vengeance on the ungodly; heaping epithet upon epithet, and piling image upon image, and, as it were, labouring for words and images strong enough to depict the polluted character of the licentious apostates against whom he is warning the Church; returning again and again to the subject, as though all language was insufficient to give an adequate idea of their profligacy, and to express his burning hatred of their perversion of the doctrines of the gospel." The striking resemblance this epistle bears to 2 Peter suggests the idea that the author of the one had seen the epistle of the other. The doxology with which the epistle concludes is regarded as the finest in the New Testament.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/J/Jude...

Book of Judges in Smiths Bible Dictionary

of which the book or Ruth formed originally a part, contains a history from Joshua to Samson. The book may be divided into two parts:-- 1. Chs. 1-16. We may observe in general on this portion of the book that it is almost entirely a history of the wars of deliverance. 2. Chs. 17-21. This part has no formal connection with the preceding, and is often called an appendix. The period to which the narrative relates is simply marked by the expression, "when there was no king in Israel." ch. Jud 19:1; 18:1 It records -- (a) The conquest of Laish by a portion of the tribe of Dan, and the establishment there of the idolatrous worship of Jehovah already instituted by Micah in Mount Ephraim. (b) The almost total extinction of the tribe of Benjamin. Chs. 17-21 are inserted both as an illustration of the sin of Israel during the time of the judges and as presenting a contrast with the better order prevailing in the time of the kings. The time commonly assigned to the period contained in this book is 299 years. The dates given in the last article amount to 410 years, without the 40 years of Eli; but in 1Ki 6:1 the whole period from the exodus to the building of the temple is stated as 480 years. But probably some of the judges were contemporary, so that their total period is 299 years instead of 410. Mr. Smith in his Old Testament history gives the following approximate dates: Periods...Years -- Ending about B.C.: 1. From the exodus to the passage of Jordan...40 -- 1451. 2. To the death of Joshua and the surviving elders...[40] -- 1411. 3. Judgeship of Othniel...40 -- 1371. 4,5. Judgeship of Ehud (Shamgar included)...80 -- 1291. 6. Judgeship of Deborah and Barak...40 -- 1251. 7. Judgeship of Gideon...40 -- 1211. 8,9. Abimelech to Abdon, total...[80] -- 1131. 10. Oppression of the Philistines, contemporary with the judgeships of Eli, Samson (and Samuel?)...40 -- 1091. 11. Reign of Saul (including perhaps Samuel)...40 -- 1051. 12. Reign of David...40 -- 1011. Total...480. On the whole, it seems safer to give up the attempt to ascertain the chronology exactly.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/Judge...

Book of Judges in Easton's Bible Dictionary

is so called because it contains the history of the deliverance and government of Israel by the men who bore the title of the "judges." The book of Ruth originally formed part of this book, but about A.D. 450 it was separated from it and placed in the Hebrew scriptures immediately after the Song of Solomon. The book contains, (1.) An introduction (1-3:6), connecting it with the previous narrative in Joshua, as a "link in the chain of books." (2.) The history of the thirteen judges (3:7-16:31) in the following order: FIRST PERIOD (3:7-ch. 5) Years I. Servitude under Chushan-rishathaim of Mesopotamia 8 1. OTHNIEL delivers Israel, rest 40 II. Servitude under Eglon of Moab: Ammon, Amalek 18 2. EHUD'S deliverance, rest 80 3. SHAMGAR Unknown. III. Servitude under Jabin of Hazor in Canaan 20 4. DEBORAH and, 5. BARAK 40 (206) SECOND PERIOD (6-10:5) IV. Servitude under Midian, Amalek, and children of the east 7 6. GIDEON 40 ABIMELECH, Gideon's son, reigns as king over Israel 3 7. TOLA 23 8. JAIR 22 (95) THIRD PERIOD (10:6-ch. 12) V. Servitude under Ammonites with the Philistines 18 9. JEPHTHAH 6 10. IBZAN 7 11. ELON 10 12. ABDON 8 (49) FOURTH PERIOD (13-16) VI. Seritude under Philistines 40 13. SAMSON 20 (60) In all 410 Samson's exploits probably synchronize with the period immediately preceding the national repentance and reformation under Samuel (1 Sam. 7:2-6). After Samson came Eli, who was both high priest and judge. He directed the civil and religious affairs of the people for forty years, at the close of which the Philistines again invaded the land and oppressed it for twenty years. Samuel was raised up to deliver the people from this oppression, and he judged Israel for some twelve years, when the direction of affairs fell into the hands of Saul, who was anointed king. If Eli and Samuel are included, there were then fifteen judges. But the chronology of this whole period is uncertain. (3.) The historic section of the book is followed by an appendix (17-21), which has no formal connection with that which goes before. It records (a) the conquest (17, 18) of Laish by a portion of the tribe of Dan; and (b) the almost total extinction of the tribe of Benjamin by the other tribes, in consequence of their assisting the men of Gibeah (19-21). This section properly belongs to the period only a few years after the death of Joshua. It shows the religious and moral degeneracy of the people. The author of this book was most probably Samuel. The internal evidence both of the first sixteen chapters and of the appendix warrants this conclusion. It was probably composed during Saul's reign, or at the very beginning of David's. The words in 18:30,31, imply that it was written after the taking of the ark by the Philistines, and after it was set up at Nob (1 Sam. 21). In David's reign the ark was at Gibeon (1 Chr. 16:39)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/J/Judg...

Book of Lamentations in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

lam-en-ta'-shunz,--The Lamentations of Jeremiah: 1. Name: This is a collective name which tradition has given to 5 elegies found in the Hebrew Canon that lament the fate of destroyed Jerusalem. The rabbis call this little book 'Ekhah ("how"), according to the word of lament with which it begins, or qinoth. On the basis of the latter term the Septuagint calls it threnoi, or Latin Threni, or "Lamentations." 2. Form: The little book consists of 5 lamentations, each one forming the contents of a chapter. The first 4 are marked by the acrostic use of the alphabet. In addition, the qinah ("elegy") meter is found in these hymns, in which a longer line (3 or 4 accents) is followed by a shorter (2 or 3 accents). In Lam 1 and 2 the acrostic letters begin three such double lines; in Lam 4, however, two double lines. In Lam 3 a letter controls three pairs, but is repeated at the beginning of each line. In Lam 5 the alphabet is wanting; but in this case too the number of pairs of lines agrees with the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet, i.e. 22. In Lam 2; 3 and 4, the letter `ayin (`) follows pe (p), as is the case in Ps 34. Lamentations 1, however, follows the usual order. 3. Contents: These 5 hymns all refer to the great national catastrophe that overtook the Jews and in particular the capital city, Jerusalem, through the Chaldeans, 587-586 BC. The sufferings and the anxieties of the city, the destruction of the sanctuary, the cruelty and taunts of the enemies of Israel, especially the Edomites, the disgrace that befell the king and his nobles, priests and prophets, and that, too, not without their own guilt, the devastation and ruin of the country--all this is described, and appeal is made to the mercy of God. A careful sequence of thought cannot be expected in the lyrical feeling and in the alphabetical form. Repetitions are found in large numbers, but each one of these hymns emphasizes some special feature of the calamity. Lamentations 3 is unique, as in it one person describes his own peculiar sufferings in connection with the general calamity, and then too in the name of the others begins a psalm of repentance. This person did not suffer so severely because he was an exceptional sinner, but because of the unrighteousness of his people. These hymns were not written during the siege, but later, at a time when the people still vividly remembered the sufferings and the anxieties of that time and when the impression made on them by the fall of Jerusalem was still as powerful as ever...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/L/LAMENTA...

Lamentations of Jeremiah in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Title. --The Hebrew title of this book, Ecah, is taken, like the titles of the five books of Moses, from the Hebrew word with which it opens. Author. --The poems included in this collection appear in the Hebrew canon with no name attached to them, but Jeremiah has been almost universally regarded as their author. Date. --The poems belong unmistakably to the last days of the kingdom, or the commencement of the exile, B.C. 629-586. They are written by one who speaks, with the vividness and intensity of an eye-witness, of the misery which he bewails. Contents. --The book consists of five chapter, each of which, however, is a separate poem, complete in itself, and having a distinct subject, but brought at the same time under a plan which includes them all. A complicated alphabetic structure pervades nearly the whole book. (1) Chs. 1,2 and 4 contain twenty-two verses each, arranged in alphabetic order, each verse falling into three nearly balanced clauses; ch. La 2:19 forms an exception, as having a fourth clause. (2) Ch. 3 contains three short verses under each letter of the alphabet, the initial letter being three times repeated. (3) Ch. 5 contains the same number of verses as chs. 1,2,4, but without the alphabetic order. Jeremiah was not merely a patriot-poet, weeping over the ruin of his country; he was a prophet who had seen all this coming, and had foretold it as inevitable. There are perhaps few portions of the Old Testament which appear to have done the work they were meant to do more effectually than this. The book has supplied thousands with the fullest utterance for their sorrows in the critical periods of national or individual suffering. We may well believe that it soothed the weary years of the Babylonian exile. It enters largely into the order of the Latin Church for the services of passion-week. On the ninth day of the month of Ab (July-August), the Lamentations of Jeremiah were read, year by year, with fasting and weeping, to commemorate the misery out of which the people had been delivered.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/L/Lamen...

Book of Lamentations in Easton's Bible Dictionary

called in the Hebrew canon _'Ekhah_, meaning "How," being the formula for the commencement of a song of wailing. It is the first word of the book (see 2 Sam. 1:19-27). The LXX. adopted the name rendered "Lamentations" (Gr. threnoi = Heb. qinoth) now in common use, to denote the character of the book, in which the prophet mourns over the desolations brought on the city and the holy land by Chaldeans. In the Hebrew Bible it is placed among the Khethubim. (See BIBLE -T0000580.) As to its authorship, there is no room for hesitancy in following the LXX. and the Targum in ascribing it to Jeremiah. The spirit, tone, language, and subject-matter are in accord with the testimony of tradition in assigning it to him. According to tradition, he retired after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar to a cavern outside the Damascus gate, where he wrote this book. That cavern is still pointed out. "In the face of a rocky hill, on the western side of the city, the local belief has placed 'the grotto of Jeremiah.' There, in that fixed attitude of grief which Michael Angelo has immortalized, the prophet may well be supposed to have mourned the fall of his country" (Stanley, Jewish Church). The book consists of five separate poems. In chapter 1 the prophet dwells on the manifold miseries oppressed by which the city sits as a solitary widow weeping sorely. In chapter 2 these miseries are described in connection with the national sins that had caused them. Chapter 3 speaks of hope for the people of God. The chastisement would only be for their good; a better day would dawn for them. Chapter 4 laments the ruin and desolation that had come upon the city and temple, but traces it only to the people's sins. Chapter 5 is a prayer that Zion's reproach may be taken away in the repentance and recovery of the people. The first four poems (chapters) are acrostics, like some of the Psalms (25, 34, 37, 119), i.e., each verse begins with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet taken in order. The first, second, and fourth have each twenty-two verses, the number of the letters in the Hebrew alphabet. The third has sixty- six verses, in which each three successive verses begin with the same letter. The fifth is not acrostic. Speaking of the "Wailing-place (q.v.) of the Jews" at Jerusalem, a portion of the old wall of the temple of Solomon, Schaff says: "There the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail the downfall of the holy city, kissing the stone wall and watering it with their tears. They repeat from their well-worn Hebrew Bibles and prayer-books the Lamentations of Jeremiah and suitable Psalms."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/L/Lame...

Lamentations in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Hebrew eechah called from the first word "How," etc., the formula in beginning a lamentation (2 Samuel 1:19). These "Lamentations" (we get the title from Septuagint, Greek threnoi, Hebrew kinot) or five elegies in the Hebrew Bible stand between Ruth and Ecclesiastes, among the Cherubim, or Hagiographa (holy writings), designated from the principal one, the Psalms," by our Lord (Luke 24:44). No "word of Jehovah "or divine message to the sinful and suffering people occurs in Lamentations. Jeremiah is in it the sufferer, not the prophet and teacher, but a sufferer speaking under the Holy Spirit. Josephus (c. Apion) enumerated the prophetic books as thirteen, reckoning Jeremiah and Lamentations as one book, as Judges and Ruth, Ezra and Nehemiah. Jeremiah wrote "lamentations" on the death of Josiah, and it was made "an ordinance in Israel" that "singing women" should "speak" of that king in lamentation. So here he writes "lamentations" on the overthrow of the Jewish city and people, as Septuagint expressly state in a prefatory verse, embodying probably much of the language of his original elegy on Josiah (2 Chronicles 35:25), and passing now to the more universal calamity, of which Josiah's sad death was the presage and forerunner. Thus, the words originally applied to Josiah (Lamentations 4:20) Jeremiah now applies to the throne of Judah in general, the last representative of which, Zedekiah, had just been blinded and carried to Babylon (compare Jeremiah 39:5-7): "the breath of our nostrils, the anointed of Jehovah, was taken in their pits, of whom we said, Under his shadow we shall live among the (live securely in spite of the surrounding) pagan." The language, true of good Josiah, is too favorable to apply to Zedekiah personally; it is as royal David's representative, and type of Messiah, and Judah's head, that he is viewed...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/L/Lam...

Leviticus, 1 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. General Data. 1. Name: The third book of the Pentateuch is generally named by the Jews according to the first word, wayyiqra' (Origen Ouikra, by the Septuagint called according to its contents Leuitikon, or Leueitikon, by the Vulgate, accordingly, "Leviticus" (i.e. Liber), sometimes "Leviticum"). The Jews have also another name taken from its contents, namely, torath kohanim, "Law of the Priests." 2. Character of Book: As a matter of fact ordinances pertaining to the priesthood, to the Levitical system, and to the cults constitute a most important part of this book; but specifically religious and ethical commands, as we find them, e.g. in Lev 18 through 20, are not wanting; and there are also some historical sections, which, however, are again connected with the matter referring to the cults, namely the consecration of the priests in Lev 8 and 9, the sin and the punishment of two sons of Aaron, Nadab and Abihu (10:1 ff), and the account of the stoning of a blasphemer (24:10 ff). Of the Levites, on the other hand, the book does not treat at all. They are mentioned only once and that incidentally in 25:32 ff. The laws are stated to have been given behar Cinay (7:38; 25:1; 26:46; 27:34), which expression, on account of Lev 11, in which Yahweh is described as speaking to Moses out of the tent of meeting, is not to be translated "upon" but "at" Mt. Sinai. The connection of this book with the preceding and following books, i.e. Exodus and Numbers, which is commonly acknowledged as being the case, at least in some sense, leaves for the contents of Leviticus exactly the period of a single month, since the last chronological statement of Ex 40:17 as the time of the erection of the tabernacle mentions the 1st day of the 1st month of the 2nd year of the Exodus, and Nu 1:1 takes us to the 1st day of the 2nd month of the same year. Within this time of one month the consecration of the priests fills out 8 days (Lev 8:33; 9:1). A sequence in time is indicated only by Lev 16:1, which directly connects with what is reported in Lev 10 concerning Nadab and Abihu. In the same way the ordinances given in 10:6 ff are connected with the events described in 8:1 through 10:5. The laws are described as being revelations of Yahweh, generally given to Moses (compare 1:1; 4:1; 5:14; 6:19,24 (Hebrew 12,17); 7:22,28, etc.); sometimes to Moses and Aaron (compare 11:1; 13:1; 14:33; 15:1, etc.), and, rarely, to Aaron alone (10:8). In 10:12 ff, Moses gives some directions to the priests, which are based on a former revelation (compare 6:16 (Hebrew 9) ff; 7:37 ff). In 10:16 ff, we have a difference of opinion between Moses and Aaron, or rather his sons, which was decided on the basis of an independent application of principles given in Leviticus. Most of these commands are to be announced to Israel (1:2; 4:2; 7:23,19; 9:3 ff; 11:2; 12:2; 15:2; 18:2, etc.); others to the priests (6:9,25 (Hebrew 2,18); 21:2; 22:2, etc.); or to the priests and the Israelites (17:2; 22:18), while the directions in reference to the Day of Atonement, with which Aaron was primarily concerned (16:2), beginning with 16:29, without a special superscription, are undeniably changed into injunctions addressed to all Israel; compare also 21:24 and 21:2. As the Book of Exodus treats of the communion which God offers on His part to Israel and which culminates at last in His dwelling in the tent of meeting (40:34 ff; compare under EXODUS, I, 2), the Book of Leviticus contains the ordinances which were to be carried out by the Israelites in religious, ethical and cultural matters, in order to restore and maintain this communion with God, notwithstanding the imperfections and the guilt of the Israelites. And as this book thus with good reason occupies its well established place in the story of the founding and in the earliest history of theocracy, so too even a casual survey and intelligent glance at the contents of the book will show that we have here a well-arranged and organic unity, a conviction which is only confirmed and strengthened by the presentation of the structure of the book in detail (see under II, below).

Link: https://coursebible.com/isbe...

Leviticus in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The third book in the Pentateuch is called Leviticus because it relates principally to the Levites and priests and their services. The book is generally held to have been written by Moses. Those critics even who hold a different opinion as to the other books of the Pentateuch assign this book in the main to him. One of the most notable features of the book is what may be called its spiritual meaning. That so elaborate a ritual looked beyond itself we cannot doubt. It was a prophecy of things to come; a shadow whereof the substance was Christ and his kingdom. We may not always be able to say what the exact relation is between the type and the antitype; but we cannot read the Epistle to the Hebrews and not acknowledge that the Levitical priests "served the pattern and type of heavenly things;" that the sacrifices of the law pointed to and found their interpretation in the Lamb of God; that the ordinances of outward purification signified the true inner cleansing of the heart and conscience from dead works to serve the living God. One idea --HOLINESS-- moreover penetrates the whole of this vast and burdensome ceremonial, and gives it a real glory even apart from any prophetic significance.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/L/Levit...

Gospel of Luke in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The third Gospel is ascribed, by the general consent of ancient Christendom, to "the beloved physician," Luke, the friend and companion of the apostle Paul. 1. Date of the Gospel of Luke. --From Ac 1:1 it is clear that the Gospel described "the former treatise" was written before the Acts of the Apostles; but how much earlier is uncertain. Perhaps it was written at Caesarea during St. Paul's imprisonment there, A.D. 58-60. 2. Place where the Gospel was written. --If the time has been rightly indicated, the place would be Caesarea. 3. Origin of the Gospel. --The preface, contained in the first four verses of the Gospel, describes the object of its writer. Here are several facts to be observed. There were many narratives of the life of our Lord Current at the early time when Luke wrote his Gospel. The ground of fitness for the task St. Luke places in his having carefully followed out the whole course of events from the beginning. He does not claim the character of an eye-witness from the first but possibly he may have been a witness of some part of our Lord's doings. The ancient opinion that Luke wrote his Gospel under the influence of Paul rests on the authority of Irenreus, Tertulian, Origen and Eusebius. The four verses could not have been put at the head of a history composed under the exclusive guidance of Paul or of any one apostle and as little could they have introduced a gospel simply communicated by another. The truth seems to be that St. Luke, seeking information from every quarter, sought it from the preaching of his be loved master St. Paul; and the apostle in his turn employed the knowledge acquired from other sources by his disciple. 4. Purpose for which the Gospel was written. --The evangelist professes to write that Theophilus "might know the certainty of those things wherein he had been instructed." ch, Lu 1:4 This Theophilus was probably a native of Italy and perhaps an inhabitant of Rome, in tracing St. Paul's journey to Rome, places which an Italian might be supposed not to know are described minutely, Ac 27:8,12,16 but when he comes to Sicily and Italy this is neglected. Hence it would appear that the person for whom Luke wrote in the first instance was a Gentile reader; and accordingly we find traces in the Gospel of a leaning toward Gentile rather than Jewish converts. 5. Language and style of the Gospel. --It has never been doubted that the Gospel was written in Greek, whilst Hebraisms are frequent, classical idioms and Greek compound words abound, for which there is classical authority. (Prof. Gregory, in "Why Four Gospels" says that Luke wrote for Greek readers, and therefore the character and needs of the Greeks furnish the key to this Gospel. The Greek was the representation of reason and humanity. He looked upon himself as having the mission of perfecting man. He was intellectual, cultured, not without hope of a higher world. Luke's Gospel therefore represented the character and career of Christ as answering the conception of a perfect and divine humanity. Reason, beauty righteousness and truth are exhibited as they meet in Jesus in their full splendor. Jesus was the Saviour of all men, redeeming them to a perfect and cultured manhood. --ED.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/L/Luke,...

Leviticus, 2 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

III. Origin. 1. Against the Wellhausen Hypothesis: As in the article ATONEMENT, DAY OF, sec. I, 2, (2), we took a stand against the modern attempts at splitting up the text, and in III, 1 against theory of the late origin of the whole pericope, we must, after trying under II to prove the unity of the Book of Leviticus, yet examine the modern claim that the book as a whole is the product of later times. Since the entire book is ascribed to the Priestly Code (see II, 1 above), the answer to the question as to the time when it was written will depend on the attitude which we take toward the Wellhausen hypothesis, which insists that the Priestly Code was not published until the time of the exile in 444 BC (Neh 8 through 10). (1) The Argument from Silence. One of the most important proofs for this claim is the "argument from silence" (argumentum e silentio). How careful one must be in making use of this argument can be seen from the fact that, e.g., the high priest with his full title is mentioned but a single time in the entire Book of Leviticus, namely in 21:10; and that the Levites are not mentioned save once (25:32 ff), and then incidentally. As is well known, it is the adherents of the Wellhausen hypothesis themselves who now claim that the bulk of the entire literature of the Old Testament originated in the post-exilic period and long after the year 444 BC. Leaving out of consideration for the present the Books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, all of which describe the history of Israel from the standpoint of the Priestly Code (P), we note that this later literature is not any richer in its references to P than is the older literature; and that in those cases where such references are found in this literature assigned to a late period, it is just as difficult to decide whether these passages refer merely to a custom or to a codified set of laws. (2) Attitude of Prophets toward Sacrificial System...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/L/LEVITIC...

Leviticus in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Wayyiqra' is the Hebrew name, from the initial word; the middle book of the Pentateuch. The laws "which the Lord commanded Moses in Mount Sinai, in the day that he commanded the children of Israel to offer their oblations unto the Lord in the wilderness of Sinai" (Leviticus 7:38). Given between the setting up of the tabernacle and its departure from Sinai, i.e. between the first day of the first month and the 20th day of the second month of the second year of the Exodus (Exodus 40:2; Exodus 40:17; Numbers 10:11). Two chief subjects are handled: (1) Leviticus 1-16, the fundamental ordinances of Israel's fellowship with Jehovah; (2) Leviticus 17-27, the laws for hallowing Israel in this covenant fellowship. Privilege and duty, grace conferred and grace inwrought, go hand in hand. First; (1) The law of offerings, Leviticus 1-7. (2) Investiture of Aaron and consecration of priests, Leviticus 8-10. (3) Rules as to clean and unclean, Leviticus 11-15. (4) The day of atonement, the summing up of all means of grace for the nation and the church, annually. Second; (1) Israel's life as holy and separate from heathendom, in food, marriage, and toward fellow men, Leviticus 17-20; the mutual connection of Leviticus 18; Leviticus 19; Leviticus 20, is marked by recurring phrases, "I are the Lord," "ye shall be holy, for I ... am holy." (2) Holiness of priests and of offerings, Leviticus 21-22. (3) Holiness shown in the holy convocations, sabbaths, perpetual light in the tabernacle, shewbread, Leviticus 23-24. (4) Perpetuation of the theocracy by the sabbatical and Jubilee years, the perpetual tenure of land, the redemption of it and bond servants (Leviticus 25); and by fatherly chastisement of the people and restoration on repentance, Leviticus 26. (5) Appendix on vows, which are not encouraged especially, yet permitted with some restrictions (Leviticus 27)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/L/Lev...

The Gospel of Luke in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE 1. Text: The five primary uncials (Codices Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, Ephraemi, Bezae) are the chief witnesses for the text of Luke's Gospel. This group is reinforced by L, Codex Delta and the Freer (Detroit) MS; R, T, X and Xi are also valuable in fragments. The other uncials are of secondary value. The Latin, Egyptian and Syriac versions are also of great importance. There are 4 Latin versions (African, European, Italian, Vulgate), 3 Egyptian (Memphitic, Sahidic, Bohairic), 5 Syriac (Curetonian, Sinaitic, Peshitto, Harclean, Palestinian or Jerusalem). Many of the cursive (minuscule) manuscripts are also of considerable worth, as are some of the quotations from the Fathers. Blass, Philology of the Gospels (1898), has advanced theory of two recensions of this Gospel (a longer and a shorter), such as he holds to be true of Acts. In the case of Acts, theory has won some acceptance (see ACTS OF THE APOSTLES), but that is not true of the Gospel to any extent. The Western text of the Gospel is the shorter text, while in Acts it is the longer text. In both instances Blass holds that the shorter text was issued after the longer and original text. His idea is that Luke himself revised and issued the shorter text. In itself this is, of course, possible, since the books are both addressed to an individual, Theophilus. The other edition may have been meant for others. Westcott and Hort, The New Testament in Greek explain the omission in the Western text of the Gospel as "Western non-interpolations," and often hold them to be the true text. As samples one may note Lk 10:41; 12:19; 24:36,40,42, where the Western text is the shorter text. This is not always true, however, for in 6:2 ff Codex Bezae (D) has the famous passage about the man working on the Sabbath, which the other documents do not give. In Lk 3:22, D has the reading of Ps 2:7 (" Thou art my Son; this day I have begotten thee") for the usual text. Zahn (Introduction, III, 38) accepts this as the true text. There is no doubt of the interest and value of the Western readings in Luke, but it cannot be said that Blass has carried his point here. The peculiar mutilation of the Gospel by Marcion has an interest of its own...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/L/LUKE,+T...

Leviticus in Easton's Bible Dictionary

the third book of the Pentateuch; so called in the Vulgate, after the LXX., because it treats chiefly of the Levitical service. In the first section of the book (1-17), which exhibits the worship itself, there is, (1.) A series of laws (1- 7) regarding sacrifices, burnt-offerings, meat-offerings, and thank-offerings (1-3), sin-offerings and trespass-offerings (4; 5), followed by the law of the priestly duties in connection with the offering of sacrifices (6; 7). (2.) An historical section (8- 10), giving an account of the consecration of Aaron and his sons (8); Aaron's first offering for himself and the people (9); Nadab and Abihu's presumption in offering "strange fire before Jehovah," and their punishment (10). (3.) Laws concerning purity, and the sacrifices and ordinances for putting away impurity (11-16). An interesting fact may be noted here. Canon Tristram, speaking of the remarkable discoveries regarding the flora and fauna of the Holy Land by the Israel Exploration officers, makes the following statement:, "Take these two catalogues of the clean and unclean animals in the books of Leviticus [11] and Deuteronomy [14]. There are eleven in Deuteronomy which do not occur in Leviticus, and these are nearly all animals and birds which are not found in Egypt or the Holy Land, but which are numerous in the Arabian desert. They are not named in Leviticus a few weeks after the departure from Egypt; but after the people were thirty-nine years in the desert they are named, a strong proof that the list in Deuteronomy was written at the end of the journey, and the list in Leviticus at the beginning. It fixes the writing of that catalogue to one time and period only, viz., that when the children of Israel were familiar with the fauna and the flora of the desert" (Palest. Expl. Quart., Jan. 1887). (4.) Laws marking the separation between Israel and the heathen (17-20). (5.) Laws about the personal purity of the priests, and their eating of the holy things (20; 21); about the offerings of Israel, that they were to be without blemish (22:17- 33); and about the due celebration of the great festivals (23; 25). (6.) Then follow promises and warnings to the people regarding obedience to these commandments, closing with a section on vows. The various ordinances contained in this book were all delivered in the space of a month (comp. Ex. 40:17; Num. 1:1), the first month of the second year after the Exodus. It is the third book of Moses. No book contains more of the very words of God. He is almost throughout the whole of it the direct speaker. This book is a prophecy of things to come, a shadow whereof the substance is Christ and his kingdom. The principles on which it is to be interpreted are laid down in the Epistle to the Hebrews. It contains in its complicated ceremonial the gospel of the grace of God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/L/Levi...

Gospel According to Luke in Easton's Bible Dictionary

was written by Luke. He does not claim to have been an eye-witness of our Lord's ministry, but to have gone to the best sources of information within his reach, and to have written an orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1-4). The authors of the first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each other. Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Each writer has some things, both in matter and style, peculiar to himself, yet all the three have much in common. Luke's Gospel has been called "the Gospel of the nations, full of mercy and hope, assured to the world by the love of a suffering Saviour;" "the Gospel of the saintly life;" "the Gospel for the Greeks; the Gospel of the future; the Gospel of progressive Christianity, of the universality and gratuitousness of the gospel; the historic Gospel; the Gospel of Jesus as the good Physician and the Saviour of mankind;" the "Gospel of the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man;" "the Gospel of womanhood;" "the Gospel of the outcast, of the Samaritan, the publican, the harlot, and the prodigal;" "the Gospel of tolerance." The main characteristic of this Gospel, as Farrar (Cambridge Bible, Luke, Introd.) remarks, is fitly expressed in the motto, "Who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil" (Acts 10:38; comp. Luke 4:18). Luke wrote for the "Hellenic world." This Gospel is indeed "rich and precious." "Out of a total of 1151 verses, Luke has 389 in common with Matthew and Mark, 176 in common with Matthew alone, 41 in common with Mark alone, leaving 544 peculiar to himself. In many instances all three use identical language." (See MATTHEW There are seventeen of our Lord's parables peculiar to this Gospel. (See List of Parables in Appendix.) Luke also records seven of our Lord's miracles which are omitted by Matthew and Mark. (See List of Miracles in Appendix.) The synoptical Gospels are related to each other after the following scheme. If the contents of each Gospel be represented by 100, then when compared this result is obtained: Mark has 7 peculiarities, 93 coincidences. Matthew 42 peculiarities, 58 coincidences. Luke 59 peculiarities, 41 coincidences. That is, thirteen-fourteenths of Mark, four-sevenths of Matthew, and two-fifths of Luke are taken up in describing the same things in very similar language. Luke's style is more finished and classical than that of Matthew and Mark. There is less in it of the Hebrew idiom. He uses a few Latin words (Luke 12:6; 7:41; 8:30; 11:33; 19:20), but no Syriac or Hebrew words except sikera, an exciting drink of the nature of wine, but not made of grapes (from Heb. shakar, "he is intoxicated", Lev. 10:9), probably palm wine. This Gospel contains twenty-eight distinct references to the Old Testament. The date of its composition is uncertain. It must have been written before the Acts, the date of the composition of which is generally fixed at about 63 or 64 A.D. This Gospel was written, therefore, probably about 60 or 63, when Luke may have been at Caesarea in attendance on Paul, who was then a prisoner. Others have conjectured that it was written at Rome during Paul's imprisonment there. But on this point no positive certainty can be attained. It is commonly supposed that Luke wrote under the direction, if not at the dictation of Paul. Many words and phrases are common to both; e.g., compare: Luke 4:22; with Col. 4:6. Luke 4:32; with 1 Cor. 2:4. Luke 6:36; with 2 Cor. 1:3. Luke 6:39; with Rom. 2:19. Luke 9:56; with 2 Cor. 10:8. Luke 10:8; with 1 Cor. 10:27. Luke 11:41; with Titus 1:15. Luke 18:1; with 2 Thess. 1:11. Luke 21:36; with Eph. 6:18. Luke 22:19, 20; with 1 Cor. 11:23-29. Luke 24:46; with Acts 17:3. Luke 24:34; with 1 Cor. 15:5.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/L/Luke...

Luke in Easton's Bible Dictionary

the evangelist, was a Gentile. The date and circumstances of his conversion are unknown. According to his own statement (Luke 1:2), he was not an "eye-witness and minister of the word from the beginning." It is probable that he was a physician in Troas, and was there converted by Paul, to whom he attached himself. He accompanied him to Philippi, but did not there share his imprisonment, nor did he accompany him further after his release in his missionary journey at this time (Acts 17:1). On Paul's third visit to Philippi (20:5, 6) we again meet with Luke, who probably had spent all the intervening time in that city, a period of seven or eight years. From this time Luke was Paul's constant companion during his journey to Jerusalem (20:6-21:18). He again disappears from view during Paul's imprisonment at Jerusalem and Caesarea, and only reappears when Paul sets out for Rome (27:1), whither he accompanies him (28:2, 12-16), and where he remains with him till the close of his first imprisonment (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14). The last notice of the "beloved physician" is in 2 Tim. 4:11. There are many passages in Paul's epistles, as well as in the writings of Luke, which show the extent and accuracy of his medical knowledge.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/L/Luke...

The Gospel According to Luke in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

In the preface to his Gospel Luke refers to "many" who before him had written accounts of what the "eye witnesses" and "ministers of the word" transmitted. This implies the "many" were not themselves eye witnesses or ministers of the word. Matthew's and Mark's Gospels therefore are not referred to in the term "many." But as the phrase "they delivered them to us" (paredosan) includes both written and oral transmission (2 Thessalonians 2:15) Luke's words do not oppose, as Alford thinks, but favor the opinion that those two Gospels were among the sources of Luke's information, especially as Matthew was an "eye-witness," and Mark a "minister of the word." Luke himself applies" minister" (Acts 13:5, hufretees) to John Mark. Luke differs from the "many" in that his work is: (1) "in order," (2) with a" perfect understanding of all things from the first" (pareekoloutheekoti anoothen akriboos, "having traced all things accurately from the remote beginning.") Luke begins with earlier facts of John the Baptist's and of our Lord's history than Matthew and Mark, he writes methodically and in more chronological Order. Ancient testimony assures us that Paul's teaching formed the substratum of Luke's Gospel (the Muratorian Fragment; Irenaeus, Haer. iii. 1,14; Tertullian, Marcion iv. 2; Origen, Eusebius, H. E. vi. 25; Jerome, Vir. Illustr. 7). Compare as to the special revelation to Paul 1 Corinthians 11:23; 1 Corinthians 15:3; Galatians 1:1; Galatians 1:11-12. Paul was an "eye-witness" (1 Corinthians 9:1; Acts 22:14- 15); his expression "according to my gospel" implies the independency of his witness; he quotes words of Christ revealed to him, and not found in the four Gospels (Acts 20:35). Thus, besides Matthew and Mark, to whose Gospels the "many" as well as Luke had access, Paul is the chief "eye witness" to whom Luke refers in the preface. Luke and Paul alone record Jesus' appearing to Peter first of the apostles (Luke 24:34; 1 Corinthians 15:5)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/L/Luk...

Luke in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

front Contracted from Lucanus, as Silas is contracted from Silvanus. A slave name. As Luke was a "physician," a profession often exercised by slaves and freedmen, he may have been a freedman. Eusebius (H.E. iii. 4) states that Antioch was his native city. He was of Gentile parentage before he became a Christian; as appears from Colossians 4:11,14: "Luke the beloved physician" (one of "my fellow workers unto the kingdom of God which have been a comfort unto me") is distinguished from those "of the circumcision." That he was not of "the seventy" disciples, as Epiphanius (Haer. i. 12) reports, is clear from his preface in which he implies he was not an" eye witness"; the tradition arose perhaps from his Gospel alone recording the mission of the seventy. His history in Acts is first joined with that of Paul at Troas (Acts 16:10), where the "we" implies that the writer was then Paul's companion. He accompanied the apostle in his journey to Jerusalem and Rome, at Paul's first Roman imprisonment "Luke my fellow labourer," Philemon (Philemon 1:24) written from Rome, as also Colossians (Colossians 4:14); also in Paul's last imprisonment there, when others forsook him Luke remained faithful (2 Timothy 1:15; 2 Timothy 4:11 "only Luke is with me".) His death by martyrdom between A.D. 75 and 100 is generally reported.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/L/Luk...

Malachi in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

3. Contents: The book, in the main, is composed of two extended polemics against the priests (Mal 1:6 through 2:9) and the people (Mal 2:10 through 4:3), opening with a clear, sharp statement of the prophet's chief thesis that Yahweh still loves Israel (Mal 1:2-5), and closing with an exhortation to remember the Law of Moses (Mal 4:4-6). After the title or superscription (Mal 1:1) the prophecy falls naturally into seven divisions: (1) Malachi 1:2-5, in which Malachi shows that Yahweh still loves Israel because their lot stands in such marked contrast to Edom's. They were temporarily disciplined; Edom was forever punished. (2) Malachi 1:6 through 2:9, a denunciation of the priests, the Levites, who have become neglectful of their sacerdotal office, indifferent to the Law, and unmindful of their covenant relationship to Yahweh. (3) Malachi 2:10-16, against idolatry and divorce. Some interpret this section metaphorically of Judah as having abandoned the religion of his youth (2:11). But idolatry and divorce were closely related. The people are obviously rebuked for literally putting away their own Jewish wives in order to contract marriage with foreigners (2:15). Such marriages, the prophet declares, are not only a form of idolatry (2:11), but a violation of Yahweh's intention to preserve to Himself a "godly seed" (2:15). (4) Malachi 2:17 through 3:6, an announcement of coming judgment. Men are beginning to doubt whether there is longer a God of justice (2:17). Malachi replies that the Lord whom the people seek will suddenly come, both to purify the sons of Levi and to purge the land of sinners in general. The nation, however, will not be utterly consumed (3:6). (5) Malachi 3:7-12, in which the prophet pauses to give another concrete example of the people's sins: they have failed to pay their tithes and other dues. Accordingly, drought, locusts, and famine have ensued. Let these be paid and the nation will again prosper, and their land will become "a delightsome land." (6) Malachi 3:13 through 4:3, a second section addressed to the doubters of the prophet's age. In 2:17, they had said, "Where is the God of justice?" They now murmur: "It is vain to serve God; and what profit is it that we have kept his charge?" The wicked and the good alike prosper (3:14,15). But, the prophet replies, Yahweh knows them that are His, and a book of remembrance is being kept; for a day of judgment is coming when the good and the evil will be distinguished; those who work iniquity will be exterminated, while those who do righteously will triumph. (7) Malachi 4:4-6, a concluding exhortation to obey the Mosaic Law; with a promise that Elijah the prophet will first come to avert, if possible, the threatened judgment by reconciling the hearts of the nation to one another, i.e. to reconcile the ideals of the old to those of the young, and vice versa...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MALACHI...

Prophecies of Malachi in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The contents of the book are comprised in four chapters. In the Hebrew text the third and fourth chapters (of the A.V.) form but one. The whole consists of three sections, preceded by an introduction (Mal. 1:1-5), in which the prophet reminds Israel of Jehovah's love to them. The first section (1:6- 2:9) contains a stern rebuke addressed to the priests who had despised the name of Jehovah, and been leaders in a departure from his worship and from the covenant, and for their partiality in administering the law. In the second (2:9-16) the people are rebuked for their intermarriages with idolatrous heathen. In the third (2:17-4:6) he addresses the people as a whole, and warns them of the coming of the God of judgment, preceded by the advent of the Messiah. This book is frequently referred to in the New Testament (Matt. 11:10; 17:12; Mark 1:2; 9:11, 12; Luke 1:17; Rom. 9:13).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Mala...

Malachi in Easton's Bible Dictionary

messenger or angel, the last of the minor prophets, and the writer of the last book of the Old Testament canon (Mal. 4:4, 5, 6). Nothing is known of him beyond what is contained in his book of prophecies. Some have supposed that the name is simply a title descriptive of his character as a messenger of Jehovah, and not a proper name. There is reason, however, to conclude that Malachi was the ordinary name of the prophet. He was contemporary with Nehemiah (comp. Mal. 2:8 with Neh. 13:15; Mal. 2:10-16 with Neh. 13:23). No allusion is made to him by Ezra, and he does not mention the restoration of the temple, and hence it is inferred that he prophesied after Haggai and Zechariah, and when the temple services were still in existence (Mal. 1:10; 3:1, 10). It is probable that he delivered his prophecies about B.C. 420, after the second return of Nehemiah from Persia (Neh. 13:6), or possibly before his return.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Mala...

The Book of Malachi in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

("messenger of Jah"), or Jehovah; contracted for Malachijah, as Abi for Abijah (2 Kings 18:2; compare 2 Chronicles 29:1). The name is that of an office rather than of a person; it occurs in the sense "My (Jehovah's) messenger" (Malachi 3:1, compare Haggai 1:13). Malachi was Jehovah's last inspired messenger of Old Testament, announcing the advent of the great Messenger of New Testament; the transition link between the two dispensations, "the skirt and boundary of Christianity," to which is due his abrupt earnestness. Not identical with Ezra, as Chaldee paraphrase represents, for Malachi is never called a scribe, always a prophet, but Ezra always a scribe, never a prophet. The analogy of the headings of the other prophets favors the view that Malachi is a proper name. He supported or followed up the governor Nehemiah in the restoration of the national polity civil and religious, as Haggai and Zechariah previously had supported Joshua the high priest and Zerubbabel the civil governor in building the temple, Malachi (Zechariah 1:10; Zechariah 3:1-10) presupposes the temple already built. Like Nehemiah (Nehemiah 13:5; Nehemiah 13:15-22; Nehemiah 13:23-30) he censures the secular and mercenary spirit of the priests (Malachi 1:10; Malachi 2:14- 16; Malachi 3:8-10); the people's marriages with foreigners; the non-payment of the tithes (Nehemiah states the cause, the high priest's alliance with Tobiah the Ammonite and Sanballat); and the rich men's want of sympathy toward the poor. Nehemiah (Nehemiah 6:7) implies that "prophets" supported him, by his desire, in his reformation...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/M/Mal...

Malachi in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

("messenger of Jah"), or Jehovah; contracted for Malachijah, as Abi for Abijah (2 Kings 18:2; compare 2 Chronicles 29:1). The name is that of an office rather than of a person; it occurs in the sense "My (Jehovah's) messenger" (Malachi 3:1, compare Haggai 1:13). Malachi was Jehovah's last inspired messenger of Old Testament, announcing the advent of the great Messenger of New Testament; the transition link between the two dispensations, "the skirt and boundary of Christianity," to which is due his abrupt earnestness. Not identical with Ezra, as Chaldee paraphrase represents, for Malachi is never called a scribe, always a prophet, but Ezra always a scribe, never a prophet. The analogy of the headings of the other prophets favors the view that Malachi is a proper name. He supported or followed up the governor Nehemiah in the restoration of the national polity civil and religious, as Haggai and Zechariah previously had supported Joshua the high priest and Zerubbabel the civil governor in building the temple, Malachi (Zechariah 1:10; Zechariah 3:1-10) presupposes the temple already built. Like Nehemiah (Nehemiah 13:5; Nehemiah 13:15-22; Nehemiah 13:23-30) he censures the secular and mercenary spirit of the priests (Malachi 1:10; Malachi 2:14- 16; Malachi 3:8-10); the people's marriages with foreigners; the non-payment of the tithes (Nehemiah states the cause, the high priest's alliance with Tobiah the Ammonite and Sanballat); and the rich men's want of sympathy toward the poor. Nehemiah (Nehemiah 6:7) implies that "prophets" supported him, by his desire, in his reformation...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/M/Mal...

Gospel According to Mark, 1 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

II. Contents and General Characteristics. 1. Scope: The Gospel begins with the ministry of John the Baptist and ends with the announcement of the Resurrection, if the last 12 verses be not included. These add post-resurrection appearances, the Commission, the Ascension, and a brief summary of apostolic activity. Thus its limits correspond closely with those indicated by Peter in Acts 10:37-43. Nothing is said of the early Judean ministry. The Galilean ministry and Passion Week with the transition from the one to the other (in Acts 10) practically make up the Gospel. 2. Material Peculiar to Mark: Matter peculiar to Mark is found in 4:26-29 (the seed growing secretly); 3:21 (his kindred's fear); 7:32-37 (the deaf and dumb man); 8:22-26 (the blind man); 13:33-37 (the householder and the exhortation to watch); 14:51 (the young man who escaped). But, in addition to this, there are many vivid word-touches with which the common material is lighted up, and in not a few of the common incidents Mark's account is very much fuller; e.g. 6:14-29 (death of John the Baptist); Mk 7:1-23 (on eating with unwashen hands); 9:14-29 (the demoniac boy); 12:28-34 (the questioning scribe). There is enough of this material to show clearly that the author could not have been wholly dependent on the other evangelists. Hawkins reckons the whole amount of peculiar material at about fifty verses (Hor. Syn., 11)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MARK,+T...

Gospel According to Mark, 2 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

VI. Sources and Integrity. We have seen that, according to the testimony of the Fathers, Peter's preaching and teaching are at least the main source, and that many features of the Gospel support that view. We have seen, also, subtle but weighty reasons for believing that Mark added a little himself. Need we seek further sources, or does inquiry resolve itself into an analysis of Peter's teaching? B. Weiss believes that Mark used a document now lost containing mainly sayings of Jesus, called Logia (L) in the earlier discussions, but now commonly known as Q (Quelle). In that opinion he has recently been joined by Sanday and Streeter. Harnack, Sir John Hawkins and Wellhausen have sought to reconstruct Q on the basis of the non-Markan matter in Matthew and Luke. Allen extracts it from Matthew alone, thinking that Mark also may have drawn a few sayings from it. Some assign a distinct source for Mark 13. Streeter considers it a document written shortly after the fall of Jerusalem, incorporating a few utterances by Jesus and itself incorporated bodily by Mark. Other sources, oral or written, are postulated by Bacon for smaller portions and grouped under X. He calls the final redactor R--not Mark but a Paulinist of a radical type. In forming a judgment much depends upon one's conception of the teaching method of Jesus and the apostles. Teaching and preaching are not synonymous terms. Matthew sums up the early ministry in Galilee under "teaching, preaching and healing," and gives us the substance of that teaching as it impressed itself upon him. Mark reports less of it, but speaks of it more frequently than either Matthew or Luke. Jesus evidently gave teaching a very large place, and a large proportion of the time thus spent was devoted to the special instruction of the inner circle of disciples. The range of that instruction was not wide. It was intensive rather than extensive. He held Himself to the vital topic of the kingdom of God. He must have gone over it again and again. He would not hesitate to repeat instructions which even chosen men found it so difficult to understand. Teaching by repetition was common then as it is now in the East. The word "catechize" (katecheo) implies that, and that word is used by Paul of Jewish (Rom 2:18) and by...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MARK,+T...

Gospel of Mark in Smiths Bible Dictionary

1. By whom written. --The author of this Gospel has been universally believed to be Mark or Marcus, designated in Ac 12:12,25; 15:37 as John Mark, and in ch. 5,13 as John. 2. When is was written. --Upon this point nothing absolutely certain can be affirmed, and the Gospel itself affords us no information. The most direct testimony is that of Irenaeus, who says it was after the death of the apostles Peter and Paul. We may conclude, therefore, that this Gospel was not written before A.D. 63. Again we may as certainly conclude that it was not written after the destruction of Jerusalem, for it is not likely that he would have omitted to record so remarkable a fulfillment of our Lord's predictions. Hence A.D. 63-70 becomes our limit, but nearer than this we cannot go. --Farrar. 3. Where it was written. --As to the place, the weight of testimony is uniformly in favor of the belief that the Gospel was written and published at Rome. In this Clement, Eusebius, Jerome, Epiphanius, all agree. Chrysostom, indeed, asserts that it was published at Alexandria; but his statement receives no confirmation, as otherwise it could not fail to have done, from any Alexandrine writer. --Farrar. 4. In what language. --As to the language in which it was written, there never has been any reasonable doubt that it was written in Greek. 5. Sources of information. --Mark was not one of the twelve; and there is no reason to believe that he was an eye and ear witness of the events which he has recorded but an almost unanimous testimony of the early fathers indicates Peter as the source of his information. The most important of these testimonies is that of Papias, who says, "He, the Presbyter (John), said, Mark, being the Interpreter of Peter, wrote exactly whatever he remembered but he did not write in order the things which were spoken or done by Christ. For he was neither a hearer nor a follower of the Lord, but, as I said, afterward followed Peter, who made his discourses to suit what was required, without the view of giving a connected digest of the discourses of our Lord. Mark, therefore, made no mistakes when he wrote down circumstances as he recollected them; for he was very careful of one thing, to omit nothing of what he heard, and to say nothing false in what he related." Thus Papias writes of Mark. This testimony is confirmed by other witnesses. -- Abbott. 6. For whom it was written. --The traditional statement is that it was intended primarily for Gentiles, and especially for those at Rome. A review of the Gospel itself confirms this view. 7. Characteristics. -- (1) Mark's Gospel is occupied almost entirely with the ministry in Galilee and the events of the passion week. It is the shortest of the four Gospels, and contains almost no incident or teaching which is not contained in one of the other two synoptists; but (2) it is by far the most vivid and dramatic in its narratives, and their pictorial character indicates not only that they were derived from an eye and ear witness, but also from one who possessed the observation and the graphic artistic power of a natural orator such as Peter emphatically was. (3) One peculiarity strikes us the moment we open it, --the absence of any genealogy of our Lord. This is the key to much that follows. It is not the design of the evangelist to present our Lord to us, like St. Matthew as the Messiah, "the son of David and Abraham," ch. 1:1, or, like St. Luke, as the universal Redeemer, "the son of Adam, which was the son of God." ch. 3:38. (4) His design is to present him to us as the incarnate and wonder-working Son of God, living and acting among men; to portray him in the fullness of his living energy. --Cambridge Bible for Schools.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Mark,...

Gospel According to Mark in Easton's Bible Dictionary

It is the current and apparently well-founded tradition that Mark derived his information mainly from the discourses of Peter. In his mother's house he would have abundant opportunities of obtaining information from the other apostles and their coadjutors, yet he was "the disciple and interpreter of Peter" specially. As to the time when it was written, the Gospel furnishes us with no definite information. Mark makes no mention of the destruction of Jerusalem, hence it must have been written before that event, and probably about A.D. 63. The place where it was written was probably Rome. Some have supposed Antioch (comp. Mark 15:21 with Acts 11:20). It was intended primarily for Romans. This appears probable when it is considered that it makes no reference to the Jewish law, and that the writer takes care to interpret words which a Gentile would be likely to misunderstand, such as, "Boanerges" (3:17); "Talitha cumi" (5:41); "Corban" (7:11); "Bartimaeus" (10:46); "Abba" (14:36); "Eloi," etc. (15:34). Jewish usages are also explained (7:3; 14:3; 14:12; 15:42). Mark also uses certain Latin words not found in any of the other Gospels, as "speculator" (6:27, rendered, A.V., "executioner;" R.V., "soldier of his guard"), "xestes" (a corruption of sextarius, rendered "pots," 7:4, 8), "quadrans" (12:42, rendered "a farthing"), "centurion" (15:39, 44, 45). He only twice quotes from the Old Testament (1:2; 15:28). The characteristics of this Gospel are, (1) the absence of the genealogy of our Lord, (2) whom he represents as clothed with power, the "lion of the tribe of Judah." (3.) Mark also records with wonderful minuteness the very words (3:17; 5:41; 7:11, 34; 14:36) as well as the position (9:35) and gestures (3:5, 34; 5:32; 9:36; 10:16) of our Lord. (4.) He is also careful to record particulars of person (1:29, 36; 3:6, 22, etc.), number (5:13; 6:7, etc.), place (2:13; 4:1; 7:31, etc.), and time (1:35; 2:1; 4:35, etc.), which the other evangelists omit. (5.) The phrase "and straightway" occurs nearly forty times in this Gospel; while in Luke's Gospel, which is much longer, it is used only seven times, and in John only four times. "The Gospel of Mark," says Westcott, "is essentially a transcript from life. The course and issue of facts are imaged in it with the clearest outline." "In Mark we have no attempt to draw up a continuous narrative. His Gospel is a rapid succession of vivid pictures loosely strung together without much attempt to bind them into a whole or give the events in their natural sequence. This pictorial power is that which specially characterizes this evangelist, so that 'if any one desires to know an evangelical fact, not only in its main features and grand results, but also in its most minute and so to speak more graphic delineation, he must betake himself to Mark.'" The leading principle running through this Gospel may be expressed in the motto: "Jesus came...preaching the gospel of the kingdom" (Mark 1:14). "Out of a total of 662 verses, Mark has 406 in common with Matthew and Luke, 145 with Matthew, 60 with Luke, and at most 51 peculiar to itself." (See MATTHEW -T0002442.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Mark...

Gospel According to Mark in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

frontACTS, THE BOOK OF; BARNABAS; GOSPELS.) "John (his Hebrew name) whose surname was Mark" (his Roman name): Mark 12:12; Mark 12:25; Mark 13:5; Mark 13:13; Mark 15:39; Colossians 4:10; 2 Timothy 4:11; Philemon 1:24. The Roman supplanted the Jewish name, as Paul did Saul. The change marks his entrance on a new and worldwide ministry. The fathers unanimously testify that Mark was "interpreter" (hermeneutees, Papias in Eusebius, H. E. iii. 39; Irenaeus, Haer. iii. 1,10, sec. 6) to Peter; meaning one who expresses and clothes in words the testimony of another. Papias, or John Presbyter (in Eusebius, H. E. iii. 39), states that Mark wrote "not in order," i.e. he wrote "some" leading facts, not a complete history. He attests Mark's accuracy, saying "he committed no error," but made it his aim "to omit nought of what he heard and to state nothing untrue." Peter's name and presence are mentioned on occasions where apparently there is no reason for it; Mark herein wished to bring the apostle forward as his authority (see Mark 1:36; Mark 5:37; Mark 11:20-26; Mark 13:3). There are indications of the author having been a Galilean, which Peter was. Thus, Herod the tetrarch is styled "king"; the "lake' (as Luke 8:22 calls it, for he knew larger sects) is called "the sea of Galilee" (Mark 5:1). Only in Mark 6:30 the term of dignity, "apostle," is found; in Luke, as writing later, it frequently occurs. Things to their discredit are ingenuously stated by Matthew and Mark (Peter), as we might expect from apostles writing about themselves; but are sparingly introduced by Luke (Matthew 16:9; Mark 7:18; Mark 10:41; Mark 14:31; Mark 6:52; Mark 9:10; Mark 10:32, the last three not in Matthew)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/M/Mar...

The Gospel of Matthew in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE 1. Name of Gospel--Unity and Integrity: The "Gospel according to Matthew," i.e. the Gospel according to the account of Matthew, stands, according to traditional, but not entirely universal, arrangement, first among the canonical Gospels. The Gospel, as will be seen below, was unanimously ascribed by the testimony of the ancient church to the apostle Matthew, though the title does not of itself necessarily imply immediate authorship. The unity and integrity of the Gospel were never in ancient times called in question. Matthew 1; 2, particularly--the story of the virgin birth and childhood of Jesus--are proved by the consentient testimony of manuscripts, VSS, and patristic references, to have been an integral part of the Gospel from the beginning (see VIRGIN BIRTH). The omission of this section from the heretical Gospel of the Ebionites, which appears to have had some relation to our Gospel, is without significance. The theory of successive redactions of Mt, starting with an Aramaic Gospel, elaborated by Eichhorn and Marsh (1801), and the related theories of successive editions of the Gospel put forth by the Tubingen school (Baur, Hilgenfeld, Kostlin, etc.), and by Ewald (Bleek supposes a primitive Greek Gospel), lack historical foundation, and are refuted by the fact that manuscripts and versions know only the ultimate redaction. Is it credible that the churches should quietly accept redaction after redaction, and not a word be said, or a vestige remain, of any of them?...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MATTHEW...

Matthew in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

math'-u: Matthew the apostle and evangelist is mentioned in the 4 catalogues of the apostles in Mt 10:3; Mk 3:18; Lk 6:15; Acts 1:13, though his place is not constant in this list, varying between the 7th and the 8th places and thus exchanging positions with Thomas. The name occurring in the two forms Matthaios, and Maththaios, is a Greek reproduction of the Aramaic Mattathyah, i.e. "gift of Yahweh," and equivalent to Theodore. Before his call to the apostolic office, according to Mt 9:9, his name was Levi. The identity of Matthew and Levi is practically beyond all doubt, as is evident from the predicate in Mt 10:3; and from a comparison of Mk 2:14; Lk 5:27 with Mt 9:9. Mark calls him "the son of Alpheus" (Mk 2:14), although this cannot have been the Alpheus who was the father of James the Less; for if this James and Matthew had been brothers this fact would doubtless have been mentioned, as is the case with Peter and Andrew, and also with the sons of Zebedee. Whether Jesus, as He did in the case of several others of His disciples, gave him the additional name of Matthew is a matter of which we are not informed. As he was a customs officer (ho telones, Mt 10:3) in Capernaum, in the territory of Herod Antipas, Matthew was not exactly a Roman official, but was in the service of the tetrarch of Galilee, or possibly a subordinate officer, belonging to the class called portitores, serving under the publicani, or superior officials who farmed the Roman taxes. As such he must have had some education, and doubtless in addition to the native Aramaic must have been acquainted with the Greek His ready acceptance of the call of Jesus shows that he must have belonged to that group of publicans and sinners, who in Galilee and elsewhere looked longingly to Jesus (Mt 11:19; Lk 7:34; 15:1). Just at what period of Christ's ministry he was called does not appear with certainty, but evidently not at once, as on the day when he was called (Mt 9:11,14,18; Mk 5:37), Peter, James and John are already trustworthy disciples of Jesus. Unlike the first six among the apostles, Matthew did not enter the group from among the pupils of John the Baptist. These are practically all the data furnished by the New Testament on the person of Matthew, and what is found in post-Biblical and extra-Biblical sources is chiefly the product of imagination and in part based on mistaking the name of Matthew for Matthias (compare Zahn, Introduction to the New Testament, chapter liv, note 3). Tradition states that he preached for 15 years in Israel and that after this he went to foreign nations, the Ethiopians, Macedonians, Syrians, Persians, Parthians and Medea being mentioned. He is said to have died a natural death either in Ethiopia or in Macedonia. The stories of the Roman Catholic church that he died the death of a martyr on September 21 and of the Greek church that this occurred on November 10 are without any historical basis. Clement of Alexandria (Strom., iv.9) gives the explicit denial of Heracleon that Matthew suffered martyrdom.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MATTHEW...

Gospel of Matthew in Smiths Bible Dictionary

1. Its authorship. --That this Gospel was written by the apostle Matthew there is no reason to doubt. Seventeen independent witnesses of the first four centuries attest its genuineness. 2. Its original language. --The testimony of the early Church is unanimous that Matthew wrote originally in the Hebrew language. On the otherhand doubt is thrown over this opinion, both statements of by an examination of the fathers and by a consideration of peculiar forms of language employed in the Gospel itself. The question is unsettled, the best scholars not agreeing in their Judgment concerning it. If there was a Hebrew original, it disappeared at a very early age. The Greek Gospel which we now possess was it is almost certain, written in Matthew's lifetime; and it is not at all improbable that he wrote the Gospel in both the Greek and Hebrew languages. --Lyman Abbolt. It is almost certain that our Lord spoke in Greek with foreigners, but with his disciples and the Jewish people in Aramaic (a form of language closely allied to the Hebrew). --Schaff. The Jewish historian Josephus furnishes an illustration of the fate of the Hebrew original of Matthew. Josephus himself informs us that he, wrote his great work "The History of the Jewish Wars," originally in Hebrew, his native tongue, for the benefit of his own nation, and he afterward translated it into Greek. No notices of the Hebrew original now survive. - -Professor D.S. Gregory. 3. The date.-- The testimony of the early Church is unanimous that Matthew wrote first of the early Church is among the evangelists. Irenieus relates that Matthew wrote his Gospel while Peter and Paul were preaching, and founding the Church at Rome, after A.D. 61. It was published before the destruction of Jerusalem, A.D. 50.--Alford. We would place our present Gospel between A.D. 60 and 66. If there was an original Hebrew Gospel, an earlier date belongs to it --Ellicott. 4. Its object.-- This Gospel was probably written in Israel for Jewish Christians. It is an historical proof that Jesus is the Messiah. Matthew is the Gospel for the Jew. It is the Gospel of Jesus, the Messiah of the prophets. This Gospel takes the life of Jesus as it was lived on earth, and his character as it actually appeared, and places them alongside the life and character of the Messiah as sketched in the prophets, the historic by the side of the Prophetic, that the two may appear in their marvellous unity and in their perfect identity. --Professor Gregory.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Matth...

Matthew in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(gift of Jehovah). (A contraction, as is also Matthias, of Mattathias. His original name was Levi, and his name Matthew was probably adopted as his new apostolic name was a Jew. His father's name was Alphaeus. His home was at Capernaum His business was the collection of dues and customs from persons and goods crossing the Sea of Galilee, or passing along the great Damascus road which ran along the shore between Bethsaida, Julius and Capernaum. Christ called him from this work to he his disciple. He appears to have been a man of wealth, for he made a great feast in his own house, perhaps in order to introduce his former companions and friends to Jesus. His business would tend to give him a knowledge of human nature, and accurate business habits, and of how to make a way to the hearts of many publicans and sinners not otherwise easily reached. He is mentioned by name, after the resurrection of Christ, only in Ac 1:15 but he must have lived many years as an apostle, since he was the author of the Gospel of Matthew which was written at least twenty years later. There is reason to believe that he remained for fifteen years at Jerusalem, after which he went as missionary to the Persians, Parthians and Medes. There is a legend that he died a martyr in Ethiopia. --ED.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Matth...

Gospel According to Matthew in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The author of this book was beyond a doubt the Matthew, an apostle of our Lord, whose name it bears. He wrote the Gospel of Christ according to his own plans and aims, and from his own point of view, as did also the other "evangelists." As to the time of its composition, there is little in the Gospel itself to indicate. It was evidently written before the destruction of Jerusalem (Matt. 24), and some time after the events it records. The probability is that it was written between the years A.D. 60 and 65. The cast of thought and the forms of expression employed by the writer show that this Gospel was written for Jewish Christians of Israel. His great object is to prove that Jesus of Nazareth was the promised Messiah, and that in him the ancient prophecies had their fulfilment. The Gospel is full of allusions to those passages of the Old Testament in which Christ is predicted and foreshadowed. The one aim prevading the whole book is to show that Jesus is he "of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write." This Gospel contains no fewer than sixty-five references to the Old Testament, forty- three of these being direct verbal citations, thus greatly outnumbering those found in the other Gospels. The main feature of this Gospel may be expressed in the motto, "I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil." As to the language in which this Gospel was written there is much controversy. Many hold, in accordance with old tradition, that it was originally written in Hebrew (i.e., the Aramaic or Syro-Chaldee dialect, then the vernacular of the inhabitants of Israel), and afterwards translated into Greek, either by Matthew himself or by some person unknown. This theory, though earnestly maintained by able critics, we cannot see any ground for adopting. From the first this Gospel in Greek was received as of authority in the Church. There is nothing in it to show that it is a translation. Though Matthew wrote mainly for the Jews, yet they were everywhere familiar with the Greek language. The same reasons which would have suggested the necessity of a translation into Greek would have led the evangelist to write in Greek at first. It is confessed that this Gospel has never been found in any other form than that in which we now possess it. The leading characteristic of this Gospel is that it sets forth the kingly glory of Christ, and shows him to be the true heir to David's throne. It is the Gospel of the kingdom. Matthew uses the expression "kingdom of heaven" (thirty-two times), while Luke uses the expression "kingdom of God" (thirty-three times). Some Latinized forms occur in this Gospel, as kodrantes (Matt. 5:26), for the Latin quadrans, and phragello (27:26), for the Latin flagello. It must be remembered that Matthew was a tax-gatherer for the Roman government, and hence in contact with those using the Latin language. As to the relation of the Gospels to each other, we must maintain that each writer of the synoptics (the first three) wrote independently of the other two, Matthew being probably first in point of time. "Out of a total of 1071 verses, Matthew has 387 in common with Mark and Luke, 130 with Mark, 184 with Luke; only 387 being peculiar to itself." (See MARK -T0002419; LUKE -T0002331; GOSPELS -T0001532.) The book is fitly divided into these four parts: (1.) Containing the genealogy, the birth, and the infancy of Jesus (1; 2). (2.) The discourses and actions of John the Baptist preparatory to Christ's public ministry (3; 4:11). (3.) The discourses and actions of Christ in Galilee (4:12-20:16). (4.) The sufferings, death and resurrection of our Lord (20:17-28).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Matt...

Matthew in Easton's Bible Dictionary

gift of God, a common Jewish name after the Exile. He was the son of Alphaeus, and was a publican or tax-gatherer at Capernaum. On one occasion Jesus, coming up from the side of the lake, passed the custom-house where Matthew was seated, and said to him, "Follow me." Matthew arose and followed him, and became his disciple (Matt. 9:9). Formerly the name by which he was known was Levi (Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27); he now changed it, possibly in grateful memory of his call, to Matthew. The same day on which Jesus called him he made a "great feast" (Luke 5:29), a farewell feast, to which he invited Jesus and his disciples, and probably also many of old associates. He was afterwards selected as one of the twelve (6:15). His name does not occur again in the Gospel history except in the lists of the apostles. The last notice of him is in Acts 1:13. The time and manner of his death are unknown.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Matt...

Matthew in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

("the gift of Jehovah"), contracted from Mattathias. The evangelist and apostle. Son of Alphaeus (not the father of James the Less, for Matthew and James are never coupled as brothers). Mark (Mark 2:14, compare Mark 3:18) and Luke (Luke 5:27, compare with Luke 6:15) veil his former less honorable occupation of a publican under his original name Levi; but Matthew himself gives it, and humbly puts himself after Thomas, an undesigned mark of genuineness; whereas Mark (Mark 3:18) and Luke (Luke 6:15) put Matthew before Thomas in the list of apostles. (See PUBLICAN.) As subordinate to the head farmers of the Roman revenues he collected dues at Capernaum on the sea of Galilee, the route by which traffic passed between Damascus and the Phoenician seaports. But Matthew is not ashamed to own his identity with "the publican" in order to magnify Christ's grace (Matthew 9:9), and in his catalogue of the apostles (Matthew 10:3). Christ called him at "the receipt of custom," and he immediately obeyed the call. Desiring to draw others of his occupation with him to the Savior he made in His honor a great feast (Matthew 9:9-13; Luke 5:29; Mark 2:14). "Many publicans and sinners" thus had the opportunity of hearing the word; and the murmuring of the Pharisee, and the reply of our Lord "they that be whole need not a physician but they that are sick ... I am not come to call the righteous but sinners to repentance," imply that his effort was crowned with success. With the undesigned propriety which marks genuineness Matthew talks of Jesus' sitting down in "the house" without telling whose house it was, whereas Mark mentions it as Levi's. He was among those who met in the upper room at Jerusalem after our Lord's ascension (Acts 1:13). Eustathius (H. E. iii. 24) says that after our Lord's ascension Matthew preached in Judaea and then in foreign nations (Ethiopia, according to Socrates Scholasticus, H. E. i. 19).

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/M/Mat...

Gospel According to Matthew in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

frontGOSPELS for its aspect of Christ compared with the other evangelists.) Time of writing. As our Lord's words divide Acts (Acts 1:8) into its three parts, "ye shall be witnesses unto Me in Jerusalem, and all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth": (1) the period in which the church was Jewish, Acts 1-11; (2) the period when it was Gentile with strong Jewish admixture; (3) the period when the Gentiles preponderated, Matthew's Gospel answers to the first or Jewish period, ending about A.D. 41, and was written probably in and for Jerusalem and Judea. The expression (Matthew 27:7-8; Matthew 28:15) "unto this day" implies some interval after Christ's crucifixion. Language. Ancient testimony is unanimous that Matthew wrote in Hebrew Papias, a disciple of John (the Presbyter) and companion of Polycarp (Eusebius, H. E. 3:3), says, "Matthew wrote his oracles (logia) in Hebrew, and each interpreted them in Greek as he could." Perhaps the Greek for "oracles," logia, expresses that the Hebrew Gospel of Matthew was a collection of discourses (as logoi means) rather than a full narrative. Matthew's Gospel is the one of the four which gives most fully the discourses of our Lord. Papias' use of the past tense (aorist) implies that "each interpreting" Matthew's Hebrew was in Papias' time a thing of the past, so that as early as the end of the first century or the beginning of the second the need for each to translate the Hebrew had ceased, for an authoritative Greek translation existed...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/M/Mat...

Micah in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

4. Contents of the Prophecies: Micah combats in his discourses, as does Isaiah, the heathenish abuses which had found their way into the cult, not only in Samaria, but also in Judah and Jerusalem, and which the reformation of Hezekiah could counteract only in part and not at all permanently (compare Mic 1:5-7; 5:11-13; 6:7,16). Further, he rebukes them for the social injustice, of which particularly the powerful and the great in the land were guilty (Mic 2:1 ff; 3:2 f.10 f); and the dishonesty and unfaithfulness in business and in conduct in general (compare Mic 6:10 ff; 7:2 ff). At all times Micah, in doing this, was compelled to defend himself against false prophets, who slighted these charges as of little importance, and threatened and antagonized the prophet in his announcements of impending evil (compare 2:5 ff,11 ff). In pronounced opposition to these babblers and their predictions of good things, Micah announces the judgment through the enemies that are approaching, and he even goes beyond Isaiah in the open declaration that Jerusalem and the temple are to be destroyed (Mic 3:12; 4:10; 5:1). The first- mentioned passage is also confirmed by the event reported in Jer 26:17 ff. The passage Mic 4:10, where in a surprising way Babylon is mentioned as the place of the exile, is for this reason regarded as unauthentic by the critics, but not justly. Micah predicts also the deliverance from Babylon and the reestablishment of Israel in Jerusalem, and declares that this is to take place through a King who shall come forth from the deepest humiliation of the house of David and shall be born in Bethlehem, and who, like David, originally a simple shepherd boy, shall later become the shepherd of the people, and shall make his people happy in peace and prosperity. Against this King the last great onslaught of the Gentiles will avail nothing (4:11-13; 5:4 ff). As a matter of course, he will purify the country of all heathen abuses (5:9 ff). In the description of this ruler, Micah again agrees with Isaiah, but without taking the details from that prophet...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/M/MICAH+(...

The Book of Micah in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Three sections of this work represent three natural divisions of the prophecy --1, 2; 3-5; 6,7 --each commencing with rebukes and threatening and closing with a promise. The first section opens with a magnificent description of the coming of Jehovah to judgment for the sins and idolatries of Israel and Judah, ch. 1:2-4, and the sentence pronounced upon Samaria, vs. 5-9, by the Judge himself. The sentence of captivity is passed upon them. Mic 2:10 but is followed instantly by a promise of restoration and triumphant return. ch. Mic 2:12,13 The second section is addressed especially to the princes and heads of the people: their avarice and rapacity are rebuked in strong terms; but the threatening is again succeeded by a promise of restoration. In the last section, chs. 6,7, Jehovah, by a bold poetical figure, is represented as holding a controversy with his people, pleading with them in justification of his conduct toward them and the reasonableness of his requirements. The whole concludes with a triumphal song of joy at the great deliverance, like that from Egypt, which jehovah will achieve, and a full acknowledgment of his mercy and faithfulness of his promises. vs. 16-20. The last verse is reproduced in the song of Zacharias. Lu 1:72,73 Micah's prophecies are distinct and clear. He it is who says that the Ruler shall spring from Bethlehem. ch. Lu 5:2 His style has been compared with that of Hosea and Isaiah. His diction is vigorous and forcible, sometimes obscure from the abruptness of its transitions, but varied and rich.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Micah...

Micah in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(who is like God?), the same name as Micaiah. [MICAIAH] 1. An Israelite whose familiar story is preserved in the 17th and 18th chapters of Judges. Micah is evidently a devout believers in Jehovah, and yet so completely ignorant is he of the law of Jehovah that the mode which he adopts of honoring him is to make a molten and graven image, teraphim or images of domestic gods, and to set up an unauthorized priesthood, first in his own family, Jud 17:5 and then in the person of a Levite not of the priestly line. ver. Jud 17:12 A body of 600 Danites break in upon and steal his idols from him. 2. The sixth in order of the minor prophets. He is called the Morasthite, that is, a native of Moresheth, a small village near Eleutheropolis to the east, where formerly the prophet's tomb was shown, though in the days of Jerome it had been succeeded by a church. Micah exercised the prophetical office during the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, giving thus a maximum limit of 59 years, B.C. 756-697, from the accession of Jotham to the death of Hezekiah, and a minimum limit of 16 years, B.C. 742-726, from the death of Jotham to the accession of Hezekiah. He was contemporary with Hosea and Amos during the part of their ministry in Israel, and with Isaiah in Judah. 3. A descendant of Joel the Reubenite. 1Ch 5:5 4. The son of Meribbaal or Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan. 1Ch 8:34,35; 9:40,41 5. A Kohathite levite, the eldest son of Uzziel the brother of Amram. 1Ch 23:30 6. The father of Abdon, a man of high station in the reign of Josiah. 2Ch 34:20

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/M/Micah...

Book of Micah in Easton's Bible Dictionary

the sixth in order of the so-called minor prophets. The superscription to this book states that the prophet exercised his office in the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. If we reckon from the beginning of Jotham's reign to the end of Hezekiah's (B.C. 759-698), then he ministered for about fifty-nine years; but if we reckon from the death of Jotham to the accession of Hezekiah (B.C. 743-726), his ministry lasted only sixteen years. It has been noticed as remarkable that this book commences with the last words of another prophet, "Micaiah the son of Imlah" (1 Kings 22:28): "Hearken, O people, every one of you." The book consists of three sections, each commencing with a rebuke, "Hear ye," etc., and closing with a promise, (1) ch. 1; 2; (2) ch. 3-5, especially addressed to the princes and heads of the people; (3) ch. 6-7, in which Jehovah is represented as holding a controversy with his people: the whole concluding with a song of triumph at the great deliverance which the Lord will achieve for his people. The closing verse is quoted in the song of Zacharias (Luke 1:72, 73). The prediction regarding the place "where Christ should be born," one of the most remarkable Messianic prophecies (Micah 5:2), is quoted in Matt. 2:6. There are the following references to this book in the New Testament: 5:2, with Matt. 2:6; John 7:42. 7:6, with Matt. 10:21,35,36. 7:20, with Luke 1:72,73.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Mica...

Micah in Easton's Bible Dictionary

a shortened form of Micaiah, who is like Jehovah? (1.) A man of Mount Ephraim, whose history so far is introduced in Judg. 17, apparently for the purpose of leading to an account of the settlement of the tribe of Dan in Northern Israel, and for the purpose also of illustrating the lawlessness of the times in which he lived (Judg. 18; 19:1-29; 21:25). (2.) The son of Merib-baal (Mephibosheth), 1 Chr. 8:34, 35. (3.) The first in rank of the priests of the family of Kohathites (1 Chr. 23:20). (4.) A descendant of Joel the Reubenite (1 Chr. 5:5). (5.) "The Morasthite," so called to distinguish him from Micaiah, the son of Imlah (1 Kings 22:8). He was a prophet of Judah, a contemporary of Isaiah (Micah 1:1), a native of Moresheth of Gath (1:14, 15). Very little is known of the circumstances of his life (comp. Jer. 26:18, 19).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/M/Mica...

Book of Micah in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

1. Of Mount Ephraim. (See JONATHAN.) The date of the event is implied as before Samson, for the origin of the name Mahaneh Dan occurs in this narrative (Judges 18:12) and it is mentioned as already so named in Samson's childhood (Judges 13:25, margin). Josephus places the synchronous narrative of the Levite and his concubine at the beginning of the judges. Phinehas, Aaron's grandson, is mentioned (Judges 20:28). The narrative was written after the monarchy had begun (Judges 18:1; Judges 19:1), while the tabernacle was still at Shiloh, not yet moved by David to Jerusalem (Judges 18:81). 2. MICAH THE PROPHET. The oldest form of the name was Mikaiahuw, "who is as Jah?" (compare MICHAEL.) In Micah 7:18 Micah alludes to the meaning of his name as embodying the most precious truth to a guilty people such as he had painted the Jews, "who is a God like unto Thee that pardon iniquity," etc. Sixth of the minor prophets in the Hebrew canon, third in the Septuagint. The Morasthite, i.e. of Moresheth, or Moresheth Gath (near Gath in S.W. of Judaea), where once was his tomb, but in Jerome's (Ep. Paulae 6) days a church, not far from Eleutheropolis. Micah prophesied in the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah somewhere between 756 and 697 B.C. Contemporary with Isaiah in Judah, with whose prophecies his have a close connection (compare Micah 4:1-3 with Isaiah 2:2-4, the latter stamping the former as inspired), and with Hosea and Amos during their later ministry in Israel. His earlier prophecies under Jotham and Ahaz were collected and written out as one whole under Hezekiah. Probably the book was read before the assembled king and people on some fast or festival, as certain elders quoted to the princes and people assembled against Jeremiah (Jeremiah 26:18) Micah 3:12, "Micah the Morasthite in the days of Hezekiah, and spoke to all the people of Judah, Thus saith the Lord of hosts, Zion shall be plowed like a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest. Did Hezekiah put him ... to death? Did he not fear the Lord and besought the Lord, and the Lord repented Him of the evil which He had pronounced against them?" The idolatries of Ahaz' reign accord with Micah 's denunciations. He prophesies partly against Israel (Samaria), partly against Judah...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/M/Mic...

The Book of Nahum in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. Authorship and Date. 1. The Name: The name Nahum (nachum; Septuagint and New Testament Naoum; Josephus, Naoumos) occurs nowhere else in the Old Testament; in the New Testament it is found in Lk 3:25. It is not uncommon in the Mishna, and it has been discovered in Phoenician inscriptions. It means "consolation," or "consoler," and is therefore, in a sense, symbolical of the message of the book, which is intended to comfort the oppressed and afflicted people of Judah. 2. Life and Home of Nahum: Of the personal life of Nahum, practically nothing is known. In Nah 1:1 he is called "the Elkoshite," that is, an inhabitant of Elkosh. Unfortunately, the location of this place is not known. The Four Traditions One tradition, which cannot be traced beyond the 16th century AD, identifies the home of Nahum with a modern village Elkush, or Alkosh, not far from the left bank of the Tigris, two days' journey North of the site of ancient Nineveh. A second tradition, which is at least as old as the days of Jerome, the latter part of the 4th century, locates Elkosh in Galilee, at a place identified by many with the modern El-Kauze, near Ramieh. Others identify the home of the prophet with Capernaum, the name of which means "Village of Nahum." A fourth tradition, which is first found in a collection of traditions entitled "Lives of the Prophets," says "Nahum was from Elkosh, beyond Bet Gabre, of the tribe of Simeon." A place in the South is more in harmony with the interest the prophet takes in the Southern Kingdom, so that the last-mentioned tradition seems to have much in its favor, but absolute certainty is not attainable...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/N/NAHUM;+...

Nahum in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

na'-hum (Naoum; the King James Version Naum): An ancestor of Jesus in Luke's genealogy, the 9th before Joseph, the husband of Mary (Lk 3:25).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/N/NAHUM/...

Nahum in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(consolation). Nahum, called "the Elkoshite," is the seventh in order of the minor prophets. His personal history is quite unknown. The site of Elkosh, his native place, is disputed, some placing it in Galilee, others in Assyria. Those who maintain the latter view assume that the prophet's parents were carried into captivity by Tiglath-pileser and that the prophet was born at the village of Alkush, on the east bank of the Tigris, two miles north of Mosul. On the other hand, the imagery of his prophecy is such lie would be natural to an inhabitant of Israel, Na 1:4 to whom the rich pastures of Bashan the vineyards of Carmel and the blossoms of Lebanon were emblems of all that was luxuriant and fertile. The language employed in ch. Na 1:15; 2:2 is appropriate to one who wrote for his countrymen in their native land. (McClintock and Strong come to the conclusion that Nahum was a native of Galilee that at the captivity of the ten tribes he escaped into Judah, and prophesied in the reign of Hezekiah, 726-698.--ED.) Prophecy of Nahum. --The date of Nahum a prophecy can be determined with as little precision as his birthplace. It is, however, certain that the prophecy was written before the final downfall of Nineveh and its capture by the Medes and Chaldeans, cir. B.C. 625. The allusions to the Assyrian power imply that it was still unbroken. ch. Na 1:12; 2:8,13; 3:16-17 It is most probable that Nahum flourished in the latter half of the return of Hezekiah, and wrote his prophecy either in Jerusalem or its neighborhood. The subject of the prophecy is, in accordance with the superscription, "the burden of Nineveh," the destruction of which he predicts. As a poet Nahum occupies a high place in the first rank of Hebrew literature. His style is clear and uninvolved, though pregnant and forcible; his diction sonorous and rhythmical, the words re-echoing to the sense. Comp. Na 2:4; 3:3

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/N/Nahum...

Book of Nahum in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Nahum prophesied, according to some, in the beginning of the reign of Ahaz (B.C. 743). Others, however, think that his prophecies are to be referred to the latter half of the reign of Hezekiah (about B.C. 709). This is the more probable opinion, internal evidences leading to that conclusion. Probably the book was written in Jerusalem (soon after B.C. 709), where he witnessed the invasion of Sennacherib and the destruction of his host (2 Kings 19:35). The subject of this prophecy is the approaching complete and final destruction of Nineveh, the capital of the great and at that time flourishing Assyrian empire. Assur-bani- pal was at the height of his glory. Nineveh was a city of vast extent, and was then the centre of the civilzation and commerce of the world, a "bloody city all full of lies and robbery" (Nah. 3:1), for it had robbed and plundered all the neighbouring nations. It was strongly fortified on every side, bidding defiance to every enemy; yet it was to be utterly destroyed as a punishment for the great wickedness of its inhabitants. Jonah had already uttered his message of warning, and Nahum was followed by Zephaniah, who also predicted (Zeph. 2:4-15) the destruction of the city, predictions which were remarkably fulfilled (B.C. 625) when Nineveh was destroyed apparently by fire, and the Assyrian empire came to an end, an event which changed the face of Asia. (See NINEVEH -T0002735.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/N/Nahu...

Nahum in Easton's Bible Dictionary

consolation, the seventh of the so-called minor prophets, an Elkoshite. All we know of him is recorded in the book of his prophecies. He was probably a native of Galilee, and after the deportation of the ten tribes took up his residence in Jerusalem. Others think that Elkosh was the name of a place on the east bank of the Tigris, and that Nahum dwelt there.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/N/Nahu...

Nahum in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

"consolation" and "vengeance", to Israel and Israel's foe respectively. The two themes alternate in Nahum 1; as the prophecy advances, vengeance on Assyria predominates. Country. "The Elkoshite" (Nahum 1:1), from Elkosh or Elkesi a village of Galilee pointed out to Jerome (Preface in Nahum). Capernaum, "village of Nahum," seemingly takes its name from Nahum having resided in the neighbourhood, though born in Elkosh. The allusions in Nahum indicate local acquaintance with Israel (Nahum 1:4; Nahum 1:15; Nahum 2:2) and only general knowledge of Nineveh (Nahum 2:4-6; Nahum 3:2-3). This confutes the notion that the Alkush (resembling the name Elkosh), E. of the Tigris and N. of Mosul, is Nahum's place of birth and of burial, though Jewish pilgrims visit it as such. DATE. Hezekiah's time was that in which trust in Jehovah and the observance of the temple feasts prevailed as they did not before or after. So in Nahum 1:7; Nahum 1:15, "Jehovah is a stronghold in the day of trouble; and He knoweth (with approval) them that trust in Him ... O Judah, keep thy solemn feasts." Moreover Nahum has none of the reproofs for national apostasy which abound in the other prophets. Nahum in Elkosh of Galilee was probably among those of northern Israel, after the deportation of the ten tribes, who accepted Hezekiah's earnest invitation to keep the Passover at Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 30). His graphic description of Sennacherib and his army (2 Chronicles 1:9- 12) makes it likely he was near or in Jerusalem at the time. ..

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/N/Nah...

Nehemiah in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE Nehemiah, the son of Hacaliah, is the Jewish patriot whose life is recorded in the Biblical work named after him. All that we know about him from contemporary sources is found in this book; and so the readers of this article are referred to the Book of Nehemiah for the best and fullest account of his words and deeds. See EZRA-NEHEMIAH. 1. Family: All that is known of his family is that he was the son of Hacaliah (Neh 1:1) and that one of his brothers was called Hanani (Neh 1:2; 7:2); the latter a man of sufficient character and importance to have been made a ruler of Jerusalem. From Neh 10:1-8 some have inferred that he was a priest, since Nehemiah comes first in the list of names ending with the phrase, "these were the priests." This view is supported by the Syriac and Arabic versions of 10:1, which read: "Nehemiah the elder, the son of Hananiah the chief of the priests"; and by the Latin Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) of 2 Macc 1:21, where he is called "Nehemiah the priest," and possibly by 2 Macc 1:18, where it is said that Nehemiah "offered sacrifices, after that he had builded the temple and the altar." The argument based upon Neh 10:1-8 will fall to the ground, if we change the pointing of the "Seraiah" of the 3rd verse and read "its princes," referring back to the princes of 10:1. In this case, Nehemiah and Zedekiah would be the princes; then would come the priests and then the Levites. Some have thought that he was of the royal line of Judah, inasmuch as he refers to his "fathers' sepulchres" at Jerusalem (Neh 2:3). This would be a good argument only if it could be shown that none but kings had sepulchers at Jerusalem...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/N/NEHEMIA...

Ezra-Nehemiah in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE 1. Name: The books of Ezra and Nehemiah, by whomsoever written, are properly so named according to analogy from the principal persons mentioned in them. In the Hebrew Bibles, the former is headed simply, Ezra, and the latter, Nehemiah. The two books are counted in the Talmud, in Josephus, and in the Canon of Melito, 171 AD, as one, and are so treated also in the subscription of the Massoretic Text, which reads: "The totality of the verses of Ezra and Nehemiah is 688, and its sign is `Remember, Yahweh, the reproach of thy servants,' and its two parts (are at the sentence) `unto the ascent of the corner' (Neh 3:31) and its chapters (sedharayw) are ten, and its sign is `Upon a high mountain get thee up, O thou that announcest good tidings to Zion.' " In the Septuagint, Ezra-Nehemiah is called Esdras B, while an apocryphal Book of Ezra is called Esdras A (see below). In the catalogues of the Old Testament writings handed down to us by the Fathers (Origen, Cyril, Melito, Jerome and the Council of Laodicea) our Ezra is called 1 Ezra; Nehemiah, 2 Ezra; the apocryphal Greek Ezra, 3 Ezra; and an apocalyptic book, falsely called a book of Ezra, is denominated 4 Ezra. 2. Object: The object of the books is to show that God fulfilled His promise, or prophecy, to restore His exiled people to their inheritance, through the instrumentality on the one hand of the great heathen monarchs, Cyrus, Darius and Artaxerxes, and on the other hand by stirring up the spirit of such great men among the chosen people as Joshua and Zerubbabel, Haggai and Zechariah, and Ezra and Nehemiah, through whom the altar, the temple, the houses and walls of Jerusalem, and finally the worship and ceremony of the Jewish people were reestablished, the people being separated from foreign admixtures, customs and idolatry, and their religious observances purified and fixed for all time...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/E/EZRA-NE...

The Book of Nehemiah in Smiths Bible Dictionary

like the preceding one of Ezra, is clearly and certainly not all by the same hand. [EZRA, BOOK OF] By far the most important portion, indeed is the work of Nehemiah but other portions are either extracts from various chronicles and registers or supplementary narratives and reflections, some apparently by Ezra, others, perhaps the work of the same person who inserted the latest, genealogical extracts from the public chronicles. The main history contained in the book of Nehemiah covers about twelve years, viz., from the twentieth to the thirty-second year of Artaxerxes Langimanus i.e. from B.C. 445 to 433. The whole narrative gives us a graphic and interesting account of the state of Jerusalem and the returned captives in the writer's times, and, incidentally, of the nature of the Persian government and the condition of its remote provinces, The book of Nehemiah has always had an undisputed place in the Canon, being included by the Hebrews under the general head of the book of Ezra, and, as Jerome tells us in the Prolog. Gal., by the Greeks and Latins under the name of the second book of Ezra.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/N/Nehem...

Nehemiah in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(consolation of the Lord). 1. Son of Hachaliah, and apparently of the tribe of Judah. All that we know certainly concerning him is contained in the book which bears his name. We first find him at Shushan, the winter residence of the kings of Persia, in high office as the cupbearer of King Artaxerxes Longimanus. In the twentieth year of the king's reign, i.e. B.C. 445, certain Jews arrived from Judea, and gave Nehemiah a deplorable account of the state of Jerusalem. He immediately conceived the idea of going to Jerusalem to endeavor to better their state, and obtained the king's consent to his mission. Having received his appointment as governor of Judea, he started upon his journey, being under promise to return to Persia within a given time. Nehemiah's great work was rebuilding, for the first time since their destruction by Nebuzar-adan, the walls of Jerusalem, and restoring that city to its former state and dignity as a fortified town. To this great object therefore Nehemiah directed his whole energies without an hour's unnecessary delay. In a wonderfully short time the walls seemed to emerge from the heaps of burnt rubbish, end to encircle the city as in the days of old. It soon became apparent how wisely Nehemiah had acted in hastening on the work. On his very first arrival, as governor, Sanballat and Tobiah had given unequivocal proof of their mortification at his appointment; but when the restoration was seen to be rapidly progressing, their indignation knew no bounds. They made a great conspiracy to fall upon the builders with an armed force and put a stop to the undertaking. The project was defeated by the vigilance and prudence of Nehemiah. Various stratagems were then resorted to get Nehemiah away from Jerusalem and if possible to take his life; but that which most nearly succeeded was the attempt to bring him into suspicion with the king of Persia, as if he intended to set himself up as an independent king as soon as the walls were completed. The artful letter of Sanballat so-far wrought upon Artaxerxes that he issued a decree stopping the work till further orders. If is probable that at the same time he recalled Nehemiah, or perhaps his leave of absence had previously expired. But after a delay, perhaps of several years he was permitted to return to Jerusalem land to crown his work by repairing the temple and dedicating the walls. During his government Nehemiah firmly repressed the exactions of the nobles and the usury of the rich, and rescued the poor Jews from spoliation and slavery. He refused to receive his lawful allowance as governor from the people, in consideration of their poverty, during the whole twelve years that he was in office but kept at his own charge a table for 150 Jews, at which any who returned from captivity were welcome. He made most careful provision for the maintenance of the ministering priests and Levites and for the due and constant celebration of divine worship. He insisted upon the sanctity of the precincts of the temple being preserved inviolable, and peremptorily ejected the powerful Tobiah from one of the chambers which Eliashib had assigned to him. With no less firmness and impartiality he expelled from all sacred functions those of the high priest's family who had contracted heathen marriages, and rebuked and punished those of the common people who had likewise intermarried with foreigners; and lastly, he provided for keeping holy the Sabbath day, which was shamefully profaned by many both Jews and foreign merchants, and by his resolute conduct succeeded in repressing the lawless traffic on the day of rest. Beyond the thirty-second year of Artaxerxes, to which Nehemiah's own narrative leads us, we have no account of him whatever. 2. One of the leaders of the first expedition from Babylon to Jerusalem under Zerabbabel. Ezr 2:2; Ne 7:7 3. Son of Azbuk and ruler of the half part of Beth- zur, who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Ne 3:18

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/N/Nehem...

Book of Nehemiah in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The author of this book was no doubt Nehemiah himself. There are portions of the book written in the first person (ch. 1-7; 12:27-47, and 13). But there are also portions of it in which Nehemiah is spoken of in the third person (ch. 8; 9; 10). It is supposed that these portions may have been written by Ezra; of this, however, there is no distinct evidence. These portions had their place assigned them in the book, there can be no doubt, by Nehemiah. He was the responsible author of the whole book, with the exception of ch. 12:11, 22, 23. The date at which the book was written was probably about B.C. 431-430, when Nehemiah had returned the second time to Jerusalem after his visit to Persia. The book, which may historically be regarded as a continuation of the book of Ezra, consists of four parts. (1.) An account of the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem, and of the register Nehemiah had found of those who had returned from Babylon (ch. 1-7). (2.) An account of the state of religion among the Jews during this time (8-10). (3.) Increase of the inhabitants of Jerusalem; the census of the adult male population, and names of the chiefs, together with lists of priests and Levites (11-12:1-26). (4.) Dedication of the wall of Jerusalem, the arrangement of the temple officers, and the reforms carried out by Nehemiah (12:27-ch. 13). This book closes the history of the Old Testament. Malachi the prophet was contemporary with Nehemiah.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/N/Nehe...

Genesis in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE 3. Structure

III. The Structure of the Individual Pericopes. In this division of the article, there is always to be found (under 1) a consideration of the unity of the Biblical text and (under 2) the rejection of the customary division into different sources. The conviction of the unity of the text of Genesis and of the impossibility of dividing it according to different sources is strongly confirmed and strengthened by the examination of the different pericopes. Here, too, we find the division on the basis of the typical numbers 4,7,10,12. It is true that in certain cases we should be able to divide in a different way; but at times the intention of the author to divide according to these numbers practically compels acceptance on our part, so that it would be almost impossible to ignore this matter without detriment, especially since we were compelled to accept the same fact in connection with the articles EXODUS (II); LEVITICUS (II, 2); DAY OF ATONEMENT (I, 2, 1), and aIso EZEKIEL (I, 2, 2). But more important than these numbers, concerning the importance or unimportance of which there could possibly be some controversy, are the fundamental religious and ethical ideas which run through and control the larger pericopes of the [toledhoth] of Terah, Isaac and Jacob in such a way that it is impossible to regard this as merely the work of a redactor, and we are compelled to consider the book as the product of a single writer. 1. The Structure of the Prooemium (Genesis 1 through 2:3): The structure of the proemium (Gen 1:1 through 2:3) is generally ascribed to P. Following the introduction (Gen 1:1,2; creation of chaos), we have the creation of the seven days with the Sabbath as a conclusion. The first and the second three days correspond to each other (1st day, the light; 4th day, the lights; 2nd day, the air and water by the separation of the waters above and the waters below; 5th day, the animals of the air and of the water; 3rd day, the dry land and the vegetation; 6th day, the land animals and man; compare also in this connection that there are two works on each day). We find Exodus also divided according to the number seven (see EXODUS, II, 1; compare also Ex 24:18b through 31:18; see EXODUS, II, 2, 5, where we have also the sevenfold reference to the Sabbath idea in Ex, and that, too, repeatedly at the close of different sections, just as we find this here in Genesis); and in Lev compare chapters 23; 25; 27; see LEVITICUS, II, 2, 2; the VIII, IX, and appendix; and in Gen 4:17 ff J; 5:1-24 P; 6:9 through 9:29; 36:1 through 37 I (see under 2, 1,2,3,1)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/g/genesis...

Genesis in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE 4. Historical Character

IV. The Historical Character. 1. History of the Patriarchs: (Genesis 12 through 50): (1) Unfounded Attacks upon the History. (a) From General Dogmatic Principles: In order to disprove the historical character of the patriarchs, the critics are accustomed to operate largely with general dogmatic principles, such as this, that no nation knows who its original founder was. In answer to this it can be said that the history of Israel is and was from the beginning to the end unique, and cannot be judged by the average principles of historiography. But it is then claimed that Abraham's entire life appears to be only one continuous trial of faith, which was centered on the one promise of the true heir, but that this is in reality a psychological impossibility. Over against this claim we can in reply cite contrary facts from the history of several thousands of years; and that, too, in the experience of those very men who were most prominent in religious development, such as Paul and Luther. (b) From Distance of Time: Secondly, critics emphasize the long period of time that elapsed between these events themselves and their first records, especially if these records can be accredited to so late a period as the 9th or the 8th century BC. In consequence of this, it is claimed that much of the contents of Genesis is myth or fable; and Gunkel even resolves the whole book into a set of unconnected little myths and fables. Over against this claim we can again appeal to the universal feeling in this matter. I do not think that it can be made plausible, that in any race fables and myths came in the course of time more...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/g/genesis...

Genesis in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(origin), the first book of the law or Pentateuch, so called from its title ia the Septuagint, that is, Creation. Its author was Moses. The date of writing was probably during the forty-years wanderings in the wilderness, B.C. 1491-1451. Time. --The book of Genesis covered 2369 years,-- from the creation of Adam, A.M 1, to the death of Joseph, A.M. 2369, or B.C. 1635. Character and purpose. --The book of Genesis (with the first chapters of Exodus) describes the steps which led to the establishment of the theocracy. It is a part of the writer's plan to tell us what the divine preparation of the world was in order to show, first, the significance of the call of Abraham, and next, the true nature of the Jewish theocracy. He begins with the creation of the world, because the God who created the world and the God who revealed himself to the fathers is the same God. The book of Genesis has thus a character at once special and universal. Construction. --It is clear that Moses must have derived his knowledge of the events which he records in Genesis either from immediate divine revelation or from oral tradition or written documents. The nature of many of the facts related, and the minuteness of the narration, render it extremely improbable that immediate revelation was the source from whence they were drawn. That his knowledge should have been derived from oral tradition appears morally impossible when we consider the great number of names, ages, dates and minute events which are recorded. The conclusion then, seems fair that he must have obtained his information from written documents coeval, or nearly so, with the events which they recorded, and composed by persons intimately acquainted with the subjects to which they relate. He may have collected these, with additions from authentic tradition or existing monuments under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, into a single book. Certain it is that several of the first chapters of Genesis have the air of being made up of selections from very ancient documents, written by different authors at different periods. The variety which is observable in the names and titles of the Supreme Being is appealed to among the most striking proofs of this fact. This is obvious in the English translation, but still more so in the Hebrew original. In Gen 1 to 2:3, which is really one piece of composition, as the title, v. 4, "These are the generations," shows, the name of the Most High is uniformly Elohim, God. In ch. Ge 2:4 to ch. 3, which may be considered the second document, the title is uniformly Yehovah Elohim, Lord God; and in the third, including ch. 4, it is Yehovah, Lord, only; while in ch. 5 it is Elohim, God only, except in v. 29, where a quotation is made, and Yehovah used. It is hardly conceivable that all this should be the result of mere accident. The changes of the name correspond exactly to the changes in the narratives and the titles of the several pieces." Now, do all these accurate quotations," says Professor Stowe, "impair the credit of the Mosaic books, or increase it? Is Marshall's Life of Washington to be regarded as unworthy of credit because it contains copious extracts from Washington's correspondence and literal quotations from important public documents? Is not its value greatly enhanced by this circumstance? The objection is altogether futile. In the common editions of the Bible the Pentateuch occupies about one hundred and fifty pages, of which perhaps ten may be taken up with quotations. This surely is no very large proportion for an historical work extending through so long a period."--Bush. On the supposition that writing was known to Adam, Gen. 1-4, containing the first two of these documents, formed the Bible of Adam's descendants, or the antediluvians. Gen 1 to 11:9, being the sum of these two and the following three, constitutes the Bible of the descendants of Noah. The whole of Genesis may be called the Bible of the posterity of Jacob; and the five Books of the Law were the first Bible of Israel as a nation.--Canon Cook.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/G/Genes...

Genesis in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The five books of Moses were collectively called the Pentateuch, a word of Greek origin meaning "the five-fold book." The Jews called them the Torah, i.e., "the law." It is probable that the division of the Torah into five books proceeded from the Greek translators of the Old Testament. The names by which these several books are generally known are Greek. The first book of the Pentateuch (q.v.) is called by the Jews Bereshith, i.e., "in the beginning", because this is the first word of the book. It is generally known among Christians by the name of Genesis, i.e., "creation" or "generation," being the name given to it in the LXX. as designating its character, because it gives an account of the origin of all things. It contains, according to the usual computation, the history of about two thousand three hundred and sixty-nine years. Genesis is divided into two principal parts. The first part (1-11) gives a general history of mankind down to the time of the Dispersion. The second part presents the early history of Israel down to the death and burial of Joseph (12- 50). There are five principal persons brought in succession under our notice in this book, and around these persons the history of the successive periods is grouped, viz., Adam (1-3), Noah (4-9), Abraham (10-25:18), Isaac (25:19-35:29), and Jacob (36-50). In this book we have several prophecies concerning Christ (3:15; 12:3; 18:18; 22:18; 26:4; 28:14; 49:10). The author of this book was Moses. Under divine guidance he may indeed have been led to make use of materials already existing in primeval documents, or even of traditions in a trustworthy form that had come down to his time, purifying them from all that was unworthy; but the hand of Moses is clearly seen throughout in its composition.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/G/Gene...

The Book of Genesis in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The Hebrew name is Bereeshit, from its opening word "in the beginning." Septuagint Genesis means generation, i.e. creation and birth of the universe, man, and history. It is a religious history, therefore it omits accounts in detail of other nations, and concentrates attention on the origin of that one from whom the promised Redeemer of man from the deadly consequences of the fall (which is detailed at the beginning) sprang. While a bare catalogue is given of whole genealogies of nations, minute details are given of the godly patriarchs in the line of the promised Savior, for these details are of more everlasting moment to us than the rise and fall of the mightiest empires. Again, the details in the patriarchs' history selected for narration are not the merely personal facts, but those illustrating religious principles and furthering God's gracious purpose of redemption. Thus Adam's history before and in the fall is minutely given, as affecting the whole race whom he represented; but after the fall only a few brief notices, but these of important bearing on mankind's spiritual prospects (Genesis 3:20-24; Genesis 4:1; Genesis 5:1-5). So the early development of the enmity between the serpent's seed and the seed of the woman, and the separation of the church from the world (Genesis 4:1-16; Genesis 4:25-26). The divine prophetic germs in Genesis are the foundation of all the subsequent prophecies throughout the Bible, and receive their consummation in the restored tree of life, waters of life, communion with God face to face in the world delivered from the curse, at the close of Revelation. Astruc, a Belgian physician (A.D. 1753), inferred from the varying use of the names of God, Elohim (E) and Jehovah (J), the existence of 12 documents or memoirs used by Moses in compiling Genesis...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/G/Gen...

Habakkuk in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

II. The Book. 1. Interpretation of Habakkuk 1 and 2: It is necessary to consider the interpretation of Hab 1 and 2 before giving the contents of the book, as a statement of the contents of these chapters will be determined by their interpretation. The different interpretations advocated may be grouped under three heads: (1) According to the first view: Hab 1:2-4: The corruption of Judah; the oppression of the righteous Jews by the wicked Jews, which calls for the Divine manifestation in judgment against the oppressors. 1:5-11: Yahweh announces that He is about to send the Chaldeans to execute judgment. 1:12-17: The prophet is perplexed. He cannot understand how a righteous God can use these barbarians to execute judgment upon a people more righteous than they. He considers even the wicked among the Jews better than the Chaldeans. 2:1-4: Yahweh solves the perplexing problem by announcing that the exaltation of the Chaldeans will be but temporary; in the end they will meet their doom, while the righteous will live. 2:5-20: Woes against the Chaldeans. (2) The second view finds it necessary to change the present arrangement of Hab 1:5-11; in their present position, they will not fit into the interpretation. For this reason Wellhausen and others omit these verses as a later addition; on the other hand, Giesebrecht would place them before 1:2, as the opening verses of the prophecy. The transposition would require a few other minor changes, so as to make the verses a suitable beginning and establish a smooth transition from 1:11 to 1:2. Omitting the troublesome verses, the following outline of the two chapters may be given: 1:2-4: The oppression of the righteous Jews by the wicked Chaldeans. 1:12-17: Appeal to Yahweh on behalf of the Jews against their oppressors. 2:1-4: Yahweh promises deliverance (see above). 2:5-20: Woes against the Chaldeans. (3) The third view also finds it necessary to alter the present order of verses. Again Hab 1:5-11, in the present position, interferes with theory; therefore, these verses are given a more suitable place after 2:4. According to this interpretation the outline is as follows: 1:2-4: Oppression of the righteous Jews by the wicked Assyrians (Budde) or Egyptians (G. A. Smith). 1:12-17: Appeal to Yahweh on behalf of the oppressed against the oppressor. 2:1-4: Yahweh promises deliverance (see above). 1:5-11: The Chaldeans will be the instrument to execute judgment upon the oppressors and to bring deliverance to the Jews. 2:5-20: Woes against the Assyrians or Egyptians. A full discussion of these views is not possible in this article (see Eiselen, Minor Prophets, 466-68). It may be sufficient to say that on the whole the first interpretation, which requires no omission or transposition, seems to satisfy most completely the facts in the case...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/H/HABAKKU...

Habakkuk in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(embrace), the eighth in order of the minor prophets. Of the facts of the prophet's life we have no certain information. He probably lived about the twelfth or thirteenth year of Josiah, B.C. 630 or 629.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/H/Habak...

Prophecy of Habakkuk in Smiths Bible Dictionary

consists of three chapters, in the first of which he foreshadows the invasion of Judea by the Chaldeans, and in the second he foretells the doom of the Chaldeans. The whole concludes with the magnificent psalm in ch. 3, a composition unrivalled for boldness of conception, sublimity of thought and majesty of diction.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/H/Habak...

Habakkuk in Easton's Bible Dictionary

embrace, the eighth of the twelve minor prophets. Of his personal history we have no reliable information. He was probably a member of the Levitical choir. He was contemporary with Jeremiah and Zephaniah.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/H/Haba...

Prophecies of Habakkuk in Easton's Bible Dictionary

were probably written about B.C. 650-627, or, as some think, a few years later. This book consists of three chapters, the contents of which are thus comprehensively described: "When the prophet in spirit saw the formidable power of the Chaldeans approaching and menacing his land, and saw the great evils they would cause in Judea, he bore his complaints and doubts before Jehovah, the just and the pure (1:2-17). And on this occasion the future punishment of the Chaldeans was revealed to him (2). In the third chapter a presentiment of the destruction of his country, in the inspired heart of the prophet, contends with his hope that the enemy would be chastised." The third chapter is a sublime song dedicated "to the chief musician," and therefore intended apparently to be used in the worship of God. It is "unequalled in majesty and splendour of language and imagery." The passage in 2:4, "The just shall live by his faith," is quoted by the apostle in Rom. 1:17. (Comp. Gal. 3:12; Heb. 10:37, 38.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/H/Haba...

Habakkuk in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

"The cordially embraced one (favorite of God), or the cordial embracer." "A man of heart, hearty toward another, taking him into his arms. This Habakkuk does in his prophecy; he comforts and lifts up his people, as one would do with a weeping child, bidding him be quiet, because, please God, it would yet be better with him" (Luther). The psalm (Habakkuk 3) and title "Habakkuk the prophet" favor the opinion that Habakkuk was a Levite. The closing words, "to the chief singer on my stringed instruments," imply that Habakkuk with his own instruments would accompany the song he wrote under the Spirit; like the Levite seers and singers, Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun (1 Chronicles 25:1-5). A lyrical tone pervades his prophecies, so that he most approaches David in his psalms. The opening phrase (Habakkuk 1:1) describes his prophecy as "the burden which," etc., i.e. the weighty, solemn announcement. Habakkuk "saw" it with the inner eye opened by the Spirit. He probably prophesied in the 12th or 13th year of Josiah (630 or 629 B.C.), for the words "in your days" (Habakkuk 1:5) imply that the prophecy would come to pass in the lifetime of the persons addressed. In Jeremiah 16:9 the same phrase comprises 20 years, in Ezekiel 12:25 six years. Zephaniah 1:7 is an imitation of Habakkuk 2:20; now Zephaniah (Zephaniah 1:1) lived under Josiah, and prophesied (compare Zephaniah 3:5; Zephaniah 3:15) after the restoration of Jehovah's worship, i.e. after the 12th year of Josiah's reign, about 624 B.C. So Habakkuk must have been before this. Jeremiah moreover began prophesying in Josiah's 13th year; now Jeremiah borrows from Habakkuk (compare Habakkuk 2:13 with Jeremiah 51:58); thus, it follows that 630 or 629 B.C. is Habakkuk's date of prophesying (Delitzsch)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/H/Hab...

Haggai in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

hag'-a-i, hag'-a-i (chaggay, an adjective formed from chagh, "feast"): 1. Name: The word "Haggai" may mean "festal," the prophet having been born perhaps on a festival day; compare the Roman name "Festus." Hebrew proper names were sometimes formed in this manner, e.g. Barzillai, "a man of iron," from barzel, "iron." Haggai may, however, be a shortened form of Haggiah (1 Ch 6:30), meaning "festival of Yahweh," as Mattenai is an abbreviation of Mattaniah (Ezr 10:33,16). In Greek Haggaios, in Latin, Aggaeus or Aggeus, sometimes Haggaeus. Haggai is the 10th in the order of the Twelve Prophets. 2. Personal History: Little is really known of his personal history. But we do know that he lived soon after the captivity, being the first of the prophets of the Restoration. From Hag 2:3 of his prophecies it is inferred by many that he had seen the first temple, which, as we know, was destroyed in 586 BC. If so, he must have prophesied when a comparatively old man, for we know the exact date of his prophecies, 520 BC. According to Ezr 5:1; 6:14, he was a contemporary of Zechariah, and was associated with him in the work of rebuilding the temple; besides, in the Greek and Latin and Syriac VSS, his name stands with Zechariah's at the head of certain psalms, e.g. Ps 111 (112), in the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) alone; Psalms 125; 126, in the Peshitta alone; Ps 137, in the Septuagint alone; Psalms 146; 147; 148, in Septuagint and Peshitta; and Ps 145, in Septuagint, Peshitta and Vulgate; perhaps these psalms were introduced into the temple-service on their recommendation. He was a prophet of great faith (compare 2:1-5); it is possible that he was a priest also (compare 2:10-19). Like Malachi he bears the name of "Yahweh's messenger" (Heg 1:13; compare Mal 3:1). According to Jewish tradition, he was a member of the Great Synagogue...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/H/HAGGAI/...

Prophecy of Haggai in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The style of Haggai is generally tame and prosaic, though at times it rises to the dignity of severe invective when the prophet rebukes his countrymen for their selfish indolence and neglect of God's house. But the brevity of the prophecies is so great, and the poverty of expression which characterizes them so striking, as to give rise to a conjecture, not without reason, that in their present form they are but the outline or summary of the original discourses. They were delivered in the second year of Darius Hystaspes (B.C. 620), at intervals from the 1st day of the 6th month to the 24th day of the 9th month in the same year.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/H/Hagga...

Book of Haggai in Easton's Bible Dictionary

consists of two brief, comprehensive chapters. The object of the prophet was generally to urge the people to proceed with the rebuilding of the temple. Chapter first comprehends the first address (2-11) and its effects (12-15). Chapter second contains, (1.) The second prophecy (1-9), which was delivered a month after the first. (2.) The third prophecy (10-19), delivered two months and three days after the second; and (3.) The fourth prophecy (20-23), delivered on the same day as the third. These discourses are referred to in Ezra 5:1; 6:14; Heb. 12:26. (Comp. Hag. 2:7, 8, 22.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/H/Hagg...

Haggai in Easton's Bible Dictionary

festive, one of the twelve so-called minor prophets. He was the first of the three (Zechariah, his contemporary, and Malachi, who was about one hundred years later, being the other two) whose ministry belonged to the period of Jewish history which began after the return from captivity in Babylon. Scarcely anything is known of his personal history. He may have been one of the captives taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. He began his ministry about sixteen years after the Return. The work of rebuilding the temple had been put a stop to through the intrigues of the Samaritans. After having been suspended for fifteen years, the work was resumed through the efforts of Haggai and Zechariah (Ezra 6:14), who by their exhortations roused the people from their lethargy, and induced them to take advantage of the favourable opportunity that had arisen in a change in the policy of the Persian government. (See DARIUS characterized:, "There is a ponderous and simple dignity in the emphatic reiteration addressed alike to every class of the community, prince, priest, and people, 'Be strong, be strong, be strong' (2:4). 'Cleave, stick fast, to the work you have to do;' or again, 'Consider your ways, consider, consider, consider' (1:5, 7;2:15, 18). It is the Hebrew phrase for the endeavour, characteristic of the gifted seers of all times, to compel their hearers to turn the inside of their hearts outwards to their own view, to take the mask from off their consciences, to 'see life steadily, and to see it wholly.'", Stanley's Jewish Church. (See SIGNET -T0003426.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/H/Hagg...

Haggai in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

("my feast".) A name given in anticipation of the joyous return from exile. Perhaps a Levite, as the rabbis say he was buried at Jerusalem among the priests. Tradition represents him as returning with the first exiles from Babylon his birthplace, under Zerubbabel 536 B.C., when Cyrus, actuated by Isaiah's prophecies concerning himself (Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1), decreed the Jews' restoration and the rebuilding of the temple, for which he furnished all necessaries. (See CYRUS; EZRA; AHASUERUS; ARTAXERXES; DARIUS.) In spite of Samaritan opposition the temple building went on under Cyrus and Cambyses (Ahasuerus Ezra 4:6); but under the Magian usurper Smerdis (Artaxerxes Ezra 4:7-23) the Samaritans procured a royal decree suspending the work. Hence, the Jews became so indifferent about it that when Darius came to the throne (521 B.C.), whose accession virtually nullified the usurper's prohibition, they pretended that as the prophecy of the 70 years applied to the temple as well as to the captivity in Babylon (Haggai 1:2), they were only in the 68th year, and that, the time not yet having come, they might build splendid cieled mansions for themselves. Haggai first, and Zechariah two months later, were commissioned by Jehovah (Haggai 1:1) in Darius' (Hystaspes) second year, 520 B.C., to rouse them from their selfishness to resume the work which had been suspended for 14 years. The dates of his four distinct prophecies are given. I. (Haggai 1). On the first day of the 6th month of Darius' second year of reigning, 520 B.C. Reproves their apathy in leaving the temple in ruins; reminds them of their ill fortune because of their neglect of God's house. In consequence, within 24 days they began building under Zerubbabel (Haggai 1:12-15)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/H/Hag...

Epistle to the Hebrews in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. Title. In the King James Version and the English Revised Version the title of this book describes it as "the Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Hebrews." Modern scholarship has disputed the applicability of every word of this title. Neither does it appear in the oldest manuscripts, where we find simply "to Hebrews" (pros Hebraious). This, too, seems to have been prefixed to the original writing by a collector or copyist. It is too vague and general for the author to have used it. And there is nothing in the body of the book which affirms any part of either title. Even the shorter title was an inference from the general character of the writing. Nowhere is criticism less hampered by problems of authenticity and inspiration. No question arises, at least directly, of pseudonymity either of author or of readers, for both are anonymous. For the purpose of tracing the history and interpreting the meaning of the book, the absence of a title, or of any definite historical data, is a disadvantage. We are left to infer its historical context from a few fragments of uncertain tradition, and from such general references to historical conditions as the document itself contains. Where no date, name or well-known event is fixed, it becomes impossible to decide, among many possibilities, what known historical conditions, if any, are pre-supposed. Yet this very fact, of the book's detachment from personal and historical incidents, renders it more self-contained, and its exegesis less dependent upon understanding the exact historical situation. But its general relation to the thought of its time must be taken into account if we are to understand it at all...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/H/HEBREWS...

Gospel According to the Hebrews in the Bible Encyclopedia

LITERATURE "The Gospel according to the Hebrews" was a work of early Christian literature to which reference is frequently made by the church Fathers in the first five centuries, and of which some twenty or more fragments, preserved in their writings, have come down to us. The book itself has long disappeared. It has, however, been the subject of many critical surmises and discussions in the course of the last century. It has been regarded as the original record of the life of Jesus, the Archimedespoint of the whole gospel history. From it Justin Martyr has been represented as deriving his knowledge of the works and words of Christ, and to it have been referred the gospel quotations found in Justin and other early writers when these deviate in any measure from the text of the canonical gospels. Recent discussions have thrown considerable light upon the problems connected with this Gospel, and a large literature has grown up around it of which the most important works will be noted below. 1. References in Early Church History: Speaking of Papias Eusebius mentions that he has related the story of a woman who was accused of many sins before the Lord, which is contained in the "Gospel according to the Hebrews." This does not prove that Papias was acquainted with this Gospel, for he might have obtained the story, which cannot any longer be regarded as part of John's Gospel, from oral tradition. But there is a certain significance in Eusebius' mentioning it in this connection (Euseb., HE, III, xxxix, 16). Eusebius, speaking of Ignatius and his epp., takes notice of a saying of Jesus which he quotes (Ep. ad Smyrn, iii; compare Lk 24:39), "Take, handle me, and see that I am not an incorporeal spirit." The saying differs materially from the saying in Luke's Gospel, and Eusebius says he has no knowledge whence it had been taken by Ignatius. Jerome, however, twice over attributes the saying to the "Gospel according to the Hebrews," and Origen quotes it from the "Teaching of Peter." Ignatius may have got the saying from oral tradition, and we cannot, therefore, be sure that he knew this Gospel...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/H/HEBREWS...

Epistle to the Hebrews in Smiths Bible Dictionary

1. The author --There has been a wide difference of opinion respecting the authorship of this epistle. For many years Paul was considered the author; others think it may have been Luke, Barnabas, or Apollos. Much of the theology and the language are similar to Paul's, but the authorship of the epistle ia still disputed. 2. To whom written. --The epistle was probably addressed to the Jews in Jerusalem and Israel. The argument of the epistle is such as could he used with most effect to a church consisting exclusively of Jews by birth, personally familiar with and attached to the temple service. 3. Date. --It was evidently written before the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70, probably about A.D. 62- 64. 4. Place. --It was probably written in Italy, while Paul was a prisoner at Rome. 5. Contents. --With respect to the scope of the epistle, it should be recollected that while the numerous Christian churches scattered throughout Judea, Ac 9:31; Ga 1:22 were continually exposed to persecution from the Jews, 1Th 2:14 there was in Jerusalem one additional weapon in the hands of the predominant oppressors of the Christians. The magnificent national temple might be put against the Hebrew Christian; and even if this affliction were not often laid upon him, yet there was a secret burden which he bore within him, the knowledge that the end of all the beauty and awfulness of Zion was rapidly approaching. The writer of this epistle meets the Hebrew Christians on their own ground, showing that the new faith gave them Christ the Son of God, more prevailing than the high priest as an intercessor; that his Sabbath awaited them, his covenant, his atonement, his city heavenly not made with hands. Having him, believe in him with all your heart, with a faith in the unseen future strong as that of the saints of old, patient under present and prepared for coming woe, full of energy and hope and holiness and love. Such was the teaching of the Epistle to the Hebrews.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/H/Hebre...

Epistle to Hebrews in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(1.) Its canonicity. All the results of critical and historical research to which this epistle has been specially subjected abundantly vindicate its right to a place in the New Testament canon among the other inspired books. (2.) Its authorship. A considerable variety of opinions on this subject has at different times been advanced. Some have maintained that its author was Silas, Paul's companion. Others have attributed it to Clement of Rome, or Luke, or Barnabas, or some unknown Alexandrian Christian, or Apollos; but the conclusion which we think is best supported, both from internal and external evidence, is that Paul was its author. There are, no doubt, many difficulties in the way of accepting it as Paul's; but we may at least argue with Calvin that there can be no difficulty in the way of "embracing it without controversy as one of the apostolical epistles." (3.) Date and place of writing. It was in all probability written at Rome, near the close of Paul's two years' imprisonment (Heb. 13:19,24). It was certainly written before the destruction of Jerusalem (13:10). (4.) To whom addressed. Plainly it was intended for Jewish converts to the faith of the gospel, probably for the church at Jerusalem. The subscription of this epistle is, of course, without authority. In this case it is incorrect, for obviously Timothy could not be the bearer of it (13:23). (5.) Its design was to show the true end and meaning of the Mosaic system, and its symbolical and transient character. It proves that the Levitical priesthood was a "shadow" of that of Christ, and that the legal sacrifices prefigured the great and all-perfect sacrifice he offered for us. It explains that the gospel was designed, not to modify the law of Moses, but to supersede and abolish it. Its teaching was fitted, as it was designed, to check that tendency to apostatize from Christianity and to return to Judaism which now showed itself among certain Jewish Christians. The supreme authority and the transcendent glory of the gospel are clearly set forth, and in such a way as to strengthen and confirm their allegiance to Christ. (6.) It consists of two parts: (a) doctrinal (1- 10:18), (b) and practical (10:19-ch. 13). There are found in it many references to portions of the Old Testament. It may be regarded as a treatise supplementary to the Epistles to the Romans and Galatians, and as an inspired commentary on the book of Leviticus.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/H/Hebr...

The Epistle to the Hebrews in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Canonicity. - Clement of Rome (1st century A.D.) refers to it oftener than any other canonical New Testament book, adopting its words as on a level with the rest of the New Testament. As the writer of this epistle claims authority Clement virtually sanctions it, and this in the apostolic age. Westcott (Canon, 22) observes, it seems transfused into Clement's mind. Justin Martyr quotes its authority for applying the titles "apostle" and "angel" to the Son of God. Clement of Alexandria refers it to Paul, on the authority of Pantaenus of Alexandria (in the middle of the second century) saying that as Jesus is called the "apostle" to the Hebrew, Paul does not in it call himself so, being apostle to the Gentiles; also that Paul prudently omitted his name at the beginning, because the Hebrew were prejudiced against him; that it was originally written in Hebrew for the Hebrew, and that Luke translated it into Greek for the Greeks, whence the style resembles that of Acts. He however quotes the Greek epistle as Paul's, so also Origen; but in his Homilies he regards the style as more Grecian than Paul's but the thoughts as his. "The ancients who handed down the tradition of its Pauline authorship must have had good reason for doing so, though God alone knows the certainty who was the actual writer," i.e. probably the transcriber or else interpreter of Paul's thoughts. The Peshito old Syriac version has it. Tertullian in the beginning of the third century, in the African church, ascribes it to Barnabas. Irenaeus in Eusebius quotes it. About the same time Caius the presbyter of Rome mentions only 13 epistles of Paul, whereas if epistle to Hebrew were included there would be 14. The Canon fragment of Muratori omits it, in the beginning of the third century. frontCANON.) The Latin church did not recognize it as Paul's for a long time subsequently. So Victorinus, Novatian of Rome, and Cyprian of Carthage. But in the fourth century Hilary of Poitiers (A.D. 368), Lucifer of Cagliari (A.D. 371), Ambrose of Milan (A.D. 397), and other Latins quote it as Paul's; the fifth council of Carthage (A.D. 419) formally recognizes it among his 14 epistles...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/H/Heb...

Hosea in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. The Prophet. 1. Name: The name (hoshea Septuagint Osee-; for other forms see note in DB), probably meaning "help," seems to have been not uncommon, being derived from the auspicious verb from which we have the frequently recurring word "salvation." It may be a contraction of a larger form of which the Divine name or its abbreviation formed a part, so as to signify "God is help," or "Help, God." according to Nu 13:8,16 that was the original name of Joshua son of Nun, till Moses gave him the longer name (compounded with the name of Yahweh) which he continued to bear (yehoshua`), "Yahweh is salvation." The last king of the Northern Kingdom was also named Hosea (2 Ki 15:30), and we find the same name borne by a chief of the tribe of Ephraim under David (1 Ch 27:20) and by a chief under Nehemiah (Neh 10:23). 2. Native Place: Although it is not directly stated in the book, there can be little doubt that he exercised his ministry in the kingdom of the Ten Tribes. Whereas his references to Judah are of a general kind, Ephraim or Samaria being sometimes mentioned in the same connection or more frequently alone, the situation implied throughout and the whole tone of the addresses agree with what we know of the Northern Kingdom at the time, and his references to places and events in that kingdom are so numerous and minute as to lead to the conclusion that he not only prophesied there, but that he was a native of that part of the country. Gilead, e.g. a district little named in the prophets, is twice mentioned in Hos (6:8; 12:11) and in such a manner as to suggest that he knew it by personal observation; and Mizpah (mentioned in 5:1) is no doubt the Mizpah in Gilead (Jdg 10:17). Then we find Tabor (Hos 5:1), Shechem (Hos 6:9 the Revised Version (British and American)), Gilgal and Bethel (Hos 4:15; 9:15; 10:5,8,15; 12:11). Even Lebanon in the distant North is spoken of with a minuteness of detail which could be expected only from one very familiar with Northern Israel (Hos 14:5-8). In a stricter sense, therefore, than amos who, though a native of Tekoah, had a prophetic mission to the North, Hosea may be called the prophet of Northern Israel, and his book, as Ewald has said, is the prophetic voice wrung from the bosom of the kingdom itself...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/H/HOSEA/...

Hosea in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(salvation), son of Beeri, and first of the minor prophets. Probably the life, or rather the prophetic career, of Hosea extended from B.C. 784 to 723, a period of fifty-nine years. The prophecies of Hosea were delivered in the kingdom of Israel. Jeroboam II was on the throne, and Israel was at the height of its earthly splendor. Nothing is known of the prophet's life excepting what may be gained from his book.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/H/Hosea...

Prophecies of Hosea in Smiths Bible Dictionary

This book consists of fourteen chapters. It is easy to recognize two great divisions in the book: (1) ch. 1 to 3; (2) ch. 4 to end. The subdivision of these several parts is a work of greater difficulty-- 1. The first division should probably be subdivided into three separate poems, each originating in a distinct aim, and each after its own fashion attempting to express the idolatry of Israel by imagery borrowed from the matrimonial relation. 2. Attempts have been made to subdivide the second part of the book. These divisions are made either according to reigns of contemporary kings or according to the subject- matter of the poem. The prophecies were probably collected by Hosea himself toward the end of his career. Of his style Eichhorn says, "His discourse is like a garland woven of a multiplicity of flowers; images are woven upon images, metaphor strung upon metaphor. Like a bee he flies from one flower-bed to another, that he may suck his honey from the most varied pieces....Often he is prone to approach to allegory; often he sinks down in obscurity."

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/H/Hosea...

Hosea in Easton's Bible Dictionary

salvation, the son of Beeri, and author of the book of prophecies bearing his name. He belonged to the kingdom of Israel. "His Israelitish origin is attested by the peculiar, rough, Aramaizing diction, pointing to the northern part of Israel; by the intimate acquaintance he evinces with the localities of Ephraim (5:1; 6:8, 9; 12:12; 14:6, etc.); by passages like 1:2, where the kingdom is styled 'the land', and 7:5, where the Israelitish king is designated as 'our' king." The period of his ministry (extending to some sixty years) is indicated in the superscription (Hos. 1:1, 2). He is the only prophet of Israel who has left any written prophecy.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/H/Hose...

Prophecies of Hosea in Easton's Bible Dictionary

This book stands first in order among the "Minor Prophets." "The probable cause of the location of Hosea may be the thoroughly national character of his oracles, their length, their earnest tone, and vivid representations." This was the longest of the prophetic books written before the Captivity. Hosea prophesied in a dark and melancholy period of Israel's history, the period of Israel's decline and fall. Their sins had brought upon them great national disasters. "Their homicides and fornication, their perjury and theft, their idolatry and impiety, are censured and satirized with a faithful severity." He was a contemporary of Isaiah. The book may be divided into two parts, the first containing chapters 1-3, and symbolically representing the idolatry of Israel under imagery borrowed from the matrimonial relation. The figures of marriage and adultery are common in the Old Testament writings to represent the spiritual relations between Jehovah and the people of Israel. Here we see the apostasy of Israel and their punishment, with their future repentance, forgiveness, and restoration. The second part, containing 4-14, is a summary of Hosea's discourses, filled with denunciations, threatenings, exhortations, promises, and revelations of mercy. Quotations from Hosea are found in Matt. 2:15; 9:15; 12:7; Rom. 9:25, 26. There are, in addition, various allusions to it in other places (Luke 23:30; Rev. 6:16, comp. Hos. 10:8; Rom. 9:25, 26; 1 Pet. 2:10, comp. Hos. 1:10, etc.). As regards the style of this writer, it has been said that "each verse forms a whole for itself, like one heavy toll in a funeral knell." "Inversions (7:8; 9:11, 13; 12: 8), anacolutha (9:6; 12:8, etc.), ellipses (9:4; 13:9, etc.), paranomasias, and plays upon words, are very characteristic of Hosea (8:7; 9:15; 10:5; 11:5; 12:11)."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/H/Hose...

Hosea in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Placed first of the minor prophets in the canon (one collective whole "the book of the prophets," Acts 7:42), probably because of the length, vivid earnestness, and patriotism of his prophecies, as well as their resemblance to those of the greater prophets, Chronologically Jonah was before him, 862 B.C., Joel about 810 B.C., Amos 790 B.C., Hosea 784 to 722 B.C., more or less contemporary with Isaiah and Amos. Began prophesying in the last years of Jeroboam II, contemporary with Uzziah; ended at the beginning of Hezekiah's reign. The prophecies of his extant are only those portions of his public teachings which the Holy Spirit preserved, as designed for the benefit of the uuiversal church. His name means salvation. Son of Beeri, of Issachar; born in Bethshemesh. His pictures of Israelite life, the rival factions calling in Egypt and Assyria, mostly apply to the interreign after Jeroboam's death and to the succeeding reigns, rather than to his able government. In Hosea 2:8 he makes no allusion to Jehovah's restoration of Israel's coasts under Jeroboam among Jehovah's mercies to Israel. He mentions in the inscription, besides the reign of Jeroboam in Israel, the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, though his prophecies are addressed primarily to Israel and only incidentally to Judah; for all the prophets whether in Judah or Israel regarded Israel's separation from Judah, civil as well as religious, as an apostasy from God who promised the kingship of the theocracy to the line of David. Hence Elijah in Israel took twelve stones to represent Judah as well as Israel (1 Kings 18:31). Eichhorn sees a Samaritanism in the masculine suffix of the second person (-ak)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/H/Hos...

Isaiah, 1-7 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE Of all Israel's celebrated prophets, Isaiah is the king. The writings which bear his name are among the profoundest in all literature. One great theme--salvation by faith--stamps them all. Isaiah is the Paul of the Old Testament. 1. Name: In Hebrew yesha`yahu, and yesha`yah; Greek Esaias; Latin Esaias and Isaias. His name was symbolic of his message. Like "Joshua," it means "Yahweh saves," or "Yahweh is salvation," or "salvation of Yahweh." 2. Personal History: Isaiah was the son of Amoz (not Amos). He seems to have belonged to a family of some rank, as may be inferred from his easy access to the king (Isa 7:3), and his close intimacy with the priest (Isa 8:2). Tradition says he was the cousin of King Uzziah. He lived in Jerusalem and became court preacher. He was married and had two sons: Shear- jashub, his name signifying "a remnant shall return" (Isa 7:3), and Maher-shalal-hash-baz, "hasting to the spoil, hurrying to the prey," symbolic of Assyria's mad lust of conquest (Isa 8:3). Jewish tradition, based upon a false interpretation of Isa 7:14, declares he was twice married. 3. Call: In the year that King Uzziah died, Isaiah, apparently while worshipping in the temple, received a call to the prophetic office (Isa 6). He responded with noteworthy alacrity, and accepted his commission, though he knew from the outset that his task was to be one of fruitless warning and exhortation (6:9-13). Having been reared in Jerusalem, he was well fitted to become the political and religious counselor of the nation, but the experience which prepared him most for his important work was the vision of the majestic and thrice-holy God which he saw in the temple in the death-year of King Uzziah. There is no good reason for doubting that this was his inaugural vision, though some regard it as a vision which came to him after years of experience in preaching and as intended to deepen his spirituality. While this is the only explicit "vision" Isaiah saw, yet his entire book, from first to last, is, as the title (11) suggests, a "vision." His horizon, both political and spiritual, was practically unbounded. In a very true sense, as Delitzsch says, he was "the universal prophet of Israel."...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/I/ISAIAH,...

Isaiah, 8-9 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

8. Isaiah's Prophecies Chronologically Arranged: The editorial arrangement of Isaiah's prophecies is very suggestive. In the main they stand in chronological order. That is to say, all the dates mentioned are in strict historical sequence; e.g. Isa 6:1, "In the year that king Uzziah died" (740 BC); 7:1, "In the days of Ahaz" (736 ff BC); 14:28, "In the year that king Ahaz died" (727 BC); 20:1, "In the year that Tartan came unto Ashdod, when Sargon the king of Assyria sent him" (711 BC); 36:1, "In the 14th year of king Hezekiah" (701 BC). These points are all in strict chronological order. Taken in groups, also, Isaiah's great individual messages are likewise arranged in true historical sequence; thus, Isa 1 through 6 for the most part belong to the last years of Jotham's reign (740-736 BC); Isa 7 through 12 to the period of the Syro-Ephraimitic war (734 BC); Isa 20, to the year of Sargon's siege of Ashdod (711 BC); Isa 28 through 32, to the invasion of Judah by Sennacherib (701 BC); while the distinctively promissory portions (Isa 40 through 66), as is natural, conclude the collection. In several minor instances, however, there are notable departures from a rigid chronological order. For example, Isa 6, which describes the prophet's initial call to preach, follows the rebukes and denunciations of Isa 1 through 5; but this is probably due to its being used by the prophet as an apologetic. Again, the oracles against foreign nations in Isa 13 through 23 belong to various dates, being grouped together, in part, at least, because of their subject-matter. Likewise, Isa 38 through 39, which give an account of Hezekiah's sickness and Merodach-baladan's embassy to him upon his recovery (714-712 BC), chronologically precede Isa 36 through 37, which describe Sennacherib's investment of Jerusalem (701 BC). This chiastic order, however, in the last instance, is due probably to the desire to make Isa 36 through 37 (about Sennacherib, king of Assyria) an appropriate conclusion to Isa 1 through 35 (which say much about Assyria), and, on the other hand, to make Isa 38 through 39 (about Merodach- baladan of Babylon) a suitable introduction to Isa 40 through 66 (which speak of Babylon)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/I/ISAIAH,...

Book of Isaiah in Smiths Bible Dictionary

I. Chapters 1-5 contain Isaiah's prophecies in the reigns of Uzziah and Jotham, foretelling that the present prosperity of Judah should be destroyed, and that Israel should be brought to desolation. In chs. 6, 7 he announces the birth of the child Immanuel, which in ch. 9 is more positively predicted. Chs. 9-12 contain additional prophecies against Israel, chs. Isa 10:5-12 (6) being the most highly-wrought passages in the whole book. Chs. 13-23 contain chiefly a collection of utterances, each of which is styled a "burden," fore-telling the doom of Babylon, Philistia, Moab, Ethiopia, Egypt and Tyre. The ode of triumph in ch. Isa 14:3-23 is among the most poetical passages in all literature. Chs. 24-27 form one prophecy, essentially connected with the preceding ten "burdens," chs. 13-23, of which it is in effect a general summary. Chs. 23-35 predict the Assyrian invasion, and chs. 36-39 have reference to this invasion; prophecies that were so soon fulfilled. 2Ki 19:35 II. The last 27 chapters form a separate prophecy, and are supposed by many critics to have been written in the time of the Babylonian captivity, and are therefore ascribed to a "later Isaiah;" but the best reasons are in favor of but one Isaiah. This second part falls into three sections, each consisting of nine chapters:-- 1. The first section, chs 40-48 has for its main topic the comforting assurance of the deliverance from Babylon by Koresh (Cyrus), who is even named twice. ch. Isa 41:2,3,25; 44:28; 45:1-4,13; 46:11; 48:14,15 2. The second section, chs. 49-56, is distinguished from the first by several features. The person of Cyrus as well as his name and the specification of Babylon, disappear altogether. Return from exile is indeed spoken of repeatedly and at length, ch. Isa 49:9-26; 51:9-52; 12; 55:12,13; 57:14 but in such general terms as admit of being applied to the spiritual and Messianic as well as to the literal restoration. 3. This section is mainly occupied with various practical exhortations founded upon the views of the future already set forth. In favor of the authenticity of the last 27 chapters the following reasons may be advanced:-- (a) The unanimous testimony of Jewish and Christian tradition, comp. Ecclus. 48:24, and the evidence of the New Testament quotations. Mt 3:3; Lu 4:17; Ac 8:28; Ro 10:16,20 (b) The unity of design which connects these last 27 chapters with the preceding; the oneness of diction which pervades the whole book; the peculiar elevation and grandeur of style which characterize the second part as well as the first; the absence of any other name than Isaiah's claiming the authorship; lastly, the Messianic predictions which mark its inspiration and remove the chief ground of objection against its having been written by Isaiah. In point of style we can find no difficulty in recognizing in the second part the presence of the same plastic genius as we discover in the first.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/I/Isaia...

Isaiah in Smiths Bible Dictionary

the prophet, son of Amoz. The Hebrew name signifies Salvation of Jahu (a shortened form of Jehovah), He prophesied concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, Isa 1:1 covering probably 758 to 698 B.C. He was married and had two sons. Rabbinical tradition says that Isaiah, when 90 years old, was sawn asunder in the trunk of a carob tree by order of Manasseh, to which it is supposed that reference is made in Heb 11:37

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/I/Isaia...

The Book of Isaiah in Easton's Bible Dictionary

consists of prophecies delivered (Isa. 1) in the reign of Uzziah (1-5), (2) of Jotham (6), (3) Ahaz (7-14:28), (4) the first half of Hezekiah's reign (14:28-35), (5) the second half of Hezekiah's reign (36-66). Thus, counting from the fourth year before Uzziah's death (B.C. 762) to the last year of Hezekiah (B.C. 698), Isaiah's ministry extended over a period of sixty-four years. He may, however, have survived Hezekiah, and may have perished in the way indicated above. The book, as a whole, has been divided into three main parts: (1.) The first thirty-five chapters, almost wholly prophetic, Israel's enemy Assyria, present the Messiah as a mighty Ruler and King. (2.) Four chapters are historical (36-39), relating to the times of Hezekiah. (3.) Prophetical (40-66), Israel's enemy Babylon, describing the Messiah as a suffering victim, meek and lowly. The genuineness of the section Isa. 40-66 has been keenly opposed by able critics. They assert that it must be the production of a deutero-Isaiah, who lived toward the close of the Babylonian captivity. This theory was originated by Koppe, a German writer at the close of the last century. There are other portions of the book also (e.g., ch. 13; 24-27; and certain verses in ch. 14 and 21) which they attribute to some other prophet than Isaiah. Thus they say that some five or seven, or even more, unknown prophets had a hand in the production of this book. The considerations which have led to such a result are various: (1.) They cannot, as some say, conceive it possible that Isaiah, living in B.C. 700, could foretell the appearance and the exploits of a prince called Cyrus, who would set the Jews free from captivity one hundred and seventy years after. (2.) It is alleged that the prophet takes the time of the Captivity as his standpoint, and speaks of it as then present; and (3) that there is such a difference between the style and language of the closing section (40-66) and those of the preceding chapters as to necessitate a different authorship, and lead to the conclusion that there were at least two Isaiahs. But even granting the fact of a great diversity of style and language, this will not necessitate the conclusion attempted to be drawn from it. The diversity of subjects treated of and the peculiarities of the prophet's position at the time the prophecies were uttered will sufficiently account for this. The arguments in favour of the unity of the book are quite conclusive. When the LXX. version was made (about B.C. 250) the entire contents of the book were ascribed to Isaiah, the son of Amoz. It is not called in question, moreover, that in the time of our Lord the book existed in the form in which we now have it. Many prophecies in the disputed portions are quoted in the New Testament as the words of Isaiah (Matt. 3:3; Luke 3:4-6; 4:16-41; John 12:38; Acts 8:28; Rom. 10:16-21). Universal and persistent tradition has ascribed the whole book to one author. Besides this, the internal evidence, the similarity in the language and style, in the thoughts and images and rhetorical ornaments, all points to the same conclusion; and its local colouring and allusions show that it is obviously of Palestinian origin. The theory therefore of a double authorship of the book, much less of a manifold authorship, cannot be maintained. The book, with all the diversity of its contents, is one, and is, we believe, the production of the great prophet whose name it bears.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/I/Isai...

Isaiah in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(Heb. Yesh'yahu, i.e., "the salvation of Jehovah"). (1.) The son of Amoz (Isa. 1:1; 2:1), who was apparently a man of humble rank. His wife was called "the prophetess" (8:3), either because she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah (Judg. 4:4) and Huldah (2 Kings 22:14-20), or simply because she was the wife of "the prophet" (Isa. 38:1). He had two sons, who bore symbolical names. He exercised the functions of his office during the reigns of Uzziah (or Azariah), Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (1:1). Uzziah reigned fifty-two years (B.C. 810-759), and Isaiah must have begun his career a few years before Uzziah's death, probably B.C. 762. He lived till the fourteenth year of Hezekiah, and in all likelihood outlived that monarch (who died B.C. 698), and may have been contemporary for some years with Manasseh. Thus Isaiah may have prophesied for the long period of at least sixty-four years. His first call to the prophetical office is not recorded. A second call came to him "in the year that King Uzziah died" (Isa. 6:1). He exercised his ministry in a spirit of uncompromising firmness and boldness in regard to all that bore on the interests of religion. He conceals nothing and keeps nothing back from fear of man. He was also noted for his spirituality and for his deep-toned reverence toward "the holy One of Israel."...

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/I/Isai...

Isaiah in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Yeshayahu or Isaiahuw (?), Hebrew "the salvation of Jehovah," his favorite expression, which means the same as the name "Jesus", who is the grand subject of his prophecies, and in whom in the New Testament the name Jehovah merges, being never found in Scripture after the Old Testament. The Yahu (or Jahu) in Yeshayahu shows that Yahweh (or Jahveh) is the more correct form than Jehovah. Son of Amoz (not Amos), a younger contemporary of Jonah, Amos, and Hosea in Israel, and of Micah in Judah. His call to the full exercise of the prophetic office (Isaiah 6:1) was in the same year that king Uzziah died, probably before his death, 754 B.C., the time of the building of Rome, Judah's destined scourge, whose kingdom was to stretch on to the Messianic times which form the grand subject of Isaiah's prophecies. Whatever prophecies were delivered by Isaiah previously were oral, and not recorded because not designed for all ages. (1) Isaiah 1-6, are all that were written for the church universal of the prophecies of the first 20 years of his ministry. New epochs in the relations of the church to the world were fittingly marked by revelations to and through prophets. God had given Judah abundant prosperity during Uzziah's reign of 52 years, that His goodness might lead the people to loving obedience, just as in northern Israel He had restored prosperity daring the brilliant reign of Jeroboam II with the same gracious design. Israel was only hardened in pride by prosperity, so was soon given over to ruin. Isaiah comes forward at this point to warn Judah of a like danger. Moreover, in the reigns of Ahaz and Hezekiah Israel and Judah came into conflict with the Asiatic empires. (See AHAZ; HEZEKIAH.) The prophets were now needed to interpret Jehovah's dealings, that the people might recognize His righteous judgments as well as His merciful longsuffering...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/I/Isa...

James in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

jamz (Iacobos): English form of Jacob, and the name of 3 New Testament men of note: (1) The Son of Zebedee, one of the Twelve Apostles (ho tou Zebedaiou): A) The Son of Zebedee: I. In the New Testament. 1. Family Relations, etc.: To the Synoptists alone are we indebted for any account of this James. He was the son of Zebedee and the brother of John (Mt 4:21; Mk 1:19; Lk 5:10). As the Synoptists generally place the name of James before that of John, and allude to the latter as "the brother of James," it is inferred that James was the elder of the two brothers. His mother's name was probably Salome, the sister of the mother of Jesus (compare Mt 27:56; Mk 15:40; Jn 19:25), but this is disputed by some (compare BRETHREN OF THE LORD). James was a fisherman by trade, and worked along with his father and brother (Mt 4:21). According to Lk, these were partners with Simon (5:10), and this is also implied in Mk (1:19). As they owned several boats and employed hired servants (Lk 5:11; Mk 1:20), the establishment they possessed must have been considerable. 2. First Call: The call to James to follow Christ (Mt 4:18-22; Mk 1:16-20; Lk 5:1-11) was given by Jesus as He was walking by the sea of Galilee (Mt 4:18). There He saw "James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in the boat with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them. And they straightway left the boat and their father, and followed him" (Mt 4:21,22). The account of Luke varies in part from those of Matthew and Mark, and contains the additional detail of the miraculous draught of fishes, at which James and John also were amazed. This version of Luke is regarded by some as an amalgamation of the earlier accounts with Jn 21:1-8...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JAMES/...

Epistle of James in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. Characteristics of the Epistle. 1. Jewish: The Epistle of James is the most Jewish writing in the New Testament. The Gospel according to Matthew was written for the Jews. The Epistle to the Hebrews is addressed explicitly to them. The Apocalypse is full of the spirit of the Old Testament. The Epistle of Jude is Jewish too. Yet all of these books have more of the distinctively Christian element in them than we can find in the Epistle of James. If we eliminate two or three passages containing references to Christ, the whole epistle might find its place iust as properly in the Canon of the Old Testament as in that of the New Testament, as far as its substance of doctrine and contents is concerned. That could not be said Of any other book in the New Testament. There is no mention of the incarnation or of the resurrection., the two fundamental facts of the Christian faith. The word "gospel" does not occur in the epistle There is no suggestion that the Messiah has appeared and no presentation of the possibility of redemption through Him. The teaching throughout is that of a lofty morality which aims at the fulfillment of the requirements of the Mosaic law. It is not strange therefore that Spitta and others have thought that we have in the Epistle of James a treatise written by an unconverted Jew which has been adapted to Christian use by the interpolation of the two phrases containing the name of Christ in 1:1 and 2:1. Spitta thinks that this can be the only explanation of the fact that we have here an epistle practically ignoring the life and work of Jesus and every distinctively Christian doctrine, and without a trace of any of the great controversies in the early Christian church or any of the specific features of its propaganda. This judgment is a superficial one, and rests upon superficial indications rather than any appreciation of the underlying spirit and principles of the book. The spirit of Christ is here, and there is no need to label it. The principles of this epistle are the principles of the Sermon on the Mount. There are more parallels to that Sermon in this epistle than can be found anywhere else in the New Testament in the same space. The epistle represents the idealization of Jewish legalism under the transforming influence of the Christian motive and life. It is not a theological discussion. It is an ethical appeal. It has to do with the outward life for the most part, and the life it pictures is that of a Jew informed with the spirit of Christ. The spirit is invisible in the epistle as in the individual man. It is the body which appears and the outward life with which that body has to do. The body of the epistle is Jewish, and the outward life to which it exhorts is that of a profoundly pious Jew. The Jews familiar with the Old Testament would read this epistle and find its language and tone that to which they were accustomed in their sacred books. James is evidently written by a Jew for Jews...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JAMES,+...

James in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(the Greek form of Jacob, supplanter). 1. James the son of Zebedee, one of the twelve apostles. He was elder brother of the evangelist John. His mother's name was Salome. We first hear of him in A.D. 27, Mr 1:20 when at the call of the Master he left all, and became, one and forever, his disciple, in the spring of 28. Mt 10:2; Mr 3:14; Lu 6:13; Ac 1:13 It would seem to have been at the time of the appointment of the twelve apostles that the name of Boanerges was given to the sons of Zebedee. The "sons of thunder" had a burning and impetuous spirit, which twice exhibits itself. Mr 10:37; Lu 9:54 On the night before the crucifixion James was present at the agony in the garden. On the day of the ascension he is mentioned as persevering with the rest of the apostles and disciples, in prayer. Ac 1:13 Shortly before the day of the Passover, in the year 44, he was put to death by Herod Agrippa I. Ac 12:1,2 2. James the son of Alpheus, one of the twelve apostles. Mt 10:3 Whether or not this James is to be identified with James the Less, the son of Alphaeus, the brother of our Lord, is one of the most difficult questions in the gospel history. By comparing Mt 27:56 and Mark 15:40 with John 19:25 we find that the Virgin Mary had a sister named, like herself, Mary, who was the wife of Clopas or Alpheus (varieties of the same name), and who had two sons, James the Less and Joses. By referring to Mt 13:55 and Mark 6:3 we find that a James the Less and Joses, with two other brethren called Jude and Simon, and at least three sisters, were sisters with the Virgin Mary at Nazareth by referring to Lu 6:16 and Acts 1:13 we find that there were two brethren named James and Jude among the apostles. It would certainly be natural to think that we had here but one family of four brothers and three or more sisters, the children of Clopas and Mary, nephews and nieces of the Virgin Mary. There are difficulties however, in the way of this conclusion into which we cannot here enter; but in reply to the objection that the four brethren in Mt 13:55 are described as the brothers of Jesus, not as his cousins, it must be recollected that adelphoi, which is here translated "brethren," may also signify cousins.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/James...

The General Epistle of James in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The author of this epistle was in all probability James the son of Alphaeus, and our Lord's brother It was written from Jerusalem, which St. James does not seem to have ever left. It was probably written about A.D. 62, during the interval between Paul's two imprisonments. Its main object is not to teach doctrine, but to improve morality. St. James is the moral teacher of the New Testament. He wrote for the Jewish Christians, whether in Jerusalem or abroad, to warn them against the sins to which as Jews they were most liable, and to console and exhort them under the sufferings to which as Christians they were most exposed.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/James...

James in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(1.) The son of Zebedee and Salome; an elder brother of John the apostle. He was one of the twelve. He was by trade a fisherman, in partnership with Peter (Matt. 20:20; 27:56). With John and Peter he was present at the transfiguration (Matt. 17:1; Mark 9:2), at the raising of Jairus's daughter (Mark 5:37-43), and in the garden with our Lord (14:33). Because, probably, of their boldness and energy, he and John were called Boanerges, i.e., "sons of thunder." He was the first martyr among the apostles, having been beheaded by King Herod Agrippa (Acts 12:1, 2), A.D. 44. (Comp. Matt. 4:21; 20:20-23). (2.) The son of Alphaeus, or Cleopas, "the brother" or near kinsman or cousin of our Lord (Gal. 1:18, 19), called James "the Less," or "the Little," probably because he was of low stature. He is mentioned along with the other apostles (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15). He had a separate interview with our Lord after his resurrection (1 Cor. 15:7), and is mentioned as one of the apostles of the circumcision (Acts 1:13). He appears to have occupied the position of head of the Church at Jerusalem, where he presided at the council held to consider the case of the Gentiles (Acts 12:17; 15:13-29: 21:18-24). This James was the author of the epistle which bears his name.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/J/Jame...

Epistle of James in Easton's Bible Dictionary

(1.) Author of, was James the Less, the Lord's brother, one of the twelve apostles. He was one of the three pillars of the Church (Gal. 2:9). (2.) It was addressed to the Jews of the dispersion, "the twelve tribes scattered abroad." (3.) The place and time of the writing of the epistle were Jerusalem, where James was residing, and, from internal evidence, the period between Paul's two imprisonments at Rome, probably about A.D. 62. (4.) The object of the writer was to enforce the practical duties of the Christian life. "The Jewish vices against which he warns them are, formalism, which made the service of God consist in washings and outward ceremonies, whereas he reminds them (1:27) that it consists rather in active love and purity; fanaticism, which, under the cloak of religious zeal, was tearing Jerusalem in pieces (1:20); fatalism, which threw its sins on God (1:13); meanness, which crouched before the rich (2:2); falsehood, which had made words and oaths play-things (3:2-12); partisanship (3:14); evil speaking (4:11); boasting (4:16); oppression (5:4). The great lesson which he teaches them as Christians is patience, patience in trial (1:2), patience in good works (1:22-25), patience under provocation (3:17), patience under oppression (5:7), patience under persecution (5:10); and the ground of their patience is that the coming of the Lord draweth nigh, which is to right all wrong (5:8)." "Justification by works," which James contends for, is justification before man, the justification of our profession of faith by a consistent life. Paul contends for the doctrine of "justification by faith;" but that is justification before God, a being regarded and accepted as just by virtue of the righteousness of Christ, which is received by faith.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/J/Jame...

Epistle of Jeremy in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE 1. Name: In manuscripts Vaticanus and Alexandrinus the title is simply "An Epistle of Jeremiah." But in Codex Vaticanus, etc., there is a superscription introducing the letter: "Copy of a letter which Jeremiah sent to the captives about to be led to Babylon by (Peshitta adds Nebuchadnezzar) the king of the Babylonians, to make known to them what had been commanded him by God." What follows is a satirical exposure of the folly of idolatry, and not a letter. The idea of introducing this as a letter from Jeremiah was probably suggested by Jer 29:1 ff. 2. Canonicity and Position: The early Greek Fathers were on the whole favorably disposed toward this tract, reckoning it to be a part of the Canon. It is therefore included in the lists of Canonical writings of Origen, Epiphanius, Cyril of Jerusalem and Athanasius, and it was so authoritatively recognized by the Council of Laodicea (360 AD). In most Greek manuscripts of the Septuagint (Codices Alexandrinus and Vaticanus. March, Chisl, in the Syriac Hexateuch), it follows Lamentations as an independent piece, closing the supposed writings of Jeremiah. In the bestknown printed of the Septuagint (Tischendorf, Swete, etc.), the order is Jeremiah, Baruch, Lain, Epistle of Jeremy. In Fritzsche, Lib. Apocrypha VT Graece, Epistle Jeremiah stands between Baruch and Tobit. But in Latin manuscripts, including those of the Vulgate, it is appended to Baruch, of which it forms chapter 6, though it really has nothing to do with that book. This last is the case with Protestant editions (English versions of the Bible, etc.) of the Apocrypha, a more intelligible arrangement, since Jeremiah and Lamentations do not occur in the Apocrypha, and the Biblical Baruch was Jeremiah's amanuensis. 3. Contents: In the so-called letter (see 1, above) the author shows the absurdity and wickedness of heathen worship. The Jews, for their sins, will be removed to Babylon, where they will remain 7 generations. In that land they will be tempted to worship the gods o f the people. The writer's aim is ostensibly to warn them beforehand by showing how helpless and useless the idols worshipped are, and how immoral as well as silly the rites of the Bah religion are. For similar polemics against idolatry, see Isa 44:9-19 (which in its earnestness resembles the Epistle Jeremiah closely); Jer 10:3-9; Ps 115:4-8; 135:15-18; The Wisdom of Solomon 13:10- 19; 15:13-17...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JEREMY,...

Jeremiah (1) in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

jer-e-mi'-a ((a) yirmeyahu, or (b) shorter form, yirmeyah, both differently explained as "Yah establishes (so Giesebrecht), whom Yahweh casts," i.e. possibly, as Gesenius suggests, "appoints" (A. B. Davidson in HDB, II, 569a), and "Yahweh looseneth" (the womb); see BDB): The form (b) is used of Jeremiah the prophet only in Jer 27:1; 28:5,6,10,11,12b,15; 29:1; Ezr 1:1; Dan 9:2, while the other is found 116 times in Jeremiah alone. In 1 Esdras 1:28,32,47,57; 2 Esdras 2:18, English Versions of the Bible has "Jeremy," so the King James Version in 2 Macc 2:1,5,7; Mt 2:17; 27:9; in Mt 16:14, the King James Version has "Jeremias," but the Revised Version (British and American) in 2 Maccabees and Matthew has "Jeremiah." (1) The prophet. See special article. Of the following, (2), (3) and (4) have form (a) above; the others the form (b). (2) Father of Hamutal (Hamital), the mother of King Jehoahaz and King Jehoiakim (2 Ki 23:31; 24:18 parallel Jer 52:1). (3) A Rechabite (Jer 35:3). (4) In 1 Ch 12:13 (Hebrew 14), a Gadite. (5) In 1 Ch 12:10 (Hebrew 11), a Gadite. (6) In 1 Ch 12:4 (Hebrew 5), a Benjamite(?) or Judean. (4), (5) and (6) all joined David at Ziklag. (7) Head of a Manassite family (1 Ch 5:24). (8) A priest who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh 10:2), probably the same as he of 12:34 who took part in the procession at the dedication of the walls of Jerusalem. (9) A priest who went to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel from exile and became head of a priestly family of that name (Neh 12:1). David Francis Roberts

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JEREMIA...

Jeremiah (2) in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE 1. Name and Person: The name of one of the greatest prophets of Israel. The Hebrew yirmeyahu, abbreviated to yirmeyah, signifies either "Yahweh hurls" or "Yahweh founds." Septuagint reads Iermias, and the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) Jeremias. As this name also occurs not infrequently, the prophet is called "the son of Hilkiah" (Jer 1:1), who is, however, not the high priest mentioned in 2 Ki 22 and 23, as it is merely stated that he was "of the priests that were in Anathoth" in the land of Benjamin In Anathoth, now Anata, a small village 3 miles Northeast of Jerusalem, lived a class of priests who belonged to a side line, not to the line of Zadok (compare 1 Ki 2:26). 2. Life of Jeremiah: Jeremiah was called by the Lord to the office of a prophet while still a youth (1:6) about 20 years of age, in the 13th year of King Josiah (1:2; 25:3), in the year 627 BC, and was active in this capacity from this time on to the destruction of Jerusalem, 586 BC, under kings Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah. Even after the fall of the capital city he prophesied in Egypt at least for several years, so that his work extended over a period of about 50 years in all. At first he probably lived in Anathoth, and put in his appearance publicly in Jerusalem only on the occasion of the great festivals; later he lived in Jerusalem, and was there during the terrible times of the siege and the destruction of the city...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JEREMIA...

Jeremiah (1) in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(whom Jehovah has appointed) was "the son of Hilkiah of the priests that were in Anathoth." Jer 1:1 1. History. --He was called very young (B.C. 626) to the prophetic office, and prophesied forty-two years; but we have hardly any mention of him during the eighteen years between his call and Josiah's death, or during the short reign of Jehoahaz. During the reigns of Jehoiakim and Jehoiachin, B.C. 607-598, he opposed the Egyptian party, then dominant in Jerusalem, and maintained that they only way of safety lay in accepting the supremacy of the Chaldeans. He was accordingly accused of treachery, and men claiming to be prophets had the "word of Jehovah" to set against his. Jer 14:13; 23:7 As the danger from the Chaldeans became more threatening, the persecution against Jeremiah grew hotter. ch. 18. The people sought his life; then follows the scene in Jer 19:10-13 he was set, however, "as a fenced brazen wall," ch. Jer 15:20 and went on with his work, reproving king and nobles and people. The danger which Jeremiah had so long foretold at last came near. First Jehoiakim, and afterwards his successor Jehoiachin, were carried into exile, 2Kin 24; but Zedekiah, B.C. 597-586, who was appointed by Nebuchadnezzar, was more friendly to the prophet, though powerless to help him. The approach of an Egyptian army, and the consequent departure of the Chaldeans, made the position of Jeremiah full of danger, and he sought to effect his escape from the city; but he was seized and finally thrown into a prison-pit to die, but was rescued. On the return of the Chaldean army he showed his faith in God's promises, and sought to encourage the people by purchasing the field at Anathoth which his kinsman Hanameel wished to get rid of. Jer 32:6-9 At last the blow came. The city was taken, the temple burnt. The king and his princes shared the fate of Jehoiachin. The prophet gave utterance to his sorrow in the Lamentations. After the capture of Jerusalem, B.C. 586, by the Chaldeans, we find Jeremiah receiving better treatment; but after the death of Gedaliah, the people, disregarding his warnings, took refuge in Egypt, carrying the prophet with them. In captivity his words were sharper and stronger than ever. He did not shrink, even there, from speaking of the Chaldean king once more as "the servant of Jehovah." Jer 43:10 After this all is uncertain, but he probably died in Egypt...

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/Jerem...

Jeremiah (2) in Smiths Bible Dictionary

Seven other persons bearing the same name as the prophet are mentioned in the Old Testament:-- 1. Jeremiah of Libnah, father of Hamutal wife of Josiah. 2Ki 23:31 (B.C. before 632.) 2,3,4. Three warriors --two of the tribe of Gad-- in David's army. 1Ch 12:4,10,13 (B.C. 1061-53.) 5. One of the "mighty men of valor" of the transjordanic half-tribe of Manasseh. 1Ch 5:24 (B.C. 782.) 6. A priest of high rank, head of the second or third of the twenty-one courses which are apparently enumerated in Ne 10:2-8; 12:1,12 (B.C. 446-410). 7. The father of Jazaniah the Rechabite. Jer 35:3 (B.C. before 606.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/Jerem...

Book of Jeremiah in Smiths Bible Dictionary

"There can be little doubt that the book of Jeremiah grew out of the roll which Baruch wrote down at the prophet's mouth in the fourth year of Jehoiakim. ch. Jer 36:2 Apparently the prophets kept written records of their predictions, and collected into larger volumes such of them as were intended for permanent use." --Canon Cook. In the present order we have two great divisions:-- I. Chs. 1-45. Prophecies delivered at various times, directed mainly to Judah, or connected with Jeremiah's personal history. II. Chs. 46-51. Prophecies connected with other nations. Looking more closely into each of these divisions, we have the following sections: 1. Chs. 1-21, including prophecies from the thirteenth year of Josiah to the fourth of Jehoiakim; ch. 21; belongs to the later period. 2. Chs. 22-25. Shorter prophecies, delivered at different times, against the kings of Judah and the false prophets. Ch. Jer 25:13,14 evidently marks the conclusion of a series of prophecies; and that which follows, ch. Jer 25:15-38 the germ of the fuller predictions in chs. 46-49, has been placed here as a kind of completion to the prophecy of the seventy years and the subsequent fall of Babylon. 3. Chs. 26-28. The two great prophecies of the fall of Jerusalem, and the history connected with them. 4. Chs. 29-31. The message of comfort for the exiles in Babylon. 5. Chs. 32-44. The history of the last two years before the capture of Jerusalem, and of Jeremiah's work int hem and in the period that followed. 6. Chs. 46-51. The prophecies against foreign nations, ending with the great prediction against Babylon. 7. The supplementary narrative of ch. 52.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/Jerem...

Book of Jeremiah in Easton's Bible Dictionary

consists of twenty-three separate and independent sections, arranged in five books. I. The introduction, ch. 1. II. Reproofs of the sins of the Jews, consisting of seven sections, (1.) ch. 2; (2.) ch. 3-6; (3.) ch. 7-10; (4.) ch. 11-13; (5.) ch. 14-17:18; (6.) ch. 17:19-ch. 20; (7.) ch. 21-24. III. A general review of all nations, in two sections, (1.) ch. 46- 49; (2.) ch. 25; with an historical appendix of three sections, (1.) ch. 26; (2.) ch. 27; (3.) ch. 28, 29. IV. Two sections picturing the hopes of better times, (1.) ch. 30, 31; (2.) ch. 32,33; to which is added an historical appendix in three sections, (1.) ch. 34:1-7; (2.) ch. 34:8-22; (3.) ch. 35. V. The conclusion, in two sections, (1.) ch. 36; (2.) ch. 45. In Egypt, after an interval, Jeremiah is supposed to have added three sections, viz., ch. 37-39; 40-43; and 44. The principal Messianic prophecies are found in 23:1-8; 31:31-40; and 33:14-26. Jeremiah's prophecies are noted for the frequent repetitions found in them of the same words and phrases and imagery. They cover the period of about 30 years. They are not recorded in the order of time. When and under what circumstances this book assumed its present form we know not. The LXX. Version of this book is, in its arrangement and in other particulars, singularly at variance with the original. The LXX. omits 10:6-8; 27:19-22; 29:16-20; 33:14-26; 39:4-13; 52:2, 3, 15, 28-30, etc. About 2,700 words in all of the original are omitted. These omissions, etc., are capricious and arbitrary, and render the version unreliable.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/J/Jere...

Job in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

job ('iyobh, meaning of name doubtful; some conjecturing "object of enmity," others "he who turns," etc., to God; both uncertain guesses; Iob): The titular hero of the Book of Job, represented as a wealthy and pious land-holder who lived in patriarchal times, or at least conditions, in the land of Uz, on the borders of Idumea. Outside of the Book of Job he is mentioned by Ezekiel (Ezek 14:14,20) as one of 3 great personages whose representative righteousness would presumably avail, if that of any individuals could, to redeem the nation; the other two being Noah, an ancient patriarch, and Daniel, a contemporary of the prophet. It is difficult to determine whether Job was an actual personage or not. If known through legend, it must have been on account of some such experience as is narrated in the book, an experience unique enough to have become a potent household word; still, the power and influence of it is due to the masterly vigor and exposition of the story. It was the Job of literature, rather than the Job of legend, who lived in the hearts of men; a character so commanding that, albeit fictitious, it could be referred to as real, just as we refer to Hamlet or Othello. It is not the way of Hebrew writers, however, to evolve literary heroes from pure imagination; they crave an authentic basis of fact. It is probable that such a basis, in its essential outlines, existed under the story of Job. It is not necessary to suppose, however, that the legend or the name was known to Israel from ancient times. Job is introduced (Job 1:1) as if he had not been known before. The writer, who throughout the book shows a wide acquaintance with the world, doubtless found the legend somewhere, and drew its meanings together for an undying message to his and all times.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JOB/...

Book of Job in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. Introductory. 1. Place in the Canon: The greatest production of the Hebrew Wisdom literature, and one of the supreme literary creations of the world. Its place in the Hebrew Canon corresponds to the high estimation in which it was held; it stands in the 3rd section, the "writings" (kethubhim) or Hagiographa, next after the two great anthologies Psalms and Proverbs; apparently put thus near the head of the list for weighty reading and meditation. In the Greek Canon (which ours follows), it is put with the poetical books, standing at their head. It is one of 3 Scripture books, the others being Psalms and Proverbs, for which the later Hebrew scholars (the Massoretes) employed a special system of punctuation to mark its poetic character. 2. Rank and Readers: The Book of Job was not one of the books designated for public reading in the synagogues, as were the Pentateuch and the Prophets, or for occasional reading at feast seasons, as were the 5 megilloth or rolls. It was rather a book for private reading, and one whose subject-matter would appeal especially to the more cultivated and thoughtful classes. Doubtless it was all the more intimately valued for this detachment from sanctuary associations; it was, like Proverbs, a people's book; and especially among the cultivators of Wisdom it must have been from its first publication a cherished classic. At any rate, the patriarch Job (though whether from the legend or from the finished book is not clear; see JOB) is mentioned as a well-known national type by Ezek 14:14,20; and James, writing to Jewish Christians (5:11), refers to the character of patriarch as familiar to his readers. It was as one of the great classic stories of their literature, rather than as embodying a ritual or prophetic standard, that it was so universally known and cherished...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JOB,+BO...

Book of Job in Smiths Bible Dictionary

This book has given rise to much discussion and criticism, some believing the book to be strictly historical; others a religious fiction; others a composition based upon facts. By some the authorship of the work was attributed to Moses, but it is very uncertain. Luther first suggested the theory which, in some form or other, is now most generally received. He says, "I look upon the book of Job as a true history, yet I do not believe that all took place just as it is written, but that an ingenious, pious and learned man brought it into its present form." The date of the book is doubtful, and there have been many theories upon the subject. It may be regarded as a settled point that the book was written long before the exile, probably between the birth of Abraham and the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt --B.C. 2000-1800. If by Moses, it was probably written during his sojourn in Midian. "The book of Job is not only one of the most remarkable in the Bible, but in literature. As was said of Goliath's sword, 'There is none like it;' none in ancient or in modern literature." --Kitto. "A book which will one day, perhaps, be seen towering up alone far above all the poetry of the world." --J.A. Froude. "The book of Job is a drama, and yet subjectively true. The two ideas are perfectly consistent. It may have the dramatic form, the dramatic interest, the dramatic emotion, and yet be substantially a truthful narrative. The author may have received it in one of three ways: the writer may have been an eyewitness; or have received it from near contemporary testimony; or it may have reached him through a tradition of whose substantial truthfulness he has no doubt. There is abundant internal evidence that the scenes and events recorded were real scenes and real events to the writer. He gives the discussions either as he had heard them or as they had been repeated over and over in many an ancient consensus. The very modes of transmission show the deep impression it had made in all the East, as a veritable as well as marvellous event." --Tayler Lewis. the design of the book. --Stanley says that "The whole book is a discussion of that great problem of human life: what is the intention of Divine Providence in allowing the good to suffer?" "The direct object is to show that, although goodness has a natural tendency to secure a full measure of temporal happiness, yet that in its essence it is independent of such a result. Selfishness in some form is declared to be the basis on which all apparent goodness rests. That question is tried in the case of Job." --Cook. Structure of the book.- The book consists of five parts: -- I. Chs. 1-3. The historical facts. II. Chs. 4-31. The discussions between Job and his three friends. III. Chs. 32-37. Job's discussion with Elihu. IV. Chs. 38-41. The theophany --God speaking out of the storm. V. Ch. 42. The successful termination of the trial. It is all in poetry except the introduction and the close...

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/Job,+...

Book of Job in Easton's Bible Dictionary

A great diversity of opinion exists as to the authorship of this book. From internal evidence, such as the similarity of sentiment and language to those in the Psalms and Proverbs (see Ps. 88 and 89), the prevalence of the idea of "wisdom," and the style and character of the composition, it is supposed by some to have been written in the time of David and Solomon. Others argue that it was written by Job himself, or by Elihu, or Isaiah, or perhaps more probably by Moses, who was "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and mighty in words and deeds" (Acts 7:22). He had opportunities in Midian for obtaining the knowledge of the facts related. But the authorship is altogether uncertain. As to the character of the book, it is a historical poem, one of the greatest and sublimest poems in all literature. Job was a historical person, and the localities and names were real and not fictious. It is "one of the grandest portions of the inspired Scriptures, a heavenly-repleished storehouse of comfort and instruction, the patriarchal Bible, and a precious monument of primitive theology. It is to the Old Testament what the Epistle to the Romans is to the New." It is a didactic narrative in a dramatic form. This book was apparently well known in the days of Ezekiel, B.C. 600 (Ezek. 14:14). It formed a part of the sacred Scriptures used by our Lord and his apostles, and is referred to as a part of the inspired Word (Heb. 12:5; 1 Cor. 3:19). The subject of the book is the trial of Job, its occasion, nature, endurance, and issue. It exhibits the harmony of the truths of revelation and the dealings of Providence, which are seen to be at once inscrutable, just, and merciful. It shows the blessedness of the truly pious, even amid sore afflictions, and thus ministers comfort and hope to tried believers of every age. It is a book of manifold instruction, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction in righteousness (2 Tim. 3:16). It consists of, (1.) An historical introduction in prose (ch. 1,2). (2.) The controversy and its solution, in poetry (ch. 3-42:6). Job's desponding lamentation (ch. 3) is the occasion of the controversy which is carried on in three courses of dialogues between Job and his three friends. The first course gives the commencement of the controversy (ch. 4-14); the second the growth of the controversy (15-21); and the third the height of the controversy (22-27). This is followed by the solution of the controversy in the speeches of Elihu and the address of Jehovah, followed by Job's humble confession (42:1-6) of his own fault and folly. (3.) The third division is the historical conclusion, in prose (42:7-15). Sir J. W. Dawson in "The Expositor" says: "It would now seem that the language and theology of the book of Job can be better explained by supposing it to be a portion of Minean [Southern Arabia] literature obtained by Moses in Midian than in any other way. This view also agrees better than any other with its references to natural objects, the art of mining, and other matters."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/J/Job,...

Job in Easton's Bible Dictionary

persecuted, an Arabian patriarch who resided in the land of Uz (q.v.). While living in the midst of great prosperity, he was suddenly overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon him. Amid all his sufferings he maintained his integrity. Once more God visited him with the rich tokens of his goodness and even greater prosperity than he had enjoyed before. He survived the period of trial for one hundred and forty years, and died in a good old age, an example to succeeding generations of integrity (Ezek. 14:14, 20) and of submissive patience under the sorest calamities (James 5:11). His history, so far as it is known, is recorded in his book.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/J/Job/...

Joel in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. The Prophet. The Book of Joel stands second in the collection of the twelve Prophets in the Hebrew Canon. The name (yo'el), meaning "Yahweh is God," seems to have been common, as we find a dozen other persons bearing it at various periods of the Biblical history. Beyond the fact that he was the son of Pethuel, there is no intimation in the book as to his native place, date, or personal history; nor is he mentioned in any other part of the Old Testament; so that any information on these points must be matter of inference, and the consideration of them must follow some examination of the book itself. II. The Book. 1. Literary Form: This takes largely the form of addresses, the occasion and scope of which have to be gathered from the contents. There is no narrative, properly so called, except at one place (Joel 2:18), "Then was Yahweh jealous for his land," etc., and even there the narrative form is not continued. Yet, though the earlier portions at least may be the transcript of actual addresses in which the speaker had his audience before him, this would not apply to the later portions, in which also the direct address is still maintained (e.g. Joel 3:11, "Haste ye, and come, all ye nations round about"). This form of direct address is, indeed, characteristic of the style throughout (e.g. Joel 2:21; 3:4,9,13). There is this also to be said of its literary character, that "the style of Joel is bright and flowing," his "imagery and language are fine" (Driver, LOT); "his book is a description, clear, well arranged, and carried out with taste and vivacity, of the present distress and of the ideal future. Joel may be reckoned among the classics of Hebrew literature. The need of a commentary for details, as is the case with Amos and Hosea, is here hardly felt" (Reuss, Das Altes Testament).

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JOEL+(2...

Joel in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(to whom Jehovah is God). 1. Eldest son of Samuel the prophet, 1Sa 8:2; 1Ch 6:33; 15:17 and father of Heman the singer. (B.C. 1094.) 2. In 1Ch 6:36 Authorized Version, Joel seems to be merely a corruption of Shaul in ver. 24. 3. A Simeonite chief. 1Ch 4:35 4. A descendant of Reuben. Junius and Tremellius make him the son of Hanoeh, while others trace his descent through Carmi. 1Ch 5:4 (B.C. before 1092.) 5. Chief of the Gadites, who dwelt in the land of Bashan. 1Ch 5:12 (B.C. 782.) 6. The son of Izrahiah, of the tribe of Issachar. 1Ch 7:3 7. The brother of Nathan of Zobah, 1Ch 11:38 and one of David's guard. 8. The chief of the Gershomites in the reign of David. 1Ch 15:7,11 9. A Gershonite Levite in the reign of David, son of Jehiel, a descendant of Laadan, and probably the same as the preceding. 1Ch 23:8; 26:22 (B.C. 1014.) 10. The son of Pedaiah, and a chief of the half- tribe of Manasseh west of Jordan, in the reign of David. 1Ch 27:20 (B.C. 1014.) 11. A Kohathite Levite in the reign of Hezekiah. 2Ch 29:12 (B.C. 726.) 12. One of the sons of Nebo, who returned with Ezra, and had married a foreign wife. Ezr 10:43 (B.C. 459.) 13. The son of Zichri, a Benjamite. Ne 11:9 14. The second of the twelve minor prophets, the son of Pethuel, probably prophesied in Judah in the reign of Uzziah, about B.C. 800. The book of Joel contains a grand outline of the whole terrible scene, which was to be depicted more and more in detail by subsequent prophets. The proximate event to which the prophecy related was a public calamity, then impending on Judah, of a two-plague of locusts --and continuing for several years. The prophet exhorts the people to turn to God with penitence, fasting and prayer; and then, he says, the plague shall cease, and the rain descendent in its season, and the land yield her accustomed fruit. Nay, the time will be a most joyful one; for God, by the outpouring of his Spirit, will extend the blessings of true religion to heathen lands. The prophecy is referred to in Acts 2.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/Joel/...

Book of Joel in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Joel was probably a resident in Judah, as his commission was to that people. He makes frequent mention of Judah and Jerusalem (1:14; 2:1, 15, 32; 3:1, 12, 17, 20, 21). He probably flourished in the reign of Uzziah (about B.C. 800), and was contemporary with Amos and Isaiah. The contents of this book are, (1.) A prophecy of a great public calamity then impending over the land, consisting of a want of water and an extraordinary plague of locusts (1:1-2:11). (2.) The prophet then calls on his countrymen to repent and to turn to God, assuring them of his readiness to forgive (2:12-17), and foretelling the restoration of the land to its accustomed fruitfulness (18-26). (3.) Then follows a Messianic prophecy, quoted by Peter (Acts 2:39). (4.) Finally, the prophet foretells portents and judgments as destined to fall on the enemies of God (ch. 3, but in the Hebrew text 4).

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/J/Joel...

Joel in Easton's Bible Dictionary

Jehovah is his God. (1.) The oldest of Samuel's two sons appointed by him as judges in Beersheba (1 Sam. 8:2). (See VASHNI -(n/a).) (2.) A descendant of Reuben (1 Chr. 5:4,8). (3.) One of David's famous warriors (1 Chr. 11:38). (4.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chr. 15:7, 11). (5.) 1 Chr. 7:3. (6.) 1 Chr. 27:20. (7.) The second of the twelve minor prophets. He was the son of Pethuel. His personal history is only known from his book.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/J/Joel...

Gospel of John in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. Introductory. 1. Scope of Gospel: The Fourth Gospel has a form peculiar to itself, as well as a characteristic style and attitude, which mark it as a unique document among the books of the New Testament. (1) There is a prologue, consisting of Jn 1:1-18, of which something will be said later on. (2) There is a series of scenes and discourses from the life of Jesus, descriptive of Himself and His work, and marking the gradual development of faith and unbelief in His hearers and in the nation (1:19 through 12:50). (3) There is a more detailed account of the closing events of the Passion Week--of His farewell intercourse with His disciples (Jn 13 through 17), of His arrest, trials, crucifixion, death, and burial (Jn 18 through 19). (4) There are the resurrection, and the manifestations of the risen Lord to His disciples on the resurrection day, and on another occasion eight days after (20:1-29). This is followed by a paragraph which describes the purpose of the Gospel, and the reason why it was written (Jn 20:30,31). (5) Finally, there is a supplementary chapter (21), which has all the characteristic marks of the Gospel as a whole, and which probably, therefore, proceeds from the same pen (thus Lightfoot, Meyer, Alford, etc.; some, as Zahn, prefer to take the chapter as the work of a disciple of John). The concluding verses (21:24,25) read: "This is the disciple that beareth witness of these things, and wrote these things: and we know that his witness is true. And there are also many other things which Jesus did," etc. "We know that his witness is true" seems to be a testimony on the part of those who knew as to the identity of the disciple, and the trustworthiness of his witness. Nor has this earliest testimony been discredited by the attacks made on it, and the natural meaning has been vindicated by many competent writers. The present tense, "beareth witness," indicates that the " disciple" who wrote the Gospel was still alive when the testimony was given...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JOHN,+G...

The Apostle John in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

JOHN, THE APOSTLE Sources of the Life of John: The sources for the life of the apostle John are of various kinds, and of different degrees of trustworthiness. There are the references in the Synoptic Gospels, which may be used simply and easily without any preliminary critical inquiry into their worth as sources; for these Gospels contain the common tradition of the early church, and for the present purpose may be accepted as trustworthy. Further, there are the statements in Acts and in Galatians, which we may use without discussion as a source for the life of John. There is next the universal tradition of the 2nd century, which we may use, if we can show that the John of Ephesus, who bulks so largely in the Christian literature of the 2nd and 3rd centuries, is identical with the son of Zebedee. Further, on the supposition that the son of Zebedee is the author of the Johannine writings of the New Testament, there is another source of unequaled value for the estimate of the life and character of the son of Zebedee in these writings. Finally, there is the considerable volume of tradition which gathered around the name of John of Ephesus, of which, picturesque and interesting though the traditions be, only sparing use can be made. I. Witness of the New Testament. Addressing ourselves first to the Synoptic Gospels, to Acts and to Galatians, we ask, What, from these sources, can we know of the apostle John? A glance only need be taken at the Johannine writings, more fully discussed elsewhere in relation to their author...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JOHN,+T...

Gospel of John in Smiths Bible Dictionary

This Gospel was probably written at Ephesus about A.D. 78. (Canon Cook places it toward the close of John's life, A.D. 90-100. --ED.) The Gospel was obviously addressed primarily to Christians, not to heathen. There can be little doubt that the main object of St. John, who wrote after the other evangelists, is to supplement their narratives, which were almost confined to our Lord's life in Galilee. (It was the Gospel for the Church, to cultivate and cherish the spiritual life of Christians, and bring them into the closest relations to the divine Saviour. It gives the inner life and teachings of Christ as revealed to his disciples. Nearly two-thirds of the whole book belong to the last six months of our Lord's life, and one-third is the record of the last week. --ED.) The following is an abridgment of its contents: A. The Prologue. ch. Joh 1:1-18 B. The History, ch. Joh 1:19 ... Joh 20:29 (a) Various events relating to our Lord's ministry, narrated in connection with seven journeys, ch. Joh 1:19 ... Joh 12:50 1. First journey, into Judea, and beginning of his ministry, ch. Joh 1:19 ... Joh 2:12 2. Second journey, at the passover in the first year of his ministry, ch. Joh 2:13 ... Joh 4:1 3. Third journey, in the second year of his ministry, about the passover, ch. (5:1). 4. Fourth journey, about the passover, in the third year of his ministry, beyond Jordan, ch. Joh 6:1 5. Fifth journey, six months before his death, begun at the feast of tabernacles, chs. Joh 7:1 ... Joh 10:21 6. Sixth journey, about the feast of dedication, ch. Joh 10:22-42 7. Seventh journey, in Judea towards Bethany, ch. Joh 11:1-54 8. Eighth journey, before his last passover, chs. Joh 11:55 ... Joh 12:1 (b) History of the death of Christ, chs. Joh 12:1 ... Joh 20:29 1. Preparation for his passion, chs. John 13:1 ... John 17:1 2. The circumstances of his passion and death, chs. Joh 18:1; 19:1 3. His resurrection, and the proofs of it, ch. Joh 20:1-29 C. The Conclusion, ch. Joh 20:30 ... 21:1 1. Scope of the foregoing history, ch. Joh 20:30,31 2. Confirmation of the authority of the evangelist by additional historical facts, and by the testimony of the elders of the Church, ch. Joh 21:1-24 3. Reason of the termination of the history, ch. Joh 21:25

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/John,...

The Apostle John in Smiths Bible Dictionary

was the son of Zebedee, a fisherman on the Lake of Galilee, and of Salome, and brother of James, also an apostle. Peter and James and John come within the innermost circle of their Lord's friends; but to John belongs the distinction of being the disciple whom Jesus loved. He hardly sustains the popular notion, fostered by the received types of Christian art, of a nature gentle, yielding, feminine. The name Boanerges, Mr 3:17 implies a vehemence, zeal, intensity, which gave to those who had it the might of sons of thunder. [JAMES] The three are with our Lord when none else are, in the chamber of death, Mr 5:37 in the glory of the transfiguration, Mt 17:1 when he forewarns them of the destruction of the holy city, Mr 13:3 in the agony of Gethsemane. When the betrayal is accomplished, Peter and John follow afar off. Joh 18:15 The personal acquaintance which exited between John and Caiaphas enables him to gain access to the council chamber, praetorium of the Roman procurator. Joh 18:16,19,28 Thence he follows to the place of crucifixion, and the Teacher leaves to him the duty of becoming a son to the mother who is left desolate. Joh 19:26,27 It is to Peter and John that Mary Magdalene first runs with the tidings of the emptied sepulchre, Joh 20:2 they are the first to go together to see what the strange words meant, John running on most eagerly to the rock-tomb; Peter, the least restrained by awe, the first to enter in and look. Joh 20:4-6 For at least eight days they continue in Jerusalem. Joh 20:26 Later, on the Sea of Galilee, John is the first to recognize in the dim form seen in the morning twilight the presence of his risen Lord; Peter the first to plunge into the water and swim toward the shore where he stood calling to them. Joh 21:7 The last words of John's Gospel reveal to us the deep affection which united the two friends. The history of the Acts shows the same union. They are together at the ascension on the day of Pentecost. Together they enter the temple as worshippers, Ac 3:1 and protest against the threats of the Sanhedrin. ch Ac 4:13 The persecution which was pushed on by Saul of Tarsus did not drive John from his post. ch. Ac 8:1 Fifteen years after St. Paul's first visit he was still at Jerusalem, and helped to take part in the settlement of the great controversy between the Jewish and the Gentile Christians. Ac 15:6 His subsequent history we know only by tradition. There can be no doubt that he removed from jerusalem and settled at Ephesus, though at what time is uncertain. Tradition goes on to relate that in the persecution under Domitian he is taken to Rome, and there, by his boldness, though not by death, gains the crown of martyrdom. The boiling oil into which he is thrown has no power to hurt him. He is then sent to labor in the mines, and Patmost is the place of his exile. The accession of Nerva frees him from danger, and he returns to Ephesus. Heresies continue to show themselves, but he meets them with the strongest possible protest. The very time of his death lies within the region of conjecture rather than of history, and the dates that have been assigned for it range from A.D. 89 to A.D. 120.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/John+...

Gospel of John in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The genuineness of this Gospel, i.e., the fact that the apostle John was its author, is beyond all reasonable doubt. In recent times, from about 1820, many attempts have been made to impugn its genuineness, but without success. The design of John in writing this Gospel is stated by himself (John 20:31). It was at one time supposed that he wrote for the purpose of supplying the omissions of the synoptical, i.e., of the first three, Gospels, but there is no evidence for this. "There is here no history of Jesus and his teaching after the manner of the other evangelists. But there is in historical form a representation of the Christian faith in relation to the person of Christ as its central point; and in this representation there is a picture on the one hand of the antagonism of the world to the truth revealed in him, and on the other of the spiritual blessedness of the few who yield themselves to him as the Light of life" (Reuss). After the prologue (1:1-5), the historical part of the book begins with verse 6, and consists of two parts. The first part (1:6-ch. 12) contains the history of our Lord's public ministry from the time of his introduction to it by John the Baptist to its close. The second part (ch. 13-21) presents our Lord in the retirement of private life and in his intercourse with his immediate followers (13-17), and gives an account of his sufferings and of his appearances to the disciples after his resurrection (18-21). The peculiarities of this Gospel are the place it gives (1) to the mystical relation of the Son to the Father, and (2) of the Redeemer to believers; (3) the announcement of the Holy Ghost as the Comforter; (4) the prominence given to love as an element in the Christian character. It was obviously addressed primarily to Christians. It was probably written at Ephesus, which, after the destruction of Jerusalem (A.D. 70), became the centre of Christian life and activity in the East, about A.D. 90.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/J/John...

The Book of Jonah in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

This little roll of four short chapters has given rise to almost as much discussion and difference of opinion as the first four chapters of Genesis. It would be presumptuous to think that one could, in a brief article, speak the final word on the questions in debate. I. Contents of the Book. The story is too well known to need retelling. Moreover, it would be difficult to give the events in fewer words than the author employs in his classic narrative. One event grows out of another, so that the interest of the reader never flags. 1. Jonah Disobedient, Jonah 1:1-3: When the call came to Jonah to preach in Nineveh, he fled in the opposite direction, hoping thus to escape from his unpleasant task. He was afraid that the merciful God would forgive the oppressing heathen city, if it should repent at his preaching. Jonah was a narrow-minded patriot, who feared that Assyria would one day swallow up his own little nation; and so he wished to do nothing that might lead to the preservation of wicked Nineveh. Jonah was willing to prophesy to Israel; he at first flatly refused to become a foreign missionary. 2. Jonah Punished, Jonah 1:4-16: The vessel in which the prophet had taken passage was arrested by a great storm. The heathen sailors inferred that some god must be angry with some person on board, and cast lots to discover the culprit. When the lot fell upon Jonah, he made a complete confession, and bravely suggested that they cast him overboard. The heathen mariners rowed desperately to get back to land, but made no progress against the storm. They then prayed Yahweh not to bring innocent blood upon them, and cast Jonah into the sea. As the storm promptly subsided, the heathen sailors offered a sacrifice to Yahweh and made vows. In this part of the story the mariners give an example of the capacity of the Gentiles to perform noble deeds and to offer acceptable worship to Yahweh...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JONAH,+...

Jonah in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

jo'-na (yonah, "dove"; 'Ionas): (1) According to 2 Ki 14:25, Jonah, the son of Amittai, of Gath-hepher, a prophet and servant of Yahweh, predicted the restoration of the land of Israel to its ancient boundaries through the efforts of Jeroboam II. The prophet lived and labored either in the early part of the reign of Jeroboam (790-750 BC), or during the preceding generation. He may with great probability be placed at 800-780 BC. His early ministry must have made him popular in Israel; for he prophesied of victory and expansion of territory. His native village of Gath-hepher was located in the territory of Zebulun (Josh 19:13). (2) According to the book bearing his name, Jonah the son of Amittai received a command to preach to Nineveh; but he fled in the opposite direction to escape from the task of proclaiming Yahweh's message to the great heathen city; was arrested by a storm, and at his own request was hurled into the sea, where he was swallowed by a great fish, remaining alive in the belly of the fish for three days. When on his release from the body of the fish the command to go to Nineveh was renewed, Jonah obeyed and announced the overthrow of the wicked city. When the men of Nineveh repented at the preaching of the prophet, God repented of the evil He had threatened to bring upon them. Jonah was grieved that the oppressing city should be spared, and waited in the vicinity to see what would be the final outcome. An intense patriot, Jonah wished for the destruction of the people that threatened to swallow up Israel. He thought that Yahweh was too merciful to the heathen oppressors. By the lesson of the gourd he was taught the value of the heathen in the sight of Yahweh. It is the fashion now in scholarly circles to treat the Book of Jonah as fiction. The story is said to be an allegory or a parable or a symbolic narrative. Why then did the author fasten upon a true and worthy prophet of Yahweh the stigma of rebellion and narrowness? On theory that the narrative is an allegory, J. Kennedy well says that "the man who wrote it was guilty of a gratuitous insult to the memory of a prophet, and could not have been inspired by the prophet's Master thus to dishonor a faithful servant." (3) our Lord referred on two different occasions to the sign of Jonah the prophet (Mt 12:38-41; Lk 11:29-32; Mt 16:4). He speaks of Jonah's experience in the belly of the fish as parallel with His own approaching entombment for three days, and cites the repentance of the Ninevites as a rebuke to the unbelieving men of his own generation. Our Lord thus speaks both of the physical miracle of the preservation of Jonah in the body of the fish and of the moral miracle of the repentance of the Ninevites, and without the slightest hint that He regarded the story as an allegory.

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JONAH/...

Jonah in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(dove), the fifth of the minor prophets, was the son of Amittai, and a native of Gath-hepher. 2Ki 14:25 He flourished in or before the reign of Jeroboam II., about B.C. 820. Having already, as it seems, prophesied to Israel, he was sent to Nineveh. The time was one of political revival in Israel; but ere long the Assyrians were to be employed by God as a scourge upon them. The prophet shrank from a commission which he felt sure would result, Jon 4:2 in the sparing of a hostile city. He attempted therefore to escape to Tarshish. The providence of God, however, watched over him, first in a storm, and then in his being swallowed by a large fish (a sea monster, probably the white shark) for the space of three days and three nights. [On this subject see article WHALE] After his deliverance, Jonah executed his commission; and the king, "believing him to be a minister form the supreme deity of the nation," and having heard of his miraculous deliverance, ordered a general fast, and averted the threatened judgment. But the prophet, not from personal but national feelings, grudged the mercy shown to a heathen nation. He was therefore taught by the significant lesson of the "gourd," whose growth and decay brought the truth at once home to him, that he was sent to testify by deed, as other prophets would afterward testify by word, the capacity of Gentiles for salvation, and the design of God to make them partakers of it. This was "the sign of the prophet Jonas." Lu 11:29,30 But the resurrection of Christ itself was also shadowed forth in the history of the prophet. Mt 12:39,41; 16:4 The mission of Jonah was highly symbolical. The facts contained a concealed prophecy. The old tradition made the burial-place of Jonah to be Gath-hepher; the modern tradition places it at Nebi-Yunus, opposite Mosul.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/Jonah...

Book of Jonah in Easton's Bible Dictionary

This book professes to give an account of what actually took place in the experience of the prophet. Some critics have sought to interpret the book as a parable or allegory, and not as a history. They have done so for various reasons. Thus (1) some reject it on the ground that the miraculous element enters so largely into it, and that it is not prophetical but narrative in its form; (2) others, denying the possibility of miracles altogether, hold that therefore it cannot be true history. Jonah and his story is referred to by our Lord (Matt. 12:39, 40; Luke 11:29), a fact to which the greatest weight must be attached. It is impossible to interpret this reference on any other theory. This one argument is of sufficient importance to settle the whole question. No theories devised for the purpose of getting rid of difficulties can stand against such a proof that the book is a veritable history. There is every reason to believe that this book was written by Jonah himself. It gives an account of (1) his divine commission to go to Nineveh, his disobedience, and the punishment following (1:1-17); (2) his prayer and miraculous deliverance (1:17-2:10); (3) the second commission given to him, and his prompt obedience in delivering the message from God, and its results in the repentance of the Ninevites, and God's long-sparing mercy toward them (ch. 3); (4) Jonah's displeasure at God's merciful decision, and the rebuke tendered to the impatient prophet (ch. 4). Nineveh was spared after Jonah's mission for more than a century. The history of Jonah may well be regarded "as a part of that great onward movement which was before the Law and under the Law; which gained strength and volume as the fulness of the times drew near.", Perowne's Jonah.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/J/Jona...

Jonah in Easton's Bible Dictionary

a dove, the son of Amittai of Gath-hepher. He was a prophet of Israel, and predicted the restoration of the ancient boundaries (2 Kings 14:25-27) of the kingdom. He exercised his ministry very early in the reign of Jeroboam II., and thus was contemporary with Hosea and Amos; or possibly he preceded them, and consequently may have been the very oldest of all the prophets whose writings we possess. His personal history is mainly to be gathered from the book which bears his name. It is chiefly interesting from the two-fold character in which he appears, (1) as a missionary to heathen Nineveh, and (2) as a type of the "Son of man."

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/J/Jona...

Epistles to the Thessalonians in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The first epistle to the Thessalonians was the first of all Paul's epistles. It was in all probability written from Corinth, where he abode a "long time" (Acts 18:11, 18), early in the period of his residence there, about the end of A.D. 52. The occasion of its being written was the return of Timotheus from Macedonia, bearing tidings from Thessalonica regarding the state of the church there (Acts 18:1-5; 1 Thess. 3:6). While, on the whole, the report of Timothy was encouraging, it also showed that divers errors and misunderstandings regarding the tenor of Paul's teaching had crept in amongst them. He addresses them in this letter with the view of correcting these errors, and especially for the purpose of exhorting them to purity of life, reminding them that their sanctification was the great end desired by God regarding them. The subscription erroneously states that this epistle was written from Athens. The second epistle to the Thessalonians was probably also written from Corinth, and not many months after the first. The occasion of the writing of this epistle was the arrival of tidings that the tenor of the first epistle had been misunderstood, especially with reference to the second advent of Christ. The Thessalonians had embraced the idea that Paul had taught that "the day of Christ was at hand", that Christ's coming was just about to happen. This error is corrected (2:1-12), and the apostle prophetically announces what first must take place. "The apostasy" was first to arise. Various explanations of this expression have been given, but that which is most satisfactory refers it to the Church of Rome.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/T/Thes...

Epistles to the Thessalonians in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

SECOND EPISTLE. Genuineness. Polycarp (Ep. ad Philipp. 11) alludes to 1 Thessalonians 1:4; 1 Thessalonians 3:15, and so attests it. Justin Martyr (Dial.Trypho, 193, sec. 32) alludes to 2 Thessalonians 2:3. Irenaeus (iii. 7, section 2) quotes 2 Thessalonians 2:8. Clement of Alexandria quotes 2 Thessalonians 3:2 as Paul's words (Strom. i. 5, section 554; Paedag. i. 17). Tertullian (de Resurr. Carnis, chap. 24) quotes 2 Thessalonians 2:1-2 as part of Paul's epistles. DESIGN. The report from Thessalonica after the first epistle represented the faith and love of the church there as on the increase, and their constancy amidst persecutions unshaken. Their only error needing correction was that Paul's description of Christ's sudden second coming (1 Thessalonians 4:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:2), possibly at any moment, led them to believe it actually imminent. Some professed to know by "the Spirit" (2 Thessalonians 2:2) it was so, others declared Paul when with them had said so; a letter purporting to be from him to that effect was circulated among them (2 Thessalonians 2:2, in 2 Thessalonians 3:17 he marks his autograph salutation as the test whereby to know his genuine letters). Hence some ceased to mind their daily work, and cast themselves on the charity of others as if their only duty was to look for Christ's immediate coming. Paul therefore tells them (2 Thessalonians 2) that before the Lord shall come there must first be a great apostasy, and the man of sin be revealed; and that to neglect daily business would only bring scandal on the church, and was contrary to his own practice among them (2 Thessalonians 3:7-9), and that believers must withdraw from such disorderly walkers (2 Thessalonians 3:6; 2 Thessalonians 3:10-15). DIVISIONS. (1) 2 Thessalonians 1:1-12; he commends the...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/T/The...

Epistles of Paul to Timothy in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The Epistles to Timothy and Titus are called the Pastoral Epistles, because they are principally devoted to directions about the work of the pastor of a church. The First Epistle was probably written from Macedonia, A.D. 65, in the interval between St. Paul's first and second imprisonments at Rome. The absence of any local reference but that in 1Ti 1:3 suggests Macedonia or some neighboring district. In some MSS. and versions Laodicea is named in the inscription as the place from which it was sent. The Second Epistle appears to have been written A.D. 67 or 68, and in all probability at Rome. The following are the characteristic features of these epistles:-- (1) The ever-deepening sense in St. Paul's heart of the divine mercy of which he was the object, as shown in the insertion of the "mercy" in the salutations of both epistles, and in the "obtained mercy" of 1Ti 1:13 (2) The greater abruptness of the Second Epistle. From first to last there is no plan, no treatment of subjects carefully thought out. All speaks of strong overflowing emotion memories of the past, anxieties about the future. (3) The absence, as compared with St. Paul other epistles, of Old Testament references. This may connect itself with the fact just noticed, that these epistles are not argumentative, possibly also with the request for the "books and parchments" which had been left behind. 2Ti 4:13 (4) The conspicuous position of the "faithful sayings" as taking the place occupied in other epistles by the Old Testament Scriptures. The way in which these are cited as authoritative, the variety of subjects which they cover, suggests the thought that in them we have specimens of the prophecies of the apostolic Church which had most impressed themselves on the mind of the apostle and of the disciples generally. 1Co 14:1 ... shows how deep a reverence he was likely to feel for spiritual utterances. In 1Ti 4:1 we have a distinct reference to them. (5) The tendency of the apostle's mind to dwell more on the universality of the redemptive work of Christ, 1Ti 2:3-6; 4:10 and his strong desire that all the teaching of his disciples should be "sound." (6) The importance attached by him to the practical details of administration. The gathered experience of a long life had taught him that the life and well being of the Church required these for its safeguards. (7) The recurrence of doxologies, 1Ti 1:17; 6:15,16; 2Ti 4:18 as from one living perpetually in the presence of God, to whom the language of adoration was as his natural speech.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/T/Timot...

Second Epistle to Timothy in Easton's Bible Dictionary

was probably written a year or so after the first, and from Rome, where Paul was for a second time a prisoner, and was sent to Timothy by the hands of Tychicus. In it he entreats Timothy to come to him before winter, and to bring Mark with him (comp. Phil. 2:22). He was anticipating that "the time of his departure was at hand" (2 Tim. 4:6), and he exhorts his "son Timothy" to all diligence and steadfastness, and to patience under persecution (1:6-15), and to a faithful discharge of all the duties of his office (4:1-5), with all the solemnity of one who was about to appear before the Judge of quick and dead.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/T/Timo...

Second Epistle to Timothy in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

TIME AND PLACE OF WRITING. In Paul's prison at Rome, just before his martyrdom. Timothy was possibly still at Ephesus, for Priscilla and Aquila whom Paul salutes generally resided there (2 Timothy 4:19); also Onesiphorus, who ministered to Paul at Ephesus and therefore it is presumable resided there (2 Timothy 1:16-18). The Hymenaeus of 2 Timothy 2:17 is probably the Hymenaeus at Ephesus (1 Timothy 1:20); also "Alexander the coppersmith" (2 Timothy 4:14) seems to be the Alexander put forward by the Jews to clear themselves, not to befriend Paul, in the riot at Ephesus (Acts 19:33-34). Still, if Timothy was at Ephesus, why did he need to be told that Paul had sent Tychicus to Ephesus, or that Paul had left Trophimus, himself an Ephesian (Acts 21:29), sick at Miletus which was only 30 miles from Ephesus? Probably Timothy's overseership extended beyond Ephesus to all the Pauline churches in Asia Minor; he combined with it the office of "evangelist," or itinerant missionary Ephesus was only his head quarters; and 2 Timothy 4:13 will accord with the theory of Ephesus or any other place in the N.W. of Asia Minor being Timothy's place of sojourn at the time. Paul at his first imprisonment lodged in his own hired house, guarded by a single soldier, and having liberty to receive all comers; but now he was so closely confined that Onesiphorus with difficulty found him; he was chained, forsaken by friends, and had narrowly escaped execution by the Roman emperor. The access however of Onesiphorus, Linus, Pudens, and Claudia to him proves he was not in the Mamertine or Tullianum prison, with Peter, as tradition represents; but under military custody, of a severer kind than at his first imprisonment (2 Timothy 1:16- 18; 2 Timothy 2:9; 2 Timothy 4:6-8; 2 Timothy 4:16-17). (See PETER.) He was probably arraigned before the "rulers" (Clemens Rom., 1 Ep. Corinth. 5, epi ton heegoumenon), i.e. Helius the city prefect, on a double charge: (1) of having conspired with the Christians, as Nero's partisans alleged, to set fire to Rome, A.D. 64; that event took place the year after his liberation from the first imprisonment, A.D. 63; some Christians were crucified, some arrayed in wild beasts' skins, and hunted to death by dogs, wrapped in pitch robes some were set on fire by night to illuminate the Vatican circus and Nero's gardens while that monster played the charioteer. (See PAUL.) But now three years had elapsed; and Paul as a Roman citizen was treated with greater respect for legal forms, and was acquitted on the...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/T/Tim...

The Epistles of John pt.1-3 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE Among the 7 New Testament epistles which from ancient times have been called "catholic" (universal) there is a smaller group of three in which the style alike of thought and language points to a common authorship, and which are traditionally associated with the name of the apostle John. Of these, again, the first differs widely from the other two in respect not only of intrinsic importance, but of its early reception in the church and unquestioned canonicity. THE FIRST EPISTLE I. General Character. 1. A True Letter: Not only is the Epistle an anonymous writing; one of its unique features among the books of the New Testament is that it does not contain a single proper name (except our Lord's), or a single definite allusion, personal, historical, or geographical. It is a composition, however, which a person calling himself "I" sends to certain other persons whom he calls "you," and is, in form at least, a letter. The criticism which has denied that it is more than formally so is unwarranted. It does not fall under either of Deissmann's categories--the true letter, intended only for the perusal of the person or persons to whom it is addressed, and the epistle, written with literary art and with an eye to the public. But it does possess that character of the New Testament epistles in general which is well described by Sir William Ramsay (Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, 24): "They spring from the heart of the writer and speak direct to the heart of the readers. They were often called forth by some special crisis in the history of the persons addressed, so that they rise out of the actual situation in which the writer conceives the readers to be placed; they express the writer's keen and living sympathy with and participation in the fortunes of the whole class addressed, and are not affected by any thought of a wider public. .... On the other hand, the letters of this class express general principles of life and conduct, religion and ethics, applicable to a wider range of circumstances than those which called them forth; and they appeal as emphatically and intimately to all Christians in all time as they did to those addressed in the first instance." The 1st Epistle of John could not be more exactly characterized than by these words. Though its main features are didactic and controversial, the personal note is frequently struck, and with much tenderness and depth of feeling. Under special stress of emotion, the writer's paternal love, sympathy and solicitude break out in the affectionate appellation, "little children," or, yet more endearingly, "my little children." Elsewhere the prefatory "beloved" shows how deeply he is stirred by the sublimity of his theme and the sense of its supreme importance to his readers. He shows himself intimately acquainted with their religious environment (1 Jn 2:19; 4:1), dangers (1 Jn 2:26; 3:7; 5:21), attainments (1 Jn 2:12-14,21), achievements (1 Jn 4:4) and needs (1 Jn 3:19; 5:13). Further, the Epistle is addressed primarily to the circle of those among whom the author has habitually exercised his ministry as evangelist and teacher. He has been wont to announce to them the things concerning the Word of Life (1 Jn 1:1,2), that they might have fellowship with him (1 Jn 1:3), and now, that his (or their) joy may be full, he writes these things unto them (1 Jn 1:4). He writes as light shines. Love makes the task a necessity, but also a delight...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JOHN,+T...

The Epistles of John pt.4-9 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

IV. Canonicity and Authorship. 1. Traditional View: As to the reception of the Epistle in the church, it is needless to cite any later witness than Eusebius (circa 325), who classes it among the books (homologoumena) whose canonical rank was undisputed. It is quoted by Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria (247-265), by the Muratorian Canon, Cyprian, Origen, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, and Irenaeus. Papias (who is described by Irenaeus as a "hearer of John and a companion of Polycarp") is stated by Eusebius to have "used some testimonies from John's former epistle"; and Polycarp's Epistle to the Philippians (circa 115) contains an almost verbal reproduction of 1 Jn 4:3. Reminiscences of it are traced in Athenagoras (circa 180), the Epistle to Diognetus, the Epistle of Barnabas, more distinctly in Justin (Dial. 123) and in the Didache; but it is possible that the earliest of these indicate the currency of Johannine expressions in certain Christian circles rather than acquaintance with the Epistle itself. The evidence, however, is indisputable that this Epistle, one of the latest of the New Testament books, took immediately and permanently an unchallenged position as a writing of inspired authority. It is no material qualification of this statement to add that, in common with the other Johannine writings, it was rejected, for dogmatic reasons, by Marcion and the so-called Alogi; and that, like all the catholic epistles, it was unknown to the Canon of the ancient Syrian church, and is stated to have been "abrogated" by Theodore (Bishop of Mopsuestia, 393-428 AD). 2. Critical Views: The verdict of tradition is equally unanimous that the Fourth Gospel and the First Epistle are both the legacy of the apostle John in his old age to the church. All the Fathers already mentioned as quoting the Epistle (excepting Polycarp, but including Irenaeus) quote it as the work of John; and, until the end of the 16th century, this opinion was held as unquestionable. The first of modern scholars to challenge it was Joseph Scaliger (1540-1609), who rejected the entire trio of Johannine Epistles as unapostolic; and in later times a dual authorship of the Gospel and the First Epistle has been maintained by Baur, H.J. Holtzmann, Pfleiderer, von Soden, and others; although on this particular point other adherents of the critical school like Julicher, Wrede and Wernle, accept the traditional view. 3. Internal Evidence: Thus two questions are raised: first, what light does the Epistle shed upon the personality of its own author? And second, whether or not, the Gospel and the Epistle are from the same hand. Now, while the Epistle furnishes no clue by which we can identify the writer, it enables us very distinctly to class him. His relation to his readers, as we have seen, is intimate. The absence of explicit reference to either writer or readers only shows how intimate it was. For the writer to declare his identity was superfluous. Thought, language, tone--all were too familiar to be mistaken. The Epistle bore its author's signature in every line. His position toward his readers was, moreover, authoritative. As has already been said, the natural interpretation of 1 Jn 1:2,3 is that the relation between them was that of teacher and taught. (By this fact we may account for the enigmatic brevity of such a passage as that on the "three witnesses." The writer intended only...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/J/JOHN,+T...

Acts of the Apostles, 1-7 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. Title. It is possible, indeed probable, that the book originally had no title. The manuscripts give the title in several forms. Aleph (in the inscription) has merely "Acts" (Praxeis). So Tischendorf, while Origen, Didymus, Eusebius quote from "The Acts." But BD Aleph (in subscription) have "Acts of Apostles" or "The Acts of the Apostles" (Praxeis Apostolon). So Westcott and Hort, Nestle (compare Athanasius and Euthalius). Only slightly different is the title in 31,61, and many other cursives (Praxeis ton Apostolon, "Acts of the Apostles"). So Griesbach, Scholz. Several fathers (Clement of Alex, Origen, Dionysius of Alex, Cyril of Jerusalem, Chrysostom) quote it as "The Acts of the Apostles" (Hai Praxeis ton Apostolon). Finally A2 EGH give it in the form "Acts of the Holy Apostles" (Praxeis ton Hagion Apostolon). The Memphitic version has "The Acts of the Holy Apostles." Clearly, then, there was no single title that commanded general acceptance. II. Text. (1) The chief documents. These are the Primary Uncials (Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrinus, Codex Vaticanus, Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, Codex Bezae), Codex Laudianus (E) which is a bilingual Uncial confined to Acts, later Uncials like Codex Modena, Codex Regius, Codex the Priestly Code (P), the Cursives, the Vulgate, the Peshitta and the Harclean Syriac and quotations from the Fathers. We miss the Curetonian and Syriac Sinaiticus, and have only fragmentary testimony from the Old Latin. (2) The modern editions of Acts present the types of text (Textus Receptus; the Revised Version (British and American); the critical text like that of Westcott and Hort, The New Testament in Greek or Nestle or Weiss or von Soden). These three types do not correspond with the four classes of text (Syrian, Western, Alexandrian, Neutral) outlined by Hort in his Introduction to the New Testament in Greek (1882). These four classes are broadly represented in the documents which give us Acts. But no modern editor of the Greek New Testament has given us the Western or the Alexandrian type of text, though Bornemann, as will presently be shown, argues for the originality of the Western type in Acts. But the Textus Receptus of the New Testament (Stephanus' 3rd edition in 1550) was the basis of the King James Version of 1611. This edition of the Greek New Testament made use of a very few manuscripts, and all of them late, except Codex Bezae, which was considered...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/a/acts-of...

Third Epistle of John in Smiths Bible Dictionary

The third epistle is addressed to Caius or Gaius. He was probably a convert of St. John, Epist. 3Jo 1:4 and a layman of wealth and distinction, Epits. 3Jo 1:5 in some city near Ephesus. The object of St. John in writing the second epistle was to warn the lady to whom he wrote against abetting the teaching known as that of Basilides and his followers, by perhaps an undue kindness displayed by her toward the preachers of the false doctrine. The third epistle was written for the purpose of commending to the kindness and hospitality of Caius some Christians who were strangers in the place where he lived. It is probably that these Christians carried this letter with them to Caius as their introduction.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/J/John,...

Acts of the Apostles, 8-12 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

VIII. The Speeches in Acts. This matter is important enough to receive separate treatment. Are the numerous speeches reported in Acts free compositions of Luke made to order a la Thucydides? Are they verbatim reports from notes taken at the times and literally copied into the narrative? Are they substantial reports incorporated with more or less freedom with marks of Luke's own style? In the abstract either of these methods was possible. The example of Thucydides, Xenophon, Livy and Josephus shows that ancient historians did not scruple to invent speeches of which no report was available. There are not wanting those who accuse Luke of this very thing in Acts. The matter can only be settled by an appeal to the facts so far as they can be determined. It cannot be denied that to a certain extent the hand of Luke is apparent in the addresses reported by him in Acts. But this fact must not be pressed too far. It is not true that the addresses are all alike in style. It is possible to distinguish very clearly the speeches of Peter from those of Paul. Not merely is this true, but we are able to compare the addresses of both Paul and Peter with their epistles. It is not probable that Luke had seen these epistles, as will presently be shown. It is crediting remarkable literary skill to Luke to suppose that he made up "Petrine" speeches and "Pauline" speeches with such success that they harmonize beautifully with the teachings and general style of each of these apostles. The address of Stephen differs also sharply from those of Peter and Paul, though we are not able to compare this report with any original work by Stephen himself. Another thing is true also, particularly of Paul's sermons. They are wonderfully stated to time, place and audience. They all have a distract Pauline flavor, and yet a difference in local color that corresponds, to some extent, with the variations in the style of Paul's epistles. Professor Percy Gardner (The Speeches of Paul in Acts, in Cambridge Biblical Essays, 1909) recognizes these differences, but seeks to explain them on the ground of varying accuracy in the sources used by Luke, counting the speech at Miletus as the most historic of all. But he admits the use of sources by Luke for these addresses. The theory of pure invention by Luke is quite discredited by appeal to the facts. On the other hand, in view of the apparent presence of Luke's style to some extent in the speeches, it can hardly be claimed that he has made verbatim reports. Besides, the report of the addresses of Jesus in Luke's Gospel (as in the other gospels) shows the same freedom in giving the substance exact reproduction of the words that is found in Acts. Again, it seems clear that some, if not all, the reports in Acts are condensed, mere outlines in the case of some of Peter's addresses. The ancients knew how to make shorthand reports of such addresses. The oral tradition was probably active in preserving the early speeches of Peter and even of Stephen, though Paul himself heard Stephen. The speeches...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/a/acts-of...

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, 13 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

XIII. Analysis. 1. The connection between the work of the apostles and that of Jesus (Acts 1:1-11). 2. The equipment of the early disciples for their task (Acts 1:12 through 2:47). (a) The disciples obeying Christ's parting command (Acts 1:12-44). (b) The place of Judas filled (Acts 1:15-26). (c) Miraculous manifestations of the presence of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:1-13). (d) Peter's interpretation of the situation (Acts 2:14-36). (e) The immediate effect of the sermon (Acts 2:37-41). (f) The new spirit in the Christian community (Acts 2:42- 47). 3. The development of the work in Jerusalem (Acts 3:1 through 8:1a). (a) An incident in the work of Peter and John with Peter's apologetic (Acts 3). (b) Opposition of the Sadducees aroused by the preaching of the resurrection of Jesus (Acts 4:1-31). (c) An internal difficulty, the problem of poverty (Acts 4:32 through 5:11). (d) Great progress of the cause in the city (Acts 5:12-16). (e) Renewed hostility of the Sadducees and Gamaliel's retort to the Pharisees (Acts 5:17-42). (f) A crisis in church life and the choice of the seven Hellenists (Acts 6:1-7). (g) Stephen's spiritual interpretation of Christianity stirs the antagonism of the Pharisees and leads to his violent death (Acts 6:8 through 8:1a). 4. The compulsory extension of the gospel to Judea, Samaria and the neighboring regions (Acts 8:1b-40). (a) The great persecution, with Saul as leader (Acts 8:1b- 4). (b) Philip's work as a notable example of the work of the scattered disciples (Acts 8:5-40). 5. The conversion of Saul changes the whole situation for Christianity (Acts 9:1-31). (a) Saul's mission to Damascus (Acts 9:1-3)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/a/acts-of...

Acts of the Apostles in Smiths Bible Dictionary

the fifth book in the New testament and the second treatise by the author of the third Gospel, traditionally known as Luke. The book commences with an inscription to one Theophilus, who was probably a man of birth and station. The readers were evidently intended to be the members of the Christian Church, whether Jews or Gentiles; for its contents are such as are of the utmost consequence to the whole Church. They are the fulfillment of the promise of the Father by the descent of the Holy Spirit, and the results of that outpouring by the dispersion of the gospel among the Jews and Gentiles. Under these leading heads all the personal and subordinate details may be arranged. First St. Peter becomes the prime actor under God int he founding of the Church. He is the centre of the first group of sayings and doings. The opening of the door to Jews, ch. 2, and Gentiles, ch. 10, is his office, and by him, in good time, is accomplished. Then the preparation of Saul of Tarsus for the work to be done, the progress, in his hand, of that work, his journeyings, preachings and perils, his stripes and imprisonments, his testifying in Jerusalem and being brought to testify in Rome, --these are the subjects of the latter half of the book, of which the great central figure is the apostle Paul. The history given in the Acts occupies about 33 years, and the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero. It seems most probable that the place of writing was Roma, and the time about two years from the date of St. Paul's arrival there, as related in Ac 28:30 This would give us fro the publication about 63 A.D.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/A/Acts+...

Acts of the Apostles in Easton's Bible Dictionary

the title now given to the fifth and last of the historical books of the New Testament. The author styles it a "treatise" (1:1). It was early called "The Acts," "The Gospel of the Holy Ghost," and "The Gospel of the Resurrection." It contains properly no account of any of the apostles except Peter and Paul. John is noticed only three times; and all that is recorded of James, the son of Zebedee, is his execution by Herod. It is properly therefore not the history of the "Acts of the Apostles," a title which was given to the book at a later date, but of "Acts of Apostles," or more correctly, of "Some Acts of Certain Apostles." As regards its authorship, it was certainly the work of Luke, the "beloved physician" (comp. Luke 1:1-4; Acts 1:1). This is the uniform tradition of antiquity, although the writer nowhere makes mention of himself by name. The style and idiom of the Gospel of Luke and of the Acts, and the usage of words and phrases common to both, strengthen this opinion. The writer first appears in the narrative in 16:11, and then disappears till Paul's return to Philippi two years afterwards, when he and Paul left that place together (20:6), and the two seem henceforth to have been constant companions to the end. He was certainly with Paul at Rome (28; Col. 4:14). Thus he wrote a great portion of that history from personal observation. For what lay beyond his own experience he had the instruction of Paul. If, as is very probable, 2 Tim. was written during Paul's second imprisonment at Rome, Luke was with him then as his faithful companion to the last (2 Tim. 4:11). Of his subsequent history we have no certain information. The design of Luke's Gospel was to give an exhibition of the character and work of Christ as seen in his history till he was taken up from his disciples into heaven; and of the Acts, as its sequel, to give an illustration of the power and working of the gospel when preached among all nations...

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/A/Acts...

Epistle to the Colossians in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

EPISTLE TO THE COLOSSIANS: written by Paul during his first captivity at Rome (Acts 28:16), in that part of it when as yet it had not become so severe as it did when the epistle to the Philippians (Philemon 1:20-21; Philemon 1:30) was written (probably after the death of Burrhus, A.D. 62, to whom Tigellinus succeeded as praetorian prefect). Its genuineness is attested by Justin Martyr (contra Tryphon, p. 311 b.), Theophilus of Antioch (Autol., 2:10), Irenaeus (3:14, section 1), Clement of Alexandria (Stromata, 1:325), Tertullian (Praescr. Haeret., 7), Origen (c. Celsus, 5:8). Object: to counteract the Jewish false teaching there, of which Paul had heard from Epaphras (Colossians 4:12), by setting before them their standing in CHRIST ALONE, exclusive of angels. the majesty of His person (Colossians 1:15), and the completeness of redemption by Him. Hence, they ought to be conformed to their risen Lord (Colossians 3:1-5), and exhibit that conformity in all relations of life. The false teaching opposed in this epistle (Colossians 2:16; Colossians 2:18, "new moon ... sabbath days") is that of Judaizing Christians, mixed up with eastern theosophy, angel worship, and the asceticism of the Essenes (Colossians 2:8-9; Colossians 2:16-23). The theosophists professed a deeper insight into the world of spirits and a greater subjugation of the flesh than the simple gospel affords. Some Alexandrian Jews may have visited Colosse and taught Philo's Greek philosophy, combined with the rabbinical angelology and mysticism, afterward embodied in the Cabbala. Alexander the Great had garrisoned Phrygia with Babylonian Jews. The Phrygians' original tendency had been to a mystic worship, namely, that of Cybele; so, when Christianized, they readily gave heed to the incipient gnosticism of Judaizers. Later, when the pastoral epistles were written, the evil had reached a more deadly phase, openly immoral teachings (1 Timothy 4:1-3; 1 Timothy 6:5). The place of writing was Rome. The three epistles, Ephesians, Colossians, and Philemon, were sent at the same time. The epistle to Colossians, though carried by the same bearer, Tychicus, who bore that to the Ephesians, was written earlier, for the similar phrases in Ephesians appear more expanded than those in Colossians. The "ye also" (as well as the Colossians) may imply the same fact (Ephesians 6:21). The similarity between the three epistles written about the same date to two neighboring cities (whereas those written at distant dates and under different circumstances have little mutual resemblance) is an undesigned coincidence and proof of genuineness. Compare Ephesians 1:7 with Colossians 1:14; Ephesians 1:10 with Colossians 1:20; Ephesians 3:2 with Colossians 1:25; Ephesians 5:19 with Colossians 3:16; Ephesians 6:22 with Colossians 4:8; Ephesians 1:19; Ephesians 2:5 with Colossians 2:12-13; Ephesians 4:2-4 with Colossians 3:12-15; Ephesians 4:16 with Colossians 2:19; Ephesians 4:32 with Colossians 3:13; Ephesians 4:22-24 with Colossians 3:9-10; Ephesians 5:6-8 with Colossians 3:6-8; Ephesians 5:15-16 with Colossians 4:5; Ephesians 6:19-20 with Colossians 4:3-4; Ephesians 5:22-23; Ephesians 6:1-9 with Colossians 3:18; Ephesians 4:24-25 with Colossians 3:9; Ephesians 5:20-22 with Colossians 3:17-18. Onesimus traveled with Tychicus, bearing the letter to Philemon. The persons sending salutations are the same as in epistle to Philemon, except Jesus Justus (Colossians 4:11). Archippus is addressed in both. Paul and Timothy head both. Paul appears in both a prisoner. The style has a lofty elaboration corresponding to the theme, Christ's majestic person and office, in contrast to the Judaizers' beggarly system. In the epistle to the Ephesians, which did not require to be so controversial, he dilates on these truths so congenial to him, with a fuller outpouring of spirit and less antithetical phraseology.

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/C/Col...

Book of Daniel in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. Name. The Book of Daniel is rightly so called, whether we consider Daniel as the author of it, or as the principal person mentioned in it. II. Place in the Canon. In the English Bible, Daniel is placed among the Major Prophets, immediately after Ezk, thus following the order of the Septuagint and of the Latin Vulgate (Jerome's Bible, 390-405 A.D.) In the Hebrew Bible, however, it is placed in the third division of the Canon, called the Kethuvim or writings, by the Hebrews, and the hagiographa, or holy writings, by the Seventy. It has been claimed, that Daniel was placed by the Jews in the third part of the Canon, either because they thought the inspiration of its author to be of a lower kind than was that of the other prophets, or because the book was written after the second or prophetical part of the Canon had been closed. It is more probable, that the book was placed in this part of the Hebrew Canon, because Daniel is not called a nabhi' ("prophet"), but was rather a chozeh ("seer") and a chakham ("wise man"). None but the works of the nebhi'im were put in the second part of the Jewish Canon, the third being reserved for the heterogeneous works of seers, wise men, and priests, or for those that do not mention the name or work of a prophet, or that are poetical in form. A confusion has arisen, because the Greek word prophet is used to render the two Hebrew words nabhi' and chozeh. In the Scriptures, God is said to speak to the former, whereas the latter see visions and dream dreams. Some have attempted to explain the position of Daniel by assuming that he had the prophetic gift without holding the prophetic office. It must be kept in mind that all reasons given to account for the order and place of many of the books in the Canon are purely conjectural, since we have no historical evidence bearing upon the subject earlier than the time of Jesus ben Sirach, who wrote probably about 180 BC. III. Divisions of the Book. According to its subject-matter, the book falls naturally into two great divisions, each consisting of six chapters, the first portion containing the historical sections, and the second the apocalyptic, or predictive, portions; though the former is not devoid of predictions, nor the latter of historical statements. More specifically, the first chapter is introductory to the whole book; Dan 2 through 6 describe some...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/d/daniel-...

The Book of Daniel in Smiths Bible Dictionary

stands at the head of a series of writings in which the deepest thoughts of the Jewish people found expression after their close of the prophetic era. Daniel is composed partly in the vernacular Aramaic (Chaldee) and partly in the sacred Hebrew. The introduction, Dan. 1-2:4 a, is written in Hebrew. On the occasion of the "Syriac" (i.e. Aramaic) answer of the Chaldeans, the language changes to Aramaic, and this is retained till the close of the seventh chapter (2:4 b-7). The personal introduction of Daniel as the writer of the text, 8:1, is marked by the resumption of the Hebrew, which continues to the close of the book. ch. 8-12. The book may be divided into three parts. The first chapter forms an introduction. The next six chapters, 2-7, give a general view of the progressive history of the powers of the world, and of the principles of the divine government as seen in the events of the life of Daniel. The remainder of the book, chs. 8-12, traces in minuter detail the fortunes of the people of God, as typical of the fortunes of the Church in all ages. In the first seven chapters Daniel is spoken of historically; int he last five he appears personally as the writer. The cause of the difference of person is commonly supposed to lie int he nature of the case. It is, however, more probable that the peculiarity arose from the manner in which the book assumed its final shape. The book exercised a great influence upon the Christian Church. The New Testament incidentally acknowledges each of the characteristic elements of the book, its miracles, Heb 11:33,34 its predictions, Mt 24:15 and its doctrine of angels. Lu 1:19,26 The authenticity of the book has been attacked in modern times. (But the evidence, both external and internal, is conclusive as to its genuineness. Rawlinson, in his "Historical Evidences," shows how some historical difficulties that had been brought against the book are solved by the inscription on a cylinder lately found among the ruins of Ur in Chaldea. --ED.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/D/Danie...

Book of Daniel in Easton's Bible Dictionary

is ranked by the Jews in that division of their Bible called the Hagiographa (Heb. Khethubim). (See BIBLE -T0000580.) It consists of two distinct parts. The first part, consisting of the first six chapters, is chiefly historical; and the second part, consisting of the remaining six chapters, is chiefly prophetical. The historical part of the book treats of the period of the Captivity. Daniel is "the historian of the Captivity, the writer who alone furnishes any series of events for that dark and dismal period during which the harp of Israel hung on the trees that grew by the Euphrates. His narrative may be said in general to intervene between Kings and Chronicles on the one hand and Ezra on the other, or (more strictly) to fill out the sketch which the author of the Chronicles gives in a single verse in his last chapter: 'And them that had escaped from the sword carried he [i.e., Nebuchadnezzar] away to Babylon; where they were servants to him and his sons until the reign of the kingdom of Persia'" (2 Chr. 36:20). The prophetical part consists of three visions and one lengthened prophetical communication. The genuineness of this book has been much disputed, but the arguments in its favour fully establish its claims. (1.) We have the testimony of Christ (Matt. 24:15; 25:31; 26:64) and his apostles (1 Cor. 6:2; 2 Thess. 2:3) for its authority; and (2) the important testimony of Ezekiel (14:14, 20; 28:3). (3.) The character and records of the book are also entirely in harmony with the times and circumstances in which the author lived. (4.) The linguistic character of the book is, moreover, just such as might be expected. Certain portions (Dan. 2:4; 7) are written in the Chaldee language; and the portions written in Hebrew are in a style and form having a close affinity with the later books of the Old Testament, especially with that of Ezra. The writer is familiar both with the Hebrew and the Chaldee, passing from the one to the other just as his subject required. This is in strict accordance with the position of the author and of the people for whom his book was written. That Daniel is the writer of this book is also testified to in the book itself (7:1, 28; 8:2; 9:2; 10:1, 2; 12:4, 5). (See BELSHAZZAR -T0000519.)

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/D/Dani...

The Book of Daniel in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

AUTHENTICITY. That Daniel composed it is testified by Daniel 7:1-28; Daniel 8:2; Daniel 9:2; Daniel 10:1-2; Daniel 12:4- 5. In the first six chapters, which are historical, he does not mention himself in the first person, for in these the events, not the person, are prominent (compare Isaiah 7:3; Isaiah 20:2). In the last six, which are prophetical, wherein his divine commission needed to be shown, he comes forward personally as the writer. Being a "seer," having the gift and spirit, not the theocratical office and work, of a prophet, his book stands in the third rank in the Hebrew canon, namely, in the Hagiographa (Kethubim) between Esther and Ezra, the three relating to the captivity. Its position there, not among the prophets as one would expect, shows it was not an interpolation of later times, but deliberately placed where it is by Ezra and the establishers of the Jewish canon. Daniel was "the politician, chronologer, and historian among the prophets" (Bengel). Similarly, the Psalms, though largely prophetic, are ranked with the Hagiographa, not the prophets. He does not, as they writing amidst the covenant people do, make God's people the foreground; but writing in a pagan court he makes the world kingdoms the foreground, behind which he places the kingdom of God, destined ultimately to be all in all. His book written amidst pagan isolation is the Old Testament Apocalypse, as the Revelation of John written in the lonely Patmos is the New Testament Apocalypse; the two respectively stand apart, his from the prophets, John's from the epistles. Porphyry in the third century A.D. assailed the Book of Daniel as a forgery in the time of the Maccabees, 170-164 B.C. But the forgery of a prophecy, if Daniel were spurious, would never have been received by the Jews from an age when confessedly there were no prophets. Antiochus Epiphanes' history and attack on the holy people are so accurately detailed (Daniel 11) that Porphyry thought they must have been written after the event. But Zechariah, Ezra, and Nehemiah allude to it; Jesus in His peculiar...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/D/Dan...

Deuteronomy in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE 1. Name: In Hebrew 'elleh ha-debharim, "these are the words"; in Greek, Deuteronomion, "second law"; whence the Latin deuteronomii, and the English Deuteronomy. The Greek title is due to a mistranslation by the Septuagint of the clause in Dt 17:18 rendered, "and he shall write for himself this repetition of the law." The Hebrew really means "and he shall write out for himself a copy of this law." However, the error on which the English title rests is not serious, as Deuteronomy is in a very true sense a repetition of the law. 2. What Deuteronomy Is: Deuteronomy is the last of the five books of the Pentateuch, or "five-fifths of the Law." It possesses an individuality and impressiveness of its own. In Exodus--Numbers Yahweh is represented as speaking unto Moses, whereas in Deuteronomy, Moses is represented as speaking at Yahweh's command to Israel (1:1-4; 5:1; 29:1). It is a hortatory recapitulation of various addresses delivered at various times and places in the desert wanderings--a sort of homily on the constitution, the essence or gist of Moses' instructions to Israel during the forty years of their desert experience. It is "a Book of Reviews"; a translation of Israel's redemptive history into living principles; not so much a history as a commentary. There is much of retrospect in it, but its main outlook is forward. The rabbins speak of it as "the Book of Reproofs." It is the text of all prophecy; a manual of evangelical oratory; possessing "all the warmth of a Bernard, the flaming zeal of a Savonarola, and the tender, gracious sympathy of a Francis of Assisi." The author's interest is entirely moral. His one supreme purpose is to arouse Israel's loyalty to Yahweh and to His revealed law. Taken as a whole the book is an exposition of the great commandment, "Thou shalt love Yahweh thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." It was from Deuteronomy that Jesus summarized the whole of the Old Covenant in a single sentence (Mt 22:37; compare Dt 6:5), and from it He drew His weapons with which to vanquish the tempter (Mt 4:4,7,10; compare Dt 8:3; 6:16,13)...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/D/DEUTERO...

Deuteronomy in Smiths Bible Dictionary

--which means "the repetition of the law" --consists chiefly of three discourses delivered by Moses shortly before his death. Subjoined to these discourses are the Song of Moses the Blessing of Moses, and the story of his death. 1. The first discourse. De 1:1 ... 4:40 After a brief historical introduction the speaker recapitulates the chief events of the last forty years in the wilderness. To this discourse is appended a brief notice of the severing of the three cities of refuge on the east side of the Jordan. De 4:41-43 2. The second discourse is introduced like the first by an explanation of the circumstances under which it was delivered. De 4:44-49 It extends from chap. De 5:1-26 19 and contains a recapitulation, with some modifications and additions of the law already given on Mount Sinai. 3. In the third discourse, De 27:1-30 20 the elders of Israel are associated with Moses. The people are commanded to set up stones upon Mount Ebal, and on them to write "all the words of this law." Then follow the several curses to be pronounced by the Levites on Ebal, De 27:14-26 and the blessings on Gerizim. De 28:1-14 4. The delivery of the law as written by Moses (for its still further preservation) to the custody of the Levites, and a charge to the people to hear it read once every seven years, Deut. 31; the Song of Moses spoken in the ears of the people, De 31:30 ... 32:44 and the blessing of the twelve tribes. De 33:5 The book closes, Deut 34, with an account of the death of Moses, which is first announced to him ch. De 32:48-52 The book bears witness to its own authorship, De 31:19 and is expressly cited in the New Testament as the work of Moses. Mt 19:7,8; Mr 10:3; Ac 3:22; 7:37 The last chapter, containing an account of the death of Moses, was of course added by a later hand, and probably formed originally the beginning of the book of Joshua. [PENTATEUCH]

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/D/Deute...

Deuteronomy in Easton's Bible Dictionary

In all the Hebrew manuscripts the Pentateuch (q.v.) forms one roll or volume divided into larger and smaller sections called _parshioth_ and _sedarim_. It is not easy to say when it was divided into five books. This was probably first done by the Greek translators of the book, whom the Vulgate follows. The fifth of these books was called by the Greeks Deuteronomion, i.e., the second law, hence our name Deuteronomy, or a second statement of the laws already promulgated. The Jews designated the book by the two first Hebrew words that occur, _'Elle haddabharim_, i.e., "These are the words." They divided it into eleven _parshioth_. In the English Bible it contains thirty-four chapters. It consists chiefly of three discourses delivered by Moses a short time before his death. They were spoken to all Israel in the plains of Moab, in the eleventh month of the last year of their wanderings. The first discourse (1-4:40) recapitulates the chief events of the last forty years in the wilderness, with earnest exhortations to obedience to the divine ordinances, and warnings against the danger of forsaking the God of their fathers. The seond discourse (5-26:19) is in effect the body of the whole book. The first address is introductory to it. It contains practically a recapitulation of the law already given by God at Mount Sinai, together with many admonitions and injunctions as to the course of conduct they were to follow when they were settled in Canaan. The concluding discourse (ch. 27-30) relates almost wholly to the solemn sanctions of the law, the blessings to the obedient, and the curse that would fall on the rebellious. He solemnly adjures them to adhere faithfully to the covenant God had made with them, and so secure for themselves and their posterity the promised blessings. These addresses to the people are followed by what may be called three appendices, namely (1), a song which God had commanded Moses to write (32:1-47); (2) the blessings he pronounced on the separate tribes (ch. 33); and (3) the story of his death (32:48-52) and burial (ch. 34), written by some other hand, probably that of Joshua...

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/D/Deut...

The Book of Deuteronomy in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

("repetition of the law".) Containing Moses' three last discourses before his death, addressed to all Israel in the Moabite plains E. of Jordan, in the eleventh month of the last year of their wanderings, the fortieth after their departure from Egypt; with the solemn appointment of his successor Joshua, Moses' song, blessing, and the account of his death subjoined by Joshua or some prophet (Deuteronomy 1:1 - 4:40; Deuteronomy 5:1 - 26:19; Deuteronomy 27:1 - 29:29). The first is introductory, reminding Israel of God's protection and of their ungrateful rebellion, punished by the long wandering; and warning them henceforth to obey and not lose the blessing. The second discourse begins with the Ten Commandments, the basis of the law, and develops and applies the first table; next declares special statutes as to: (1) religion, (2) administration of justice and public officers, (3) private and social duties. The third discourse renews the covenant, reciting the blessings and curses. The discourses must have been all spoken in the eleventh month; for on the tenth day of the 41st year Jordan was crossed (Joshua 4:19). Joshua 1:11; Joshua 2:22, three days previous were spent in preparations and waiting for the spies; so the encampment at Shittim was on the seventh day (Joshua 2:1). Thirty days before were spent in mourning for Moses (Deuteronomy 34:8); so that Moses' death would be on the seventh day of the twelfth month, and Moses began his address the first day of the eleventh month, fortieth year (Deuteronomy 1:3). Hence, the discourses, being delivered about the same time, exhibit marked unity of style, inconsistent with their being composed at distant intervals. The style throughout is hortatory, rhetorical, and impressive. A different generation had sprung up from that to which the law at Sinai had been addressed. Parts of it had been unavoidably in abeyance in the wilderness. Circumcision itself had been omitted (Joshua 5:2). Now when Israel was to enter Canaan, their permanent abode, they needed to be reminded of much of the law which they but partially knew or applied, and to have under divine sanction, besides the religious ordinances of the previous books, supplementary enactments, civil and political, for their settled organization. Thus, Deuteronomy is not a mere summary recapitulation, for large parts of the previous code are unnoticed, but Moses' inspired elucidation of the spirit and end of the law. In it he appears as "the prophet," as in the previous books he was the historian and legislator. Two passages especially exhibit him in this character...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/D/Deu...

The Ecclesiastes in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE 1. Structure of the Book: Reading this book one soon becomes aware that it is a discussion of certain difficult problems of human life. It begins with a title Eccl (1:1), followed by a preface (1:2- 11). It has a formal conclusion (12:8-13). Between the preface and the conclusion the body of the book is made up of materials of two kinds--first a series of "I" sections, sections uttered in the 1st person singular, a record of a personal experience; and second, an alternating series of gnomic sections, sections made up of proverbs (say 4:5,6,9- 12; 5:1-12; 7:1-14,16-22; 8:1-8; 9:7-10; 10:1-4; 10:8 through 12:7). These may be called the "thou" sections, as most of them have the pronoun of the 2nd person singular. The idea of the vanity of all things characterizes the record of experience, but it also appears in the "thou" sections (e.g. 9:9). On the other hand the proverb element is not wholly lacking in the "I" sections (e.g. 4:1-3). 2. The Contents: In the preface the speaker lays down the proposition that all things are unreal, and that the results of human effort are illusive Eccl (1:2,3). Human generations, day and night, the wind, the streams, are alike the repetition of an unending round (1:4-7). The same holds in regard to all human study and thinking (1:8-11). The speaker shows familiarity with the phenomena which we think of as those of natural law, of the persistence of force, but he thinks of them in the main as monotonously limiting human experience. Nothing is new. All effort of Nature or of man is the doing again of something which has already been done. After the preface the speaker introduces himself, and recounts his experiences. At the outset he had a noble ambition for wisdom and discipline, but all he attained to was unreality and perplexity of mind (Eccl 1:12-18). This is equally the meaning of the text, whether we translate "vanity and vexation of spirit" or "vanity and a striving after wind," ("emptiness, and struggling for breath"), though the first of these two translations is the better grounded. Finding no adequate satisfaction in the pursuits of the scholar and thinker, taken by themselves, he seeks to combine these with the pursuit of agreeable sensations-- alike those which come from luxury and those which come from activity and enterprise and achievement Eccl (2:1-12). No one could be in better shape than he for making this experiment, but again he only attains to unreality and perplexity of spirit. He says to himself that at least it is in itself profitable to be a wise man rather than a fool, but his comfort is impaired by the fact that both alike are mortal (2:13-17). He finds little reassurance in the idea of laboring for the benefit of posterity; posterity is often not worthy (2:18-21). One may toil unremittingly, but what is the use (2:22,23)?...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/e/ecclesi...

Ecclesiastes in Smiths Bible Dictionary

(the preacher). The title of this book is in Hebrew Koheleth, signifying one who speaks publicly in an assembly. Koheleth is the name by which Solomon, probably the author, speaks of himself throughout the book. The book is that which it professes to be, --the confession of a man of wide experience looking back upon his past life and looking out upon the disorders and calamities which surround him. The writer is a man who has sinned in giving way to selfishness and sensuality, who has paid the penalty of that sin in satiety and weariness of life, but who has through all this been under the discipline of a divine education, and has learned from it the lesson which God meant to teach him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/E/Eccle...

Ecclesiastes in Easton's Bible Dictionary

the Greek rendering of the Hebrew _Koheleth_, which means "Preacher." The old and traditional view of the authorship of this book attributes it to Solomon. This view can be satisfactorily maintained, though others date it from the Captivity. The writer represents himself implicitly as Solomon (1:12). It has been appropriately styled The Confession of King Solomon. "The writer is a man who has sinned in giving way to selfishness and sensuality, who has paid the penalty of that sin in satiety and weariness of life, but who has through all this been under the discipline of a divine education, and has learned from it the lesson which God meant to teach him." "The writer concludes by pointing out that the secret of a true life is that a man should consecrate the vigour of his youth to God." The key-note of the book is sounded in ch. 1:2, "Vanity of vanities! saith the Preacher, Vanity of vanities! all is vanity!" i.e., all man's efforts to find happiness apart from God are without result.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/E/Eccl...

The Book of Ecclesiastes in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The speaker so entitles himself, Hebrew: Qoheleth, Greek Ecclesiastes, "the convener of, and preacher to, assemblies," namely, church assemblies. The feminine form, and its construction once with a feminine verb (Ecclesiastes 7:27), show that divine Wisdom herself speaks through the inspired king Solomon. God had especially endowed him with this wisdom (1 Kings 3:5-14; 1 Kings 6:11-12; 1 Kings 9:1, etc.; 1 Kings 11:9-11). "The preacher taught the people (and inquirers) knowledge" in a divan assembled for the purpose (1 Kings 4:34; 1 Kings 10:2; 1 Kings 10:8; 1 Kings 10:24; 2 Chronicles 9:1; 2 Chronicles 9:7; 2 Chronicles 9:23). "Spake," thrice in 1 Kings 4:32-33, refers not to written compositions, but to addresses spoken in assemblies. Solomon's authorship is supported by Ecclesiastes 1:12; Ecclesiastes 1:16; Ecclesiastes 2:1-15; Ecclesiastes 12:9. But in the book are found words: (1) rarely employed in the earlier, frequently in the later books of Scripture. (2) Words never found in Hebrew writings until the Babylonian captivity; as zimaan, "set time," for moed; Ecclesiastes 3:1, namely, in Nehemiah 2:6; Esther 9:27; Esther 9:31. So pithgam, "sentence" (Ecclesiastes 8:11); "thought," madang; 'illuw "though" (Ecclesiastes 6:6); bikeen, "so" (Ecclesiastes 8:10): thus, Esther approximates most to Ecclesiastes in idioms. (3) Words not found in the late Hebrew, but only in the Aramaic sections of Daniel and Ezra: yithron, "profit "; compare yuthran in the Aramaic targums; kibaar, "already," "long ago"; taaqam, "make straight" (Ecclesiastes 1:15; Ecclesiastes 7:13; Daniel 4:33) (Daniel 4:36 "established"); ruwth, "desire," found also in the Aramaic parts of Ezra. (4) The grammatical constructions agree with the transition period from Hebrew to Aramaic; frequent participles, the uses of the relative, Vav ( ? ) or waw- conversive rare. Probably, since the book...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/E/Ecc...

Epistle to the Ephesians in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

LITERATURE I. Authenticity. 1. External Evidence: None of the epistles which are ascribed to Paul have a stronger chain of evidence to their early and continued use than that which we know as the Epistle to the Ephesians. Leaving for the moment the question of the relation of Eph to other New Testament writings, we find that it not only colors the phraseology of the Apostolic Fathers, but is actually quoted. In Clement of Rome (circa 95 AD) the connection with Ephesians might be due to some common liturgical form in xlvi.6 (compare Eph 4:6); though the resemblance is so close that we must feel that our epistle was known to Clement both here and in lxiv (compare Eph 1:3- 4); xxxviii (compare Eph 5:21); xxxvi (compare Eph 4:18); lix (compare Eph 1:18; 4:18). Ignatius (died 115) shows numerous points of contact with Ephesians, especially in his Epistle to the Ephesians. In chap. xii we read: "Ye are associates and fellow students of the mysteries with Paul, who in every letter makes mention of you in Christ Jesus." It is difficult to decide the exact meaning of the phrase "every letter," but in spite of the opinion of many scholars that it must be rendered "in all his epistle," i.e. in every part of his epistle, it is safer to take it as an exaggeration, "in all his epistles," justified to some extent in the fact that besides Ephesians, Paul does mention the Ephesian Christians in Rom (16:5); 1 Cor (15:32; 16:8,19); 2 Cor (1:8 f); 1 Tim (1:3) and 2 Tim (1:18). In the opening address the connection with Eph 1:3-6 is too close to be accidental. There are echoes of our epistle in chap. i (Eph 6:1); ix (Eph 2:20-22); xviii (oikonomia, Eph 1:10); xx (Eph 2:18; 4:24); and in Ignat. ad Polyc. v we have close identity with Eph 5:25 and less certain connection with Eph 4:2, and in vi with Eph 6:13-17. The Epistle of Polycarp in two passages shows verbal agreement with Eph: in chap. i with Eph 1:8, and in xii with Eph 4:26, where we have (the Greek is missing here) ut his scripturis dictum est. Hermas speaks of the grief of the Holy Spirit in such a way as to suggest Ephesians (Mand. X, ii; compare Eph 4:30). Sim. IX, xiii, shows a knowledge of Eph 4:3-6, and possibly of 5:26 and 1:13. In the Didache (4) we find a parallel to Eph 6:5: "Servants submit yourselves to your masters." In Barnabas there are two or three turns of phrase that are possibly due to Ephesians. There is a slightly stronger connection between II Clement and Ephesians, especially in chap. xiv, where we have the Ephesian figure of the church as the body of Christ, and the relation between them referred to in terms of husband and wife...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/e/ephesia...

The Epistle to the Ephesians in Smiths Bible Dictionary

was written by the apostle St. Paul during his first captivity at Rome, Ac 28:16 apparently immediately after he had written the Epistle to the Colossians [COLOSSIANS, EPISTLE TO], and during that period (perhaps the early part of A.D. 62) when his imprisonment had not assumed the severer character which seems to have marked its close. This epistle was addressed to the Christian church at Ephesus. [EPHESUS] Its contents may be divided into two portions, the first mainly doctrinal, ch. 1- 3, the second hortatory and practical.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/E/Ephes...

Epistle to Ephesians in Easton's Bible Dictionary

was written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the Colossians, which in many points it resembles. Contents of. The Epistle to the Colossians is mainly polemical, designed to refute certain theosophic errors that had crept into the church there. That to the Ephesians does not seem to have originated in any special circumstances, but is simply a letter springing from Paul's love to the church there, and indicative of his earnest desire that they should be fully instructed in the profound doctrines of the gospel. It contains (1) the salutation (1:1, 2); (2) a general description of the blessings the gospel reveals, as to their source, means by which they are attained, purpose for which they are bestowed, and their final result, with a fervent prayer for the further spiritual enrichment of the Ephesians (1:3-2:10); (3) "a record of that marked change in spiritual position which the Gentile believers now possessed, ending with an account of the writer's selection to and qualification for the apostolate of heathendom, a fact so considered as to keep them from being dispirited, and to lead him to pray for enlarged spiritual benefactions on his absent sympathizers" (2:12-3:21); (4) a chapter on unity as undisturbed by diversity of gifts (4:1-16); (5) special injunctions bearing on ordinary life (4:17-6:10); (6) the imagery of a spiritual warfare, mission of Tychicus, and valedictory blessing (6:11-24). Planting of the church at Ephesus. Paul's first and hurried visit for the space of three months to Ephesus is recorded in Acts 18:19-21. The work he began on this occasion was carried forward by Apollos (24-26) and Aquila and Priscilla. On his second visit, early in the following year, he remained at Ephesus "three years," for he found it was the key to the western provinces of Asia Minor. Here "a great door and effectual" was opened to him (1 Cor. 16:9), and the church was established and strengthened by his assiduous labours there (Acts 20:20, 31). From Ephesus as a centre the gospel spread abroad "almost throughout all Asia" (19:26). The word "mightily grew and prevailed" despite all the opposition and persecution he encountered...

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/E/Ephe...

The Epistle to the Ephesians in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

By Paul, as Ephesians 1:1; Ephesians 3:1 prove. So Irenaeus, Haer. 5:2-3; 1:8, 5; Clemens Alex., Strom. 4:65, Paed. 1:8; Origen, Celsus 4:211. Quoted by Valentinus A.D. 120, Ephesians 3:14-18, as we know from Hippolytus, Refut. Haeres., p. 193. Polycarp, Epistle to Phil., 12, witnesses to its canonicity. So Tertullian, Adv. Marcion, 5:17, Ignatius, Ephesians 12, refers to Paul's affectionate mention of the Christian privileges of the Ephesians in his epistle. Paul, in Colossians 4:16, charges the Colossians to read his epistle to the Laodiceans, and to cause his epistle to the Colossians to be read in the church of Laodicea, whereby he can hardly mean his Epistle to the Ephesians, for the resemblance between the two epistles, Ephesians and Colossians, would render such interchange of reading almost unnecessary. His greetings sent through the Colossians to the Laodiceans are incompatible with the idea that he wrote an epistle to the Laodiceans at the same time and by the same bearer, Tychicus (the bearer of both epistles, Ephesians and Colossians), for the apostle would then have sent the greetings directly in the letter to the party saluted, instead of indirectly in his letter to the Colossians. The epistle to Laodicea was evidently before that to Colosse. Ussher supposed that the Epistle to the Ephesians was an encyclical letter, headed as in manuscripts of Sinaiticus and Vaticanus, "To the saints that are ... and to the faithful," the name of each church being inserted in the copy sent to it; and that its being sent to Ephesus first occasioned its being entitled the Epistle to the Ephesians. But the words "at Ephesus" (Ephesians 1:1) occur in the very ancient Alexandrinus manuscript and the Vulgate version. The omission was subsequently made when read to other churches in order to generalize its character. Its internal spirit aims at one set of persons, coexisting in one place, as one body, and under the same circumstances. Moreover, there is no intimation, as in 2 Corinthians and Galatians, that it is encyclical and comprising all the churches of that region. After having spent so long time in Ephesus, Paul would hardly fail to write an epistle especially applying to the church there. For personal matters he refers the Ephesians to Tychicus its bearer (Ephesians 6:21-22); his engrossing theme being the interest...

Link: https://bible-history.com/faussets/E/Eph...

Book of Esther in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

1. The Canonicity of Esther 2. Its Authorship 3. Its Date 4. Its Contents 5. The Greek Additions 6. The Attacks upon the Book 7. Some of the Objections 8. Confirmations of the Book This book completes the historical books of the Old Testament. The conjunction "w" (waw = and), with which it begins, is significant. It shows that the book was designed for a place in a series, the waw linking it on to a book immediately preceding, and that the present arrangement of the Hebrew Bible differs widely from what must have been the original order. At present Esther follows Ecclesiastes, with which it has no connection whatever; and this tell-tale "and," like a body-mark on a lost child, proves that the book has been wrenched away from its original connection. There is no reason to doubt that the order in the Septuagint follows that of the Hebrew Bible of the 3rd or the 4th century BC, and this is the order of the Vulgate, of the English Bible, and other VSS: The initial waw is absent from Genesis, Deuteronomy, 1 Chronicles and Nehemiah. The historical books are consequently arranged, by the insertion and the omission of waw, into these four divisions: Genesis to Numbers; Deuteronomy to 2 Kings; 1 Chronicles to Ezra; Nehemiah and Esther. 1. The Canonicity of Esther: Of the canonicity of the book there is no question...

Link: https://bible-history.com/isbe/e/esther-...

Book of Esther in Smiths Bible Dictionary

one of the latest of the canonical books of Scripture, having been written late in the reign of Xerxes, or early in that of his son Artaxerxes Longimanus (B.C. 444, 434). The author is not known. The book of Esther is placed among the hagiographa by the Jews, and in that first portion of them which they call "the five rolls." It is written on a single roll, sin a dramatic style, and is read through by the Jews in their synagogues at the feast of Purim, when it is said that the names of Haman's sons are read rapidly all in one breath, to signify that they were all hanged at the same time; while at every mention of Haman the audience stamp and shout and hiss, and the children spring rattles. It has often been remarked as a peculiarity of this book that the name of God does not once occur in it. Schaff gives as the reason for this that it was to permit the reading of the book at the hilarious and noisy festival of Purim, without irreverence. The style of writing is remarkably chaste and simple. It does not in the least savor of romance. The Hebrew is very like that of Ezra and parts of the Chronicles; generally pure, but mixed with some words of Persian origin and some of the Chaldaic affinity. In short it is just what one would expect to find in a work of the age to which the book of Esther professes to belong.

Link: https://bible-history.com/smiths/E/Esthe...

Book of Esther in Easton's Bible Dictionary

The authorship of this book is unknown. It must have been obviously written after the death of Ahasuerus (the Xerxes of the Greeks), which took place B.C. 465. The minute and particular account also given of many historical details makes it probable that the writer was contemporary with Mordecai and Esther. Hence we may conclude that the book was written probably about B.C. 444-434, and that the author was one of the Jews of the dispersion. This book is more purely historical than any other book of Scripture; and it has this remarkable peculiarity that the name of God does not occur in it from first to last in any form. It has, however, been well observed that "though the name of God be not in it, his finger is." The book wonderfully exhibits the providential government of God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/eastons/E/Esth...

Esther in Fausset's Bible Dictionary

The Book of Esther describes in the same year, the 3rd, the lavish feasting during which Vashti was deposed, 488 B.C. In his 7th year the battles of Plataea and Mycale, according to secular history, drove Xerxes in fright from Sardis to Susa. So, in Scripture, it was not until the tenth month of this 7th year that Esther was made queen. The long delay between Vashti's deposal and Esther's accession is satisfactorily accounted for by the Greek expedition which intervened. On returning from it Xerxes tried to bury his disgrace in the pleasures of the seraglio (Herodotus vii. 35,114); as indeed he had begun it and, according to Herodotus, at intervals continued it with feastings. Possibly Vashti answers to the Amestris of secular history, who was queen consort from the beginning to the end of his reign, and was queen mother under his son and successor Artaxerxes. Esther cannot be Amestris, since the latter was daughter of a Persian noble, Otanes; if Vashti be Amestris, then her disgrace was only temporary. Or else Vashti and Esther were both only "secondary wives" with the title "queen." A young "secondary wife" might for a time eclipse the queen consort in the favor of the king; but the latter would ultimately maintain her due position. Esther's influence lasted at least from Ahasuerus: 7th to the 12th year and beyond, but how far beyond we know not (Esther 3:7; Esther 3:10). His marriage to a Jewess was in contravention of the law that he must marry a wife belonging to one of the seven great Persian families. But Xerxes herein, as previously in requiring the Queen Vashti to appear