People - Ancient Greece

Calamis (5th century BC)

Calamis (5th century BC) Calamis (fl. 5th century BC) was a sculptor of ancient Greece. He was possibly from Boeotia, but nothing certain is known of his life. He is known to have worked in marble, bronze, gold, and ivory, and was famed for statues of horses. According to Pausanias (9.16.1), Calamis produced a statue of Zeus Ammon for Pindar, and mentions a Hermes Criophorus for Tanagra (9.22.1), which was later depicted on Roman coins of the city. His statue of Apollo Alexikakos stood in the Ceramicus of Athens. He produced his most ambitious work, a 30-cubit statue of Apollo for Apollonius Pontica (on modern St. Ivan Island, Bulgaria; Pliny the Elder 34.29, Strabo 7.319). His Sosandra was praised by Lucian, and may have been copied for Aspasia, which in turn was copied by the Romans. Calamis (4th century BC) Calamis (fl. 4th century BC) was a Greek sculptor. One of his pupils was Praxias.

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Zenodotus in Wikipedia

Zenodotus (Ancient Greek: Ζηνόδοτος), was a Greek grammarian, literary critic, and Homeric scholar. A native of Ephesus and a pupil of Philitas of Cos, he was the first librarian of the Library of Alexandria. He lived during the reigns of the first two Ptolemies, and was at the height of his reputation about 280 BC. Zenodotus was the first superintendent of the Library of Alexandria and the first critical editor (διορθωτής diorthōtes) of Homer. His colleagues in the librarianship were Alexander of Aetolia and Lycophron of Chalcis, to whom were allotted the tragic and comic writers respectively, Homer and other epic poets being assigned to Zenodotus. Although he has been reproached with arbitrariness and an insufficient knowledge of Greek, his recension undoubtedly laid a sound foundation for future criticism. Having collated the different manuscripts in the library, he expunged or obelized doubtful verses, transposed or altered lines, and introduced new readings. It is probable that he was responsible for the division of the Homeric poems into twenty-four books each (using capital Greek letters for the Iliad, and lower-case for the Odyssey), and possibly was the author of the calculation of the days of the Iliad in the Tabula Iliaca. He does not appear to have written any regular commentary on Homer, but his Homeric γλῶσσαι (glōssai, "lists of unusual words, glosses") probably formed the source of the explanations of Homer attributed by the grammarians to Zenodotus. He also lectured upon Hesiod, Anacreon and Pindar, if he did not publish editions of them. He is further called an epic poet by the Suda, and three epigrams in the Greek Anthology are assigned to him. There appear to have been at least two other grammarians of the same name: 1. Zenodotus of Alexandria, surnamed ὁ ἐν ἄστει (ho en astei, "the one from the city", i.e. Alexandria) 2. Zenodotus of Mallus, the disciple of Crates, who like his master attacked Aristarchus of Samothrace

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Zenodŏtus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Ζηνόδοτος). A celebrated grammarian of Ephesus, superintendent of the great library at Alexandria, who flourished under Ptolemy Philadelphus, about B.C. 308. Zenodotus was employed by Philadelphus, together with his two contemporaries, Alexander the Aetolian and Lycophron the Chalcidian, to collect and revise all the Greek poets. Alexander, we are told, undertook the task of collecting the tragedies, Lycophron the comedies, and Zenodotus the poems of Homer and of the other illustrious poets. Zenodotus, however, devoted his chief attention to the Iliad and Odyssey. Hence he is called the first reviser (διορθωτής) of Homer, and his recension (διόρθωσις) of the Iliad and Odyssey obtained the greatest celebrity. The corrections which Zenodotus applied to the text of Homer were of three kinds: 1. He expunged verses; 2. he marked some as spurious, but left them in his copy; 3. he introduced new readings and transposed or altered verses. The great attention which Zenodotus paid to the language of Homer caused a new epoch in the grammatical study of the Greek language. The results of his investigations respecting the meaning and the use of words were contained in two works which he published under the title of a glossary (Γλῶσσαι), and a dictionary of barbarous or foreign phrases. See Düntzer, De Zenodoti Studiis Homericis (Göttingen, 1848); Römer, Ueber die Homerrecension des Zenod. (Munich, 1885); and the article Textual Criticism.

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Zeuxidamus in Wikipedia

Zeuxidamus (Ζευξίδαμος) can refer to two ancient Spartans. 1. A king of Sparta, and tenth of the Eurypontid dynasty. He was grandson of Theopompus, and father of Anaxidamus, who succeeded him. [1] 2. A son of Leotychides, king of Sparta. He was also named Cyniscus. He died before his father, leaving a son, Archidamus II[2]

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Zeuxis in Wikipedia

Zeuxis (Greek: Ζεῦξις) (of Heraclea) was a painter who flourished during the 5th century BC. Life and work Zeuxis was born in Heraclea around 464 BC and was presumably the pupil of Apollodorus. Zeuxis often thought himself misunderstood by his public and Aristotle did not like him at all. He is said to have laughed himself to death after painting a funny old woman (supposedly the woman had ordered a painting of Aphrodite and demanded that she be used as his model). He was known to have painted an assembly of gods, Eros crowned with roses, Alcmene, Menelaus, an athlete, Pan, Marsyas chained and an old woman. Zeuxis' most notable works included Helen, Zeus Enthroned, and The Infant Hercules Strangling the Serpents. The Helen is the subject of a myth that arose in the 4th century BC that Zeuxis could find no single model beautiful enough on which to base his image of the most beautiful woman in the world, and so selected the best features from five models to create a composite image of ideal beauty[1]. Archelaus I of Macedon employed Zeuxis to decorate the palace of his new capital Pella and the king himself was presented with a picture of Pan by Zeuxis[1]. Most of his works were taken to Rome and to Byzantium but disappeared during the time of Pausanias. None have survived to this day. Contest with Parrhasius Zeuxis and his contemporary Parrhasius (of Ephesus and later Athens) are reported in the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder to have staged a contest to determine which of the two was the greater artist. When Zeuxis unveiled his painting of grapes, they appeared so luscious and inviting that birds flew down from the sky to peck at them. Zeuxis then asked Parrhasius to pull aside the curtain from his painting, only for Parrhasius to reveal the curtain itself was a painting, and Zeuxis was forced to concede defeat. Zeuxis is rumoured to have said: 'I have deceived the birds, but Parrhasius has deceived Zeuxis.' In a 1964 seminar, the psychoanalyst and theorist Jacques Lacan observed that the myth of the two painters reveals an interesting aspect of human cognition. While animals are attracted to superficial appearances, humans are enticed by the idea of that which is hidden.

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Zeuxis in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Ζεῦξις). A celebrated Greek painter of the Ionic School, a contemporary of Parrhasius; he was a native of Heraclea in South Italy, and lived till about B.C. 400 at different places in Greece, at last, as it appears, settling in Ephesus. According to the accounts of his works which have been preserved, in contrast to the great mural painter, Polygnotus, he especially devoted himself to painting on panels. He endeavoured above all things to make his subjects attractive by investing them with the charm of novelty and grace. He also has the merit of having further improved the distribution of light and shade, introduced by his elder contemporaries. Especially celebrated was his picture of Helen, painted for the temple of Heré on the Lacinian promontory (De Invent. ii. 1, 1). He aimed at the highest degree of illusion. As is well known, he is said to have painted grapes so naturally that the birds flew to peck at them (Pliny , Pliny H. N. xxxv. 61-66). See Parrhasius; Pictura.

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Zoilus in Wikipedia

Zoilus or Zoilos (Greek: Ζωΐλος; c. 400 BC-320 BC) was a Greek grammarian, Cynic philosopher, and literary critic from Amphipolis in East Macedonia, then known as Thrace. Took the name Homeromastix (Ὁμηρομάστιξ "Homer whipper"; gen.: Ὁμηρομάστιγος) later in life. According to Vitruvius (vii., preface) he lived during the age of Ptolemy Philadelphus, by whom he was crucified as the punishment of his criticisms on the king; but this account should probably be rejected as a fiction based on Zoilus' reputation. Vitruvius goes on to state that Zoilus also may have been stoned at Chios or thrown alive upon a funeral pyre at Smyrna. Either way Vitruvius felt it was just as well since he deserved to be dead for slandering an author who could not defend himself. Zoilus appears to have been at one time a follower of Isocrates, but subsequently a pupil of Polycrates, whom he heard at Athens, where he was a teacher of rhetoric. Zoilus is especially notable for his role in the beginnings of Homeric scholarship. His monograph Homeric questions seems to have analysed continuity errors in Homer, but also criticised the impropriety of Homer's depiction of gods indulging in allegedly inappropriate behaviour. This monograph is widely regarded as the beginning of classical scholarship.[citation needed] Zoilus also wrote responses to works by Isocrates and Plato, who had attacked the style of Lysias of which he approved. However, the Homeric questions led to his name becoming a byword for harsh and malignant criticism: in antiquity he gained the name Homeromastix, "scourge of Homer"; in the modern period, Cervantes calls Zoilus a "slanderer" in the preface to Don Quixote and there is also a (now disused) proverb, "Every poet has his Zoilus." Since his writings do not survive, it is impossible to know whether this caricature is justified.

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Zoĭlus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Ζωΐλος). A grammarian, a native of Amphipolis, who flourished in the time of Philip of Macedon. He was celebrated for the asperity with which he assailed Homer (Ὁμηρομάστιξ), and his name became proverbial for a captious and malignant critic (V. H. xi. 10). See Spindler, De Zoïlo Homeromastige Qui Vocatur, 2 pts. (1888- 89).

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Zosimas of Palestine in Wikipedia

Venerable[1] Zosimas of Palestine, also called Zosima, is commemorated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches on April 4. Saint Zosimas was born in the second half of the fifth century, during the reign of Emperor Theodosius the Younger. He became a monk in a monastery in Palestine at a very young age, gaining a reputation as a great elder and ascetic. At the age of fifty-three, now a hieromonk, he moved to a very strict monastery located in the wilderness close to the Jordan River, where he spent the remainder of his life. He is best known for his encounter with St. Mary of Egypt (commemorated on April 1). It was the custom of that monastery for all of the brethren to go out into the desert for the forty days of Great Lent, spending the time in fasting and prayer, and not returning until Palm Sunday. While wandering in the desert he met Saint Mary, who told him her life story and asked him to meet her the next year on Holy Thursday on the banks of the Jordan, in order to bring her Holy Communion. He did so, and the third year came to her again in the desert, but he found that she had died and he buried her. St Zosimas is reputed to have lived to be almost one hundred years of age. All that we know of Zosimas' life comes from the Vita of St. Mary of Egypt,[2] recorded by St. Sophronius, who was the Patriarch of Jerusalem from 634 to 638. Sophronius based his work on oral tradition he had heard from Palestinian monks. This Vita is traditionally read as a part of the Matins of the Great Canon of St. Andrew of Crete, on the fifth Thursday of Great Lent.

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Zosimas of Palestine in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Ζώσιμος). A Greek historian who lived as a high officer of State at Constantinople in the second half of the fifth century A.D., and composed a work, distinguished for its intelligent and liberal views, on the fall of the Roman Empire. It is in six books: i. giving a sketch of the time from Augustus to Diocletian; ii.-iv. a fuller account of events down to the division of the Empire by Theodosius the Great; v. and vi. treat in greater detail of the period from 395 to 410; the conclusion of book vi. is probably wanting, as Zosimus had the intention of continuing the history up to his own time. He attributes the fall of the Empire in part to the overthrow of heathenism and the introduction of Christianity, with which, of course, he was not acquainted in its purest form, but only in the degenerate state into which it had sunk in some places in the fourth century. This history is edited by Bekker (1837) and by Mendelssohn (1887). See Martin, De Fontibus Zosimi (1866). A monograph on the various prodigies, oracles, etc., recorded by Zosimus was published by H. Piristi in 1893.

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Tolmides in Wikipedia

Tolmides, son of Tolmaeus, was a leading Athenian general of the First Peloponnesian War. He rivalled Pericles and Myronides for the military leadership of Athens during the 450's and early 440's BC.[1] In 455 BC Tolmides was given command of a fleet and a force of 4,000 soldiers in order to sail round the coasts of the Peloponnesus attacking the Spartans and their allies. Tolmides seized the city of Methone in Messenia but was then forced to abandon it due to the arrival of a Spartan force.[2] He attacked the chief Spartan port of Gytheion and burnt the dockyards.[3] He also attacked the island of Cythera. Tolmides made an alliance with Zacynthus, an island in the Ionian Sea,[4] and sailing into the Gulf of Corinth he took the Corinthian colony of Chalcis[5] on the northern coast of the gulf and then seized Naupactus in Ozolian Locris and settled refugees from Messenia there[6] who would act as Athenian allies in a strategic location. He also landed in the territory of Sicyon and defeated a force of hoplites sent against him.[7] Later Tolmides settled Athenian cleruchs in Euboea and at Naxos.[8] In 447 BC he marched into Boeotia with 1,000 Athenians and some allied troops to put down an uprising against Athenian rule. After garrisoning Chaeronea he encountered a force of Boeotian, Locrian and Euboean exiles at Coronea and the Athenians suffered a heavy defeat with Tolmides dying in the battle.[9] The Athenian defeat at the Battle of Coronea heralded the end of the ‘Athenian Land Empire’.

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Tryphiodorus in Wikipedia

Tryphiodorus (correctly but less commonly Triphiodorus), fl. 3rd or 4th century, was an epic poet native to Egypt. His only surviving work is The Taking of Ilios, in 691 verses. Other recorded titles include Marathoniaca and The Story of Hippodamea. His style is partway between that of Nonnus and Quintus Smyrnaeus. Life There is little known about the life of Tryphiodorus other than the notice of him in the Greek lexicon or encyclopedia the Suidas. There are no records of Tryphiodorus' grammatical labours, he is only known as a versifier.[1] The Suidas indicates the he was from Egypt. The Suidas explains that Tryphiodorus is of Egypt and that he was a grammarian and epic poet. It is believed that Tryphiodorus was a Christian based on a phrase on verse 604 of his famous poem The Taking of Ilios.[2] It is thought that Tryphiodorus got his name from the Egyptian goddess Triphis or Thriphis.[2] It has been argued that the correct spelling of his name is Triphiodorus, although on his works the name appears as Tryphiodorus. Although it is not known it is believed that Tryphiodorus lived to around the middle of the 5th century and the reason for this was because he imitated Nonnus who died around the end of the 4th century and was believed to be imitated by Colluthus.[2] Despite the copy of his poem The Taking of Ilios and the knowledge of other works that he has been thought to have written; these other works have been lost and there is no other information about Tryphiodorus' life or background. Writings The Taking of Ilios The Taking of Ilios is easily what Tryphiodorus is known for because all of his other works have not lasted the test of time. Despite the similarities The Taking of Ilios is an independent poem and not like Quintus Smyrnaeus' continuation of the Iliad.[1] The Taking of Ilios is an epic poem that is 691 verses long, that details the capturing of troy. The poem begins with the events after the death of Hector and Tryphiodorus begins with the description of the building of the wooden horse. Tryphiodorus lists the heroes that entered the horse. Tryphiodorus focuses on individuals involved in the historic event. Tryphiodorus explains in detail the events inside the wooden horse between Anticlus and Ulysses and that Ulysses had to kill Anticlus in order to save the warriors inside the wooden horse. Tryphiodorus also explains the relationship between Athene and Helen and these events in the poem seem to still hold merit with historians today.[3] Tryphiodorus ends The Taking of Ilios by describing the sacrifice of Polyxena by Neoptolemus at the tomb of Achilles because they were in love. It is believed that Tryphiodorus' language in The Taking of Ilios is imitated by Nonnus.[4] Although The Taking of Ilios is the only Tryphiodorus work that has lasted the test of time it has been considered an epic poem of importance as it has been translated from Greek to Latin, English, French, and German.[3] Other Works Unfortunately Tryphiodorus only had one piece of work survive over time and that was The Taking of Ilios. Although the epic poem was the only one to survive Tryphiodorus is known to have other works that he had done. The two works that have been lost are Marathoniaca and The Story of Hippodameia. Tryphiodorus was also to have written Odyssey leipogrammatos and this was to be a poem about the labours and myths of Odysseus.[5] In addition to those lost works of Tryphiodorus, he was known to have written a paraphrase of similies of Homer.[5] Tryphiodorus might have written more than the previously listed works, but no one will ever know. Impact and Contribution Tryphiodorus impact and historical contribution may not be as large as one might think and this is because only one of his works remains for us to analyze. Tryphiodorus' work did impact Colluthus and this has been seen in his famous poem The Rape of Helen.[2] Tryphiodorus' impact on historical thought expands to questions historians have asked and that is whether Tryphiodorus used the second Aeneid as a source for his epic poem The Taking of Ilios.[6] Tryphiodorus' The Taking of Ilios provides controversy as historians see the differences between Tryphiodorus' text and Virgils's Aeneid which leads historians attempting to explain the differentiation in opinions. Tryphiodorus and Virgil disagree on identity of Sinon; Tryphiodorus described Sinon as a much more primitive figure in his poem then Virgil does in his poem.[7]

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Tyrimmas of Macedon in Wikipedia

Tyrimmas (Greek: Τυρίμμας) was an Argead King of Macedon from about 750 BC to 700 BC.

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Tyrtaeus in Wikipedia

Tyrtaeus (also Tyrtaios, Greek: Τυρταῖος) was a Greek elegiac poet who lived at Sparta about the middle of the 7th century BC. Life According to the older tradition, Tyrtaeus was a native of the Attic deme of Aphidnae, and was invited to Sparta at the suggestion of the Delphic oracle to assist the Spartans in the Second Messenian War. According to a later version, he was a lame schoolmaster, sent by the Athenians as likely to be of the least assistance to the Spartans.[1] A fanciful explanation of his lameness is that it alludes to the elegiac couplet, one verse of which is shorter than the other. According to Plato[2] the citizenship of Sparta was conferred upon Tyrtaeus, although Herodotus[3] makes no mention of him among the foreigners so honoured. Basing his inference on the ground that Tyrtaeus speaks of himself as a citizen of Sparta,[4] Strabo [5] is inclined to reject the story of his Athenian origin. The Suda speaks of him as "Laconian or Milesian"; possibly he visited Miletus in his youth, where he became familiar with the Ionic elegy. Georg Busolt, who suggests that Tyrtaeus was a native of Aphidnae in Laconia, conjectures that the entire legend may have been concocted in connection with the expedition sent to the assistance of Sparta in her struggle with the revolted Helots at Ithome (464). However this may be, it is generally admitted that Tyrtaeus flourished during the Second Messenian War (c. 650 BC)--a period of remarkable musical and poetical activity at Sparta, when poets like Terpander and Thaletas were welcomed--that he not only wrote poetry but served in the field, and that he endeavoured to compose the internal dissensions of Sparta[6] by inspiring the citizens with a patriotic love for their fatherland. Work About twelve fragments (three of them complete poems) are preserved in Strabo, Lycurgus of Athens, Stobaeus and others. They are mainly elegiac and in the Ionic dialect, written partly in praise of the Spartan constitution and King Theopompus (Εὐνομία), partly to stimulate this Spartan soldiers to deeds of heroism in the field (Ὑποθῆκαι-the title is, however, later than Tyrtaeus). The interest of the fragments preserved from the Εὐνομία is mainly historical, and connected with the first Messenian war. The Ὑποθῆκαι, which are of considerable merit, contain exhortations to bravery and a warning against the disgrace of cowardice. The popularity of these elegies in the Spartan army was such that, according to Athenaeus,[7] it became the custom for the soldiers to sing them round the camp fires at night, the polemarch rewarding the best singer with a piece of flesh. Of the marching songs (Ἐμβατήρια), written in the anapaestic measure and the Doric dialect, only scanty fragments remain.[8] The poetry of Tyrtaeus is considered representative of the genre of martial exhortation elegy. Scholar Elizabeth Irwin recognizes that adoption of language and thematic concerns of Homeric epic is characteristic of this genre. For instance, the words of Tyrtaeus 10.1-2 ("For it is a fine thing for a man having fallen nobly amid the fore-fighters to die, fighting on behalf of the fatherland") undoubtedly echo Hector's speech in 15.494-7 of Homer's Iliad.: ("And whoever hit by a missile or struck by a sword find his death and fated end, let him die. It is not unseemly for one to die protecting the land of his fathers").[9] Irwin further suggests that Tyrtaeus intentionally alludes to Homer in instances such as these for political reasons. Given the fact that Tyrtaeus' poetry, like that of other archaic authors, was most likely performed in the context of aristocratic symposia, it is possible that Tyrtaeus' references to epic heroism served to praise the elite status of his aristocratic audience.[10]. Literature Verrall[11] definitely placed the lifetime of Tyrtaeus in the middle of the 5th century BC, while Schwartz[12] disputed the very existence of the poet.[13]. There are English verse translations by Richard Polwhele (1792) and imitations by H. J. Pye, poet laureate (1795), and an Italian version by F. Cavallotti, with text, introduction and notes (1898). The fragment beginning Τεθνάμεναι γὰρ καλόν (fr. 10 West) has been translated by Thomas Campbell, the poet. The edition by C. A. Klotz (1827) contains a dissertation on the war-songs of different countries. [14] Tyrtaeus is the first author to describe the ideal of the citizen-soldier. His "Elegies" reflected what came to be a "permanent and timeless utterance" of the ideal of "arete", admired by the later Greeks including Plato. His cry that "no man is a good man in war, unless he can bear to see bloody slaughter and can press hard on the enemy, standing face to face..." was not just "a momentary outburst of warlike patriotism; they were the foundation of the whole Spartan cosmos."

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Xanthippe in Wikipedia

Xanthippe (Greek: Ξανθίππη) was the wife of Socrates and mother of their three sons Lamprocles,Sophroniscus, and Menexenus. There are far more stories about her than there are facts. She was likely much younger than the philosopher, perhaps by as much as forty years.[1] Name Xanthippe means "blonde horse", from the Greek ξανθός "xanthos" (blonde) and ‘ιππος "hippos" (horse). Hers is one of many Greek personal names with a horse theme (cf. Philippos: "horse lover"; Hippocrates: "horse tamer" etc). The "hippos" in an ancient Greek name often suggested aristocratic heritage.[2] One additional reason for thinking Xanthippe's family was socially prominent was that her eldest son was named Lamprocles instead of "Sophroniscus" (after Socrates' father). The ancient Greek custom was to name one's first child after the more illustrious of the two grandfathers. Xanthippe's father is believed to have been named Lamprocles. Since he was even more well-established in Athenian aristocracy than was Socrates' father, his name would have been the preferred choice for the name of the first-born son.[3] Character Plato's portrayal of Xanthippe (in his Phaedo) suggests that she was nothing less than a devoted wife and mother (60a-b, 116b; she is mentioned nowhere else in Plato). Xenophon, in his Memorabilia, portrays her in much the same light, though he does make Lamprocles complain of her harshness (2.2.7-9); it could be argued that this is fairly typical of an adolescent's views of a strict parent. It is only in Xenophon's Symposium where we have Socrates agree that she is (in Antisthenes' words) "the hardest to get along with of all the women there are" (2.10). Nevertheless, Socrates adds that he chose her precisely because of her argumentative spirit: It is the example of the rider who wishes to become an expert horseman: "None of your soft-mouthed, docile animals for me," he says; "the horse for me to own must show some spirit" in the belief, no doubt, if he can manage such an animal, it will be easy enough to deal with every other horse besides. And that is just my case. I wish to deal with human beings, to associate with man in general; hence my choice of wife. I know full well, if I can tolerate her spirit, I can with ease attach myself to every human being else. (Symposium 17-19 [= 2.10]) Perhaps this picture of Xanthippe originated with the historical Antisthenes, one of Socrates' pupils, since Xenophon initially puts this view into his mouth. Aelian also depicts her as a jealous shrew in his description of an episode in which she tramples underfoot a large and beautiful cake sent to Socrates by Alcibiades.[4] Diogenes Laertius (Lives 2.36-37) tells of other stories involving Xanthippe's supposed abusiveness, but he does not cite any source for them. It seems that Xenophon's portrayal of her in his Symposium has been the most influential (Diogenes Laertius, for example, seems to quote (2.37) the Symposium passage, though he does not mention Xenophon by name). For the term "Xanthippe" has now come to mean any nagging scolding person, especially a shrewish wife. Later writers, such as Diogenes Laertius (Lives 2.26), who cite Aristotle as the earliest source, say that Socrates had a second wife called Myrto. Plutarch tells of a similar story, reporting that it comes from a work entitled On Good Birth, but he expresses doubt as to whether it was written by Aristotle.[5] In Plutarch's version of the story, Socrates, who was already married, attended to Myrto's financial concerns when she became a widow; this does not entail marriage. We have no more reliable evidence on this issue.[6] Literary references In Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew, Petruchio compares Katherina "As Socrates' Xanthippe or a worse" in Act 1 Scene 2. (Read here) Addison discusses matrimony in The Spectator no.482, dated Friday 12 September 1712: " An honest Tradesman, who dates his Letter from Cheapside, sends me Thanks in the name of a Club, who, he tells me, meet as often as their Wives will give them leave, and stay together till they are sent for home. He informs me, that my Paper has administered great Consolation to their whole Club, and desires me to give some further Account of Socrates, and to acquaint them in whose Reign he lived, whether he was a Citizen or a Courtier, whether he buried Xantippe " The novelist Henry Fielding describes the shrewish Mrs. Partridge thus: " She was, besides, a profest follower of that noble sect founded by Xantippe of old; by means of which she became more formidable in the school than her husband; for, to confess the truth, he was never master there, or anywhere else, in her presence. ... for she continued longer in a state of affability, after this fit of jealousy was ended, than her husband had ever known before: and, had it not been for some little exercises, which all the followers of Xantippe are obliged to perform daily, Mr Partridge would have enjoyed a perfect serenity of several months. " The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, Book II, Chapters iii & iv. The English Victorian poet Amy Levy wrote a dramatic monologue called "Xantippe"[1]. "Puttermesser and Xanthippe" is the title of one of the chapters of American novelist Cynthia Ozick's 1997 novel The Puttermesser Papers, a National Book Award finalist. In Michelle Cliff's poem "The Garden", the speaker wears a t-shirt that reads "Xantippe." In Chelsea Quinn Yarbro's book of short stories entitled Saint Germain: Memoirs in the story "Harpy" Philosopher Daniel Dennett named his sailboat "Xanthippe". In Maryse Conde's book "Crossing the Mangrove," there is a character named Xantippe. He lives outside the community in the woods and many characters are afraid of him; this is because he rarely speaks and is a hermit. In Cynthia Ozick's 1997 novel, The Puttermesser Papers, Ruth Puttermesser creates a golem who insists on being called "Xanthippe." A fictional account of Xanthippe's relationship with her husband is presented in the play "Xanthippe" by the British author and playwright Deborah Freeman. "Xanthippe" was first produced at the Brockley Jack Theatre, London (UK), in 1999. Xanthippe features in the radio show Acropolis Now as Socrates' wife. She is the only heterosexual in Athens and has an unrequited crush on Plato.

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Xanthippé in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Ξανθίππη). The wife of the Athenian philosopher Socrates. Many anecdotes have come down in the pages of ancient writers regarding this famous woman, whose name has become proverbial in all languages as that of a typical shrew. It is likely, however, that many of these are apocryphal, and that, on the other hand, there was much in the unpractical ways of Socrates to provoke even a good-tempered woman who loved order and a reasonable degree of conventionality. It is fair to remember, also, that Socrates himself, in a conversation with his son Lamprocles (Xen. Mem. ii. 2), ascribes to Xanthippé numerous domestic virtues; while it is recorded that she showed great affection and solicitude for her husband during his imprisonment. See Socrates.

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Xanthippus in wikipedia

Xanthippus (Gr. Ξάνθιππος) was a wealthy Athenian politician and general during the early part of the fifth century BC. He was the son of Ariphron and father of Pericles [1]. Xanthippus served as eponymous archon of Athens in 479 BC. Xanthippus was directly responsible for the impeachment of Miltiades the Younger following Miltiades' failure to capture Paros in 489 BC [2] Xanthippus was ostracised in 484 BC. In 479 BC, Xanthippus succeeded Themistocles, an old rival, as commander of the Athenian fleet.[3] Xanthippus' greatest military accomplishment was his command of the Athenian naval forces at the decisive Battle of Mycale against the Persians, which was fought off the coast of Lydia in Asia Minor under the command of Leotychidas of Sparta.[4] After the Spartans withdrew from the Hellenic League, Xanthippus led a Greek force in an assault upon Sestus, which was captured from the Persians after a winter siege. The Persian governor Artayctes attempted to escape, but was captured and then left by Xanthippus to the vengeance of the inhabitants of Elaeus, who crucified Artayctes [5]. Xanthippus was married to Agariste, the niece of Cleisthenes [6] .

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Xanthippus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

The son of Ariphron and father of Pericles. He succeeded Themistocles as commander of the Athenian fleet in B.C. 479, and commanded the Athenians at the decisive battle of Mycalé.

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Xenarchus of Seleucia in Wikipedia

Xenarchus (Greek: Ξέναρχος; 1st century BC) of Seleucia in Cilicia, was a Peripatetic philosopher and grammarian. Xenarchus left home early, and devoted himself to the profession of teaching, first at Alexandria, afterwards at Athens, and last at Rome, where he enjoyed the friendship of Arius, and afterwards of Augustus; and he was still living, in old age and honour, when Strabo wrote.[2] Xenarchus disagreed with Aristotle on many issues. He denied the existence of the aether, composing a treatise entitled Against the Fifth Element.[3] He is also mentioned by Simplicius,[4] by Julian the Apostate,[5] and by Alexander of Aphrodisias.[6]

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Xenarchus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

1. The son of Sophron, and, like his father, a celebrated writer of mimes. He lived during the Rhegian War (B.C. 399-389), at the court of Dionysius (Poet. 2). 2. An Athenian comic poet of the Middle Comedy, who lived as late as the time of Alexander the Great (Suid. s. v.). Several fragments of his writings are collected in Meineke's Fragm. Com. Graec.

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Xenocles in Wikipedia

Xenocles (Ξενοκλῆς) or Zenocles was an Ancient Greek tragedian. There were two Athenian tragic poets of this name, one the grandfather of the other. No fragments of either are currently known, except for a few words of the elder apparently parodied in Aristophanes' "The Clouds". Aristophanes called the elder Xenocles an execrable poet and was never tired of ridiculing him; describing, along with his father, Carcinus of Agrigentum, three brothers and a member of the third generation (also called Carcinus), "a whole potful of tragic crabs". He also wrote that "Xenocles, who is ugly, makes ugly poetry". In his play The Poet and the Women Aristophanes' chorus claims "Even this audience, I'm sure/Would find the man a crashing bore." which highlights his doubtful views on Xenocles as a writer. However, in 415 BC Xenocles gained the first prize with one of his trilogies when in competition with Euripides. But Aelian accounts for this by saying that "the jury were either intellectually incapable of a proper decision or else they were bribed."

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Xenŏcles in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Ξενοκλῆς). An Athenian tragic poet, ridiculed by Aristophanes, and yet the conqueror of Euripides on one occasion (B.C. 415). He was of dwarfish stature, and son of the tragic poet Carcinus. In the Peace, Aristophanes applies the term μηχανοδίφας to the family. From the scholiast it appears that Xenocles was celebrated for introducing stage machinery and spectacular effects, especially in the ascent or descent of his gods.

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Xenocrates in Wikipedia

Xenocrates (Ξενοκράτης; c. 396/5 – 314/3 BC[1]) of Chalcedon was a Greek philosopher, mathematician, and leader (scholarch) of the Platonic Academy from 339/8 to 314/3 BC. His teachings followed those of Plato's, which he attempted to define more closely, often with mathematical elements. He distinguished three forms of being, the sensible, the intelligible, and a third compounded of the two, to which correspond respectively, sense, intellect and opinion. Unity and duality he considered to be gods which rule the universe, and the soul is a self-moving number. God pervades all things, and there are daemonical powers, intermediate between the divine and the mortal, which consist in conditions of the soul. He held that mathematical objects and the Platonic Ideas are identical, unlike Plato who distinguished them. In Ethics, he taught that virtue produces happiness, but that external goods can minister to it and enable it to effect its purpose. Life Xenocrates was a native of Chalcedon.[2] By the most probable calculation[3] he was born 396/5 BC, and died 314/3 BC at the age of 82. Moving to Athens in early youth, he became the pupil of Aeschines Socraticus,[4] but subsequently joined himself to Plato,[5] whom he accompanied to Sicily in 361.[6] Upon his master's death, he paid a visit with Aristotle to Hermias of Atarneus.[7] In 339/8 BC, Xenocrates succeeded Speusippus in the presidency of the school,[8] defeating his competitors Menedemus of Pyrrha and Heraclides Ponticus by a few votes. On three occasions he was member of an Athenian legation, once to Philip, twice to Antipater.[9] Xenocrates resented the Macedonian influence then dominant at Athens. Soon after the death of Demosthenes (c. 322 BC), Xenocrates declined the citizenship offered to him at the instance of Phocion as a reward for his services in negotiating peace with Antipater after Athens' unsuccessful rebellion. The settlement was reached "at the price of a constitutional change: thousands of poor Athenians were disenfranchised," and Xenocrates said "that he did not want to become a citizen within a constitution he had struggled to prevent."[10] Being unable to pay the tax levied upon resident aliens, he is said to have been saved only by the courage of the orator Lycurgus,[11] or even to have been bought by Demetrius Phalereus, and then emancipated.[12] In 314/3, he died from hitting his head, after tripping over a bronze pot in his house. Xenocrates was succeeded as scholarch by Polemon, whom he had reclaimed from a life of profligacy. Besides Polemon, the statesman Phocion, Chaeron (tyrant of Pellene), the academic Crantor, the Stoic Zeno and Epicurus are said to have frequented his lectures. Wanting in quickness of apprehension and natural grace[13] he compensated by persevering and thorough-going industry,[14] pure benevolence,[15] purity of morals,[16] unselfishness,[17] and a moral earnestness, which compelled esteem and trust even from the Athenians of his own age.[18] Xenocrates adhered closely to the Platonist doctrine, and he is accounted the typical representative of the Old Academy. In his writings, which were numerous, he seems to have covered nearly the whole of the Academic program; but metaphysics and ethics were the subjects which principally engaged his thoughts. He is said to have made more explicit the division of philosophy into the three parts of Physics, Dialectic and Ethics. Writings With a comprehensive work on Dialectic (τῆς περὶ τὸ διαλέγεσθαι πραγματείας βιϐλία ιδ΄) there were also separate treatises On Knowledge, On Knowledgibility (περὶ ἐπιστήμης α΄, περὶ ἐπιστημοσύνης α΄), On Divisions (διαιρέσεις η΄), On Genera and Species (περὶ γενῶν καὶ εἰδῶν α΄), On Ideas (περὶ ἰδεῶν), On the Opposite (περὶ τοῦ ἐναντίου), and others, to which probably the work On Mediate Thought (τῶν περὶ τὴν διάνοιαν η΄)[19] also belonged. Two works by Xenocrates on Physics are mentioned (περὶ φύσεως ϛ΄ - φυσικῆς ἀκροάσεως ϛ΄),[20] as are also books On the Gods (περὶ Θεῶν β΄),[21] On the Existent (περὶ τοῦ ὄντος),[22] On the One (περὶ τοῦ ἑνός), On the Indefinite (περὶ τοῦ ἀορίστου),[23] On the Soul (περὶ ψυχῆς),[24] On the Emotions (περὶ τῶν παθῶν α΄)[22] On Memory (περὶ μνήμης), etc. In like manner, with the more general Ethical treatises On Happiness (περὶ εὐδαιμονίας β΄),[22] and On Virtue (περὶ ἀρετῆς)[22] there were connected separate books on individual Virtues, on the Voluntary, etc.[22] His four books on Royalty he had addressed to Alexander (στοιχεῖα πρὸς Ἀλέξανδρον περὶ βασιλείας δ΄).[25] Besides these he had written treatises On the State (περὶ πολιτείας α΄; πολιτικός α΄),[26] On the Power of Law (περὶ δυνάμεως νόμου α΄),[22] etc., as well as upon Geometry, Arithmetic, and Astrology.[27] Besides philosophical treatises, he wrote poetry (epē) and paraenesis.[28] Philosophy Epistemology Xenocrates made a more definite division between the three departments of philosophy, than Speusippus,[29] but at the same time abandoned Plato's heuristic method of conducting through doubts (aporiai), and adopted instead a mode of bringing forward his doctrines in which they were developed dogmatically.[30] Xenocrates recognized three grades of cognition, each appropriated to a region of its own: knowledge, sensation, and opinion. He referred knowledge (episteme) to that essence which is the object of pure thought, and is not included in the phenomenal world; sensation (aisthesis) to that which passes into the world of phenomena; opinion (doxa) to that essence which is at once the object of sensuous perception, and, mathematically, of pure reason - the essence of heaven or the stars; so that he conceived of doxa in a higher sense, and endeavoured, more definitely than Plato, to exhibit mathematics as mediating between knowledge and sensuous perception[31] All three modes of apprehension partake of truth; but in what manner scientific perception (epistemonike aisthesis) did so, we unfortunately do not learn. Even here Xenocrates's preference for symbolic modes of sensualising or denoting appears: he connected the above three stages of knowledge with the three Fates: Atropos, Clotho, and Lachesis. We know nothing further about the mode in which Xenocrates carried out his dialectic, as it is probable that what was peculiar to Aristotelian logic did not remain unnoticed in it, for it can hardly be doubted that the division of the existent into the absolutely existent, and the relatively existent,[32] attributed to Xenocrates, was opposed to the Aristotelian table of categories. Metaphysics We know from Plutarch[33] that Xenocrates, if he did not explain the Platonic construction of the world-soul as Crantor after him did, nevertheless drew heavily on the Timaeus; and further[34] that he was at the head of those who, regarding the universe as unoriginated and imperishable, looked upon the chronological succession in the Platonic theory as a form in which to denote the relations of conceptual succession. Plutarch unfortunately, does not give us any further details, and contented himself with describing the well-known assumption of Xenocrates, that the soul is a self-moving number.[35] Probably we should connect with this the statement that Xenocrates called unity and duality (monas and duas) deities, and characterised the former as the first male existence, ruling in heaven, as father and Zeus, as uneven number and spirit; the latter as female, as the mother of the gods, and as the soul of the universe which reigns over the mutable world under heaven,[36] or, as others have it, that he named the Zeus who ever remains like himself, governing in the sphere of the immutable, the highest; the one who rules over the mutable, sublunary world, the last, or outermost.[37] If, like other Platonists, he designated the material principle as undefined duality, the world-soul was probably described by him as the first defined duality, the conditioning or defining principle of every separate definitude in the sphere of the material and changeable, but not extending beyond it. He appears to have called it in the highest sense the individual soul, in a derivative sense a self-moving number, that is, the first number endowed with motion. To this world-soul Zeus, or the world-spirit, has entrusted - in what degree and in what extent, we do not learn - dominion over that which is liable to motion and change. The divine power of the world-soul is then again represented, in the different spheres of the universe, as infusing soul into the planets, Sun and Moon, - in a purer form, in the shape of Olympic gods. As a sublunary daemonical power (as Hera, Poseidon, Demeter), it dwells in the elements, and these daemonical natures, midway between gods and men, are related to them as the isosceles triangle is to the equilateral and the scalene.[38] The divine world-soul which reigns over the whole domain of sublunary changes he appears to have designated as the last Zeus, the last divine activity. It is not till we get to the sphere of the separate daemonical powers of nature that the opposition between good and evil begins,[39] and the daemonical power is appeased by means of a stubbornness which it finds there congenial to it; the good daemonical power makes happy those in whom it takes up its abode, the bad ruins them; for eudaimonia is the indwelling of a good daemon, the opposite the indwelling of a bad one.[40] How Xenocrates tried to establish and connect scientifically these assumptions, which appear to be taken chiefly from his books on the nature of the gods,[41] we do not learn, and can only discover the one fundamental idea at the basis of them, that all grades of existence are penetrated by divine power, and that this grows less and less energetic in proportion as it descends to the perishable and individual. Hence he also appears to have maintained that as far as consciousness extends, so far also extends an intuition of that all-ruling divine power, of which he represented even irrational animals as partaking.[42] But neither the thick nor the thin, to the different combinations of which he appears to have tried to refer the various grades of material existence, were regarded by him as in themselves partaking of soul;[43] doubtless because he referred them immediately to the divine activity, and was far from attempting to reconcile the duality of the principia, or to resolve them into an original unity. Hence too he was for proving the incorporeality of the soul by the fact that it is not nourished as the body is.[44] It is probable, that, after the example of Plato, he designated the divine principium as alone indivisible, and remaining like itself; the material, as the divisible, partaking of multiformity, and different, and that from the union of the two, or from the limitation of the unlimited by the absolute unity, he deduced number, and for that reason called the soul of the universe, like that of individual beings, a self moving number, which, by virtue of its twofold root in the same and the different, shares equally in permanence and motion, and attains to consciousness by means of the reconciliation of this opposition. Aristotle, in his Metaphysics,[45] recognized amongst contemporary Platonists three principal views concerning the ideal numbers, and their relation to the ideas and to mathematical numbers: 1. those who, like Plato, distinguished ideal and mathematical numbers; 2. those who, like Xenocrates, identified ideal numbers with mathematical numbers 3. those who, like Speusippus, postulated mathematical numbers only Aristotle has much to say against the Xenocratean interpretation of the theory, and in particular points out that, if the ideal numbers are made up of arithmetical units, they not only cease to be principles, but also become subject to arithmetical operations. In the derivation of things according to the series of the numbers he seems to have gone further than any of his predecessors.[46] He approximated to the Pythagoreans in this, that (as is clear from his explanation of the soul) he regarded number as the conditioning principle of consciousness, and consequently of knowledge also; he thought it necessary, however, to supply what was wanting in the Pythagorean assumption by the more accurate definition, borrowed from Plato, that it is only insofar as number reconciles the opposition between the same and the different, and has raised itself to self-motion, that it is soul. We find a similar attempt at the supplementation of the Platonic doctrine in Xenocrates's assumption of indivisible lines.[47] In them he thought he had discovered what, according to Plato,[48] God alone knows, and he among men who is loved by him, namely, the elements or principia of the Platonic triangles. He seems to have described them as first, original lines, and in a similar sense to have spoken of original plain figures and bodies,[49] convinced that the principia of the existent should be sought not in the material, not in the divisible which attains to the condition of a phenomenon, but merely in the ideal definitude of form. He may very well, in accordance with this, have regarded the point as a merely subjectively admissible presupposition, and a passage of Aristotle respecting this assumption[50] should perhaps be referred to him. Ethics The information on his Ethics is scanty. He tried to supplement the Platonic doctrine at various points, and at the same time to give it a more direct applicability to life. He distinguished from the good and the bad something which is neither good nor bad.[51] Following the ideas of his Academic predecessors, he viewed the good as that which should be striven after for itself, that is, which has value in itself, while the bad is the opposite of this.[52] Consequently, that which is neither good nor bad is what in itself is neither to be striven after nor to be avoided, but derives value or the opposite according as it serves as means for what is good or bad, or rather, is used by us for that purpose. While, however, Xenocrates (and with him Speusippus and the other philosophers of the older Academy)[53] would not accept that these intermediate things, such as health, beauty, fame, good fortune, etc. were valuable in themselves, he did not accept that they were absolutely worthless or indifferent.[54] According, therefore, as what belongs to the intermediate region is adapted to bring about or to hinder the good, Xenocrates appears to have designated it as good or evil, probably with the proviso, that by misuse what is good might become evil, and vice versa, that by virtue, what is evil might become good.[55] Still he maintained that virtue alone is valuable in itself, and that the value of every thing else is conditional.[56] According to this, happiness should coincide with the consciousness of virtue,[57] though its reference to the relations of human life requires the additional condition, that it is only in the enjoyment of the good things and circumstances originally designed for it by nature that it attains to completion; to these good things, however, sensuous gratification does not belong.[58] In this sense he on the one hand denoted (perfect) happiness as the possession of personal virtue, and the capabilities adapted to it, and therefore reckoned among its constituent elements, besides moral actions conditions and facilities, those movements and relations also without which external good things cannot be attained,[59] and on the other hand did not allow that wisdom, understood as the science of first causes or intelligible essence, or as theoretical understanding, is by itself the true wisdom which should be striven after by people,[60] and therefore seems to have regarded this human wisdom as at the same time exerted in investigating, defining, and applying.[61] How decidedly he insisted not only on the recognition of the unconditional nature of moral excellence, but on morality of thought, is shown by his declaration, that it comes to the same thing whether one casts longing eyes, or sets one's feet upon the property of others.[62] His moral earnestness is also expressed in the warning that the ears of children should be guarded against the poison of immoral speeches.[63] Mathematics Xenocrates is known to have written a book On Numbers, and a Theory of Numbers, besides books on geometry.[27] Plutarch writes that Xenocrates once attempted to find the total number of syllables that could be made from the letters of the alphabet.[64] According to Plutarch, Xenocrates result was 1,002,000,000,000 (a "myriad-and-twenty times a myriad-myriad"). This possibly represents the first instance that a combinatorial problem involving permutations was attempted. Xenocrates also supported the idea of "indivisible lines" (and magnitudes) in order to counter Zeno's paradoxes.[65]

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Xenocrătes in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Ξενοκράτης). A philosopher, born at Chalcedon in B.C. 400. He first attached himself to Æschines, but afterwards became a disciple of Plato, who took much pains in cultivating his genius, which was naturally heavy. Plato, comparing him with Aristotle, who was also one of his pupils, called the former a dull ass who needed the spur, and the latter a mettlesome horse who required the curb. His temper was gloomy, his aspect stern, and his manners little tinctured with urbanity. These material defects his master took great pains to correct, frequently advising him to sacrifice to the Graces; and the pupil, patient of instruction, knew how to value the kindness of his preceptor. He compared himself to a vessel with a narrow orifice, which receives with difficulty, but firmly retains whatever is put into it. So attached was Xenocrates to his master that when Dionysius, in a violent fit of anger, threatened to find one who should cut off his head, he said, "Not before he has cut off this," pointing to his own. As long as Plato lived, Xenocrates was one of his most esteemed disciples; after his death he closely adhered to his doctrine; and in B.C. 339 he took the chair in the Academy as the successor of Speusippus. Aristotle, who, about this time, returned from Macedonia, in expectation, as it should seem, of filling the chair, was greatly disappointed and chagrined at this nomination, and immediately instituted a school in the Lyceum, in opposition to that of the Academy where Xenocrates continued to preside till his death. Xenocrates was celebrated among the Athenians, not only for his wisdom, but also for his virtues (Val. Max. ii. 10; Ad Att. ii. 16; Diog. Laert. iv. 7). So eminent was his reputation for integrity that when he was called upon to give evidence in a judicial transaction, in which an oath was usually required, the judges unanimously agreed that his simple asseveration should be taken, as a public testimony to his merit. Even Philip of Macedon found it impossible to corrupt him. When he was sent, with several others, upon an embassy to that king, he declined all private intercourse with him, that he might escape the temptations of a bribe. Philip afterwards said that of all those who had come to him on embassies from foreign States, Xenocrates was the only one whose friendship he had not been able to purchase (Diog. Laert. iv. 8). During the time of the Lamiac War, being sent an ambassador to the court of Antipater for the redemption of several Athenian captives, he was invited by the prince to sit down with him at supper, but declined the invitation in the words of Odysseus to Circé (Odyss. x. 383). This pertinent and ingenious application of a passage in Homer, or, rather, the generous and patriotic spirit which it expressed, was so pleasing to Antipater that he immediately released the prisoners. It may be mentioned as another example of moderation in Xenocrates, that when Alexander, to mortify Aristotle, against whom he had an accidental pique, sent Xenocrates a magnificent present of fifty talents, he accepted only thirty minae, returning the rest to Alexander with this message: that the large sum which Alexander had sent was more than he should have been able to spend during his whole life. So abstemious was he with respect to food that his provision was frequently spoiled before it was consumed. His chastity was invincible, and Laïs, a celebrated Athenian courtesan, attempted, without success, to seduce him. He was an admirer of the mathematical sciences, and was so fully convinced of their utility that when a young man who was unacquainted with geometry and astronomy desired admission, he refused his request, saying that he was not yet possessed of the handles of philosophy. In fine, Xenocrates was eminent both for the purity of his morals and for his acquaintance with science, and supported the credit of the Platonic School by his lectures, his writings, and his conduct. He lived until B.C. 316, when he lost his life by accidentally falling, in the dark, into a reservoir of water. The philosophical tenets of Xenocrates were truly Platonic, but in his method of teaching he made use of the language of the Pythagoreans. He made Unity and Diversity principles in nature, or gods; the former of whom he represented as the father, and the latter as the mother, of the universe. He taught that the heavens are divine, and the stars gods; and that, besides these divinities, there are terrestrial demons of a middle order, between the gods and man, which partake of the nature both of mind and body, and are therefore, like human beings, capable of passions and liable to diversity of character.

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Xenocrates of Aphrodisias in Wikipedia

Xenocrates (Greek: Ξενοκράτης; 1st century) a Greek physician of Aphrodisias in Cilicia,[1] who must have lived about the middle of the 1st century, as he was probably a contemporary of Andromachus the Younger.[2] Galen says that he lived in the second generation before himself.[3] He wrote some pharmaceutical works, and is blamed by Galen[3] for making use of disgusting remedies, for instance, human brains, flesh, liver, urine, excrement, etc. One of his works was entitled On Useful Things from Living Beings (Greek: Περὶ τῆς ἀπὸ τῶν Ζώων Ὠφελείας).[4] He is several times quoted by Galen, and also by Clement of Alexandria;[5] Artemidorus;[6] Pliny;[7] Oribasius;[8] Aetius;[9] and Alexander of Tralles.[10] Besides some short fragments of his writings there is extant a synopsis of a work on marine creatures, (Greek: Περὶ τῆς ἀπὸ τῶν Ἐνύδρων Τροφῆς) preserved by Oribasius.

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Xenocrates in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

A Greek physician of Aphrodisias, a work of whose is still remaining, on the food afforded by fishes. It is edited by Coray (Paris, 1814).

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Xenophanes in Wikipedia

Xenophanes of Colophon (Ancient Greek: Ξενοφάνης ὁ Κολοφώνιος IPA: [ksenophánɛːs ho kolophɔˊːnios]; c.570 – c.475 BCE)[1] was a Greek philosopher, poet, and social and religious critic. Knowledge of his views comes from fragments of his poetry, surviving as quotations by later Greek writers. To judge from these, his elegiac and iambic[2] poetry criticized and satirized a wide range of ideas, including Homer and Hesiod, the belief in the pantheon of anthropomorphic gods and the Greeks' veneration of athleticism. He is the earliest Greek poet who claims explicitly to be writing for future generations, creating "fame that will reach all of Greece, and never die while the Greek kind of songs survives."[3] Philosophy Xenophanes' surviving writings display a skepticism that became more commonly expressed during the fourth century. He cleverly satirized the polytheistic beliefs of earlier Greek poets and of his own contemporaries: "Homer and Hesiod" one fragment states, "have attributed to the gods all sorts of things that are matters of reproach and censure among men: theft, adultery, and mutual deception." Sextus Empiricus reported that[4] such ideas were savored by Christian apologists. Xenophanes is quoted, memorably, in Clement of Alexandria,[5] arguing against the conception of gods as fundamentally anthropomorphic: But if cattle and horses and lions had hands or could paint with their hands and create works such as men do, horses like horses and cattle like cattle also would depict the gods' shapes and make their bodies of such a sort as the form they themselves have. ... Ethiopians say that their gods are snubnosed and black Thracians that they are pale and red-haired.[6] Because of his development of the concept of a "one god greatest among gods and men" that is abstract, universal, unchanging, immobile and always present, Xenophanes is often seen as one of the first monotheists, in the Western philosophy of religion. This vision is disputed: while it seems clear that Xenophanes differed markedly from the commonly held cosmology of his contemporaries, it is less clear that his ideas were congruent with monotheism per se, as he seemed to admit the existence of other gods ("among gods and men"), albeit different gods than the ones represented in the works of Homer and Hesiod. He also wrote that poets should only tell stories about the gods which were socially uplifting, a view similar to that taken by Plato. Xenophanes also concluded from his examination of fossils that water once must have covered all of the Earth's surface. His epistemology, which is still influential today, held that there actually exists a truth of reality, but that humans as mortals are unable to know it. Therefore, it is possible to act only on the basis of working hypotheses - we may act as if we knew the truth, as long as we know that this is extremely unlikely. This aspect of Xenophanes was brought out again by Karl Popper[7] and is a basis of Critical rationalism. Until the 1950s, there was some controversy over many aspects of Xenophanes, including whether or not he could be properly characterized as a philosopher. In today's philosophical and classics discourse, Xenophanes is seen as one of the most important presocratic philosophers. It had also been common since antiquity to see him as the teacher of Zeno of Elea, the colleague of Parmenides, and generally associated with the Eleatic school, but common opinion today is likewise that this is false (see Lesher, p. 102). Xenophanes approached the question of science from the standpoint of the reformer rather than of the scientific investigator. If we look at the very considerable remains of his poetry that have come down to us, we see that they are all in the satirist's and social reformer's vein. There is one dealing with the management of a feast, another which denounces the exaggerated importance attached to athletic victories, and several which attack the humanized gods of Homer. The problem is, therefore, to find, if we can, a single point of view from which all these fragments can be interpreted, although it may be that no such point of view exists. Like the religious reformers of the day, Xenophanes turned his back on the anthropomorphic polytheism of Homer and Hesiod. This revolt is based on a conviction that the tales of the poets are directly responsible for the moral corruption of the time. Xenophanes found the weapons he required for his attack on polytheism in the science of the time. There are traces of Anaximander's cosmology in the fragments, and Xenophanes may easily have been his disciple before he left Ionia. He seems to have taken the gods of mythology one by one and reduced them to meteorological phenomena, and especially to clouds. And he maintained there was only one god-namely, the world. God is one incorporeal eternal being, and, like the universe, spherical in form; that he is of the same nature with the universe, comprehending all things within himself; is intelligent, and pervades all things, but bears no resemblance to human nature either in body or mind. He taught that if there had ever been a time when nothing existed, nothing could ever have existed. Whatever is, always has been from eternity, without deriving its existence from any prior principles. Nature, he believed, is one and without limit; that what is one is similar in all its parts, else it would be many; that the one infinite, eternal, and homogeneous universe is immutable and incapable of change. His position is often classified as pantheistic, although his use of the term 'god' simply follows the use characteristic of the early cosmologists generally. There is no evidence that Xenophanes regarded this 'god' with any religious feeling, and all we are told about him (or rather about it) is purely negative. He is quite unlike a man, and has no special organs of sense, but 'sees all over, thinks all over, hears all over' (fr. 24). Further, he does not go about from place to place (fr. 26), but does everything 'without toil (fr. 25).

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Xenophănes in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Ξενοφάνης). The founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy was a native of Colophon, and born about B.C. 556. Xenophanes early left his own country and took refuge in Sicily, where he supported himself by reciting, at the court of Hiero, elegiac and iambic verses, which he had written in criticism of the Theogonies of Hesiod and Homer. From Sicily he passed over into Magna Graecia, where he took up the profession of philosophy, and became a celebrated preceptor in the Pythagorean school. Indulging, however, a greater freedom of thought than was usual among the disciples of Pythagoras, he ventured to introduce new opinions of his own, and in many particulars to oppose the doctrines of Epimenides, Thales, and Pythagoras. He held the Pythagorean chair of philosophy for about seventy years, and lived to the extreme age of a hundred. In metaphysics, Xenophanes taught that if there had ever been a time when nothing existed, nothing could ever have existed; that whatever is, always has been from eternity, without deriving its existence from any prior principles; that nature is one and without limit; that what is one is similar in all its parts, else it would be many; that the one infinite, eternal, and homogeneous universe is immutable and incapable of change; that God is one incorporeal eternal being, and, like the universe, spherical in form; that he is of the same nature with the universe, comprehending all things within himself; is intelligent, and pervades all things, but bears no resemblance to human nature either in body or mind. See V. Cousin, Xénophane, Fondateur de l'École d'Élée, in his Nouveaux Fragments Philos. (Paris, 1828); Bergk, Commentatio de Arist. Libello de Xenophane, Zenone, et Gorgia (Marburg, 1843); Reinhold, De Genuina Xenophanis Disciplina (Jena, 1847); Kern, Quaestionum Xenophanearum Capita Duo (Naumburg, 1864); Rüffer, De Philosoph. Xenophanis Coloph. Parte Morali (Leipzig, 1868); and Ueberweg's Hist. of Philos. i. pp. 49-54 (Eng. trans. N. Y. 1872). The fragments of his writings are collected in Karsten's Philosophorum Graecorum Veterum Operum Reliquiae, vol. i. (Amsterdam, 1835), and in Schneidewin's Elegiaci Graeci (1838).

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Xenophilus in Wikipedia

Xenophilus (Greek: Ξενόφιλος; 4th century BC) of Chalcidice,[2] was a Pythagorean philosopher and musician, who lived in the first half of the 4th century BC.[3] Aulus Gellius relates that Xenophilus was the intimate friend and teacher of Aristoxenus, and implies that Xenophilus taught him Pythagorean doctrine.[4] He was said to have belonged to the last generation of Pythagoreans, and he is the only Pythagorean known to have lived in Athens in the 4th century BC.[5] We learn from Diogenes Laertius that Aristoxenus wrote that when Xenophilus was once asked by someone how he could best educate his son, Xenophilus replied, "By making him the citizen of a well-governed state."[6] According to Pseudo-Lucian, Aristoxenus is supposed to have said that Xenophilus lived 105 years.[7] Xenophilus enjoyed considerable fame in the Renaissance, apparently because of Pliny's claim that he lived 105 years without ever being sick.[8]

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Xenophon in Wikipedia

Xenophon (Ancient Greek Ξενοφῶν, Xenophōn; c. 430 – 354 BC), son of Gryllus, of the deme Erchia of Athens, also known as Xenophon of Athens, was a Greek historian, soldier, mercenary, and a contemporary and admirer of Socrates. He is known for his writings on the history of his own times, the 4th century BC, preserving the sayings of Socrates, and descriptions of life in ancient Greece and the Persian Empire. Life and writings Soldier of fortune Xenophon's birth date is uncertain, but most scholars agree that he was born around 431 BC near the city of Athens.[1] Xenophon was born into the ranks of the upper classes, thus granting him access to certain privileges of the aristocracy of ancient Attica. While a young man, Xenophon participated in the expedition led by Cyrus the Younger against his older brother, the emperor Artaxerxes II of Persia, in 401 BC. Xenophon writes that he had asked the veteran Socrates for advice on whether to go with Cyrus, and that Socrates referred him to the divinely inspired Delphic oracle. Xenophon's query to the oracle, however, was not whether or not to accept Cyrus' invitation, but "to which of the gods he must pray and do sacrifice, so that he might best accomplish his intended journey and return in safety, with good fortune". The oracle answered his question and told him to which gods to pray and sacrifice. When Xenophon returned to Athens and told Socrates of the oracle's advice, Socrates chastised him for asking so disingenuous a question. Under the pretext of fighting Tissaphernes, the Persian satrap of Ionia, Cyrus assembled a massive army composed of native Persian soldiers, but also a large number of Greeks. Prior to waging war against the emperor, Cyrus proposed that the enemy was the Pisidians, and so the Greeks were unaware that they were to battle against the larger army of King Artaxerxes II. At Tarsus the soldiers became aware of Cyrus' plans to dispose of the king, and as a result refused to continue. However, Clearchus, a Spartan general, convinced the Greeks to continue with the expedition. The army of Cyrus met the army of Artaxerxes II in the Battle of Cunaxa. Despite effective fighting by the Greeks, Cyrus was killed in the battle. Shortly thereafter, Clearchus was invited to a peace conference, where, alongside four other generals and many captains, he was betrayed and executed. The mercenaries, known as the Ten Thousand, found themselves without leadership far from the sea, deep in hostile territory near the heart of Mesopotamia. They elected new leaders, including Xenophon himself, and fought their way north through hostile Persians and Medes to Trapezus on the coast of the Black Sea. They then made their way westward back to Greece. Once there, they helped Seuthes II make himself king of Thrace, before being recruited into the army of the Spartan general Thibron. Xenophon's book Anabasis ("The Expedition" or "The March Up Country") is his record of the entire expedition against the Persians and the journey home. It is worth noting that the Anabasis was used as a field guide by Alexander the Great during the early phases of his expedition into Persia. Exile and death Xenophon was later exiled from Athens, most likely because he fought under the Spartan king Agesilaus II against Athens at Coronea. However, there may have been contributory causes, such as his support for Socrates, as well as the fact that he had taken service with the Persians. The Spartans gave him property at Scillus, near Olympia in Elis, where he composed the Anabasis. However, because his son Gryllus fought and died for Athens at the Battle of Mantinea while Xenophon was still alive, Xenophon's banishment may have been revoked. Xenophon died in either Corinth or Athens. His date of death is uncertain; historians only know that he survived his patron Agesilaus II, for whom he wrote an encomium. Xenophon had a fond love of Athens but didn't believe in its political morals, which leads some to believe that he was an oligarch. Legacy Diogenes Laertius states that Xenophon was sometimes known as the "Attic Muse" for the sweetness of his diction; very few poets wrote in the Attic dialect. Xenophon is often cited as being the original "horse whisperer", having advocated sympathetic horsemanship in his "On Horsemanship". Xenophon's standing as a political philosopher has been defended in recent times by Leo Strauss, who devoted a considerable part of his philosophic analysis to the works of Xenophon, returning to the high judgment of Xenophon as a thinker expressed by Shaftesbury, Winckelmann, Machiavelli, and John Adams. Ponting cites Xenophon as one of the first thinkers to argue that the ordered world must have been conceived by a god or gods.[2] Xenophon's Memorabilia poses the argument that all animals are "only produced and nourished for the sake of humans".[2] Though he spent much of his life in Athens, Xenophon's involvement in Spartan politics (he was a close associate of King Agesilaus II) has led to him being closely associated with the city. List of works Xenophon's writings, especially the Anabasis, are often read by beginning students of the Greek language. His Hellenica is a major primary source for events in Greece from 411 to 362 BC, and is considered to be the continuation of the History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, going so far as to begin with the phrase "Following these events...". The Hellenica recounts the last seven years of the Peloponnesian war, as well as its aftermath. His Socratic writings, preserved complete, along with the dialogues of Plato, are the only surviving representatives of the genre of Sokratikoi logoi. Historical and biographical works * Anabasis (also: The Persian Expedition or The March Up Country) * Cyropaedia (also: The Education of Cyrus) * Hellenica * Agesilaus Socratic works and dialogues * Memorabilia * Oeconomicus * Symposium * Apology * Hiero Short treatises * On Horsemanship * The Cavalry General * Hunting with Dogs * Ways and Means * Constitution of Sparta In addition, a short treatise on the Constitution of Athens exists that was once thought to be by Xenophon, but which was probably written when Xenophon was about five years old. This is found in manuscripts among the short works of Xenophon, as though he had written it also. The author, often called in English the "Old Oligarch", detests the democracy of Athens and the poorer classes, but he argues that the Periclean institutions are well designed for their deplorable purposes. Leo Strauss has argued that this work is in fact by Xenophon, whose ironic posing he believes has been utterly missed by contemporary scholarship. In popular culture Xenophon appears as a fairly major character in Mary Renault's famous historical novel, The Last of the Wine (1956). Michael Curtis Ford's first novel, The Ten Thousand: A Novel of Ancient Greece, follows Xenophon's doomed march with Cyrus and also narrates the beginning of his life as an Athenian. Anabasis was the (loosely-adapted) basis for Sol Yurick's novel The Warriors, which was later adapted into a 1979 cult movie of the same name, and finally a Rockstar Games video game in 2005. Each re-imagining relocates Xenophon's narrative to the gang scene of New York. After a gang meeting ends with a murder, the falsely accused Warriors gang have to get home to Coney Island by traveling through territory controlled by hostile gangs who include The Lizzies (Sirens), The Baseball (Furies), The Orphans and The Turnbull A.C.s.[3]

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Xenŏphon in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Ξενοφῶν). (1) An Athenian, the son of one Gryllus, born about B.C. 444. In his early life he was a pupil of Socrates; but the turningpoint in his career came when he decided to serve in the Greek contingent raised by Cyrus against Artaxerxes in 401. Xenophon himself mentions ( Anab. iii. 1) the circumstances under which he joined this army. Proxenus, a friend of Xenophon, was already with Cyrus, and he invited Xenophon to come to Sardis, and promised to introduce him to the Persian prince. Xenophon consulted his master, Socrates, who advised him to consult the oracle of Delphi, as it was a hazardous matter for him to enter the service of Cyrus, who was considered to be the friend of the Lacedaemonians and the enemy of Athens. Xenophon went to Delphi, but he did not ask the god whether he should go or not: he probably had made up his mind. He merely inquired to what gods he should sacrifice in order that he might be successful in his intended enterprise. Socrates was not satisfied with his pupil's mode of consulting the oracle, but as he had got an answer, he told him to go; and Xenophon went to Sardis, which Cyrus was just about to leave. He accompanied Cyrus into Upper Asia. In the battle of Cunaxa (B.C. 401) Cyrus lost his life, his barbarian troops were dispersed, and the Greeks were left alone on the wide plains between the Tigris and the Euphrates. (See Cyrus.) It was after the treacherous massacre of Clearchus and others of the Greek commanders by the Persian satrap Tissaphernes (q.v.) that Xenophon came forward. He had held no command in the army of Cyrus, nor had he, in fact, served as a soldier, yet he was elected one of the generals, and took the principal part in conducting the Greeks in their memorable retreat along the Tigris over the high table-lands of Armenia to Trapezus (Trebizond) on the Black Sea. From Trapezus the troops were conducted to Chrysopolis, which is opposite to Byzantium. The Greeks were in great distress, and some of them under Xenophon entered the service of Seuthes, king of Thrace. As the Lacedaemonians under Thimbron, or Thibron, were now at war with Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, Xenophon and his troops were invited to join the army of Thimbron, and Xenophon led them back out of Asia to join Thimbron (399). Xenophon, who was very poor, made an expedition into the plain of the Caïcus with his troops before they joined Thimbron, to plunder the house and property of a Persian named Asidates. The Persian, with his women, children, and all his movables, was seized, and Xenophon, by this robbery, replenished his empty pockets ( Anab. vii. 8 Anab., 23). He tells the story himself, and is evidently not at all ashamed of it. In other ways also he showed himself the prototype of an adventurous leader of condottieri, with no ties of country or preference of nationality. He formed a scheme for establishing a town with the Ten Thousand on the shores of the Euxine; but it fell through. He joined the Spartans, as has been seen, and he continued in their service even when they were at war with Athens. Agesilaüs, the Spartan, was commanding the Lacedaemonian forces in Asia against the Persians in 396, and Xenophon was with him at least during part of the campaign. When Agesilaüs was recalled (394), Xenophon accompanied him, and he was on the side of the Lacedaemonians in the battle which they fought at Coronea (394) against the Athenians. As a natural consequence a decree of exile was passed against him at Athens. It seems that he went to Sparta with Agesilaüs after the battle of Coronea, and soon after he settled at Scillus in Elis, not far from Olympia, a spot of which he has given a description in the Anabasis (v. 3, 7). Here he was joined by his wife, Philesia, and his children. His children were educated in Sparta. Xenophon was now a Lacedaemonian so far as he could become one. His time during his long residence at Scillus was employed in hunting, writing, and entertaining his friends; and perhaps the Anabasis and part of the Hellenica were composed here. The treatise on hunting and that on the horse were probably also written during this time, when amusement and exercise of this kind formed part of his occupation. On the downfall of the Spartan supremacy, at Leuctra in 371, Xenophon was at last expelled from his quiet retreat at Scillus by the Eleans, after remaining there about twenty years. The sentence of banishment from Athens was repealed on the motion of Eubulus, but it is uncertain in what year. There is no evidence that Xenophon ever returned to Athens. He is said to have retired to Corinth after his expulsion from Scillus, and as we know nothing more, we assume that he died there. In the battle of Mantinea (B.C. 362) the Spartans and the Athenians were opposed to the Thebans, and Xenophon's two sons, Gryllus and Diodorus, fought on the side of the allies. Gryllus fell in the same battle in which Epaminondas lost his life. The events alluded to in the epilogue to the Cyropaedia (viii. 8, 4) show that the epilogue at least was written after 362. The time of his death, for reasons given above, seems to have been later than 357. 1. The Anabasis (Ἀνάβασις) a history of the expedition of the Younger Cyrus, and of the retreat of the Greeks who formed part of his army. It is divided into seven books. As regards the title it will be noticed that under the name "The March Up" (ἀνά, i. e. inland from the coast of Cunaxa) is included also the much longer account of the return march down to the Euxine. This work has immortalized Xenophon's name. It is a clear and fascinating narrative, written in a simple style, free from affectation, and giving a great deal of curious information on the country which was traversed by the retreating Greeks, and on the manners of the people. It was the first work which made the Greeks acquainted with some portions of the Persian Empire, and it showed the weakness of that extensive monarchy. The skirmishes of the retreating Greeks with their enemies, and the battles with some of the barbarian tribes, are not such events as elevate the work to the character of a military history, nor can it as such be compared with Caesar's Commentarii. There is no weight whatever in the argument that, because Xenophon (Hellen. iii. 1, 2) speaks of the expedition of Cyrus as having been related by Themistogenes, the Anabasis is therefore not Xenophon's work. The statement can be explained either on the theory that Xenophon speaks of his own work under a fictitious name (which was possibly the case also with the Oeconomicus), or, more simply, by supposing that another account was actually written by Themistogenes. It is known that a separate account was written by Sophaenetus, and there may have been others. If the latter theory be correct, it would be a natural inference that Xenophon's Anabasis was written after the third book of the Hellenica. 2. The Hellenica (Ἑλληνικά) The Hellenica of Xenophon is divided into seven books, and covers the forty-eight years from the time when the History of Thucydides ends (see Thucydides) to the battle of Mantinea (B.C. 362). The Hellenica is generally a dry narrative of events, and there is nothing in the treatment of them which gives a special interest to the work. Some events of importance are briefly treated, but a few striking incidents are presented with some particularity. The Hellenica was not written at one time. Differences are traced between the first two and the later books as regards the arrangement, which in the earlier books is year by year, while, in the later, events growing out of one another are grouped together; and, as regards political sentiment, in the diminished admiration for Sparta which appears in the last three books. It is clear that book vi. was written after 357, since it mentions the death of Alexander of Pherae (vi. 4, 35); but the first four books were probably written a good deal earlier. 3. The Cyropaedia (Κυροπαιδεία) The Cyropaedia, in eight books, is a kind of political romance, the basis of which is the history of the Elder Cyrus, the founder of the Persian monarchy. It shows how citizens are to be made virtuous and brave; and Cyrus is the model of a wise and good ruler. As a history it has no authority at all. Xenophon adopted the current stories as to Cyrus and the chief events of his reign, without any intention of subjecting them to a critical examination; nor have we any reason to suppose that his picture of Persian morals and Persian discipline is anything more than a fiction. Xenophon's object was to represent what a State might be, and he placed the scene of his fiction far enough off to give it the colour of possibility. His own philosophical notions and the usages of Sparta were the real materials out of which he constructed his political system. The Cyropaedia is evidence enough that Xenophon did not like the political constitution of his own country, and that a wellordered monarchy or kingdom appeared to him preferable to a democracy like Athens. 4. The Agesilaüs (Ἀγησίλαος) This is a panegyric on Agesilaüs II., king of Sparta, the friend of Xenophon. The genuineness is disputed, not without reason, and a recent critic holds it to be the work of a young rhetorician of the school of Isocrates. 5. The Hipparchicus (Ἱππαρχικός) is a treatise on the duties of a commander of cavalry, and it contains many military precepts. 6. The De Re Equestri A treatise on the horse (Ἱππική), was written after the Hipparchicus, to which treatise he refers at the end of the treatise on the horse. This essay is not limited to horsemanship as regards the rider: it shows how a man is to avoid being cheated in buying a horse, how a horse is to be trained, and the like. 7. The Cynegeticus (Κυνηγετικός) is a treatise on hunting; and on the dog, and the breeding and training of dogs; on the various kinds of game, and the mode of taking them. It is a treatise written by a genuine sportsman who loved the exercise and excitement of the chase, and it may be read with pleasure by a sportsman of the present day. 8, 9. The Respublica Lacedaemoniorum and Respublica Atheniensium The two treatises on the Spartan and Athenian States (Λακεδαιμονίων Πολιτεία and Ἀθηναίων Πολιτεία), were both ascribed to Xenophon, but the Respublica Atheniensium is certainly not by his hand. It was written by some one of the oligarchical party, and possibly it is right to date it as early as 420, and therefore to regard it as the earliest Attic prose work. On the other hand, a modern critic of Xenophon (Hartmann) believes it to be by a later writer compiling from Xenophon, Aristophanes, and other sources of information. The same critic denies the genuineness of the Resp. Laced., which is more generally accepted. 10. The De Vectigalibus (Πόροι ἢ περὶ Προσόδων) A treatise on the Revenues of Athens (Πόροι ἢ περὶ Προσόδων), is designed to show how the public revenue of Athens may be improved. 11. The Memorabilia of Socrates (Ἀπομνημονεύματα Σωκράτους The Memorabilia, in four books (Ἀπομνημονεύματα Σωκράτους), was written by Xenophon to defend the memory of his master against the charge of irreligion and of corrupting the Athenian youth. Socrates is represented as holding a series of conversations, in which he develops and inculcates his moral doctrines. It is entirely a practical work, such as we might expect from the practical nature of Xenophon's mind, and it professes to exhibit Socrates as he taught. It is true that it may exhibit only one side of the Socratic argumentation, and that it does not deal in subtleties of philosophy. Xenophon was a hearer of Socrates, an admirer of his master, and anxious to defend his memory. The charges against Socrates for which he suffered were, that "Socrates was guilty of not believing in the gods which the State believed in, and introducing other new daemons (δαιμόνια): he was also guilty of corrupting the youth." Xenophon replies to these two charges specifically, and he then goes on to show what Socrates' mode of life was. The whole treatise is intended to be an answer to the charge for which Socrates was executed, and it is therefore, in its nature, not intended to be a complete exhibition of Socrates. That it is a genuine picture of the man is indisputable, and its value therefore is very great. 12. The Apology of Socrates (Ἀπολογία Σωκράτους πρὸς τοὺς Δικαστάς) is a short speech, containing the reasons which induced Socrates to prefer death to life. It is not one of the author's best works, and was possibly a rhetorical exercise much later than Xenophon. 13. The Symposium (Συμπόσιον) The Symposium, or Banquet of Philosophers, in which Xenophon delineates the character of Socrates. The speakers are supposed to meet at the house of Callias, a rich Athenian, at the celebration of the Great Panathenaea. Socrates and others are the speakers. The piece is interesting as a picture of an Athenian drinking-party, and of the amusement and conversation with which it was diversified. The nature of love and friendship is discussed. It is probable that Plato wrote his Symposium later, to some extent as a corrective. 14. The Hiero (Ἱέρων ἢ Τυραννικός) is a dialogue between King Hiero and Simonides, in which the king speaks of the dangers and difficulties incident to an exalted station, and the superior happiness of a private man. The poet, on the other hand, enumerates the advantages which the possession of power gives, and the means which it offers of obliging and doing services. 15. The Oeconomicus (Οἰκονομικός) is an excellent treatise in the form of a dialogue between Socrates and Critobulus, in which Socrates gives instruction in the art called economic, which relates to the administration of a household and of a man's property. Assessment In language as well as in politics, Xenophon was a cosmopolitan. His long residence in other lands resulted in his losing or abandoning pure Attic: he admits words from all dialects; hence he cannot be adduced as an authority for strict Attic usage, and it has been well shown by abundant instances that his diction is in many respects an anticipation of the common dialect of the Macedonian period. Manuscripts. Of each of Xenophon's treatises there are from thirty to forty manuscripts. Of the Anabasis, the best is a Codex Parisinus (No. 1640), and dating from the fourteenth century. Of the Cyropaedia, the most esteemed is also in Paris (No. 1635), of the fifteenth century, though a copy at Wolfenbüttel (Codex Guelferbytanus) of about the twelfth century is also valuable. Of the twenty-one manuscripts of the Hellenica, the best are two Codices Parisini (Nos. 1642 and 1738) of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Bibliography Editions of the whole of Xenophon are those of Dindorf, 5 vols. (1875), Henning (1863), and Sauppe (1867). The editio princeps was by Boninus, printed by P. Giunta at Florence in 1516. Good separate editions, with notes, are the following: of the Anabasis by Macmichael (1883), Cobet (1873), bks. i.-iv. by Goodwin and White (1886), Stone (1890); of the Cyropaedia by Holden (1887); of the Hellenica by Breitenbach (1873); Keller (1890); bks. i.-iv. by Manath (1888), bks. i.-ii. by Dowdall (1890); of the Memorabilia by Winans (1878), and Marshall (1891); of the Hiero by Holden (1885); of the Oeconomicus by Holden (1888); of the De Re Equestri by Morgan (1893); of the Agesilaüs by Güthling (1887); of the Symposium by Hug (1880). There is a good English translation of Xenophon by Dakyns, 2 vols. (New York, 1890-93). There is a good lexicon to Xenophon by Sturz (1801), and Sauppe's Lexilogus Xenophonteus (1865) is also recommended. There is a special Wörterbuch zur Xenophon's Anabasis by Vollbrecht (1876). See also Taylor's Syntax to the Anabasis (1880); and on Xenophon the studies by Roquette (1884) and Croiset (1873).

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Xenophon of Ephesus in Wikipedia

Xenophon of Ephesus (fl. 2nd century–3rd century?) was a Greek writer. His surviving work is the Ephesian Tale of Anthia and Habrocomes, one of the earliest novels as well as one of the sources for Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. He is not to be confused with the earlier and more famous Athenian soldier and historian, Xenophon.

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Xenŏphon in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

Of Ephesus, a writer of prose fiction, as to whose date and personality nothing is known. His remaining work is entitled Ephesiaca, or the Loves of Anthia and Abrocomas (Ἐφεσιακὰ, τὰ κατὰ Ἀνθίαν καὶ Ἀβροκόμην). The style of the work is simple, and the story is conducted without confusion, notwithstanding the number of personages introduced; but the adventures are of a very improbable kind. Xenophon was possibly the oldest of the Greek romance writers. Editions of his work are those by Peerlkamp (Haarlem, 1818); and by Passow (Leipzig, 1833). See Novels and Romances.

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Zaleucus in Wikipedia

Zaleucus (Ancient Greek: Ζάλευκος; fl. 7th century BC) was the Greek lawgiver of Epizephyrian Locri, in Italy, said to have devised the first written Greek law code ( Locrian code ). Although the Locrian code distinctly favored the aristocracy, Zaleucus was famous for his conciliation of societal factions. No other facts of his life at all are certain. According to legends, he punished adultery with the forfeiture of sight. When his own son was condemned of this, he refused to exonerate him, instead submitting to the loss of one of his own eyes instead of exacting the full penalty of the culprit. Another law that he established forbade anyone from entering the Senate House armed. Faced with an emergency, he did so anyway, but when he was reminded of the law, he immediately fell upon his sword as a sacrifice to the sovereignty of the claims of social order. A similar story is told of Charondas. Any one who proposed a new law, or the alteration of one already existing, had to appear before the Citizen's Council with a rope round his neck. If the Council voted against the proposal the proposer was immediately strangled.

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Zaleucus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Ζάλευκος). The celebrated lawgiver of the Epizephyrian Locrians, is said by some to have been originally a slave, but is described by others as a man of good family. He could not, however, have been a disciple of Pythagoras, as some writers state, since he lived upwards of one hundred years before Pythagoras. The date of the legislation of Zaleucus is assigned to B.C. 660. His code, which was severe, is stated to have been the first collection of written laws that the Greeks possessed (Strabo, pp. 259, 398). Among other enactments we are told that the penalty of adultery was the loss of the eyes (V. H. xiii. 24; Val. Max. v. 5, 3). There is a celebrated story of the son of Zaleucus having become liable to this penalty, and the father himself suffering the loss of one eye, that his son might not be utterly blinded. It is further related that among his laws was one forbidding any citizen, under penalty of death, to enter the senate-house in arms. On one occasion, however, on a sudden emergency in time of war, Zaleucus transgressed his own law, which was remarked to him by one present; whereupon he fell upon his own sword, declaring that he would himself vindicate the law (Eustath. ad Il. p. 62). Other authors tell the same story of Charondas, and of Diocles (Diod.xii. 19; Val. Max. vi. 5, 4).

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Zeno of Citium in Wikipedia

Zeno of Citium (Greek: Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieŭs; 334 BC - 262 BC) was a Greek philosopher from Citium (Greek: Κίτιον), Cyprus. Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about 300 BC. Based on the moral ideas of the Cynics, Stoicism laid great emphasis on goodness and peace of mind gained from living a life of virtue in accordance with nature. It proved very successful, and flourished as the dominant philosophy from the Hellenistic period through to the Roman era. Life Zeno was born c. 334 BC,[a] in Citium in Cyprus. Most of the details we know about his life come from the anecdotes preserved by Diogenes Laertius in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers. Zeno was the son of a Phoenician merchant and was a merchant himself,[1] when he came to Athens to learn philosophy,[2] at the age of 22.[3] The story goes that, after a shipwreck, Zeno wandered into a bookshop in Athens and was attracted to some writings about Socrates. He asked the librarian how to find such a man. In response, the librarian pointed to Crates of Thebes, the most famous Cynic living at that time in Greece.[4] Zeno is described as a haggard, tanned person,[5] living a spare, ascetic life.[6] This coincides with the influences of Cynic teaching, and was, at least in part, continued in his Stoic philosophy. In one incident during his tutelage with Crates, he was made to carry a pot of lentil soup around the city. After Zeno began carrying the pot, Crates smashed it with his staff, splattering the lentil soup all over his surprised student. When Zeno began to run off in embarrassment, Crates chided, "Why run away, my little Phoenician? Nothing terrible has befallen you!"[7] Apart from Crates, Zeno studied under the philosophers of the Megarian school, including Stilpo,[8] and the dialecticians Diodorus Cronus,[9] and Philo.[10] He is also said to have studied Platonist philosophy under the direction of Xenocrates,[11] and Polemo.[12] Zeno began teaching in the colonnade in the Agora of Athens known as the Stoa Poikile in 301 BC. His disciples were initially called Zenonians, but eventually they came to be known as Stoics, a name previously applied to poets who congregated in the Stoa Poikile.[13] Among the admirers of Zeno was king Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedonia,[14] who, whenever he came to Athens, would visit Zeno. Zeno is said to have declined an invitation to visit Antigonus in Macedonia, although their supposed correspondence preserved by Laertius[15] is undoubtably the invention of a later rhetorician. Zeno instead sent his friend and disciple Persaeus,[15] who had lived with Zeno in his house.[16] Among Zeno's other pupils there were Aristo of Chios, Sphaerus, and Cleanthes who succeeded Zeno as the head (scholarch) of the Stoic school in Athens.[17] Zeno is said to have declined Athenian citizenship when it was offered to him, fearing that he would appear unfaithful to his native land Phoenicia,[18] where he was highly esteemed.[19] We are also told that Zeno was of an earnest, if not gloomy disposition;[20] that he preferred the company of the few to the many;[21] that he was fond of burying himself in investigations;[22] and that he had a dislike to verbose and elaborate speeches.[23] Diogenes Laertius has preserved many clever and witty remarks by Zeno,[24] the veracity of which cannot be ascertained. Zeno died around 262 BC.[a] Laertius reports about his death: "As he left the school, he tripped, fell and broke a toe. Hitting the ground with his hand, he cited words of Niobe: "I am coming, why do you call me thus?"[3] Since the Stoic sage was expected to always do what was appropriate (kathekon) and Zeno was very old at the time, he felt it appropriate to die and consequently strangled himself. During his lifetime, Zeno received appreciation for his philosophical and pedagogical teachings. Amongst other things, Zeno was honored with the golden crown,[25] and a tomb was built in honor of his moral influence on the youth of his era.[26] The crater Zeno on the Moon is named in his honor. Philosophy Following the ideas of the Academics, Zeno divided philosophy into three parts: Logic (a very wide subject including rhetoric, grammar, and the theories of perception and thought); Physics (not just science, but the divine nature of the universe as well); and Ethics, the end goal of which was to achieve happiness through the right way of living according to Nature. Because Zeno's ideas were built upon by Chrysippus and other Stoics, it can be difficult to determine, in some areas, precisely what he thought, but his general views can be outlined: Logic In his treatment of Logic, Zeno was influenced by Stilpo and the other Megarians. Zeno urged the need to lay down a basis for Logic because the wise person must know how to avoid deception.[27] Cicero accused Zeno of being inferior to his philosophical predecessors in his treatment of Logic,[28] and it seems true that a more exact treatment of the subject was laid down by his successors, including Chrysippus.[29] Zeno divided true conceptions into the comprehensible and the incomprehensible,[30] permitting for free-will the power of assent (sunkatathesis) in distinguishing between sense impressions.[31] Zeno said that there were four stages in the process leading to true knowledge, which he illustrated with the example of the flat, extended hand, and the gradual closing of the fist: Zeno stretched out his fingers, and showed the palm of his hand, - "Perception," - he said, - "is a thing like this."- Then, when he had closed his fingers a little, - "Assent is like this." - Afterwards, when he had completely closed his hand, and showed his fist, that, he said, was Comprehension. From which simile he also gave that state a new name, calling it katalepsis. But when he brought his left hand against his right, and with it took a firm and tight hold of his fist: - "Knowledge" - he said, was of that character; and that was what none but a wise person possessed.[32] Physics The Universe, in Zeno's view, is God:[33] a divine reasoning entity, where all the parts belong to the whole.[34] Into this pantheistic system he incorporated the physics of Heraclitus; the Universe contains a divine artisan-fire, which foresees everything,[35] and extending throughout the Universe, must produce everything: Zeno, then, defines nature by saying that it is artistically working fire, which advances by fixed methods to creation. For he maintains that it is the main function of art to create and produce, and that what the hand accomplishes in the productions of the arts we employ, is accomplished much more artistically by nature, that is, as I said, by artistically working fire, which is the master of the other arts.[35] This divine fire,[31] or aether,[36] is the basis for all activity in the Universe,[37] operating on otherwise passive matter, which neither increases nor diminishes itself.[38] The primary substance in the Universe comes from fire, passes through the stage of air, and then becomes water: the thicker portion becoming earth, and the thinner portion becoming air again, and then rarefying back into fire.[39] Individual souls are part of the same fire as the world-soul of the Universe.[40] Following Heraclitus, Zeno adopted the view that the Universe underwent regular cycles of formation and destruction.[41] The Nature of the Universe is such that it accomplishes what is right and prevents the opposite,[42] and is identified with unconditional Fate,[43] while allowing it the free-will attributed to it.[35] Ethics Like the Cynics, Zeno recognised a single, sole and simple good,[44] which is the only goal to strive for.[45] "Happiness is a good flow of life," said Zeno,[46] and this can only be achieved through the use of right Reason coinciding with the Universal Reason, (Logos) which governs everything. A bad feeling (pathos) "is a disturbance of the mind repugnant to Reason, and against Nature."[47] This consistency of soul, out of which morally good actions spring, is Virtue,[48] true good can only consist in Virtue.[49] Zeno deviated from the Cynics in saying that things that are morally indifferent could nevertheless have value. Things have a relative value in proportion to how they aid the natural instinct for self-preservation.[50] That which is to be preferred is a "fitting action" (kathêkon), a designation Zeno first introduced.[51] Self-preservation, and the things that contribute towards it, has only a conditional value; it does not aid happiness, which depends only on moral actions.[52] Just as Virtue can only exist within the dominion of Reason, so Vice can only exist with the rejection of Reason. Virtue is absolutely opposed to Vice,[53] the two cannot exist in the same thing together, and cannot be increased or decreased;[54] no one moral action is more virtuous than another.[55] All actions are either good or bad, since impulses and desires rest upon free consent,[56] and hence even passive mental states or emotions that are not guided by reason are immoral,[57] and produce immoral actions.[58] Zeno distinguished four negative emotions: desire, fear, pleasure and pain (epithumia, phobos, hêdonê, lupê),[59] and he was probably responsible for distinguishing the three corresponding positive emotions: will, caution, and joy (boulêsis, eulabeia, chara), with no corresponding rational equivalent for pain. All errors must be rooted out, not merely set aside,[60] and replaced with right Reason. Works None of Zeno's writings have survived except as fragmentary quotations preserved by later writers. The titles of many of Zeno's writings are known; they are known to have been these:[61] * Ethical writings: o Πολιτεία - Republic o ἠθικά - Ethics o περὶ τοῦ κατὰ φύσιν βίον - On Life according to Nature o περὶ ὁρμῆς ἧ περὶ ἁνθρώρου φύσεως - On Impulse, or on the Nature of Humans o περὶ παθῶν - On Passions o περὶ τοῦ καθήκοντος - On Duty o περὶ νόμου - On Law o περὶ Έλληνικῆς παιδείας - On Greek Education o ἐρωτικὴ τέχνη - The Art of Love * Physical writings: o περὶ τοῦ ὅλου - On the Universe o περὶ οὐσίας - On Being o περὶ σημείων - On Signs o περὶ ὄψεως - On Sight o περὶ τοῦ λόγου - On the Logos * Logical writings: o διατριϐαί - Discourses o περὶ λεξεως - On Verbal Style o λύσεις, ἔλεγχοι - Solutions and Refutations * Other works: o περὶ ποιητικῆς ἀκροάσεως - On Poetical Readings o προϐλημάτων Όμηρικῶη πέντε - Homeric Problems o καθολικά - General Things o Άπομνημονεύματα Κράτητος - Reminiscences of Crates o Πυθαγορικά - Pythagorean Doctrines The most famous of these works was Zeno's Republic, a work written in conscious imitation of (or opposition to) Plato. Although it has not survived, more is known about it than any of his other works. It outlined Zeno's vision of the ideal Stoic society built on egalitarian principles.

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Zeno in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

The founder of the School of the Stoics, born at Citium, in the island of Cyprus. His father was a merchant, but, noticing in his son a strong bent towards learning, he early devoted him to the study of philosophy. In his mercantile capacity, the father had frequent occasions to visit Athens, where he purchased for the young Zeno several of the writings of the most eminent Socratic philosophers. These he read with great avidity; and, when about thirty years of age, he determined to take a voyage to a city which was so celebrated. Upon his first arrival in Athens, going accidentally into the shop of a bookseller, he took up a volume of the commentaries of Xenophon, and, after reading a few passages, was so much delighted with the work, and formed so high an idea of its author, that he asked the bookseller where he might meet with such men. Crates, the Cynic philosopher, happening at that instant to be passing by, the bookseller pointed to him, and said, "Follow that man." Zeno soon found an opportunity of attending upon the instructions of Crates, and was so well pleased with his doctrine that he became one of his disciples. But, though he highly admired the general principles and spirit of the Cynic School, he could not easily reconcile himself to their peculiar manners. Besides, his inquisitive turn of mind would not allow him to adopt that indifference to every scientific inquiry which was one of the characteristic distinctions of the sect. He therefore attended upon other masters, who professed to instruct their disciples in the nature and causes of things. When Crates, displeased at his following other philosophers, attempted to drag him by force out of the school of Stilpo, the Megarian, Zeno said to him, "You may seize my body, but Stilpo has laid hold of my mind." After continuing to attend the lectures of Stilpo for several years, he passed over to other schools, particularly those of Xenocrates and Diodorus Chronus. By the latter he was instructed in dialectics. At last, after attending almost every other teacher, he offered himself as a disciple of Polemo. This philosopher appears to have been aware that Zeno's intention in thus passing from one school to another was to collect materials from various quarters for a new system of his own; for, when he came into Polemo's school, the latter said to him, "I am no stranger to your Phœnician arts, Zeno; I perceive that your design is to creep slyly into my garden and steal away my fruit." Polemo was not mistaken in his opinion. Having made himself master of the views of others, Zeno determined to become the founder of a new sect. The place which he made choice of for his school was called the Poecilé (Ποικίλη Στοά), or "Painted Porch," a public portico, so called from the pictures of Polygnotus and other eminent masters with which it was adorned. This portico, being the most famous in Athens, was called, by way of distinction, Στοά, "the Porch." It was from this circumstance that the followers of Zeno were called Stoics (Στωϊκοί), i. e. "men of the Porch." Zeno excelled in that kind of subtle reasoning which was then popular. At the same time, he taught a strict system of moral doctrine, and exhibited a model of moral discipline in his own life. The Stoic School, in fact, was a branch of the Cynic, and, so far as respected morals, differed from it more in words than in reality. Its founder, while he avoided the eccentricities of the Cynics, retained the spirit of their moral teaching; and at the same time, from a diligent comparison of the tenets of other masters, he framed a new system of speculative philosophy. It is not at all surprising, therefore, that he obtained a considerable vogue, and even enjoyed the favour of the great. Antigonus Gonatas, king of Macedon, while residing at Athens, attended his lectures, and, upon his return, earnestly invited him to his court. Zeno, in fact, possessed so large a share of esteem among the Athenians that, on account of his approved integrity, they deposited the keys of their citadel in his hands. They also honoured him with a golden crown and a statue of bronze. Among his countrymen, the inhabitants of Cyprus, and with the Sidonians from whom his family was derived, he was likewise highly esteemed. In his person Zeno was tall and slender; his aspect was stern, and his brow contracted. His constitution was feeble, but he preserved his health by great abstemiousness. His food consisted only of figs, bread, and honey; yet his table was frequently honoured with the company of great men. He paid more attention to neatness in his personal appearance than did the Cynic philosophers. In his dress, indeed, he was plain, but this is not to be imputed to avarice, but to a contempt of external magnificence. He showed as much respect to the poor as to the rich, and conversed freely with persons of the meanest occupations. He had only one servant, or, according to Seneca, none. Although Zeno's sobriety and continence were even proverbial, he was not without enemies. Among his contemporaries, several philosophers of great ability and eloquence employed their talents against him. Arcesilaüs and Carneades, the founders of the Middle Academy, were his professed opponents. Towards the close of his life, also, he found another powerful antagonist in Epicurus (q.v.), whose temper and doctrines were alike inimical to the severe gravity and philosophical pride of the Stoic sect. Hence mutual invectives passed between the Stoics and other sects. Zeno lived to the extreme age of ninety-eight, and at last, in consequence of an accident, put an end to his life. As he was walking out of his school he fell down, and in the fall broke one of his fingers. He was so affected by this with a consciousness of infirmity that, striking the earth, he exclaimed, Ἔρχομαι, τί μ̓ ἀΰεις; "I am coming, why do you call me?" and immediately went home and strangled himself. He died B.C. 264. The Athenians, at the request of Antigonus, erected a monument to his memory in the Ceramicus. His writings, of which a list is given by Diogenes Laertius (vii. 4), have all been lost. They treated of the State, and of the Life according to Nature. For his doctrines, see Zeller, Stoics, Epicureans, and Skeptics (1870), and the articles Philosophia; Stoïci.

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Zeno of Elea in Wikipedia

Zeno of Elea (pronounced /ˈziːnoʊ əv ˈɛliə/, Greek: Ζήνων ὁ Ἐλεάτης) (ca. 490 BC? – ca. 430 BC?) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of southern Italy and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides. Aristotle called him the inventor of the dialectic.[1] He is best known for his paradoxes, which Bertrand Russell has described as "immeasurably subtle and profound".[2] Life Little is known for certain about Zeno's life. Although written nearly a century after Zeno's death, the primary source of biographical information about Zeno is the dialogue of Plato called the Parmenides.[3] In the dialogue, Plato describes a visit to Athens by Zeno and Parmenides, at a time when Parmenides is "about 65," Zeno is "nearly 40" (Parmenides 127b) and Socrates is "a very young man" (Parmenides 127c). Assuming an age for Socrates of around 20, and taking the date of Socrates' birth as 469 bc. gives an approximate date of birth for Zeno of 490 bc. ad Plato says that Zeno was "tall and fair to look upon" and was "in the days of his youth … reported to have been beloved by Parmenides" (Parmenides 127b). Other perhaps less reliable details of Zeno's life are given by Diogenes Laertius in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers,[4] where it is reported that he was the son of Teleutagoras, but the adopted son of Parmenides, was "skilled to argue both sides of any question, the universal critic," and that he was arrested and perhaps killed at the hands of a tyrant of Elea. According to Plutarch, Zeno attempted to kill the tyrant Demylus, and failing to do so, "with his own teeth bit off his tongue, he spit it in the tyrant’s face."[5] Works Although many ancient writers refer to the writings of Zeno, none of his writings survive intact. Plato says that Zeno's writings were "brought to Athens for the first time on the occasion of" the visit of Zeno and Parmenides (Parmenides 127c). Plato also has Zeno say that this work, "meant to protect the arguments of Parmenides" (Parmenides 128c), was written in Zeno's youth, stolen, and published without his consent (Parmenides 128e). Plato has Socrates paraphrase the "first thesis of the first argument" of Zeno's work as follows: "if being is many, it must be both like and unlike, and this is impossible, for neither can the like be unlike, nor the unlike like" (Parmenides 127d,e). According to Proclus in his Commentary on Plato's Parmenides, Zeno produced "not less than forty arguments revealing contradictions" (p. 29), but only nine are now known. Zeno's arguments are perhaps the first examples of a method of proof called reductio ad absurdum, literally meaning to reduce to the absurd. Parmenides is said[citation needed] to be the first individual to implement this style of argument. This form of argument soon became known as the epicheirema (ἐπιχείρημα). In Book VII of his Topica, Aristotle says that an epicheirema is a dialectical syllogism. It is a connected piece of reasoning which an opponent has put forward as true. The disputant sets out to break down the dialectical syllogism. This destructive method of argument was maintained by him to such a degree that Seneca the Younger commented a few centuries later, If I accede to Parmenides there is nothing left but the One; if I accede to Zeno, not even the One is left.[6] Zeno's paradoxes Zeno's paradoxes have puzzled, challenged, influenced, inspired, infuriated, and amused philosophers, mathematicians, and physicists for over two millennia. The most famous are the so-called "arguments against motion" described by Aristotle in his Physics.[7]

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Zeno in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

The Eleatic philosopher, a native of Elea (Velia) in Italy, son of Teleutagoras, and the favourite disciple of Parmenides. He was born about B.C. 488, and at the age of forty accompanied Parmenides to Athens. (See Parmenides.) He appears to have resided some time at Athens, and is said to have unfolded his doctrines to men like Pericles and Callias for the price of 100 minae. Zeno is said to have taken part in the legislation of Parmenides, to the maintenance of which the citizens of Elea had pledged themselves every year by an oath. His love of freedom is shown by the courage with which he exposed his life in order to deliver his native country from a tyrant. Whether he perished in the attempt or survived the fall of the tyrant is a point on which the authorities vary. They also state the name of the tyranny differently. Zeno devoted all his energies to explain and develop the philosophical system of Parmenides. See Zeller's Pre-Socratic Schools (1881).

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Zeno of Sidon in wikipedia

Zeno of Sidon (c. 150-c. 75 BC[1]) was an Epicurean philosopher. His writings do not survive, but there are some epitomes of his lectures preserved among the writings of his pupil Philodemus. Life Zeno was born in the city of Sidon in Phoenicia. He was a contemporary of Cicero, who heard him when at Athens.[2][3] He was sometimes termed the "leading Epicurean" (Latin: Coryphaeus Epicureorum).[2] Cicero states that Zeno was contemptuous of other philosophers, and even called Socrates "the Attic Buffoon."[4] He was a disciple of Apollodorus,[5] and Cicero and Diogenes Laertius both describe him as an accurate and polished thinker.[2][6] Philosophy Zeno held that happiness is not merely dependent upon present enjoyment and prosperity, but also on a reasonable expectation of their continuance and appreciation.[3] Zeno's writings have not survived, but among the charred papyrus remains at the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, there is an Epitome of Conduct and Character from the Lectures of Zeno written by his pupil Philodemus. It contains the essays On Frank Criticism[7] and On Anger.[8] Zeno also studied the philosophy of mathematics based on the derivation of all knowledge from experience. He criticized Euclid, seeking to show that deductions from the fundamental principles (Greek: ἀρχαί) of geometry cannot, on their own, be proved: [Some] admit the principles but deny that the propositions coming after the principles can be demonstrated unless they grant something that is not contained in the principles. This method of controversy was followed by Zeno of Sidon, who belonged to the school of Epicurus, and against whom Posidonius has written a whole book.[9]

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Zeno in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

An Epicurean philosopher, a native of Sidon, and a contemporary of Cicero, who heard him when at Athens. He was sometimes termed Coryphaeus Epicureorum. He seems to have been noted for the disrespectful terms in which he spoke of other philosophers, calling, for instance, Socrates "the Attic buffoon." He was a disciple of Apollodorus, and is described as a clear-headed thinker and perspicacious expounder of his views.

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Zenobius in Wikipedia

Zenobius was a Greek sophist, who taught rhetoric at Rome during the reign of Emperor Hadrian (AD 117-138).[1] Biography He was the author of a collection of proverbs in three books, still extant in an abridged form, compiled, according to the Suda, from Didymus of Alexandria and "The Tarrhaean" (Lucillus of Tarrha, a polis in Crete). In the work, the proverbs are alphabetised and grouped by hundreds. This collection was first printed by Filippo Giunti in Florence, 1497. Zenobius is also said to have been the author of a Greek translation of the Latin prose author Sallust, which has been lost, and of a birthday poem on the emperor Hadrian.

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Zenobius in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Ζηνόβιος). A Greek Sophist of Antioch, who lived at Rome as teacher of rhetoric in the first half of the second century B.C., and, availing himself of the works of earlier writers, made a collection of proverbs, still extant in an abridged form, arranged alphabetically and divided into hundreds. In all there are 552, the last division being incomplete. They are printed by Schott in his Paroemiae Hellenicae (Antwerp, 1612). See Jungblut, De Zenobio (1882).

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Zenodorus in Wikipedia

Zenodorus is a spider genus of the Salticidae family (jumping spiders). They are distributed from the Moluccas to Australia, including several islands of the Pacific. At least one species, Z. orbiculatus, specializes on hunting ants. Species * Zenodorus albertisi (Thorell, 1881) - Moluccas to Queensland * Zenodorus arcipluvii (Peckham & Peckham, 1901) - New Hebrides, Australia * Zenodorus asper (Karsch, 1878) - New South Wales, New Caledonia * Zenodorus danae Hogg, 1915 - New Guinea * Zenodorus durvillei (Walckenaer, 1837) - New Guinea, Australia * Zenodorus formosus (Rainbow, 1899) - Solomon Islands * Zenodorus jucundus (Rainbow, 1912) - Northern Territory * Zenodorus juliae (Thorell, 1881) - New Guinea * Zenodorus lepidus (Guérin, 1834) - New Guinea * Zenodorus marginatus (Simon, 1902) - Queensland * Zenodorus metallescens (L. Koch, 1879) - Queensland, New Guinea * Zenodorus microphthalmus (L. Koch, 1881) - Pacific Islands * Zenodorus niger (Karsch, 1878) - New South Wales * Zenodorus obscurofemoratus (Keyserling, 1883) - New South Wales * Zenodorus orbiculatus (Keyserling, 1881) - Queensland, New South Wales * Zenodorus ponapensis Berry, Beatty & Prószynski, 1996 - Caroline Islands * Zenodorus pupulus (Thorell, 1881) - Queensland * Zenodorus pusillus (Strand, 1913) - Samoa, Tahiti * Zenodorus rhodopae Hogg, 1915 - New Guinea * Zenodorus syrinx Hogg, 1915 - New Guinea * Zenodorus variatus Pocock, 1899 - Solomon Islands * Zenodorus varicans (Thorell, 1881) - Queensland * Zenodorus wangillus Strand, 1911 - Aru Islands

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Zenodōrus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Ζηνόδωρος). A Greek statuary, whose native country is uncertain. He practised his art in Cisalpine Gaul, and also in Rome during the reign of Nero. Pliny speaks of a Mercury of his, and also of a colossal statue of Nero 110 feet high, afterwards dedicated to the Sun on the downfall of that emperor. See Colossus.

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Aelius Theon in Wikipedia

Aelius Theon (Ancient Greek: Αἴλιος Θέων; gen.: Αἰλίου Θέωνος) was an Alexandrian sophist and author of a collection of preliminary exercises (progymnasmata) for the training of orators. He probably lived and wrote in the mid to late first century A.D. and his treatise is the earliest treatment of these exercises. The work (extant, though incomplete), which probably formed an appendix to a manual of rhetoric, shows learning and taste, and contains valuable notices on the style and speeches of the masters of Attic oratory. Theon also wrote commentaries on Xenophon, Isocrates and Demosthenes, and treatises on style. He is to be distinguished from the Stoic Theon, who lived in the time of Augustus and also wrote on rhetoric. "Narrative is language descriptive of things that have happened or as if they had happened." Aelius Theon

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Theophilus in Wikipedia

Theophilus is a male given name with a range of alternative spellings. Its origin is the Greek word Θεόφιλος which means "Friend of God", i.e., it is a theophoric name, synonymous with the name Amadeus which originates from Latin. Theophilus may refer to: People Arts * Theophilus Presbyter - (1070–1125), Benedictine monk, and author of the best-known medieval "how-to" guide to several arts, including oil painting - thought to be a pseudonym of Roger of Helmarshausen * Teófilo Braga * Theophilus Cibber - (1703–1758), English actor, playwright, author, son of the actor-manager Colley Cibber * Theophilos Hatzimihail - (ca. 1870–1934), Greek folk painter from Lesbos * Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - 18th century composer whose baptismal name was Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Fictitious * Theophilus P. Wildebeeste, a character created by Lenny Henry * Professor Theophilus Branestawm, the protagonist of the Professor Branestawm series of children's books * Theophilus Msimangu, a character in Alan Paton's Cry, the Beloved Country. * Theophilus Toad, a character based from 'Wind in the Willows' used in Counselling for Toads by Robert de Board. Historical * Theophilus (geographer) - ancient Greek geographer * Theophilos (king) - Indo-Greek king who ruled c. 90 BC * Theophilus (Biblical) is the name of a person or an honorary title to whom the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles is addressed * Theophilus Protospatharius - (c. 7th century), Byzantine medical writer * Theophilos (emperor) - (813–842), Byzantine Emperor (r. 829–842), the second of the Phrygian dynasty Politics * Teófilo Borunda * Theophilus Bradbury - (1739–1803), U.S. Representative from Massachusetts * Theophilus Danjuma, influential Nigerian soldier and politician * William Theophilus Dortch - (1824–1889), prominent Confederate politician * Theophilus Eaton - (1590–1658), merchant, farmer, Puritan colonial leader, co-founder and first governor of New Haven Colony, Connecticut * Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk - (1584–1640), English nobleman and politician * Theophilus Shepstone - (1817–1893), British South African statesman Military * Theophilos Kourkouas, distinguished 10th-century Byzantine general, grandfather of emperor John I Tzimiskes * Theophilos Erotikos, Byzantine general and governor, rebel in Cyprus in 1042 * Theophilus H. Holmes - (1804–1880), career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War * Theophilus Weeks - (1708–1772), soldier in the French and Indian War Religious eligious * Theophilus of Antioch - (c. 163–182), early Christian patriarch * Theophilus, bishop of Caesarea - (d. 195) * Theophilos the Indian - (d. 364) Arian bishop, also called "The Ethiopian", probably from the Maldive Islands * Pope Theophilus of Alexandria - (d. 412) Patriarch of Alexandria * Theophilus of Adana - (d. c. 538) bishop who made a pact with the devil * Pope Theophilus II of Alexandria - Coptic Pope of Alexandria (953–956) and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark * Theophilus Presbyter - (1070–1125), Benedictine monk, author, metallurgist, artist and armourer - thought to be a pseudonym of Roger of Helmarshausen * Theophilus Gale - (1628–1678), English nonconformist divine * Theophilus Lindsey - (1723–1808), English theologian * Patriarch Theofilos III of Jerusalem - current patriarch of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem * Theophilus, martyr and saint (see Dorothea of Caesarea) * Theophilus of Kiev, a monk and saint - see Abraham and Onesimus of Kiev Sports Teófilo Cubillas Philosophy One of Leibniz's interlocutors in his book New Essays on Human Understanding Others * Theophilus Carter, British inventor and furniture dealer * Theophilus Cazenove - (1740–1811), financier and one of the agents of the Holland Land Company * John Theophilus Desaguliers - (1683–1744), natural philosopher born in France

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Thespis in Wikipedia

Thespis of Icaria (present-day Dionysos, Greece) (6th century BC), according to certain Ancient Greek sources and especially Aristotle, was the first person ever to appear on stage as an actor playing a character in a play (instead of speaking as him or herself). In other sources, he is said to have introduced the first principal actor in addition to the chorus.[1] According to Aristotle[2], writing nearly two centuries later, Thespis was a singer of dithyrambs (songs about stories from mythology with choric refrains). Thespis supposedly introduced a new style in which one singer or actor performed the words of individual characters in the stories, distinguishing between the characters with the aid of different masks. This new style was called tragedy, and Thespis was the most popular exponent of it. Eventually, on November 23, 534 BC, competitions to find the best tragedy were instituted at the City Dionysia in Athens, and Thespis won the first documented competition. Capitalising on his success, Thespis also invented theatrical touring: he would tour various cities while carrying his costumes, masks and other props in a horse-drawn wagon (see picture, right). It is implied that Thespis invented acting in the Western world, and that prior to his performances, no one had ever assumed the resemblance of another person for the purpose of storytelling: In fact, Thespis is the first known actor in written plays. He may thus have had a substantial role in changing the way stories were said and inventing theater as we know it today. In reverence to Thespis, actors throughout western history have been referred to as thespians. Titles of some plays have been attributed to Thespis. But most modern scholars, following the suggestion of Diogenes Laertius, consider them to be forgeries, some forged by the philosopher Heraclides Ponticus, others by or altered by Christian writers:[3][4] * Contest of Pelias and Phorbas * Hiereis (Priests) * Hitheoi (Demi-gods) * Pentheus Fragments (probably spurious) in A Nauck, Tragicorum graecorum fragmenta (1887).[5] A branch of the National Theater of Greece expressly instituted in 1939 to tour the country is named "The Wagon of Thespis" (Greek: Άρμα Θέσπιδος, Árma Théspidos) in his honour.

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Thespis in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Θέσπις). The father of Greek Tragedy. He was a contemporary of Pisistratus, and a native of Icarus, one of the demes in Attica, where the worship of Dionysus had long prevailed. The alteration made by Thespis , which gave to the old Tragedy a new and dramatic character, was very simple but very important. Before his time the leader of the Chorus had recited the adventures of Dionysus and had been answered by the Chorus. Thespis introduced an actor (ὑποκριτής, or "answerer") to reply to the leader of the Chorus. It is clear that, though the performance still remained, as far as can be gathered, chiefly lyrical, and the dialogue was of comparatively small account, yet a decided step towards the drama had been made. Some modern scholars have credited Horace's statement that Thespis went about in a wagon as a strolling player (A. P. 276). It is suggested that the expressions for the freedom of jesting at the festival of the Lenaea (τὰ ἐξ ἁμαξῶν, ἐξ ἁμάξης ὑβρίζειν) may have given rise to the story. See Tragoedia.

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Thessalus in Wikipedia

In Greek mythology, the name Thessalus is attributed to three individuals. * Thessalus was the son of Jason and Medea and the twin of Alcimenes. After the adventures of the Argonauts and the death of Acastus, Thessalus became king of Iolcus. He gave his name to the land of Thessaly, in which Iolcus lies. * Thessalus was also the name of a son of Heracles. * Thessalus was the name of the son of Haemon for whom Thessaly was named.

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Thessălus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

1. A Greek physician, son of Hippocrates. He passed some of his time at the court of Archelaüs, king of Macedonia, who reigned B.C. 413-399. He was one of the founders of the sect of the Dogmatici, and is several times highly praised by Galen, who calls him the most eminent of the sons of Hippocrates. He was supposed by some of the ancient writers to be the author of several of the works that form part of the Hippocratic Collection, which he might have compiled from notes left by his father. 2. Also a Greek physician, a native of Tralles in Lydia, and one of the founders of the medical sect of the Methodici. He lived at Rome in the reign of the emperor Nero, A.D. 54-68, to whom he addressed one of his works; and he died and was buried, and his tomb was to be seen in Pliny 's time, on the Via Appia. He considered himself superior to all his predecessors. He is frequently mentioned by Galen, but always in terms of contempt and ridicule. None of his works are extant.

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Thimbron in Wikipedia

Thimbron or Thibron (Greek: Θίμβρων) may refer to: * a Lacedaemonian , he was sent out as harmost in 400 BC, with an army of about 5000 men, to aid the Ionians against Tissaphernes, who wished to bring them into subjection. Thibron raised a substantial force of Peloponnesian troops and levies from other cities around Greece, but was initially unable to face the Persian army in the field.[1] After he was joined by elements of the Ten Thousand, he challenged and defeated the Persian army on several occasions; seizing several cities before settling in to besiege Larissa.[2] That siege proved fruitless, and Thibron was ordered to abandon it, and then replaced by another general, Dercylidas, before he could launch his next campaign.[3] Upon his return to Sparta Thibron was tried and exiled for allowing his troops to plunder Sparta's allies in the region.[4] In 391 BC, during the Corinthian War, Thibron was again dispatched to Ionia with an army, and was ordered to take aggressive action against the Persian satrap Struthas, who was pursuing a pro-Athenian, anti-Spartan policy.[5] Thibron launched a number of successful raids into Persian territory. His raids tended to be poorly organized, however, and Struthas took advantage of this to ambush one of Thibron's raiding parties. The Spartans were routed, and a large number of them, including Thibron, were killed.[6] * a Lacedaemonian, he was a confidential officer of Harpalus, the Macedonian satrap of Babylon under Alexander the Great. According to one account it was Thimbron who murdered Harpalus in Crete, in 324 BC. He then possessed himself of his late master's treasures, fleet, and army, and, ostensibly espousing the cause of some Cyrenaean exiles, sailed to Cyrene with the intention of subjugating it. He defeated the Cyrenaeans in a battle, obtained possession of their harbour, Apollonia, Cyrenaica together with the treasures he found there, and compelled them to capitulate on condition of paying him 500 talents, and supplying him with half of their war-chariots for his expeditions. This agreement, however, they were soon induced to repudiate by Mnasicles, one of Thimbron's officers, who had deserted his standard, and gone over to the enemy. Under the able direction of Mnasicles, the Cyrenaeans recovered Apollonia, and, though Thimbron was aided by the Barcaeans and Hesperians, and succeeded in taking the town of Taucheira , yet, on the whole, his fortunes declined, and he met be sides with a severe disaster in the loss of a great number of his men, who were slain or captured by the enemy, and in the almost total destruction of his fleet by a storm. Not discouraged, however, he collected reinforcements from the Peloponnesus, defeated the Cyrenaeans (who were now aided by the Libyans and Carthaginians), and closely besieged Cyrene. Pressed by scarcity, the citizens quarrelled among themselves, and the chiefs of the oligarchical party, being driven out, betook themselves partly to Ptolemy I Soter, king of Egypt, and partly to Thimbron. Ptolemy thereupon sent a large force against Cyrene under Ophellas, to whom the exiles, who had taken refuge with Thimbron, endeavoured to escape, but were detected, and put to death. The Cyrenaean people then made common cause with Thimbron against the new invader; but Ophelias defeated him, and he was obliged to seek safety in flight. He fell, however, into the hands of some Libyans, and was by them delivered up to Epicydes, an Olynthian, whom Ophelias, having taken Teucheira, had made governor of the town. The citizens of Teucheira, with the sanction of Ophelias, sent Thimbron to Apollonia, the scene of much of his violence and extortion, to be crucified in 322 BC.

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Thrasybulus in Wikipedia

Thrasybulus (pronounced /ˌθræsɨˈbjuːləs/; Ancient Greek: Θρασύβουλος 'brave-willed'; d. 388 BC) was an Athenian general and democratic leader. In 411 BC, in the wake of an oligarchic coup at Athens, the pro-democracy sailors at Samos elected him as a general, making him a primary leader of the successful democratic resistance to that coup. As general, he was responsible for recalling the controversial nobleman Alcibiades from exile, and the two worked together extensively over the next several years. In 411 and 410, Thrasybulus commanded along with Alcibiades and others at several critical Athenian naval victories. After Athens' defeat in the Peloponnesian War, Thrasybulus led the democratic resistance to the new oligarchic government, known as the Thirty Tyrants, that the victorious Spartans imposed on Athens. In 404 BC, he commanded a small force of exiles that invaded Attica and, in successive battles, defeated first a Spartan garrison and then the forces of the oligarchy. In the wake of these victories, democracy was re-established at Athens. As a leader of this revived democracy in the 4th century BC, Thrasybulus advocated a policy of resistance to Sparta and sought to restore Athens' imperial power. He was killed in 388 BC while leading an Athenian naval force during the Corinthian War. Personal life and early career Almost nothing is known of Thrasybulus's background or early life. His father was named Lycus,[1] and he was a native of the deme of Steiria in Athens.[2] He was probably born between 455 and 441 BC, although a date as late as the late 430s BC cannot be ruled out. He was married, and had two children. Several facts make it clear that he was from a wealthy family; he held the office of trierarch,[3] which involved significant personal expenditures, on several occasions, and in the fourth century his son was able to pay a substantial fine of 10 talents.[4] By 411 BC, Thrasybulus was clearly established to some degree as a pro-democracy politician, as events discussed below make clear. He is not mentioned in any sources before 411, so it is impossible to present a picture of his actions. As a politician, Thrasybulus consistently advocated several policies throughout his career. He was an advocate of Athenian imperialism and expansionism, and a strong supporter of Periclean democracy. He seems to have been an unspectacular public speaker, although Plutarch notes that he had "the loudest voice of the Athenians."[5] During his period of prominence within the democracy, he seems to have led what might now be termed a populist faction.[6] Coup of 411 BC In 413 BC, a massive Athenian expedition force was completely obliterated in Sicily. In the wake of this defeat, Athens found itself facing a crisis of unprecedented magnitude. Cities throughout its Aegean empire began to rebel, and a Peloponnesian fleet sailed to assist them. Seeking to contain the crisis, Athens tapped its reserve fund to rebuild its fleet and dispatched what ships it had to establish an advance naval base at Samos. In this general atmosphere of crisis, aristocrats at Athens who had long desired to overthrow the democracy there began to agitate publicly for a change of government, and formed a conspiracy to bring an oligarchy to power in Athens. Their plans included recalling Alcibiades, who had been exiled by the democratic government. These oligarchs initiated their plans at Samos, where they successfully encouraged a number of Samian oligarchs to begin a similar conspiracy.[7] A dispute has arisen among modern historians over Thrasybulus' involvement in this plot. Donald Kagan has suggested that Thrasybulus was one of the founding members of the scheme and was willing to support moderate oligarchy, but was alienated by the extreme actions taken by the plotters.[8] R.J. Buck, on the other hand, maintains that Thrasybulus was probably never involved in the plot, possibly because he was absent from Samos at the time of its inception.[9] Upon their return to Athens, the conspirators succeeded in ending democratic rule and imposing an oligarchy of 400 rulers. At Samos, however, the coup did not go forward so smoothly. Samian democrats learned of the conspiracy and notified four prominent Athenians, the generals Leon and Diomedon, Thrasybulus, and Thrasyllus, at that time a hoplite in the ranks. With the support of these men and the Athenian soldiers in general, the Samian democrats were able to defeat the conspirators when they attempted to seize power.[7] A ship was dispatched to Athens to notify the city of this success against the oligarchs. Upon its arrival, however, the crew was arrested, as the news of a democratic victory was far from welcome to the new oligarchic government. Learning of this, the army at Samos deposed its generals and elected new generals who were believed to be more steadfast in their support of democracy, Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus among them. The army, stating that they had not revolted from the city but that the city had revolted from them, resolved to stand by the democracy while continuing to prosecute the war against Sparta.[10] One of the first actions Thrasybulus took as general was to bring about the recall of Alcibiades, a policy that he had supported since before the coup. After persuading the sailors to support his plan, Thrasybulus sailed to retrieve Alcibiades and returned with him to Samos. The aim of this policy was to win away Persian support from the Spartans, as it was believed that Alcibiades had great influence with Tissaphernes. Alcibiades was elected as general alongside Thrasybulus and the others.[11] Shortly after this, following the revolt of Euboea, the government of the 400 at Athens was overthrown and replaced by a broader oligarchy, which would eventually give way to democracy.[12] In command In the months following these events, Thrasybulus commanded the Athenian fleet in several major engagements. At the Battle of Cynossema, he commanded one wing of the fleet and prevented Athenian defeat by extending his flank to prevent encirclement; the battle ended in Athenian victory.[13] Shortly afterwards Thrasybulus again commanded a wing of the Athenian fleet at Abydos, another Athenian victory.[14] Thrasybulus was again in command of a squadron of the Athenian fleet at the Battle of Cyzicus, a stunning Athenian victory. In this battle, the Athenians drew the Spartan fleet out to pursue a small force led by Alcibiades; when the Spartans had gotten a good distance from land, two squadrons under the command of Thrasybulus and Theramenes appeared in their rear to cut off their retreat. The Spartans were forced to flee to a nearby beach, where Alcibiades landed his men in an attempt to seize the Spartan ships. The Spartans, however, with the assistance of a Persian army, began to drive this Athenian force into the sea; seeing this, Thrasybulus landed his own force to temporarily relieve pressure on Alcibiades, and meanwhile ordered Theramenes to join up with Athenian land forces nearby and bring them to reinforce the sailors and marines on the beach. The Spartans and Persians, overwhelmed by the arrival of multiple forces from several directions, were defeated and driven off, and the Athenians captured all the Spartan ships which were not destroyed.[15] In 409 and 408, Thrasybulus remained in command, but his actions are difficult to trace. He appears to have spent much of the time campaigning in Thrace, recapturing cities for the empire and restoring the flow of tribute from the region. In 407 BC, he was in command of a fleet sent to besiege Phocaea; this siege had to be lifted, however, after the Spartans under Lysander defeated the main Athenian fleet at Notium. This defeat led to the downfall and exile of Alcibiades. Thrasybulus was either removed from command on the spot by Alcibiades or not reelected at the end of his term; either way, he was out of office from then until the end of the war.[16] Thrasybulus did return to action, however, at the Battle of Arginusae in 406 BC. There, he was a trierarch in the Athenian relief fleet sent out to assist the admiral Conon, who was blockaded at Mytilene. That battle was a major Athenian victory; after the battle, the generals in charge took the majority of their ships to attack the Peloponnesian fleet blockading Conon, leaving behind a force under Thrasybulus and his fellow trierarch Theramenes to rescue the survivors. This operation was thwarted, however, by a sudden storm which drove the rescue force to land, and a great number of Athenians-estimates as to the precise figure have ranged from near 1,000 to as many as 5,000-drowned.[17] The result was one of the great Athenian political scandals of the war, which culminated in a vicious debate between Theramenes and the generals at Athens over who was to blame for the disaster, after which the generals were executed. Thrasybulus, for unknown reasons, seems to have had very little involvement in this debate.[18] The Thirty Tyrants In 404 BC, following a defeat at the Battle of Aegospotami, Athens was forced to surrender, ending the Peloponnesian War. In the wake of this surrender, the Spartan navarch Lysander imposed a strict oligarchic government on Athens, which came to be known as the Thirty Tyrants. This government executed a number of citizens and deprived all but a few of their rights, eventually growing so extreme that even the moderate oligarch Theramenes fell afoul of the government and was executed. Fearing for their lives, numerous Athenians fled to Thebes.[19] Thrasybulus had been one of the first to oppose the oligarchy and had been exiled to Thebes shortly after its rise to power.[20] There, he was welcomed and supported by the Theban leader Ismenias and his followers, who assisted him in preparing for a return to Athens. In 403 BC, he led a party of 70 exiles to seize Phyle, a defensible location on the border of Attica and Boeotia. A storm prevented the forces of the Thirty from expelling him immediately, and numerous exiles flocked to join him. When the Spartan garrison of Athens, supported by Athenian cavalry, was sent out to oppose him, Thrasybulus led his force, now 700 strong, in a surprise daybreak raid on their camp, killing 120 Spartans and putting the rest to flight. Five days later, Thrasybulus led his force, which had already grown to the point that he could leave 200 men at Phyle while taking 1,000 with him, to Piraeus, the port of Athens. There, he fortified the Munychia, a hill that dominated the port, and awaited the coming attack. The forces of the Thirty, supported by the Spartan garrison, marched to Piraeus to attack him. Thrasybulus and his men were outnumbered 5 to 1, but held a superior position and presumably benefited from consternation amidst the ranks of the oligarchs. In the battle, the exiles put the oligarchic forces to flight, killing Critias, the leader of the Thirty.[21] After this victory, the remainder of the Thirty fled to Eleusis, and the oligarchs within Athens began squabbling amongst themselves. New leaders were selected, but were unable to deal with Thrasybulus, and were forced to send to Sparta for help. From Sparta, however, came not the aggressive Lysander, but the more conservative Pausanias. Pausanias' force narrowly defeated Thrasybulus' men, but only with great effort, and, unwilling to push the issue, he arranged a settlement between the forces of Thrasybulus and the oligarchs in the city. Democracy was restored, while those oligarchs who wished to do so withdrew to Eleusis.[22] In power, Thrasybulus pushed through a law which pardoned all but a few of the oligarchs, preventing a brutal reprisal by the victorious democrats. For his actions, Thrasybulus was awarded an olive crown by his countrymen.[20] Later actions In the revived democracy established in 403 BC, Thrasybulus became a major and prestigious leader, although he was soon superseded at the head of the state by Archinus. Thrasybulus seems to have advocated a more radically democratic policy than the populace was willing to accept at the time; he called for reinstating pay for political service, and sought to extend citizenship to all the metics and foreigners who had fought alongside him against the Thirty. He was initially cautious about offending Sparta, but, when Persian support became available at the start of the Corinthian War, he became an advocate of aggressive action, and about this time seems to have regained his preeminence in Athenian politics. He initiated the rebuilding of the long walls, which had been demolished at the end of the Peloponnesian War, and commanded the Athenian contingents at Nemea and Coronea; these two defeats, however, damaged his political stature, and he was replaced at the head of the state by Conon, whose victory at Cnidus had ended Sparta's dreams of naval empire.[23] Thrasybulus largely faded from view for several years as Conon led the Athenian fleet to a series of victories, but in 392 BC Conon was imprisoned by the Persian satrap Tiribazus while attending a peace conference at Sardis; although released, he died in Cyprus without returning to Athens. Thrasybulus, leading the faction that sought to reject the peace offer, regained his position atop Athenian politics. In 389 BC, he led a force of triremes to levy tribute from cities around the Aegean and support Rhodes, where a democratic government was struggling against Sparta. On this campaign, Thrasybulus relaid much of the framework for an Athenian empire on the fifth century model; he captured Byzantium, imposed a duty on ships passing through the Hellespont, and collected tribute from many of the islands of the Aegean.[24] In 388 BC, as he led his fleet South through the Aegean, his soldiers ravaged the fields of Aspendus. In retaliation, the Aspendians raided the Athenian camp by night; Thrasybulus was killed in his tent.[25] The gains that Thrasybulus made on this campaign were soon reversed, however, by Persian intervention. Alarmed by the sudden reappearance of something resembling the Athenian empire that had driven them from the Aegean in the fifth century, the Persians began supporting Sparta, and a Persian fleet was soon in the Hellespont, threatening Athens' grain supply. Peace was quickly concluded, on the same terms that the Athenians had rejected in 392; Thrasybulus' campaigns, though impressively successful in spreading Athenian influence, had little long-term effect, since they prompted Persia to force the Athenians to give up what they had gained.[26] Historical opinions Thrasybulus has been widely recognized as a successful military commander. Most of the major ancient historians assigned credit for the dramatic Athenian victories of 411 BC to Alcibiades, but a few, such as Cornelius Nepos, pointed to the decisive role that was played in these battles by Thrasybulus. More recent historians, such as Donald Kagan and R.J. Buck, have tended to support this analysis, pointing to the role that Thrasybulus played in crafting Athenian strategy in all these battles, and specifically to the decisive action he took at Cyzicus, which saved Alcibiades's force from being swamped, and turned a potential Athenian defeat into a stunning victory.[27][28] R.J. Buck has suggested that Thrasybulus suffered from an "anti-democratic tradition of ancient historiography," which led many writers to minimize the accomplishments of one of democracy's strongest advocates.[29] Throughout his career, Thrasybulus defended democracy at Athens against its opponents. He was one of the few prominent citizens whom the Samians trusted to defend their democracy, and whom the fleet selected to lead it through the troubled time of conflict with the 400. Later, in his opposition to the Thirty Tyrants, Thrasybulus risked his life when few others would, and his actions were responsible for the quick restoration of democracy. In the words of Cornelius Nepos, " This most noble action, then, is entirely Thrasybulus's; for when the Thirty Tyrants, appointed by the Lacedaemonians, kept Athens oppressed in a state of slavery, and had partly banished from their country, and partly put to death, a great number of the citizens whom fortune had spared in the war, and had divided their confiscated property among themselves, he was not only the first, but the only man at the commencement, to declare war against them.[20] " John Fine points to the clemency shown by Thrasybulus and other democrats in the wake of their victory over the Thirty as a key contribution towards reestablishing stable government in Athens. While many city-states throughout the Greek world broke down into vicious cycles of civil war and reprisal, Athens remained united and democratic, without interruption, until near the end of the third century, and democracy, albeit interrupted several times by conquest or revolution, continued there until Roman times, several centuries later.[30] Thus Thrasybulus won praise as an Athenian patriot and staunch, principled democrat. He has been criticized by modern historians, however, for failing to recognize that Athens in the 4th century could not sustain an imperial policy.[31] R.J. Buck suggests that Thrasybulus, who came of age in the heady days when the democracy and empire under Pericles were at their fullest extent, never accepted that the devastating losses Athens had suffered in the Peloponnesian War made the return of those times impossible.[32] Thrasybulus was a capable general, particularly successful in naval warfare, and a competent speaker, but was frequently overshadowed or pushed aside by more charismatic or spectacularly successful leaders. Buck has compared him to Winston Churchill, another advocate of imperial policies who held fast to his beliefs after the tide of history had turned against him, and who rose to his peak of prominence at his country's darkest hour. Throughout his two decades of prominence, whether in or out of leadership, Thrasybulus remained a steady advocate of traditional Athenian imperial democracy, and he died fighting for the same cause he was advocating on his first appearance in 411.

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Thrasybūlus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Θρασύβουλος). A celebrated Athenian, son of Lycus. He was zealously attached to the Athenian democracy, and took an active part in overthrowing the oligarchical government of the 400 in B.C. 403. See Thirty Tyrants.

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Thrasyllus in Wikipedia

Thrasyllus (d. 406 BC) was an Athenian strategos (general) and statesman who rose to prominence in the later years of the Peloponnesian War. First appearing in Athenian politics in 410 BC, in the wake of the Athenian coup of 411 BC, he played a role in organizing democratic resistance in an Athenian fleet at Samos. There, he was elected strategos by the sailors and soldiers of the fleet, and held the position until he was controversially executed several years later after the Battle of Arginusae. After the coup Thrasyllus was only a hoplite (heavy infantryman) in the ranks in 410 BC, when Athenian oligarchic revolutionaries conspired with their counterparts at Samos in a coup at both locations, but was one of four Athenians (the others were Thrasybulus, Leon, and Diomedon) who the Samian democrats trusted for protection from the plot.[1] These leaders were able to thwart the coup at Samos, but the coup at Athens was successful, leaving the democratically-controlled fleet in opposition to its oligarchically-controlled mother city. In the turmoil following these events, the generals at Samos were deposed by the soldiers and sailors of the fleet, and Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus were among those elected to replace them.[2] Thrasyllus continued to hold the position of strategos for several years, over a number of campaigns. Later in 410 BC, he led an Athenian fleet to attack rebellious cities on Lesbos. However, in doing so, allowed Spartan Admiral Mindarus to slip past him into the Hellespont with the Spartan fleet in what historian Donald Kagan considers to be an error in strategic judgment[3]. Thrasyllus pursued Mindarus with his fleet, and combined with other Athenian detachments at Sestos. From there, the Athenians (with Thrasybulus now in overall command) sailed into the Hellespont and defeated Mindarus's fleet at Cynossema, putting an end to the immediate crisis. Thrasyllus commanded a wing of the fleet in this battle and the later Athenian victory at Abydos, but then left on other detachments; after his departure Thrasybulus, Theramenes, and Alcibiades destroyed Mindarus and his fleet at Cyzicus. Under the democracy Later in 410 BC, Thrasyllus returned home to Athens to raise more troops for further campaigning in the Aegean and elsewhere. While he was there, the Spartan king Agis led his army toward the walls of Athens, seeking to frighten the city into capitulating. Thrasyllus marched out with an Athenian army, which, although it did not challenge the Spartans away from the protection of its own walls, did succeed in picking off a number of stragglers when the Spartans withdrew.[4] The next summer, Thrasyllus sailed out from Athens with a sizable force to campaign in Ionia. There, he quickly captured Colophon and raided the Ionian countryside, but was defeated outside Ephesus by a combined Ephesian, Persian, and Syracusan force, and withdrew his troops first to Notium and then later to Lampsacus, where they joined the larger Athenian force operating in the Hellespont.[5] Kagan has again criticized Thrasyllus' capabilities as a general in this campaign, arguing that Thrasyllus wasted time plundering when more decisive action could have led to the speedy capture of Ephesus, a major strategic prize.[6] At Lampsacus, Thrasyllus' troops, coming straight from an embarrassing defeat, were at first rejected by the troops who had served at Cynossema and Abydos, who forced them to camp apart. The tension between the groups was eventually dissolved after the Athenians launched an attack on Abydos, in which Thrasyllus commanded thirty ships; the Athenians defeated a Persian army in battle, but could not take the city.[7] The newly united Athenian army did, however, succeed in retaking Chalcedon, Byzantium, and other cities in the Hellespont in the summer of 408 BC; Thrasyllus commanded detachments in several operations during this period. He then returned, along with most of the fleet and its commanders, to Athens, where Alcibiades, fresh from these victories, made his triumphal return to the city that had exiled him.[8] Arginusae Thrasyllus did not hold a generalship in 407-6 BC,[9] but was swept back into office in the following year, when Alcibiades and his political associates fell from power after the Athenian defeat at Notium.[10] Thrasyllus remained home during the early part of his generalship, while Conon, another general, went out to Samos to take command of the fleet. He experienced some initial success in raiding enemy-held territory, but the tremendous financial support that the Spartans were receiving from the Persian prince Cyrus enabled them to expand their fleet until the Athenians were heavily outnumbered. Forced to sally forth from Samos with only 70 triremes to match the Spartans' 170, Conon was defeated in battle and bottled up in Mytilene, barely managing to send a trireme to Athens with the news of his predicament.[11] When news of this crisis reached Athens, the city found itself facing a desperate situation. To challenge the superior Peloponnesian fleet, the Athenians had only 40 ready triremes, and most of the experienced crews were at sea with Conon. To rebuild their fleet, the Athenians were forced to melt down golden religious statues from the acropolis, and the 110 ships the city possessed after this construction were crewed by a mix of less-experienced rowers, farmers, wealthy cavalrymen, and emancipated slaves. All eight generals who remained at Athens, Thrasyllus among them, sailed out with this scratch fleet; none is known to have served as supreme commander.[12] The Athenian fleet, bolstered by 55 ships from allied cities, met a Spartan fleet of 120 ships under Callicratidas at the Arginusae islands, just south of Lesbos. In the resulting battle, the Athenians divided their fleet into 8 autonomous divisions, with Thrasyllus commanding the forward right wing; by limiting the opportunities for the Spartan crews to exercise their superior seamanship, the Athenians were able to wear their enemies down, and the day ended in a decisive Athenian victory. The remnants of the Peloponnesian fleet fled southward, leaving some 70 ships behind, and the blockading force at Mytilene, upon hearing of the result, also fled.[13] Storm, controversy, trial, and execution In the wake of this remarkable victory, the eight generals met and decided that all of their number, with the larger part of the fleet, would sail against the blockading force at Mytilene, while the trierarchs Thrasybulus and Theramenes remained with 47 ships to rescue the survivors of disabled Athenian ships.[14] Shortly after the main force had departed, however, a severe storm blew up, and the detachment assigned to rescue duty was unable to carry out its responsibility. The result, for the sailors clinging to disabled and sinking ships, was a disaster; a great number of Athenians-estimates as to the precise figure have ranged from near 1,000 to as many as 5,000-drowned.[15] Soon after the news of this public tragedy reached Athens, a massive controversy erupted over the apportionment of blame for the botched rescue. The public was furious that the dead from the battle had not been recovered for burial (in the religious atmosphere of ancient Greece, this failing may have been almost as serious as abandoning the survivors in the eyes of the Athenian populace);[16] the generals suspected that Thrasybulus and Theramenes, who had already returned to Athens, might have been responsible for stirring up the assembly against them, and so Thrasyllus and his colleagues wrote letters to the people denouncing the two trierarchs as responsible for the failed rescue.[17] The trierarchs were called before the assembly to account for their actions, but they defended themselves capably, and the generals were deposed from their offices and recalled to Athens. Two fled, but Thrasyllus and five others returned to the city. Their defense initially met with a sympathetic response, but the festival of the Apaturia, on which families were supposed to meet for celebrations, provided an opportunity for their political enemies to remind the populace of the loss it had suffered. In a vicious and emotional meeting of the assembly the next day, the assembly, following the lead of the aggressive Callixeinus, tried the generals en masse and condemned them all to die. Although the Athenians soon came to regret their rash decision, it was too late for Thrasyllus and his comrades; all six were dead before the assembly had a chance to reconsider.[18]

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Thrasymachus in Wikipedia

Thrasymachus (Θρασύμαχος) (ca. 459-400 BCE) was a sophist of Ancient Greece best known as a character in Plato's Republic. The Historical Thrasymachus Thrasymachus was a citizen of Chalcedon, on the Bosphorus. His career appears to have been spent as a sophist, at Athens as far as we know, though there is no concrete evidence that he was a sophist. He is credited with an increase in the rhythmic character of Greek oratory, especially the use of the paeonici rhythm in prose; also a greater appeal to the emotions through gesture. Aristophanes makes what is the most precisely dateable of references to Thrasymachus, in a passing joke from a lost play dated to 427 BCE.[1] Nils Rauhut of the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy concludes from this passage that Thrasymachus must have been teaching in Athens for several years before this point.[2] A further fragment, this time from Clement of Alexandria provides some further context, by placing Thrasymachus contrary to the Macedonian Archelaus. "And while Euripides says in the Telephus, 'Shall we who are Greeks be slaves to barbarians?', Thrasymachus says in his speech For the People of Larisa, 'Shall we become slaves to Archelaus, Greeks as we are, to a barbarian?'"[3] Rauhut therefore declares it evident that Thrasymachus became most prominent in the last three decades of the fifth century.[2] Dillon and Gergel posit the alternate possibility that the speech was composed by the second-century CE Herodes Atticus, of whom we have extracts similar in spirit to Clement's fragment, and sound authentically fifth-century, exhibiting detailed knowledge of Thessalian politics.[4] A fragment of his work On Constitutions survives, which contains the maxim that the ancestral constitution is common to all. The meaning of this is debatable; one suggestion is that every orator can claim to speak for it, no matter what he is advocating. There is a man by the same name mentioned in Aristotle's Politics who overthrew the democracy at Cyme, but nothing is known of this event, nor can it be said with any degree of certainty that they are the same man.[5] Aristotle mentions a Thrasymachus again in his De Sophisticis Elenchis, where he credits him with a pivotal role in the development of rhetorical theory. Quoting the W. A. Pickard-Cambridge text: "For it may be that in everything, as the saying is 'the first start is the main part'... This is in fact what has happened in regard to rhetorical speeches and to practically all the other arts: for those who discovered the beginnings of them advanced them in all only a little way, whereas the celebrities of to-day are the heirs (so to speak) of a long succession of men who have advanced them bit by bit, and so have developed them to their present form, Tisias coming next after the first founders, then Thrasymachus after Tisias, and Theodorus next to him, while several people have made their several contributions to it: and therefore it is not to be wondered at that the art has attained considerable dimensions."[6] Dillon and Gergel are cautious not to read this as stating that this makes Thrasymachus a student of Tisias, just as it does not make Theodorus a student of Thrasymachus.[7] Writing more specifically in the Rhetoric, Aristotle attributes to Thrasymachus a witty simile. "A simile works best when it is in effect a metaphor, for it is possible to say that a shield is like the drinking-cup of Ares, or that a ruin is like the tattered rag of a house, and to say that Niceratus is like a Philocreres bitten by Pratys - the simile made by Thrasymachus when he saw Niceratus, who had been beaten by Pratys in a recitation competition, still going around with his hair uncut and unkempt."[8] A further reference to Thrasymachus in the Rhetoric finds Herodicus punning on Thrasymachus' name. "Herodicus said of Thrasymachus, 'You are always bold in battle (thrasymakhos)!'"[9] Dillon and Gergel suggest that this might explain Plato's choice of Thrasymachus as the "combative and bombastic propounder of the 'might is right' theory" for his Republic.[10] Plato mentions Thrasymachus as a successful rhetorician in his Phaedrus, but attributes nothing significant to him.[11] The Byzantine Suda gives a brief description of Thrasymachus affirming his position as a rhetorical theorist. "A Chalcedonian sophist, from the Chalcedon in Bithynia. He was the first to discover period and colon, and he introduced the modern kind of rhetoric. He was a pupil of the philosopher Plato and of the rhetor Isocrates. He wrote deliberative speeches; an Art of Rhetoric; paegnia; Rhetorical Resources."[12] Dillon and Gergel state that the second sentence is a "preposterous statement, both as concerns Plato and Isocrates." They further declare that emending 'pupil' (mathêtês) for 'teacher' (kathêgêtês) is equally foolish. They themselves suggest a lacuna in the text, wherein Thrasymachus is declared the pupil of another, and a rival of Plato and Isocrates.[13] Dionysius of Halicarnassus praises Thrasymachus for various rhetorical skills in his On Isaeus, finding Thrasymachus "pure, subtle, and inventive and able, according as he wishes, to speak either with terseness or with an abundance of words." Dionysus but still found Thrasymachus a second-rate orator beside the "incisive" and "charming" Lysias, because he left no forensic speeches to posterity, only handbooks and display-speeches.[14] In Plato Thrasymachus' current importance derives mainly from his being a character in The Republic. He is noted for his unabashed, even reckless, defense of injustice and for his famous blush at the end of Book 1, after Socrates has tamed him. The meaning of this blush, like that of Socrates' statement in Book 6 that he and Thrasymachus "have just become friends, though we weren't even enemies before" (498c), is a source of some dispute. There is a long philosophical tradition of exploring what exactly Thrasymachus meant in Republic I, and of taking his statements as a coherent philosophical assertion, rather than as Plato's straw man. In the Republic I, Thrasymachus violently disagreed with the outcome of Socrates' discussion with Polemarchus about justice. Demanding payment before speaking, he claims that "justice is the advantage of the stronger" (338c) and that "injustice, if it is on a large enough scale, is stronger, freer, and more masterly than justice'" (344c). Socrates counters by forcing him to admit that there is some standard of wise rule - Thrasymachus does claim to be able to teach such a thing - and then arguing that this suggests a standard of justice beyond the advantage of the stronger. The rest of the dialogue is occasioned by Glaucon's dissatisfaction with Socrates' refutation. His name means fierce fighter, which may have influenced his role in the dialogue. In Leo Strauss's interpretation, Thrasymachus and his definition of justice represent the city and its laws, and thus are in a sense opposed to Socrates and to philosophy in general. As an intellectual, however, Thrasymachus shared enough with the philosopher to potentially act to protect philosophy in the city.

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Thrasymăchus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Θρασύμαχος). A native of Chalcedon, was a Sophist, and one of the earliest cultivators of the art of rhetoric. He was a contemporary of Gorgias. He is one of the speakers in Plato's Republic.

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Thucydides, son of Melesias in Wikipedia

Thucydides (Greek: Θουκυδίδης) was a prominent politician of ancient Athens and the leader for a number of years of the powerful conservative faction. While it is likely he is related to the later historian (and general) Thucydides son of Olorus, the details are uncertain; maternal grandfather and grandson fits the available evidence. Thucydides, the son of Melesias, was born in the deme of Alopecê (Αλωπεκή) of Athens. The exact year of his birth is unknown, but his family was noble and he was a relative of Cimon, the charismatic general and leader of the conservative party. After Cimon's death, he succeeded him in the leadership of the conservatives and decided to exert a vehement opposition against Pericles, who was leading Athens, at the time. Thucydides represented the thorough-going conservative party at Athens; their views are most clearly represented by "the Old Oligarch" in his Constitution of the Athenians, which has come down to us among the works of Xenophon.[1] Donald Kagan suggests that Thucydides' ultimate goal, which he could not state openly as doing so would alienate the pro-democratic majority, was to roll back the constitutional changes made by Ephialtes, reinstituting the more aristocratic and conservative government that had prevailed in Cimon's day.[2] Thucydides' political strength reached its peak in the wake of the First Peloponnesian War and the reorganization of the Athenian empire in the early 440s BC. Thucydides developed a new and effective political tactic by having his supporters sit together in the assembly, increasing their apparent strength and giving them a united voice.[3] Kagan asserts that this tactic helped Thucydides mount a concerted opposition to Pericles which brought to light ideological differences among Pericles' supporters.[4] In 444 BC, the conservative and the democratic parties confronted each other in a fierce battle. Though some modern scholars doubt[5] the details of Plutarch's account, according to Plutarch, Thucydides, the new leader of the conservatives, accused Pericles, the leader of the democrats, of profligacy, criticizing the way Pericles spent the money for his ambitious building plan. Thucydides managed to incite the passions of the Athenian Assembly in his favor, but when Pericles took the floor, the atmosphere immediately changed. Pericles proposed to pay for all the construction from his own purse, under the term that all these monuments would belong to him and not to Athens. The public applauded his stance and Thucydides suffered an unexpected defeat from the charismatic orator[6]. As a result of his failure in confronting Pericles, Thucydides was ostracized for ten years, in 442 BC, and Pericles once again stood unchallenged in the Athenian political arena. Plutarch relates[6] that, when Thucydides was asked by Sparta's king, Archidamus II, if he or Pericles was a better fighter, Thucydides answered without any hesitation that Pericles was a better fighter, because, even when he is defeated, he achieves to convince the audience that he won![7] After being ostracized, Thucydides is said to have travelled to Sybaris, a city of Magna Graecia on the Gulf of Taranto in Italy, or Aegina, but this is unconfirmed[8]. While in Athens, Thucydides is also said to have accused Pericles' personal friend, Anaxagoras, of atheism and sympathy for the Persians.[9]

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Thucydides in Wikipedida

Thucydides (c. 460 BC – c. 395 BC) (Greek Θουκυδίδης, Thoukydídēs) was a Greek historian and author of the History of the Peloponnesian War, which recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens to the year 411 BC. Thucydides has been dubbed the father of "scientific history" because of his strict standards of evidence-gathering and analysis in terms of cause and effect without reference to intervention by the gods, as outlined in his introduction to his work.[1] He has also been called the father of the school of political realism, which views the relations between nations as based on might rather than right.[2] His classical text is still studied at advanced military colleges worldwide, and the Melian dialogue remains a seminal work of international relations theory. More generally, Thucydides showed an interest in developing an understanding of human nature to explain behaviour in such crises as plague, massacres, as in that of the Melians, and civil war. Life In spite of his stature as a historian, modern historians know relatively little about Thucydides' life. The most reliable information comes from his own History of the Peloponnesian War, which expounds his nationality, paternity and native locality. Thucydides informs us that he fought in the war, contracted the plague and was exiled by the democracy. He may have also been involved in quelling the Samian Revolt.[3] Evidence from the Classical Period Thucydides identifies himself as an Athenian, telling us that his father's name was Olorus and that he was from the Athenian deme of Halimous.[4] He survived the Plague of Athens[5] that killed Pericles and many other Athenians. He also records that he owned gold mines at Scapte Hyle (literally: "Dug Woodland"), a coastal area in Thrace, opposite the island of Thasos.[6] Because of his influence in the Thracian region, Thucydides wrote, he was sent as a strategos (general) to Thasos in 424 BC During the winter of 424-423 BC, the Spartan general Brasidas attacked Amphipolis, a half-day's sail west from Thasos on the Thracian coast. Eucles, the Athenian commander at Amphipolis, sent to Thucydides for help.[7] Brasidas, aware of Thucydides's presence on Thasos and his influence with the people of Amphipolis, and afraid of help arriving by sea, acted quickly to offer moderate terms to the Amphipolitans for their surrender, which they accepted. Thus, when Thucydides arrived, Amphipolis was already under Spartan control.[8] (See Battle of Amphipolis.) Amphipolis was of considerable strategic importance, and news of its fall caused great consternation in Athens.[9] It was blamed on Thucydides, although he claimed that it was not his fault and that he had simply been unable to reach it in time. Because of his failure to save Amphipolis, he was sent into exile:[10] " It was also my fate to be an exile from my country for twenty years after my command at Amphipolis; and being present with both parties, and more especially with the Peloponnesians by reason of my exile, I had leisure to observe affairs somewhat particularly. " Using his status as an exile from Athens to travel freely among the Peloponnesian allies, he was able to view the war from the perspective of both sides. During this time, he conducted important research for his history, having claimed that he pursued the project as he thought it would be one of the greatest wars waged among the Greeks in terms of scale. This is all that Thucydides wrote about his own life, but a few other facts are available from reliable contemporary sources. Herodotus wrote that Thucydides' father's name, Όloros, was connected with Thrace and Thracian royalty.[11] Thucydides was probably connected through family to the Athenian statesman and general Miltiades, and his son Cimon, leaders of the old aristocracy supplanted by the Radical Democrats. Cimon's maternal grandfather's name was also Olorus, making the connection exceedingly likely. Another Thucydides lived before the historian and was also linked with Thrace, making a family connection between them very likely as well. Finally, Herodotus confirms the connection of Thucydides' family with the mines at Scapté Hýlē.[12] Combining all the fragmentary evidence available, it seems that his family had owned a large estate in Thrace, one that even contained gold mines, and which allowed the family considerable and lasting affluence. The security and continued prosperity of the wealthy estate must have necessitated formal ties with local kings or chieftains, which explains the adoption of the distinctly Thracian royal name "Όloros" into the family. Once exiled, Thucydides took permanent residence in the estate and, given his ample income from the gold mines, he was able to dedicate himself to full-time history writing and research, including many fact-finding trips. In essence he was by then a retired, well-connected gentleman of considerable resources who, by then retired from the political and military spheres, decided to fund his own scientific project. Later sources The remaining evidence for Thucydides' life comes from rather less reliable later ancient sources. According to Pausanias, someone named Oenobius was able to get a law passed allowing Thucydides to return to Athens, presumably sometime shortly after the city's surrender and the end of the war in 404 BC[13] Pausanias goes on to say that Thucydides was murdered on his way back to Athens. Many doubt this account, seeing evidence to suggest he lived as late as 397 BC. Plutarch claims that his remains were returned to Athens and placed in Cimon's family vault.[14] The abrupt end to Thucydides' narrative, which breaks off in the middle of the year 411 BC, has traditionally been interpreted as indicating that he died while writing the book, although other explanations have been put forward. Inferences about Thucydides' character can only be drawn (with due caution) from his book. His sardonic sense of humor is evident throughout, as when, during his description of the Athenian plague, he remarks that old Athenians seemed to remember a rhyme which said that with the Dorian War would come a "great death". Some claimed that the rhyme was actually about a "great dearth" (limos), and was only remembered as "death" (loimos) due to the current plague. Thucydides then remarks that, should another Dorian War come, this time attended with a great dearth, the rhyme will be remembered as "dearth," and any mention of "death" forgotten.[15] Thucydides admired Pericles, approving of his power over the people and shows a marked distaste for the demagogues who followed him. He did not approve of the democratic mob nor the radical democracy that Pericles ushered in but considered democracy acceptable when guided by a good leader.[16] Thucydides's presentation of events is generally evenhanded, for example, he does not minimize the negative effect of his own failure at Amphipolis. Occasionally, however, strong passions break through, as in his scathing appraisals of the demagogues Cleon[17]; Thucydides 4.27; Thucydides 5.16.1 and Hyperbolus.[18] Cleon has sometimes been connected with Thucydides' exile.[19] That Thucydides was clearly moved by the suffering inherent in war and concerned about the excesses to which human nature is prone in such circumstances is evident in his analysis of the atrocities committed during civil conflict on Corcyra,[20] which includes the phrase "War is a violent teacher". The History of the Peloponnesian War After his death, Thucydides's history was subdivided into eight books: its modern title is the History of the Peloponnesian War. His great contribution to history and historiography is contained in this one dense history of the 27-year war between Athens, Sparta, and their respective allies. The history breaks off near the end of the 21st year; the last sketchy book suggests that his death was unexpected and may possibly have been sudden or violent. Thucydides believed that the Peloponnesian War represented an event of unmatched magnitude.[21] His intention was to write an account of the events of the late fifth century which would serve as "a possession for all time."[22] Thucydides is generally regarded as one of the first true historians. Like his predecessor Herodotus, known as "the father of history", Thucydides places a high value on eyewitness testimony and writes about events in which he himself probably took part. He also assiduously consulted written documents and interviewed participants about the events that he recorded. Unlike Herodotus, whose stories often teach that a foolish arrogance hubris invites the wrath of the gods, Thucydides does not acknowledge divine intervention in human affairs. A noteworthy difference between Thucydides' method of writing history and that of modern historians is Thucydides' inclusion of lengthy formal speeches that, as he himself states, were literary reconstructions rather than actual quotations of what was said - or, perhaps, what he believed ought to have been said. Arguably, had he not done this, the gist of what was said would not otherwise be known at all - whereas today there is a plethora of documentation - written records, archives, and recording technology for historians to consult. Therefore Thucydides method served to rescue his mostly oral sources from oblivion. We do not know how these historical figures actually spoke. Thucydides' recreation uses a heroic stylistic register. A celebrated example is Pericles' funeral oration, which heaps honor on the dead and includes a defense of democracy: " The whole earth is the sepulcher of famous men; they are honored not only by columns and inscriptions in their own land, but in foreign nations on memorials graven not on stone but in the hearts and minds of men. " Stylistically, the placement of this passage also serves to heighten the contrast with the description of the plague in Athens immediately following it, which graphically emphasizes the horror of human mortality thereby conveying a powerful sense of verisimilitude: " Though many lay unburied, birds and beasts would not touch them, or died after tasting them [...]. The bodies of dying men lay one upon another, and half-dead creatures reeled about the streets and gathered round all the fountains in their longing for water. The sacred places also in which they had quartered themselves were full of corpses of persons who had died there, just as they were; for, as the disaster passed all bounds, men, not knowing what was to become of them, became equally contemptuous of the gods' property and the gods' dues. All the burial rites before in use were entirely upset, and they buried the bodies as best they could. Many from want of the proper appliances, through so many of their friends having died already, had recourse to the most shameless sepultures: sometimes getting the start of those who had raised a pile, they threw their own dead body upon the stranger's pyre and ignited it; sometimes they tossed the corpse which they were carrying on the top of another that was burning, and so went off. " Thucydides omits discussion of the arts, literature, or the social milieu in which the events in his book take place and in which he himself grew up. He saw himself as recording an event, not a period, and went to considerable lengths to exclude what he deemed frivolous and / or extraneous. Some consider this framing in itself as constituting a form of value judgment. Historian and classical scholar Peter Green remarks that: The cleverest intellectual move Thucydides made was the severe limiting of what he deemed permissible as elements of historiography, on the grounds that everything else outside this canon was not only irrelevant but unserious. Out went personal anecdotes, most foreign ethnography, and domestic or private motivation: out, above all, went anything to do with women. Religion was women's business, and mostly nonsense anyway, so that could be discarded too. The essence of history was war and politics, as conducted by men in authority. His exclusive privileging of the male political association, in its most public form, became accepted, and historians (being political males themselves) were not inclined to argue. His revisionism not only won out at the time, but established the basic principles of historiography for over two millennia[23] Critical interpretation Scholars traditionally view Thucydides as recognizing and teaching the lesson that democracies need leadership, but that leadership can be dangerous to democracy. Leo Strauss (in The City and Man) locates the problem in the nature of Athenian democracy itself, about which, he argued, Thucydides had a deeply ambivalent view: on one hand, Thucydides' own "wisdom was made possible" by the Periclean democracy, which had the effect of liberating individual daring, enterprise, and questioning spirit, but this same liberation, by permitting the growth of limitless political ambition, led to imperialism and, eventually, civic strife.[24] For Canadian historian Charles Norris Cochrane (1889–1945), Thucydides' fastidious devotion to observable phenomena, focus on cause and effect, and strict exclusion of other factors anticipates twentieth century scientific positivism. Cochrane, the son of a physician, speculated that Thucydides' generally (and especially in describing the plague in Athens) was influenced by the methods and thinking of early medical writers such as Hippocrates of Kos.[25] After World War II Classical scholar Jacqueline de Romilly pointed out that the problem of Athenian imperialism was one of Thucydides' central preoccupations and situated his history in the context of Greek thinking about international politics. Since the appearance of her study, other scholars subsequently further examined Thucydides treatment of realpolitik. More recently, scholars have questioned the perception of Thucydides as simply "the father of realpolitik". Instead foreground the literary qualities of the History, which they see as belonging to narrative tradition of Homer and Hesiod and as concerned with the concepts of justice and suffering found in Plato and Aristotle and problematized in Aeschylus and Sophocles [26] Richard Ned Lebow believes that the modern habit of erecting a firewall of separation between the social sciences and the ethical preoccupations of the humanities is a mistake, since no such separation was ever obtained in the ancient world. He and other recent scholars affirm that Thucydides was indeed concerned with ethical issues such as prudence and the need for peace: and that even though he did not explicitly engage in moralizing within his text, his work conveys a profound horror of war and violence. Lebow terms Thucydides: "the last of the tragedians: Viewed as a tragedy, his portrayal of the Peloponnesian War leads us to a very different set of questions, understandings of politics and of knowledge itself. . . Greek tragedy was rooted in the empirical observation that there is no relationship between justice and suffering. Tragedy confronts us with our frailties and limits and the disastrous consequences of trying to exceed them. It advances a counter-intuitive thesis: that efforts to limit suffering through the accumulation of knowledge or power might invite more suffering. . . Thucydides drew heavily on epic poetry and tragedy to construct his history, which not surprisingly is also constructed as a narrative.[27] In this view, the blind and immoderate behavior of the Athenians (and indeed of all the other actors), though perhaps intrinsic to human nature, ultimately leads to their downfall. Thus his History could serve as a warning to future leaders to be more prudent, by putting them on notice that someone would be scrutinizing their actions with a historian's objectivity rather than a chronicler's flattery.[28] Thucydides versus Herodotus Thucydides and his immediate predecessor Herodotus both exerted a significant influence on Western historiography. Thucydides does not mention his counterpart by name, but his famous introductory statement is thought to refer to him.[29][30] " To hear this history rehearsed, for that there be inserted in it no fables, shall be perhaps not delightful. But he that desires to look into the truth of things done, and which (according to the condition of humanity) may be done again, or at least their like, shall find enough herein to make him think it profitable. And it is compiled rather for an everlasting possession than to be rehearsed for a prize. " Herodotus records in his Histories not only the events of the Persian Wars but also geographical and ethnographical information, as well as the fables related to him during his extensive travels. Typically, he passes no definitive judgment on what he has heard, In the case of conflicting or unlikely accounts, he presents both sides, says what he believes and then invites readers to decide for themselves.[31] The work of Herodotus is reported [32] to have been recited at festivals, where prizes were awarded, as for example, during the games at Olympia. Herodotus views history as a source of moral lessons, with conflicts and wars as misfortunes flowing from initial acts of injustice perpetuated through cycles of revenge.[33] In contrast, Thucydides claims to confine himself to factual reports of contemporary political and military events, based on unambiguous, first-hand, eye-witness accounts,[34] although – unlike Herodotus – he does not reveal his sources. Thucydides views life exclusively as political life, and history in terms of political history. Conventional moral considerations plays no role in his analysis of political events while geographic and ethnographic aspects are omitted or, at best, of secondary importance. Subsequent Greek historians - such as Ctesias, Diodorus, Strabo, Polybius and Plutarch - held up Thucydides' writings as a model of truthful history. Lucian[35] refers to Thucydides as having given Greek historians their law, requiring them to say what had been done (ὡς ἐπράχθη). Greek historians of the fourth century BC accepted that history was political and that contemporary history was the proper domain of a historian..[36] Cicero calls Herodotus the "father of history;"[37] yet the Greek writer Plutarch, in his Moralia (Ethics) denigrated Herodotus, as the "father of lies".[38] Unlike Thucydides, however, these historians all continued to view history as a source of moral lessons. Due to the loss of the ability to read Greek, Thucydides and Herodotus were largely forgotten during the Middle Ages in Western Europe, although their influence continued in the Byzantine world. In Europe, Herodotus become known and highly respected only in the late-sixteenth and early- seventeenth century as an ethnographer, in part due to the discovery of America, where customs and animals were encountered even more surprising than what he had related. During the Reformation, moreover, information about Middle Eastern countries in the Histories provided a basis for establishing Biblical chronology as advocated by Isaac Newton. The first European translation of Thucydides (into Latin) was made by the humanist Lorenzo Valla between 1448 and 1452, and the first Greek edition was published by Aldo Manunzio in 1502. During the Renaissance, however, Thucydides attracted less interest among Western European historians as a political philosopher than his successor, Polybius,[39] although Poggio Bracciolini claimed to have been influenced by him. There is not much trace of Thucydides' influence in Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince (1513), which held that the chief aim of a new prince must be to "maintain his state" [i.e., his power] and that in so doing he is often compelled to act against faith, humanity and religion. Later historians, such as J. B. Bury, however, have noted parallels between them: If, instead of a history, Thucydides had written an analytical treatise on politics, with particular reference to the Athenian empire, it is probable that . . . he could have forestalled Machiavelli. . . .[since] the whole innuendo of the Thucydidean treatment of history agrees with the fundamental postulate of Machiavelli, the supremacy of reason of state. To maintain a state said the Florentine thinker, "a statesman is often compelled to act against faith, humanity, and religion." . . . But . . . the true Machiavelli, not the Machiavelli of fable. . . entertained an ideal: Italy for the Italians, Italy freed from the stranger: and in the service of this ideal he desired to see his speculative science of politics applied. Thucydides has no political aim in view: he was purely a historian. But it was part of the method of both alike to eliminate conventional sentiment and morality.[40] In the seventeenth century, the English political philosopher Thomas Hobbes, whose Leviathan advocated absolute monarchy, admired Thucydides and in 1628 was the first to translate his writings into English directly from Greek. Thucydides, Hobbes, and Machiavelli are together considered the founding fathers of political realism, according to which state policy must primarily or solely focus on the need to maintain military and economic power rather than on ideals or ethics. Nineteenth-century positivist historians stressed what they saw as Thucydides' seriousness, his scientific objectivity, and his advanced handling of evidence. A virtual cult following developed among such German philosophers as Friedrich Schelling, Friedrich Schlegel, and Friedrich Nietzsche, who claimed that, "[in Thucydides], the portrayer of man, that culture of the most impartial knowledge of the world finds its last glorious flower." For Eduard Meyer, Macaulay, and Leopold von Ranke, who initiated modern source-based history writing [41] Thucydides was again the model historian.[42][43]. Generals and statesmen loved him: the world he drew was theirs, an exclusive power-brokers' club. It is no accident that even today Thucydides turns up as a guiding spirit in military academies, neocon think tanks, and the writings of men like Henry Kissinger; whereas Herodotus has been the choice of imaginative novelists (Michael Ondaatje's The English Patient, and the film based on it, boosted the sale of the Histories to a wholly unforeseen degree) and - as food for a starved soul - of an equally imaginative foreign correspondent from Iron Curtain Poland, Ryszard Kapuscinski .[44] These historians also admired Herodotus, however, as social and ethnographic history increasingly came to be recognized as complementary to political history.[45] In the twentieth century, this trend gave rise to the works of Johan Huizinga, Marc Bloch, and Braudel, who pioneered a the study of long-term cultural and economic developments, and the patterns of everyday life. The Annales School, which exemplifies this direction, has been viewed as extending the tradition of Herodotus.[46] At the same time, Thucydides' influence was increasingly important in the area of international relations during the Cold War, through the work of Hans Morgenthau, Leo Strauss,[47] and Edward Carr.[48] The tension between the Thucydidean and Herodotean traditions extends beyond historical research. According to Irving Kristol, self-described founder of American Neoconservatism, Thucydides wrote "the favorite neoconservative text on foreign affairs,"[49] and Thucydides is a required text at the Naval War College, an American institution located in Rhode Island. On the other hand, Daniel Mendelsohn, in a review of a recent edition of Herodotus, suggests that at least in his graduate school days during the Cold War, professing admiration of Thucydides served as a form of self-presentation: To be an admirer of Thucydides' History, with its deep cynicism about political, rhetorical, and ideological hypocrisy, with its all too recognizable protagonists - a liberal yet imperialistic democracy and an authoritarian oligarchy, engaged in a war of attrition fought by proxy at the remote fringes of empire - was to advertise yourself as a hardheaded connoisseur of global Realpolitik.[50] Another author, Thomas Geoghegan, whose specialty is labor rights, comes down on the side of Herodotus when it comes to drawing lessons relevant to Americans, whom, he notes, tend to be rather isolationist in their habits (if not in their political theorizing): "We should also spend more funds to get our young people out of the library where they're reading Thucydides and get them to start living like Herodotus - going out and seeing the world."[51] Thucydides in popular culture In 1991, the BBC broadcast a new version of John Barton's 'The War that Never Ends', which had first been performed on stage in the 1960s. This adapts Thucydides' text, together with short sections from Plato's dialogues. More information about it can be found on the Internet Movie Database. Quotations * "But, the bravest are surely those who have the clearest vision of what is before them, glory and danger alike, and yet notwithstanding, go out to meet it."[52] * "Right, as the world goes, is only in question between equals in power, while the strong do what they can and the weak suffer what they must."[53] * "It is a general rule of human nature that people despise those who treat them well, and look up to those who make no concessions."[54] * "War takes away the easy supply of daily wants, and so proves a rough master, that brings most men's characters to a level with their fortunes."[55] * "The cause of all these evils was the lust for power arising from greed and ambition; and from these passions proceeded the violence of parties once engaged in contention."[56] * "So that, though overcome by three of the greatest things, honour, fear, and profit, we have both accepted the dominion delivered us and refuse again to surrender it, we have therein done nothing to be wondered at nor beside the manner of men. "[57] Quotations about Thucydides And after [the time of Herodotus], Thucydides, in my opinion, easily vanquished all in the artfulness of his style: he so concentrates his copious material that he almost matches the number of his words with the number of his thoughts. In his words, further, he is so apposite and compressed that you do not know whether his matter is being illuminated by his diction or his words by his thoughts. (Cicero,De Oratore 2.56 (55 B.C.)) In the preface to his 1628 translation of Thucydides, entitled, Eight Bookes of the Peloponesian Warres, political philosopher Thomas Hobbes calls Thucydides "the most politic historiographer that ever writ." A hundred years later, philosopher David Hume, wrote that: [T]he first page of Thucydides is, in my opinion, the commencement of real history. All preceding narrations are so intermixed with fable, that philosophers ought to abandon them to the embellishments of poets and orators. ("Of the Populousness of Ancient Nations", 1742) W. H. Auden's poem, "September 1, 1939", written at the start of World War II, contains these lines: * Exiled Thucydides knew All that a speech can say About Democracy, And what dictators do, The elderly rubbish they talk To an apathetic grave; Analysed all in his book, The enlightenment driven away, The habit-forming pain, Mismanagement and grief: We must suffer them all again.

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Timaeus (historian) in Wikipedia

Timaeus (ca. 345-ca. 250 BC, Greek Τιμαῖος), ancient Greek historian, was born at Tauromenium in Sicily. Driven out of Sicily by Agathocles, he migrated to Athens, where he studied rhetoric under a pupil of Isocrates and lived for fifty years. During the reign of Hiero II he returned to Sicily (probably to Syracuse), where he died. Work While at Athens he completed his great historical work, The Histories, probably some 40 books. This work was divided into unequal sections, containing the history of Greece from its earliest days till the first Punic war. The Histories treated the history of Italy and Sicily in early times, of Sicily alone, and of Sicily and Greece together. Timaeus devoted much attention to chronology, and introduced the system of reckoning by Olympiads. This system, although not adopted in everyday life, was afterwards generally used by the Greek historians. Timaeus recognised in his work the importance of Rome, which was gaining power. Very few parts of the elaborate work of this historian were preserved after Antiquity: * some fragments of the 38th book of the Histories (the life of Agathocles); * A reworking of the last part of his Histories, On Pyrrhus, treating the life of this king of Epirus until 264 BC; * History of the cities and kings of Syria (unless the text of the Suda is corrupt); * The chronological sketch (The victors at Olympia) perhaps formed an appendix to the larger work. Timaeus' work was however well spread in antiquity, as many ancient historians and other writers refer to it, and/or based their work on his writings. Reception Timaeus was highly criticized by other historians, especially by Polybius, and indeed his unfairness towards his predecessors, which gained him the nickname of Epitimaeus (fault-finder), laid him open to retaliation. Polybius was a practical soldier and statesman, Timaeus a bookworm without military experience or personal knowledge of the places he described. The most serious charge against Timaeus is that he wilfully distorted the truth, when influenced by personal considerations: thus, he was less than fair to Dionysius I of Syracuse and Agathocles, while loud in praise of his favourite Timoleon. On the other hand, as even Polybius admits, Timaeus consulted all available authorities and records. His attitude towards the myths, which he claims to have preserved in their simple form (hence probably his nickname, Old Ragwoman, or "collector of old wives' tales", an allusion to his fondness for trivial details), is preferable to the rationalistic interpretation under which it had become the fashion to disguise them. Both Dionysius of Halicarnassus and the Pseudo-Longinus characterized him as a model of "frigidity", although the latter admits that in other respects he is a competent writer. Cicero, who was a diligent reader of Timaeus, expresses a far more favourable opinion, specially commending his copiousness of matter and variety of expression. Timaeus was one of the chief authorities used by Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, Diodorus Siculus and Plutarch (in his life of Timoleon).

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Timaeus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

1. The historian, was the son of Andromachus, tyrant of Tauromenium in Sicily, and was born about B.C. 352. He was banished from Sicily by Agathocles, and passed his exile at Athens, where he had lived 50 years when he wrote the 34th book of his history. He probably died about 256. The great work of Timaeus was a history of Sicily from the earliest times to 264. The fragments are edited by C. and Th. Müller (Paris, 1841). Timaeus is said to have been the first to record events by Olympiads. (See Olympias.)

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Timaeus of Locri in Wikipedia

Timaeus of Locri (Ancient Greek: Τίμαιος ὁ Λοκρός; Latin: Timaeus Locrus) was a Greek Pythagorean philosopher living in the 5th century BC. He features in Plato's Timaeus, where he is said to come from Locri in Italy, thus of Locrian origin. He also appears as one of the speakers in Plato's Critias. Later references to Timaeus of Locri from Antiquity are by: * Cicero, in his De re publica (I, X, 16), where he is described as an intimate of Plato * Proclus, in his Commentary on Plato's Timaeus (II, 38, I) * Simplicius and Diogenes Laertius, in their descriptions of, and commentaries on Aristotle's work All ancient references to him seem to have derived from Plato: he may well be a fictional character invented for the dialogue bearing his name (see M. F. Burnyeat).

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Timaeus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

Of Locri, in Italy, a Pythagorean philosopher, is said to have been a teacher of Plato. He gives his name to a dialogue of Plato, in which is given the account of the mythical island Atlantis, lying in the Western Ocean, and supposed by many in modern times to have been suggested by vague stories of the American continent.

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Timagenes in Wikipedia

Timagenes (Ancient Greek: Τιμαγένης) was a Greek writer, historian and teacher of rhetoric. He came from Alexandria, was captured by Romans in 55 BC and taken to Rome, where he was purchased by Faustus, son of Sulla. It is said that Timagenes had a falling out with emperor Augustus, whereupon he destroyed his writings and fled Rome. He also asked Cleopatra to deliver Mark Antony to the Octavianus, or have him put to death. During his life Timagenes wrote a 'History of Alexander' and a 'History of the Gauls'. These works did not survive but are known through quotations in other historians. For example the 'History of the Gauls' is quoted in the works of Ammianus Marcellinus. In Albanum, after dinner, he attempted to vomit, during which he choked and died; thus says the Suda.

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Timagĕnes in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

A rhetorician and an historian, who was a native of Alexandria, from which place he was carried as a prisoner to Rome, where he opened a school of rhetoric, and taught with great success. ( Suid. s. h. v.)

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Timanthes in Wikipedia

Timanthes of Cythnus (or Sicyon) was an ancient Greek painter of the 4th century BC. The most celebrated of his works was a picture representing the sacrifice of Iphigenia, in which he finely depicted the emotions of those who took part in the sacrifice; however, despairing of rendering the grief of Agamemnon, he represented him as veiling his face. A painting discovered at Pompeii, and now in the Museum at Naples, has been regarded as a copy or echo of this painting (Wolfgang Helbig, Wand gemalde Campaniens, No. 1304).

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Timanthes in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Τιμάνθης). A celebrated Greek painter at Sicyon, contemporary with Zeuxis and Parrhasius, about B.C. 400. The masterpiece of Timanthes was his celebrated picture of the sacrifice of Iphigenia, in which Agamemnon was painted with his face hidden in his mantle (Pliny , Pliny H. N. xxxv. 73). See the illustration under Iphigenia.

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Timocharis in Wikipedia

Timocharis of Alexandria (ca. 320 BC - 260 BC) was a Greek astronomer and philosopher. Likely born in Alexandria, he was a contemporary of Euclid.[citation needed] What little is known about Timocharis comes from citations by Ptolemy in the Almagest. These indicate that Timocharis worked in Alexandria during the 290s and 280s BCE. Ptolemy lists the declination of 18 stars as recorded by Timocharis or Aristillus in roughly the year 290 BCE.[1] Between 295 and 272 BCE, Timocharis recorded four lunar occultations and the passage of the planet Venus across a star.[2] These were recorded using both the Egyptian and Athenian calendars.[3] The observed stellar passage by Venus may have occurred on October 12, 272 BCE when the planet came within 15 arcminutes of the star η Virginis.[4] The observations by Timocharis are among the oldest Greek records that can be assigned a specific date. They are only exceeded by records of the summer solstice of 432 BCE, as noted by Euctemon and Meton.[5] Timocharis worked with Aristillus in an astronomical observatory that was most likely part of the Library of Alexandria. Their equipment would have been simple, most likely consisting of gnomons, sundials and an armillary sphere. The two were contemporaries of Aristarchus of Samos, but it is unclear whether there was any association between Timocharis and Aristarchus.[6] During his astronomical observations, Timocharis recorded that the star Spica was located 8° west of the Autumnal equinox. Later, Hipparchus observed that Spica was only 6° west of the Autumnal equinox. Hipparcos was able to deduce the period during which Timocharis made his observations based upon the records of earlier lunar eclipses. From this difference, Hipparcos discovered longitude of the stars had changed over time, which led him to determine the first value of the precession of the equinoxes as no less than 1/100° per year.[5] In approximately 3rd century BC, with the help of Aristillus, he created the first star catalogue in the Western world.[citation needed] He made the third recorded mention of Mercury.[citation needed] The crater Timocharis on the Moon is named after him.[7]

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Timoclea in Wikipedia

Timoclea of Thebes is a woman mentioned by Plutarch in his Life of Alexander. According to Plutarch, when the forces of Alexander the Great seized Thebes during Alexander's Balkan campaign of 335 BC, Thracian forces pillaged the city, and the captain of the Thracian forces raped Timoclea, a lady of high birth.[1] After raping her, the captain asked if she knew of any hidden money. She told him that she did, and led him into her garden, and told him there was money hidden in her well.[1] When the Thracian captain stooped to look into the well, Timoclea pushed him into the well, and then hurled heavy stones into the well until the captain was dead.[1] Timoclea was seized by the Thracian soldiers and brought before Alexander the Great. She comported herself with great dignity and told Alexander that her brother had fought at the Battle of Chaeronea with Alexander's father, Philip II of Macedon, "for the liberty of Greece." Alexander was so impressed with Timoclea that he ordered her released and she was not punished for killing the Thracian captain.[1]

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Timocrates in Wikipedia

Timocrates may refer to: * "Against Timocrates", a speech by Demosthenes * Timocrates of Rhodes, (4th century BC) a Rhodian Greek opposed to Sparta * Timocrates of Lampsacus, (3rd century BC) disciple of Epicurus, but who later became his enemy

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Timocreon in Wikipedia

Timocreon, of Ialysus in Rhodes, was a Greek lyric poet who flourished about 480 BC. During the Persian wars he had been banished on suspicion of "medism". Themistocles had promised to procure his recall, but was unable to resist the bribes of Timocreon's adversaries and allowed him to remain in exile. Timocreon thereupon attacked him most bitterly (see Plutarch, Themistocles, 21); and Simonides, the friend of Themistocles, retorted in an epigram (Anth. Pal. vii. 348). Timocreon was also known as a composer of scolia (drinking-songs) and, according to Suidas, wrote plays in the style of the old comedy. His gluttony and drunkenness were notorious, and he was an athlete of great prowess. His epitaph was written by the poet Simonides. Translated from the Greek, it is, "After much eating, drinking, lying and slandering, TIMOCREON of Rhodes here rests from wandering."

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Timocreon in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Τιμοκρέων). A lyric poet of Rhodes, celebrated for the bitter and pugnacious spirit of his works, and especially for his attacks on Themistocles and Simonides (Athen. pp. 415, 416; Plut. Them. 21).

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Timoleon in Wikipedia

Timoleon (Greek: Τιμολέων), son of Timodemus, of Corinth (ca. 411–337 BCE) was a Greek statesman and general. As the champion of Greece against Carthage he is closely connected with the history of Sicily, especially Syracuse. Early life When his brother Timophanes, whose life he had saved in battle, took possession of the acropolis of Corinth and made himself master of the city, Timoleon, after an ineffectual protest, tacitly acquiesced while the friends who accompanied him put Timophanes to death. Public opinion approved his conduct as patriotic; but the curses of his mother and the indignation of some of his kinsfolk drove him into retirement for twenty years. Sicily Because of the political problems of Syracuse and the threat from Sparta, a group of Syracusans sent an appeal for help to Corinth which reached Corinth in 344 BCE[1] Corinth could not refuse help, though her chief citizens declined the responsibility of attempting to establish a settled government in factious and turbulent Syracuse. Timoleon, being named by an unknown voice in the popular assembly, was chosen by a unanimous vote to undertake the mission, and set sail for Sicily with a few of the leading citizens of Corinth and a small troop of Greek mercenaries. He eluded a Carthaginian squadron and landed at Tauromenium (now Taormina), where he met with a friendly reception. At this time Hicetas, tyrant of Leontini, was master of Syracuse, with the exception of the island of Ortygia, which was occupied by Dionysius, still nominally tyrant. Hicetas was defeated at Adranum, an inland town, and driven back to Syracuse. In 343 Dionysius surrendered Ortygia on condition of being granted a safe conduct to Corinth. Hicetas now received help from Carthage (60,000 men), but ill-success roused mutual suspicion; the Carthaginians abandoned Hicetas, who was besieged in Leontini, and who was then compelled to surrender. Timoleon was thus master of Syracuse. He at once began the work of restoration, bringing new settlers from the mother-city and from Greece generally, and establishing a popular government on the basis of the democratic laws of Diocles. The citadel was razed to the ground, and a court of justice erected on its site. The amphi-polos, or priest of Olympian Zeus, who was annually chosen by lot out of three clans, was invested with the chief magistracy. The impress of Timoleon's reforms seems to have lasted to the days of Augustus. Hicetas again induced Carthage to send (340–339) a great army (70,000), which landed at Lilybaeum (now Marsala). With a miscellaneous levy of about 12,000 men, most of them mercenaries, Timoleon marched westwards across the island into the neighbourhood of Selinus and won a great and decisive victory on the Crimissus. The general himself led his infantry, and the enemy's discomfiture was completed by a blinding storm of rain and hail. This victory gave the Greeks of Sicily many years of peace and safety from Carthage. Carthage made, however, one more effort and despatched some mercenaries to prolong the conflict between Timoleon and the tyrants. But it ended in the defeat of Hicetas, who was taken prisoner and put to death. Carthage then agreed to a treaty in 338 BCE by which, in Sicily, Carthage was confined to the west of the Halycus (Platani) and undertook to give no further help to tyrants.[2] Retirement Timoleon then retired into private life without assuming any title or office, though he remained practically supreme, not only at Syracuse, but throughout the island. Notwithstanding the many elements of discord Sicily seems to have been during Timoleon's lifetime tranquil and contented. He became blind some time before his death, but when important issues were under discussion he was carried to the assembly to give his opinion, which was usually accepted.[3] He was buried at the cost of the citizens of Syracuse, who erected a monument to his memory in their market-place, afterwards surrounded with porticoes, and a gymnasium called Timoleonteum. Tyrant or Democrat? The ancient historian Timaeus gave Timoleon an excellent write up; however, Polybios laid into Timaeus for bias in favor of Timoleon and many modern historians have sided with Polybios[4]. Peter Green shares this skepticism but thinks it has gone too far. While he concedes that Timoleon tended to play the democrat while using the methods of a tyrant (albeit benevolent), he did make an effort to maintain the outward forms of democracy. Further, he reformed Syracuse in a democratic direction and demolished the stronghold of the island that had been so useful to tyrants in the past.[5]

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Timoleon in Wikipedia

(Τιμολέων). The son of Timodemus or Timaenetus and Demaristé. He belonged to one of the noblest families at Corinth. His early life was stained by a dreadful deed of blood. We are told that so ardent was his love of liberty that when his brother Timophanes endeavoured to make himself tyrant of their native city, Timoleon murdered him rather than allow him to destroy the liberty of the State. At the request of the Greek cities of Sicily, the Corinthians despatched Timoleon with a small force in B.C. 344 to repel the Carthaginians from that island. He obtained possession of Syracuse, and then proceeded to expel the tyrants from the other Greek cities of Sicily, but was interrupted in this undertaking by a formidable invasion of the Carthaginians, who landed at Lilybaeum, in 339, with an immense army, under the command of Hasdrubal and Hamilcar, consisting of 70,000 foot and 10,000 horse. Timoleon could only induce 12,000 men to march with him against the Carthaginians; but with this small force he gained a brilliant victory over the Carthaginians on the river Crimissus (339 B.C.). The Carthaginians were glad to conclude a treaty with Timoleon in 338, by which the river Halycus was fixed as the boundary of the Carthaginian and Greek dominions in Sicily. Subsequently he expelled almost all the tyrants from the Greek cities in Sicily, and established democracies instead. Timoleon, however, was in reality the ruler of Sicily, for all the States consulted him on every matter of importance; and the wisdom of his rule is attested by the flourishing condition of the island for several years even after his death. He died in 337. His life was written by Plutarch.

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Timon of Phlius in Wikipedia

Timon of Phlius (Greek: Τίμων, gen.: Τίμωνος; c. 320-c. 230 BC) was a Greek skeptic philosopher, a pupil of Pyrrho, and a celebrated writer of satirical poems called Silloi (Greek: Σίλλοι). He was born in Phlius, moved to Megara, and then he returned home and married. He next went to Elis with his wife, and heard Pyrrho, whose tenets he adopted. He also lived on the Hellespont, and taught at Chalcedon, before moving to Athens, where he lived until his death. His writings were said to have been very numerous. He composed poetry, tragedies, satiric dramas, and comedies, of which very little remains. His most famous composition was his Silloi, a satirical account of famous philosophers, living and dead, in hexameter verse. The Silloi has not survived intact, but it is mentioned and quoted by several ancient authors. Life A fairly full account of Timon's life was given by Diogenes Laertius, from the first book of a work on the Silloi by Apollonides of Nicaea; and some particulars are quoted by Diogenes from Antigonus of Carystus, and from Sotion.[1] He was a native of Phlius, and was the son of Timarchus. Being left an orphan while still young, he was at first a dancer in the theatre, but he abandoned this profession for the study of philosophy, and, having moved to Megara, he spent some time with Stilpo, and then he returned home and married. He next went to Elis with his wife, and heard Pyrrho, whose tenets he adopted, so far at least as his restless genius and satirical scepticism permitted him to follow any master. During his residence at Elis, he had children born to him, the eldest of whom, named Xanthus, he instructed in the art of medicine and trained in his philosophical principles. Driven again from Elis by straitened circumstances, he spent some time on the Hellespont and the Propontis, and taught at Chalcedon as a sophist with such success that he made a fortune. He then moved to Athens, where he lived until his death, with the exception of a short residence at Thebes. Among the great men with whom he became personally acquainted in the course of his travels were the kings Antigonus and Ptolemy II Philadelphus. He was also linked to several literary figures such as: Zopyrus of Clazomenae[2]; Alexander Aetolus and Homerus, whom he is said to have assisted in the composition of their tragedies; and Aratus, whom he is said to have taught.[3] He died at an age of almost ninety. Character Timon appears to have been endowed by nature with a powerful and active mind, and with a quick perception of the weaknesses of people, which made him a sceptic in philosophy and a satirist in everything. According to Diogenes Laertius, Timon was a one-eyed man; and he used even to make a jest of his own defect, calling himself Cyclops. Some other examples of his bitter sarcasms are recorded by Diogenes; one of which is worth quoting as a maxim in criticism: being asked by Aratus how to obtain the pure text of Homer, he replied, "If we could find the old copies, and not those with modern emendations." He is also said to have been fond of retirement, and of gardening; but Diogenes introduces this statement and some others in such a way as to suggest a doubt whether they ought to be referred to our Timon or to Timon of Athens, or whether they apply equally to both. Writings The writings of Timon are represented as very numerous. According to Diogenes Laertius, he composed "lyric and epic poems, and tragedies and satiric dramas, and thirty comedies, and sixty tragedies and the Silloi and amatory poems." Poetry No remains of his dramas have survived. Of his epic poems little is known, but it may be presumed that they were chiefly ludicrous or satirical poems in the epic form. Possibly his Python (Greek: Πύθων), which contained a long account of a conversation with Pyrrho, during a journey to the Delphic oracle, may be referred to this class; unless it was in prose.[4] It appears probable that his Funeral Banquet of Arcesilaus was a satirical poem in epic verse.[5] He also wrote parodies on Homer, and some lines from a scepticism-themed poem in elegiac verse have been preserved, as well as one or two fragments which cannot be with certainty assigned to any of his poems. The most celebrated of his poems, however, were the satiric compositions called Silloi, a word of somewhat uncertain etymology, but which undoubtedly describes metrical compositions, of a character at once ludicrous and sarcastic. The invention of this species of poetry is ascribed to Xenophanes of Colophon. The Silloi of Timon were in three books, in the first of which he spoke in his own person, and the other two are in the form of a dialogue between the author and Xenophanes, in which Timon proposed questions, to which Xenophanes replied at length. The subject was a sarcastic account of the tenets of all philosophers, living and dead; an unbounded field for scepticism and satire. They were in hexameter verse, and, from the way in which they are mentioned by the ancient writers, as well as from the few fragments of them which have survived, it is evident that they were admirable productions of their kind.[6] Commentaries were written on the Silloi by Apollonides of Nicaea, and also by Sotion of Alexandria.[7] The poem entitled Images (Greek: Ἰνδαλμοι) in elegiac verse, appears to have been similar in its subject to the Silloi.[8] Diogenes Laertius also mentions Timon's iamboi,[9] but perhaps the word is here merely used in the sense of satirical poems in general, without reference to the metre. According to Timon, philosophers are "excessively cunning murderers of many wise saws" (v. 96); the only two whom he spares are Xenophanes, "the modest censor of Homer's lies" (v. 29), and Pyrrho, against whom "no other mortal dare contend" (v. 126). Prose He also wrote in prose, to the quantity, according to Diogenes Laertius, of twenty thousand lines. These works were no doubt on philosophical subjects, and Diogenes mentions On Sensations, On Inquiries, and Towards Wisdom. Also among his lost works is Against the Physicists, in which he questioned the legitimacy of making hypotheses.[10] It has been suggested that Pyrrhoniam scepticism ultimately originated with Timon.[11] His work is frequently quoted by Sextus Empiricus, also a follower of Pyrrho. Apart from the fragments of the Silloi, most of what survives of Timon's work is what Sextus chose to quote.

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Timon in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

The son of Timarchus of Phlius, a philosopher of the sect of the Skeptics, who flourished in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, about B.C. 279 and onwards. He first studied philosophy at Megara, under Stilpo, and then returned home and married. He next went to Elis with his wife, and heard Pyrrho, whose tenets he adopted. Driven from Elis by straitened circumstances, he spent some time on the Hellespont and the Propontis, and taught at Chalcedon as a sophist with such success that he realized a fortune. He then removed to Athens, where he passed the remainder of his life, with the exception of a short residence at Thebes. He died at the age of almost ninety. Timon appears to have been endowed by nature with a powerful and active mind, and with that quick perception of the follies of men which betrays its possessor into a spirit of universal distrust both of men and truths, so as to make him a skeptic in philosophy and a satirist in everything. His agnosticism (to use a modern term) is shown by his saying that man need only know three things-viz. what is the nature of things, how we are related to them, and what we can gain from them; but as our knowledge of things must always be subjective and unreal, we can only live in a state of suspended judgment. He wrote numerous works both in prose and poetry. The most celebrated of his poems were the satiric compositions called silli (σίλλοι), a word of somewhat doubtful etymology, but which undoubtedly describes metrical compositions of a character at once ludicrous and sarcastic. The invention of this species of poetry is ascribed to Xenophanes of Colophon. (See Xenophanes.) The Silli of Timon were in three books, in the first of which he spoke in his own person, and the other two are in the form of a dialogue between the author and Xenophanes of Colophon, in which Timon proposed questions, to which Xenophanes replied at length. The subject was a sarcastic account of the tenets of all philosophers, living and dead-an unbounded field for skepticism and satire. They were in hexameter verse, and from the way in which they are mentioned by the ancient writers, as well as from the few fragments of them which have come down to us, it is evident that they were very admirable productions of their kind (Diog. Laert. ix. 12, 109- 115; Euseb. Praep. Ev. xiv. p. 761). The fragments of his poems are collected by Wölke, De Graecorum Syllis (Warsaw, 1820), and by Paul in his Dissertatio de Sillis (Berlin, 1821). See Parodia.

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Timotheus (general) in Wikipedia

Timotheus (? - 354 BC) was a Greek statesman and general who sought to revive Athenian imperial ambitions by making Athens dominant in a second Athenian Empire. He was the son of the Athenian general, Conon. Isocrates considered that Timotheus was superior to the other commanders of his time and showed all the requisites and abilities of a good general.[1] Strategos From 378 BC to 356 BC, Timotheus frequently held command as "strategos" in the wars between Athens (in alliance with Thebes), and Sparta. At this time, Athens' ambition was to revive the Delian League and to regain command of the sea. In 375 BC, Timotheus was sent with a fleet to sail round Peloponnesus by way of a demonstration of Athens' power against Sparta. He persuaded Cephallenia to side with Athens and secured the friendship of the Acarnanians and Molossians. In 373 BC Timotheus was appointed to the command of a fleet for the relief of Corcyra, then beleaguered by the Spartans. But his ships were not fully manned, and to increase their manpower he cruised in the Aegean. The delay upset the Athenians, who brought him to trial; but, thanks to the intervention of his allies --Jason, tyrant of Pherae, and Alcetas of Epirus, King of the Molossians, both of whom went to Athens to plead his cause--he was acquitted. In way of support, Amyntas, King of Macedon, sent timber to Timeotheus' house in the Piraeus. Upon his acquittal, he went to sea with his fleet and captured Corcyra and then defeated the Spartans at sea off Alyzia (Acarnania). However, with little money to his name--for he had used his own funds to build up the Athenian fleet -- he left Athens and took service with the king of Persia as a mercenary. Asia Minor Having returned to Athens, in 366 BC he was sent to support Ariobarzanes, satrap of Phrygia. But, finding that the satrap was in open revolt against Persia, Timotheus, in line with his instructions, abstained from helping him and rather used his army against Samos, then occupied by a Persian garrison, and took it after a ten months' siege (366 BC-365 BC). He then took Sestus, Crithote, Torone, Potidaea, Methone, Pydna and many other cities; but two attempts to capture Amphipolis failed. Court case An action was brought against him by Apollodorus, the son of the banker Pasion, for the return of money lent by his father. The speech for the plaintiff is still extant, and is attributed to Demosthenes. It is interesting as it describes the manner in which Timotheus had exhausted the large fortune inherited from his father and the straits to which he was reduced by his sacrifices in the public cause. The Social War In 358 BC or 357 BC, an Athenian force, in response to a spirited appeal from Timotheus, crossed over to Euboea and expelled the Thebans in three days. In the course of the Social War Timotheus was dispatched with Iphicrates, Menestheus, son of Iphicrates, and Chares to put down the revolt. The hostile fleets sighted each other in the Hellespont; but a gale was blowing, and Iphicrates and Timotheus decided not to engage. Chares, disregarding the advice of his colleagues, lost many ships. Final years In his dispatches after the battle, Chares complained so bitterly about Iphicrates and Timotheus that the Athenians put them on their trial. The accusers were Chares and Aristophon. Iphicrates, who had fewer enemies than Timotheus, was acquitted; but Timotheus, who had always been disliked for his perceived arrogance, was condemned to pay a very heavy fine. Being unable to pay, he withdrew to Chalcis, where he died soon afterwards. The Athenians later showed their sorrow over the treatment of Timotheus by forgiving the greater part of the fine that had passed onto his son Conon to pay. Timotheus was buried in the Ceramicus and statues were erected to his memory in the Agora and the Acropolis. Reputation Timotheus inspired much jelousy among his rivals, his reputation somewhat tarnished by the record of his final years. Claudius Aelianus sums up much of the negative perception of Timotheus' generalship. Note that the Athenian general Timotheus was reckoned to be fortunate. People said fortune was responsible, and Timotheus had no part in it. They ridiculed him on the stage, and painters portrayed him asleep, with Tykhe (Fortune) hovering above his head and pulling the cities into her net. This commentary is balanced by the credible picture of a skilled and cautious general, magnaminious victor and low-key diplomat presented by Isocrates.

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Timotheus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

The son of Conon , the famous general. He was himself a distinguished Athenian soldier. He was first appointed to a public command in B.C. 378; and from this time his name frequently occurs as one of the Athenian generals down to 356. In this year he was associated with Iphicrates, Menestheus, and Chares in the command of the Athenian fleet. In consequence of his failure to relieve Samos he was arraigned in 354, and condemned to the crushing fine of 100 talents (more than $100,000). Being unable to pay the fine, he withdrew to Chalcis in Euboea, where he died shortly after. The Athenians subsequently remitted nine-tenths of the penalty, and allowed his son Conon to expend the remainder on the repair of the walls, which the famous Conon had restored. (His life is written by Nepos; see Diod.xv. 81Diod., xvi. 7Diod., 21; and the article Iphicrates).

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Timotheus of Miletus in Wikipedia

Timotheus of Miletus (c. 446-357 B.C.) was a Greek musician and dithyrambic poet. He added one or more strings to the lyre, whereby he incurred the displeasure of the Spartans and Athenians (E. Curtius, Hist of Greece, bk. v. ch. 2). He composed musical works of a mythological and historical character. He spent some years in the court of Archelaus I of Macedon Fragments in T. Bergk, Poetae lyriei graeci. A papyrus-fragment of his Persians (possibly the oldest Greek papyrus in existence), discovered at Abusir has been edited by U. von Wilamowitz-Mollendorff (1903), with discussion of the nome, metre, the number of strings of the lyre, date of the poet and fragment. See V. Strazzulla, Persiani di Eschilo ed il nomo di Timoteo (1904); S. Sudhaus in Rhein. Mus., iviii. (1903), p. 481; and T. Reinach and M. Croiset in Revue des etudes grecques, xvi. (1903), pp. 62, 323.

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Timotheus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

A celebrated musician and poet of the later Athenian dithyramb. He was a native of Miletus, and the son of Thersander. He was born B.C. 446, and died in 357, in the ninetieth year of his age. He was at first unfortunate in his professional efforts. Even the Athenians, fond as they were of novelty, were offended at the bold innovations of Timotheus, and hissed his performance. On this occasion it is said that Euripides encouraged Timotheus by the prediction that he would soon have the theatres at his feet. This prediction appears to have been accomplished in the vast popularity which Timotheus afterwards enjoyed. He delighted in the most artificial and intricate forms of musical expression, and he used instrumental music, without a vocal accompaniment, to a greater extent than any previous composer. Perhaps the most important of his innovations, as the means of introducing all the others, was his addition to the number of the strings of the cithara, which he seems to have increased to eleven.

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Timotheus (sculptor) in Wikipedia

Timotheus (Epidaurus, ?–Epidaurus, ca. 340 BC) was a Greek sculptor of the 4th century BC, one of the rivals and contemporaries of Scopas of Paros, among the sculptors who worked for their own fame on the construction of the grave of Mausolus at Halicarnassus between 353 and 350 BC.[1] He was apparently the leading sculptor at the temple of Asklepios at Epidaurus, ca. 380 BC. To him is attributed[2] a sculpture of Leda and the Swan in which the queen Leda of Sparta protected a swan from an eagle, on the basis of which a Roman marble copy in the Capitoline Museums[3] is said to be "after Timotheus". The theme must have been popular, judging by the more than two dozen Roman marble copies that survive.[4] The most famous version has been that in the Capitoline Museums in Rome, purchased by Pope Clement XIV from the heirs of Cardinal Alessandro Albani. A highly restored version is in the Museo del Prado, and an incomplete one is in the Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut.

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Timotheus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

A sculptor, whose country is not mentioned, but who belonged to the later Attic school of the time of Scopas and Praxiteles. He was one of the artists who executed the basreliefs which adorned the frieze of the Mausoleum. He is also mentioned as the author of a statue of Asclepius at Troezen and one of Artemis which was at Rome (Pausan. ii. 32, 3; Pliny , Pliny H. N. xxxvi. 32).

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Theramenes in Wikipedia

Theramenes (pronounced /θɨˈræmɨniːz/; Ancient Greek: Θηραμένης; floruit 411–404 BC) was an Athenian statesman, prominent in the final decade of the Peloponnesian War. He was particularly active during the two periods of oligarchic government at Athens, as well as in the trial of the generals who had commanded at Arginusae in 406 BC. A moderate oligarch, he often found himself caught between the democrats on the one hand and the extremist oligarchs on the other. Successful in replacing a narrow oligarchy with a broader one in 411 BC, he failed to achieve the same end in 404 BC, and was executed by the extremists whose policies he had opposed. Theramenes was a central figure in four major episodes of Athenian history. He appeared on the scene in 411 BC as one of the leaders of an oligarchic coup, but, as his views and those of the coup's other leaders diverged, he began to oppose their dictates and took the lead in replacing the narrow oligarchy they had imposed with a more broadly based one. He served as a general for several years after this, but was not reelected to that office in 407 BC. After the Battle of Arginusae, in which he served as a trierarch, he was assigned to rescue Athenian sailors from sinking ships, but was prevented from doing so by a storm. That incident prompted a massive furor at Athens, in which Theramenes had to exonerate himself from responsibility for the failed rescue; the controversy ended in the execution of six generals who had commanded at that battle. After the Athenian defeat at Aegospotami in 405 BC, Theramenes arranged the terms by which Athens surrendered to Sparta. He then became a member of the narrow oligarchic government, known as the Thirty Tyrants, that Sparta imposed on its defeated rival. As he had in 411 BC, Theramenes soon came into conflict with the more extreme members of that government; his protests against the reign of terror the Thirty implemented led the leading oligarchs to plot his demise; he was denounced before the oligarchic assembly, and then, when that body appeared reluctant to punish him, struck from the roster of citizens and executed without trial. Theramenes remained a controversial figure after his death; Lysias vigorously denounced him while prosecuting several of his former political allies, but others defended his actions. Modern historical assessments have shifted over time; in the 19th century, Theramenes's part in the coup of 411 BC and his use of Arginusae were widely condemned, but newly discovered ancient texts and 20th-century scholarship supported more positive assessments. Some historians have found in Theramenes a selfish opportunist, others a principled moderate. The details of his actions, his motivations, and his character continue to be debated down to the present day. Historical record No ancient biographies of Theramenes are known, but his life and actions are relatively well documented, due to the extensive treatment given him in several surviving works. The Attic orator Lysias deals with him at length in several of his speeches, albeit in a very hostile manner.[1] Theramenes also appears in several ancient narrative histories: Thucydides' account includes the beginnings of Theramenes' career, and Xenophon, picking up where Thucydides left off, gives a detailed account of several episodes from Theramenes career;[2] Diodorus Siculus, probably drawing his account from Ephorus at most points, provides another account that varies widely from Xenophon's at several points.[3] Theramenes also appears in several other sources, which, although they do not provide as many narrative details, have been used to illuminate the political disputes which surrounded Theramenes' life and memory. Family Only the barest outlines of Theramenes' life outside the public sphere have been preserved in the historical record. His father, Hagnon had played a significant role in Athenian public life in the decades before Theramenes' appearance on the scene. He had commanded the group of Greek colonists who founded Amphipolis in 437–6 BC,[4] had served as a general on several occasions before and during the Peloponnesian War,[5] and was one of the signers of the Peace of Nicias.[6] Hagnon's career overlapped with his son's when he served as one of the ten commissioners appointed by the government of the 400 to draft a new constitution in 411 BC.[7] Coup of 411 BC Overthrow of the democracy Theramenes' first appearance in the historical record comes with his involvement in the oligarchic coup of 411 BC. In the wake of the Athenian defeat in Sicily, revolts began to break out among Athens' subject states in the Aegean Sea and the Peace of Nicias fell apart; the Peloponnesian War resumed in full by 412 BC. In this context, a number of Athenian aristocrats, led by Peisander and with Theramenes prominent among their ranks, began to conspire to overthrow the city's democratic government. This intrigue was initiated by the exiled nobleman Alcibiades, who was at that time acting as an assistant to the Persian satrap Tissaphernes. Claiming that he had great influence with Tissaphernes, Alcibiades promised to return to Athens, bringing Persian support with him, if the democracy that had exiled him were replaced with an oligarchy.[8] Accordingly, a number of trierarchs and other leaders of the Athenian army at Samos began planning the overthrow of the democracy. They eventually dispatched Peisander to Athens, where, by promising that the return of Alcibiades and an alliance with Persian would follow if the Athenians would replace their democracy with an oligarchy, he persuaded the Athenian ecclesia to send him as an emissary to Alcibiades, authorized to make whatever arrangements were necessary.[9] Alcibiades, however, did not succeed in persuading the satrap to ally with the Athenians, and, to hide this fact, demanded (claiming to be speaking for Tissaphernes) greater and greater concessions of them until they finally refused to comply. Disenchanted with Alcibiades but still determined to overthrow the democracy, Peisander and his companions returned to Samos,[10] where the conspirators worked to secure their control over the army and encouraged a group of native Samian oligarchs to begin planning the overthrow of their own city's democracy.[11] In Athens, meanwhile, a party of young oligarchic revolutionaries succeeded in gaining de facto control of the government through assassination and intimidation.[12] After making arrangements to their satisfaction at Samos the leaders of the conspiracy set sail for Athens. Among them was Theramenes; Thucydides refers to him as "one of the leaders of the party that put down the democracy-an able speaker and a man with ideas."[13] Calling the assembly together, the conspirators proposed a series of measures by which the democracy was formally replaced with a government of 400 chosen men, who were to select and convene a larger body of 5,000 as time went on.[14] Shortly afterwards, the conspirators went, under arms, to the council chamber, where they ordered the democratic council to disperse after collecting their pay; the council did as ordered, and from this point forward the mechanism of government was fully under the control of the oligarchic conspirators; they quickly changed the laws to reflect the new form of government they had imposed.[15] Conflict within the movement At this point, several conflicts began to develop that threatened the future of the new government at Athens. First, the planned coup at Samos was thwarted by the efforts of Samian democrats and a group of Athenians who they entrusted with helping them.[16] When the army at Samos heard the news of the coup at Athens, which arrived along with exaggerated reports of outrages being perpetrated by the new government, they declared their loyalty to democracy and hostility to the new government.[17] At Athens, meanwhile, a split developed between the moderate and radical oligarchs, with Theramenes emerging alongside one Aristocrates son of Scelias as the leader of the moderate faction. The extremist faction, led by Phrynicus, containing such prominent leaders of the coup as Peisander and Antiphon, and dominant within the 400, opposed broadening the base of the oligarchy, and were willing to seek peace with Sparta on almost any terms.[18] The moderates, on the other hand, although willing to seek peace with Sparta on terms that would preserve Athens' power, were not willing to sacrifice the empire and the fleet, and wanted to broaden the oligarchy to include the putative 5,000, presumably including all men of hoplite status or higher.[19] Shortly after taking power, the extremist leaders of the revolution had begun constructing fortifications on Eetioneia, a dominant point in the entrance to the harbor of Piraeus, ostensibly to protect the harbor against an attack from the fleet at Samos. With internal dissent increasing, they joined these new fortifications to existing walls to form a redoubt defensible against attacks from land or sea, which contained a large warehouse into which the extremists moved most of the city's corn supply.[20] Theramenes protested strongly against the building of this fortification, arguing that its purpose was not to keep the democrats out, but to be handed over to the Spartans; Thucydides testifies that his charges were not without substance, as the extremists were actually contemplating such an action.[21] Initially cautious (as enemies of the regime had been executed before), Theramenes and his party were emboldened and galvanized into action by several events. First, a Peloponnesian fleet, ostensibly dispatched to assist anti-Athenian forces on Euboea, was moving slowly up the coast of the Peloponnese; Theramenes charged that this fleet was planning to seize the fortifications on Eetioneia, in collaboration with the extremists.[22] Second, an Athenian militiaman, apparently acting on orders from conspirators higher in the ranks of the government, assassinated Phrynichus, the leader of the extremist faction. He escaped, but his accomplice, an Argive, was captured; the prisoner, under torture, refused to state the name of his employer. With the extremists unable to take effective action in this case, and with the Peloponnesian fleet overrunning Aegina (a logical stopping point on the approach to Piraeus), Theramenes and his party decided to act. Aristocrates, who was commanding a regiment of hoplites in Piraeus, arrested the extremist general Alexicles; enraged, the extremist leaders of the 400 demanded action, and made a number of threats against Theramenes and his party. To their surprise, Theramenes volunteered to lead a force to rescue Alexicles; the leaders of the extremists acquiesced, and Theramenes set out to Piraeus, sharing his command with one other moderate and one extremist, Aristarchus. When Theramenes and his force arrived at Piraeus, Aristarchus, in a rage, exhorted the men to attack the hoplites who had seized Alexicles. Theramenes feigned rage as well, but when asked by the hoplites whether he thought that the fortification on Eetioneia was a good idea, he responded that if they wanted to pull it down, he thought that would be good. Calling out that everyone who wanted the 5,000 to govern instead of the 400, the hoplites set to work.[23] Donald Kagan has suggested that this call was probably instigated by Theramenes' party, who wanted the 5,000 to govern; the hoplites tearing down the fortification might well have preferred a return to the democracy.[24] Several days later, the Peloponnesian fleet approached Piraeus, but, finding the fortifications destroyed and the port well defended, they sailed on to Euboea.[25] Several days later, the 400 were formally deposed and replaced by a government of the 5,000; the most extreme of the oligarchs fled the city.[26] In command Under the government of the 5,000 and under the democracy that replaced it in 410 BC, Theramenes served as a general for several years, commanding fleets in the Aegean Sea and the Hellespont. Shortly after the rise of the government of the 5,000, Theramenes set sail to the Hellespont to join Thrasybulus and the generals elected by the army at Samos.[27] After the Athenian victory at Abydos, he took thirty triremes to attack the rebels on Euboea, who were building a causeway to Boeotia to provide land access to their island. Unable to stop the construction, he plundered the territory of several rebellious cities,[28] then travelled around the Aegean suppressing oligarchies and raising funds from various cities of the Athenian Empire.[29] He then took his fleet to Macedon, where he assisted the Macedonian king Archelaus in his siege of Pydna, but, with that siege dragging on, he sailed on to join Thrasybulus in Thrace.[30] The fleet soon moved on from there to challenge Mindarus' fleet, which had seized the city of Cyzicus. Theramenes commanded one wing of the Athenian fleet in the resulting Battle of Cyzicus, a decisive Athenian victory. In that battle, Alcibiades (who had been recalled from exile by the fleet at Samos shortly after the coup) led a decoy force that drew the Spartan fleet out into open water, while Thrasybulus and Theramenes, each commanding an independent squadron, cut off the Spartans' retreat. Mindarus was forced to flee to a nearby beach, and vicious fighting ensued on land as the Athenians attempted to drag off the Spartan ships. Thrasybulus and Alcibiades kept the Spartans occupied while Theramenes joined up with the nearby Athenian land forces and then hurried to the rescue; his arrival precipitated a total Athenian victory, in which all the Spartan ships were captured.[31] In the wake of this victory, the Athenians captured Cyzicus and constructed a fort at Chrysopolis, from which they extracted a customs duty of one tenth on all ships passing through the Bosporus. Theramenes and another general remained at this fort with a garrison of thirty ships to oversee the collection of the duty.[32] At Athens, meanwhile, the government of the 5,000 was replaced by a restored democracy within a few months of this battle; Donald Kagan has suggested that the absence of Theramenes, "the best spokesman for the moderates", paved the way for this restoration.[33] Arginusae Theramenes remained a general through 407 BC, but, in that year, when the Athenian defeat at Notium led to the downfall of Alcibiades and his political allies, Theramenes was not reelected. In the next year, however, he did sail as a trierarch in the scratch Athenian relief fleet sent out to relieve Conon, who had been blockaded with 40 triremes at Mytilene by Callicratidas. That relief force won a surprising victory over the more experienced Spartan force in the Battle of Arginusae, but in the wake of that battle Theramenes found himself in the middle of a massive controversy. At the end of the battle, the generals in command of the fleet had conferred to decide on their next steps. Several pressing concerns presented themselves; 50 Peloponnesian ships under Eteonicus remained at Mytilene, blockading Conon, and decisive action by the Athenians could lead to the destruction of that force as well, but, at the same time, ships needed to be dispatched to recover the sailors of the twenty five Athenian triremes sunk or disabled in the battle. Accordingly, all eight generals, with the larger part of the fleet, set out for Mytilene, while a rescue force under Thrasybulus and Theramenes, both of whom were trierarchs in this battle but had served as generals in prior campaigns, remained behind to pick up the survivors and retrieve corpses for burial.[34] At this point, however, a severe storm blew up, and both of these forces were driven back to shore. Eteonicus escaped, and a great number of Athenian sailors-estimates as to the precise figure have ranged from near 1,000 to as many as 5,000-drowned.[35] Soon after the news of this public tragedy reached Athens, a massive controversy erupted over the apportionment of blame for the botched rescue. The public was furious over the loss of so many sailors, and over the failure to recover the bodies of the dead for burial, and the generals suspected that Thrasybulus and Theramenes, who had already returned to Athens, might have been responsible for stirring up the assembly against them, and wrote letters to the people denouncing the two trierarchs as responsible for the failed rescue.[36] Thrasybulus and Theramenes were called before the assembly to defend their behavior; in their defense, Theramenes produced a letter from the generals in which they blamed only the storm for the mishap;[37] the trierarchs were exonerated, and public anger now turned against the generals.[38] All eight were deposed from office, and summoned back to Athens to stand trial. Two fled, but six returned as commanded to face the charges against them.[39] Diodorus notes that the generals committed a critical error by attempting to shift the blame onto Theramenes. "For," he states, "although they could have had the help of Theramenes and his associates in the trial, men who both were able orators and had many friends and, most important of all, had been participants in the events relative to the battle, they had them, on the contrary, as adversaries and bitter accusers."[40] When the trial came, Theramenes' numerous political allies were among the leaders of the faction seeking the generals' conviction.[41] A bitter series of debates and legal maneuvers ensued as the assembly fought over what to do with the generals. At first, it appeared that they might be treated leniently, but in the end, public displays of bereavement by the families of the deceased and aggressive prosecution by a politician named Callixenus swung the opinion of the assembly; the six generals were tried as a group and executed.[42] The Athenian public, as the grief and anger prompted by the disaster cooled, came to regret their action, and for thousands of years historians and commentators have pointed to the incident as perhaps the greatest miscarriage of justice the city's government ever perpetrated.[43] Negotiating a peace In 405 BC, the Athenian navy was defeated and destroyed by the Peloponnesian fleet under Lysander at the Battle of Aegospotami in the Hellespont. Without sufficient funds to build another fleet, the Athenians could only wait as Lysander sailed westward across the Aegean towards their city. Blockaded by land and sea, with their food supplies running low, the Athenians sent ambassadors to the Spartan king Agis, whose army was camped outside their walls, offering to join the Spartan alliance if they were allowed to keep their walls and port; Agis, claiming that he had no power to negotiate, sent the ambassadors on to Sparta, but there they were told that, if they really wanted peace, they should bring the Spartans better proposals.[44] The Athenians were initially intransigent, going so far as to imprison a man who suggested that a stretch of the long walls be torn down as the Spartans had insisted,[45] but the reality of their situation soon compelled them to consider compromises. In this situation, Theramenes, in a speech to the assembly, requested that he be sent as an ambassador to Lysander (who was at this time besieging Samos) to determine the Spartans' intentions towards Athens; he also stated that he had discovered something that might improve the Athenians' situation, although he declined to share it with the citizenry.[46] His request was granted, and Theramenes sailed to Samos to meet with Lysander; from there, he was sent to Sparta, perhaps stopping at Athens on the way.[47] At Sparta, with representatives of all of Sparta's allies present, Theramenes and his colleagues negotiated the terms of the peace that ended the Peloponnesian War; the long walls and the walls of Piraeus were pulled down, the size of the Athenian fleet was sharply limited, and Athenian foreign policy was subordinated to that of Sparta;[48] the treaty also stipulated that the Athenians were to use "the constitution of their ancestors".[49] Theramenes returned to Athens and presented the results of the negotiations to the assembly; although some still favored holding out, the majority voted to accept the terms; the Peloponnesian War, after 28 years, was at an end.[50] Thirty Tyrants In the wake of Athens' surrender, the long walls were torn down and the troops besieging the city returned to their various homes; a Spartan garrison probably remained in Athens to supervise the dismantling of the walls; Lysander sailed off to Samos to complete the siege of that city.[51] Another clause of the treaty that had ended the war had allowed all exiles to return to Athens, and these men, many of them oligarchic agitators who had been cast out by the democracy, were hard at work in the months after the treaty.[51] Five "overseers" were appointed by the members of the oligarchic social clubs to plan the transition to an oligarchy.[52] In July 404 BC, they summoned Lysander back to Athens, where he supervised the change of government; an oligarchic politician, Dracontides, proposed in the council to place the government in the hands of thirty chosen men; Theramenes supported this motion,[53] and, with Lysander threatening to punish the Athenians for failing to dismantle the walls quickly enough unless they assented, it passed the assembly.[54] Thirty men were selected: ten appointed by the "overseers", ten chosen by Theramenes (including himself), and ten picked by Lysander.[55] This government, which soon came to be known as the "Thirty Tyrants" for its excesses and atrocities, rapidly set about establishing its control over the city. The oligarchs, led by Critias, one of the "overseers" and a former exile, summoned a Spartan garrison to ensure their safety and then initiated a reign of terror, executing any men who they thought might possess sufficient initiative or a large enough following to effectively challenge them.[56] It was this campaign that first drove a wedge between Theramenes and the leaders of the Thirty; initially a supporter of Critias, Theramenes now argued that it was unnecessary to execute men who had shown no sign of wishing the oligarchy harm just because they had been popular under the democracy.[57] This protest, however, failed to slow the pace of the executions, so Theramenes next argued that, if the oligarchy was to govern by force, it must at least expand its base;[58] fearful that Theramenes might lead a popular movement against them, Critias and the leaders of the Thirty issued a list of 3,000 men who would be associates in the new government. When Theramenes again objected that this number was still too small, the leaders arranged for a military review to be staged after which the citizens were ordered to pile their arms; with the help of the Spartan garrison, the oligarchs then confiscated all arms except those belonging to the 3,000.[59] This, in turn, marked the beginning of even greater excesses; to pay the Spartan garrison's wages, Critias and the leaders ordered each of the Thirty to arrest and execute a metic, or resident alien, and confiscate his property. Theramenes, protesting that this action was worse than the worst excesses of the democracy, refused to follow the order.[60] Critias and his compatriots, in the light of these events, decided that Theramenes had become an intolerable threat to their rule; accordingly, speaking before the assembly of the 3,000, Critias denounced Theramenes as a born traitor, always ready to shift his political allegiances with the expediencies of the moment.[61] Famously, he branded him with the nickname "cothurnus", the name of a boot worn on the stage that could fit either foot; Theramenes, he proclaimed, was ready to serve either the democratic or oligarchic cause, seeking only to further his own personal interest. In an impassioned response, Theramenes denied that his politics had ever been inconsistent.[62] He had always, he insisted, favored a moderate policy, neither extreme democracy nor extreme oligarchy, and held true to the ideal of a government composed of men of hoplite status or higher, who would be able to effectively serve the state. This speech had a substantial effect on the audience, and Critias saw that, if the case were brought to a vote, Theramenes would be acquitted.[63] Accordingly, after conferring with the Thirty, Critias ordered men with daggers to line the stage in front of the audience and then struck Theramenes' name from the roster of the 3,000, denying him his right to a trial.[64] Theramenes, springing to a nearby altar for sanctuary, admonished the assemblage not to permit his murder, but to no avail; the Eleven, keepers of the prison, entered, dragged him away, and forced him to drink a cup of hemlock. Theramenes, imitating a popular drinking game in which the drinker toasted a loved one as he finished his cup, downed the poison and then flung the dregs to the floor, exclaiming "Here's to the health of my beloved Critias!"[65] Historiography Theramenes lived a controversial life, and his death did not end the struggle over how to interpret his actions. In the years after his death, his reputation became an item of contention as former associates of his defended themselves against prosecutors under the restored democracy. (The regime of the Thirty lasted only until 403 BC.) It would appear that, as they defended themselves before democratic-sympathizing Athenian jurymen, Theramenes' former comrades in the oligarchy attempted to exculpate themselves by associating their actions with those of Theramenes and portraying him as a steadfast defender of the Athenian democracy; examples of such accounts can be found in the Histories of Diodorus Siculus and in the "Theramenes papyrus", a fragmentary work discovered in the 1960s.[66] An example of the sort of attack this portrayal was intended to defend against can be found in two orations of Lysias, Against Eratosthenes and Against Agoratus; there, Theramenes is portrayed as treasonous and self-interested, doing tremendous harm to the Athenian cause through his machinations.[67] Xenophon adopts a similarly hostile attitude in the early parts of his work, but apparently had a change of heart during the chronological break in composition that divides the second book of the Hellenica; his portrayal of Theramenes during the reign of the Thirty Tyrants is altogether more favorable than that of his earlier years.[68] A final portrayal is offered by Aristotle, who, in his Constitution of the Athenians, portrays Theramenes as a moderate and a model citizen;[69] historians have disputed the origin of this account, with some treating it as a product of 4th century BC propaganda by a moderate "Theramenean" party, while others, such as Phillip Harding, see no evidence for such a tradition and argue that Aristotle's treatment of Theramenes is entirely a product of his own reassessment of the man.[70] Diodorus Siculus, a compiler of histories in the time of Augustus, presents a generally favorable account of Theramenes, which appears to be drawn from the noted historian Ephorus, who studied in Athens under Isocrates who was taught by Theramenes. Theramenes' reputation has undergone a dramatic shift since the 19th century, when Xenophon's and Lysias' unfavorable accounts were widely accepted, and Theramenes was execrated as a turncoat and blamed for instigating the execution of the generals after Arginusae.[71][72] The discovery of Aristotle's Constitution of the Athenians in 1890 reversed this trend for the broad assessment of Theramenes' character,[73] and Diodorus' account of the Arginusae trial has been preferred by scholars since Antony Andrewes undermined Xenophon's account in the 1970s; Diodorus' more melodramatic passages, such as his elaborate presentation of Theramenes' last moments, are still discounted, [74] but he is now preferred on a number of issues, and on the Arginusae trial in particular.[75] Aristophanes, in The Frogs, pokes fun at Theramenes' ability to extricate himself from tight spots, but delivers none of the scathing rebukes one would expect for a politician whose role in the shocking events after Arginusae had been regarded as particularly blameworthy, and modern scholars have seen in this a more accurate depiction of how Theramenes was perceived in his time; Lysias, meanwhile, who mercilessly attacks Theramenes on many counts, has nothing negative to say about the aftermath of Arginusae.[76] Recent works have generally accepted the image of Theramenes as a moderate, committed to the ideal of a hoplite-based broad oligarchy. Donald Kagan has said of him that "...his entire career reveals him to be a patriot and a true moderate, sincerely committed to a constitution granting power to the hoplite class, whether in the form of a limited democracy or a broadly based oligarchy",[77] while John Fine has noted that "like many a person following a middle course, he was hated by both political extremes."[78] The constitution of the 5,000 is recognized as his political masterpiece;[79] his attempt to bring about a similar shift towards moderatism in 404 led directly to his death. That death, meanwhile, has become famous for its drama, and the story of Theramenes' final moments has been repeated over and over throughout classical historiography. "Because he met his death defying a tyrant," John Fine notes, "it is easy to idealize Theramenes."[78] In the millennia since his death, Theramenes has been both idealized and reviled; his brief seven year career in the spotlight, touching as it did on all the major points of controversy in the last years of the Peloponnesian War, has been subject to myriad different interpretations. From the polemical contemporary works which describe his career have emerged the outlines of a complex figure, charting a dangerous course through the chaos of the late 5th century Athenian political scene; although historians from ancient times to the present have offered far more specific portraits, of one form or another, it may be that nothing more than that outline will ever be known with certainty.

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Theramĕnes in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Θηραμένης). An Athenian, son of Hagnon. He was a leading member of the oligarchical government of the Four Hundred at Athens, in B.C. 411. Subsequently, however, he not only took a prominent part in the deposition of the Four Hundred, but came forward as the accuser of Antiphon and Archeptolemus, who had been his intimate friends, but whose death he was now the mean and cowardly instrument in procuring. After the capture of Athens by Lysander, Theramenes was chosen one of the Thirty Tyrants (404 B.C.). But as from policy he endeavoured to check the tyrannical proceedings of his colleagues, Critias accused him before the council as a traitor, and procured his condemnation by violence. When he had drunk the hemlock, he dashed out the last drop from the cup, exclaiming, "This to the health of the handsome Critias !" (Xen. Hell. ii. 3, 2; Diod.xiv. 5). See Pöhlig, Der Athener Theramenes (Leipzig, 1877); and Wilamowitz, Aristoteles und Athen.

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Theron in Wikipedia

Theron, originally Greek pronounced /ˈθɪərɒn/ THEER-on and meaning "Hunter", or as a last name /θəˈroʊn/, may refer to: * Theron of Acragas, a 5th century BC tyrant of Acragas, Sicily. * Therons are a race of fictional aliens in the Dan Dare stories. * Charlize Theron, the South African-born actress of French, German and Dutch descent. * Theron Randolph, MD, the founder of the holistic field of environmental illness and medicine known as clinical ecology. * Theron Guards, an elite class of Locust in the game Gears of War and Gears of War 2 * Juan Theron, a South African cricketer

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Theron in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

tyrant of Agrigentum, in Sicily, who reigned from about B.C. 488 till his death in 472. He shared with Gelon in the great victory gained over the Carthaginians in 480. See Diod. xi. 20-25, 48, 53; Herod.vii. 165; and the article Gelo.

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Terpander in Wikipedia

Terpander (Greek: Τέρπανδρος), of Antissa in Lesbos, was a Greek poet and citharede who lived about the first half of the 7th century BC. About the time of the Second Messenian War, he settled in Sparta, whither, according to some accounts, he had been summoned by command of the Delphic Oracle, to compose the differences which had arisen between different classes in the state. Here he gained the prize in the musical contests at the festival of Carnea (676-2 BC; Athenaeus, 635 a.). He is regarded as the real founder of Greek classical music, and of lyric poetry; but as to his innovations in music our information is imperfect. According to Strabo (xiii. p. 618) he increased the number of strings in the lyre from four to seven; others take the fragment of Terpander on which Strabo bases his statement to mean that he developed the citharoedic nomos (sung to the accompaniment of the cithara or lyre) by making the divisions of the ode seven instead of four. The seven-stringed lyre was probably already in existence. Terpander is also said to have introduced several new rhythms in addition to the dactylic, and to have been famous as a composer of drinking-songs (skolia). According to Friedrich Nietzsche in The Gay Science, Terpander once quelled a riot by means of music and dance therapy. No poems attributed to Terpander survive complete, and very few lines of his are quoted by later Greek writers; it must be regarded as doubtful whether he worked in writing. Terpander is rumored to have died choking on a fig when the fruit was thrown in appreciation of one of his performances.[citat

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Thaïs in Wikipedia

Thaïs (Greek: Θαΐς) was a famous Greek hetaera who lived during the time of Alexander the Great and accompanied him on his campaigns. Thaïs first came to the attention of history when, in 330 BC, Alexander the Great burned down the palace of Persepolis after a drinking party. Thaïs was present at the party and gave a speech which convinced Alexander to burn the palace. Cleitarchus claims that the destruction was a whim; Plutarch and Diodorus recount that it was intended as retribution for Xerxes' burning of the temple of Athena on the Acropolis in Athens in 480 BC (the destroyed temple was replaced by the Parthenon of Athens) "When the king [Alexander] had caught fire at their words, all leaped up from their couches and passed the word along to form a victory procession in honour of Dionysus. Promptly many torches were gathered. Female musicians were present at the banquet, so the king led them all out for the comus to the sound of voices and flutes and pipes, Thaïs the courtesan leading the whole performance. She was the first, after the king, to hurl her blazing torch into the palace. As the others all did the same, immediately the entire palace area was consumed, so great was the conflagration. It was remarkable that the impious act of Xerxes, king of the Persians, against the acropolis at Athens should have been repaid in kind after many years by one woman, a citizen of the land which had suffered it, and in sport." -Diodorus of Sicily (XVII.72) People in the palace were given enough time to leave the building; there is no record of loss of life. Thaïs was the lover and possibly a wife of Ptolemy I Soter, King of Egypt. Her subsequent career is unknown. Appearances in literature Her larger-than-life persona has resulted in characters named Thaïs appearing in several literary works, the most famous of which are listed below. In Terence's Eunuchus, the female protagonist - a courtesan - is named after her. In The Divine Comedy, Thaïs is one of just a few women whom Dante Alighieri sees on his journey through Hell (Inferno, XVIII,133-136). She is located in the circle of the flatterers, plunged in a trench of excrement, having been consigned there, we are told by Virgil, for having uttered to her lover that she was "marvellously" fond of him. Dante's Thaïs is not the historical courtesan, but the protagonist of Terence's play. Thais and Alexander the Great are conjured by Faustus in Christopher Marlowe's "Doctor Faustus" for the amusement of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Thais is a supporting character in two novels by Mary Renault about Alexander the Great: "Fire from Heaven" and "The Persian Boy", as well as in Renault's biography of Alexander, "The Nature of Alexander." Thais is the heroine of a 1972 novel by the Russian author Ivan Efremov, Thais of Athens. It chronicles her life from meeting Alexander the Great through to her time as queen of Memphis in Egypt. Other literary figures named Thais are references to Thais of Alexandria, a historical figure of a later period.

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Thales in Wikipedia

Thales of Miletus (pronounced /ˈθeɪliːz/; Greek: Θαλῆς, Thalēs; c. 624 BC – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Miletus in Asia Minor, and one of the Seven Sages of Greece. Many, most notably Aristotle, regard him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition.[1] According to Bertrand Russell, "Western philosophy begins with Thales."[2] Thales attempted to explain natural phenomena without reference to mythology and was tremendously influential in this respect. Almost all of the other pre-Socratic philosophers follow him in attempting to provide an explanation of ultimate substance, change, and the existence of the world-without reference to mythology. Those philosophers were also influential, and eventually Thales' rejection of mythological explanations became an essential idea for the scientific revolution. He was also the first to define general principles and set forth hypotheses, and as a result has been dubbed the "Father of Science".[3][4] In mathematics, Thales used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore. He is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem. As a result, he has been hailed as the first true mathematician and is the first known individual to whom a mathematical discovery has been attributed.[5] Life Thales lived around the mid 620s – mid 540s BC and was born in the city of Miletus. Miletus was an ancient Greek Ionian city on the western coast of Asia Minor (in what is today the Aydin Province of Turkey), near the mouth of the Maeander River. Background The dates of Thales' life are not known precisely. The time of his life is roughly established by a few dateable events mentioned in the sources and an estimate of his length of life. According to Herodotus, Thales once predicted a solar eclipse which has been determined by modern methods to have been on May 28, 585 BC.[6] Diogenes Laertius quotes the chronicle of Apollodorus as saying that Thales died at 78 in the 58th Olympiad (548–545), and Sosicrates as reporting that he was 90 at his death. As mentioned, according to tradition, Thales was born in Miletus, Asia Minor. Diogenes Laertius states that ("according to Herodotus and Douris and Democritus") his parents were Examyes and Cleobuline, Phoenician nobles. Giving another opinion, he ultimately connects Thales' family line back to Phoenician prince Cadmus. Diogenes also reports two other stories, one that he married and had a son, Cybisthus or Cybisthon, or adopted his nephew of the same name. The second is that he never married, telling his mother as a young man that it was too early to marry, and as an older man that it was too late. A much earlier source - Plutarch - tells the following story: Solon who visited Thales asked him the reason which kept him single. Thales answered that he did not like the idea of having to worry about children. Nevertheless, several years later Thales, anxious for family, adopted his nephew Cybisthus. Thales involved himself in many activities, taking the role of an innovator. Some say that he left no writings, others that he wrote "On the Solstice" and "On the Equinox". Neither has survived. Diogenes Laertius quotes letters of Thales to Pherecydes and Solon, offering to review the book of the former on religion, and offering to keep company with the latter on his sojourn from Athens. Thales identifies the Milesians as Athenians.[7] Business Several anecdotes suggest that Thales was not solely a thinker; he was involved in business and politics. One story recounts that he bought all the olive presses in Miletus after predicting the weather and a good harvest for a particular year. Another version of this same story states that he bought options for the use of the presses not to become wealthy, but merely to demonstrate to his fellow Milesians that he could use his intelligence to enrich himself.[8] This can be considered the first known example of options trading. Politics Thales’ political life had mainly to do with the involvement of the Ionians in the defense of Anatolia against the growing power of the Persians, who were then new to the region. A king had come to power in neighboring Lydia, Croesus, who was somewhat too aggressive for the size of his army. He had conquered most of the states of coastal Anatolia, including the cities of the Ionians. The story is told in Herodotus.[9] The Lydians were at war with the Medes, a remnant of the first wave of Persians in the region, over the issue of refuge the Lydians had given to some Scythian soldiers of fortune inimical to the Medes. The war endured for five years, but in the sixth an eclipse of the Sun (mentioned above) spontaneously halted a battle in progress (the Battle of Halys). It seems that Thales had predicted this solar eclipse. The Seven Sages were most likely already in existence, as Croesus was also heavily influenced by Solon of Athens, another sage. Whether Thales was present at the battle is not known, nor are the exact terms of the prediction, but based on it the Lydians and Medes made peace immediately, swearing a blood oath. The Medes were dependencies of the Persians under Cyrus. Croesus now sided with the Medes against the Persians and marched in the direction of Iran (with far fewer men than he needed). He was stopped by the river Halys, then unbridged. This time he had Thales with him, perhaps by invitation. Whatever his status, the king gave the problem to him, and he got the army across by digging a diversion upstream so as to reduce the flow, making it possible to ford the river. The channels ran around both sides of the camp. The two armies engaged at Pteria in Cappadocia. As the battle was indecisive but paralyzing to both sides, Croesus marched home, dismissed his mercenaries and sent emissaries to his dependents and allies to ask them to dispatch fresh troops to Sardis. The issue became more pressing when the Persian army showed up at Sardis. Diogenes Laertius[10] tells us that Thales gained fame as a counsellor when he advised the Milesians not to engage in a symmachia, a "fighting together", with the Lydians. This has sometimes been interpreted as an alliance, but a ruler does not ally with his subjects. Croesus was defeated before the city of Sardis by Cyrus, who subsequently spared Miletus because it had taken no action. Cyrus was so impressed by Croesus’ wisdom and his connection with the sages that he spared him and took his advice on various matters. The Ionians were now free. Herodotus says that Thales advised them to form an Ionian state; that is, a bouleuterion ("deliberative body") to be located at Teos in the center of Ionia. The Ionian cities should be demoi, or "districts". Miletus, however, received favorable terms from Cyrus. The others remained in an Ionian League of 12 cities (excluding Miletus now), and were subjugated by the Persians. Sagacity Diogenes Laertius[11] tells us that the Seven Sages were created in the archonship of Damasius at Athens about 582 BC and that Thales was the first sage. The same story, however, asserts that Thales emigrated to Miletus. There is also a report that he did not become a student of nature until after his political career. Much as we would like to have a date on the seven sages, we must reject these stories and the tempting date if we are to believe that Thales was a native of Miletus, predicted the eclipse, and was with Croesus in the campaign against Cyrus. Thales had instruction from Egyptian priests, we are told. It was fairly certain that he came from a wealthy and established family, and the wealthy customarily educated their children. Moreover, the ordinary citizen, unless he was a seafaring man or a merchant, could not afford the grand tour in Egypt, and in any case did not consort with noble lawmakers such as Solon. He did participate in some games, most likely Panhellenic, at which he won a bowl twice. He dedicated it to Apollo at Delphi. As he was not known to have been athletic, his event was probably declamation, and it may have been victory in some specific phase of this event that led to his being designated sage. Theories The Greeks often invoked idiosyncratic explanations of natural phenomena by reference to the will of anthropomorphic gods and heroes. Thales, however, aimed to explain natural phenomena via a rational explanation that referenced natural processes themselves. For example, Thales attempted to explain earthquakes by hypothesizing that the Earth floats on water, and that earthquakes occur when the Earth is rocked by waves, rather than assuming that earthquakes were the result of supernatural processes. Thales, according to Aristotle, asked what was the nature (Greek Arche) of the object so that it would behave in its characteristic way. Physis (φύσις) comes from phyein (φύειν), "to grow", related to our word "be".[12] (G)natura is the way a thing is "born",[13] again with the stamp of what it is in itself. Aristotle[14] characterizes most of the philosophers "at first" (πρῶτον) as thinking that the "principles in the form of matter were the only principles of all things", where "principle" is arche, "matter" is hyle ("wood" or "matter", "matterial") and "form" is eidos. Arche is translated as "principle", but the two words do not have precisely the same meaning. A principle of something is merely prior (related to pro-) to it either chronologically or logically. An arche (from αρχειν, "to rule") dominates an object in some way. If the arche is taken to be an origin, then specific causality is implied; that is, B is supposed to be characteristically B just because it comes from A, which dominates it. The archai that Aristotle had in mind in his well-known passage on the first Greek scientists are not necessarily chronologically prior to their objects, but are constituents of it. For example, in pluralism objects are composed of earth, air, fire and water, but those elements do not disappear with the production of the object. They remain as archai within it, as do the atoms of the atomists. What Aristotle is really saying is that the first philosophers were trying to define the substance(s) of which all material objects are composed. As a matter of fact, that is exactly what modern scientists are attempting to accomplish in nuclear physics, which is a second reason why Thales is described as the first western scientist. Water as a first principle Thales' most famous belief was his cosmological thesis, which held that the world started from water. Aristotle considered this belief roughly equivalent to the later ideas of Anaximenes, who held that everything in the world was composed of air. The best explanation of Thales' view is the following passage from Aristotle's Metaphysics.[15] The passage contains words from the theory of matter and form that were adopted by science with quite different meanings. "That from which is everything that exists (ἅπαντα τὰ ὄντα) and from which it first becomes (ἐξ οὗ γίγνεται πρῶτου) and into which it is rendered at last (εἰς ὃ φθείρεται τελευταῖον), its substance remaining under it (τῆς μὲν οὐσίας ὑπομενούσης), but transforming in qualities (τοῖς δὲ πάθεσι μεταβαλλούσης), that they say is the element (στοιχεῖον) and principle (ἀρχήν) of things that are." And again: "For it is necessary that there be some nature (φύσις), either one or more than one, from which become the other things of the object being saved... Thales the founder of this type of philosophy says that it is water."[16] Aristotle's depiction of the problem of change and the definition of substance is clear. If an object changes, is it the same or different? In either case how can there be a change from one to the other? The answer is that the substance "is saved", but acquires or loses different qualities (πάθη, the things you "experience"). A deeper dip into the waters of the theory of matter and form is properly reserved to other articles. The question for this article is, how far does Aristotle reflect Thales? He was probably not far off, and Thales was probably an incipient matter-and-formist. The essentially non-philosophic Diogenes Laertius states that Thales taught as follows: "Water constituted (ὑπεστήσατο, 'stood under') the principle of all things."[17] Heraclitus Homericus[18] states that Thales drew his conclusion from seeing moist substance turn into air, slime and earth. It seems likely that Thales viewed the Earth as solidifying from the water on which it floated and which surrounded Ocean.[citation needed] Beliefs in divinity Thales applied his method to objects that changed to become other objects, such as water into earth (he thought). But what about the changing itself? Thales did address the topic, approaching it through lodestone and amber, which, when electrified by rubbing together, also attracts. A concern for magnetism and electrification never left science, being a major part of it today. Even the subatomic particle of electric current is derived from the Greek word ήλεκτρον (ēlektron), which means "amber". How was the power to move other things without the movers changing to be explained? Thales saw a commonality with the powers of living things to act. The lodestone and the amber must be alive, and if that were so, there could be no difference between the living and the dead. When asked why he didn’t die if there was no difference, he replied "because there is no difference." Aristotle defined the soul as the principle of life, that which imbues the matter and makes it live, giving it the animation, or power to act. The idea did not originate with him, as the Greeks in general believed in the distinction between mind and matter, which was ultimately to lead to a distinction not only between body and soul but also between matter and energy. If things were alive, they must have souls. This belief was no innovation, as the ordinary ancient populations of the Mediterranean did believe that natural actions were caused by divinities. Accordingly, the sources say that Thales believed that "all things were full of gods.".[19] In their zeal to make him the first in everything some said he was the first to hold the belief, which must have been widely known to be false. However, Thales was looking for something more general, a universal substance of mind. That also was in the polytheism of the times. Zeus was the very personification of supreme mind, dominating all the subordinate manifestations. From Thales on, however, philosophers had a tendency to depersonify or objectify mind, as though it were the substance of animation per se and not actually a god like the other gods. The end result was a total removal of mind from substance, opening the door to a non-divine principle of action. This tradition persisted until Einstein, whose cosmology is quite a different one and does not distinguish between matter and energy. Classical thought, however, had proceeded only a little way along that path. Instead of referring to the person, Zeus, they talked about the great mind: "Thales", says Cicero,[20] "assures that water is the principle of all things; and that God is that Mind which shaped and created all things from water." The universal mind appears as a Roman belief in Virgil as well: "In the beginning, SPIRIT within (spiritus intus) strengthens Heaven and Earth, The watery fields, and the lucid globe of Luna, and then -- Titan stars; and mind (mens) infused through the limbs Agitates the whole mass, and mixes itself with GREAT MATTER (magno corpore)"[21] Geometry Thales was known for his innovative use of geometry. His understanding was theoretical as well as practical. For example, he said: Megiston topos: hapanta gar chorei (Μέγιστον τόπος· άπαντα γαρ χωρεί) "Space is the greatest thing, as it contains all things" Topos is in Newtonian-style space, since the verb, chorei, has the connotation of yielding before things, or spreading out to make room for them, which is Template:Extension (metaphysics). Within this extension, things have a position. Points, lines, planes and solids related by distances and angles follow from this presumption. Thales understood similar triangles and right triangles, and what is more, used that knowledge in practical ways. The story is told in DL (loc. cit.) that he measured the height of the pyramids by their shadows at the moment when his own shadow was equal to his height. A right triangle with two equal legs is a 45-degree right triangle, all of which are similar. The length of the pyramid’s shadow measured from the center of the pyramid at that moment must have been equal to its height. This story indicates that he was familiar with the Egyptian seked, or seqed - the ratio of the run to the rise of a slope (cotangent). The seked is at the base of problems 56, 57, 58, 59 and 60 of the Rhind papyrus - an ancient Egyptian mathematics document. Our cotangents require the same units for run and rise, but the papyrus uses cubits for rise and palms for run, resulting in different (but still characteristic) numbers. Since there were 7 palms in a cubit, the seked was 7 times the cotangent. To use an example often quoted in modern reference works, suppose the base of a pyramid is 140 cubits and the angle of rise 5.25 seked. The Egyptians expressed their fractions as the sum of fractions, but the decimals are sufficient for the example. What is the rise in cubits? The run is 70 cubits, 490 palms. X, the rise, is 490 divided by 5.25 or 93 1/3 cubits. These figures sufficed for the Egyptians and Thales. We would go on to calculate the cotangent as 70 divided by 93 1/3 to get 3/4 or .75 and looking that up in a table of cotangents find that the angle of rise is a few minutes over 53 degrees. Whether the ability to use the seked, which preceded Thales by about 1000 years, means that he was the first to define trigonometry is a matter of opinion. More practically Thales used the same method to measure the distances of ships at sea, said Eudemus as reported by Proclus ("in Euclidem"). According to Kirk & Raven (reference cited below), all you need for this feat is three straight sticks pinned at one end and knowledge of your altitude. One stick goes vertically into the ground. A second is made level. With the third you sight the ship and calculate the seked from the height of the stick and its distance from the point of insertion to the line of sight. The seked is a measure of the angle. Knowledge of two angles (the seked and a right angle) and an enclosed leg (the altitude) allows you to determine by similar triangles the second leg, which is the distance. Thales probably had his own equipment rigged and recorded his own sekeds, but that is only a guess. Thales’ Theorem is stated in another article. (Actually there are two theorems called Theorem of Thales, one having to do with a triangle inscribed in a circle and having the circle's diameter as one leg, the other theorem being also called the intercept theorem.) In addition Eudemus attributed to him the discovery that a circle is bisected by its diameter, that the base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal and that vertical angles are equal. It would be hard to imagine civilization without these theorems. It is possible, of course, to question whether Thales really did discover these principles. On the other hand, it is not possible to answer such doubts definitively. The sources are all that we have, even though they sometimes contradict each other. (The most we can say is that Thales knew these principles. There is no evidence for Thales discovering these principles, and, based on the evidence, we cannot say that Thales discovered these principles.) Interpretations In the long sojourn of philosophy in the Universe there has existed hardly a philosopher or historian of philosophy who did not mention Thales and try to characterize him in some way. He is generally recognized as having brought something new to human thought. Mathematics, astronomy and medicine already existed. Thales added something to these different collections of knowledge to produce a universality, which, as far as writing tells us, was not in tradition before, but resulted in a new field. Ever since, interested persons have been asking what that new something is. Answers fall into (at least) two categories, the theory and the method. Once an answer has been arrived at, the next logical step is to ask how Thales compares to other philosophers, which leads to his classification (rightly or wrongly). Theory The most natural epithets of Thales are "materialist" and "naturalist", which are based on ousia and physis. The Catholic Encyclopedia goes so far as to call him a physiologist, a person who studied physis, despite the fact that we already have physiologists. On the other hand, he would have qualified as an early physicist, as did Aristotle. They studied corpora, "bodies", the medieval descendants of substances. Most agree that Thales' stamp on thought is the unity of substance, hence Bertrand Russell:[22] "The view that all matter is one is quite a reputable scientific hypothesis." "...But it is still a handsome feat to have discovered that a substance remains the same in different states of aggregation." Russell was only reflecting an established tradition; for example: Nietzsche, in his Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks, wrote:[23] "Greek philosophy seems to begin with an absurd notion, with the proposition that water is the primal origin and the womb of all things. Is it really necessary for us to take serious notice of this proposition? It is, and for three reasons. First, because it tells us something about the primal origin of all things; second, because it does so in language devoid of image or fable, and finally, because contained in it, if only embryonically, is the thought, 'all things are one.'" This sort of materialism, however, should not be confused with deterministic materialism. Thales was only trying to explain the unity observed in the free play of the qualities. The arrival of uncertainty in the modern world made possible a return to Thales; for example, John Elof Boodin writes ("God and Creation"): "We cannot read the universe from the past..." Boodin defines an "emergent" materialism, in which the objects of sense emerge uncertainly from the substrate. Thales is the innovator of this sort of materialism. The Rise of Theoretical Inquiry In the West, Thales represents a new kind of inquiring community as well. Edmund Husserl[24] attempts to capture the new movement as follows. Philosophical man is a "new cultural configuration" based in stepping back from "pregiven tradition" and taking up a rational "inquiry into what is true in itself;" that is, an ideal of truth. It begins with isolated individuals such as Thales, but they are supported and cooperated with as time goes on. Finally the ideal transforms the norms of society, leaping across national borders. Classification The term "Pre-Socratic" derives ultimately from the philosopher Aristotle, who distinguished the early philosophers as concerning themselves with substance. Diogenes Laertius on the other hand took a strictly geographic and ethnic approach. Philosophers were either Ionian or Italian. He used "Ionian" in a broader sense, including also the Athenian academics, who were not Pre-Socratics. From a philosophic point of view, any grouping at all would have been just as effective. There is no basis for an Ionian or Italian unity. Some scholars, however, concede to Diogenes' scheme as far as referring to an "Ionian" school. There was no such school in any sense. The most popular approach refers to a Milesian school, which is more justifiable socially and philosophically. They sought for the substance of phenomena and may have studied with each other. Some ancient writers qualify them as Milesioi, "of Miletus." Influence on others Thales had a profound influence on other Greek thinkers and therefore on Western history. Some believe Anaximander was a pupil of Thales. Early sources report that one of Anaximander's more famous pupils, Pythagoras, visited Thales as a young man, and that Thales advised him to travel to Egypt to further his philosophical and mathematical studies. Many philosophers followed Thales' lead in searching for explanations in nature rather than in the supernatural; others returned to supernatural explanations, but couched them in the language of philosophy rather than of myth or of religion. Looking specifically at Thales' influence during the pre-Socratic era, it is clear that he stood out as one of the first thinkers who thought more in the way of logos than mythos. The difference between these two more profound ways of seeing the world is that mythos is concentrated around the stories of holy origin, while logos is concentrated around the argumentation. When the mythical man wants to explain the world the way he sees it, he explains it based on gods and powers. Mythical thought does not differentiate between things and persons[citation needed] and furthermore it does not differentiate between nature and culture[citation needed]. The way a logos thinker would present a world view is radically different from the way of the mythical thinker. In its concrete form, logos is a way of thinking not only about individualism[clarification needed], but also the abstract[clarification needed]. Furthermore, it focuses on sensible and continuous argumentation. This lays the foundation of philosophy and its way of explaining the world in terms of abstract argumentation, and not in the way of gods and mythical stories[citation needed]. Sources Our sources on the Milesian philosophers (Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes) were either roughly contemporaneous (such as Herodotus) or lived within a few hundred years of his passing. Moreover, they were writing from a tradition that was well-known. Most modern dissension comes from trying to interpret what we know, in particular, distinguishing legend from fact. The main secondary source concerning the details of Thales' life and career is Diogenes Laertius, "Lives of Eminent Philosophers".[25] This is primarily a biographical work, as the name indicates. Compared to Aristotle, Diogenes is not much of a philosopher. He is the one who, in the Prologue to that work, is responsible for the division of the early philosophers into "Ionian" and "Italian", but he places the Academics in the Ionian school and otherwise evidences considerable disarray and contradiction, especially in the long section on forerunners of the "Ionian School". Diogenes quotes two letters attributed to Thales, but Diogenes wrote some eight centuries after Thales' death and that his sources often contained "unreliable or even fabricated information",[26] hence the concern for separating fact from legend in accounts of Thales. Most philosophic analyses of the philosophy of Thales come from Aristotle, a professional philosopher, tutor of Alexander the Great, who wrote 200 years after Thales death. Aristotle, judging from his surviving books, does not seem to have access to any works by Thales. It was Aristotle's express goal to present Thales work not because it was significant in itself, but as a prelude to his own work in natural philosophy.[27] Geoffrey Kirk and John Raven, English compilers of the fragments of the Pre-Socratics, assert that Aristotle's "judgments are often distorted by his view of earlier philosophy as a stumbling progress toward the truth that Aristotle himself revealed in his physical doctrines."[28] There was also an extensive oral tradition. Both the oral and the written were commonly read or known by all educated men in the region. Aristotle's philosophy had a distinct stamp: it professed the theory of matter and form, which modern scholastics have dubbed hylomorphism. Though once very widespread, it was not generally adopted by rationalist and modern science, as it mainly is useful in metaphysical analyses, but does not lend itself to the detail that is of interest to modern science. It is not clear that the theory of matter and form existed as early as Thales, and if it did, whether Thales espoused it.

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Thales in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Θαλῆς). An Ionian, the founder of Greek philosophy. He was a contemporary of Solon and Croesus, and one of the Seven Sages, and was born at Miletus about B.C. 636, and died about 546, at the age of ninety, though the exact dates of his birth and death are not known. He is said to have predicted the eclipse of the sun which happened in the reign of the Lydian king Alyattes; to have diverted the course of the Halys in the time of Croesus; and later, in order to unite the Ionians when threatened by the Persians, to have instituted a federal council in Teos. Aristotle preserves a story of his knowledge of meteorology which was turned to a practical use (Polyb. i. 11, p. 1259). In the lists of the Seven Sages his name seems to have stood at the head, and he displayed his wisdom both by political sagacity and by prudence in acquiring wealth. In mathematics we find attributed to him only proofs of propositions which belong to the first elements of geometry, and which could not possibly have enabled him to calculate the eclipses of the sun and the course of the heavenly bodies. He may, however, have obtained a knowledge of the higher branches of mathematics from Egypt, which country he is said to have visited. In the annals of Greek philosophy he was probably the first who looked for a physical origin of the world instead of resting upon mythology. Thales maintained that water is the origin (ἀρχή) of things, meaning thereby that it is water out of which everything arises and into which everything resolves itself, and that the earth floated upon the water. Thales left no works behind him (Herod.i. 74, Herod., 170; Diog. Laert. i. 25; Aristot. Metaph. i. 3, p. 983). See Ionian School of Philosophy; Philosophia.

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Thallus (historian) in Wikipedia

Thallus (Greek: Θαλλός) sometimes spelled Thallos, was a early Samaritan historian who wrote in Koine Greek. Scholars believe that his is the earliest reference to the historical Jesus, written about 20 years after the Crucifixion. Around 55 AD, he wrote a three-volume history of the Mediterranean world from before the Trojan War to about 50 AD. Most of his work, like the vast majority of ancient literature, perished, but not before it was preserved by Sextus Julius Africanus in his History of the World. [2] [3] [4] The works are are important because they confirm the historicity of Jesus. Thallos details the Crucifixion of Jesus but explains that the darkness that fell over the land at the time of Jesus' death was not a supernatural miracle, but an merely an eclipse. This would establish a pre-Markan origin for the story spoken of in the Gospel of Mark. [5] [6] The fragments of Thallus 1. From the 3 books of Thallus, in which he made a summary in abbreviated fashion from the sack of Troy to the 167th Olympiad [i.e. 109 BC] (Eusebius, Chronicle, I. K125.2) 2. Castor and Thallus [recorded] Syrian events. (Africanus, in Eusebius, PE X.10) 3. The archives of the most ancient races--the Egyptians, Chaldaeans, and Phoenicians--need to be opened, and their citizens must be called upon, through whom knowledge must be provided--a certain Manetho the Egyptian and Berosus the Chaldaean, but also Jerome the Phoenician king of Tyre; and their followers, too: Ptolemy the Mendesian and Menander the Ephesian and Demetrius the Phalerean and king Juba and Apion and Thallus and the one who either proves or refutes these men, Josephus the Jew. (Tertullian, Apologeticum 19) 4. on the whole world there pressed a fearful darkness, and the rocks were rent by an earthquake, and many places in Judea and other districts were thrown down. Thallus calls this darkness an eclipse of the sun in the third book of his Histories, without reason it seems to me. (Africanus, in Syncellus) 5. For Thallus also remembers Belus the ruler of Assyria and Cronos the Titan, asserting that Belus waged war along with the Titans against Zeus and the select gods who were with him, stating at this point: 'and defeated, Ogygus fled to Tartessus. While at that time that region was famous as Akte, now it is called Attica, which Ogygus then took over.' (Theophilus, Ad Autolycum 3.29) 6. For according to the history of Thallus, we find that Belus was born 322 years prior to the Trojan War. (Lactantius, Divine Institutions I.23) 7. And so ... neither Diodorus the Greek nor Thallus, neither Cassius Severus nor Cornelius Nepos, nor any commentator on such ancient matters, prints that Saturn was anything but a man. (Tertullian, Apologeticum 10). 8. Therefore not only all poets, but even all historians and all writers on ancient matters, who have published for posterity his deeds done in Italy, agree he was a man: in Greek, Diodorus and Thallus, and in Latin, Nepos and Cassius and Varro. (Lactantius Div. Int. I.13). 9. All writers of Greek and Roman antiquities tell us that Saturn, the first of his kind, was a man: Nepos knows this, and Cassius in his history, as well as Thallus and Diodorus, say this. (Minucius Felix 21) 10. Regarding the events before the Olympiads, consider how the Attic chronologers reckon: from the time of Ogygus, during whose tenure the first great flood occurred in Attica, while Phoroneus was ruling the Argives, as Acusilaus records, up to the time of the first year of the first Olympiad, the point after which the Greeks consider time to be reckoned more accurately, 1020 years passed, which agrees with those mentioned earlier and with those who were listed in order. For the writers on Athenian history, Hellanicus and Philochorus (who wrote Atthis) and writers on Syrian affairs, Castor and Thallus, and writers on world affairs, Diodorus (who wrote the Library) and Alexander Polyhistor, and some of our contemporaries record these events even more accurately than all the Attic historians. (Africanus, in Eusebius PE X.10) 11. So know this: of all those among us [the Jews] happen to be more ancient than many: [for instance] ... Moses ... as is clear to us in the histories of the Greeks. ... For in the times of Ogygus and Inachus ... they record Moses ... so does Polemon in his first book of his History of the Greeks, and Apion ... and Ptolemaeus the Mendesian, who wrote a history of Egypt, all these men agree. And the writers on Athenian history, Hellanicus and Philochorus (who wrote Atthis), Castor and Thallus and Alexander Polyhistor, and also those most wise of men, Philo and Josephus ... [all these men] mention Moses, as they do the very old and ancient origin of the Jews. (Justin, Cohortatio 9) 12. 41 Assyrian kings ruled the kingdom of the Arabs, who also ruled from the [?] year of the world to the [?] year of the world, enduring all of [?] years from the first of them, Belus, until the 41st king, Macoscolerus, the son of Sardanapallus, as most noted historians agree, including Polybius, Diodorus, Cephalion, Castor, Thallus and others. (Syncellus) 13. After the 70th year of the captivity, Cyrus was king of the Persians in the first year of the 55th Olympiad, as we find in the Library of Diodorus and the Histories of Thallus and Castor, and also in the works of Polybius and Phlegon, but also in those of others who concern themselves with Olympiads: they are all in agreement about the date. (Africanus, in Eusebius PE X.10) 14. Those most wise men, Thallus, Castor [259 F 11], and Polybius [254 F 4]...and among others, Herodotus...and the wise Theophilus, all recorded the chronology of the reign of Croesus. (John Malalas VI). Commentary Thallus is sometimes cited for details on Syrian and Assyrian history. Eusebius of Caesarea in a list of sources mentions his work: From the three books of Thallus, in which he collects (events) briefly from the fall of Ilion to the 167th Olympiad.[7] However the text is preserved in an Armenian translation where many of the numerals are corrupt. The fall of Troy is 1184 BC, but the editors, Petermann and Karst, highlight that the end-date of the 167th Olympiad (109 BC) is contradicted by George Syncellus, who quotes Julius Africanus, and suggest that the end-date should read "217th Olympiad", a change of one character in Armenian. Thallus is first mentioned around AD 180 by Theophilus Bishop of Antioch in his Ad Autolycum ('To Autolycus') 3.29: Thallus makes mention of Belus, the King of the Assyrians, and Cronus the Titan; and says that Belus, with the Titans, made war against Zeus and his compeers, who are called gods. He says, moreover, that Gygus was smitten, and fled to Tartessus. At that time Gygus ruled over that country, which was then called Acte, but is now named Attica. And whence the other countries and cities derived their names, we think it unnecessary to recount, especially to you who are acquainted with history. Ho gygos 'that Gygus' is probably an error for Ogygos, referring to the Ogygus associated by chronographers with Attica. See Kings of Athens. Thallus and Josephus The name Thallus is too common to make a probable identification with any other known Thallus. The identication sometimes made with a certain Thallus of Samaria who is mentioned in some editions of Josephus' Antiquities (18.167) fails because that name only appears in those editions because of an idiosyncratic alteration of the text by John Hudson in 1720. Until Hudson's time all texts had ALLOS (meaning "another") not THALLOS. See the external link below to Jacoby and Müller.

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Theagenes of Megara in Wikipedia

There are merely a few references to the life of Theagenes of Megara amongst the ancient authors, which makes outlining a vague biography almost impossible. What we do know is that Theagenes of Megara was among the first of Greek tyrants, possibly inspired by Cypselus of neighbouring Corinth. Aristotle's Rhetoric mentions that Theagenes of Megara asked for a body guard. He states that "he who is plotting tyranny asks for a body guard." He is compared with Pisistratus, "who when granted it [a body guard] became a tyrant", a possible insight into how Theagenes managed to gain control of Megara and also insight into how the Greek concept of tyrannus might be linked with a body guard.[1] He slaughtered the flocks of the rich, as Aristotle mentions in his Politics.[2] Prior to mentioning Theagenes' slaughter, he gives some insight into why this may have occurred: "They would do this because they had the confidence of the people, a confidence based upon hostility to the rich." This is paralleled again by Aristotle with Pisistratus' leading a revolt of dwellers on the plain. Aristotle mentions that military men aimed at tyranny, this might hint that Theagenes might have been a general by profession who could be paralleled with Pittacus the Mytilenaean general-turned-tyrant. Thucydides also states that Cylon, a victor at Olympia, married Theagenes’ daughter. After Cylon had consulted the Delphic Oracle, the gods told him to seize the Athenian Acropolis. It was from Theagenes that he obtained a force. He tried about 630 people in the courts to help his son-in-law Cylon get to power in Athens Cylon succeeded "with a view to making himself a tyrant.[3] He built a fountain house that can still be seen off the "Road of the Spring-House" in modern Megara. This fountain was built in around 600 BC, helping us put a rough date to date the time of Theagenes' tyranny. This spring is said to have the water of the Sithnidian nymphs running through it. Pausanias mentions this fountain is "worth seeing for its size and ornament and the number of columns."[4] Athenagoras of Athens stated that Theagenes had been deified by the inhabitants of Thasos, despite his having "committed murder at the Olympic games".[5] Plutarch mentions that after Theagenes' casting out, the Megarians enjoyed a conservative government for a short while. However, Plutarch does not expand on the nature of the exile.[6] Theagenes is also mentioned in Aristophanes' Peace.[7] When the chorus are persuading Trygaeus not to sacrifice a fat swine because they would be associating with the 'swinishness' of Theagenes.

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Theagĕnes in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

A tyrant of Megara, who obtained his power about B.C. 630, having espoused the part of the commonalty against the nobles. He was driven out before his death. He gave his daughter in marriage to Cylon (q.v.).

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Theagenes of Rhegium in Wikipedia

Theagenes of Rhegium[1] (Θεαγένης ὁ Ῥηγῖνος) was a Greek literary critic of the sixth century BC. He is noted for having defended the mythology of Homer, from more rationalist attacks. In so doing he became an early proponent of the allegorical method of reading texts.[2][3] None of his work is known to survive. Its effects were felt later.[4]

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Theages in Wikipedia

Theages is a dialogue attributed to Plato, featuring Demodocus, Socrates and Theages. There is debate over its authenticity;[1] W. R. M. Lamb draws this conclusion from his opinion that the work is inferior and un-Socratic, but acknowledges that it was universally regarded as authentic in antiquity.[2] In the dialogue, Demodocus introduces his son Theages to Socrates for the first time, and they discuss Socrates' divine inner voice.[3] Four separate cases are described in which Socrates received a premonition from the gods, but in each case the advice was ignored with disastrous consequences.[3] Socrates is also presented as having a divine power which has a magical effect on his pupils, but which disappears when they abandon him to pursue other interests.[3] Theages 125e8-126a4 is quoted by Nietzsche in Will to Power §958: "In Plato's Theages it is written: 'Each one of us would like to be master over all men, if possible, and best of all God.' This attitude must exist again" (trans. Walter Kaufmann).

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Theano (philosopher) in Wikipedia

Theano (Greek: Θεανώ; 6th-century BC) was a Pythagorean philosopher. She was said by many to have been the wife of Pythagoras, although others made her the wife of Brontinus. A few fragments and letters ascribed to her have survived which are of uncertain authorship. She is believed by some historians to have been a student of Pythagoras and later a teacher in the Pythagorean school, which had 28 female Pythagoreans participating in it [1]. Life Little is known about the life of Theano, and the ancient sources are confused. According to one tradition, she came from Crete and was the daughter of Pythonax,[2][3] but others said she came from Croton and was the daughter of Brontinus.[3][4][5] She was said by many to have been the wife of Pythagoras,[2][3][4][5] although another tradition made her the wife of Brontinus.[3][4][6] Iamblichus refers to Deino as the wife of Brontinus.[7] The children ascribed to Pythagoras and Theano included three daughters, Damo, Myia, and Arignote, and a son, Telauges.[2][3][4][5] Writings The writings attributed to Theano were: Pythagorean Apophthegms, Female Advice, On Virtue, On Piety, On Pythagoras, Philosophical Commentaries, and Letters.[8] None of these writing have survived except a few fragments and letters of uncertain authorship. Attempts have been made to assign some of these fragments and letters to the original Theano (Theano I) and some to a later Theano (Theano II),[9] but it is likely that they are all pseudonymous fictions of later writers,[8][10] which attempt to apply Pythagorean philosophy to a woman's life.[8] The surviving fragment of On Piety concerns a Pythagorean analogy between numbers and objects; the various surviving letters deal with domestic concerns: how a woman should bring up children, how she should treat servants, and how she should behave virtuously towards her husband.[8] Mary Ritter Beard claimed that her treatise On Virtue contained the doctrine of the golden mean.[11]

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Theāno in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

A celebrated female philosopher of the Pythagorean School, appears to have been the wife of Pythagoras, and the mother by him of Telauges, Mnesarchus, Myia , and Arignoté; but the accounts respecting her were various (Diog. Laert. viii. 42; Suidas, s. h. v.). Letters ascribed to her, but not genuine, exist, and are edited by Hercher (1873).

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Themistocles in Wikipedia

Themistocles (Greek: Θεμιστοκλῆς; "Glory of the Law"[1]); c. 524–459 BC, was an Athenian politician and general. He was one of a new breed of politicians who rose to prominence in the early years of the Athenian democracy, along with his great rival Aristides. As a politician, Themistocles was a populist, having the support of lower class Athenians, and generally being at odds with the Athenian nobility. Elected archon in 493 BC, he took steps to increase the naval power of Athens, which would be a recurring theme in his political career. During the first Persian invasion of Greece, he fought at the Battle of Marathon,[2] and was possibly one of the 10 Athenian strategoi (generals) in that battle. In the years after Marathon, and in the run up to the second Persian invasion he became the most prominent politician in Athens. He continued to advocate a strong Athenian navy, and in 483 BC he persuaded the Athenians to build a fleet of 200 triremes; these would prove crucial in the forthcoming conflict with Persia. During the second invasion, he was in effective command of the Greek allied navy at the battles of Artemisium and Salamis. Thanks to subterfuge on the part of Themistocles, the Allies possessed all the advantages at Salamis, and the decisive Greek victory there was the turning point in the invasion, which was ended the following year by the defeat of the Persians at the Battle of Plataea. After the conflict ended, Themistocles continued to be pre-eminent amongst Athenian politicians. However, he aroused the hostility of Sparta by ordering Athens to be re-fortified, and his perceived arrogance began to alienate him from the Athenians. In 472 or 471 BC, he was ostracised, and went into exile in Argos. The Spartans now saw an opportunity to destroy Themistocles, and implicated him in the treasonous plot of their own general Pausanias. Themistocles thus fled from Greece, and travelled to Asia Minor, where he entered the service of the Persian king Artaxerxes I. He was made governor of Magnesia, and lived there for the rest of his life. Themistocles died in 459 BC, probably of natural causes. Themistocles's reputation was posthumously rehabilitated, and he was re-established as a hero of the Athenian (and indeed Greek) cause. Themistocles can still reasonably be thought of as "the man most instrumental in achieving the salvation of Greece" from the Persian threat, as Plutarch describes him. His naval policies would have a lasting impact on Athens as well, since maritime power became the cornerstone of the Athenian Empire and golden age. It was Thucydides's judgement that Themistocles was "a man who exhibited the most indubitable signs of genius; indeed, in this particular he has a claim on our admiration quite extraordinary and unparalleled". Sources The life of Themistocles is reasonably well attested in the ancient sources, especially compared to some near contemporaries (e.g. Cleisthenes, Leonidas I). He is one of approximately 50 ancient figures given an extensive biography by Plutarch in his Parallel Lives, in which Themistocles is paired with the Roman statesman Camillus.[3] Plutarch was writing some 600 years after the life of Themistocles, and is therefore very much a secondary source, but he often explicitly names his sources, which allows some degree of verification of his statements.[4] There is also a surviving (and possibly abridged) biography of Themistocles by the Roman author Cornelius Nepos from the first century BC, but this is far more cursory than Plutarch's, and adds little detail.[5] Themistocles's role in the Greco-Persian Wars and Athenian politics is described in both Herodotus's Histories and Thucydides's History of the Peloponnesian War. These historians were contemporary, or near-contemporary with the events they described, and certainly worked within living memory of the events.[6] Herodotus's work was probably published in 425 BC, when he was approximately 60, so he was contemporary with much of Themistocles's career.[6] Herodotus stayed in Athens at some point, where he may have met people who knew Themistocles personally.[6] The Athenian statesman and historian Thucydides was born in approximately 460 BC, when Themistocles was still alive, and no doubt became familiar with his countryman's life during his own career.[7] Themistocles's role in these conflicts is also described in reasonable detail by Diodorus Siculus, in his Bibliotheca historica. Diodorus was writing in the 1st century BC, and is also very much a secondary source,[8] though useful for corroborating details found elsewhere.[9] Early life Themistocles was born in Athens around 524 BC,[10] the son of Neocles, who was, in the words of Plutarch "no very conspicuous man".[11] His mother is more obscure; according to Plutarch, she was either a Thracian woman called Abrotonon, or Euterpe, a Carian from Halicarnassus.[11] Like many contemporaries, little is known of his early years. Some authors report that he was unruly as a child and was consequently disowned by his father.[5][12] Plutarch considers this to be false, however.[13] Plutarch indicates that, on account of his mother's background, Themistocles was considered something of an outsider; furthermore the family appear to have lived in an immigrant district of Athens, Cynosarges, outside the city walls.[11] However, in an early example of his cunning, Themistocles persuaded "well-born" children to exercise with him in Cynosarges, thus breaking down the distinction between "alien and legitimate".[11] Plutarch further reports that Themistocles was preoccupied, even as a child, with preparing for public life.[13] His teacher is said to have told him:[13] "My boy, thou wilt be nothing insignificant, but something great of a surety, either for good or evil." Political & Military Career Background Themistocles grew up in a period of upheaval in Athens. The tyrant Peisistratos had died in 527 BC, passing power to his sons, Hipparchus and Hippias.[14] Hipparchus was murdered in 514 BC, and in response to this, Hippias became paranoid and started to rely increasingly on foreign mercenaries to keep a hold on power.[15] The head of the powerful, but exiled (according to Herodotus only - the fragmentary Archon List for 525/4 shows a Cleisthenes, an Alcmaeonid, holding office in Athens during this period), Alcmaeonid family, Cleisthenes, began to scheme to overthrow Hippias and return to Athens.[16] In 510 BC, he persuaded the Spartan king Cleomenes I to launch an attack on Athens, which succeeded in overthrowing Hippias.[16] However, in the aftermath, the other noble ('eupatrid') families of Athens rejected Cleisthenes, electing Isagoras as archon, with the support of Cleomenes.[16] On a personal level, Cleisthenes wanted to return to Athens; however, he also probably wanted to prevent Athens becoming a Spartan client state. Outmaneuvering the other nobles, he proposed to the Athenian people a radical program in which political power would be invested in the people - a "democracy".[16] The Athenian people thus overthrew Isagoras, repelled a Spartan attack under Cleomenes, and invited Cleisthenes to return to Athens, to put his plan into action.[17] The establishment of the democracy was to radically change Athens: "And so it was that the Athenians found themselves suddenly a great power...they gave vivid proof of what equality and freedom of speech might achieve"[18] Early years of the Democracy The new system of government in Athens opened up a wealth of opportunity for men like Themistocles, who previously would have had no access to power.[19] Moreover, the new institutions of the democracy required skills which had previously been unimportant in government. Themistocles was to prove himself a master of the new system; "he could infight, he could network, he could spin...and crucially, he knew how to make himself visible."[19] Themistocles moved to the Ceramicus, a down-market part of Athens. This move marked him out as a 'man of the people', and allowed him to interact more easily with ordinary citizens. He began building up a support base amongst these newly-empowered citizens: "he wooed the poor; and they, not used to being courted, duly loved him back. Touring the taverns, the markets, the docks, canvassing where no politician had thought to canvas before, making sure never to forget a single voter's name, Themistocles had set his eyes on a radical new constituency"[19] However, he took care to ensure that he did not alienate the nobility of Athens.[19] He began to practice law, the first person in Athens to prepare for public life in this way.[19] His ability as attorney and arbitrator, used in the service of the common people, gained him further popularity.[20] Archonship Themistocles probably turned 30 in 494 BC, which qualified him to become an archon, the highest magistracies in Athens.[19] On the back of his popularity, he evidently decided to run for this office and was elected Eponymous Archon (the effective head of the Athenian government) in the following year (493 BC).[19] Themistocles's archonship saw the beginnings of a major theme in his career; the advancement of Athenian sea-power. Under his guidance, the Athenians began the building of a new port at Piraeus, to replace the existing facilities at Phalerum.[19] Although further away from Athens, Piraeus offered three natural harbours, and could be easily fortified.[21] Since Athens was to become an essentially maritime power during the 5th century BC, Themistocles's policies were to have huge significance for the future of Athens, and indeed Greece. In advancing naval power, Themistocles was probably advocating a course of action he thought essential for the long-term prospects of Athens.[19] However, as Plutarch implies, since naval power relied on the mass mobilisation of the common citizens (thetes) as rowers, such a policy put more power into the hands of average Athenians-and thus into Themistocles's own hands.[21] First Persian invasion of Greece The young Athenian democracy, along with the Euboean city of Eretria, had supported the Ionian cities in their revolt against Persian rule.[22] After suppressing the revolt, the Persian king Darius I decided that, in order to ensure the security of his empire, he would have to make himself overlord of Greece.[23] Many Greek cities gave 'earth and water', as requested, to the ambassadors that Darius sent to Greece in 491 BC, thereby signalling their submission to Darius.[24] The Athenians and Spartans refused however, and murdered the ambassadors.[25] The following year therefore, Darius sent an naval expedition across the Aegean Sea, with the ultimate aim of punishing Athens and Eretria; Sparta does not yet seem to have been a target.[22] The expedition island-hopped through the Cyclades, before besieging and destroying Eretria.[26] The task force then sailed to Attica, landing at the Bay of Marathon.[27] However, the Athenians had assembled a force of 10,000 hoplites, and marched to Marathon, where they blocked the roads that led to Athens.[28] In nominal control was the polemarch Callimachus, but actual command seems to have devolved upon Miltiades, who had some experience of fighting the Persians.[29] Themistocles was probably the elected general of his tribe (phyle, one of ten divisions that made up the citizenry of Athens) at Marathon.[30] After some days of stalemate, the Persians appear to have sent their cavalry away by sea to attack undefended Athens.[30] The Athenians, aware of this maneuver, took the opportunity to attack the Persians, and won a famous victory.[31] Themistocles's tribe, together with that of his rival Aristides, was in the centre of the Athenians battle line, and faced the brunt of the fighting against the strong Persian centre. However, the Persian wings were quickly routed, and the Athenian wings were able to turn inward and help defeat the Persian centre.[31] The immediate threat to Athens was thus ended, and the Persian task force returned to Asia, though the Persian interest in Greece was far from ended.[32] Darius immediately began planning a full-scale invasion of Greece, but died before preparations were complete.[32] In the aftermath of Marathon, it is said that Themistocles was jealous of the victory of Miltiades, repeating to himself, "Miltiades' trophy does not let me sleep or be idle".[33] Rivalry with Aristides A year later, Miltiades, the hero of Marathon, was injured in a minor battle. Taking advantage of his incapacitation, the powerful Alcmaeonid family arranged for him to be prosecuted.[34] The Athenian aristocracy, and indeed Greek aristocrats in general, were loath to see one person pre-eminent, and such maneuvers were commonplace.[34] Miltiades was given a massive fine for the crime of 'deceiving the Athenian people', but died weeks later as a result of his wound.[34] In the wake of this prosecution, the Athenian people chose to use a new institution of the democracy, which had been part of Cleisthenes's reforms, but remained so far unused.[34] This was 'ostracism'-each Athenian citizen was required to write on a shard of pottery (ostrakon) the name of a politician that they wished to see exiled for a period of ten years.[34] This may have been triggered by Miltiades's prosecution, and used by the Athenians to try and stop such power-games amongst the noble families.[34] Certainly, in the years (487 BC) following, the heads of the prominent families, including the Alcmaeonids, were exiled.[34] The career of a politician in Athens thus became fraught with more difficulty, since displeasing the population was likely to result in exile.[34] Themistocles, with his power-base firmly established amongst the poor, moved naturally to fill the vacuum left by Miltiades's death, and in that decade became the most influential politician in Athens.[34] However, the support of the nobility began to coalesce around the man who would become Themistocles's great rival - Aristides.[35] Aristides cast himself as Themistocles's opposite - virtuous, honest and incorruptible - and his followers called him "the just".[35] Plutarch suggests that the rivalry between the two had more sordid beginnings, when they competed over the love of a boy: "... they were rivals for the affection of the beautiful Stesilaus of Ceos, and were passionate beyond all moderation."[36] During the decade, Themistocles continued to advocate the expansion of Athenian naval power.[34] The Athenians were certainly aware throughout this period that the Persian interest in Greece had not ended; Darius's son and successor, Xerxes I, had continued the preparations for the invasion of Greece.[37] Themistocles seems to have realised that for the Greeks to survive the coming onslaught required there to be a Greek navy which could hope to face up to the Persian navy, and he therefore attempted to persuade the Athenians to build such a fleet.[19][34] Aristides, as champion of the zeugites (the upper, 'hoplite-class') vigorously opposed such a policy.[35] In 483 BC, a massive new seam of silver was found in the Athenian mines at Laurium.[38] Themistocles proposed that the silver should be used to build a new fleet of 200 triremes, whilst Aristides suggested it should instead be distributed amongst the Athenian citizens.[39] Themistocles avoided mentioning Persia, deeming that it was too distant a threat for the Athenians to act on, and instead focused their attention on Aegina.[38] At the time, Athens was embroiled in a long-running war with the Aeginetans, and building a fleet would allow the Athenians to finally defeat them at sea.[38] As a result, Themistocles's motion was carried easily, although only 100 warships of the trireme type were to be built.[38] Aristides refused to countenance this; conversely Themistocles was not pleased that only 100 ships would be built.[39] Tension between the two camps built over the winter, so that the ostracism of 482 BC became a direct contest between Themistocles and Aristides.[39] In what Holland characterises as, in essence, the world's first referendum, Aristides was ostracised, and Themistocles's policies were endorsed.[39] Indeed, becoming aware of the Persian preparations for the coming invasion, the Athenians voted for the construction of more ships than Themistocles had initially asked for.[39] In the run up to the Persian invasion, Themistocles had thus become the foremost politician in Athens.[20] Second Persian invasion of Greece In 481 BC, a congress of Greek city-states was held, during which 30 or so states agreed to ally themselves against the forthcoming invasion.[40] The Spartans and Athenians were foremost in this alliance, being sworn enemies of the Persians.[41] The Spartans claimed the command of land forces, and since the Greek (hereafter referred to as "Allied") fleet would be dominated by Athens, Themistocles tried to claim command of the naval forces.[42] However, the other naval powers, including Corinth and Aegina refused to give command to the Athenians, and Themistocles pragmatically backed down.[42] Instead, as a compromise, the Spartans (an insignificant naval power), in the person of Eurybiades were to command the naval forces.[43] It is clear from Herodotus, however, that Themistocles would be the real leader of the fleet.[44] The 'congress' met again in the spring of 480 BC. A Thessalian delegation suggested that the allies could muster in the narrow Vale of Tempe, on the borders of Thessaly, and thereby block Xerxes's advance.[45] A force of 10,000 hoplites was dispatched to the Vale of Tempe, through which they believed the Persian army would have to pass, under the command of the Spartan polemarch Euenetus and Themistocles. However, once there, they were warned by Alexander I of Macedon that the vale could be bypassed by several other passes, and that the army of Xerxes was overwhelmingly large, and the Greeks retreated.[46] Shortly afterwards, they received the news that Xerxes had crossed the Hellespont.[45] Themistocles now developed a second strategy. The route to southern Greece (Boeotia, Attica and the Peloponnesus) would require the army of Xerxes to travel through the very narrow pass of Thermopylae.[47] This could easily be blocked by the Greek hoplites, despite the overwhelming numbers of Persians; furthermore, to prevent the Persians bypassing Thermopylae by sea, the Athenian and allied navies could block the straits of Artemisium.[47] However, after the Tempe debacle, it was uncertain whether the Spartans would be willing to march out from the Peloponnesus again.[48] In order to persuade the Spartans to defend Attica, Themistocles needed to show them that the Athenians were willing to do everything necessary for the success of the alliance. In short, the entire Athenian fleet must be dispatched to Artemisium; in order to do this, every able-bodied Athenian male would be required to man the ships; and this in turn meant that the Athenians must prepare to abandon Athens.[48] Persuading the Athenians to take this course was undoubtedly one of the highlights of Themistocles's career.[49] As Holland has it: "What precise heights of oratory he attained, what stirring and memorable phrases he pronounced, we have no way of knowing...only by the effect it had on the assembly can we gauge what surely must have been its electric and vivifying quality - for Themistocles' audacious proposals, when put to the vote, were ratified. The Athenian people, facing the gravest moment of peril in their history, committed themselves once and for all to the alien element of the sea, and put their faith in a man whose ambitions many had long profoundly dreaded."[48] His proposals accepted, Themistocles issued orders for the women and children of Athens to be sent to the city of Troezen, safely inside the Peloponnesus.[50] He was then able to travel to a meeting of the Allies, at which he proposed his strategy; with the Athenian fleet fully committed to the defence of Greece, the other Allies accepted his proposals.[47] Battle of Artemisium Thus, in August 480 BC, when the Persian army was approaching Thessaly, the Allied fleet sailed to Artemisium, and the Allied army marched to Thermopylae.[51] Themistocles himself took command of the Athenian contingent of the fleet, and went to Artemisium. When the Persian fleet finally arrived at Artemisium after a significant delay, Eurybiades, who both Herodotus and Plutarch suggest was not the most inspiring commander, wished to sail away without fighting.[44][52] At this point Themistocles accepted a large bribe from the local people for the fleet to remain at Artemisium, and used some of it to bribe Eurybiades to remain, whilst pocketing the rest.[53] From this point on, Themistocles appears to have been more-or-less in charge of the Allied effort at Artemisium.[52] Over three days of battle, the Allies held their own against the much larger Persian fleet, but sustained significant losses.[54] However, the loss of the simultaneous Battle of Thermopylae to the Persians made their continued presence at Artemisium irrelevant, and the Allies thus evacuated.[55] According to Herodotus, Themistocles left messages at every place where the Persian fleet might stop for drinking water, asking the Ionians in the Persian fleet to defect, or at least fight badly.[56] Even if this did not work, Themistocles apparently intended that Xerxes would at least begin to suspect the Ionians, thereby sowing dissension in the Persian ranks.[56] Battle of Salamis In the aftermath of Thermopylae, Boeotia fell to the Persians, who then began to advance on Athens.[57] The Peloponnesian Allies prepared to now defend the Isthmus of Corinth, thus abandoning Athens to the Persians.[58] From Artemisium, the Allied fleet sailed to the island of Salamis, where the Athenian ships helped with the final evacuation of Athens. The Peloponnesian contingents wanted to sail to the coast of the Isthmus, in order to concentrate forces with the army.[59] However, Themistocles tried to convince them to remain in the Straits of Salamis, invoking the lessons of Artemisium; "battle in close conditions works to our advantage".[59] After threatening to sail with the whole Athenian people into exile in Sicily, he eventually persuaded the other Allies, whose security after all relied on the Athenian navy, to accept his plan.[60] Therefore, even after Athens had fallen to the Persians, and the Persian navy had arrived off the coast of Salamis, the Allied navy remained in the Straits. Themistocles appears to have been aiming to fight a battle which would cripple the Persian navy, and thus guarantee the security of the Peloponnesus.[59] To bring about this battle, Themistocles used a cunning mix of subterfuge and misinformation, psychologically exploiting Xerxes's desire to finish the invasion.[61] Xerxes's actions indicate that he was keen to finish the conquest of Greece in 480 BC, and to do this, he needed a decisive victory over the Allied fleet.[62] Themistocles sent a servant, Sicinnus, to Xerxes, with a message proclaiming that Themistocles was "on king's side and prefers that your affairs prevail, not the Hellenes".[63] Themistocles claimed that the Allied commanders were infighting, that the Peloponnesians were planning to evacuate that very night, and that to gain victory all the Persians needed to do was to block the straits.[63] In performing this subterfuge, Themistocles seems to have been trying to lure the Persian fleet into the Straits.[61] The message also had a secondary purpose, namely that in the event of an Allied defeat, the Athenians would probably receive some degree of mercy from Xerxes (having indicated their readiness to submit).[61] At any rate, this was exactly the kind of news that Xerxes wanted to hear.[61] Xerxes evidently took the bait, and the Persian fleet was sent out to effect the block.[64] Perhaps over-confident and expecting no resistance, the Persian navy sailed into the Straits,[65] only to find that, far from disintegrating, the Allied navy was ready for battle.[66] According to Herodotus, after the Persian navy began its maneuvers, Aristides arrived at the Allied camp from Aegina.[67] Aristides had been recalled from exile along with the other ostracised Athenians on the order of Themistocles, so that Athens might be united against the Persians.[67] Aristides told Themistocles that the Persian fleet had encircled the Allies, which greatly pleased Themistocles, as he now knew that the Persians had walked into his trap.[68] The Allied commanders seem to have taken this news rather uncomplainingly, and Holland therefore suggests that they were party to Themistocles's ruse all along.[69] Either way, the Allies prepared for battle, and Themistocles delivered a speech to the marines before they embarked on the ships.[70] In the ensuing battle, the cramped conditions in the Straits hindered the much larger Persian navy which became disarrayed, and the Allies took advantage to win a famous victory.[71] Salamis was the turning point in the second Persian invasion, and indeed the Greco-Persian Wars in general.[72] Whilst the battle did not end the Persian invasion, it effectively ensured that all Greece would not be conquered, and allowed the Allies to go on the offensive in 479 BC. A significant number of historians have stated that Salamis is one of the most significant battles in human history.[73][74][75] Since it was his long-standing advocacy of Athenian naval power which enabled the Allied fleet to fight at all, and it was his stratagem that brought about the Battle of Salamis, it is probably not an exaggeration to say, as Plutarch does, that Themistocles "is thought to have been the man most instrumental in achieving the salvation of Hellas".[38][52] Autumn/Winter 480/479 BC The Allied victory at Salamis ended the immediate threat to Greece, and Xerxes now returned to Asia with part of the army, leaving his general Mardonius to attempt to complete the conquest.[76] Mardonius wintered in Boeotia and Thessaly, and the Athenians were thus able to return to their city, which had been burnt and razed by the Persians, for the winter.[77] For the Athenians, and Themistocles personally, the winter would be a testing one. The Peloponnesians refused to countenance marching north of the Isthmus to fight the Persian army; the Athenians tried to shame them into doing so, with no success.[78] During the winter, the Allies held a meeting at Corinth to celebrate their success, and award prizes for achievement.[79] However, perhaps tired of the Athenians pointing out their role at Salamis, and of their demands for the Allies to march north, the Allies awarded the prize for civic achievement to Aegina.[78][80] Furthermore, although the admirals all voted for Themistocles in second place, they all voted for themselves in first place, so that no-one won the prize for individual achievement. In response, realising the importance of the Athenian fleet to their security, and probably seeking to massage Themistocles's ego, the Spartans brought Themistocles to Sparta.[78][80] There, he was awarded a special prize "for his wisdom and cleverness", and won high praise from all.[80][81] Furthermore, Plutarch reports that at the next Olympic Games: "[when] Themistocles entered the stadium, the audience neglected the contestants all day long to gaze on him, and pointed him out with admiring applause to visiting strangers, so that he too was delighted, and confessed to his friends that he was now reaping in full measure the harvest of his toils in behalf of Hellas."[80] Spring/Summer 479 BC However, as happened to many prominent individuals in the Athenian democracy, Themistocles's fellow citizens grew jealous of his success, and possibly tired of his boasting.[78][82] It is probable that in early 479 BC, Themistocles was stripped of his command; instead, Xanthippus was to command the Athenian fleet, and Aristides the land forces.[78][83] Though Themistocles was no doubt politically and militarily active for the rest of the campaign, no mention of his activities in 479 BC is made in the ancient sources.[84] In the summer of that year, after receiving an Athenian ultimatum, the Peloponnesians finally agreed to assemble an army and march to confront Mardonius, who had reoccupied Athens in June.[85] At the decisive Battle of Plataea, the Allies destroyed the Persian army, whilst apparently on the same day, the Allied navy destroyed the remnants of the Persian fleet at the Battle of Mycale.[86] These twin victories completed the Allied triumph, and ended the Persian threat to Greece.[86] Aftermath of the Persian invasion Whatever the cause of Themistocles's unpopularity in 479 BC, it obviously did not last long. Both Diodorus and Plutarch suggest he was quickly restored to the favour of the Athenians.[21][87] Indeed, after 479 BC, he seems to have enjoyed a relatively long period of popularity.[88] In the aftermath of the invasion, the Athenians began rebuilding their city under the guidance of Themistocles.[21] They wished to restore the fortifications of Athens, but the Spartans objected, on the grounds that no place north of the Isthmus should be left which the Persians might be able to use as a fortress.[87] Themistocles urged the citizens to build the fortifications as quickly as possible, then went to Sparta as an ambassador to answer the charges levelled by the Spartans. There, he assured them that no building work was on-going, and urged them to send emissaries to Athens to see for themselves.[89] By the time the ambassadors arrived, the Athenians had finished building, and then detained the Spartan ambassadors when they complained about the presence of the fortifications.[89] By delaying in this manner, Themistocles gave the Athenians enough time to fortify the city, and thus ward off any Spartan attack aimed at preventing the re-fortification of Athens.[89] Furthermore, the Spartans were obliged to repatriate Themistocles in order to free their own ambassadors.[21][89] However, this episode may be seen as the beginning of the Spartan mistrust of Themistocles which would return to haunt him.[21] Themistocles also now returned to his naval policy,[21] and "more ambitious undertakings which would serve to increase the dominant position of his native state".[90] He further extended and fortified the port complex at Piraeus, and "fastened the city [Athens] to the Piraeus, and the land to the sea".[21] Themistocles was probably aiming to make Athens the dominant naval power in the Aegean.[90] Indeed, Athens would create the Delian League in 478 BC, uniting the naval power of the Aegean Islands and Ionia under Athenian leadership.[91] Themistocles introduced tax breaks for merchants and artisans, to attract both people and trade to the city, in order to make Athens a great mercantile centre.[92] He also instructed the Athenians to build 20 triremes per year, to ensure that their dominance in naval matters continued.[92] Plutarch reports that Themistocles also proposed in secret to destroy the beached ships of the other Allied navies, in order to ensure complete naval dominance, but was overruled by Aristides and the council of Athens.[93] Fall and Exile It seems clear that, towards the end of the decade, Themistocles had begun to accrue enemies, and had become arrogant; moreover his fellow citizens had become jealous of his prestige and power.[21][82] The Spartans actively worked against him, trying to promote Cimon (son of Miltiades) as a rival to Themistocles. Furthermore, after the treason and disgrace of the Spartan general Pausanias, the Spartans tried to implicate Themistocles in the plot; he was, however, acquitted of these charges.[88] In Athens itself, he lost favour by building a sanctuary of Artemis, with the epithet Aristoboule ("of good counsel") near his home, a blatant reference to his own role in delivering Greece from the Persian invasion.[82] Eventually, in either 472 or 471 BC, he was ostracised.[82][94] In itself, this did not mean that Themistocles had done anything wrong; ostracism, in the words of Plutarch, "was not a penalty, but a way of pacifying and alleviating that jealousy which delights to humble the eminent, breathing out its malice into this disfranchisement." Themistocles first went to live in exile in Argos.[94][95] However, perceiving that they now had a prime opportunity to bring Themistocles down for good, the Spartans again levelled accusations of Themistocles's complicity in Pausanias's treason.[94] They demanded that he be tried by the 'Congress of Greeks', rather than in Athens, although it seems that in the end he was actually summoned to Athens to stand trial.[94][95] Perhaps realising he had little hope of surviving this trial, Themistocles fled, first to Corcyra, and thence to Admetus, king of Molossia.[96][97] Themistocles's flight probably only served to convince his accusers of his guilt, and he was declared a traitor in Athens, his property to be confiscated.[98] It should be noted that both Diodorus and Plutarch considered that the charges were false, and made solely for the purposes of destroying Themistocles.[94][95] The Spartans sent ambassadors to Admetus, threatening that the whole of Greece would go to war with the Molossians unless they surrendered Themistocles.[97] Admetus, however, allowed Themistocles to escape, giving him a large sum of gold to aid him on his way.[97] Themistocles then fled from Greece, apparently never to return, thus effectively bringing his political career to an end.[97][99] Later life and death From Molossia, Themistocles apparently fled to Pydna, from where he took a ship for Asia Minor.[98][99] This ship was blown off course by a storm, and ended up at Naxos, which an Athenian fleet was in the process of besieging.[98][99] Desperate to avoid identification, Themistocles cajoled the captain of the ship to continue the journey immediately.[98][99] According to Thucydides, who wrote within living memory of the events, the ship eventually landed safely at Ephesus, where Themistocles disembarked.[99] Plutarch has the ship docking at Cyme in Aeolia,[100] and Diodorus has Themistocles making his way to Asia in an undefined manner.[97] Diodorus and Plutarch next recount a similar tale, namely that Themistocles stayed briefly with an acquaintance (Lysitheides or Nicogenes) who was also acquainted with the Persian king, Artaxerxes I.[97][100] Since there was a bounty on Themistocles's head, this acquaintance devised a plan to safely convey Themistocles to the Persian king in the type of covered wagon that the King's concubines travelled in.[97][100] All three chroniclers agree that Themistocles's next move was to contact the Persian king; in Thucydides, this is by letter,[99] while Plutarch and Diodorus have a face-to-face meeting with the king.[97][100] The spirit is the same in all three however: Themistocles introduces himself to the king and seeks to enter his service.[99][101] "I, Themistocles, am come to you, who did your house more harm than any of the Hellenes, when I was compelled to defend myself against your father's invasion - harm, however, far surpassed by the good that I did him during his retreat, which brought no danger for me but much for him." (Thucydides) Thucydides and Plutarch say that Themistocles asked for a year's grace to learn the Persian language and customs, after which he would serve the king, and Artaxerxes granted this.[99][102] Plutarch reports that, as might be imagined, Artaxerxes was elated that such a dangerous and illustrious foe had come to serve him.[103][103] At some point in his travels, Themistocles's wife and children were extricated from Athens by a friend, and joined him in exile.[96] His friends also managed to send him many of his belongings, although up to 100 talents worth of his goods were confiscated by the Athenians.[98] When, after a year, Themistocles returned to the king's court, he appears to have made an immediate impact, and "he attained...very high consideration there, such as no Hellene has ever possessed before or since".[104] Plutarch recounts that "honors he enjoyed were far beyond those paid to other foreigners; nay, he actually took part in the King's hunts and in his household diversions."[102] Themistocles advised the king on his dealings with the Greeks, though it seems that for a long period, the king was distracted by events elsewhere in the empire, and thus Themistocles "lived on for a long time without concern".[104][105] He was made governor of the district of Magnesia on the Maeander River in Asia Minor, and assigned the revenues of three cities; Magnesia (about 50 talents per year - "for bread"), Myus ("for meat") and Lampascus ("for wine").[102][104][106] Themistocles died at Magnesia in 459 BC, at the age of 65, according to Thucydides, from natural causes.[104] However, perhaps inevitably, there were also rumours surrounding his death; that finding that he could not keep the promises that he had made to the king, he committed suicide by taking poison, or drinking bull's blood.[104][105][107] Plutarch provides the most evocative version of this story: But when Egypt revolted with Athenian aid...and Cimon's mastery of the sea forced the King to resist the efforts of the Hellenes and to hinder their hostile growth...messages came down to Themistocles saying that the King commanded him to make good his promises by applying himself to the Hellenic problem; then, neither embittered by anything like anger against his former fellow-citizens, nor lifted up by the great honor and power he was to have in the war, but possibly thinking his task not even approachable, both because Hellas had other great generals at the time, and especially because Cimon was so marvelously successful in his campaigns; yet most of all out of regard for the reputation of his own achievements and the trophies of those early days; having decided that his best course was to put a fitting end to his life, he made a sacrifice to the gods, then called his friends together, gave them a farewell clasp of his hand, and, as the current story goes, drank bull's blood, or as some say, took a quick poison, and so died in Magnesia, in the sixty-fifth year of his life...They say that the King, on learning the cause and the manner of his death, admired the man yet more, and continued to treat his friends and kindred with kindness.[105] After his death, Themistocles's bones were transported to Attica on his request, and buried in his native soil in secret, it being illegal to bury a Athenian traitor in Attica.[104] The Magnesians built a "splendid tomb" in their market place for Themistocles, which still stood during the time of Plutarch, and continued to dedicate part of their revenues to the family of Themistocles.[108] Plutarch indicates that he met in Athens a lineal descendant of Themistocles (also called Themistocles) who was still paid these revenues, 600 years after the events in question.[108] Assessments Character It is possible to draw some conclusions about Themistocles's character. Perhaps his most evident trait was his massive ambition; "In his ambition he surpassed all men";[20] "he hankered after public office rather as a man in delirium might crave a cure".[19] He was proud and vain,[42] and anxious for recognition of his deeds.[109] His relationship with power was of a particularly personal nature; whilst he undoubtedly desired the best for Athens, many of his actions also seem to have been made in self-interest.[19] He also appears to have been corrupt (at least by modern standards), and was known for his fondness of bribes.[35] Yet, set against these negative traits, was an apparently natural brilliance and talent for leadership:[19] "Themistocles was a man who exhibited the most indubitable signs of genius; indeed, in this particular he has a claim on our admiration quite extraordinary and unparalleled. By his own native capacity, alike unformed and unsupplemented by study, he was at once the best judge in those sudden crises which admit of little or of no deliberation, and the best prophet of the future, even to its most distant possibilities. An able theoretical expositor of all that came within the sphere of his practice, he was not without the power of passing an adequate judgment in matters in which he had no experience. He could also excellently divine the good and evil which lay hid in the unseen future. In fine, whether we consider the extent of his natural powers, or the slightness of his application, this extraordinary man must be allowed to have surpassed all others in the faculty of intuitively meeting an emergency."[104] Themistocles was undoubtedly intelligent, but also possessed natural cunning; "the workings of his mind [were] infinitely mobile and serpentine".[19] Themistocles was evidently sociable and appears to have enjoyed strong personal loyalty from his friends.[19][96] At any rate, it seems to have been Themistocles's particular mix of virtues and vices that made him such an effective politician.[19] Historical Reputation Themistocles died with his reputation in tatters, a traitor to the Athenian people; the "saviour of Greece" had turned into the enemy of liberty.[110] However, his reputation in Athens was rehabilitated by Pericles in the 450s BC, and by the time Herodotus wrote his history, Themistocles was once again seen as a hero.[7] Thucydides evidently held Themistocles in some esteem, and is uncharacteristically fulsome in his praise for him (see above).[104] Diodorus also extensively praises Themistocles, going as far as to offer a rationale for the length at which he discusses him: "Now on the subject of the high merits of Themistocles, even if we have dwelt over-long on the subject in this digression, we believed it not seemly that we should leave his great ability unrecorded."[111] Indeed, Diodorus goes so far as to say that "But if any man, putting envy aside, will estimate closely not only the man's natural gifts but also his achievements, he will find that on both counts Themistocles holds first place among all of whom we have record. Therefore one may well be amazed that the Athenians were willing to rid themselves of a man of such genius."[107] Since Diodorus's history includes such luminaries as Alexander the Great and Hannibal, this is high praise indeed. Plutarch offers a more nuanced view of Themistocles, with more of a critique of Themistocles's character. He does not detract from Themistocles's achievements, but also highlights his failings.[36] Political and military legacy Undoubtedly the greatest achievement of Themistocles's career was his role in the defeat of Xerxes's invasion of Greece. Against overwhelming odds, Greece survived, and classical Greek culture, so influential in 'western civilization' was able to develop unabated.[112] Moreover, Themistocles's doctrine of Athenian naval power, and the establishment of Athens as a major power in the Greek world were of enormous consequence during the 5th century BC. In 478 BC, the Hellenic alliance was reconstituted without the Peloponnesian states, into the Delian League, in which Athens was the dominant power.[113] This was essentially a maritime alliance of Athens and her colonies, the Aegean islands, and the Ionian cities. The Delian league took the war to Persia, eventually invading Persian territory and dominating the Aegean.[113] Under the guidance of Pericles, the Delian league gradually evolved into the Athenian Empire, the zenith of Athenian power and influence.[114] Themistocles seems to have deliberately set Athens up as a rival to Sparta in the aftermath of Xerxes's invasion, basing this strategy on Athenian naval power (contrasted with the power of the Spartan army).[21] Tension grew throughout the century between Athens and Sparta, as they competed to be the leading state in Greece.[115] Finally, in 431 BC, this tension erupted into the Peloponnesian War, the first of a series of conflicts which would tear Greece apart for the next century; an unforeseen, if indirect, legacy of Themistocles's.[115] Diodorus provides a rhetorical summary which reflects upon Themistocles's achievements: "What other man, while Sparta still had the superior strength and the Spartan Eurybiades held the supreme command of the fleet, could by his single-handed efforts have deprived Sparta of that glory? Of what other man have we learned from history that by a single act he caused himself to surpass all the commanders, his city all the other Greek states, and the Greeks the barbarians? In whose term as general have the resources been more inferior and the dangers they faced greater? Who, facing the united might of all Asia, has found himself at the side of his city when its inhabitants had been driven from their homes, and still won the victory?"[111]

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Theocritus in Wikipedia

Theocritus (Greek: Θεόκριτος), the creator of ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Life Little is known of Theocritus beyond what can be inferred from his writings. We must, however, handle these with some caution, since some of the poems (Idylls) commonly attributed to him have little claim to authenticity. It is clear that at a very early date two collections were made, one of which included of doubtful poems and formed a corpus of bucolic poetry, while the other was confined to those works which were considered to be by Theocritus himself. Theocritus was from Sicily, as he refers to Polyphemus, the cyclops in the Odyssey, as his 'countryman.' He also probably lived in Alexandria for a while, where he wrote about everyday life, notably Pharmakeutria. It is also speculated that Theocritus was born in Syracuse, lived on the island of Kos, and lived in Egypt during the time of Ptolemy II. The record of these recensions is preserved by two epigrams, one of which proceeds from Artemidorus of Tarsus, a grammarian, who lived in the time of Sulla and is said to have been the first editor of these poems. He says, "Bucolic muses, once were ye scattered, but now one byre, one herd is yours." The second epigram is anonymous, and runs as follows: "The Chian is another. I, Theocritus, who wrote these songs, am of Syracuse, a man of the people, the son of Praxagoras and famed Philina. I never sought after a strange muse." The last line may mean that he wrote nothing but bucolic poems, or that he only wrote in Doric. The assertion that he was from Syracuse appears to be upheld by allusions in the Idylls (xi. 7, xxviii. 16-18). The information concerning his parentage bears the stamp of genuineness, and disposes of a rival theory based upon a misinterpretation of Idyll vii--which made him the son of one Simichus. A larger collection, possibly more extensive than that of Artemidorus, and including poems of doubtful authenticity, was known to the author of the Suda, who says: "Theocritus wrote the so-called bucolic poems in the Dorian dialect. Some persons also attribute to him the following: Daughters of Proetus, Hopes, Hymns, Heroines, Dirges, Lyrics, Elegies, Iambics, Epigrams." The first of these may have been known to Virgil, who refers to the Proeides in the Eclogues. The spurious poem xxi. may have been one of the Hopes, and poem xxvi. may have been one of the Heroines; elegiacs are found in viii. 33-60, and the spurious epitaph on Bion may have been one of the Dirges. The other classes are all represented in the larger collection which has come down to us. The poems which are generally held to be authentic may be classified thus: Works Bucolics and Mimes The distinction between these is that the scenes of the former are laid in the country and those of the latter in a town. The most famous of the Bucolics are i. vii., xi. and vi. In i. Thyrsis sings to a goatherd how Daphnis, the mythical herdsman, having defied the power of Aphrodite, dies rather than yield to a passion with which the goddess had inspired him. In xi. Polyphemus is depicted as in love with the sea-nymph Galatea and finding solace in song: in vi. he is cured of his passion and naively relates how he repulses the overtures now made to him by Galatea. The monster of the Odyssey has been "written up to date" after the Alexandrian manner and has become a gentle simpleton. Idyll vii, the Harvest Feast, is the most important of the bucolic poems. The scene is laid in the isle of Kos. The poet speaks in the first person and is styled Simichidas by his friends. Other poets are introduced under feigned names. Thus ancient critics identified Sicelidas of Samos (1. 40) with Asclepiades the Samian, and Lycidas, "the goatherd of Cydonia," may well be the poet Astacides, whom Callimachus calls "the Cretan, the goatherd." Theocritus speaks of himself as having already gained fame, and says that his lays have been brought by report even unto the throne of Zeus. He praises Philitas, the veteran poet of Cos, and criticizes "the fledgelings of the Muse, who cackle against the Chian bard and find their labour lost." Other persons mentioned are Nicias, a physician of Miletus, whose name occurs in other poems, and Aratus, whom the Scholiast identifies with the author of the Phenomena. Several of the other bucolic poems consist of a singing-match, conducted according to the rules of amoebean poetry, in which the second singer takes the subject chosen by the first and contributes a variation in the same air. It may be noted that the peasants of Theocritus differ greatly in refinement. Those in v. are low fellows who indulge in coarse abuse. This Idyll and iv. are laid in the neighbourhood of Croton, and we may infer that Theocritus was personally acquainted with Magna Graecia. Suspicion has been cast upon poems viii and ix on various grounds. An extreme view holds that in ix. we have two genuine Theocritean fragments, Il. 7-13 and 15-20, describing the joys of summer and winter respectively, which have been provided with a clumsy preface, II. 1-6, while an early editor of a bucolic collection has appended an epilogue in which he takes leave of the Bucolic Muses. i On the other hand, it is clear that both poems were in Virgil's Theocritus, and that they passed the scrutiny of the editor who formed the short collection of Theocritean Bucolics. The mimes are three in number: ii, xiv, and xv. In ii Simaetha, deserted by Delphis, tells the story of her love to the moon; in xiv Aeschines narrates his quarrel with his sweetheart, and is advised to go to Egypt and enlist in the army of Ptolemy Philadelphus; in xv Gorgo and Praxinoe go to the festival of Adonis. It may be noticed that in the best manuscript ii. comes immediately before xiv, an arrangement which is obviously right, since it places the three mimes together. The second place in the manuscripts is occupied by Idyll vii., the "Harvest Feast." These three mimes are wonderfully natural and lifelike. There is nothing in ancient literature so vivid and real as the chatter of Gorgo and Praxinoe, and the voces populi in xv. It will be convenient to add to the Bucolics and Mimes three poems which cannot be brought into any other class: * xii, a poem to a beautiful youth * xviii, the marriage-song of Helen; * xxvi, the murder of Pentheus. The genuineness of the last has been attacked by Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff on account of the crudity of the language, which sometimes degenerates into doggerel. It is, however, likely that Theocritus intentionally used realistic language for the sake of dramatic effect, and the manuscript's evidence is in favour of the poem. Eustathius quotes from it as the work of Theocritus. Epics Three of these are Hymns: xvi, xvii, and xxii. In xvi, the poet praises Hiero II of Syracuse, in xvii Ptolemy Philadelphus, and in xxii the Dioscuri. The other poems are xiii, the story of Hylas and the Nymphs, and xxiv the youthful Heracles. It cannot be said that Theocritus exhibits signal merit in his Epics. In xiii. he shows some skill in word-painting, in xvi. there is some delicate fancy in the description of his poems as Graces, and a passage at the end, where he foretells the joys of peace after the enemy have been driven out of Sicily, has the true bucolic ring. The most that can be said of xxii and xxiv is that they are very dramatic. Otherwise they differ little from work done by other poets, such as Callimachus and Apollonius Rhodius. From another point of view, however, these two poems xvi and xvii are supremely interesting, since they are the only ones which can be dated. In xvii. Theocritus celebrates the incestuous marriage of Ptolemy Philadelphus with his sister Arsinoe. This marriage is held to have taken place in 277 BC, and a recently discovered inscription shows that Arsinoe died in 270, in the fifteenth year of her brother's reign. This poem, therefore, together with xv, which Theocritus wrote to please Arsinoe must fall within this period. The encomium upon Hiero II would seem prior to that upon Ptolemy, since in it Theocritus is a hungry poet seeking for a patron, while in the other he is well satisfied with the world. Now Hiero first came to the front in 275 BC when he was made General: Theocritus speaks of his achievements as still to come, and the silence of the poet would show that Hiero’s marriage to Phulistis, his victory over the Mamertines at the Longanus and his election as "King", events which are ascribed to 270 BC, had not yet taken place. If so, xvii and xv can only have been written within 275 and 270. Lyrics Two of these are certainly by Theocritus, xxviii and xxix, composed in Aeolic verse and in the Aeolic dialect. The first is a very graceful poem presented together with a distaff to Theugenis, wife of Nicias, a doctor of Miletus, on the occasion of a voyage thither undertaken by the poet. The theme of xxix is similar to that of xii. A very corrupt poem, only found in one very late manuscript, was discovered by Ziegler in 1864. As the subject and style very closely resemble that of xxix, it is assigned to Theocritus by recent editors. The Epigrams The authenticity of these is often doubtful. The following poems are now generally considered to be spurious: xix. Love stealing Honey. The poem is anonymous in the manuscripts and the conception of Love is not Theocritean. xx. Herdsman, xxi. Fishermen, xxiii. Passionate Lover. These three poems are remarkable for the corrupt state of their text, which makes it likely that they have come from the same source and possibly are by the same author. The Fishermen has been much admired. It is addressed to Diophantus and conveys a moral, that one should work and not dream, illustrated by the story of an old fisherman who dreams that he has caught a fish of gold and narrates his vision to his mate. As Leonidas of Tarentum wrote epigrams on fishermen, and one of them is a dedication of his tackle to Poseidon by Diophantus, the fisher, it is likely that the author of this poem was an imitator of Leonidas. It can hardly be by Leonidas himself, who was a contemporary of Theocritus, as it bears marks of lateness.

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Theocrĭtus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Θεόκριτος). The most famous of the Greek bucolic poets was a native of Syracuse, the son of Praxagoras and Philinna. He visited Alexandria towards the end of the reign of Ptolemy Soter, where he received the instruction of Philetas and Asclepiades, and began to distinguish himself as a poet. Other accounts make him a native of Cos, which would bring him more directly into connection with Philetas (Suidas, s. v. Θεόκριτος). His first efforts obtained for him the patronage of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who was associated in the kingdom with his father, Ptolemy Soter, in B.C. 285, and in whose praise, therefore, the poet wrote the fourteenth, fifteenth, and seventeenth Idyls. At Alexandria he became acquainted with the poet Aratus, to whom he addressed his sixth Idyl. Theocritus afterwards returned to Syracuse, and lived there under Hiero II. It appears from the sixteenth Idyl that Theocritus was dissatisfied, both with the want of liberality on the part of Hiero in rewarding him for his poems, and with the political state of his native country. It may therefore be supposed that he devoted the latter part of his life almost entirely to the contemplation of those scenes of nature and of country life on his representations of which his fame chiefly rests. Theocritus was the creator of bucolic poetry in Greek, and, through imitators, such as Vergil, in Roman literature. (See Vergilius.) The bucolic Idyls of Theocritus are of a dramatic and mimetic character. They are pictures of the ordinary life of the common people of Sicily; whence their name εἴδη, εἰδύλλια. The pastoral poems and romances of later times are a totally different sort of composition from the bucolics of Theocritus, who knows nothing of the affected sentiment which has been ascribed to the imaginary shepherds of a fictitious Arcadia. He merely exhibits simple and faithful pictures of the common life of the Sicilian people, in a thoroughly objective, although truly poetical, spirit. Dramatic simplicity and truth are impressed upon the scenes exhibited in his poems, into the colouring of which he has thrown much of the natural comedy which is always seen in the common life of a free people. In his dramatic dialogue he is influenced by the mimes of Sophron (q.v.), as may be seen especially in the fifteenth Idyl (Adoniazusae). The poems of Theocritus of this class may be compared with those of Herondas, who belonged, like Theocritus, to the literary school of Philetas of Cos. In genius, however, Theocritus was greatly the superior. The collection which has come down to us under the name of Theocritus consists of thirty poems, called by the general title of Idyls, a fragment of a few lines from a poem entitled Berenicé, and twentytwo epigrams in the Greek Anthology. But these Idyls are not all bucolic, and were not all written by Theocritus. Those of which the genuineness is the most doubtful are the twelfth, twenty-third, twenty-sixth, twenty-seventh, and twenty-ninth; and Idyls xiii., xvi., xvii., xxii., xxiv., and xxvi. are in Epic style, and have more of Epic dialect, especially Idyl xvi. It is likely that these poems on Epic subjects were written early in the poet's life, and, as court poems, had some of the artificial and imitative character of the Alexandrians. In general the dialect of Theocritus is Doric, but two of the Idyls (xxviii. and xxix.) are in the Aeolic. There are numerous manuscripts of Theocritus, especially in the Laurentian Library at Florence, in the Vatican, and at Paris; but none antedate the thirteenth century. Theocritus is edited by Valckenaer (1810); Wüstemann (Gotha, 1830); Meineke (1856); Fritzsche (Leipzig, 1869); Paley (London, 1863); Wordsworth (1877), and Kynaston (1873). There are translations into English verse by Chapman (1866) and Calverley (1869); and into English prose by Lang (1889), the last with an introduction. See Knapp, Theokrit und die Idyllen-Dichtung (1882); Bachelin, Interprétation Littéraire et Philologique de la Première Idylle de Théocrite (Paris, 1886); and Fritzsche, Zu Theokrit und Virgil (1860). There is a lexicon to Theocritus by Rumpel (1879).

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Theodectes in Wikipedia

Theodectes (c. 380 to 340 BCE) was a Greek rhetorician and tragic poet, of Phaselis in Lycia who lived in the period which followed the Peloponnesian War. Along with the continual decay of political and religious life, tragedy sank more and more into mere rhetorical display. The school of Isocrates produced the orators and tragedians, Theodectes and Aphareus. He was also a pupil of Plato and an intimate friend of Aristotle. He at first wrote speeches for the law courts though he soon moved on to compose tragedies with success. He spent most of his life at Athens, and was buried on the sacred road to Eleusis. The inhabitants of Phaselis honored him with a statue, which was decorated with garlands by Alexander the Great on his way to the East. He won the prize eight times, on one occasion with his tragedy, Mausolus, in the contest which the queen Artemisia of Caria had instituted in honor of her dead husband, Mausolus. On the same occasion he was defeated in rhetoric by Theopompus. Mausolus was especially adapted for recitations, and, from what the Suda says, it appears that the whole contest was one of declamation. A good idea of these dramas for reading and recitation, with their accompaniment of cold, rhetorical pathos and their strong leaning toward the horrible, may be gained by the plays of Seneca. Of the fifty tragedies of Theodectes we have the names of about thirteen and a few unimportant fragments; among them were an Ajax, Oedipus, Orestes and Philoctetes. His treatise on the art of rhetoric (according to Suidas written in verse) and his speeches are lost. The names of two of the latter, Socrates and Nomos (referring to a law proposed by Theodectes for the reform of the mercenary service) are preserved by Aristotle (Rhetoric, ii. 23, 13, 17). The Theodectea (Aristotle, Rhet. iii. 9, 9) was probably not by Theodectes, but an earlier work of Aristotle, which was superseded by the extant Rhetorica. Stobaeus makes the following pessimistic quotation from an unknown tragedy of his: All human beings grow old, and to an end Comes every birth of time, save only one, Save only wickedness; but that, methinks, Fast as the race of mortals doth increase, Increaseth equally from day to day.

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Theodectes in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Θεοδέκτης). Of Phaselis, in Lycia, a Greek rhetorician and tragic poet. He carried off the prize eight times, and in B.C. 351 his tragedy of Mausolus was victorious in the tragic contest instituted by Queen Artemisia in honour of her deceased husband Mausolus. In the rhetorical contest, held at the same time, he was defeated by Theopompus. Only unimportant fragments of his fifty tragedies are extant.

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Theodorus of Samos in Wikipedia

Theodorus of Samos (Greek: Θεόδωρος ο Σάμιος) was a 6th century BC ancient Greek sculptor and architect from the Greek island of Samos. Along with Rhoecus, he was often credited with the invention of ore smelting and, according to Pausanias, the craft of casting. He is also credited with inventing a water level, a carpenter's square, and, according to Pliny, a lock and key and the turning lathe. According to Vitruvius (vii, introduction), Theodorus is the architect of the Doric Order temple Heraion of Samos temple. In some texts he is described, above all, as a great artist and in some statues he is depicted as a great inventor. Carl Sagan, in the episode "The Backbone of Night" from his series Cosmos, claims Theodorus invented the level, the ruler, the key, the square, the lathe, and bronze casting.

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Theodōrus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

Of Samos, son of Rhoecus. In conjunction with his father, he erected the labyrinth of Lemnos (Pliny , Pliny H. N. xxxvi. 90), and advised the laying down of a layer of charcoal as part of the foundation of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus (Diog. Laert. ii. 103). He is said to have lived for a long time in Egypt, where he and his brother Telecles learned the Egyptian canon of proportion for the human figure. He was considered by the Greeks as one of the inventors of the art of casting in bronze (Pausan. viii. 14, 8). He wrote a work on the Temple of Heré at Samos, which was begun by his father (Vitruv. vii. pref. 12).

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Theodorus of Cyrene in Wikipedia

Theodorus of Cyrene (Greek: Θεόδωρος ὁ Κυρήνη) was a Greek mathematician of the 5th century BC. The only first-hand accounts of him that we have are in two of Plato's dialogues: the Theaetetus and the Sophist. In the former, his student Theaetetus attributes to him the theorem that the square roots of the non-square numbers up to 17 are irrational: Theodorus here was drawing some figures for us in illustration of roots, showing that squares containing three square feet and five square feet are not commensurable in length with the unit of the foot, and so, selecting each one in its turn up to the square containing seventeen square feet and at that he stopped.[1] (The square containing two square units is not mentioned, perhaps because the incommensurability of its side with the unit was already known.) Theodorus's method of proof is not known. It is not even known whether, in the quoted passage, "up to" (μέχρι) means that seventeen is included. If seventeen is excluded, then Theodorus's proof may have relied merely on considering whether numbers are even or odd. Indeed, Hardy and Wright[2] and Knorr[3] suggest proofs that rely ultimately on the following theorem: If x2 = ny2 is soluble in integers, and n is odd, then n must be congruent to 1 modulo 8 (since x and y can be assumed odd, so their squares are congruent to 1 modulo 8). A possibility suggested earlier by Zeuthen[4] is that Theodorus applied the so-called Euclidean algorithm, formulated in Proposition X.2 of the Elements as a test for incommensurability. In modern terms, the theorem is that a real number with an infinite continued fraction expansion is irrational. Irrational square roots have periodic expansions. The period of the square root of 19 has length 6, which is greater than the period of the square root of any smaller number. The period of √17 has length one (so does √18; but the irrationality of √18 follows from that of √2). The so-called Spiral of Theodorus is composed of contiguous right triangles with hypotenuse lengths equal √2, √3, √4, …, √17; additional triangles cause the diagram to overlap. Philip J. Davis interpolated the vertices of the spiral to get a continuous curve. He discusses the history of attempts to determine Theodorus' method in his book Spirals: From Theodorus to Chaos, and makes brief references to the matter in his fictional Thomas Gray series. That Theaetetus established a more general theory of irrationals, whereby square roots of non-square numbers are irrational, is suggested in the eponymous Platonic dialogue as well as commentary on, and scholia to, the Elements.[5]

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Theodōrus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

A philosopher of the Cyrenaic School, usually designated by ancient writers "the Atheist." He resided for some time at Athens; and being banished thence, went to Alexandria, where he entered the service of Ptolemy, son of Lagus.

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Theodorus of Gadara in Wikipedia

Theodorus of Gadara was a Greek rhetorician of the 1st century BC who founded a rhetorical school in Gadara (present-day Jordan), where he taught future Roman emperor Tiberius the art of rhetoric. It was written of Tiberius that: ...even in his boyhood, his cruel and cold nature did not lie hidden. Theodorus of Gadara was his teacher of rhetoric and, in all his wisdom, seems to have been the first to have understood Tiberius and to have capped him with a very pithy saying when he taunted Tiberius, calling him 'Mud kneaded with blood'... (Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars). His other well-known pupil was Greek rhetorician Hermagoras of Temnos, who later taught oratory in Rome. Theodorus was one of the two most famous rhetoric teachers of the time, the other being Apollodorus of Pergamon. Students of Apollodorus were commonly referred to as Apollodoreans, while students of Theodorus were known as Theodoreans.

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Theodōrus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

An eminent rhetorician of the age of Augustus, was a native of Gadara. He settled at Rhodes, where Tiberius, afterwards emperor, during his retirement (B.C. 6- A.D. 2) to that island, was one of his hearers (Sueton. Tib. 57). He also taught at Rome. Theodorus was the founder of a school of rhetoricians called "Theodorei."

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Theodotus of Byzantium in Wikipedia

Theodotus of Byzantium (also known as Theodotus the Tanner and Theodotus the Shoemaker; flourished late 2nd century) was an early Christian writer from Byzantium, one of several named Theodotus whose writings were condemned as heresy in the early church. Theodotus claimed that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary and the Holy Spirit as a mortal man, and though later adopted by God upon baptism, was not himself God until after his resurrection. This doctrine, sometimes called "Dynamic Monarchianism" or "Adoptionism", was declared heretical by Pope Victor I, and Theodotus was excommunicated.

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Theodōrus

Of Byzantium, a rhetorician, and a contemporary of Plato.

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Theognis of Megara in Wikipedia

Theognis of Megara (Ancient Greek: Θέογνις ὁ Μεγαρεύς, Théognis o Megareus; fl. 6th century BC) was an ancient Greek poet. More than half of the extant elegiac poetry of Greece before the Alexandrian period is included in the 1,400 verses ascribed to Theognis.[1] Collection This collection contains several poems acknowledged to have been composed by Tyrtaeus, Mimnermus and Solon; with two exceptions (T.W. Allen in Classical Review, Nov. 1905, and E. Harrison); modern critics unanimously regard these elegies as intruders, that is, not admitted into his works by Theognis himself; for this and other reasons they assume the existence of further interpolations which we can no longer safely detect. Generations of students have exhausted their ingenuity in vain efforts to sift the true from the false and to account for the origin and date of the Theognidea as we possess them; the question is fully discussed in the works of Harrison and Hudson-Williams. Theognis lived at Megara on the Isthmus of Corinth during the democratic revolution in the 6th century BC; some critics hold that he witnessed the "Persian terror" of 490 BC and 480 BC; others place his floruit in 545 BC. We know little about his life; few of the details usually given in textbooks are capable of proof; we are not certain, for instance, that the poem (783-88) which mentions a visit to Sicily, Sparta and Euboea comes from the hand of Theognis himself; but that is of little concern, for we know the man. Whether, with Harrison, we hold that Theognis wrote "all or nearly all the poems which are extant under his name" or follow the most ruthless of the higher critics (Sitzler) in rejecting all but 330 lines, there is abundant and unmistakable evidence to show what Theognis himself existed. However much extraneous matter may have wormed its way into the collection, he still remains the one main personality, and stands clearly before us, a living soul, quivering with passion and burning with political hate, the very embodiment of the faction-spirit (stasis) and all it implied in the tense city-state life of the ancient Greek. There is neither profound thought nor sublime poetry in the work of Theognis; but it is full of sound common sense embodied in exquisitely simple, concise and well-balanced verse. As York Powell said, "Theognis was a great and wise man. He was an able exponent of that intensely practical wisdom which we associate with the 'Seven Sages of Greece.'" Had he lived a century later, he would probably have published his thoughts in prose; in his day verse was the recognized vehicle for political and ethical discussion, and the gnomic poets were in many ways the precursors of the philosophers and the sophists, who indeed often made their discourse turn on points raised by Theognis and his fellow-moralists. No treatment of the much-debated question "Can virtue be taught?" was regarded as complete without a reference to Theognis 35-36, which appears in Plato, Xenophon, Aristotle, Musonius Rufus and Clement of Alexandria, who aptly compares it with Psalm 18. Besides the elegies to Cyrnus, the Theognidea comprise many maxims, laments on the degeneracy of the age and the woes of poverty, personal admonitions and challenges, invocations of the gods, songs for convivial gatherings and much else that may well have come from Theognis himself. The second section ("Musa Paedica") deals with the love of boys, and, with the exceptions already noted, scholars are at one in rejecting its claim to authenticity. Although some critics assign many elegies to a very late date, a careful examination of the language, vocabulary, versification and general trend of thought has convinced the author of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica article that practically the whole collection was composed before the Hellenistic period. Nietzsche and Theognis Theognis is referenced in Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morality in which he describes Theognis' apparent disdain for the "deceitful, common man" and the general decline of the nobility in his day. Nietzsche, as a professor of philology, was also influenced by Theognis' writings concerning the shift and change in the meaning of words. We struggle onward, ignorant and blind, For a result unknown and undesign’d; Avoiding seeming ills, misunderstood, Embracing evil as a seeming good. Fragment LVIII (above) in particular provided some basis for the etymological theory mounted in On the Genealogy of Morality. (For further discussion, see James Porter, Nietzsche and the Philology of the Future, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.)

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Theognis in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Θέογνις). Of Megara, an ancient elegiac and gnomic poet, said to have flourished B.C. 548 or 544. He may have been born about 570, and would therefore have been eighty at the commencement of the Persian Wars, 490, at which time we know from his own writings that he was alive. Theognis belonged to the oligarchical party in his native city, and in its fates he shared. He was a noble by birth, and all his sympathies were with the nobles. They are, in his poems, the ἀγαθοί and ἐσθλοί, and the commons the κακοί and δειλοί, terms which, in fact, at that period, were regularly used in this political signification, and not in their later ethical meaning. He was banished with the leaders of the oligarchical party, having previously been deprived of all his property; and most of his poems were composed while he was an exile. Most of his political verses are addressed to a certain Cyrnus, the son of Polypas. The other fragments of his poetry are of a social, most of them of a festive, character. They place us in the midst of a circle of friends who formed a kind of convivial society; all the members of this society belonged to the class whom the poet calls "the good." The collection of gnomic poetry which has come down to us under the name of Theognis contains, however, many additions from later poets. The genuine fragments of Theognis, with some passages which are poetical in thought, have much that helps us to understand his times. The best editions are by Welcker (1826); Bekker (Leipzig, 1815 and 1827); Orelli (Zürich, 1840); Bergk (1878); Ziegler (2d ed. 1880); and Sitzler (1880). See Frere's Theognis Restitutus (Malta, 1842); Müller, De Scriptis Theognidis (1877); Sitzler, Studien zum Elegiker Theognis (1885); and Sittl, Geschichte der griechischen Literatur, i. pp. 261 foll.

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Theon of Alexandria in Wikipedia

Theon (Greek: Θέων; ca. 335 – ca. 405) was a Greek[1] scholar and mathematician who lived in Alexandria, Egypt. He edited and arranged Euclid's Elements and Ptolemy's Handy Tables, as well as writing various commentaries. Theon was the father of Hypatia who also won fame as a mathematician. Life The biographical tradition (Suda) defines Theon as "the man from the Mouseion"; actually, both the Library of Alexandria and the Mouseion may have been destroyed a century before by the Emperor Aurelian during his struggle against Zenobia. Some scholars think that they were closed by the patriarch Theophilus on order of the Christian Roman emperor Theodosius I in 391. Theon was the father of the mathematician Hypatia whose murder was attributed by Socrates Scholasticus to "political jealousy" which instigated mob violence. Works Theon's most durable achievement may be his edition of Euclid's Elements, published around 364 and authoritative into the 19th century. The bulk of Theon's work, however, consisted of commentaries on important works by his Hellenistic predecessors. These included a "conferences" (Synousiai) on Euclid, and commentaries (Exegeseis) on the Handy Tables and Almagest of Ptolemy, and on the technical poet Aratus. In one of the commentaries on the Handy Tables, Theon states that certain (unnamed) ancient astrologers believed that the precession of the equinoxes, rather than being a steady unending motion, instead reverses direction every 640 years, and that the last reversal had been in 158 BC.[2] Theon describes but did not endorse this theory. This idea inspired Thābit ibn Qurra in the 9th century to create the theory of trepidation to explain a variation which he (incorrectly) believed was affecting the rate of precession.[2]

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Theon of Smyrna in Wikipedia

Theon of Smyrna (fl. 100 CE) was a Greek philosopher and mathematician, whose works were strongly influenced by the Pythagorean school of thought. His surviving On Mathematics Useful for the Understanding of Plato is an introductory survey of Greek mathematics. Life Little is known about the life of Theon of Smyrna. A bust created at his death, and dedicated by his son, was discovered at Smyrna, and art historians date it to around 135 CE. Ptolemy refers several times in his Almagest to a Theon who made observations at Alexandria, but it is uncertain whether he is referring to Theon of Smyrna.[1] The lunar impact crater Theon Senior is named for him. Works Theon wrote several commentaries on the works of mathematicians and philosophers of the time, including works on the philosophy of Plato. Most of these works are lost. The one major survivor is his On Mathematics Useful for the Understanding of Plato. A second work concerning the order in which to study Plato's works has recently been discovered in an Arabic translation.[2] On Mathematics Useful for the Understanding of Plato His On Mathematics Useful for the Understanding of Plato is not a commentary on Plato's writings but rather a general handbook for a student of mathematics. It is not so much a groundbreaking work as a reference work of ideas already known at the time. Its status as a compilation of already-established knowledge and its thorough citation of earlier sources is part of what makes it valuable. The first part of this work is divided into two parts, the first covering the subjects of numbers and the second dealing with music and harmony. The first section, on mathematics, is most focused on what today is most commonly known as number theory: odd numbers, even numbers, prime numbers, perfect numbers, abundant numbers, and other such properties. The second section, on music, is split into three parts: music of numbers (hē en arithmois mousikē), instrumental music (hē en organois mousikē), and "music of the spheres" (hē en kosmō harmonia kai hē en toutō harmonia). The "music of numbers" is a treatment of temperament and harmony using ratios, proportions, and means; the sections on instrumental music concerns itself not with melody but rather with intervals and consonances in the manner of Pythagoras' work. Theon considers intervals by their degree of consonance: that is, by how simple their ratios are. (For example, the octave is first, with the simple 2:1 ratio of the octave to the fundamental.) He also considers them by their distance from one another. The third section, on the music of the cosmos, he considered most important, and ordered it so as to come after the necessary background given in the earlier parts. Theon quotes a poem by Alexander of Ephesus assigning specific pitches in the chromatic scale to each planet, an idea that would retain its popularity for a millennium thereafter. The second book is on astronomy. Here Theon affirms the spherical shape and large size of the Earth; he also describes the occultations, transits, conjunctions, and eclipses. However, the quality of the work led Otto Neugebauer to criticize him for not fully understanding the material he attempted to present.

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Theophrastus in Wikipedia

Theophrastus (Greek: Θεόφραστος; c. 371 – c. 287 BC[1]), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. He came to Athens at a young age, and initially studied in Plato's school. After Plato's death he attached himself to Aristotle. Aristotle bequeathed to Theophrastus his writings, and designated him as his successor at the Lyceum. Theophrastus presided over the Peripatetic school for thirty-six years, during which time the school flourished greatly. After his death, the Athenians honoured him with a public funeral. His successor as head of the school was Strato of Lampsacus. The interests of Theophrastus were wide-ranging, extending from biology and physics to ethics and metaphysics. His two surviving botanical works, Enquiry into Plants[2] and On the Causes of Plants, were an important influence on medieval science. There are also surviving works On Moral Characters, On Sensation, On Stones, and fragments on Physics and Metaphysics all written in Greek. In philosophy, he studied grammar and language, and continued Aristotle's work on logic. He also regarded space as the mere arrangement and position of bodies, time as an accident of motion, and motion as a necessary consequence of all activity. In ethics, he regarded happiness as depending on external influences as well as on virtue, and famously said that "life is ruled by fortune, not wisdom." Life Most of the biographical information we have of Theophrastus was provided by Diogenes Laertius' Lives of the Philosophers, written more than four hundred years after Theophrastus' time.[3]. He was a native of Eresos in Lesbos.[4] His given name was Tyrtamus (Greek: Τύρταμος), but he later became known by the nickname "Theophrastus", given to him, it is said, by Aristotle to indicate the grace of his conversation (ancient Greek: Θεός = God and φράζειν = to phrase i.e. divine expression).[5] After receiving instruction in philosophy in Lesbos from one Alcippus, he moved to Athens, where he may have studied under Plato.[6] He became friends with Aristotle, and when Plato died (348/7 BC) Theophrastus may have joined Aristotle in his self-imposed exile from Athens. When Aristotle moved to Mytilene on Lesbos in 345/4, it is very likely that he did so at the urging of Theophrastus.[7] It seems that it was on Lesbos that Aristotle and Theophrastus began their research into natural science, with Aristotle studying animals and Theophrastus studying plants.[8] Theophrastus probably accompanied Aristotle to Macedonia when Aristotle was appointed tutor to Alexander the Great in 343/2.[7] Around 335 BC, Theophrastus moved with Aristotle to Athens where Aristotle began teaching in the Lyceum. When, after the death of Alexander, anti-Macedonian feeling forced Aristotle to leave Athens, Theophrastus remained behind as head (scholarch) of the peripatetic school,[7] a position he continued to hold after Aristotle's death in 322/1. Aristotle in his will made him guardian of his children, including Nicomachus with whom he was close.[9] Aristotle likewise bequeathed to him his library and the originals of his works,[10] and designated him as his successor at the Lyceum.[11] Eudemus of Rhodes also had some claims to this position, and Aristoxenus is said to have resented Aristotle's choice.[12] Theophrastus presided over the Peripatetic school for thirty-five years,[13] and died at the age of eighty-five according to Diogenes.[14] He is said to have remarked "we die just when we are beginning to live".[15] Under his guidance the school flourished greatly- there were at one period more than 2000 students, Diogenes affirms,[16] and at his death, according to the terms of his will preserved by Diogenes, he bequeathed to it his garden with house and colonnades as a permanent seat of instruction. The comic poet Menander was among his pupils.[16] His popularity was shown in the regard paid to him by Philip, Cassander and Ptolemy, and by the complete failure of a charge of impiety brought against him.[17] He was honored with a public funeral, and "the whole population of Athens, honouring him greatly, followed him to the grave."[18] He was succeeded as head of the Lyceum by Strato of Lampsacus. Writings From the lists of Diogenes Laertius, giving 227 titles, it appears that the activity of Theophrastus extended over the whole field of contemporary knowledge.[12] His writing probably differed little from Aristotle's treatment of the same themes, though supplementary in details. Like Aristotle, most of his writings are lost works.[12] Thus Theophrastus, like Aristotle, had composed a first and second Analytic.[19] He had also written books on Topics;[20] on the refutation of fallacies;[21] as well as books on the Principles of Natural Philosophy (Physica Auscultatio), on Heaven, and on Meteorological Phenomena.[22] The work of Theophrastus On Affirmation and Denial seems to have corresponded to that of Aristotle's On Judgment. In addition, he wrote on the Warm and the Cold,[23] on Water, Fire,[24] the Sea,[24] on Coagulation and Melting, on various phenomena of organic and spiritual life,[24] and on the Soul and Sensuous Perception.[25] Likewise we find mention of monographs of Theophrastus on the early Greek philosophers Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Archelaus,[26] Diogenes of Apollonia, Democritus,[27] which were made use of by Simplicius; and also on Xenocrates,[28] against the Academics,[29] and a sketch of the political doctrine of Plato.[27] That he studied general history, as we see from the quotations in Plutarch's lives of Lycurgus, Solon, Aristides, Pericles, Nicias, Alcibiades, Lysander, Agesilaus, and Demosthenes, which were probably borrowed from the work on Lives.[19] But his main efforts were to continue the labours of Aristotle in natural history. This is testified not only by a number of treatises on individual subjects of zoology, of which, besides the titles, only fragments remain, but also by his books on Stones, his Enquiry into Plants, and On the Causes of Plants, which have come down to us entire. In politics, also, he seems to have trodden in the footsteps of Aristotle. Besides his books on the State, we find quoted various treatises on Education,[30] on Royalty,[31] on the Best State, on Political Morals, and particularly his works on the Laws, one of which, containing a recapitulation of the laws of various barbarian as well as Greek states,[23] was intended to be a companion to Aristotle's outline of Politics, and must have been similar to it.[32] He also wrote on oratory and poetry.[33] Theophrastus, without doubt, departed further from Aristotle in his ethical writings,[34] as also in his metaphysical investigations respecting motion, the soul, and God.[35] Besides these writings, Theophrastus was the author of several collections of problems, out of which some things at least have passed into the Problems which have come down to us under the name of Aristotle,[36] and commentaries,[37] partly dialogues,[38] to which probably belonged the Erotikos,[39] Megacles,[28] Callisthenes,[40] and Megarikos,[23] and letters,[41] partly books on mathematical sciences and their history.[42] Many of his works which we do have, exist only in fragmentary form. "The style of these works, as of the botanical books, suggests that, as in the case of Aristotle, what we possess consists of notes for lectures or notes taken of lectures," his translator Arthur Hort remarks.[2] "There is no literary charm; the sentences are mostly compressed and highly elliptical, to the point sometimes of obscurity.[2] The text of these fragments and extracts is often so corrupt that there is a certain plausibility to the well-known story that the works of Aristotle and Theophrastus were allowed to languish in the cellar of Neleus of Scepsis and his descendents.[43] On Plants The most important of his books are two large botanical treatises, Enquiry into Plants, and On the Causes of Plants, which constitute the most important contribution to botanical science during antiquity and the Middle Ages,[12] the first systemization of the botanical world; on the strength of these works some call him the "father of botany."[8] The Enquiry into Plants was originally ten books, of which nine survive. The work is arranged into a system whereby plants are classified according to their modes of generation, their localities, their sizes, and according to their practical uses such as foods, juices, herbs, etc.[44] The first book deals with the parts of plants; the second book with the reproduction of plants and the times and manner of sowing; the third, fourth and fifth books are devoted to trees, their types, their locations, and their practical applications; the sixth book deals with shrubs and spiny plants; the seventh book deals with herbs; the eighth book deals with plants which produce edible seeds; and the ninth book deals with plants which produce useful juices, gums, resins, etc.[44] On the Causes of Plants was originally eight books, of which six survive. It concerns the growth of plants; the influences on their fecundity; the proper times they should be sown and reaped; the methods of preparing the soil, manuring it, and the use of tools; of the smells, tastes, and properties of many types of plants.[44] The work deals mainly with the economical uses of plants rather than their medicinal uses, although the latter is sometimes mentioned.[44] Although these works contain many absurd and fabulous statements, as a whole they have many valuable observations concerning the functions and properties of plants.[44] Theophrastus detected the process of germination and realized the importance of climate and soil to plants. Much of the information on the Greek plants may have come from his own observations, as he is known to have travelled throughout Greece, and to have had a botanical garden of his own; but the works also profit from the reports on plants of Asia brought back from those who followed Alexander the Great: to the reports of Alexander's followers he owed his accounts of such plants as the cotton-plant, banyan, pepper, cinnamon, myrrh and frankincense.[2] Theophrastus' Enquiry into Plants was first published in a Latin translation by Theodore Gaza, at Treviso, 1483;[45] in its original Greek it first appeared from the press of Aldus Manutius at Venice, 1495–98, from a third-rate manuscript, which, like the majority of the manuscripts that were sent to printers' workshops in the fifteenth and sixteenth century, has disappeared.[46] Wimmer identified two manuscripts of first quality, the Codex Urbinas in the Vatican Library, which was not made known to J. G. Schneider, who made the first modern critical edition, 1818–21, and the excerpts in the Codex Parisiensis in the Bibliothèque nationale de France. The Characters His book The Characters, if it is indeed his, deserves a separate mention. The work contains thirty brief, vigorous and trenchant outlines of moral types, which form a most valuable picture of the life of his time, and in fact of human nature in general.[12] They are the first recorded attempt at systematic character writing. The book has been regarded by some as an independent work; others incline to the view that the sketches were written from time to time by Theophrastus, and collected and edited after his death; others, again, regard the Characters as part of a larger systematic work, but the style of the book is against this.[12] Theophrastus has found many imitators in this kind of writing, notably Joseph Hall (1608), Sir Thomas Overbury (1614–16), Bishop Earle (1628) and Jean de La Bruyère (1688), who also translated the Characters.[12] George Eliot also took inspiration from Theophrastus' Characters, most notably in her book of caricatures, Impressions of Theophrastus Such. Writing the "character sketch" as a scholastic exercise also originated in Theophrastus's typology. On Sensation A treatise On Sense Perception and its objects is important for a knowledge of the doctrines of the more ancient Greek philosophers regarding the subject. A paraphrase and commentary on this work was written by Priscian of Lydia in the 6th century.[44] With this type of work we may connect the fragments on Smells, on Fatigue, on Dizziness, on Sweat, on Swooning, on Palsy, and on Honey.[43] Physics We also possess in fragments a History of Physics. To this class of work belong the still extant sections on Fire, on the Winds, and on the signs of Waters, Winds, and Storms.[47] Various smaller scientific fragments have been collected in the editions of Johann Gottlob Schneider (1818–21) and Friedrich Wimmer (1842-62) and in Hermann Usener's Analecta Theophrastea. Metaphysics The Metaphysics (nine chapters) was considered a fragment of a larger work by Usener in his edition (Theophrastos Metaphysica, Bonn, 1890) but according Ross and Fobes in their edition (Theophrastus Metaphysica, Oxford, 1929) the treatise is complete (p. X) and this opinion is now widely accepted. There is no reason for assigning this work to some other author because it is not noticed in Hermippus and Andronicus, especially as Nicolaus of Damascus had already mentioned it.[43] On Stones We possess a treatise On Stones, in which Theophrastus classified rocks based on their behavior when heated, further grouping minerals by common properties, such as amber and magnetite which both have the power of attraction.[48] He also comments on the effect of heat on minerals, and their different hardnesses. He describes different marbles; mentions coal, which he says is used for heating by metal-workers; describes the various metal ores; and knew that pumice-stones had a volcanic origin. He also deals with precious stones, emeralds, amethysts, onyx, jasper, etc., and describes a variety of "sapphire" which was blue with veins of gold, and thus was presumably lapis-lazuli.[48] He knew that pearls came from shell-fish, that coral came from India and speaks of the fossilized remains of organic life.[48] Theophrastus made the first known reference to the phenomenon of pyroelectricity, noting that the mineral tourmaline becomes charged when heated. He also considers the practical uses of various stones, such as the minerals necessary for the manufacture of glass; for the production of various pigments of paint such as ochre; and for the manufacture of plaster.[48] He discusses the use of the touchstone for assaying gold and gold alloys, an important property which would require the genius of Archimedes to resolve in quantitative detail when he was asked to investigate the suspected debasement of a crown a few years later.Many of the rarer minerals were found in mines, and he mentions the famous copper mines of Cyprus and the even more famous silver mines, presumably of Laurium near Athens, and upon which the wealth of the city was based, as well as referring to gold mines. The Laurium silver mines, which were the property of the state, were usually leased for a fixed sum and a percentage on the working. Towards the end of the 5th century the output fell, partly owing to the Spartan occupation of Decelea. But the mines continued to be worked, though Strabo records that in his time the tailings were being worked over, and Pausanias speaks of the mines as a thing of the past. The ancient workings, consisting of shafts and galleries for excavating the ore, and washing tables for extracting the metal, may still be seen. Theophrastus wrote a separate work On Mining,[23] which like most of his writings is a lost work. Pliny the Elder makes clear references to his use of On Stones in his Naturalis Historia of 77 AD, while updating and making much new information available on minerals himself. Although Pliny's treatment of the subject is more extensive, Theophrastus is more systematic and his work is comparatively free from fable and magic.[49] From both these early texts was to emerge the science of mineralogy, and ultimately geology. Pliny is especially observant on crystal habit and mineral hardness for example. Philosophy The extent to which Theophrastus followed Aristotle's doctrines, or defined them more accurately, or conceived them in a different form, and what additional structures of thought he placed upon them, can only be partially determined because of the loss of so many of his writings.[43] Many of his opinions have to be reconstructed from the works of later writers such as Alexander of Aphrodisias and Simplicius. Logic Theophrastus seems to have carried out still further the grammatical foundation of logic and rhetoric, since in his book on the elements of speech, he distinguished the main parts of speech from the subordinate parts, and also direct expressions (kuria lexis) from metaphorical expressions, and dealt with the emotions (pathe) of speech.[50] He further distinguished a twofold reference of speech (schisis) to things (pragmata) and to the hearers, and referred poetry and rhetoric to the latter.[51] He wrote at length on the unity of judgment,[52] on the different kinds of negation,[53] and on the difference between unconditional and conditional necessity.[54] In his doctrine of syllogisms he brought forward the proof for the conversion of universal affirmative judgments, differed from Aristotle here and there in the laying down and arranging the modi of the syllogisms,[55] partly in the proof of them,[56] partly in the doctrine of mixture, i.e. of the influence of the modality of the premises upon the modality of the conclusion.[57] Then in two separate works he dealt with the reduction of arguments to the syllogistic form and on the resolution of them;[58] and further, with hypothetical conclusions.[59] For the doctrine of proof, Galen quotes the second Analytic of Theophrastus, in conjunction with that of Aristotle, as the best treatises on that doctrine.[60] In different monographs he seems to have tried to expand it into a general theory of science. To this too may have belonged the proposition quoted from his Topics, that the principles of opposites are themselves opposed, and cannot be deduced from one and the same higher genus.[61] For the rest, some minor deviations from the Aristotelian definitions are quoted from the Topica of Theophrastus.[62] Closely connected with this treatise was that upon ambiguous words or ideas,[63] which, without doubt, corresponded to book E of Aristotle's Metaphysics.[43] Physics and metaphysics Theophrastus introduced his Physics with the proof that all natural existence, being corporeal and composite, requires principles,[64] and first and foremost, motion, as the basis of all change.[65] Denying the substance of space, he seems to have regarded it, in opposition to Aristotle, as the mere arrangement and position (taxis and thesis) of bodies.[66] Time he called an accident of motion, without, it seems, viewing it, with Aristotle, as the numerical determinant of motion.[67] He attacked the doctrine of the four classical elements and challenged whether fire could be called a primary element when it appears to be compound, requiring, as it does, another material for its own nutriment.[68] He departed more widely from Aristotle in his doctrine of motion, since on the one hand he extended it over all categories, and did not limit it to those laid down by Aristotle.[69] He viewed motion, with Aristotle, as an activity, not carrying its own goal in itself (ateles), of that which only potentially exists,[70] but he opposed Aristotle's view that motion required a special explanation, and he regarded it as something proper both to nature in general and the celestial system in particular: Surely, then, if the life in animals does not need explanation or is to be explained only in this way, may it not be the case that in the heavens too, and in the heavenly bodies, movement does not need explanation or is to be explained in a special way? -Theophrastus, Metaphysics, 10a.16-29 He recognised no activity without motion,[71] and so referred all activities of the soul to motion: the desires and emotions to corporeal motion, judgment (kriseis) and contemplation to spiritual motion.[72] The idea of a spirit entirely independent of organic activity, must therefore have appeared to him very doubtful; yet he appears to have contented himself with developing his doubts and difficulties on the point, without positively rejecting it.[73] Other Peripatetics, like Dicaearchus, Aristoxenus, and especially Strato, developed further this naturalism in Aristotelian doctrine. Theophrastus seems, generally speaking, where the investigation overstepped the limits of experience, to have preferred to develop the difficulties rather than solve them, as is especially apparent in his Metaphysics.[43] He was doubtful of Aristotle's teleology and recommended that such ideas be used with caution: With regard to the view that all things are for the sake of an end and nothing is in vain, the assignation of ends is in general not easy, as it is usually stated to be ... we must set certain limits to purposiveness and to the effort after the best, and not assert it to exist in all cases without qualification. -Theophrastus, Metaphysics, 10a.22-24, 11a.1-3 He did not follow the incessant attempts by Aristotle to refer phenomena to their ultimate foundations, or his attempts to unfold the internal connections between the latter, and between them and phenomena.[43] In antiquity, it was a subject of complaint that Theophrastus had not expressed himself with precision and consistency respecting God, and had understood it at one time as Heaven, at another an (enlivening) breath (pneuma).[74] Ethics Theophrastus did not allow a happiness resting merely upon virtue,[75] or, consequently, to hold fast by the unconditional value of morality. He subordinated moral requirements to the advantage at least of a friend,[76] and had allowed in prosperity the existence of an influence injurious to them. In later times, fault was found with his expression in the Callisthenes, "life is ruled by fortune, not wisdom," (Latin: vitam regit fortuna non sapientia).[77] That in the definition of pleasure, likewise, he did not coincide with Aristotle, seems to be indicated by the titles of two of his writings, one of which dealt with pleasure generally, the other with pleasure as Aristotle had defined it.[23] Although, like his teacher, he preferred contemplative (theoretical), to active (practical) life,[78] he preferred to set the latter free from the restraints of family life, etc. in a manner of which Aristotle would not have approved.[79] Theophrastus was opposed to eating meat on the grounds that it robbed animals of life and was therefore unjust. Non-human animals, he said, can reason, sense, and feel just as human beings do.[80] The "portrait" of Theophrastus The marble herm figure with the bearded head of philosopher type, bearing the explicit inscription must be taken as purely conventional. Unidentified portrait heads did not find a ready market in post-Renaissance Rome.[81] This bust was formerly in the collection of marchese Pietro Massimi at Palazzo Massimi, and belonged to marchese L. Massimi at the time the engraving was made. It is now in the Villa Albani, Rome (inv. 1034). The inscribed bust has often been illustrated in engravings[82] and photographs: a photograph of it forms the frontispiece to the Loeb Classical Library Theophrastus: Enquiry into Plants vol. I, 1916. André Thevet illustrated[83] in his iconographic compendium, Les vraies Pourtrats et vies des Hommes Illustres (Paris, 1584), an alleged portrait plagiarized from the bust, supporting his fraud with the invented tale that he had obtained it from the library of a Greek in Cyprus and that he had seen a confirming bust in the ruins of Antioch.[84]

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Theophrastus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Θεόφραστος). The Greek philosopher. He was a native of Eresus in Lesbos, and studied philosophy at Athens, first under Plato and afterwards under Aristotle. He became the favourite pupil of Aristotle, who named Theophrastus his successor in the presidency of the Lyceum, and in his will bequeathed to him his library and the originals of his own writings. Theophrastus was a worthy successor of his great master, and nobly sustained the character of the school. He is said to have had two thousand disciples, and among them such men as the comic poet Menander. He was highly esteemed by the kings Philippus, Cassander, and Ptolemy, and was not the less the object of the regard of the Athenian people, as was decisively shown when he was impeached of impiety; for he was not only acquitted, but his accuser would have fallen a victim to his calumny had not Theophrastus generously interfered to save him. He died in B.C. 287, having presided over the Academy about thirty-five years. His age is variously stated. According to some accounts he lived 85 years, according to others 107 years. He is said to have closed his life with the complaint respecting the short duration of human existence, that it ended just when the insight into its problems was beginning. He wrote a great number of works, the great object of which was the development of the Aristotelian philosophy. His Ἠθικοὶ Χαρακτῆρες, in thirty chapters; his work on plants (Περὶ Φυτῶν Ιστορίας), in ten books; his account of the causes of plants (Περὶ Φυτῶν Αἰτιῶν); and his treatise on stones (Περὶ Λίθων), are extant. These are edited together by Wimmer (Breslau, 1842-62). A separate edition of the Characteres is that of Jebb (London, 1870).

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Theopompus in Wikipedia

Theopompus (Ancient Greek: Θεόπομπος) was a Greek historian[1] and rhetorician, born on Chios about 380 BC. Biography In early youth he seems to have spent some time at Athens, along with his father, who had been exiled on account of his Laconian sympathies. Here he became a pupil of Isocrates, and rapidly made great progress in rhetoric; we are told that Isocrates used to say that Ephorus required the spur but Theopompus the bit (Cicero, Brutus, 204). At first he appears to have composed epideictic speeches, in which he attained to such proficiency that in 352‑351 he gained the prize of oratory given by Artemisia II of Caria in honour of her husband, although Isocrates was himself among the competitors. It is said to have been the advice of his teacher that finally determined his career as an historian-a career for which he was peculiarly qualified owing to his abundant patrimony and his wide knowledge of men and places. Through the influence of Alexander, he was permitted to return to Chios about 333, and figured for some time as one of the leaders of the aristocratic party in his native town. After Alexander's death he was again expelled, and took refuge with Ptolemy in Egypt, where he appears to have met with a somewhat cold reception. The date of his death is unknown. Works The works of Theopompus were chiefly historical, and are much quoted by later writers. They included an Epitome of Herodotus's History (Whether this work is actually his is debated[2]),the Hellenics, the History of Philip, and several panegyrics and hortatory addresses, the chief of which was the Letter to Alexander. The Hellenics The Hellenics treated of the history of Greece, in twelve books, from 411 (where Thucydides breaks off) to 394 BC - the date of the battle of Cnidus (cf. Diod. Sic., xiii. 42, with xiv. 84). Of this work only a few fragments were known up till 1907. The papyrus fragment of a Greek historian of the 4th century, discovered by B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt, and published by them in Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vol. v. (1908), has been recognized by Eduard Meyer, Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff and Georg Busolt as a portion of the Hellenics. This identification has been disputed, however, by Friedrich Blass, J. B. Bury, E. M. Walker and others, most of whom attribute the fragment, which deals with the events of the year 395 BC and is of considerable extent, to Cratippus. In the Hellenics, Theopompus mentions Herostratus and his arson of the Temple of Artemis, thus helping Herostratus to his goal of achieving fame, despite the Ephesian authorities forbidding mention of his name under penalty of death. History of Philip II A far more elaborate work was the history of Philip's reign (360‑336), with digressions on the names and customs of the various races and countries of which he had occasion to speak, which were so numerous that Philip V of Macedon reduced the bulk of the history from 58 to 16 books by cutting out those parts which had no connection with Macedonia. It was from this history that Trogus Pompeius (of whose Historiae Philippicae we possess the epitome by Justin) derived much of his material. Fifty-three books were extant in the time of Photius (9th century), who read them, and has left us an epitome of the 12th book. Several fragments, chiefly anecdotes and strictures of various kinds upon the character of nations and individuals, are preserved by Athenaeus, Plutarch and others. Of the Letter to Alexander we possess one or two fragments cited by Athenaeus, criticizing severely the immorality and dissipations of Harpalus. Attack upon Plato The Attack upon Plato, and the treatise On Piety, which are sometimes referred to as separate works, were perhaps only two of the many digressions in the history of Philip; some writers have doubted their authenticity.’ The libellous attack (the "three-headed") on the three cities-Athens, Sparta and Thebes-was published under the name of Theopompus by his enemy Anaximenes of Lampsacus. The nature of the extant fragments fully bears out the divergent criticisms of antiquity upon Theopompus. Their style is clear and pure, full of choice and pointed expressions, but lacking in weight and dignity. The artistic unity of his work suffered severely from the frequent and lengthy digressions already referred to. The most important was that On the Athenian Demagogues in the 10th book of the Philippica, containing a bitter attack on many of the chief Athenian statesmen, and generally recognized as having been freely used by Plutarch in several of the Lives. Another fault of Theopompus was his excessive fondness for romantic and incredible stories; a collection of some of these was afterwards made and published under his name. He was also severely blamed in antiquity for his censoriousness, and throughout his fragments no feature is more striking than this. On the whole, however, he appears to have been fairly impartial. Philip himself he censures severely for drunkenness and immorality, while Demosthenes receives his warm praise.

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Theopompus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

A Greek historian, born at Chios about B.C. 378. He left home, probably about 361, with his father, who was banished by the democratic party on account of his predilection for the Spartans, and, having been trained in oratory by Isocrates, spoke with great success in all the larger towns of Greece. He distinguished himself so greatly in the rhetorical contest instituted (351 B.C.) by Queen Artemisia, wife of Mausolus, in honour of her deceased husband, that he obtained a brilliant victory over all competitors. He afterwards travelled, with the object of acquiring material for his historical works. The favour shown him by Alexander the Great induced him to return to Chios at the age of forty-five; but on the death of his patron he found himself again obliged to flee from his opponents, whose hatred he had incurred by his vehement adoption of the sentiments of the aristocracy. He took refuge with Ptolemy I., at Alexandria, about 305. Here he did not, however, meet with a favourable reception, and was compelled to withdraw, as his life was in danger. Of his subsequent career nothing is known. Besides numerous orations (principally panegyrics) he composed two large histories, founded on the most careful and minute research: (a) Hellenica (Ἑλληνικαὶ Ἱστορίαι), in twelve books, a continuation of Thucydides, covering the period from 411- 394; and (b) Philippica (Φιλιππικά), in fifty-eight books, treating of the life and times of Philip of Macedon. Of these works only fragments remain. The charge of malignity, which was brought against him by the ancients, seems to have originated in the reckless manner in which, on the testimony of Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Ep. ad Cn. Pompeium), he exposed the pettiness and baseness of the politics of those times, especially those of the Macedonian party. There seems to be better foundation for the charge brought against him of being too fond of digressions; for when, in later times, the digressions in the Philippica were omitted, the work was thereby reduced to sixteen books. Theopompus was the first Greek writer to make any definite mention of Rome, speaking of its capture by the Gauls (Pliny , Pliny H. N. iii. 57). His fragments are edited by C. and Th. Müller in the Frag. Hist. Graec. (Paris, 1841). See Stern, Diodor und Theopompos (1891).

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Church of Mary Magdalene

Though there are many churches to visit on tours to the holy land, the Church of Mary Magdalene is one you shouldn’t miss. A Russian Orthodox Church, the Church of Mary Magdalene is located near the bottom of the Mount of Olives. The moment you step into this church you’ll feel as though you’ve stepped into another place and time because of the history it encompasses. This church in particular has a great deal of Russian history, having been built by the Czar Alexander III in 1895 in memory of his mother, Maria ALexandrovna. He named it after her patron saint, Mary Magdalene. The Church is absolutely magnificent and reflects the style of churches built in Moscow in the 16th century. Not only is the church beautiful, but the lush gardens and beautiful views outside are reason enough to pay a visit to the Church of Mary Magdalene while you travel in Israel. (America Israel Travel)

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Theopompus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

A Greek historian, born at Chios about B.C. 378. He left home, probably about 361, with his father, who was banished by the democratic party on account of his predilection for the Spartans, and, having been trained in oratory by Isocrates, spoke with great success in all the larger towns of Greece. He distinguished himself so greatly in the rhetorical contest instituted (351 B.C.) by Queen Artemisia, wife of Mausolus, in honour of her deceased husband, that he obtained a brilliant victory over all competitors. He afterwards travelled, with the object of acquiring material for his historical works. The favour shown him by Alexander the Great induced him to return to Chios at the age of forty-five; but on the death of his patron he found himself again obliged to flee from his opponents, whose hatred he had incurred by his vehement adoption of the sentiments of the aristocracy. He took refuge with Ptolemy I., at Alexandria, about 305. Here he did not, however, meet with a favourable reception, and was compelled to withdraw, as his life was in danger. Of his subsequent career nothing is known. Besides numerous orations (principally panegyrics) he composed two large histories, founded on the most careful and minute research: (a) Hellenica (Ἑλληνικαὶ Ἱστορίαι), in twelve books, a continuation of Thucydides, covering the period from 411- 394; and (b) Philippica (Φιλιππικά), in fifty-eight books, treating of the life and times of Philip of Macedon. Of these works only fragments remain. The charge of malignity, which was brought against him by the ancients, seems to have originated in the reckless manner in which, on the testimony of Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Ep. ad Cn. Pompeium), he exposed the pettiness and baseness of the politics of those times, especially those of the Macedonian party. There seems to be better foundation for the charge brought against him of being too fond of digressions; for when, in later times, the digressions in the Philippica were omitted, the work was thereby reduced to sixteen books. Theopompus was the first Greek writer to make any definite mention of Rome, speaking of its capture by the Gauls (Pliny , Pliny H. N. iii. 57). His fragments are edited by C. and Th. Müller in the Frag. Hist. Graec. (Paris, 1841). See Stern, Diodor und Theopompos (1891).

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Semonides of Amorgos in Wikipedia

Semonides (Greek: Σιμωνίδης Ἀμοργῖνος) of Amorgos, was the second, both in time and in reputation, of the three principal iambic poets of the early period of Greek literature, namely, Archilochus, Semonides, and Hipponax. The chief information which we have respecting him is contained in two articles of the Suda from which we learn that his father's name was Crines, and that he was originally a native of Samos. Although the Suda makes him a contemporary of Archilochus, modern scholars generally consider his floruit to be somewhat later.[1] The statement of the Suda that he flourished 490 years after the Trojan War, would place him in the seventh century BC. He is best known today for fr. 7, often titled "On Women." [2]

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Simonides of Ceos in Wikipedia

Simonides of Ceos (Ancient Greek: Σιμωνίδης ὁ Κεῖος) (c. 556 BC-468 BC), Greek lyric poet, was born at Ioulis on Kea. He was included in the canonical list of nine lyric poets by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria, along with Bacchylides (his nephew) and Pindar (reputedly a bitter rival). Both Bacchylides and Pindar benefited from his innovative approach to lyric poetry and he was more involved than either of them in the major events and personalities of their times.[3] His fame owes much to traditional accounts of his colourful life, as one of the wisest of men, as a greedy miser, as an inventor of a system of mnemonics and also of some letters of the Greek alphabet (ω, η, ξ, ψ ).[4] Such accounts include fanciful elements yet he had a real influence on the sophistic enlightenment of the classical era.[5] His fame as a poet rests largely on his ability to present basic human situations with affecting simplicity.[1] In the words of the Roman rhetorician Quintilian: "Simonides has a simple style, but he can be commended for the aptness of his language and for a certain charm; his chief merit, however, lies in the power to excite pity, so much so that some prefer him in this respect to all other writers of the genre."[6] He is popularly associated with epitaphs commemorating fallen warriors, as for example the Lacedaemonians at The Battle of Thermopylae: Ὦ ξεῖν', ἀγγέλλειν Λακεδαιμονίοις ὅτι τῇδε κείμεθα, τοῖς κείνων ῥήμασι πειθόμενοι. Translated in the original form of an elegiac couplet: "O stranger, go and report to the Lacedaemonians that here We lie at rest, the commands they gave us being obeyed." Today only glimpses of his poetry remain, either in the form of papyrus fragments or quotations by ancient literary figures, yet new fragments continue to be unearthed by archeologists at Oxyrhynchus.[7] His general fame as a wise and colourful personality has led to his inclusion in narratives as diverse as Mary Renault's historical novel The Praise Singer (where he is depicted as the narrator and main character), Plato's Protagoras (where he is a topic of conversation), and some verses in Callimachus' Aetia (where he is amusingly represented as a ghost complaining about the desecration of his own tomb in Acragas).[8] Biography Few clear facts about Simonides' life have come down to modern times in spite of his fame and influence. Ancient sources are uncertain even about the date of his birth. According to the Byzantine encyclopaedia, Suda: "He was born in the 56th Olympiad (556/552 BC) or according to some writers in the 62nd (532/528) and he survived until the 78th (468/464), having lived eighty-nine years."[9] Modern scholars generally accept 556-468 BC for his life in spite of some awkward consequences-for example it would make him about fifty years older than his nephew Bacchylides and still very active internationally at about 80 years of age. According to an entry in the Parian Marble, Simonides died in 468/7 BC at the age of ninety (which narrows the birth date to 558/7 BC). However, in another entry, it lists a victory by his grandfather in a poetry competition in Athens in 489/8 BC-this grandfather must have been over a hundred years old at that time if the birth dates for Simonides are correct. The grandfather's name, as recorded by the Parian Marble, was also Simonides, and it has been argued that some of the earliest references to Simonides in ancient sources might in fact be references to the grandfather. However, the Parian Marble is known to be unreliable and possibly it was not even the grandfather but a grandson that won the aforementioned victory in Athens.[10] According to the Suda, this grandson was yet another Simonides and he was the author of books on genealogy.[11] Early years: Ceos and Athens Simonides is identified in the Suda as the son of a Leoprepes. He was born in Ioulis on Ceos (Ἰουλίς, Κέως), the outermost island of the Cyclades. The innermost island, Delos, was the reputed birthplace of Apollo, where the people of Ceos regularly sent choirs to perform hymns in the god's honour. Carthaea, another Cean town, included a choregeion or school where choirs were trained and it is possible that Simonides worked there as a teacher in his early years. In addition to its musical culture, Ceos had a rich tradition of athletic competition, especially in running and boxing (the names of Ceans victorious at Panhellenic competitions were recorded at Ioulis on slabs of stone) making it fertile territory for a genre of choral lyric that Simonides pioneered-the victory ode. Indeed, the grandfather of Simonides' nephew, Bacchylides, was one of the island's notable athletes.[12] Ceos lies only some fifteen miles south-east of Attica, whither Simonides was drawn, about the age of thirty, by the lure of opportunities opening up at the court of the tyrant Hipparchus, a patron of the arts. His rivalry there with another chorus-trainer and poet, Lasus of Hermione, became something of a joke to Athenians of a later generation-it is mentioned briefly by the comic playwright Aristophanes[13] who also earmarked Simonides as a miserly type of the professional poet (see The Miser below) Middle Career: Thessaly After the assassination of Hipparchus (514 BC), Simonides withdrew to Thessaly, where he enjoyed the protection and patronage of the Scopadae and Aleuadae. These were two of the most powerful families in the Thessalian feudal aristocracy yet they seemed notable to later Greeks such as Theocritus only for their association with Simonides.[14] Thessaly at that time was a cultural backwater, remaining in the 'Dark Ages' until the close of the fifth century. According to an account by Plutarch, the Ionian poet once dismissed the Thessalians as "too ignorant" to be beguiled by poetry.[15] Among the most colourful of his "ignorant" patrons was the head of the Scopadae clan, named Scopas, probably the son of Creon and grandson of Scopas The Elder. Fond of drinking, convivial company and vain displays of wealth, the aristocrat's proud and capricious dealings with Simonides are demonstrated in a traditional account related by Cicero[16] and Quintilian,[17] according to which the poet was commissioned to write a victory ode for a boxer. Simonides embellished his ode with so many references to the twins Castor and Pollux (heroic archetypes of the boxer) that Scopas told him to collect half the commissioned fee from them-he would only pay the other half.[18] Simonides however got much more from the twins than just half his fee (see Miraculous escapes). Career Highlight: Persian Wars The Thessalian period in Simonides' career is followed in most biographies by his return to Athens during the Persian Wars and it is certain that he became a prominent international figure at that time,[19] particularly as the author of commemorative verses. According to an anonymous biographer of Aeschylus,[20] the Athenians chose Simonides ahead of their own dramatist to be the author of an epigram honouring their war-dead at Marathon, which led the tragedian (who had fought at the battle and whose brother had died there) to withdraw sulking to the court of Hieron of Syracuse-the story is probably based on the inventions of comic dramatists[21] but it is likely that Simonides did in fact write some kind of commemorative verses for the Athenian victory at Marathon.[22] His ability to compose tastefully and poignantly on military themes put him in great demand among Greek states after their defeat of the second Persian invasion, when he is known to have composed epitaphs for Athenians, Spartans and Corinthians, a commemorative song for Leonidas and his men, a dedicatory epigram for Pausanias, and poems on the battles of Artemisium, Salamis,[21] and Plataea.[23] According to Plutarch, the Cean had a statue of himself made about this time, which inspired the Athenian politician Themistocles to comment on his ugliness. In the same account, Themistocles is said to have rejected the Cean's attempt at bribery by likening an honest magistrate to a good poet, since one keeps the laws and the other keeps in tune.[24] Final years: Sicily The last year's of the poet's life were spent in Sicily where he became a friend and confidante of Hieron of Syracuse. According to a scholiast on Pindar, he once acted as peace-maker between Hieron and another Sicilian tyrant, Theron of Acragas, thus ending a war between them.[25] Scholiasts are the only authority for stories about rivalry between Simonides and Pindar at the court of Hieron, traditionally used to explain some of the meanings in Pindar's victory odes[26] (see the articles on Bacchylides and Pindar). If the stories of rivalry are true, it may be surmised that Simonides's experiences at the courts of the tyrants, Hipparchus and Scopas, gave him a competitive edge over the proud Pindar and enabled him to promote the career of his nephew, Bacchylides, at Pindar's expense.[27] However, Pindar scholiasts are generally considered unreliable[28] and there is no reason to accept their account.[29] The Hellenistic poet Callimachus revealed in one of his poems that Simonides was buried outside Acragas and that his tombstone was later mis-used in the construction of a tower.[30] Biographical themes Traditional accounts of the poet's life embody a variety of themes. Miraculous escapes As mentioned above, both Cicero and Quintilian are sources for the story that Scopas, the Thassalian nobleman, refused to pay Simonides in full for a victory ode that featured too many decorative references to the mythical twins, Castor and Pollux. According to the rest of the story, Simonides was celebrating the same victory with Scopas and his relatives at a banquet when he received word that two young men were waiting outside to see him. When he got outside, however, he discovered firstly that the two young men were nowhere to be found and, secondly, that the dining hall was collapsing behind him. Scopas and a number of his relatives were killed. Apparently the two young men were the twins and they had rewarded the poet's interest in them by thus saving his life. Simonides later benefited from the tragedy by deriving a system of mnemonics from it (see The inventor). Quintilian dismisses the story as a fiction because "the poet nowhere mentions the affair, although he was not in the least likely to keep silent on a matter which brought him such glory..".[31] This however was not the only miraculous escape that his piety afforded him. There are two epigrams in the Palatine Anthology, both attributed to Simonides and both dedicated to a drowned man whose corpse the poet and some companions are said to have found and buried on an island. The first is an epitaph in which the dead man is imagined to invoke blessings on those who had buried the body, and the second records the poet's gratitude to him for having saved his own life-Simonides had been warned by the dead man's ghost not to set sail from the island with his companions, who all subsequently drowned.[32] The inventor During the excavation of the rubble of Scopas' dining hall, Simonides was called upon to identify each guest killed. Their bodies had been crushed beyond recognition but he completed the gruesome task by correlating their identities to their positions (loci in Latin) at the table before his departure. He later drew on this experience to develop the 'memory theatre' or 'memory palace', a system for mnemonics widely used in oral societies until the Renaissance.[33] According to Cicero, Themistocles wasn't much impressed with the poet's invention: "I would rather a technique of forgetting, for I remember what I would rather not remember and cannot forget what I would rather forget."[34] The Suda credits him also with inventing "the third note of the lyre" (which is known to be wrong since the lyre had seven strings from the 7th century), and four letters of the Greek alphabet.[35] Whatever the validity of such claims, a creative and original turn of mind is demonstrated in his poetry - he probably invented the genre of the victory ode[36] and he gave persuasive expression to a new set of ethical standards (see Ethics). The miser In his play Peace, Aristophanes imagined that the tragic poet Sophocles had turned into Simonides: "He may be old and decayed, but these days, if you paid him enough, he'd go to sea in a sieve."[37] A scholiast, commenting on the passage, wrote: "Simonides seems to have been the first to introduce money-grabbing into his songs and to write a song for pay" and, as proof of it, quoted a passage from one of Pindar's odes ("For then the Muse was not yet fond of profit nor mercenary"), which he interpreted as covert criticism of Simonides. The same scholiast related a popular story that the poet kept two boxes, one empty and the other full - the empty one being where he kept favours, the full one being where he kept his money.[38] According to Athenaeus, when Simonides was at Hieron's court in Syracuse, he used to sell most of the daily provisions that he received from the tyrant, justifying himself thus: "So that all may see Hieron's magnificence and my moderation."[39] Aristotle reported that the wife of Hieron once asked Simonides whether it was better to be wealthy or wise, to which he apparently replied: "Wealthy; for I see the wise spending their days at the doors of the wealthy."[40] According to an anecdote recorded on a papyrus, dating to around 250 BC, Hieron once asked the poet if everything grows old: "Yes," Simonides answered, "all except money-making; and kind deeds age most quickly of all."[41] He once rejected a small fee to compose a victory ode for the winner of a mule race (it was not a prestigious event) but, according to Aristotle, changed his mind when the fee was increased, resulting in this magniloquent opening: "Greetings, daughters of storm-footed horses!"[42] In a quote recorded by Plutarch, he once complained that old age had robbed him of every pleasure but making money.[43] All these amusing anecdotes might simply reflect the fact that he was the first poet to charge fees for his services-generosity is glimpsed in his payment for an inscription on a friend's epitaph, as recorded by Herodotus.[44] The sage and wit Plato, in The Republic, numbered Simonides with Bias and Pittacus among the wise and blessed, even putting into the mouth of Socrates the words "it is not easy to disbelieve Simonides, for he is a wise man and divinely inspired," but in his dialogue Protagoras, Plato numbered Simonides with Homer and Hesiod as precursors of the sophist.[45] A number of apocryphal sayings were attributed to him. Michael Psellos accredited him with "the word is the image of the thing."[46] Plutarch commended "the saying of Simonides, that he had often felt sorry after speaking but never after keeping silent"[47] and observed that "Simonides calls painting silent poetry and poetry painting that speaks"[48] (later paraphrased by the Latin poet Horace as ut pictura poesis). Diogenes Laertius, after quoting a famous epigram by Cleobulus (one of ancient Greece's 'seven sages') in which a maiden sculptured on a tomb is imagined to proclaim her eternal vigilance, quotes Simonides commenting on it in a poem of his own: Stone is broken even by mortal hands. That was the judgement of a fool."[49] His rationalist view of the cosmos is evinced also in Plutarch's letter of consolation to Apollonius:"according to Simonides a thousand or ten thousand years are an undeterminable point, or rather the tiniest part of a point."[50] Cicero related how, when Heiron of Syracuse asked him to define god, Simonides continually postponed his reply, "because the longer I think about it, the fainter become my hopes of an answer."[51] Stobaeus recorded this reply to a man who had confided in Simonides some unflattering things he had heard said about him: "Please stop slandering me with your ears!".[52] Poetry Simonides composed verses almost entirely for public performances and inscriptions, unlike previous lyric poets such as Sappho and Alcaeus, who composed more intimate verses to entertain friends-"With Simonides the age of individualism in lyric poetry has passed."[53] Or so it seemed to modern scholars until the recent discovery of papyrus P.Oxy.3965[54] in which Simonides is glimpsed in a sympotic context, speaking for example as an old man rejuvenated in the company of his homo-erotic lover, couched on a bed of flowers.[55] Very little of his poetry survives today but enough is recorded on papyrus fragments and in quotes by ancient commentators for many conclusions to be drawn at least tentatively (nobody knows if and when the sands of Egypt will reveal further discoveries). Simonides wrote a wide range of choral lyrics with an Ionian flavour and elegiac verses in Doric idioms. He is generally credited with inventing a new type of choral lyric, the encomium, in particular popularizing a form of it, the victory ode. These were extensions of the hymn, which previous generations of poets had dedicated only to gods and heroes: "But it was Simonides who first led the Greeks to feel that such a tribute might be paid to any man who was sufficiently eminent in merit or in station. We must remember that, in the time of Simonides, the man to whom a hymn was addressed would feel that he was receiving a distinction which had hitherto been reserved for gods and heroes."-Richard Claverhouse Jebb[56] In one victory ode, celebrating Glaucus of Carystus, a famous boxer, Simonides declares that not even Heracles or Polydeuces could have stood against him-a statement whose impiety seemed notable even to Lucian many generations later.[57] Simonides was the first to establish the choral dirge as a recognized form of lyric poetry,[58] his aptitude for it being testified, for example, by Quintillian (see quote in the Introduction), Horace("Ceae...munera neniae"),[59] Catullus ("maestius lacrimis Simonideis")[60] and Dionysius of Halicarnassus, where he says: "Observe in Simonides his choice of words and his care in combining them; in addition-and here he is found to be better even than Pindar-observe how he expresses pity not by using the grand style but by appealing to the emotions."[61] Simonides was adept too at lively compositions suited to dancing (hyporchema), for which he is commended by Plutarch.[62] He was highly successful in dithyrambic competitions according to an anonymous epigram dating from the Hellenistic period, which credited him with 57 victories, possibly in Athens.[63] The dithyramb, a genre of lyrics traditionally sung to Dionysus, was later developed into narratives illustrating heroic myths; Simonides is the earliest poet known to have composed in this enlarged form[64] (the geographer Strabo mentioned a dithyramb, Memnon, in which Simonides located the hero's tomb in Syria, indicating that he didn't compose only on legends of Dionysius.)[65] Simonides has long been known to have written epitaphs for those who died in the Persian Wars and this has resulted in many pithy verses being mis-attributed to him "...as wise saws to Confucius or musical anecdotes to Beecham."[66] Modern scholars generally consider only one of the attributed epigrams to be unquestionably authentic (an inscription for the seer Megistius quoted by Herodotus),[67] which places in doubt even some of the most famous examples, such as the one to the Spartans at Thermopylae, quoted in the introduction. He composed longer pieces on a Persian War theme, including Dirge for the Fallen at Thermopylae, Battle at Artemisium and Battle at Salamis but their genres are not clear from the fragmentary remains - the first was labelled by Diodorus Siculus as an encomium but it was probably a hymn[68] and the second was characterized in the Suda as elegiac yet Priscian, in a comment on prosody, indicated that it was composed in lyric meter.[69] Substantial fragments of a recently discovered poem, describing the run-up to the Battle of Plataea and comparing Pausanias to Achilles, show that he actually did compose narrative accounts in elegiac meter.[70] Simonides also wrote Paeans and Prayers/Curses (κατευχαί)[71] and possibly in some genres where no record of his work survives.[72] Poetic style Like other lyric poets in late Archaic Greece, Simonides made notable use of compound adjectives and decorative epithets yet he is also remarkable for his restraint and balance. His expression was clear and simple, relying on straightforward statement. An example is found in a quote by Stobaeus[73] paraphrased here to suggest the original rhythms, predominantly choriambic ( -˘˘-, -˘˘- ), with some dactylic expansion (-˘˘-˘˘-) and an iambic close (˘-,˘-): Being a man you cannot tell what might befall when tomorrow comes Nor yet how long one who appears blessed will remain that way, So unpredictable even a long-winged fly Changes course less suddenly. The only decorative word is 'long-winged' (τανυπτέρυγος), used to denote a dragonfly, and it emerges from the generalized meanings of the passage as an 'objective correlative' for the fragility of the human condition.[74] The rhythm evokes the movement of the dragonfly and the mutability of human fortunes.[75] Ethics Simonides championed a tolerant, flexible ethic that took into account the tension between the inner man and his external circumstances.[76] His rival, Pindar, who identified closely with the aristocratic world and its heroic ethic, never composed anything as thoughtful as the following words of Simonides, quoted in one of Plato's dialogues:[77] "It is difficult for a man to be truly good, four square in hands, in feet and in mind, fashioned without flaw...I shall never throw away my span of life on an empty vain hope in quest of the impossible, the completely blamess man...I commend and love any man who of his own will does nothing shameful, but with necessity not even the gods fight...A man not too helpless suffices for me, one who understands the justice that helps his city, a sound man. I shall not find fault with him, for the generation of fools is numberless. All things are fair in which the base is not mingled."[78]

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Simonĭdes in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

Of Ceos, one of the most celebrated lyric poets of Greece. He was the perfecter of the Elegy and Epigram, and the rival of Lasus and Pindar in the Dithyramb and the Epinician Ode. He was born at Iulis, in Ceos, B.C. 556, and was the son of Leoprepes. He appears to have been brought up to music and poetry as a profession. From his native island he proceeded to Athens, probably on the invitation of Hipparchus, who attached him to his society by great rewards. After remaining at Athens some time, probably even after the expulsion of Hippias, he went to Thessaly, where he lived under the patronage of the Aleuads and Scopads. He afterwards returned to Athens, and soon had the noblest opportunity of employing his poetic powers in the celebration of the great events of the Persian Wars. In 489 he conquered Aeschylus in the contest for the prize which the Athenians offered for an elegy on those who fell at Marathon. Ten years later he composed the epigrams which were inscribed upon the tomb of the Spartans who fell at Thermopylae, as well as an encomium on the same heroes; and he also celebrated the battles of Artemisium and Salamis, and the great men who commanded in them (Pausan. iii. 8, 2; Thucyd. i. 132). He had completed his eightieth year, when his long poetical career at Athens was crowned by the victory which he gained with the dithyrambic chorus (477 B.C.), being the fifty-sixth prize which he had carried off. Shortly after this he was invited to Syracuse by Hiero, at whose court he lived till his death in 467. Simonides was a great favourite with Hiero, and was treated by the tyrant with the greatest munificence. He still continued, when at Syracuse, to employ his talents occasionally in the service of other Grecian States. Simonides is said to have been the inventor of the mnemonic art and of the long vowels and double letters in the Greek alphabet (Cic. De Orat. ii. 86, 352). He made literature a profession, and is said to have been the first who took money for his poems; and the reproach of avarice is too often brought against him by his contemporary and rival, Pindar, as well as by subsequent writers, to be altogether discredited. The chief characteristics of the poetry of Simonides were sweetness (whence his surname of Melicertes) and elaborate finish, combined with the truest poetic conception and perfect power of expression; though in originality and fervour he was far inferior, not only to the early lyric poets, such as Sappho and Alcaeus, but also to his contemporary Pindar. He was probably both the most prolific and the most universally popular of all the Grecian lyric poets. The general character of his dialect is the Epic, mingled with Doric and Aeolic forms. Editions of his fragments are those by Schneidewin (Brunswick, 1835); and Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. (1878). On his language, see Schaumburg, De Dialecto Simonidis (1878); and Mucke, De Dialecto Simonidis cum Pind. Comparata (1879).

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Socrates of Constantinople in Wikipedia

Socrates of Constantinople, also known as Socrates Scholasticus[1], not to be confused with the Greek philosopher Socrates, was a Greek Christian church historian, a contemporary of Sozomen and Theodoret, who used his work; he was born at Constantinople c. 380: the date of his death is unknown. Even in ancient times nothing seems to have been known of his life except what can be gathered from notices in his Historia Ecclesiastica ("Church History"), which departed from its ostensible model, Eusebius of Caesarea, in emphasizing the place of the emperor in church affairs and in giving secular as well as church history. Socrates' teachers, noted in his prefaces, were the grammarians Helladius and Ammonius, who came to Constantinople from Alexandria, where they had been pagan priests. A revolt, accompanied by an attack on the pagan temples, had forced them to flee. This attack, in which the Serapeum was vandalized and its library destroyed, is dated about 391. That Socrates of Constantinople later profited by the teaching of the sophist Troilus is not proven. No certainty exists as to Socrates' precise vocation, though it may be inferred from his work that he was a layman. In later years he traveled and visited, among other places, Paphlagonia and Cyprus (Historia Ecclesiastica 1.12.8, 2.33.30). The Historia Ecclesiastica The history covers the years 305-439, and experts believe it was finished in 439 or soon thereafter, and certainly during the lifetime of Emperor Theodosius II, i.e., before 450. The purpose of the history is to continue the work of Eusebius of Caesarea (1.1). It relates in simple Greek language what the Church experienced from the days of Constantine to the writer's time. Ecclesiastical dissensions occupy the foreground, for when the Church is at peace, there is nothing for the church historian to relate (7.48.7). In the preface to Book 5, Socrates defends dealing with Arianism and with political events in addition to writing about the church. Socrates' account is in many respects well- balanced. His membership of the minority Novatian church possibly enables him to take up a relatively detached approach to developments in the Great Church. He is critical for example of St. John Chrysostom. He is careful not to use hyperbolic titles when referring to prominent personalities in Church and State. Socrates asserts that he owed the impulse to write his work to a certain Theodorus, who is alluded to in the proemium to the second book as "a holy man of God" and seems therefore to have been a monk or one of the higher clergy. The contemporary historians Sozomen and Theodoret were combined with Socrates in a sixth-century compilation, which has obscured their differences until recently, when their individual portrayals of the series of Christian emperors were distinguished one from another and contrasted by Hartmut Leppin, Von Constantin dem Großen zu Theodosius II (Göttingen 1996). The Historia Ecclesiastica was first edited in Greek by Robert Estienne, on the basis of Codex Regius 1443 (Paris, 1544); a translation into Latin by Johannes Christophorson (1612) is important for its variant readings. The fundamental early modern edition, however, was produced by Henricus Valesius (Henri Valois) (Paris, 1668), who used the Codex Regius, a Codex Vaticanus, and a Codex Florentinus, and also employed the indirect tradition of Theodorus Lector (Codex Leonis Alladi). The new critical edition of the text is edited by G.C. Hansen, and published in the series Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller (Berlin:Akademie Verlag) 1995.

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Socrates in Wikipedia

Socrates (Greek: Σωκράτης, soˈkraːtɛːs, Sōkrátēs; c. 469 BC–399 BC,[1] in English pronounced /ˈsɒkrətiːz/) was a Classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Many would claim that Plato's dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity.[2] Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this Platonic Socrates who also lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions are asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. It is Plato's Socrates that also made important and lasting contributions to the fields of epistemology and logic, and the influence of his ideas and approach remains strong in providing a foundation for much western philosophy that followed. As one recent commentator has put it, Plato, the idealist, offers "an idol, a master figure, for philosophy. A Saint, a prophet of the 'Sun-God', a teacher condemned for his teachings as a heretic."[3] Yet, the 'real' Socrates, like many of the other Ancient philosophers, remains at best enigmatic and at worst unknown. Biography The Socratic problem Forming an accurate picture of the historical Socrates and his philosophical viewpoints is problematic. This issue is known as the Socratic problem. Socrates did not write philosophical texts. The knowledge of the man, his life, and his philosophy is based on writings by his students and contemporaries. Foremost among them is Plato; however, works by Xenophon, Aristotle, and Aristophanes also provide important insights.[4] The difficulty of finding the "real" Socrates arises because these works are often philosophical or dramatic texts rather than straightforward histories. Aside from Thucydides (who makes no mention of Socrates or philosophers in general) and Xenophon, there are in fact no straightforward histories contemporary with Socrates that dealt with his own time and place. A corollary of this is that sources that do mention Socrates do not necessarily claim to be historically accurate, and are often partisan (those who prosecuted and convicted Socrates have left no testament). Historians therefore face the challenge of reconciling the various texts that come from these men to create an accurate and consistent account of Socrates' life and work. The result of such an effort is not necessarily realistic, merely consistent. Plato is frequently viewed as the most informative source about Socrates' life and philosophy.[5] At the same time, however, many scholars believe that in some works Plato, being a literary artist, pushed his avowedly brightened-up version of "Socrates" far beyond anything the historical Socrates was likely to have done or said; and that Xenophon, being an historian, is a more reliable witness to the historical Socrates. Parsing which Socrates-the "real" one, or Plato's own mouthpiece-Plato is using at any given point is a matter of much debate. However, it is also clear from other writings, and historical artifacts that Socrates was not simply a character, or invention, of Plato. The testimony of Xenophon and Aristotle, alongside some of Aristophanes' work (especially The Clouds), can be usefully engaged in fleshing out our perception of Socrates beyond Plato's work. Life Details about Socrates can be derived from three contemporary sources: the dialogues of Plato and Xenophon (both devotees of Socrates), and the plays of Aristophanes. He has been depicted by some scholars, including Eric Havelock and Walter Ong, as a champion of oral modes of communication, standing up at the dawn of writing against its haphazard diffusion.[6] Aristophanes' play The Clouds portrays Socrates as a clown who teaches his students how to bamboozle their way out of debt. Most of Aristophanes' works, however, function as parodies. Thus, it is presumed this characterization was also not literal. According to Plato, Socrates' father was Sophroniscus[7] and his mother Phaenarete,[8] a midwife. Though characterized as unattractive in appearance and short in stature, Socrates married Xanthippe,[9] who was much younger than he. She bore for him three sons,[10] Lamprocles, Sophroniscus and Menexenus. His friend Crito of Alopece criticized him for abandoning his sons when he refused to try to escape before his execution.[11] It is unclear how Socrates earned a living. Ancient texts seem to indicate that Socrates did not work. In Xenophon's Symposium, Socrates is reported as saying he devotes himself only to what he regards as the most important art or occupation: discussing philosophy. In The Clouds Aristophanes portrays Socrates as accepting payment for teaching and running a sophist school with Chaerephon, while in Plato's Apology and Symposium and in Xenophon's accounts, Socrates explicitly denies accepting payment for teaching. More specifically, in the Apology Socrates cites his poverty as proof he is not a teacher. According to Timon of Phlius and later sources, Socrates took over the profession of stonemasonry from his father. There was a tradition in antiquity, not credited by modern scholarship, that Socrates crafted the statues of the Three Graces, which stood near the Acropolis until the second century AD.[12] Several of Plato's dialogues refer to Socrates' military service. Socrates says he served in the Athenian army during three campaigns: at Potidaea, Amphipolis, and Delium. In the Symposium Alcibiades describes Socrates' valour in the battles of Potidaea and Delium, recounting how Socrates saved his life in the former battle (219e-221b). Socrates' exceptional service at Delium is also mentioned in the Laches by the General after whom the dialogue is named (181b). In the Apology, Socrates compares his military service to his courtroom troubles, and says anyone on the jury who thinks he ought to retreat from philosophy must also think soldiers should retreat when it looks like they will be killed in battle. In 406 he was a member of the Boule, and his tribe the Antiochis held the Prytany on the day the Generals of the Battle of Arginusae, who abandoned the slain and the survivors of foundered ships to pursue the defeated Spartan navy, were discussed. Socrates was the Epistates and resisted the unconstitutional demand for a collective trial to establish the guilt of all eight Generals, proposed by Callixeinus. Eventually, Socrates refused to be cowed by threats of impeachment and imprisonment and blocked the vote until his Prytany ended the next day, whereupon the six Generals were condemned to death. In 404 the Thirty Tyrants sought to ensure the loyalty of those opposed to them by making them complicit in their activities. Socrates and four others were ordered to bring a certain Leon of Salamis from his home for unjust execution. Socrates quietly refused, his death averted only by the overthrow of the Tyrants soon afterwards. Trial and death Socrates lived during the time of the transition from the height of the Athenian hegemony to its decline with the defeat by Sparta and its allies in the Peloponnesian War. At a time when Athens sought to stabilize and recover from its humiliating defeat, the Athenian public may have been entertaining doubts about democracy as an efficient form of government. Socrates appears to have been a critic of democracy, and some scholars interpret his trial as an expression of political infighting. Despite claiming loyalty to his city, Socrates clashed with the current course of Athenian politics and society.[13] He praises Sparta, archrival to Athens, directly and indirectly in various dialogues. But perhaps the most historically accurate of Socrates' offenses to the city was his position as a social and moral critic. Rather than upholding a status quo and accepting the development of immorality within his region, Socrates worked to undermine the collective notion of "might makes right" so common to Greece during this period. Plato refers to Socrates as the "gadfly" of the state (as the gadfly stings the horse into action, so Socrates stung various Athenians), insofar as he irritated some people with considerations of justice and the pursuit of goodness.[14] His attempts to improve the Athenians' sense of justice may have been the source of his execution. According to Plato's Apology, Socrates' life as the "gadfly" of Athens began when his friend Chaerephon asked the oracle at Delphi if anyone was wiser than Socrates; the Oracle responded that none was wiser. Socrates believed that what the Oracle had said was a paradox, because he believed he possessed no wisdom whatsoever. He proceeded to test the riddle by approaching men considered wise by the people of Athens-statesmen, poets, and artisans-in order to refute the Oracle's pronouncement. Questioning them, however, Socrates concluded that, while each man thought he knew a great deal and was wise, in fact they knew very little and were not wise at all. Socrates realized that the Oracle was correct, in that while so-called wise men thought themselves wise and yet were not, he himself knew he was not wise at all, which, paradoxically, made him the wiser one since he was the only person aware of his own ignorance. Socrates' paradoxical wisdom made the prominent Athenians he publicly questioned look foolish, turning them against him and leading to accusations of wrongdoing. Socrates defended his role as a gadfly until the end: at his trial, when Socrates was asked to propose his own punishment, he suggests a wage paid by the government and free dinners for the rest of his life instead, to finance the time he spends as Athens' benefactor.[15] He was, nevertheless, found guilty of both corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens and of "not believing in the gods of the state"[16], and subsequently sentenced to death by drinking a mixture containing poison hemlock. According to Xenophon's story, Socrates purposefully gave a defiant defense to the jury because "he believed he would be better off dead". Xenophon goes on to describe a defense by Socrates that explains the rigors of old age, and how Socrates would be glad to circumvent them by being sentenced to death. It is also understood that Socrates also wished to die because he "actually believed the right time had come for him to die". Xenophon and Plato agree that Socrates had an opportunity to escape, as his followers were able to bribe the prison guards. He chose to stay for several reasons: 1. He believed such a flight would indicate a fear of death, which he believed no true philosopher has. 2. If he fled Athens his teaching would fare no better in another country as he would continue questioning all he met and undoubtedly incur their displeasure. 3. Having knowingly agreed to live under the city's laws, he implicitly subjected himself to the possibility of being accused of crimes by its citizens and judged guilty by its jury. To do otherwise would have caused him to break his "social contract" with the state, and so harm the state, an act contrary to Socratic principle. The full reasoning behind his refusal to flee is the main subject of the Crito. Socrates' death is described at the end of Plato's Phaedo. Socrates turned down the pleas of Crito to attempt an escape from prison. After drinking the poison, he was instructed to walk around until his legs felt numb. After he lay down, the man who administered the poison pinched his foot. Socrates could no longer feel his legs. The numbness slowly crept up his body until it reached his heart. Shortly before his death, Socrates speaks his last words to Crito: "Crito, we owe a rooster to Asclepius. Please, don't forget to pay the debt." Asclepius was the Greek god for curing illness, and it is likely Socrates' last words meant that death is the cure-and freedom, of the soul from the body. Additionally, in Why Socrates Died: Dispelling the Myths, Robin Waterfield adds another interpretation of Socrates' last words. He suggests that Socrates was a voluntary scapegoat; his death was the purifying remedy for Athens’ misfortunes. In this view, the token of appreciation for Asclepius would represent a cure for the ailments of Athens.[14] Philosophy Socratic method Perhaps his most important contribution to Western thought is his dialectic method of inquiry, known as the Socratic method or method of "elenchus", which he largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts such as the Good and Justice. It was first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. To solve a problem, it would be broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek. The influence of this approach is most strongly felt today in the use of the scientific method, in which hypothesis is the first stage. The development and practice of this method is one of Socrates' most enduring contributions, and is a key factor in earning his mantle as the father of political philosophy, ethics or moral philosophy, and as a figurehead of all the central themes in Western philosophy. To illustrate the use of the Socratic method; a series of questions are posed to help a person or group to determine their underlying beliefs and the extent of their knowledge. The Socratic method is a negative method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions. It was designed to force one to examine one's own beliefs and the validity of such beliefs. In fact, Socrates once said, "I know you won't believe me, but the highest form of Human Excellence is to question oneself and others."[17] Philosophical beliefs The beliefs of Socrates, as distinct from those of Plato, are difficult to discern. Little in the way of concrete evidence exists to demarcate the two. The lengthy theories given in most of the dialogues are those of Plato, and some scholars think Plato so adapted the Socratic style as to make the literary character and the philosopher himself impossible to distinguish. Others argue that he did have his own theories and beliefs, but there is much controversy over what these might have been, owing to the difficulty of separating Socrates from Plato and the difficulty of interpreting even the dramatic writings concerning Socrates. Consequently, distinguishing the philosophical beliefs of Socrates from those of Plato and Xenophon is not easy and it must be remembered that what is attributed to Socrates might more closely reflect the specific concerns of these thinkers. The matter is complicated because the historical Socrates seems to have been notorious for asking questions but not answering, claiming to lack wisdom concerning the subjects about which he questioned others.[18] If anything in general can be said about the philosophical beliefs of Socrates, it is that he was morally, intellectually, and politically at odds with his fellow Athenians. When he is on trial for heresy and corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens, he uses his method of elenchos to demonstrate to the jurors that their moral values are wrong-headed. He tells them they are concerned with their families, careers, and political responsibilities when they ought to be worried about the "welfare of their souls". Socrates' belief in the immortality of the soul, and his conviction that the gods had singled him out as a divine emissary seemed to provoke, if not ridicule, at least annoyance. Socrates also questioned the Sophistic doctrine that arete (virtue) can be taught. He liked to observe that successful fathers (such as the prominent military general Pericles) did not produce sons of their own quality. Socrates argued that moral excellence was more a matter of divine bequest than parental nurture. This belief may have contributed to his lack of anxiety about the future of his own sons. Socrates frequently says his ideas are not his own, but his teachers'. He mentions several influences: Prodicus the rhetor and Anaxagoras the scientist. Perhaps surprisingly, Socrates claims to have been deeply influenced by two women besides his mother: he says that Diotima, a witch and priestess from Mantinea, taught him all he knows about eros, or love; and that Aspasia, the mistress of Pericles, taught him the art of rhetoric.[19] John Burnet argued that his principal teacher was the Anaxagorean Archelaus but his ideas were as Plato described them; Eric A. Havelock, on the other hand, considered Socrates' association with the Anaxagoreans to be evidence of Plato's philosophical separation from Socrates. Socratic Paradoxes Many of the beliefs traditionally attributed to the historical Socrates have been characterized as "paradoxal" because they seem to conflict with common sense. The following are among the so-called Socratic Paradoxes:[20] * No one desires evil. * No one errs or does wrong willingly or knowingly. * Virtue - all virtue - is knowledge. * Virtue is sufficient for happiness. The phrase Socratic paradox can also refer to a self-referential paradox, originating in Socrates' phrase, "I know that I know nothing".[21] Knowledge One of the best known sayings of Socrates is "I only know that I know nothing". The conventional interpretation of this remark is that Socrates' wisdom was limited to an awareness of his own ignorance. Socrates believed wrongdoing was a consequence of ignorance and those who did wrong knew no better. The one thing Socrates consistently claimed to have knowledge of was "the art of love", which he connected with the concept of "the love of wisdom", i.e., philosophy. He never actually claimed to be wise, only to understand the path a lover of wisdom must take in pursuing it. It is debatable whether Socrates believed humans (as opposed to gods like Apollo) could actually become wise. On the one hand, he drew a clear line between human ignorance and ideal knowledge; on the other, Plato's Symposium (Diotima's Speech) and Republic (Allegory of the Cave) describe a method for ascending to wisdom. In Plato's Theaetetus (150a) Socrates compares himself to a true matchmaker (προμνηστικός promnestikós), as distinguished from a panderer (προᾰγωγός proagogos). This distinction is echoed in Xenophon's Symposium (3.20), when Socrates jokes about his certainty of being able to make a fortune, if he chose to practice the art of pandering. For his part as a philosophical interlocutor, he leads his respondent to a clearer conception of wisdom, although he claims he is not himself a teacher (Apology). His role, he claims, is more properly to be understood as analogous to a midwife (μαῖα maia). Socrates explains that he is himself barren of theories, but knows how to bring the theories of others to birth and determine whether they are worthy or mere "wind eggs" (ἀνεμιαῖον anemiaion). Perhaps significantly, he points out that midwives are barren due to age, and women who have never given birth are unable to become midwives; they would have no experience or knowledge of birth and would be unable to separate the worthy infants from those that should be left on the hillside to be exposed. To judge this, the midwife must have experience and knowledge of what she is judging. Virtue Socrates believed the best way for people to live was to focus on self-development rather than the pursuit of material wealth.[citation needed] He always invited others to try to concentrate more on friendships and a sense of true community, for Socrates felt this was the best way for people to grow together as a populace.[citation needed] His actions lived up to this: in the end, Socrates accepted his death sentence when most thought he would simply leave Athens, as he felt he could not run away from or go against the will of his community; as mentioned above, his reputation for valor on the battlefield was without reproach. The idea that humans possessed certain virtues formed a common thread in Socrates' teachings. These virtues represented the most important qualities for a person to have, foremost of which were the philosophical or intellectual virtues. Socrates stressed that "virtue was the most valuable of all possessions; the ideal life was spent in search of the Good. Truth lies beneath the shadows of existence, and it is the job of the philosopher to show the rest how little they really know."[citation needed] Politics It is often argued that Socrates believed "ideals belong in a world only the wise man can understand",[citation needed] making the philosopher the only type of person suitable to govern others. In Plato's dialogue the Republic, Socrates was in no way subtle about his particular beliefs on government. He openly objected to the democracy that ran Athens during his adult life. It was not only Athenian democracy: Socrates objected to any form of government that did not conform to his ideal of a perfect republic led by philosophers, and Athenian government was far from that. It is, however, possible that the Socrates of Plato's Republic is colored by Plato's own views. During the last years of Socrates' life, Athens was in continual flux due to political upheaval. Democracy was at last overthrown by a junta known as the Thirty Tyrants, led by Plato's relative, Critias, who had been a student of Socrates. The Tyrants ruled for about a year before the Athenian democracy was reinstated, at which point it declared an amnesty for all recent events. Socrates' opposition to democracy is often denied, and the question is one of the biggest philosophical debates when trying to determine exactly what Socrates believed. The strongest argument of those who claim Socrates did not actually believe in the idea of philosopher kings is that the view is expressed no earlier than Plato's Republic, which is widely considered one of Plato's "Middle" dialogues and not representative of the historical Socrates' views. Furthermore, according to Plato's Apology of Socrates, an "early" dialogue, Socrates refused to pursue conventional politics; he often stated he could not look into other's matters or tell people how to live their lives when he did not yet understand how to live his own. He believed he was a philosopher engaged in the pursuit of Truth, and did not claim to know it fully. Socrates' acceptance of his death sentence, after his conviction by the Boule (Senate), can also be seen to support this view. It is often claimed much of the anti-democratic leanings are from Plato, who was never able to overcome his disgust at what was done to his teacher. In any case, it is clear Socrates thought the rule of the Thirty Tyrants was at least as objectionable as Democracy; when called before them to assist in the arrest of a fellow Athenian, Socrates refused and narrowly escaped death before the Tyrants were overthrown. He did however fulfill his duty to serve as Prytanis when a trial of a group of Generals who presided over a disastrous naval campaign were judged; even then he maintained an uncompromising attitude, being one of those who refused to proceed in a manner not supported by the laws, despite intense pressure.[22] Judging by his actions, he considered the rule of the Thirty Tyrants less legitimate than the Democratic Senate that sentenced him to death. Mysticism In the Dialogues of Plato, Socrates often seems to support a mystical side, discussing reincarnation and the mystery religions; however, this is generally attributed to Plato[citation needed]. Regardless, this cannot be dismissed out of hand, as we cannot be sure of the differences between the views of Plato and Socrates; in addition, there seem to be some corollaries in the works of Xenophon. In the culmination of the philosophic path as discussed in Plato's Symposium and Republic, one comes to the Sea of Beauty or to the sight of the form of the Good in an experience akin to mystical revelation; only then can one become wise. (In the Symposium, Socrates credits his speech on the philosophic path to his teacher, the priestess Diotima, who is not even sure if Socrates is capable of reaching the highest mysteries.) In the Meno, he refers to the Eleusinian Mysteries, telling Meno he would understand Socrates' answers better if only he could stay for the initiations next week. Further confusions result from the nature of these sources, insofar as the Platonic Dialogues are arguably the work of an artist-philosopher, whose meaning does not volunteer itself to the passive reader nor again the lifelong scholar. Plato himself was a playwright before taking up the study of philosophy. His works are, indeed, dialogues; Plato's choice of this, the medium of Sophocles, Euripides, and the fictions of theatre, may reflect the interpretable nature of his writings. What is more, the first word of nearly all Plato's works is a, or the, significant term for that respective study, and is used with the commonly approved definition in mind. Finally, the Phaedrus and the Symposium each allude to Socrates' coy delivery of philosophic truths in conversation; the Socrates of the Phaedrus goes so far as to demand such dissembling and mystery in all writing. The mysticism we often find in Plato, appearing here and there and couched in some enigmatic tract of symbol and irony, is often at odds with the mysticism Plato's Socrates expounds in some other dialogue. These mystical resolutions to hitherto rigorous inquiries and analyses fail to satisfy caring readers, without fail. Whether they would fail to satisfy readers who understood them is another question, and will not, in all probability, ever be resolved. Perhaps the most interesting facet of this is Socrates' reliance on what the Greeks called his "daemonic sign", an averting (ἀποτρεπτικός apotreptikos) inner voice Socrates heard only when he was about to make a mistake. It was this sign that prevented Socrates from entering into politics. In the Phaedrus, we are told Socrates considered this to be a form of "divine madness", the sort of insanity that is a gift from the gods and gives us poetry, mysticism, love, and even philosophy itself. Alternately, the sign is often taken to be what we would call "intuition"; however, Socrates' characterization of the phenomenon as "daemonic" suggests its origin is divine, mysterious, and independent of his own thoughts. Satirical playwrights He was prominently lampooned in Aristophanes' comedy The Clouds, produced when Socrates was in his mid-forties; he said at his trial (according to Plato) that the laughter of the theater was a harder task to answer than the arguments of his accusers. Søren Kierkegaard believed this play was a more accurate representation of Socrates than those of his students. In the play, Socrates is ridiculed for his dirtiness, which is associated with the Laconizing fad; also in plays by Callias, Eupolis, and Telecleides. Other comic poets who lampooned Socrates include Mnesimachus and Ameipsias. In all of these, Socrates and the Sophists were criticised for "the moral dangers inherent in contemporary thought and literature". Prose sources Plato, Xenophon, and Aristotle are the main sources for the historical Socrates; however, Xenophon and Plato were direct disciples of Socrates, and presumably, they idealize him; however, they wrote the only continuous descriptions of Socrates that have come down to us. Aristotle refers frequently, but in passing, to Socrates in his writings. Almost all of Plato's works center around Socrates. However, Plato's later works appear to be more his own philosophy put into the mouth of his mentor. The Socratic dialogues The Socratic Dialogues are a series of dialogues written by Plato and Xenophon in the form of discussions between Socrates and other persons of his time, or as discussions between Socrates' followers over his concepts. Plato's Phaedo is an example of this latter category. Although his Apology is a monologue delivered by Socrates, it is usually grouped with the Dialogues. The Apology professes to be a record of the actual speech Socrates delivered in his own defense at the trial. In the Athenian jury system, an "apology" is composed of three parts: a speech, followed by a counter-assessment, then some final words. "Apology" is a transliteration, not a translation, of the Greek apologia, meaning "defense"; in this sense it is not apologetic according to our contemporary use of the term. Plato generally does not place his own ideas in the mouth of a specific speaker; he lets ideas emerge via the Socratic Method, under the guidance of Socrates. Most of the dialogues present Socrates applying this method to some extent, but nowhere as completely as in the Euthyphro. In this dialogue, Socrates and Euthyphro go through several iterations of refining the answer to Socrates' question, "...What is the pious, and what the impious?" In Plato's Dialogues, learning appears as a process of remembering. The soul, before its incarnation in the body, was in the realm of Ideas (very similar to the Platonic "Forms"). There, it saw things the way they truly are, rather than the pale shadows or copies we experience on earth. By a process of questioning, the soul can be brought to remember the ideas in their pure form, thus bringing wisdom. Especially for Plato's writings referring to Socrates, it is not always clear which ideas brought forward by Socrates (or his friends) actually belonged to Socrates and which of these may have been new additions or elaborations by Plato - this is known as the Socratic Problem. Generally, the early works of Plato are considered to be close to the spirit of Socrates, whereas the later works - including Phaedo and the Republic - are considered to be possibly products of Plato's elaborations. Legacy Immediate influence Immediately, the students of Socrates set to work both on exercising their perceptions of his teachings in politics and also on developing many new philosophical schools of thought. Some of Athens' controversial and anti-democratic tyrants were contemporary or posthumous students of Socrates including Alcibiades and Critias. Critias' cousin, Plato would go on to found the Academy in 385 BC, which gained so much notoriety that 'Academy' became the base word for educational institutions in later European languages such as English, French, and Italian. Plato's protege, another important figure of the Classical era, Aristotle went on to tutor Alexander the Great and also to found his own school in 335 BC- the Lyceum, whose name also now means an educational institution. While Socrates was shown to demote the importance of institutional knowledge like mathematics or science in relation to the human condition in his Dialogues, Plato would emphasize it with metaphysical overtones mirroring that of Pythagoras - the former who would dominate Western thought well into the Renaissance. Aristotle himself was as much of a philosopher as he was a scientist with rudimentary work in the fields of biology and physics. Socratic thought along the lines of challenging conventions, especially in stressing a simplistic way of living, became divorced from Plato's more detached and philosophical pursuits but was inherited heavily by one of Socrates' older and diehard students, Antisthenes who became another originator of a philosophy in the years after Socrates' death - Cynicism. Antisthenes attacked Plato and Alcibiades over what he deemed as their betrayal of Socrates' tenets in his writings. The idea of asceticism being hand in hand with an ethical life or one with piety, ignored by Plato and Aristotle and somewhat dealt with by the Cynics, formed the core of another philosophy in 281 BC - Stoicism when Zeno of Citium would discover Socrates' works and then learn from Crates, a Cynic philosopher. None of the schools however, would inherit his tendency to openly associate with and respect women or the regular citizen. Later historical effects While some of the later contributions of Socrates to Hellenistic Era culture and philosophy as well as the Roman Era have been lost to time, his teachings began a resurgence in both medieval Europe and the Islamic Middle East alongside those of Aristotle and Stoicism. Socrates is mentioned in the dialogue Kuzari by Jewish philosopher and rabbi Yehuda Halevi in which a Jew instructs the Khazar king about Judaism. al-Kindi, a well-known Arabic philosopher, introduced and tried to reconcile Socrates and Hellenistic philosophy to an Islamic audience. Socrates' stature in Western philosophy returned in full force with the Renaissance and the Age of Reason in Europe when political theory began to resurface under those like Locke and Hobbes. Voltaire even went so far as to write a satirical play about the Trial of Socrates. There were a number of paintings about his life including Socrates Tears Alcibiades from the Embrace of Sensual Pleasure by Jean-Baptiste Regnault and The Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David in the later 18th Century. To this day, the Socratic Method is still used in classroom and law school discourse to expose underlying issues in both subject and the speaker. He has been rewarded with accolades ranging from numerous mentions in pop culture such as the movie Bill and Ted's Excellent Adventure and a Greek rock band to numerous busts in academic institutions in recognition of his contribution to education. Criticism Evaluation and reaction to Socrates has been undertaken with both historical and philosophical inquiry from the time of his death to the present day with a multitude of conclusions and perspectives. One of the initial criticisms levied against the philosopher was presented at his trial - that he was not the proponent of a philosophy but an individual with a method of undermining the fabric of Athenian society, a charge carried by the 500-man jury of Athenians that sentenced him to death. Although he was not directly prosecuted for his connection to Critias, leader of the Spartan-backed Thirty Tyrants, he was seen as a controversial figure, who mentored oligarchs who became abusive tyrants, and undermined Athenian democracy. The Sophist establishment he railed at in life survived him, but by the 3rd Century BC, was rapidly overtaken by the many philosophical schools of thought that Socrates influenced. Socrates' death is considered iconic and his status as a martyr of philosophy overshadowed most contemporary and posthumous criticism at the time. However, Xenophon attempts to explain that Socrates purposely welcomed the hemlock due to his old age using the arguably self-destructive testimony to the jury as evidence. Direct criticism of Socrates almost disappears at this point, but there is a noticeable preference for Plato or Aristotle over the elements of Socratic philosophy distinct from those of his students, even into the Middle Ages. Modern scholarship holds that, with so much of the philosopher obscured and possibly altered by Plato, it is impossible to gain a clear picture of Socrates amidst all the seeming contradictions. That both Cynicism and Stoicism, which carried heavy influence from Socratic thought, were unlike or even contrary to Platonism further illustrates this. The ambiguity and lack of reliability serves as the modern basis of criticism - that it is near impossible to know the real Socrates. Some controversy also exists about claims of Socrates exempting himself from the homosexual customs of Ancient Greece and not believing in the Olympian gods to the point of being monotheistic or if this was an attempt by later Medieval scholars to reconcile him with the morals of the era. However, it is still commonly taught and held with little exception that Socrates is the founder of modern Western philosophy, to the point that philosophers before him are referred to as pre-Socratic. Ahmadiyya Viewpoint Mirza Tahir Ahmad (the fourth Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community) argued in his book Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth that Socrates was a prophet of the ancient Greeks. The apparent prophetic qualities of Socrates are indeed a subject for debate [23]. His constant reference to the oracle and how it performs the active function of a moral compass by preventing him from unseemly acts could easily be taken as a reference to - or substitute for revelation. Similarly, Socrates often refers to God in the singular as opposed to the plural and actively rejected the Greek pantheon of Gods and Goddesses unless citing them as examples of their falseness. [6].

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Socrătes in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

An Athenian philosopher, whose teaching revolutionized the whole drift of subsequent philosophical speculation. He was born in the deme Alopecé, near Athens, B.C. 469. His father, Sophroniscus, was a sculptor, and his mother, Phaenareté, was a midwife. In his youth Socrates for a time followed his father's occupation, and a group of sculptured Graces, preserved in the Acropolis, was exhibited as his work down to the time of Pausanias; but there is reason to believe that this arose from a confusion of names. It is thought by some that the relief of draped Graces in the Museo Chiaramonte in Rome represents the Athenian group, in which case it must have belonged to an earlier period of art than the century in which Socrates lived. The personal qualities of Socrates were marked, and such as would readily attract attention. He enjoyed vigorous health, and was so robust as to be capable of enduring fatigue and hardship to a degree that astonished all who knew him. He went barefooted at all seasons of the year; and this not merely at Athens, but when serving as a soldier in the much colder climate of Thrace; and he wore the same clothing in winter as in summer. His features were of remarkable ugliness; and his flat nose, thick lips, and bulging eyes led to his being compared to a satyr. As to the particulars of his life, there is no connected account. It is known that he served as a heavy-armed soldier at Potidaea, Delium, and Amphipolis; but he seems not to have filled any public office until B.C. 406, when he was a member of the Senate of Five Hundred, and as such refused, in spite of all personal risk, to put an unconstitutional question to vote. He displayed the same moral courage in refusing to obey the order of the Thirty Tyrants for the arrest of Leon of Salamis. From the period of his middle life, at any rate, he devoted his time wholly to the self-imposed task of teaching, giving up all other business, both public and private, and neglecting all means of acquiring a fortune. It was probably his remissness in this respect which was responsible for the ill-temper and fretfulness of his wife Xanthippé, whose name has passed into all modern tongues as the type of a shrew. Socrates never opened a school and never lectured publicly, nor did he receive any money for his teaching, but went about in the most public parts of the city, such as the market-place, the gymnasia, and the work-shops, seeking opportunities for awakening in the young and old alike moral consciousness and an impulse towards self-knowledge with respect to the end and value of human action. His object, however, was only to aid those with whom he talked in developing such germs of knowledge as were already present in them, and not to communicate to them dogmatically any knowledge of his own. He was especially severe upon false pretences and intellectual conceit; and, consequently, to many persons he became exceedingly obnoxious, and was the object of much dislike and misrepresentation. This is probably the reason why Aristophanes, in The Clouds, selected Socrates as the type of men engaged in philosophical and rhetorical teaching; the more so, as his grotesque physiognomy admitted so well of being imitated in the mask which the actor wore. The audience at the theatre would more readily recognize the peculiar figure which they were accustomed to see every day in the market-place than if Prodicus or Protagoras, whom most of them did not know by sight, had been brought on the stage; nor was it of much importance either to them or to Aristophanes whether Socrates was represented as teaching what he did really teach, or something utterly different. Attached to none of the prevailing parties, Socrates found in each of them his friends and his enemies. Hated and persecuted by Critias , Charicles, and others among the Thirty Tyrants, who had a special reference to him in the decree which they issued, forbidding the teaching of the art of oratory, he was impeached after their banishment and by their opponents. An orator named Lycon, and a poet (a friend of Thrasybulus) named Meletus, had united in the impeachment with the powerful demagogue Anytus, an embittered antagonist of the Sophists and their system, and one of the leaders of the band which, setting out from Phylé, forced their way into the Piraeus, and drove out the Thirty Tyrants. The judges also are described as persons who had been banished, and who had returned with Thrasybulus. The chief articles of impeachment were that Socrates was guilty of corrupting the youth and of despising the tutelary deities of the State, putting in their place other new divinities. At the same time it had been made a matter of accusation against him that Critias , the most ruthless of the Tyrants, had come forth from his school. Some expressions of his, in which he had found fault with the democratic mode of electing by lot, had also been brought up against him; and there can be little doubt that use was made of his friendly relations with Theramenes, one of the most influential of the Thirty, with Plato's uncle Charmides, who fell by the side of Critias in the struggle with the popular party, and with other aristocrats, in order to irritate against him the party which at that time was dominant. The substance of the speech which Socrates delivered in his defence is probably preserved by Plato in the discourse which goes under the name of the "Apology of Socrates." Being condemned by a majority of only six votes, he expresses the conviction that he deserved to be maintained at the public cost in the Prytaneum, and refuses to acquiesce in the adjudication of imprisonment or a large fine or banishment. He will assent to nothing more than a fine of sixty minae, on the security of Plato, Crito , and other friends. Condemned to death by the judges, who were incensed by this speech, by a majority of eighty votes, he departs from them with the protestation that he would rather die after such a defence than live after one in which he should have endeavoured to excite their pity. The sentence of death could not be carried into execution until after the return of the vessel which had been sent to Delos on the periodical Theoric mission. The thirty days which intervened between its return and the condemnation of Socrates were devoted by him in prison to poetic attempts (the first he had made in his life) and to his usual conversation with his friends. One of these conversations, on the duty of obedience to the laws, Plato has reported in the Crito, so called after the faithful follower of Socrates, who had endeavoured without success to persuade him to make his escape. In another, imitated or worked up by Plato in the Phaedo, Socrates immediately before he drank the cup of hemlock developed the grounds of his immovable conviction of the immortality of the soul. He died with composure and cheerfulness in his seventieth year, B.C. 399. Three peculiarities distinguished Socrates: (a) His long life passed in contented poverty and in public dialectics, of which we have already spoken. (b) His persuasion of a special religious mission. He had been accustomed constantly to hear, even from his childhood, a divine voice- interfering, at moments when he was about to act, in the way of restraint, but never in the way of instigation. Such prohibitory warning was wont to come upon him very frequently, not merely on great but even on small occasions, intercepting what he was about to do or to say. Though later writers speak of this as the Daemon or Genius of Socrates, he himself did not personify it, but treated it merely as a "divine sign, a prophetic or supernatural voice." He was accustomed not only to obey it implicitly, but to speak of it publicly and familiarly to others, so that the fact was well known both to his friends and to his enemies. See a paper by H. Jackson in the English Journal of Philology, vol. v., and Freymüller, De Socratis Daemonio (1864). (c) His great intellectual originality, both of subject and of method, and his power of stirring and forcing the germ of inquiry and ratiocination in others. He was the first who turned his thoughts and discussions distinctly to the subject of ethics, and was the first to proclaim that "the proper study of mankind is man." With the philosophers who preceded him, the subject of examination had been Nature, or the Cosmos as one undistinguishable whole, blending together cosmogony, astronomy, geometry, physics, metaphysics, etc. In discussing ethical subjects Socrates employed the dialectic method, and thus laid the foundation of formal logic, which was afterwards expanded by Plato and systematized by Aristotle. The originality of Socrates is shown by the results he achieved. Out of his intellectual school sprang not merely Plato, himself a host, but all the other leaders of Grecian speculation for the next half century, and all those who continued the great line of speculative philosophy down to later times. Euclid and the Megaric School of philosophers-Aristippus and the Cyrenaic Antisthenes and Diogenes, the first of those called the Cynics-all emanated more or less directly from the stimulus imparted by Socrates, and so, for that matter, did the Stoics and Epicureans, though each followed a different vein of thought. Ethics continued to be what Socrates had first made them -a distinct branch of philosophy-alongside of which politics, rhetoric, logic, and other speculations relating to man and society gradually arranged themselves; all of them more popular, as well as more keenly controverted, than physics, which at that time presented comparatively little charm, and still less of attainable certainty. There can be no doubt that the individual influence of Socrates permanently enlarged the horizon, improved the method, and multiplied the ascendant minds, of the Grecian speculative world, in a manner never since paralleled. Subsequent philosophers had a more elaborate doctrine and a larger number of disciples who imbibed their ideas; but none of them applied the same stimulating method with the same efficacy, and none of them so struck out of other minds that fire which sets light to original thought. See Zeller, Socrates and the Socratic Schools, Engl. trans. (1877); Alberti, Sokrates (1869); Bertram, Der Sokrates d. Xenoph. und Aristoph. (1865); Carran, La Sophistique de Socrate (1886); Guttmann, Ueber den wissenschaftlichen Standpunkt des Sokrates (1881). The best ancient sources are Xenophon's Memorabilia and Symposium, with Plato's Crito, Symposium, Apologia, and Phaedo. See Philosophia.

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Solon in Wikipedia

Solon (ancient Greek: Σόλων, c. 638 BC–558 BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet. He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, economic and moral decline in archaic Athens. His reforms failed in the short term yet he is often credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy. [2][3][4][5] Knowledge of Solon is limited by the lack of documentary and archeological evidence covering Athens in the early 6th century BC.[6][7] He wrote poetry for pleasure, as patriotic propaganda, and in defence of his constitutional reforms. His works only survive in fragments. They appear to feature interpolations by later authors and it is possible that fragments have been wrongly attributed to him (see Solon the reformer and poet). Ancient authors such as Herodotus and Plutarch are the main source of information, yet they wrote about Solon hundreds of years after his death - and this was at a time when history was by no means an academic discipline (see for example Anecdotes). Fourth century orators, such as Aeschines, tended to attribute to Solon all the laws of their own, much later times.[8] Archaeology reveals glimpses of Solon's period in the form of fragmentary inscriptions but little else. For some scholars, our 'knowledge' of Solon and his times is largely a fictive construct based on insufficient evidence[9][10] while others believe a substantial body of real knowledge is still attainable.[11] Solon and his times can appear particularly interesting to students of history as a test of the limits and nature of historical argument.[12] Background to Solon's reforms During Solon's time, many Greek city-states had seen the emergence of tyrants, opportunistic noblemen who had grabbed power on behalf of sectional interests. In Sicyon, Cleisthenes had usurped power on behalf of an Ionian minority. In Megara, Theagenes had come to power as an enemy of the local oligarchs. The son-in-law of Theagenes, an Athenian nobleman named Cylon, made an unsuccessful attempt to seize power in Athens in 632 BC. Solon, on the other hand, appears to have been temporarily awarded autocratic powers by his fellow citizens on the grounds that he had the wisdom to sort out their differences for them in a peaceful and equitable manner.[13] According to ancient sources,[14][15] he obtained these powers when he was elected eponymous archon (594/3 BC). Some modern scholars believe these powers were in fact granted some years after Solon had been archon, when he would have been a member of the Areopagus and probably a more respected statesman by his (aristocratic) peers.[16][17][18] The social and political upheavals that characterised Athens in Solon's time have been variously interpreted by historians from ancient times to the present day. Two contemporary historians have identified three distinct historical accounts of Solon's Athens, emphasizing quite different rivalries: economic and ideological rivalry, regional rivalry and rivalry between aristocratic clans.[19][20] These different accounts provide a convenient basis for an overview of the issues involved. * Economic and ideological rivalry is a common theme in ancient sources. This sort of account emerges from Solon's poems (e.g. see below Solon the reformer and poet), in which he casts himself in the role of a noble mediator between two intemperate and unruly factions. This same account is substantially taken up about three centuries later by the author of the Athenaion Politeia but with an interesting variation: "...there was conflict between the nobles and the common people for an extended period. For the constitution they were under was oligarchic in every respect and especially in that the poor, along with their wives and children, were in slavery to the rich...All the land was in the hands of a few. And if men did not pay their rents, they themselves and their children were liable to be seized as slaves. The security for all loans was the debtor's person up to the time of Solon. He was the first champion of the people."[21] Here Solon is presented as a partisan in a democratic cause whereas, judged from the viewpoint of his own poems, he was instead a mediator between rival factions. A still more significant variation in the ancient historical account appears in the writing of Plutarch in the late 1st-early 2nd century AD: 'Athens was torn by recurrent conflict about the constitution. The city was divided into as many parties as there were geographical divisions in its territory. For the party of the people of the hills was most in favour of democracy, that of the people of the plain was most in favour of oligarchy, while the third group, the people of the coast, which preferred a mixed form of constitution somewhat between the other two, formed an obstruction and prevented the other groups from gaining control.'[22] The ancient historical account here demonstrates a more sophisticated understanding of political process - what were two sides in Solon's account have now become three parties, each with a regional base and a constitutional platform. Plutarch then goes on to repeat the usual ancient account with its brutal landlords on one side and wretched tenants on the other. But how does this melodramatic struggle between haves and have-nots fit into a picture of three regional groupings? * Regional rivalry is a theme commonly found among modern scholars.[23][24][25][26] 'The new picture which emerged was one of strife between regional groups, united by local loyalties and led by wealthy landowners. Their goal was control of the central government at Athens and with it dominance over their rivals from other districts of Attika.'[27] Regional factionalism was inevitable in a relatively large territory such as Athens possessed. In most Greek city states, a farmer could conveniently reside in town and travel to and from his fields every day. According to Thucydides, on the other hand, most Athenians continued to live in rural settlements right up until the Peloponnesian War.[28] The effects of regionalism in a large territory could be seen in Laconia, where Sparta had gained control through intimidation and resettlement of some of its neighbours and enslavement of the rest. Attika in Solon's time seemed to be moving towards a similarly ugly solution with many citizens in danger of being reduced to the status of helots.[29] * Rivalry between clans is a theme recently developed by some scholars, based on an appreciation of the political significance of kinship groupings.[30][31][32][33][34][35] According to this account, bonds of kinship rather than local loyalties were the decisive influence on events in archaic Athens. An Athenian belonged not only to a phyle or tribe and one of its subdivisions, the phratry or brotherhood, but also to an extended family, clan or genos. It has been argued that these interconnecting units of kinship reinforced a hierarchic structure with aristocratic clans at the top.[36][37] Thus rivalries between aristocratic clans could engage all levels of society irrespective of any regional ties. In that case, the struggle between rich and poor was the struggle between powerful aristocrats and the weaker affiliates of their rivals or perhaps even with their own rebellious affiliates. The historical account of Solon's Athens has evolved over many centuries into a set of contradictory stories or a complex story that might be interpreted in a variety of ways. As further evidence accumulates, and as historians continue to debate the issues, Solon's motivations and the intentions behind his reforms will continue to attract speculation (see for example John Bintliff's 'Solon's Reforms: an archaeological perspective': [38] and other essays published with it[39]). Solon's reforms Solon's laws were inscribed on large wooden slabs or cylinders attached to a series of axles that stood upright in the Prytaneum. [40][41] These axones appear to have operated on the same principle as a Lazy Susan, allowing both convenient storage and ease of access. Originally the axones recorded laws enacted by Draco in the late 7th Century (traditionally 621 BC). Nothing of Draco's codification has survived except for a law relating to homicide, yet there is consensus among scholars that it did not amount to anything like a constitution. [42][43] Solon repealed all Draco's laws except those relating to homicide. [44] Fragments of the axones were still visible in Plutarch's time [45] but today the only records we have of Solon's laws are fragmentary quotes and comments in literary sources such as those written by Plutarch himself. Moreover, the language of his laws was archaic even by the standards of the fifth century and this caused interpretational problems for ancient commentators.[46] Modern scholars doubt the reliability of these sources and our knowledge of Solon's legislation is therefore actually very limited in its details. Generally, Solon's reforms appear to have been constitutional, economic and moral in their scope. This distinction, though somewhat artificial, does at least provide a convenient framework within which to consider the laws that have been attributed to Solon. Some short term consequences of his reforms are considered at the end of the section. Constitutional reform Previous to Solon's reforms, the Athenian state was administered by nine archons appointed or elected annually by the Areopagus on the basis of noble birth and wealth.[47][48] The Areopagus comprised former archons and it therefore had, in addition to the power of appointment, extraordinary influence as a consultative body. The nine archons took the oath of office while ceremonially standing on a stone in the agora, declaring their readiness to dedicate a golden statue if they should ever be found to have violated the laws.[49][50] There was an assembly of Athenian citizens (the Ekklesia) but the lowest class (the Thetes) was not admitted and its deliberative procedures were controlled by the nobles.[51] There therefore seemed to be no means by which an archon could be called to account for breach of oath unless the Areopagus favoured his prosecution. According to Aristotle, Solon legislated for all citizens to be admitted into the Ekklesia[52] and for a court (the Heliaia) to be formed from all the citizens.[53] The Heliaia appears to have been the Ekklesia, or some representative portion of it, sitting as a jury.[54][55] By giving common people the power not only to elect officials but also to call them to account, Solon appears to have established the foundations of a true democracy. However some scholars have doubted whether Solon actually included the Thetes in the Ekklesia, this being considered too bold a move for any aristocrat in the archaic period.[56] Ancient sources[57][58] credit Solon with the creation of a Council of Four Hundred, drawn from the four Athenian tribes to serve as a steering committee for the enlarged Ekklesia. However, many modern scholars have doubted this also.[59][60] There is consensus among scholars that Solon broadened the financial and social qualifications required for election to public office. The Solonian constitution divided citizens into four political classes defined according to assessable property[61][62] a classification that might previously have served the state for military or taxation purposes only.[63] The standard unit for this assessment was one medimnos (approximately 12 gallons) of cereals and yet the kind of classification set out below might be considered too simplistic to be historically accurate.[64] * Pentacosiomedimnoi o valued at 500 medimnoi of cereals annually. o eligible to serve as Strategoi (Generals) * Hippeis o valued at 300 medimnoi production annually. o approximating to the mediaeval class of knights, they had enough wealth to equip themselves for the Cavalry * Zeugitai o valued at a 200 medimnoi production annually. o approximating to the mediaeval class of Yeoman, they had enough wealth to equip themselves for the infantry (Hoplite) * Thetes o valued 199 medimnoi annually or less o manual workers or sharecroppers, they served voluntarily in the role of batman, or as auxiliaries armed for instance with the sling or as rowers in the Navy. According to Aristotle, only the Pentacosiomedimnoi were eligible for election to high office as archons and therefore only they gained admission into the Areopagus.[65] A modern view affords the same privilege to the hippeis.[66] The top three classes were eligible for a variety of lesser posts and only the Thetes were excluded from all public office. Depending on how we interpret the historical facts known to us, Solon's constitutional reforms were either a radical anticipation of democratic government, or they merely provided a plutocratic flavour to a stubbornly aristocratic regime, or else the truth lies somewhere between these two extremes. Economic reform Solon's economic reforms need to be understood in the context of the primitive, subsistence economy that prevailed both before and after his time. Most Athenians were still living in rural settlements right up to the Peloponnesian War. [67] Opportunities for trade even within the Athenian borders were limited. The typical farming family, even in classical times, barely produced enough to satisfy its own needs. [68] Opportunities for international trade were minimal. It has been estimated that, even in Roman times, goods rose 40% in value for every 100 miles they were carried over land, but only 1.3% for the same distance they were carried by ship [69] and yet there is no evidence that Athens possessed any merchant ships until around 525 BC.[70] Until then, the narrow warship doubled as a cargo vessel. Athens, like other Greek city states in the 7th Century BC, was faced with increasing population pressures [71] and by about 525 BC it was able to feed itself only in 'good years'.[72] Solon's reforms can thus be seen to have taken place at a crucial period of economic transition, when a subsistence rural economy increasingly required the support of a nascent commercial sector. The specific economic reforms credited to Solon are these: * Fathers were encouraged to find trades for their sons; if they did not, there would be no legal requirement for sons to maintain their fathers in old age.[73] * Foreign tradesmen were encouraged to settle in Athens; those who did would be granted citizenship, provided they brought their families with them.[74] * Cultivation of olives was encouraged; the export of all other produce was prohibited.[75] * Competitiveness of Athenian commerce was promoted through revision of weights and measures, possibly based on successful standards already in use elsewhere, such as Aegina or Euboia[76][77] or, according to the ancient account but unsupported by modern scholarship, Argos[78] It is generally assumed, on the authority of ancient commentators [79][80] that Solon also reformed the Athenian coinage. However, recent numismatic studies now lead to the conclusion that Athens probably had no coinage until around 560 BC, well after Solon's reforms.[81] Solon's economic reforms succeeded in stimulating foreign trade. Athenian black-figure pottery was exported in increasing quantities and good quality throughout the Aegean between 600 BC and 560 BC, a success story that coincided with a decline in trade in Corinthian pottery.[82] The ban on the export of grain might be understood as a relief measure for the benefit of the poor. However, the encouragement of olive production for export could actually have led to increased hardship for many Athenians since it would have led to a reduction in the amount of land dedicated to grain. Moreover an olive produces no fruit for the first six years.[83] The real motives behind Solon's economic reforms are therefore as questionable as his real motives for constitutional reform. Were the poor being forced to serve the needs of a changing economy, or was the economy being reformed to serve the needs of the poor? Moral reform In his poems, Solon portrays Athens as being under threat from the unrestrained greed and arrogance of its citizens.[84] Even the earth (Gaia), the mighty mother of the gods, had been enslaved.[85] The visible symbol of this perversion of the natural and social order was a boundary marker called a horos, a wooden or stone pillar indicating that a farmer was in debt or under contractual obligation to someone else, either a noble patron or a creditor.[86] Up until Solon's time, land was the inalienable property of a family or clan [87] and it could not be sold or mortgaged. This was no disadvantage to a clan with large landholdings since it could always rent out farms in a sharecropping system. A family struggling on a small farm however could not use the farm as security for a loan even if it owned the farm. Instead the farmer would have to offer himself and his family as security, providing some form of slave labour in lieu of repayment. Equally, a family might voluntarily pledge part of its farm income or labour to a powerful clan in return for its protection. Farmers subject to these sorts of arrangements were loosely known as hektemoroi [88] indicating that they either paid or kept a sixth of a farm's annual yield.[89][90][91] In the event of 'bankruptcy', or failure to honour the contract stipulated by the horoi, farmers and their families could in fact be sold into slavery. Solon's reform of these injustices was later known and celebrated among Athenians as the Seisachtheia (shaking off of burdens).[92][93]. As with all his reforms, there is considerable scholarly debate about its real significance. Many scholars are content to accept the account given by the ancient sources, interpreting it as a cancellation of debts, while others interpret it as the abolition of a type of feudal relationship, and some prefer to explore new possibilities for interpretation.[94] The reforms included: * annulment of all contracts symbolised by the horoi.[95] * prohibition on a debtor's person being used as security for a loan.[96][97] * release of all Athenians who had been enslaved.[98] The removal of the horoi clearly provided immediate economic relief for the most oppressed group in Attica, and it also brought an immediate end to the enslavement of Athenians by their countrymen. Some Athenians had already been sold into slavery abroad and some had fled abroad to escape enslavement - Solon proudly records in verse the return of this diaspora.[99] It has been cynically observed, however, that few of these unfortunates were likely to have been recovered.[100] It has been observed also that the seisachtheia not only removed slavery and accumulated debt, it also removed the ordinary farmer's only means of obtaining further credit.[101] The seisachtheia however was merely one set of reforms within a broader agenda of moral reformation. Other reforms included: * the abolition of extravagant dowries.[102] * legislation against abuses within the system of inheritance, specifically with relation to the epikleros (i.e. a female who had no brothers to inherit her father's property and who was traditionally required to marry her nearest paternal relative in order to produce an heir to her father's estate).[103] * entitlement of any citizen to take legal action on behalf of another.[104][105] * the disenfranchisement of any citizen who might refuse to take up arms in times of civil strife, a measure that was intended to counteract dangerous levels of political apathy.[106][107][108][109][110] The personal modesty and frugality of the rich and powerful men of Athens in the city's subsequent golden age have been attested to by Demosthenes.[111] Perhaps Solon, by both personal example and legislated reform, established a precedent for this decorum. A heroic sense of civic duty later united Athenians against the might of the Persians. Perhaps this public spirit was instilled in them by Solon and his reforms. Also see Solon and Athenian sexuality The Aftermath of Solon's reforms After completing his work of reform, Solon surrendered his extraordinary authority and left the country. According to Herodotus [112] the country was bound by Solon to maintain his reforms for 10 years, whereas according to Plutarch [113] and the author of Athenaion Politeia [114] (reputedly Aristotle) the contracted period was instead 100 years. A modern scholar [115] considers the time-span given by Herodotus to be historically accurate because it fits the 10 years that Solon was said to have been absent from the country. [116] Within 4 years of Solon's departure, the old social rifts re-appeared, but with some new complications. There were irregularities in the new governmental procedures, elected officials sometimes refused to stand down from their posts and sometimes important posts were left vacant. It has even been said that some people blamed Solon for their troubles. [117] Eventually one of Solon's relatives, Pisistratus, ended the factionalism by force, thus instituting an unconstitutionally gained tyranny. In Plutarch's account, Solon accused Athenians of stupidity and cowardice for allowing this to happen.[118] Solon the reformer and poet Solon was the first of the Athenian poets whose work has survived to the present day. His verses have come down to us in fragmentary quotations by ancient authors such as Plutarch and Demosthenes [119] who used them to illustrate their own arguments. It is possible that some fragments have been wrongly attributed to him [120] and some scholars have detected interpolations by later authors. [121] The literary merit of Solon's verse is generally considered unexceptional. Solon the poet can be said to appear 'self-righteous' and 'pompous' at times [122] yet generally those were times when he was writing in the role of a political activist determined to assert personal authority and leadership. According to Plutarch [123] however, Solon originally wrote poetry for amusement, discussing pleasure in a popular rather than philosophical way. Solon's elegiac style is said to have been influenced by the example of Tyrtaeus.[124] He also wrote iambic and trochaic verses which, according to one modern scholar,[125] are more lively and direct than his elegies and possibly paved the way for the iambics of Athenian drama. Solon's verses are mainly significant for historical rather than aesthetic reasons, as a personal record of his reforms and attitudes. However, poetry is not an ideal genre for communicating facts and very little detailed information can be derived from the surviving fragments [126] According to Solon the poet, Solon the reformer was a voice for political moderation in Athens at a time when his fellow citizens were increasingly polarized by social and economic differences: πολλοὶ γὰρ πλουτεῦσι κακοί, ἀγαθοὶ δὲ πένονται: ἀλλ' ἡμεῖς αὐτοῖς οὐ διαμειψόμεθα τῆς ἀρετῆς τὸν πλοῦτον: ἐπεὶ τὸ μὲν ἔμπεδον αἰεί, χρήματα δ' ἀνθρώπων ἄλλοτε ἄλλος ἔχει. Some wicked men are rich, some good are poor; We will not change our virtue for their store: Virtue's a thing that none can take away, But money changes owners all the day.[127] Here translated by the English poet John Dryden, Solon's words define a 'moral high ground' where differences between rich and poor can be reconciled or maybe just ignored. His poetry indicates that he attempted to use his extraordinary legislative powers to establish a peaceful settlement between the country's rival factions: ἔστην δ' ἀμφιβαλὼν κρατερὸν σάκος ἀμφοτέροισι: νικᾶν δ' οὐκ εἴασ' οὐδετέρους ἀδίκως. Before them both I held my shield of might And let not either touch the other's right.[128] His attempts evidently were misunderstood: χαῦνα μὲν τότ' ἐφράσαντο, νῦν δέ μοι χολούμενοι λοξὸν ὀφθαλμοῖς ὁρῶσι πάντες ὥστε δήϊον. Formerly they boasted of me vainly; with averted eyes Now they look askance upon me; friends no more but enemies.[129] Solon gave voice to Athenian 'nationalism', particularly in the city state's struggle with Megara, its neighbour and rival in the Saronic Gulf. Plutarch professes admiration of Solon's elegy urging Athenians to recapture the island of Salamis from Megarian control.[130] The same poem was said by Diogenes Laertios [131] to have stirred Athenians more than any other verses that Solon wrote: Let us go to Salamis to fight for the island We desire, and drive away our bitter shame! [132] It is possible that Solon backed up this poetic bravado with true valour on the battlefield.[133] Solon and Athenian sexuality As a regulator of Athenian society, Solon, according to some authors, also formalized its sexual mores. According to a surviving fragment from a work ("Brothers") by the comic playwright Philemon,[134] Solon established publicly funded brothels at Athens in order to "democratize" the availability of sexual pleasure.[135] While the veracity of this comic account is open to doubt, at least one modern author considers it significant that in Classical Athens, three hundred or so years after the death of Solon, there existed a discourse that associated his reforms with an increased availability of heterosexual pleasure.[136] Ancient authors also say that Solon regulated pederastic relationships in Athens; this has been presented as an adaption of custom to the new structure of the polis.[137][138] According to various authors, ancient lawgivers (and therefore Solon by implication) drew up a set of laws that were intended to promote and safeguard the institution of pederasty and to control abuses against freeborn boys. In particular, the orator Aeschines cites laws excluding slaves from wrestling halls and forbidding them to enter pederastic relationships with the sons of citizens.[139] Accounts of Solon's laws by 4th Century orators like Aeschines, however, are considered unreliable for a number of reasons; [140][141][142] Attic pleaders did not hesitate to attribute to him (Solon) any law which suited their case, and later writers had no criterion by which to distinguish earlier from later works. Nor can any complete and authentic collection of his statutes have survived for ancient scholars to consult.[143] Besides the alleged legislative aspect of Solon's involvement with pederasty, there were also suggestions of personal involvement. According to some ancient authors Solon had taken the future tyrant Peisistratus as his eromenos. Aristotle, writing around 330BC, attempted to refute that belief, claiming that "those are manifestly talking nonsense who pretend that Solon was the lover of Peisistratus, for their ages do not admit of it," as Solon was about thirty years older than Peisistratus.[144] Nevertheless the tradition persisted. Four centuries later Plutarch ignored Aristotle's skepticism[145] and reported anecdotes such as the following: And they say Solon loved [Peisistratus]; and that is the reason, I suppose, that when afterwards they differed about the government, their enmity never produced any hot and violent passion, they remembered their old kindnesses, and retained "Still in its embers living the strong fire" of their love and dear affection.[146] A century after Plutarch, Aelian also said that Peistratus had been Solon's eromenos. Despite its persistence, however, it is not known whether the account is historical or fabricated. It has been suggested that the tradition presenting a peaceful and happy coexistence between Solon and Peisistratus was cultivated during the latter's dominion, in order to legitimize his own rule, as well as that of his sons. Whatever its source, later generations lent credence to the narrative.[147] Solon's presumed pederastic desire was thought in antiquity to have found expression also in his poetry, which is today represented only in a few surviving fragments.[148][149] The authenticity of all the poetic fragments attributed to Solon is however uncertain - in particular, pederastic aphorisms ascribed by some ancient sources to Solon have been ascribed by other sources to Theognis instead.[120] (See also Solon the reformer and poet.) Anecdotes Details about Solon's personal life have been passed down to us by ancient authors such as Plutarch and Herodotus. Herodotus is sometimes referred to both as 'the father of history' and 'the father of lies'.[150] Plutarch, by his own admission, did not write histories so much as biographies; he believed that a jest or a phrase could reveal more about a person's character than could a battle that cost thousands of lives.[151] A battle of course is a matter of historical record; a jest or a phrase is not. According to Plutarch, Solon was related to the tyrant Pisistratus (their mothers were cousins).[152] Solon's father Execestides could trace his ancestry back to Codrus, the last King of Athens. Solon's family belonged to a noble or Eupatrid clan yet it possessed only moderate wealth.[153] and Solon was therefore drawn into an unaristocratic pursuit of commerce.[154] According to Diogenes Laertius, he had a brother named Dropidas and was an ancestor (six generations removed) of Plato.[155] Solon was given leadership of the Athenian war against Megara on the strength of a poem he wrote about Salamis Island. Supported by Pisistratus, he defeated the Megarians either by means of a cunning trick [156] or more directly through heroic battle.[157] The Megarians however refused to give up their claim to the island. The dispute was referred to the Spartans, who eventually awarded possession of the island to Athens on the strength of the case that Solon put to them.[158] When he was archon, Solon discussed his intended reforms with some friends. Knowing that Solon was about to cancel all debts, these friends took out loans and promptly bought some land. Solon repaid these scandalous loans out of his own capital, amounting to 5 (or even 15) talents.[159] After he had finished his reforms, he travelled abroad. His first stop was Egypt. There he visited Heliopolis, where according to Plutarch he discussed philosophy with an Egyptian expert on the subject, Psenophis.[160] According to Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias, he visited Neith's temple at Sais and received from the priests there an account of the history of Atlantis. Next Solon sailed to Cyprus, where he oversaw the construction of a new capital for a local king, in gratitude for which the king named it Soloi.[161] Solon's travels finally brought him to Sardis, capital of Lydia. According to Herodotus and Plutarch, Solon met with Croesus and gave the Lydian king advice, which however Croesus failed to appreciate until it was too late. Croesus had considered himself to be the happiest man alive and Solon had advised him, "Count no man happy until he be dead", because at any minute, fortune might turn on even the happiest man and make his life miserable. It was not until after he had lost his kingdom to Cyrus, the Persian, that Croesus acknowledged the wisdom of Solon's advice.[162][163] After his return to Athens, Solon became a staunch opponent of Pisistratus. In protest and as an example to others, Solon stood outside his own home in full armour, urging all who passed to resist the machinations of the would-be tyrant. But his efforts were in vain. Solon died shortly after Pisistratus usurped by force the autocratic power that Athens had once freely bestowed upon him.[164] The travel writer, Pausanias, listed Solon among the seven sages whose aphorisms adorned Apollo's temple in Delphi.[165] Stobaeus in the Florilegium relates a story about a symposium, where Solon's young nephew was singing a poem of Sappho's; Solon, upon hearing the song, asked the boy to teach him to sing it. When someone asked, "Why should you waste your time on it?" Solon replied ἵνα μαθὼν αὐτὸ ἀποθάνω, "So that I may learn it then die."[166] Ammianus Marcellinus however told a similar story about Socrates and the poet Stesichorus, quoting the philosopher's rapture in almost identical terms: "ut aliquid sciens amplius e vita discedam".[167]

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Solōn in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Σόλων). A celebrated Athenian legislator, born about B.C. 638. His father Execestides was a descendant of Codrus, and his mother was a cousin of the mother of Pisistratus. Execestides had seriously crippled his resources by a too prodigal expenditure; and Solon consequently found it either necessary or convenient in his youth to betake himself to the life of a foreign trader. It is likely enough that while necessity compelled him to seek a livelihood in some mode or other, his active and inquiring spirit led him to select that pursuit which would furnish the amplest means for its gratification. Solon early distinguished himself by his poetical abilities. His first effusions were in a somewhat light and amatory strain, which afterwards gave way to the more dignified and earnest purpose of inculcating profound reflections or sage advice. So widely indeed did his reputation spread that he was ranked as one of the famous Seven Sages (q.v.), and his name appears in all the lists of the seven. The occasion which first brought Solon prominently forward as an actor on the political stage was the contest between Athens and Megara respecting the possession of Salamis. The ill success of the attempts of the Athenians to make themselves masters of the island had led to the enactment of a law forbidding the writing or saying anything to urge the Athenians to renew the attempt. Soon after these events (about 595) Solon took a leading part in promoting hostilities on behalf of Delphi against Cirrha, and was the mover of the decree of the Amphictyons by which war was declared. It does not appear, however, what active part he took in the war. According to a common story, which, however, rests only on the authority of a late writer, Solon hastened the surrender of the town by causing the waters of the Plistus to be poisoned. It was about the time of the outbreak of this war that, in consequence of the distracted condition of Attica, which was rent by civil commotions, Solon was called upon by all parties to mediate between them, and alleviate the miseries that prevailed. He was chosen archon in 594, and under that legal title was invested with unlimited power for adopting such measures as the exigencies of the State demanded. In fulfilment of the task intrusted to him, Solon addressed himself to the relief of the existing distress. This he effected with the greatest discretion and success by his celebrated "disburdening ordinance" (σεισάχθεια), a measure consisting of various distinct provisions, calculated to relieve the debtors with as little infringement as possible on the claims of the wealthy creditors. He also changed the standard of the monetary system from the Phidonian to the Euboic, which was the one generally in use in the great centres of commerce, Chalcis and Eretria, so that Athenian trade might be simplified in its exchanges (Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 10). A limit was also set to the rate of interest and to the accumulation of land (Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 6). The success of the Seisachtheia procured for Solon such confidence and popularity that he was further charged with the task of entirely remodelling the constitution. As a preliminary step, he repealed all the laws of Draco (q.v.), except those relating to bloodshed. The principal features of the Solonian Constitution may be briefly summarized for the benefit of the reader. The State as he left it was a timocracy (τιμοκρατία), that is to say, a form of oligarchy (ὀλιγαρχία) in which the possession of a certain amount of property is requisite for admission to the ruling class. (See Oligarchia.) Solon established a sort of timocratic scale, so that those who did not belong to the nobility received the rights of citizens in a proportion determined partly by their property and their corresponding services to the State. For this purpose he divided the population into four classes, founded on the possession of land.

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Soos in Wikipedia

Soos (ancient Greek: Σόος) was a partially mythological king of Sparta. According to Pausanias Son of Procles, father of Eurypon [1]. His name means stability a key concept for Spartan identity - such personifications of concepts are typical of orally transmitted lists.[2] During his rule Spartans took away freedom of Helots, and took to themselves some territories of Arcadia.[citation needed] Plutarch wrote that once Clitorians encircled Spartans, preventing their access to water sources. Soos made an agreement that he would return lands if they would be allowed access to water. Then he promised the kingdom to the soldier who would not drink. Every one of them drank except Soos himself, so he refused to keep the agreement.[3].

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Sophocles in Wikipedia

Sophocles (pronounced /ˈsɒfəkliːz/ Σοφοκλῆς Sophoklēs, his name was very likely pronounced [sopʰoklɛ̂ːs]; (c. 497/6 BCE - winter 406/5 BCE)[1] was the second of the three ancient Greek tragedians whose work has survived. His first plays were written later than those of Aeschylus and earlier than those of Euripides. According to the Suda, a 10th century encyclopedia, Sophocles wrote 123 plays during the course of his life, but only seven have survived in a complete form: Ajax, Antigone, Trachinian Women, Oedipus the King, Electra, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus.[2] For almost 50 years, Sophocles was the most-feted playwright in the dramatic competitions of the city-state of Athens that took place during the religious festivals of the Lenaea and the Dionysia. Sophocles competed in around 30 competitions; he won perhaps 24 and was never judged lower than second place; in comparison, Aeschylus won 14 competitions and was defeated by Sophocles at times, while Euripides won only 4 competitions.[3] The most famous of Sophocles' tragedies are those concerning Oedipus and Antigone: these are often known as the Theban plays, although each play was actually a part of different tetralogy, the other members of which are now lost. Sophocles influenced the development of the drama, most importantly by adding a third actor and thereby reducing the importance of the chorus in the presentation of the plot. He also developed his characters to a greater extent than earlier playwrights such as Aeschylus.[4] Life Sophocles, the son of Sophilos, was a wealthy member of the rural deme (small community) of Colonus Hippius in Attica, which would later become a setting for one of his plays, and he was probably born there.[1][5] His birth took place a few years before the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC: the exact year is unclear, although 497/6 is perhaps most likely.[1][6] Sophocles' first artistic triumph was in 468 BC, when he took first prize in the Dionysia theatre competition over the reigning master of Athenian drama, Aeschylus.[1][7] According to Plutarch the victory came under unusual circumstances. Instead of following the custom of choosing judges by lot, the archon asked Cimon and the other strategoi present to decide the victor of the contest. Plutarch further contends that Aeschylus soon left for Sicily following this loss to Sophocles.[8] Although Plutarch says that this was Sophocles' first production, it is now thought that this is an embellishment of the truth and that his first production was most likely in 470 BC.[5] Triptolemus was probably one of the plays that Sophocles presented at this festival.[5] Sophocles became a man of importance in the public halls of Athens as well as in the theatres. At the age of 16, he was chosen to lead the paean, a choral chant to a god, celebrating the decisive Greek sea victory over the Persians at the Battle of Salamis. The rather insufficient information about Sophocles’ civic life implies he was a well-liked man who participated in activities in society and showed remarkable artistic ability. He was also elected as one of ten strategoi, high executive officials that commanded the armed forces, as a junior colleague of Pericles. Sophocles was born extremely wealthy (his father was a wealthy armour manufacturer) and was highly educated throughout his entire life. Early in his career, the politician Cimon might have been one of his patrons, although if he was there was no ill will borne by Pericles, Cimon's rival, when Cimon was ostracized in 461 BC[1] In 443/2 he served as one of the Hellenotamiai, or treasurers of Athena, helping to manage the finances of the city during the political ascendancy of Pericles.[1] According to the Vita Sophoclis he served as a general in the Athenian campaign against Samos, which had revolted in 441 BC; he was supposed to have been elected to his post as the result of his production of Antigone.[9] In 420 he welcomed and set up an altar for the image of Asclepius at his house, when the deity was introduced to Athens. For this he was given the posthumous epithet Dexion (receiver) by the Athenians.[10] He was also elected, in 413 BC, to be one of the commissioners crafting a response to the catastrophic destruction of the Athenian expeditionary force in Sicily during the Peloponnesian War.[11] Sophocles died at the age of ninety or ninety-one in the winter of 406/5 BC, having seen within his lifetime both the Greek triumph in the Persian Wars and the terrible bloodletting of the Peloponnesian War.[1] As with many famous men in classical antiquity, Sophocles' death inspired a number of apocryphal stories about the cause. Perhaps the most famous is the suggestion that he died from the strain of trying to recite a long sentence from his Antigone without pausing to take a breath. Another account suggests he choked while eating grapes at the Anthesteria festival in Athens. A third account holds that he died of happiness after winning his final victory at the City Dionysia.[12] A few months later, the comic poet wrote this eulogy in his play titled The Muses: "Blessed is Sophocles, who had a long life, was a man both happy and talented, and the writer of many good tragedies; and he ended his life well without suffering any misfortune."[13] This is somewhat ironic, for according to some accounts his own sons tried to have him declared incompetent near the end of his life; he is said to have refuted their charge in court by reading from his as yet unproduced Oedipus at Colonus.[14] One of his sons, Iophon, and a grandson, also called Sophocles, both followed in his footsteps to become playwrights.[15] Sophocles as erastês It was common in fifth-century Greece for men of the upper classes to cultivate sexual relationships with adolescent boys. Sophocles was one such participant in the relationship between the erastês ("lover") and eromenos ("beloved").[16] Athenaeus reports two stories of this kind, one, if authentic, from a contemporary: a symposium in which Sophocles cleverly steals a kiss from the boy sitting next to him,[17] and another in which Sophocles entices a young boy to have sex outside the walls of Athens, and the boy takes Sophocles' cloak.[18] According to Plutarch, when he caught Sophocles admiring a young boy's looks, Pericles rebuked him for neglecting his duty as a strategos.[19] Sophocles' sexual appetite reportedly lasted well into old age. In The Republic (1.329b-329c) Plato tells us that when he finally succumbed to impotence, Sophocles was glad to be free of his "raging and savage beast of a master."[20] It is debatable how far such anecdotes were invented as references to this well-known passage. In yet another such account, a satirical one by Machon involving a hetaira known for her ironical sense of humor, we are told that, "Demophon, Sophocles' minion, when still a youth had Nico, already old and surnamed the she-goat; they say she had very fine buttocks. One day he begged of her to lend them to him. 'Very well,' she said with a smile,-'Take from me, dear, what you give to Sophocles.'"[21][22] Works and legacy Among Sophocles' earliest innovations was the addition of a third actor, which further reduced the role of the chorus and created greater opportunity for character development and conflict between characters.[4] Aeschylus, who dominated Athenian playwrighting during Sophocles' early career, followed suit and adopted the third character into his own work towards the end of his life.[4] Aristotle credits Sophocles with the introduction of skenographia, or scenery-painting. It was not until after the death of the old master Aeschylus in 456 BCE that Sophocles became the pre-eminent playwright in Athens.[1] Thereafter, Sophocles emerged victorious in dramatic competitions at 18 Dionysia and 6 Lenaia festivals.[1] In addition to innovations in dramatic structure, Sophocles' work is also known for its deeper development of characters than earlier playwrights.[4] His reputation was such that foreign rulers invited him to attend their courts, although unlike Aeschylus who died in Sicily, or Euripides who spent time in Macedon, Sophocles never accepted any of these invitations.[1] Aristotle used Sophocles' Oedipus the King in his Poetics (c. 335 BCE) as an example of the highest achievement in tragedy, which suggests the high esteem in which his work was held by later Greeks.[23] Only two of the seven surviving plays[24] can be dated securely: Philoctetes (409 BCE) and Oedipus at Colonus (401 BCE, staged after Sophocles' death by his grandson). Of the others, Electra shows stylistic similarities to these two plays, which suggests that it was probably written in the latter part of his career. Ajax, Antigone and The Trachiniae are generally thought to be among his early works, again based on stylistic elements, with Oedipus the King coming in Sophocles' middle period. Most of Sophocles' plays show an undercurrent of early fatalism and the beginnings of Socratic logic as a mainstay for the long tradition of Greek tragedy.[25][26] The Theban plays The Theban plays consist of three plays: Antigone, Oedipus the King (also called Oedipus Tyrannus or Oedipus Rex), and Oedipus at Colonus. All three plays concern the fate of Thebes during and after the reign of King Oedipus.[27] They have often been published under a single cover.[28] Sophocles, however, wrote the three plays for separate festival competitions, many years apart. Not only are the Theban plays not a true trilogy (three plays presented as a continuous narrative) but they are not even an intentional series and contain some inconsistencies among them.[27] He also wrote other plays having to do with Thebes, such as The Progeny, of which only fragments have survived.[29] Subjects Each of the plays relates to the tale of the mythological Oedipus, who killed his father and married his mother without knowledge that they were his parents. His family is fated to be doomed for three generations. In Oedipus the King, Oedipus is the protagonist. Oedipus' infanticide is planned by his parents, Laius and Jocasta, to avert him fulfilling a prophecy ; in truth, the servant entrusted with the infanticide passes the infant on through a series of intermediaries to a childless couple, who adopt him not knowing his history. Oedipus eventually learns of the Delphic Oracle's prophecy of him, that he would kill his father and marry his mother ; Oedipus attempts to flee his fate without harming his parents (at this point, he does not know that he is adopted). Oedipus meets a man at a crossroads accompanied by servants; Oedipus and the man fought, and Oedipus killed the man. (This man was his father, Laius, not that anyone apart from the gods knew this at the time). He becomes the ruler of Thebes after solving the riddle of the sphinx and in the process, marries the widowed Queen, his mother Jocasta. Thus the stage is set for horrors. When the truth comes out, folling from another true but confusing prophecy from Delphi, Jocasta commits suicide, Oedipus blinds himself and leaves Thebes, and the children are left to sort out the consequences themselves (which provides the grounds for the later parts of the cycle of plays). In Oedipus at Colonus, the banished Oedipus and his daughters Antigone and Ismene arrive at the town of Colonus where they encounter Theseus, King of Athens. Oedipus dies and strife begins between his sons Polyneices and Eteocles. In Antigone the protagonist is Oedipus' daughter. Antigone is faced with the choice of allowing her brother Polyneices' body to remain unburied, outside the city walls, exposed to the ravages of wild animals, or to bury him and face death. The king of the land, Creon, has forbidden the burial of Polyneices for he was a traitor to the city. Antigone decides to bury his body and face the consequences of her actions. Creon sentences her to death. Eventually, Creon is convinced to free Antigone from her punishment, but his decision comes too late and Antigone commits suicide. Her suicide triggers the suicide of two others close to King Creon: his son, Haemon, who was to wed Antigone, and his wife who commits suicide after losing her only surviving son. Composition and inconsistencies The plays were written across thirty-six years of Sophocles' career and were not composed in chronological order, but instead were written in the order Antigone, Oedipus the King, and Oedipus at Colonus. Nor were they composed as a trilogy - a group of plays to be performed together, but are the remaining parts of three different groups of plays. As a result, there are some inconsistencies: notably, Creon is the undisputed king at the end of Oedipus the King and, in consultation with Apollo, single-handedly makes the decision to expel Oedipus from Thebes. Creon is also instructed to look after Oedipus' daughters Antigone and Ismene at the end of Oedipus the King. By contrast, in the other plays there is some struggle with Oedipus' sons Eteocles and Polynices in regard to the succession. In Oedipus at Colonus, Sophocles attempts to work these inconsistencies into a coherent whole: Ismene explains that, in light of their tainted family lineage, her brothers were at first willing to cede the throne to Creon. Nevertheless, they eventually decided to take charge of the monarchy, with each brother disputing the other's right to succeed. In addition to being in a clearly more powerful position in Oedipus at Colonus, Eteocles and Polynices are also culpable: they condemn their father to exile, which is one of his bitterest charges against them.[27] Other plays Other than the three Theban plays, there are four surviving plays by Sophocles: Ajax, The Trachiniae, Electra, and Philoctetes, the last of which won first prize.[30] Ajax focuses on the proud hero of the Trojan War, Telamonian Ajax, who is driven to treachery and eventually suicide. Ajax becomes gravely upset when Achilles’ armor is presented to Odysseus instead of himself. Despite their enmity toward him, Odysseus persuades the kings Menelaus and Agamemnon to grant Ajax a proper burial. The Trachiniae (named for the Trachinian women who make up the chorus) dramatizes Deianeira's accidentally killing Heracles after he had completed his famous twelve labors. Tricked into thinking it is a love charm, Deianeira applies poison to an article of Heracles' clothing; this poisoned robe causes Heracles to die an excruciating death. Upon learning the truth, Deianeira commits suicide. Electra Corresponds roughly to the plot of Aeschylus' Libation Bearers. It details how Electra and Orestes' avenge their father Agamemnon's murder by Clytemnestra and Aegisthus. Philoctetes retells the story of Philoctetes, an archer who had been abandoned on Lemnos by the rest of the Greek fleet while on the way to Troy. After learning that they cannot win the Trojan War without Philoctetes' bow, the Greeks send Odysseus and Neoptolemus to retrieve him; due to the Greeks' earlier treachery, however, Philoctetes refuses to rejoin the army. It is only Heracles' deus ex machina appearance that persuades Philoctetes to go to Troy. Fragmentary plays Fragments of The Tracking Satyrs (Ichneutae) were discovered in Egypt in 1907.[31] These amount to about half of the play, making it the best preserved satyr play after Euripides' Cyclops, which survives in its entirety.[31] Fragments of The Progeny (Epigonoi) were discovered in April 2005 by classicists at Oxford University with the help of infrared technology previously used for satellite imaging. The tragedy tells the story of the second siege of Thebes.[29] A number of other Sophoclean works have survived only in fragments, including: * Aias Lokros (Ajax the Locrian) * Akhaiôn Syllogos (The Gathering of the Achaeans) * Aleadae (The Sons of Aleus) * Creusa * Eurypylus * Hermione * Inachos * Lacaenae (Lacaenian Women) * Manteis or Polyidus (The Prophets or Polyidus) * Nauplios Katapleon (Nauplius' Arrival) * Nauplios Pyrkaeus (Nauplius' Fires) * Niobe * Oeneus * Oenomaus * Poimenes (The Shepherds) * Polyxene * Syndeipnoi (The Diners, or, The Banqueters) * Tereus * Thyestes * Troilus * Phaedra * Triptolemus * Tyro Keiromene (Tyro Shorn) * Tyro Anagnorizomene (Tyro Rediscovered). Sophocles' view of his own work There is a passage of Plutarch's tract De Profectibus in Virtute 7 in which Sophocles discusses his own growth as a writer. A likely source of this material for Plutarch was the Epidemiae of Ion of Chios, a book that recorded many conversations of Sophocles. This book is a likely candidate to have contained Sophocles' discourse on his own development because Ion was a friend of Sophocles, and the book is known to have been used by Plutarch.[32] Though some interpretations of Plutarch's words suggest that Sophocles says that he imitated Aeschylus, the translation does not fit grammatically, nor does the interpretation that Sophocles said that he was making fun of Aeschylus' works. C. M. Bowra argues for the following translation of the line: "After practising to the full the bigness of Aeschylus, then the painful ingenuity of my own invention, now in the third stage I am changing to the kind of diction which is most expressive of character and best."[33] Here Sophocles says that he has completed a stage of Aeschylus' work, meaning that he went through a phase of imitating Aeschylus' style but is finished with that. Sophocles' opinion of Aeschylus was mixed. He certainly respected him enough to imitate his work early on in his career, but he had reservations about Aeschylus' style,[34] and thus did not keep his imitation up. Sophocles' first stage, in which he imitated Aeschylus, is marked by "Aeschylean pomp in the language".[35] Sophocles' second stage was entirely his own. He introduced new ways of evoking feeling out of an audience, like in his Ajax when he is mocked by Athene, then the stage is emptied so that he may commit suicide alone.[36] Sophocles mentions a third stage, distinct from the other two, in his discussion of his development. The third stage pays more heed to diction. His characters spoke in a way that was more natural to them and more expressive of their individual character feelings.[37]

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Sophŏcles in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

The second of the three great Greek tragedians, son of Sophilus or Sophillus, the wealthy owner of a manufactory of arms. He was born about B.C. 495 in the deme Colonus near Athens. He received a careful education in music, gymnastics, and dancing, and as a boy of fifteen was chosen to lead the paean sung by the chorus of boys after the victory of Salamis (Athen. p. 20). He afterwards showed his musical skill in public, when he represented the blind singer Thamyris in his drama of the same name, and played the cithara with such success that he was painted as Thamyris with the cithara in the Stoa Poicilé. Again, in the play called the Nausicaa, he won for himself general admiration in acting the part of the Phaeacian princess, by the dexterity and grace with which he struck the ball Sophocles. (Lateran Museum, Rome.) (Athen. p. 20 E). In all things his external appearance and demeanour were the reflex of a lofty mind. At his very first appearance as a tragic poet in 468, when twenty-seven years old, at the Great Dionysia, he gained a victory over Aeschylus, who was thirty years older, and from that time to extreme old age he kept the first place in tragedy. Unlike Aeschylus and Euripides, he never accepted the invitations of foreign princes. Though possessing no special inclination or fitness for political affairs, as his friend, the poet Ion of Chios, declares, he yet took his place in public life. Thus, in B.C. 440, he was one of the ten generals who, with Pericles, were in command of the fleet sent against Samos. Owing to his practical skill he was also employed in negotiations with the allies of Chios and Samos. During the Peloponnesian War he was again one of the generals, together with Nicias. In 435, as Hellenotamias, he was at the head of the management of the treasure of the allies, which was kept on the Acropolis; and, when the question arose in 413, of giving to the State an oligarchical constitution, he was on the commission of preliminary investigation (C. I. A. i. 237). The charm and refinement of his character seem to have won him many friends. Among them was the historian Herodotus, who much resembled him in taste and temperament. He was also deemed by the ancients a man specially beloved by the gods, especially by Asclepius, whose priest he probably was, and who was said to have granted him health and vigour of mind to extreme old age. By the Athenian Nicostraté he had a son, Iophon , who won some repute as a tragic poet, and by Theoris of Sicyon another son, Ariston, father of the Sophocles who gained fame for himself by tragedies of his own, and afterwards by the production of his grandfather's dramas. There was a story that a quarrel arose between Sophocles and his son Iophon , on account of his preference for this grandson, and that, when summoned by Iophon before the court as weak in mind and unable to manage his affairs, he obtained his own absolute acquittal by reading the parodos on his native place in the Oedipus Coloneus, just written, but not yet produced (Plutarch, Moral. p. 775 B). But this appears to be a legend founded on a misunderstood pleasantry of a comic poet. The tales of his death, which happened in B.C. 405, are also mythical. According to one account, he was choked by a grape; according to others, he died either when publicly reciting the Antigoné, or from excessive joy at some dramatic victory. The only fact unanimonsly attested by his contemporaries is, that his death was as dignified as his life. A singular story is connected even with his funeral. We are told that Dionysus, by repeated apparitions in dreams, prompted the general of the Spartans, who were then investing Athens, to grant a truce for the burial of the poet in the family grave outside the city. On his tomb stood a Siren as a symbol of the charm of poetry. After his death the Athenians worshipped him as a hero and offered an annual sacrifice in his memory. In later times, on the proposal of the orator Lycurgus, a bronze statue was erected to him, together with Aeschylus and Euripides, in the theatre; and of his dramas, as of theirs, an authorized and standard copy was made, in order to protect them against arbitrary alterations. Sophocles was a very prolific poet. The number of his plays is given as between 123 and 130, of which above 100 are known to us by their titles and by fragments; but only seven have been preserved complete: the Trachiniae (so named from the chorus, and treating of the death of Heracles), the Ajax, the Philoctetes, the Electra, the Oedipus Tyrannus, the Oedipus at Colonus, and the Antigoné. The last-mentioned play was produced in the spring of 440; the Philoctetes in 410; the Oedipus at Colonus was not put on the stage until 401, after his death, by his grandson Sophocles. Besides tragedies, Sophocles composed paeans, elegies, epigrams, and a work in prose on the chorus. With his tragedies he gained the first prize more than twenty times, and still more often the second, but never the third. Even in his lifetime, and indeed through the whole of antiquity, he was held to be the most perfect of tragedians; one of the ancient writers calls him the "pupil of Homer." If Aeschylus is the creator of Greek tragedy, it was Sophocles who brought it to perfection. He extended the dramatic action * 1. by the introduction of a third actor, while in his last pieces he even added a fourth; and * 2. by a due subordination of the chorus, to which, however, he gave a more artistic development, while he increased its numbers from twelve to fifteen persons. (See Reissenmayer, De Choro Sophocleo [1878]). He also perfected the costumes and decoration. Rejecting the plan of Aeschylus, by which one story was carried through three successive plays, he made every tragedy into a complete work of art, with a separate and complete action, the motives for every detail being most skilfully devised. His art was especially shown in the way in which the action is developed from the character of the dramatis personae. Sophocles' great mastery of his art appears, above all, in the clearness with which he portrays his characters, which are developed with a scrupulous attention to details, and in which he does not content himself, like Aeschylus, with mere outlines, nor, as Euripides often did, with copies from common life. His heroes, too, are ideal figures, like those of Aeschylus (Aristot. Poet. 25). While they lack the superhuman loftiness of the earlier poet's creations, they have a certain ideal truth of their own. Sophocles succeeded in doing what was impossible for Aeschylus and Euripides with their peculiar temperaments, in expressing the nobility of the female character, in its gentleness as well as in its heroic courage. In contrast to Euripides, Sophocles, like Aeschylus, is profoundly religious; and the attitude which he adopts towards the popular religion is marked by an instinctive reverence. The grace peculiar to Sophocles' nature makes itself felt even in his language, the charm of which was universally praised by the ancients. With his noble simplicity he takes in this respect also a middle place between the weightiness and boldness of the language of Aeschylus and the smoothness and rhetorical embellishment which distinguish that of Euripides. The seven existing plays of Sophocles are all found in the same Codex Laurentianus in Florence that contains the plays of Aeschylus. Cobet regards all the other extant MSS. of the plays as derived from this. Few of them have the whole seven. Of these, two (a Codex Parisinus of the thirteenth century and a Codex Venetus of the fourteenth) are the best. See Meifert, De Sophoclis Codicibus (1891). The editio princeps of Sophocles appeared at Venice in 1502. The chief editions of the entire seven plays are those of Brunck, 4 vols. (1786-89); G. Herrmann (1830-41); Wunder (1847-1878); Dindorf (Leipzig, 1825); Schneidewin, rev. by Nauck (Berlin, 1877-82); and Wolff (Leipzig, 1858-65). Annotated English editions are those of Blaydes and Paley, 2 vols. (1859-80); L. Campbell, 2 vols. (1871-81); and Jebb, vols. i.-v. (Cambridge, 1884- 95). There are editions of separate plays with English notes by various scholars, among them the Oedipus Tyrannus by Jebb (1884), and by White (1890); the Oedipus Coloneus by Paley (1881), the Antigoné by Paley (1881), and by D'Ooge (1890); of the Philoctetes by Graves (1893); of the Electra by Jebb (1870); of the Ajax by Jebb (1869); and of the Trachiniae by Pretor (1877). There is a lexicon to Sophocles by Ellendt (2d ed. revised by Genthe, Berlin, 1867-72), with a supplementary Index Commentationum (1874). There is a good translation of Sophocles into English verse by Plumptre (1871), and one by Campbell (1873). For general criticism, etc., see Hense, Studien zu Sophocles (1880); Patin, Études sur les Tragiques Grecs, vol. ii. (last ed. 1877); Campbell, Sophocles (1879); id. A Guide to Greek Tragedy (1891); Schlegel's Lectures; Kennedy's Studia Sophoclea (1874); and Ribbeck, Sophokles und Seine Tragödien (1869). On his language, style, etc., see the following monographs: Altum, Similitudines Homeri cum Sophoclis (1855); Borschke, Aeschylus und Sophocles (1872); Lichtenstein, Shakspeare and Sophocles (1850); Fleischmann, Kunst der Characteristik bei Sophokles (1875); Harmsen, De Collocatione Verborum apud Sophoclem (1880); Hartz, De Anacoluthis apud Sophoclem (1856); Jacobi, De Usu Alliterationis apud Sophoclem (1872); Juris, De Sophoclis Verbis Singularibus (1876); Maenss, Die Präpositionen bei Sophokles (1883); Schindler, De Sophocle Verborum Inventore (1877); Struve, De Dictione Sophoclis (1854); Schlegel, Die tragische Ironie bei Sophokles (1869); Fittbogen, De Sophoclis Sententiis Ethicis (1842); and Koch, De Proverbiis apud Sophoclem (1892).

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Sophytes in Wikipedia

Sophytes (d. 294 BC) is a figure whose origin is subject to much debate. He has been mentioned as both a Greek prince and a mercenary captain in the late fourth century BCE and as an Indian King of Paropamisdae in Bactria. His coins have been found in Southern Asia; however, exactly where he may have operated or reigned remains unresolved. Some scholars posit his region of influence as the modern Pakistani Punjab while others note that it was further west in Bactria (Northern Afghanistan). Further legends make him born in today's Kabul in the end of 326 BC and a son of Alexander the Great by Dkhti, daughter of Subhuti (d. aft. 327 BC), Indian Prince of Paropamisos (Kabul), as well as the father of Greek General Apollodotus (b. c. 295 BC), in turn the father of King Euthydemus I of Bactria.[1] The kingdom extended over the Salt Range, around Saubhuta and Phegelas, from c. 305 to 294 BCE. Though the history of the region appears to agree with this 11 year reign, the apparent age difference of Sophytes himself as he is portrayed on his coins, has suggested a number of different possible regnal extents. Among the prevailing theories, are that the change in age is representative of Sophytes' actual aging process, or that the "young" issues were actually stylized. In the first case, his reign may have extended as a vassal, while in the second case it probably would have ended with the conquests of either the Seleucid King or the Mauryan King Chandragupta who the former had ceded many of his Eastern possessions to. General Alexander Cunningham and other classical numismatists have also confirmed that he probably copied his coin types from Seleucus I, suggesting that his reign would have extended at least beyond Seleucus' initial Eastern conquests. Sophytes has been subject to a great deal of speculation, with Indian origin at one end of the spectrum and Greek at the other. Cunningham identifies him with the Indian King Fobnath of "Sangala," (a name some read as "Saka-town") while A.C.L. Carlleyle connects him with the same king's son Suveg, which is more likely in light of the indentification of Fobnath as a royal title rather than a name; potentially making him a Madra of Saka/Iranian origin. Cunningham believes the Sobii and Kathaei to have been his subjects, whom he asserts were Turanians, making them of the same stock as the Saka or Indo-Scythians. It is interesting to note that Sagala was the capital of the later Indo-Greek dynasty of Menander I for several generations, and that Menander himself struck several coins with a similar reverse, suggesting that his dynasty inherited the older king's mints when he took the city for himself. John D. Grainger however, identifies him as a Greek dynast; Frank L. Holt speculating that he was a mercenary captain who minted coins simply to meet the needs of his troops. In light of his coin type, he may have been a local official, installed (although he may have been an older official, reinstated or simply recognized) by Seleucus after he took the region. There is also an Indian king "Sophytes", described as ruling along the Indus during the campaigns of Alexander the Great, in the Bibliotheca of Diodorus Siculus. Curtius also records a dramatic interview between the tall and handsome Saubhuti and Alexander in which Saubhuti offers his submission to the conqueror" (Shastri 69). The hunting dogs of his country appeared to have impressed the Macedonian. As such, questions continue to remain about exactly who Sophytes was and where he ruled.

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Sosicles (statesman) in Wikipedia

Sosicles was a Corinthian ambassador at the remarkable meeting of the allies of Sparta, before which the Spartans laid their proposal for restoring Hippias to the tyranny of Athens. Sosicles remonstrated with indignant vehemence against the measure, and set forth the evils which Corinth had endured under the successive tyrannies of Cypselus and Periander. His appeal was successful with the allies, and the project was abandoned. Herodotus records the speech (Herod, v. 92, 93.; bk6 chs312-315). His record of it is probably not authentic as the meeting was secret and no Athenian could have heard. What is more likely is Herodotus using Sosicles to give an extended speech on the fault of tyranny and also to give a digression into Corinth's history.

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Sosigenes in Wikipedia

There were several historical figures called Sosigenes: Sosigenes of Alexandria Sosigenes of Alexandria was named by Pliny the Elder as the astronomer consulted by Julius Caesar for the design of the Julian calendar.[1] It appears that little or nothing is known about him apart from two references in Pliny's Natural History. Some web sources say that the calendar was designed by Aristarchus about 200 years earlier - it is not clear where this idea originates, although a similar reform of the Egyptian calendar was decreed by Ptolemy III Euergetes in 238 BC, but never implemented. The standard year of the Egyptian calendar had 365 days, divided into 12 months, each of 30 days, plus five epagomenal days at the end of the year - the reform would have added a sixth epagomenal day every fourth year. He appears in Pliny book 18, 210-212: "... There were three main schools, the Chaldaean, the Egyptian, and the Greek; and to these a fourth was added in our country by Caesar during his dictatorship, who with the assistance of the learned astronomer Sosigenes (Sosigene perito scientiae eius adhibito) brought the separate years back into conformity with the course of the sun." In Pliny book 2, 8, Sosigenes is credited with work on the orbit of Mercury: "Next upon it, but nothing of that bignesse and powerful efficacie, is the starre Mercurie, of some cleped Apollo: in an inferiour circle hee goeth, after the like manner, a swifter course by nine daies: shining sometimes before the sunne rising, otherwhiles after his setting, never farther distant from him than 23 degrees, as both the same Timæus and Sosigenes doe shew."[2] Sosigenes the Peripatetic Sosigenes the Peripatetic was a philosopher living at the end of the 2nd century AD. He was the tutor of Alexander of Aphrodisias and wrote a work On Revolving Spheres, from which some important extracts have been preserved in Simplicius's commentary on Aristotle's De Caelo. He criticized both Aristotle and Eudoxus, and their theory of celestial spheres and epicycles, which he felt was inconsistent with Aristotle's philosophical postulates. He also pointed out that the planets varied markedly in brightness, and that eclipses of the sun are sometimes total and sometimes annular suggesting that the distances between the sun, moon and earth was not the same at different eclipses. Sosigenes is perhaps called "the Peripatetic" only because of his connection with Alexander. Some ancient evidence may be taken to suggest that he was, in fact, a Stoic. As John Patrick Lynch has written: The other two teachers of Alexander may actually have been the philosophers whom ancient sources called Stoics; in both cases, Herminos/Sosigenes "the Stoic" have been distinguished from Herminos/Sosigenes "the Peripatetic" only on the grounds that the two latter men were teachers of Alexander of Aphrodisias. But it is not improbable that Alexander of Aphrodisias studied with two Stoic teachers and that these two pairs of homonymous contemporaries are actually only two Stoic philosophers.[1] He is often confused with the Roman astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria.

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Sosigĕnes in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Σωσιγένης). The Peripatetic philosopher, was the astronomer employed by Iulius Caesar to superintend the correction of the calendar (B.C. 46). See Calendarium.

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Sosthenes of Macedon in Wikipedia

Sosthenes (Greek Σωσθένης d. 277 BC) was a Macedonian and general and may have been a king of the Antipatrid dynasty. During the reign of Lysimachus he was his governor in Asia Minor. Sosthenes was elected King by the Macedonian army, but he may or not have reigned as king.[1] Appointed as Strategos he may have declined the title of king as he had no royal connections. During his reign he faced invading Gauls, Antigonus Gonatas and other rivals. He defeated Bolgius, one of the earliest invading Gallic chiefs but was soon faced with the invasion of Brennus in the summer of 279 BC. Antigonus Gonatas tried to invade Macedonia from Asia in 278 but was beaten by Sosthenes.

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Sosthĕnes in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Σωσθένης). A Macedonian soldier who defeated the Gauls at the time of their invasion of Greece in B.C. 280 (Just. xxiv. 5, 6). See Gallia.

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Sostratus in Wikipedia

Sostratus (Σώστρατος Sostratos) may refer to: Sostratus of Cnidus Sostratus of Cnidus (born 3rd century BC), was a Greek architect and engineer. He designed the lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the Seven Wonders of the World (ca.280 BC), on the island of Pharos off Alexandria, Egypt. Sostratus of Dyme Sostratus (Σώστρατος) was a Greek mythological hero, he was a friend of Hercules. He was Achaean from the ancient city of Dyme, held in veneration by its inhabitants. When Pausanias mentioned him when he visited Dyme, in the side of a public road where it had the tomb of Sostradus in which it was built by Hercules for his honoring his friend. At his tomb. it had a pillar with the form of Hercules in which the Dymeans received them military service.[1] Different sources and archeology which identified with Polystratus, a hero of Dyme which he helped Hercules in the war against the Elean king Augeas and he was killed there. In archaeological excavations founded a pillar with that which was recorded by Pausanias where it had the tomb of Sostratus not with the name Polystratus.[2] Sostratus of Pellene Sostratus (Σώστρατος Sostratos) was an Ancient Greek Olympian. He was from the Achaean Pellene and won in the Olympic Games in the 80th Olympiad in 460 BC in the stadium. According to Pausanias, Sostratus tried the Olympic victory for the Achaeans after many years as according to a myth in 156 BC in the 6th Olympiad, Oibotas of Dyme won as the Dymeans did not awatd as they tried that to curse for not win again as an Achaean in the Olympic Games. The mythology said that the curse caught and that, the Achaeans tried to receive other awards and the statue that brought to Olympia. Then, Sostratus won in the stadium broke the curse.[1] Sostratus of Macedon Sostratus son of Amyntas, a noble Macedonian youth, in the service of Alexander the Great. He was one of those implicated in the conspiracy of the pages against that monarch, for which he was stoned to death together with his lover Hermolaus

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Sostrătus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Σώστρατος). The son of Dexiphanes, of Cnidus. He was one of the great architects who flourished during and after the life of Alexander the Great. He built for Ptolemy I. of Egypt the great Pharos or light-house at Alexandria, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the World, and also erected at Cnidus a portico supporting a terrace (Pliny , Pliny H. N. xxxvi. 83).

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Spartacus in Wikipedia

Spartacus ( Greek: Σπάρτακος; Latin: Spartacus[1]) (c. 109–71 BC) was the most notable leader of the slaves in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic. Little is known about Spartacus beyond the events of the war, and surviving historical accounts are sometimes contradictory and may not always be reliable. Spartacus' struggle, often seen as oppressed people fighting for their freedom against a slave-owning aristocracy, has found new meaning for modern writers since the 19th century. The rebellion of Spartacus has proven inspirational to many modern literary and political writers, making Spartacus a folk hero among cultures both ancient and modern. Life Origins The ancient sources agree that Spartacus was a Thracian. Plutarch describes him as "a Thracian of Nomadic stock".[2] Appian says he was "a Thracian by birth, who had once served as a soldier with the Romans, but had since been a prisoner and sold for a Gladiator".[3] Florus (2.8.8) described him as one "who from Thracian mercenary, had become a Roman soldier, of a soldier a deserter and robber, and afterwards, from consideration of his strength, a gladiator".[4] Some authors refer to the Thracian tribe of the Maedi,[5] which in historic times occupied the area on the southwestern fringes of Thrace (present day south-western Bulgaria).[6] Plutarch also writes that Spartacus's wife, a prophetess of the same tribe, was enslaved with him. The name Spartacus is otherwise attested in the Black Sea region: kings of the Thracian dynasty of the Cimmerian Bosporus[7] and Pontus[8] are known to have borne it, and a Thracian "Spardacus"[9] or "Sparadokos",[10] father of Seuthes I of the Odrysae, is also known. Enslavement and escape According to the differing sources and their interpretation, Spartacus either was an auxiliary from the Roman legions later condemned to slavery, or a captive taken by the legions.[11] Spartacus was trained at the gladiatorial school (ludus) near Capua, belonging to Lentulus Batiatus. In 73 BC, Spartacus was among a group of gladiators plotting an escape. The plot was betrayed but about 70 men seized kitchen implements, fought their way free from the school, and seized several wagons of gladiatorial weapons and armor.[12] The escaped slaves defeated a small force sent after them, plundered the region surrounding Capua, recruited many other slaves into their ranks, and eventually retired to a more defensible position on Mount Vesuvius.[13][14] Once free, the escaped gladiators chose Spartacus and two Gallic slaves - Crixus and Oenomaus - as their leaders. Although Roman authors assumed that the slaves were a homogeneous group with Spartacus as their leader, they may have projected their own hierarchical view of military leadership onto the spontaneous organization of the slaves, reducing other slave leaders to subordinate positions in their accounts. The positions of Crixus and Oenomaus - and later, Castus - cannot be clearly determined from the sources. Third Servile War The response of the Roman authorities was hampered by the absence of the Roman legions, which were already engaged in fighting a revolt in Spain and the Third Mithridatic War. Furthermore, the Romans considered the rebellion more a policing matter rather than a war. Rome dispatched militia under the command of praetor Gaius Claudius Glaber, which besieged the slaves on the mountain, hoping that starvation would force the slaves to surrender. They were surprised when Spartacus had ropes made from vines, climbed down the cliff side of the volcano with his men and attacked the unfortified Roman camp in the rear, killing most of them.[15] The slaves also defeated a second expedition, nearly capturing the praetor commander, killing his lieutenants and seizing the military equipment.[16] With these successes, more and more slaves flocked to the Spartacan forces, as did "many of the herdsmen and shepherds of the region", swelling their ranks to some 70,000.[17] In these altercations Spartacus proved to be an excellent tactician, suggesting that he may have had previous military experience. Though the slaves lacked military training, they displayed a skillful use of available local materials and unusual tactics when facing the disciplined Roman armies.[18] They spent the winter of 73–72 BC training, arming and equipping their new recruits, and expanding their raiding territory to include the towns of Nola, Nuceria, Thurii and Metapontum.[19] The distance between these locations and the subsequent events indicate that the slaves operated in two groups commanded by the remaining leaders Spartacus and Crixus. In spring of 72 BC, the slaves left their winter encampments and began to move northwards. At the same time, the Roman Senate, alarmed by the defeat of the praetorian forces, dispatched a pair of consular legions under the command of Lucius Gellius Publicola and Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus.[20] The two legions were initially successful - defeating a group of 30,000 slaves commanded by Crixus near Mount Garganus.[21] - but then were defeated by Spartacus. These defeats are depicted in divergent ways by the two most comprehensive (extant) histories of the war by Appian and Plutarch.[22][23][24][25] Alarmed by the apparently unstoppable rebellion, the Senate charged Marcus Licinius Crassus, the wealthiest man in Rome and the only volunteer for the position, with ending the rebellion. Crassus was put in charge of eight legions, approximately 40,000–50,000 trained Roman soldiers,[26][27] which he treated with harsh, even brutal, discipline, reviving the punishment of unit decimation.[28] When Spartacus and his followers, who for unclear reasons had retreated to the south of Italy, moved northwards again in early 71 BC, Crassus deployed six of his legions on the borders of the region and detached his legate Mummius with two legions to maneuver behind Spartacus. Though ordered not to engage the slaves, Mummius attacked at a seemingly opportune moment but was routed.[29] After this, Crassus' legions were victorious in several engagements, forcing Spartacus farther south through Lucania as Crassus gained the upper hand. By the end of 71 BC, Spartacus was encamped in Rhegium (Reggio Calabria), near the Strait of Messina. According to Plutarch, Spartacus made a bargain with Cilician pirates to transport him and some 2,000 of his men to Sicily, where he intended to incite a slave revolt and gather reinforcements. However, he was betrayed by the pirates, who took payment and then abandoned the rebel slaves.[29] Minor sources mention that there were some attempts at raft and shipbuilding by the rebels as a means to escape, but that Crassus took unspecified measures to ensure the rebels could not cross to Sicily, and their efforts were abandoned.[30] Spartacus' forces then retreated towards Rhegium. Crassus' legions followed and upon arrival built fortifications across the isthmus at Rhegium, despite harassing raids from the rebel slaves. The rebels were under siege and cut off from their supplies.[31] At this time, the legions of Pompey returned from Spain and were ordered by the Senate to head south to aid Crassus.[32] While Crassus feared that Pompey's arrival would cost him the credit, Spartacus unsuccessfully tried to reach an agreement with Crassus.[33] When Crassus refused, a portion of Spartacus' forces fled toward the mountains west of Petelia (modern Strongoli) in Bruttium, with Crassus' legions in pursuit.[34] When the legions managed to catch a portion of the rebels separated from the main army,[35] discipline among Spartacus's forces broke down as small groups were independently attacking the oncoming legions.[36] Spartacus now turned his forces around and brought his entire strength to bear on the legions in a last stand, in which the slaves were routed completely, with the vast majority of them being killed on the battlefield.[37] The eventual fate of Spartacus himself is unknown, as his body was never found, but he is accounted by historians to have perished in battle along with his men.[38] 6,000 survivors of the revolt captured by the legions of Crassus were crucified, lining the Appian Way from Rome to Capua.[39] Objectives Classical historians were divided as to what the motives of Spartacus were. While Plutarch writes that Spartacus merely wished to escape northwards into Cisalpine Gaul and disperse his men back to their homes,[40] Appian and Florus write that he intended to march on Rome itself.[41] Appian also states that he later abandoned that goal, which might have been no more than a reflection of Roman fears. None of Spartacus' actions suggest that he aimed at reforming Roman society or abolishing slavery, as is sometimes depicted in fictional accounts, such as Stanley Kubrick's 1960 film Spartacus. Based on the events in late 73 BC and early 72 BC, which suggest independently operating groups of slaves[42] and a statement by Plutarch that some of the escaped slaves preferred to plunder Italy, rather than escape over the Alps,[40] modern authors have deduced a factional split between those under Spartacus, who wished to escape over the Alps to freedom, and those under Crixus, who wished to stay in southern Italy to continue raiding and plundering. Modern references Politics * Toussaint L'Ouverture and his successor Jean-Jacques Dessalines led the slave rebellion of the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804), Toussaint was called the "Black Spartacus" by one of his defeated opponents, the Comte de Lavaux. * Founder of the Bavarian Illuminati, Adam Weishaupt, often referred to himself as Spartacus within written correspondences.[43] * Karl Marx listed Spartacus as one of his heroes,[44] and described him as "the most splendid fellow in the whole of ancient history" and "[a] great general ([though] no Garibaldi), noble character, real representative of the ancient proletariat."[45] * Spartacus has been a great inspiration to revolutionaries in modern times, most notably the German Spartacist League, a forerunner of the Communist Party of Germany, as well as an Austrian anti-fascist organisation in the 1970s. * European communist regimes in the twentieth century encouraged the image of Spartacus as a fighter against oppression (see "Sports", Spartacus#Sports below). * Noted Latin American Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara was also a strong admirer of Spartacus. Artistic Film and television * Stanley Kubrick directed the film Spartacus (1960), based on Howard Fast's novel Spartacus. The phrase "I am Spartacus!" from this film has been referenced in a number of other films, television programs, and commercials. * An unofficial sequel to Kubrick's film was made in Italy under the title Il Figlio di Spartacus (The Son of Spartacus) in 1963. The titular character, played by Steve Reeves, first appears as a Roman centurion, but eventually learns his true identity and takes revenge on Crassus, his father's murderer. * The title character of the 1985–1987 cartoon series Spartakus and the Sun Beneath the Sea is loosely based on Spartacus. * In the 1995 film Clueless, Christian uses Stanley Kubrick's adaptation of the film as part of a subtle campaign to reveal his homosexuality. * In the 1996 film That Thing You Do, Tom Everett Scott's character Guy 'Shades' Patterson refers to himself as Spartacus. * In 2004, Fast's novel was adapted as Spartacus, a made-for-TV movie, by the USA Network, with Goran Višnjić in the main role. * One episode of 2007-2008 BBC's docudrama Heroes and Villains features Spartacus. * The television series Spartacus: Blood and Sand, produced by Sam Raimi and starring Andy Whitfield in the title role, premièred on the Starz premium cable network in January 2010. [46][47] Literature * Howard Fast wrote the historical novel Spartacus, the basis of Stanley Kubrick's 1960 film starring Kirk Douglas. * Arthur Koestler wrote a novel about Spartacus called The Gladiators. * The Scottish writer Lewis Grassic Gibbon wrote a novel Spartacus. * Spartacus is a prominent character in the novel Fortune's Favorites by Colleen McCullough. * The Italian writer Rafaello Giovagnoli wrote his historical novel, Spartacus, in 1874. His novel has been subsequently translated and published in many European countries. * There is also a novel Uczniowie Spartakusa (The Students of Spartacus) by the Polish writer Halina Rudnicka. * The Reverend Elijah Kellogg's Spartacus to the Gladiators at Capua has been used effectively by schoolboys to practice their oratory skills for ages. * Spartacus also appears in Conn Iggulden's 'Emperor' series in the book The Death of Kings. * Spartacus and His Glorious Gladiators, by Toby Brown, is part of the Dead Famous series of children's history books. * In the Bolo novel Bolo Rising by William H. Keith, the character HCT "Hector" is based on Spartacus. * In the novel Flip by David Lubar, one of the legends Ryan becomes is Spartacus, specifically when he is challenged to a fight by the school bully. * Amal Donkol, the Egyptian modern poet wrote his masterpiece "The Last Words of Spartacus". * Steven Saylor's novel Arms of Nemesis, part of his Roma Sub Rosa series, is set during the Third Servile War. * Max Gallo wrote the novel "Les Romains.Spartacus.La Revolte des Esclaves", Librairie Artheme Fayard, 2006. * In 2010 Peter Stothard combined an account of Spartacus' uprising with elements of autobiography, in his memoir On the Spartacus Road. Music * Spartacus is a ballet, with a score by composer Aram Khachaturian. * Australian composer Carl Vine wrote a short piano piece entitled "Spartacus", from Red Blues. * The German group Triumvirat released the album Spartacus in 1975. * The UK band The Farm (band) released the album Spartacus (The Farm album) in 1991. * Jeff Wayne released his musical retelling, Jeff Wayne's Musical Version of Spartacus in 1992. * Phantom Regiment, a World Class (formerly Division 1) drum corps of Drum Corps International, performed a show entitled Spartacus depicting the show through music and visual movement for their competitive field show in 1981, 1982, and 2008. Their 2008 program won World Championship Finals. * "Love Theme From Spartacus" Swing of Delight Carlos Santana, Wayne Shorter, 1980 * American hardcore band, The Fall of Troy, wrote a song entitled "Spartacus". Games The board game Heroscape features Spartacus as one of the game pieces. Radio In "The Histories of Pliny the Elder" – a 1957 episode of the British radio comedy The Goon Show parodying epic films – Spartacus is used as a pseudonym for Bloodnok after he has an affair with Caesar's wife and has to escape from Caesar; "You know that saying, 'Caesar's wife is above suspicion'? Well I put an end to all that rubbish!". Sports * Numerous Bulgarian football clubs bear the name of Spartacus: the most popular are PFC Spartak Varna, FC Spartak Plovdiv and PFC Spartak Pleven. * One of the oldest and the most popular football teams in Slovakia is Spartak Trnava. * Russian sports clubs named FC Spartak, of which FC Spartak Moscow is the most well-known, and Spartak sport society are named in honor of Spartacus.[48] * The Spartakiad was a Soviet bloc version of the Olympic games.[49] This name was also used for the mass gymnastics exhibition held every five years in Czechoslovakia. * Swiss professional Cyclist Fabian Cancellara has been given the nickname Spartacus. * Spartacus 7s is the name of an international rugby sevens team created in 2006. * The Ottawa Senators mascot is a lion named Spartacat, a play on Spartacus since the team logo is a Roman Centurion. * The University of Tampa Spartan's mascot is named Spartacus. * The Spanish basketball player Felipe Reyes is nicknamed Espartaco, Spanish for Spartacus. * The University of Michigan State has a mascot nicknamed "Sparty". Places Spartacus Peak on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands.

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Speusippus in Wikipedia

Speusippus (c. 408 – 339/8 BC[1]) was an ancient Greek philosopher. Speusippus was Plato's nephew by his sister Potone. After Plato's death, Speusippus inherited the Academy and remained its head for the next eight years. However, following a stroke, he passed the chair to Xenocrates. Although the successor to Plato in the Academy, he frequently diverged from Plato's teachings. He rejected Plato's Theory of Forms, and whereas Plato had identified the Good with the ultimate principle, Speusippus maintained that the Good was merely secondary. He also argued that it is impossible to have satisfactory knowledge of any thing without knowing all the differences by which it is separated from everything else. Life Speusippus was a native of Athens, and the son of Eurymedon and Potone, a sister of Plato.[2] The pseudonymous Thirteenth letter of Plato claims that Speusippus married his niece (his mother's granddaughter).[3] We hear nothing of his life until the time when he accompanied his uncle Plato on his third journey to Syracuse, where he displayed considerable ability and prudence, especially in his amicable relations with Dion.[4] His moral worth is recognised even by Timon, though only that he may heap the more unsparing ridicule on his intellect.[5] The report about his sudden fits of anger, his greed, and his debauchery, are probably derived from a very impure source: Athenaeus[6] and Diogenes Laertius[7] can adduce as authority for them scarcely anything more than the abuse in some spurious[8] letters of Dionysius the Younger, who was banished by Dion, with the cooperation of Speusippus. Having been selected by Plato as his successor as the leader (scholarch) of the Academy, he was at the head of the school for only eight years (348/7–339/8 BC). He died, it appears, of a lingering paralytic illness,[9] presumably a stroke. He was succeeded as the head of the school by Xenocrates. Philosophy Diogenes Laertius gives us a list of some of the titles of the many dialogues and commentaries of Speusippus, which is of little help in determining their contents, and the fragments provided by other writers provide us with only a little extra. Epistemology Speusippus was interested in bringing together those things which were similar in their philosophical treatment,[10] and to the derivation, and laying down, of the ideas of genera and species: for he was interested in what the various sciences had in common, and how they might be connected.[11] Thus he furthered the threefold division of philosophy into Dialectics, Ethics, and Physics, for which Plato had laid the foundation, without losing sight of the mutual connection of these three branches of philosophy. For he maintained that noone could arrive at a complete definition who did not know all the differences by which a thing which was to be defined was separated from the rest.[12] With Plato, moreover, he distinguished between that which is the object of thought, and that which is the object of sensuous perception, between the cognition of the reason and sensuous perception. He tried, however, to show how perception can be taken up and transformed into knowledge, by the assumption of a perception, which, by participation in rational truth, raises itself to the rank of knowledge. By this he seems to have understood an immediate, (in the first instance aesthetic), mode of conception; since he appealed, in support of this view, to the consideration that artistic skill has its foundation not in sensuous activity, but in an unerring power of distinguishing between its objects, that is, in a rational perception of them.[13] Metaphysics Speusippus rejected Plato's Theory of Forms; whereas Plato distinguished between ideal numbers (i.e. the Platonic Forms of numbers) and mathematical numbers, Speusippus rejected the ideal numbers, and consequently the ideas.[14] He tried to determine the idea of substance more distinctly by separating its types, the difference between which he considered would result from the difference between the principles (archai) on which they are based. Thus he distinguished substances of number, of size, of soul, while Plato had referred them, as separate entities, to the ideal numbers.[15] Speusippus made still more kinds of substance, beginning with the One, and assuming principles for each kind of substance, one for numbers, another for spatial magnitudes, and then another for the soul; and by going on in this way he multiplies the kinds of substance.[16] Nevertheless Speusippus also must have recognised something common in those different kinds of substances, inasmuch as, firstly, he set out from the absolute One, and regarded it as a formal principle which they had in common,[17] and, secondly, he appears to have assumed that multitude and multiformity was a common primary element in their composition. But it is only the difficulties which led him to make this and similar deviations from the Platonist doctrine, of which we can get any clear idea, not the way in which he thought he had avoided those difficulties by distinguishing different kinds of principles. The criticism of Aristotle, directed apparently against Speusippus, shows how little satisfied he was with the modification of the original Platonist doctrine. With this deviation from Plato's doctrine is connected another which takes a wider range. As the ultimate principle, Speusippus would not, with Plato, recognise the Good, but, with others, (who doubtless were also Platonists), going back to the older Theologi, maintained that the principles of the universe were to be set down as causes of the good and perfect, but were not the good and perfect itself, which must rather be regarded as the result of generated existence, or development, just as the seeds of plants and animals are not the fully formed plants or animals themselves.[18] Speusippus [supposes] that supreme beauty and goodness are not present in the beginning, because the beginnings both of plants and of animals are causes, but beauty and completeness are in the effects of these.[19] The ultimate principle he designated, like Plato, as the absolute One, but it was not to be regarded as an existing entity, since all entities can only be the result of development.[20] When, however, with the Pythagoreans, he reckoned the One in the series of good things,[21] he probably conceived it only in its opposition to the Many, and wished to indicate that it was from the One and not from the Many, that the good and perfect is to be derived.[22] Nevertheless Speusippus seems to have attributed vital activity to the primordial Unity, as inseparably belonging to it,[23] probably in order to explain how it could grow, by a process of self-development, into the good, spirit, etc.; for spirit also he distinguished from the one, as well as from the good; and the good from pleasure and pain.[24] Less worthy of notice is the attempt by Speusippus to find a more suitable expression for the material principle, the indefinite duality of Plato;[25] and his Pythagorizing mode of treating the doctrine of numbers which we can see in the extracts of his treatise on the Pythagorean numbers. Ethics Diogenes Laertius' list of Speusippus' works includes titles on justice, friendship, pleasure, and wealth. Clement of Alexandria (fr. 77 Tarán) reports that Speusippus considered happiness to be "a state that is complete in those things that are in accordance with nature, a condition desired by all human beings, while the good aim at freedom from disturbance; and the virtues would be productive of happiness." This testimony suggests that Speusippus' ethics may have been an important background to ethical ideas of the Stoics (the will's conformity with nature) and Epicureans (compare "freedom from disturbance," aochlēsia, with the notion of ataraxia). Modern scholars have detected a polemic between Speusippus and Eudoxus of Cnidus concerning the good. Eudoxus also accepts that the good will be that at which all people aim, but identifies this as pleasure, as opposed to Speusippus' exclusive focus on moral goods. Texts of Aristotle and Aulus Gellius suggest that Speusippus insisted that pleasure was not a good, but that the good was "in between the opposites of pleasure and pain." It is possible that the dispute between Speusippus and Eudoxus influenced Plato's Philebus (esp. 53c-55a).[26] Speusippus also seems to have developed further Plato's ideas of justice and of the citizen, and the fundamental principles of legislation.

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Speusippus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Σπεύσιππος). An Athenian philosopher, son of Eurymedon and Potoné, a sister of Plato. He accompanied his uncle, Plato, on his third journey to Syracuse, where he displayed considerable ability and prudence. He succeeded Plato as president of the Academy, but was at the head of the School for only eight years (B.C. 347-339). He wrote several works, all of which are lost, in which he developed the doctrines of his great master.

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Sporus of Nicaea in Wikipedia

Sporus of Nicaea was a Greek mathematician and astronomer, (b. ca. 240; d. ca. 300), probably Nicaea (Greek Nikaia), ancient district Bithynia, (modern-day Iznik) in province Bursa, in modern day Turkey. Much of his work focused on squaring the circle and reproducing cubes, both in his own attempts at these problems or in criticizing the work of other contemporary mathematicians. Sporus also criticised Archimedes for not producing a more accurate approximation of π.

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Stesichorus in Wikipedia

Stesichorus (Ancient Greek: Στησίχορος, circa 640 - 555 BC) was the first great poet of the Greek West. He is best known for telling epic stories in lyric metres[1] but he is also famous for some ancient traditions about his life, such as his opposition to the tyrant Phalaris, and the blindness he is said to have incurred and cured by composing verses first insulting and then flattering to Helen of Troy. He was ranked among the nine lyric poets esteemed by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria and yet his work attracted relatively little interest among ancient commentators,[2] which in turn left a disproportionate number of gaps in the modern record - as one scholar observed in 1967: "Time has dealt more harshly with Stesichorus than with any other major lyric poet."[3] Recent discoveries, recorded on Egyptian papyrus (notably and controversially, the Lille papyrus, in 1974),[4] have enhanced modern understanding of his work, confirming his role as a link between Homer's epic narrative and the lyric narrative of poets like Pindar.[5] The following description of the birthplace of the monster Geryon, preserved as a quote by the geographer Strabo,[6] is characteristic of the 'descriptive fulness' of his style:[7] σχεδὸν ἀντιπέρας κλεινᾶς Ἐρυθείας ........................Ταρτησ- σοῦ ποταμοῦ παρὰ παγὰσ ἀπείρονας ἀρ- γυρορίζους ἐν κευθμῶνι πέτρας.[8] A nineteenth century translation imaginatively fills in the gaps while communicating something of the richness of the language: Where monster Geryon first beheld the light, Famed Erytheia rises to the sight; Born near th' unfathomed silver springs that gleam 'Mid caverned rocks, and feed Tartessus' stream.[9] Stesichorus exercised an important influence on the representation of myth in 6th century art[10] and on the development of Athenian dramatic poetry.[11] Biography Details of Stesichorus's life are as fragmentary as his verse and the historical sources are often contradictory. A useful example is provided by the Suda, a 10th century Byzantine encyclopaedia, here reproduced in an English translation from a Loeb edition.[12] Stesichorus: Son of Euphorbus or Euphemus or according to others of Euclides or Euetes or Hesiod. From the city of Himera in Sicily; at any rate he is called the Himeraean; but some say he is from Metauria in Italy. Others say that when exiled from Pallantium in Arcadia he came to Catana and that he died there and was buried in front of the gate which is called Stesichorean after him. In date he was later than the lyric poet Alcman, since he was born in the 37th Olympiad (632/28 BC). He died in the 56th Olympiad (556/2 BC). He had a brother Mamertinus who was an expert in geometry and a second brother Helianax, a law-giver. He was a lyric poet. His poems are in the Doric dialect and in 26 books. They say that he was blinded for writing abuse of Helen and recovered his sight after writing an encomium of Helen, the Palinode, as the result of a dream. He was called Stesichorus because he was the first to establish (stesai) a chorus of singers to the cithara; his name was originally Tisias. - Suda The main points addressed by the Suda are expanded and analysed under the following headings: Chronolgy The specific dates given by the Suda for Stesichorus have been dismissed by one modern scholar as "specious precision"[13] - its dates for the floruit of Alcman (the 27th Olympiad), the life of Stesichorus (37th-56th Olympiads) and the birth of Simonides (the 56th Olympiad) virtually lay these three poets end-to-end, a coincidence that seems to underscore a convenient division between old and new styles of poetry.[14] Nevertheless, the Suda's dates "fit reasonably well" with other indications of Stesichorus's life-span - for example, they are consistent with a claim elsewhere in Suda that the poetess Sappho was his contemporary, along with Alcaeus and Pittacus, and also with the claim, attested by other sources, that Phalaris was his contemporary.[15] Aristotle quoted a speech the poet is supposed to have made to the people of Himera warning them against the tyrannical ambitions of Phalaris.[16] The Byzantine grammarian Tzetzes also listed him as a contemporary of the tyrant and yet made him a contemporary of the philosopher Pythagoras as well. [17] According to Lucian, the poet lived to 85 years of age.[18] Hieronymus declared that his poems became sweeter and more swan-like as he approached death,[19] and Cicero knew of a bronzed statue representing him as a bent old man holding a book.[20] Eusebius dated his floruit in Olympiad 42.2 (611/10 BC) and his death in Olympiad 55.1 (560/59 BC).[21] Family The Suda's claim that Hesiod was the father of Stesichorus can be dismissed as "fantasy"[22] yet it is also mentioned by Tzetzes[23] and the Hesiodic scholiast Proclus[24] (one of them however named the mother of Stesichorus via Hesiod as Ctimene and the other as Clymene). According to another tradition known to Cicero, Stesichorus was the grandson of Hesiod[25] yet even this verges on anachronism since Hesiod was composing verses around 700 BC.[26] Stesichorus might be regarded as Hesiod's literary 'heir' (his treatment of Helen in the Palinode, for example, may have owed much to Hesiod's Catalogue of Women)[27] and maybe this was the source of confusion about a family relationship.[28] According to Stephanus of Byzantium[29] and the philospher Plato[30] the poet's father was named Euphemus, but an inscription on a herm from Tivoli listed him as Euclides.[31] The poet's mathematically inclined brother was named Mamertinus by the Suda but a scholiast in a commentary on Euclid named him Mamercus.[32] Background Stesichorus's lyrical treatment of epic themes was well-suited to a western Greek audience, owing to the popularity of hero-cults in southern Italy and Magna Graeca, as for example the cult of Philoctetes at Sybaris, Diomedes at Thurii and the Atreidae at Tarentum.[33] It was also a sympathetic environment for his most famous poem, The Palinode, composed in praise of Helen, an important cult figure in the Doric diaspora.[34] On the other hand, the western Greeks were not very different to their eastern counterparts and his poetry cannot be regarded exclusively as a product of the Greek West .[35] His poetry reveals both Doric and Ionian influences and this is consistent with the Suda'a claim that his birthplace was either Metauria or Himera, both of which were founded by colonists of mixed Ionian/Doric descent.[36] On the other hand, a Doric/Ionian flavour was fashionable among later poets - it is found in the 'choral' lyrics of the Ionian poets Simonides and Bacchylides - and it might have been fashionable even in Stesichorus's own day.[37] His poetry included a description of the river Himera[38] as well as praise for the town named after it,[39] and his poem Geryoneis included a description of Pallantium in Arcadia.[40] His possible exile from Arcadia is attributed by one modern scholar to rivalry between Tegea and Sparta.[41] Traditional accounts indicate that he was politically active in Magna Graeca. Aristotle mentions two public speeches by Stesichorus: one to the people of Himera, warning them against Phalaris, and another to the people of Locri, warning them against presumption (possibly referring to their war against Rhegium).[42] Philodemus believed that the poet once stood between two armies (which two, he doesn't say) and reconciled them with a song - but there is a similar story about Terpander.[43] According to the 9th century scholar Photius, the term eight all (used by gamblers at dice) derives from an expensive burial the poet received outside Catana, including a monument with eight pillars, eight steps and eight corners,[44] but the 3rd century grammarian Julius Pollux attributed the same term to an 'eight all ways' tomb given to the poet outside Himera.[45] Career Many modern scholars don't accept the Suda's claim that Stesichorus was named for his innovations in choral poetry - there are good reasons to believe that his lyrical narratives were composed for solo performance (see Works below). Moreover the name wasn't unique - there seems to have been more than one poet of this name[46] (see Spurious works below). The Suda in yet another entry refers to the fact, now verified by Papyrus fragments, that Stesichorus composed verses in units of three stanzas (strophe, antistrophe and epode), a format later followed by poets such as Bacchylides and Pindar. Suda claims this three-stanza format was popularly referred to as the three of Stesichorus in a proverbial saying rebuking cultural buffoons ("You don't even know the three of Stesichorus!"). According to one modern scholar, however, this saying could instead refer to the following three lines of his poem The Palinode, addressed to Helen of Troy:[47] There is no truth in that story, You didn't ride in the well-rowed galleys, You didn't reach the walls of Troy.[48] Helen of Troy's bad character was a common theme among poets such as Sappho and Alcaeus[49] and, according to various ancient accounts, Stesichorus viewed her in the same light until she magically punished him with blindness for blaspheming her in one of his poems.[50] According to a colourful account recorded by Pausanias, she later sent an explanation to Stesichorus via a man from Croton, who was on a pilgrimage to White Island in the Black Sea (near the mouth of the Blue Danube), and it was in response to this that Stesichorus composed the Palinode, [51] absolving her of all blame for the Trojan War and thus restoring himself to full sight. Works The ancients associated the lyrical qualities of Stesichorus with the voice of the nightingale, as in this quote from the Palatine Anthology: "...at his birth, when he had just reached the light of day, a nightingale, travelling through the air from somewhere or other, perched unnoticed on his lips and struck up her clear song."[52] The account is repeated by Pliny the Elder[53] but it was the epic qualities of his work that most impressed ancient commentators,[54] though with some reservations on the part of Quintillian: "The greatness of Stesichorus' genius is shown among other things by his subject-matter: he sings of the most important wars and the most famous commanders and sustains on his lyre the weight of epic poetry. In both their actions and their speeches he gives due dignity to his characters, and if only he had shown restraint he could possibly have been regarded as a close rival of Homer; but he is redundant and diffuse, a fault to be sure but explained by the abundance of what he had to say." Quintillian[55] In a similar vein, Dionysius of Halicarnassus commends Stesichorus for "...the magnificence of the settings of his subject matter; in them he has preserved the traits and reputations of his characters",[56] and Longinus puts him in select company with Herodotus, Archilochus and Plato as the 'most Homeric' of authors.[57] Modern scholars tend to accept the general thrust of the ancient comments - even the 'fault' noted by Quintillian gets endorsement: 'longwindedness', as one modern scholar calls it, citing, as proof of it, the interval of 400 lines separating Geryon's death from his eloquent anticipation of it.[58] Similarly, "the repetitiveness and slackness of the style" of the recently discovered Lille papyrus has even been interpreted by one modern scholar as proof of Stesichorean authorship[59] - though others originally used it as an argument against.[60] Possibly Stesichorus was even more Homeric than ancient commentators realized - they had assumed that he composed verses for performance by choirs (the triadic structure of the stanzas, comprising strophe, antistrophe and epode, is consistent with choreographed movement) but a poem such as the Geryoneis included some 1500 lines and it probably required about four hours to perform - longer than a chorus might reasonably be expected to dance.[61] Moreover, the versatility of lyric meter is suited to solo performance with self-accompaniment on the lyre[62] - which is how Homer himself delivered poetry. Whether or not it was a choral technique, the triadic structure of Stesichorean lyrics allowed for novel arrangements of dactylic meter - the dominant meter in his poems and also the defining meter of Homeric epic - thus allowing for Homeric phrasing to be adapted to new settings. However, Stesichorus did more than recast the form of epic poetry - works such as the Palinode were also a recasting of epic material: in that version of the Trojan War, the combatants fought over a phantom Helen while the real Helen either stayed home or went to Egypt (see a summarybelow). The 'Lyric Age' of Greece was in part self-discovery and self-expression - as in the works of Alcaeus and Sappho - but a concern for heroic values and epic themes still endured: "Stesichorus' citharodic narrative points to the simultaneous coexistence of different literary genres and currents in an age of great artistic energy and experimentation. It is one of the exciting qualities of early Greek culture that forms continue to evolve, but the old traditions still remain strong as points of stability and proud community, unifying but not suffocating." - Charles Seagal.[63] An 'Homeric' simile The Homeric qualities of Stesichorus' poetry are demonstrated in a fragment of his poem Geryoneis describing the death of the monster Geryon. A scholiast writing in a margin on Hesiod's Theogony noted that Stesichorus gave the monster wings, six hands and six feet, whereas Hesiod himself had only described it as 'three-headed'[64] yet Stesichorus adapted Homeric motifs to create a humanized portrait evoking compassion.[65] The death of Geryon echoes that of Gorgythion in Homer's Iliad, translated here by Richard Lattimore: He bent drooping his head to one side, as a garden poppy bends beneath the weight of its yield and the rains of springtime;" (Iliad8.306-8)[66] Homer here transforms Gorgythion's death in battle into a thing of beauty - the poppy hasn't wilted or died. [67] Stesichorus adapted the simile to describe Geryon's death at the hands of Heracles, restoring Death's ugliness while still retaining the poignancy of the moment:[68] Then Geryon rested his neck to one side As might a poppy when it mars The tenderness of its body shedding Suddenly all of its petals... (Geryoneis)[69] The mutual self-reflection of the two passages is part of the novel aesthetic experience that Stesichorus here puts into play.[70] The enduring freshness of his art, in spite of its epic traditions, is borne out by Ammianus Marcellinus in an anecdote about Socrates: happening to overhear, on the eve of his own excution, the rendition of a song of Stesichorus, the old philosopher asked to be taught it: "So that I may know something more when I depart from life." [71] The 26 books His works, according to the Suda, were collected in 26 books but each of these was probably a long, narrative poem. The titles of more than half of them are recorded by ancient sources:[72] * Helen: This might have been the poem in which he portrayed Helen of Troy according to convention as a bad character.[73] His interest in the Trojan epic cycle is evinced in a number of works. * Helen: Palinodes: An introduction to a poem of Theocritus refers to "the first book of Stesichorus's Helen",[74] indicating that there were at least two books with this title. Similarly, a commentary recorded on a papyrus, indicates there were two Palinodes, one censuring Homer, the other Hesiod for the false story that Helen went to Troy.[75] Dio Chrysostom summarises two accounts of the Palinode, one in which Helen never sailed for Troy, and a second in which she ended up in Egypt[76] - only her image arrived at Troy. It is not known if either of the two Palinodes was separate from the Helen book(s).[77] * Sack of Troy: Some scholars think the content of the poem can be deduced from a relief carved onto a monument near Rome, but this is contentious - see the section below Tabula Iliaca. * Wooden Horse: The title was recorded in a fragmentary form on a roll of papyrus: Στη...Ίππ.. ~ Ste(sichorus's Wooden) Hor(se). Possibly it was just an alternative title for Sack of Troy.[78] * Nostoi (The Returned): This dealt with the return of the Greek warriors from Troy. * Geryoneis: This relates the theft by Heracles of Geryon's cattle. Many recently discovered fragments allow us a glimpse of the poet at work over the length of the entire poem.[79] It includes: o romantic geography - descriptions of the Sun's voyage in a golden cup under Ocean, of Eurytion's homeland, the 'all-golden' Hesperides, and of Pallanteum in Arcadia, which possibly featured as the home of the Centaur, Pholus; o poignant speeches based on Homeric models - a proud speech by Geryon to Heracles that echoes Sarpedon's speech to Glaucus[80], and an exchange between Geryon and his mother Callirhoe that echoes exchanges between Achilles-Thetis [81] and Hector-Hecuba;[82] o heroic action, again with Homeric colouring - a description of the dying Geryon that echoes the death of Gorgythion. [83] * Cerberus: The title is mentioned by Julius Pollux only because it included the Greek word for a purse but clearly it relates to Heracles's descent into Hades to fetch Cerberus.[84] * Cycnus: A scholiast commenting on a poem by Pindar summarises the story: Heracles's final triumph over Cycnus after an initial defeat.[85] * Skylla: The title is mentioned by a scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes in a passing reference to Skylla's parentage[86] and possibly it involved Heracles.[87] * Thebaid, Seven Against Thebes?: These two titles are conjectured by one modern scholar[88] as appropriate for the longest fragment attributed to Stesichorus - discovered in 1974 among the wrappings of a mummy of the 2nd century BC stored at the university of Lille, generally known as The Lille Stesichorus. It presents a speech by a Theban queen, possibly Jocasta, and some scholars have denied attribution to Stesichorus on account of its "drab, repetitious flaccidity".[89] But opinions are mixed and one scholar sees in it "...Stesichorus' full mastery of his technique, handling epic situations and characters with the flexibility and poignancy of lyric."[90] * Eriphyle: The title is mentioned by Sextus Empiricus in relation to an imaginative account of Asclepius raising the dead at Thebes.[91] Evidently it concerns Eriphyle's role in the Theban epic cycle but with an imaginative twist. * Europa: The title is mentioned by a scholiast on the Phoenissae of Euripides in relation to Stesichorus's imaginative variation on the traditional tale of Cadmus, the brother of Europa, sowing dragon's teeth - Stesichorus presented Athena in that role.[92] * Oresteia: It came in two parts. The title is mentioned by a scholiast on Peace, a play by Aristophanes, attributing some of the lyrics to a borrowing from Stesichorus's poem.[93] The 'second' Oresteia is mentioned in a scholiast's comment on Dionysius of Thrace, according to which Stesichorus attributed the discovery of the Greek alphabet to Palamedes.[94] * Boar-hunters: Athenaeus mentions the title when quoting a description of a boar nosing the earth and the poem evidently concerned Meleager and the Calydonian Boar.[95] * Funeral Games of Pelias: The title is recorded by Zenobius,[96] Athenaeus[97] and Etymologicum Magnum,[98] the last two of which also include a handful of quotes. Spurious works Some poems were wrongly attributed to Stesichorus by ancient sources, including bucolic poems and some love songs such as Calyce and Rhadine. It is possible that these are the works of another Stesichorus belonging to the fourth century, mentioned in the Marmor Parium.[99] Tabula Iliaca Bovillae, about twelve miles outside Rome, was the original site of a monument dating from the Augustan period and now located in the Capitoline Museum. The stone monument features scenes from the fall of Troy, depicted in low relief, and an inscription: Ιλίου Πέρσις κατα Στησίχορον ('Sack of Troy according to Stesichorus').[100] Scholars are divided as to whether or not it accurately depicts incidents described by Stesichorus in his poem Sack of Troy. There is, for example, a scene showing Aeneas and his father Anchises departing 'for Hesperia' with 'sacred objects', which might have more to do with the poetry of Virgil than with that of Stesichorus.[101][102][103]

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Stesimbrotos of Thasos in Wikipedia

Stesimbrotos of Thasos (Ancient Greek: Στησίμβροτος, c. 470 BC – c. 420 BC), doubtless raised at Thasos, was a sophist, a rhapsode and logographer, a writer on history, and an opponent of Pericles and reputed author of a political pamphlet On Themistocles, Thucydides, and Pericles. Plutarch used writings by Stesimbrotos in his Life of Pericles, asserting that the coolness between Pericles and his son Xanthippos was due to Pericles seducing his daughter-in-law. Walter Burkert has suggested Stesimbrotos as the author of the Derveni papyrus (Burkert 1987:44, 58 n.6).

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Stesimbrŏtus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Στησίμβροτος), of Thasos, a rhapsodist and historian in the time of Cimon and Pericles, who is mentioned with praise by Plato and Xenophon (Plato, Ion, p. 550; Xen. Mem. iv. 2, 10). He wrote a work on Homer, the character of which is not known. See Heuer, De Stesimbroto Thasio (1863).

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Stilpo in Wikipedia

Stilpo (or Stilpon, Greek: Στίλπων; c. 360-c. 280 BC[2]) was a Greek philosopher of the Megarian school. He was a contemporary of Theophrastus, Diodorus Cronus, and Crates of Thebes. None of his writings survive, he was interested in logic and dialectic, and he argued that the universal is fundamentally separated from the individual and concrete. His ethical teachings approached that of the Cynics and Stoics. His most important pupil was Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism. Life He was a native of Megara. He probably lived after the time of Euclid of Megara, which makes it unlikely that he was a pupil of Euclid, as stated by some;[3] and others state that he was the pupil of Thrasymachus of Corinth,[4] or of Pasicles, the brother of Crates of Thebes.[5] According to one account, he engaged in dialectic encounters with Diodorus Cronus at the court of Ptolemy Soter; according to another, he did not comply with the invitation of the king, to go to Alexandria. We are further told that Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, honoured him no less, spared his house at the capture of Megara, and offered him indemnity for the injury which it had received, which, however, Stilpo declined.[6] Uniting elevated sentiment with gentleness and patience, he, as Plutarch says,[7] was an ornament to his country and friends, and had his acquaintance sought by kings. His original propensity to wine and voluptuousness he is said to have entirely overcome;[8] in inventive power and dialectic art to have surpassed his contemporaries, and to have inspired almost all Greece with a devotion to Megarian philosophy. A number of distinguished men too are named, whom he is said to have drawn away from Theophrastus, Aristotle of Cyrene, and others, and attached to himself;[9] among others Crates the Cynic, and Zeno, the founder of the Stoic school.[4] Among his followers were Menedemus and Asclepiades, the leaders of the Eretrian school of philosophy. One of his pupils, Nicarete, was also said to have been his mistress.[10] Stilpo was praised for his political wisdom, his simple, straightforward disposition, and the equanimity with which he tolerated his rebellious daughter.[11] Cicero describes him as a man of the highest character.[12] Philosophy Of the dialogues ascribed to him, we know only the titles. He belonged to the Megarian school of philosophy, but we learn only a little about his doctrines in the few fragments and sayings of his which are quoted. Logic Stilpo argued that the genus, the universal, is not contained in the individual and concrete. "Whoever speaks of any person, speaks of no-one, for he neither speaks of this one nor that. For why should it rather be of this one than that? Hence it is not of this one."[13] One of his examples was that "the vegetable is not what is here shown. For a vegetable existed ten thousand years ago, therefore this here is not a vegetable."[13] According to Simplicius, "the so-called Megarians took it as ascertained that what has different determinations is different, and that the diverse are separated one from the other, they seemed to prove that each thing is separated from itself. Hence since the musical Socrates is another determination from the wise Socrates, Socrates was separated from himself."[14] Thus one thing cannot be predicated of another, that is, the essence of things cannot be reached by means of predicates. Plutarch quotes Stilpo as arguing: To be a horse differs from to be running. For being asked the definition of the one and of the other, we do not give the same for them both; and therefore those err who predicate the one of the other. For if good is the same with people, and to run the same with a horse, how is good affirmed also of food and medicine, and again (by Jupiter) to run of a lion and a dog? But if the predicate is different, then we do not rightly say that a person is good, and a horse runs.[15] Plutarch remarks here that Colotes attacked Stilpo in a bombastic manner as though he ignored common life: "for how shall we live, if we cannot style a man good, nor a man a captain, but must separately name a man a man, good good, and a captain a captain." But Plutarch, in turn, replied, "but what man lived any the worse for this? Is there any man who hears this said, and who does not understand it to be the speech of a man who rallies gallantly, and proposes to others this logical question to exercise their mind?" Ethics Stilpo seems to have been interested in Virtue,[16] and its self-sufficiency. He maintained that the wise man ought not only to overcome every evil, but not even to be affected by any, not even to feel it,[17] showing, perhaps, how closely allied Stilpo was to the contemporary Cynics: For Stilpo, after his country was captured and his children and his wife lost, as he emerged from the general desolation alone and yet happy, spoke as follows to Demetrius, called Sacker of Cities because of the destruction he brought upon them, in answer to the question whether he had lost anything: "I have all my goods with me!" -Seneca, Wikisource-logo.svg Epistles, 9.18. This story was an inspiration for Friedrich Klinger's Sturm und Drang play Stilpo und seine Kinder (Stilpo and his Children) written in 1777 and published in 1780.[18] A one-page fragment or paraphrase from a work concerning exile is preserved in the writings of Teles of Megara, a 3rd-century BC Cynic. In this fragment, Stilpo divides the good into three parts: goods of the soul, goods of the body, and external goods. He then demonstrates that exile does not deprive a person of any of these three goods.[19]

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Stilpo in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Στίλπων). A celebrated philosopher, who was a native of Megara, and taught philosophy in his native town. He is said to have surpassed his contemporaries in inventive power and dialectic art, and to have inspired almost all Greece with a devotion to the ethical Megarian philosophy, dwelling especially upon the conception of virtue and its consideration (Diog. Laert. ii. 113-118; Epist. 9).

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Stobaeus in Wikipedia

Joannes Stobaeus (Greek: Ἰωάννης ὁ Στοβαῖος), so called from his native place Stobi in North Macedonia (Roman province), was the compiler of a valuable series of extracts from Greek authors. Biography and works Of his life nothing is known, but he probably lived during the latter half of the 5th century AD. From his silence in regard to Christian thinkers, scholars deduce that he was probably not a Christian. The extracts were intended by Stobaeus for his son Septimius, and were preceded by a letter briefly explaining the purpose of the work and giving a summary of the contents. From this summary (preserved in Photius's Bibliotheca) we learn that Stobaeus divided his work into four books and two volumes. In most of our manuscripts the work is divided into three books, of which the first and second are generally called Physical and Moral Extracts, and the third Florilegium or Sermones. The introduction to the whole work, treating of the value of philosophy and of philosophical sects, is lost, with the exception of the concluding portion; the second book is little more than a fragment, and the third and fourth books have been amalgamated by altering the original sections. From these and other indications it seems probable that the extant writing is only an epitome of the original work, made by an anonymous Byzantine writer of much later date. The didactic aim of Stobaeus's work is apparent throughout. The first book teaches physics --in the wide sense the Greeks assigned to this term-- by means of extracts. It is often untrustworthy: Stobaeus betrays a tendency to confound the dogmas of the early Ionic philosophers, and he occasionally conflates Platonism with Pythagoreanism. For part of this book and much of book II he depended on the works of the peripatetic philosopher Aetius and Didymus Chalcenterus. The third and fourth books, like the larger part of the second, treat of ethics; the third, of virtues and vices, in pairs; the fourth, of more general ethical and political subjects, frequently citing extracts to illustrate the pros and cons of a question in two successive chapters. In all, Stobaeus quotes more than five hundred writers, generally beginning with the poets, and then proceeding to the historians, orators, philosophers and physicians. It is to him that we owe many of our most important fragments of the dramatists, particularly of Euripides. He also wrote several important fragments concerning Stoicism.

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Stobaeus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

Ioannes (Ιωάννης ὁ Στοβαῖος). A Greek writer of uncertain date (probably about A.D. 500), who derived his surname apparently from being a native of Stobi in Macedonia. Of his personal history we know nothing. Stobaeus was a man of extensive reading, in the course of which he noted down the most interesting passages; and to him we are indebted for a large proportion of the fragments that remain of the lost works of the early Greek poets and prose-writers to the number of 500. His work, which was a sort of anthology, was originally a single one, but in course of time was divided into two, each having two subdivisions-Eclogae Physicae et Ethicae, which is edited by Gaisford (1850) and Meineke (1860-64); and the Anthologion or Florilegium, edited by Gaisford (1822-25), Meineke (1856-57), and Wachsmuth and Hense, 3 vols. (Berlin, 1884-94).

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Strabo in Wikipedia

Strabo[1] (Greek: Στράβων; 63/64 BC – ca. AD 24) was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Life Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus (modern Amasya, Turkey),[2] a city which he said to be situated the approximate equivalent of 75 km from the Black Sea. Pontus had recently fallen to the Roman Empire, and although politically he was a proponent of Roman imperialism, Strabo belonged on his mother's side to a prominent family whose members had held important positions under the resisting regime of King Mithridates VI of Pontus.[3] Strabo's life was characterized by extensive travels. He journeyed to Egypt and Kush, as far west as coastal Tuscany and as far south as Ethiopia in addition to his travels in Asia Minor and time spent in Rome. Travel throughout the Mediterranean and Near East, especially for scholarly purposes, was popular during this era, and was facilitated by the relative peace enjoyed throughout the reign of Augustus (27 BC - AD 14). He moved to Rome in 44 BC, and stayed there, studying and writing, until at least 31 BC. In 29 BC, on his way to Corinth (where Augustus was at the time), he visited the island of Gyaros in the Aegean Sea for several years. Around 25 BC, he sailed up the Nile until reaching Philae,[4] after which point there is little record of his proceedings until 17 AD, when he returned to Rome to finish compiling a final draft of his Geography during his final years. It is not known precisely when Strabo's Geography was written, though comments within the work itself place the finished version within the reign of Emperor Tiberius. Some place its first drafts around 7 AD, others around 18 AD. Last dateable mention is given to the death in 23 AD of Juba II, king of Maurousia (Mauretania), who is said to have died "just recently".[5] On the presumption that "recently" means within a year, Strabo stopped writing that year or the next (24 AD), when he died. The first of Strabo's major works, Historical Sketches (Historica hypomnemata), written while he was in Rome (ca. 20 BC), is nearly completely lost. Meant to cover the history of the known world from the conquest of Greece by the Romans, Strabo quotes it himself and other classical authors mention that it existed, although the only surviving document is a fragment of papyrus now in possession of the University of Milan (renumbered [Papyrus] 46). Several different dates have been proposed for Strabo's death, but most of them conclude that he died shortly after 23 AD. Education Strabo studied under several prominent teachers of various specialties throughout his early life[6], at different stops along his mediterranean travels. His first chapter of education took place in Nysa (modern Sultanhisar, Turkey), under the master of rhetoric Aristodemus, who had formerly taught the sons of the very same Roman general who had taken over Pontus.[7][8] Aristodemus was the head of two schools of rhetoric and grammar, one in Nysa and one in Rhodes, the former of the two cities possessing a distinct intellectual curiosity of Homeric literature and the interpretation of epics. Strabo was an admirer of Homer's poetry, perhaps a consequence of his time spent in Nysa with Aristodemus.[9] Around the age of 20 Strabo then first moved to Rome, where he studied philosophy with the Peripatetic Xenarchus, a highly respected tutor in Augustus' court. Despite Xenarchus' Aristotelian leanings, Strabo later gives evidence to have formed his own Stoic inclinations.[10] In Rome he also learned grammar under the rich and famous scholar Tyrannion of Amisus.[11][12] Although Tyrannion was also a Peripatetic, he was more relevantly a respected authority on geography, a fact obviously significant considering Strabo's future contributions to the field. The final noteworthy mentor to Strabo is Athenodorus Cananites, a philosopher who had spent his life since 44 BC in Rome forging relationships with the Roman elite. Athenodorus endowed to Strabo three important items: his philosophy, his knowledge, and his contacts. Unlike the Aristotelian Xenarchus and Tyrannion that preceded him in teaching Strabo, Athenodorus was Stoic in mindset, almost certainly the source of Strabo's diversion from the philosophy of his former mentors. Secondly, from his own experiences he provided Strabo with information of regions of the empire that would eventually be incorporated in his Geography, specifically the cities of Tarsus, further south on Asia Minor than Strabo's Pontus, and Petra, just north of the Red Sea. Finally, Athenodorus' noteworthy relationship with individuals of influence, including Cicero and the Roman Emperor, undoubtedly aided Strabo's integration into Roman high society. In general Strabo was very reverent of the academic process and valued his own education as integral for his various works. He is even quoted in expressing a responsibility that he felt to refer 'legends that have been taught us from boyhood' in his writings. Strabo supported the notion of a broad and multifarious education, consistent with the Greek and Roman approach to education characteristic of the Hellenistic era, that recommended an encyclopedic acquisition of knowledge as a means of attaining learned status in any of the primary realms of study. Given the multitude of respected intellectual mentors with which he was provided study, Strabo accumulated a substantial knowledge of terrestrial and celestial sciences, in addition to a worldly knowledge as developed from frequent interaction with eclectic but like-minded scholars. From this foundation he was thus prepared to contribute to the environment of popular knowledge, especially geographical knowledge, such as he did. The Geography Strabo is mostly famous for his 17-volume work Geographica, which presented a descriptive history of people and places from different regions of the world known to his era.[5] Although the Geographica was rarely utilized in its contemporary antiquity, a multitude of copies are found throughout the Byzantine Empire. It first appeared in Western Europe in Rome as a Latin translation issued around 1469. Isaac Casaubon, classical scholar and editor of Greek texts, provided the first critical edition in 1587. Although Strabo referenced the antique Greek astronomers Eratosthenes and Hipparchus and acknowledged their astronomical and mathematical efforts towards geography, he claimed that a descriptive approach was more practical, such that his works were designed for statesmen who were more anthropologically than numerically concerned with the character of countries and regions.

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Strabo in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Στράβων). A celebrated geographer, a native of Amasia in Pontus. The date of his birth is unknown, but may perhaps be placed about B.C. 63. He lived during the whole of the reign of Augustus, and during the early part, at least, of the reign of Tiberius. He is supposed to have died after A.D. 21. He received a careful education. He studied grammar under Aristodemus at Nysa in Caria, and philosophy under Xenarchus of Seleucia in Cilicia and Boethus of Sidon. He lived some years at Rome, and also travelled much in various countries. We learn from his own work that he was with his friend Ælius Gallus in Egypt in B.C. 24. He wrote an historical work (Ἱστορικὰ Ὑπομνήματα) in forty-three books, which is lost. It began where the history of Polybius ended, and was probably continued to the battle of Actium. He also wrote the work on Geography (Γεωγραφικά), in seventeen books, which has come down to us entire, with the exception of the seventh, of which we have only a meagre epitome. Strabo's work, according to his own expression, was not intended for the use of all persons. It was designed for all who had had a good education, and particularly for those who were engaged in the higher departments of administration. Consistently with this view, his plan does not comprehend minute description, except when the place or the object is of great interest or importance; nor is his description limited to the physical characteristics of each country; it comprehends the important political events of which each country has been the theatre, a notice of the chief cities and the great men who made them illustrious; in short, whatever was most characteristic and interesting in every country. His work forms a striking contrast with the geography of Ptolemy, and the dry list of names, occasionally relieved by something added to them, in the geographical portion of the Historia Naturalis of Pliny. It is, in short, a book intended for reading, and it may be read; a kind of historical geography. Strabo's language is generally clear, except in very technical passages and in those where the text has been corrupted; it is appropriate to the matter, simple, and without affectation. The first two books of Strabo are an introduction to his Geography, and contain his views on the form and magnitude of the earth, and other subjects connected with mathematical geography. In the third book he begins his description: he devotes eight books to Europe, six to Asia, and the seventeenth and last to Egypt and Libya. The editio princeps appeared at Venice in 1516. The best editions of Strabo are by Casaubon (Geneva, 1587), reprinted by Falconer (Oxford, 1807); by Koray (Paris, 1815); by Kramer, 3 vols. (Berlin, 1844-52); by Müller and Dübner (1853-56); and by Meineke (1866-77). There is a fine translation into French in 5 vols. made by command of Napoleon I. (Paris, 1805-19), with valuable notes. An English version is that of Hamilton and Falconer, 3 vols. (1854-57). Tozer's English edition of selections from Strabo (Oxford, 1893) has an excellent introduction. See also Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography, ii. pp. 209 foll., and Dubois, Examen de la Géographie de Strabo (Paris, 1891).

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Strato of Lampsacus in Wikipedia

Strato of Lampsacus (or Straton, Greek: Στράτων; c. 335-c. 269 BC) was a Peripatetic philosopher, and the third director (scholarch) of the Lyceum after the death of Theophrastus. He devoted himself especially to the study of natural science, and increased the naturalistic elements in Aristotle's thought to such an extent, that he denied the need for an active god to construct the universe, preferring to place the government of the universe in the unconscious force of nature alone. Life Strato, son of Arcesilaus or Arcesius, was born at Lampsacus between 340 and 330 BC.[1] It is not impossible that he might have known Epicurus during his period of teaching in Lampsacus between 310 and 306.[1] He attended Aristotle's school in Athens, after which he left Athens and went to Egypt where he was the tutor of Ptolemy Philadelphus and also taught Aristarchus of Samos. He returned to Athens after the death of Theophrastus (c. 287 BC) and was chosen as his successor. He died sometime between 270 and 268 BC,[1] and was succeeded as head of the Lyceum by Lyco of Troas. Strato devoted himself especially to the study of natural science, whence he obtained, or, as it appears from Cicero, assumed the name of Physicus (Greek: Φυσικός). Cicero, while speaking highly of his talents, blames him for neglecting the most important part of philosophy, that which concerns virtue and morals, and giving himself up to the investigation of nature.[2] In the long list of his works, given by Diogenes Laertius, several of the titles are upon subjects of moral philosophy, but the great majority belong to the department of physical science. None of his writings survive, his views are known only from the fragmentary reports preserved by later writers. Philosophy Strato emphasized the need for exact research,[3] and, as an example of this, he made use of the observation of how water pouring from a spout breaks into separate droplets as evidence that falling bodies accelerate.[4] Whereas Aristotle defined time as the numbered aspect of motion,[5] Strato argued that because motion and time are continuous whereas number is discrete, time has an existence independent of motion.[6] He was critical of Aristotle's concept of place as a surrounding surface,[7] preferring to see it as the space which a thing occupies.[8] He also rejected the existence of Aristotle's fifth element.[9] He emphasized the role of pneuma, ('breath' or 'spirit') in the functioning of the soul; soul-activities were explained by pneuma extending throughout the body from the 'ruling part' located in the head.[10] All sensation is felt in the ruling-part of the soul, rather than in the extremities of the body; all sensation involves thought, and there is no thought not derived from sensation.[11] He denied that the soul was immortal, and attacked the 'proofs' put forward by Plato in his Phaedo.[3] Strato believed all matter consisted of tiny particles, but he rejected Democritus' theory of empty space. In Strato's view, void does exist, but only in the empty spaces between imperfectly fitting particles; Space is always filled with some kind of matter.[12] Such a theory permitted phenomena such as compression, and allowed the penetration of light and heat through apparently solid bodies.[7] The opinions of Strato have given rise to much controversy; but unfortunately the result has been very unsatisfactory on account of lack of information. He seems to have denied the existence of any god outside of the material universe, and to have held that every particle of matter has a plastic and seminal power, but without sensation or intelligence; and that life, sensation, and intellect, are but forms, accidents, and affections of matter. Nor does his pupil Strato, who is called the natural philosopher, deserve to be listened to; he holds that all divine force is resident in nature, which contains, he says, the principles of birth, increase, and decay, but which lacks, as we could remind him, all sensation and form.[13] Like the atomists (Leucippus and Democritus) before him, Strato of Lampsacus was a materialist and believed that everything in the universe was composed of matter and energy. Strato was one of the first philosophers to formulate an atheistic worldview, in which God is merely the unconscious force of nature. You deny that without God there can be anything: but here you yourself seem to go contrary to Strato of Lampsacus, who concedes to God a pardon from a great task. If the priests of God were on vacation, it is much more just that the Gods would also be on vacation; in fact he denies the need to appreciate the work of the Gods in order to construct the world. All the things that exist he teaches have been produced by nature; not hence, as he says, according to that philosophy which claims these things are made of rough and smooth corpuscles, indented and hooked, the void interfering; these, he upholds, are dreams of Democritus which are not to be taught but dreamt. Strato, in fact, investigating the individual parts of the world, teaches that all that which is or is produced, is or has been produced, by weight and motion. Thus he liberates God from a big job and me from fear.[14] Strato endeavoured to replace the Aristotelian teleology by a purely physical explanation of phenomena, the underlying elements of which he found in heat and cold, with especially heat as the active principle.[3] Although Strato's view of the universe can be seen as atheistic, he would probably have accepted the existence of lesser gods within the universe, and in the context of Greek religion it is unlikely that he would have regarded himself as an atheist.[15] Modern era Strato's name meant little in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, however, in the 17th century his name suddenly became famous because of the supposed similarities between his system and the pantheistic views of Spinoza.[16] Ralph Cudworth, in choosing to attack atheism in 1678, chose Strato's system as one of four types of atheism, and in doing so, coined the term hylozoism to describe any system where primitive matter is endowed with a life-force.[17] These ideas reached Pierre Bayle, who adopted Strato and 'Stratonism' as key components of his own philosophy.[18] In his Continuation des Pensees diverses, published in 1705, Stratonism had become the most important ancient equivalent of Spinozism.[19] For Bayle, Strato had made everything follow a fixed order of necessity, with no innate good or bad in the universe; the universe is not a living thing with intelligence or intent, and there is no other divine power but nature.[20]

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Straton of Sardis in Wikipedia

Straton of Sardis (maybe better known under his Latin name Strato) was a Greek poet and anthologist from the Lydian city of Sardis. He is thought to have lived during the time of Hadrian, based on Straton authorship of a poem about the doctor Artemidorus Capito, a contemporary of Hadrian. Straton is mentioned by Diogenes Laertius, at the beginning of the 3rd century AD. Straton assembled the anthology of erotic and amorous epigrams called the Μουσα Παιδικη (Mousa Paidike, "The Boyish Muse"). Around 900 AD, a Byzantine scholar named Constantine Cephalas compiled pieces of several Greek anthologies, including The Boyish Muse, to make a comprehensive collection of Greek epigrams. Since there is no other textual proof, we do not know if The Boyish Muse was taken whole, or if a selection was made from it, or if Cephalas maintained the order of the original anthology, or how much of it is original. Cephalas's collection was revised, divided into specialized anthologies, adapted for school use, and generally much copied. In 1301 AD, a scholar named Maximus Planudes put together a bowdlerized version of the Cephalan book ,which became very popular in the Greek part of the οiκουμένη. When the Ottomans conquered the remains of the Byzantine empire, many Greek scholars brought versions of Planudes' version with them into exile in Italy. The Greeks became teachers to Italian scholars. In 1494 they printed an edition of the Planudean book, the Florilegium Diversorum Epigrammatum, in Florence. Most of what we know of Straton's work comes instead from a manuscript copied around 980 AD, which preserved many of the poems from the earlier Cephalan anthology. This manuscript was discovered in the library of the Counts Palatine in Heidelberg in 1606 or 1607, by a young visiting scholar named Claudius Salmasius. There is no clear record of how it got there, but a visiting Italian scholar probably left it. About the middle of the 16th century, the Roman scholar and antiquarian Fulvio Orsini (1529–1600) had seen and mentioned such a manuscript, then in the possession of one Angelo Colloti. The newly discovered poems in the Palatine version were copied out by Salmasius, and he began to circulate clandestine manuscript copies as the Anthologia Inedita. His copy was later published: first in 1776 when Richard François Philippe Brunck included it in his Analecta; and then the full Palatine Anthology was published by F. Jacobs as the Anthologia Graeca (13 vols. 1794 - 1803; revised 1813 - 1817). The remains of Straton's The Boyish Muse became Book 12 in Jacob's critical Anthologia Graeca edition. Because of its taboo subject matter, until the mid-20th century Straton's work was generally left untranslated, translated only into Latin, published in censored forms, or translated only in private editions. These translations helped form the Greek core of influential homosexual poetry anthologies, such as Elisar von Kupffer's Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe in der Weltliteratur (1899) and Edward Carpenter's Iolaus (1908). New translations of Straton's 'Book 12' were later published by poets such as Roger Peyrefitte and Salvatore Quasimodo. The first complete verse translation from Greek into English of Straton's surviving anthology of poems was published by Princeton University in 2001 as Puerilities. This collection contains 258 surviving poems (omitting one, an obvious later forgery), translated by Daryl Hine, with Greek originals facing. The title is a pun on the one-time title of the work, the Musa Puerilis. Alessandria: Edizioni dell'Orso recently published in 2007 Lucia Floridi's Stratone di Sardi. Epigrammi. Testo critico, traduzione e commento, a book incorporating 105 epigrams into a single edition with commentary. An article by James Jope in the journal Mouseion (2005) compares the translations by Hine and Peyrefitte and discusses how the poems can be reshaped in a modern context. Scholars have noted Straton's anthology as a strong influence on the work of 20th-century Greek poet C.P. Cavafy.

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Teleclus in Wikipedia

Teleclus or Teleklos (Greek: Τήλεκλος) was a king of Sparta during the eighth century BC. Pausanias reports that Teleclus' reign saw the conquest of Amyclae, Pharis and Geranthrae, towns of the Perioeci or "dwellers round about"[1]. Teleclus was killed during a skirmish with the Messanians during a festival at the temple of Artemis Limnatis[2], an event foreshadowing the First Messenian War. He was succeeded by his son Alcmenes or Alkamenes.

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Terence in Wikipedia

Publius Terentius Afer (195/185–159 BC), better known in English as Terence, was a playwright of the Roman Republic. His comedies were performed for the first time around 170–160 BC, and he died young, probably in Greece or on his way back to Rome. Terentius Lucanus, a Roman senator, brought Terence to Rome as a slave, educated him and later on, impressed by his abilities, freed him. All of the six plays Terence wrote have survived. One famous quotation by Terence reads: "Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto", or "I am a man, I consider nothing that is human alien to me." This appeared in his play Heauton Timorumenos. Biography Terence's date of birth is disputed; Aelius Donatus, in his incomplete Commentum Terenti, considers the year 185 BC to be the year Terentius was born;[1] Fenestella, on the other hand, states that he was born ten years earlier, in 195 BC.[2] He may have been born in or near Carthage or in Greek Italy to a woman taken to Carthage as a slave. Terence's ethnonym Afer suggests he lived in the territory of the Libyan tribe called by the Romans Afri near Carthage prior to being brought to Rome as a slave.[3] This inference is based on the fact that the term was used in two different ways during the republican era: during Terence's lifetime, it was used to refer to anyone from the land of the Afri (Africa, meaning Northern Tunisia including Carthage); later, after the destruction of Carthage in 146, it was used to refer to non-Carthaginian Libyco-Berbers, with the term Punicus reserved for the Carthaginians.[4] It is therefore possible that Terence was of Libyan[5] descent, considered ancestors to the modern-day Berber peoples.[6] In any case, he was sold to P. Terentius Lucanus[7], a Roman senator, who educated him and later on, impressed by Terence's abilities, freed him. Terence then took the nomen "Terentius," which is the origin of the present form. When he was 25, Terence left Rome and he never returned, after having exhibited the six comedies which are still in existence. According to some ancient writers, he died at sea. Terence's plays Like Plautus, Terence adapted Greek plays from the late phases of Attic comedy. He was more than a translator, as modern discoveries of ancient Greek plays have confirmed. However, Terence's plays use a convincingly 'Greek' setting rather than Romanizing the characters and situations. Terence worked hard to write natural conversational Latin, and most students who persevere long enough to be able to read him in the vernacular find his style particularly pleasant and direct. Aelius Donatus, Jerome's teacher, is the earliest surviving commentator on Terence's work. Terence's popularity throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance is attested to by the numerous manuscripts containing part or all of his plays; the scholar Claudia Villa has estimated that 650 manuscripts containing Terence's work date from after 800 AD. The mediaeval playwright Hroswitha of Gandersheim claims to have written her plays so that learned men had a Christian alternative to reading the pagan plays of Terence, while the reformer Martin Luther not only quoted Terence frequently to tap into his insights into all things human but also recommended his comedies for the instruction of children in school.[8] Terence's six plays are: * Adelphoe (The Brothers) (160 BC) * Andria (The Girl from Andros) (166 BC) * Eunuchus (161 BC) * Heauton Timorumenos (The Self-Tormentor) (163 BC) * Hecyra (The Mother-in-Law) (165 BC) * Phormio (161 BC) The first printed edition of Terence appeared in Strasbourg in 1470, while the first certain post-antiquity performance of one of Terence's plays, Andria, took place in Florence in 1476. There is evidence, however, that Terence was performed much earlier. The short dialogue Terentius et delusor was probably written to be performed as an introduction to a Terentian performance in the ninth century (possibly earlier). A phrase by his musical collaborator Flaccus for Terence's comedy Hecyra is all that remains of the entire body of ancient Roman music. This has recently been shown to be inauthentic.[citation needed]

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Thaïs in Wikipedia

Thaïs (Greek: Θαΐς) was a famous Greek hetaera who lived during the time of Alexander the Great and accompanied him on his campaigns. Thaïs first came to the attention of history when, in 330 BC, Alexander the Great burned down the palace of Persepolis after a drinking party. Thaïs was present at the party and gave a speech which convinced Alexander to burn the palace. Cleitarchus claims that the destruction was a whim; Plutarch and Diodorus recount that it was intended as retribution for Xerxes' burning of the temple of Athena on the Acropolis in Athens in 480 BC (the destroyed temple was replaced by the Parthenon of Athens) "When the king [Alexander] had caught fire at their words, all leaped up from their couches and passed the word along to form a victory procession in honour of Dionysus. Promptly many torches were gathered. Female musicians were present at the banquet, so the king led them all out for the comus to the sound of voices and flutes and pipes, Thaïs the courtesan leading the whole performance. She was the first, after the king, to hurl her blazing torch into the palace. As the others all did the same, immediately the entire palace area was consumed, so great was the conflagration. It was remarkable that the impious act of Xerxes, king of the Persians, against the acropolis at Athens should have been repaid in kind after many years by one woman, a citizen of the land which had suffered it, and in sport." -Diodorus of Sicily (XVII.72) People in the palace were given enough time to leave the building; there is no record of loss of life. Thaïs was the lover and possibly a wife of Ptolemy I Soter, King of Egypt. Her subsequent career is unknown. Appearances in literature Her larger-than-life persona has resulted in characters named Thaïs appearing in several literary works, the most famous of which are listed below. In Terence's Eunuchus, the female protagonist - a courtesan - is named after her. In The Divine Comedy, Thaïs is one of just a few women whom Dante Alighieri sees on his journey through Hell (Inferno, XVIII,133-136). She is located in the circle of the flatterers, plunged in a trench of excrement, having been consigned there, we are told by Virgil, for having uttered to her lover that she was "marvellously" fond of him. Dante's Thaïs is not the historical courtesan, but the protagonist of Terence's play. Thais and Alexander the Great are conjured by Faustus in Christopher Marlowe's "Doctor Faustus" for the amusement of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Thais is a supporting character in two novels by Mary Renault about Alexander the Great: "Fire from Heaven" and "The Persian Boy", as well as in Renault's biography of Alexander, "The Nature of Alexander." Thais is the heroine of a 1972 novel by the Russian author Ivan Efremov, Thais of Athens. It chronicles her life from meeting Alexander the Great through to her time as queen of Memphis in Egypt. Other literary figures named Thais are references to Thais of Alexandria, a historical figure of a later period.

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Ptolemy in Wikipedia

Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; c. AD 90 – c. 168), known in English as Ptolemy (pronounced /ˈtɒləmɪ/), was a Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek.[1] He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer and a poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.[2][3] He lived in Egypt under Roman rule, and is believed to have been born in the town of Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid. He died in Alexandria around AD 168.[4] Ptolemy was the author of several scientific treatises, at least three of which were of continuing importance to later Islamic and European science. The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest (in Greek, Ἡ Μεγάλη Σύνταξις, "The Great Treatise", originally Μαθηματικὴ Σύνταξις, "Mathematical Treatise"). The second is the Geography, which is a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. The third is the astrological treatise known sometimes in Greek as the Apotelesmatika (Ἀποτελεσματικά), more commonly in Greek as the Tetrabiblos (Τετράβιβλος "Four books"), and in Latin as the Quadripartitum (or four books) in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day. Background The name Claudius is a Roman nomen; the fact that Ptolemy bore it proves that he was a Roman citizen. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemy's family who became a citizen (whether it was he or an ancestor) took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius, who was in some sense responsible for granting citizenship. If, as was not uncommon, this Roman was the emperor, the citizenship would have been granted between AD 41 and 68 (when Claudius, and then Nero, were emperors). The astronomer would also have had a praenomen, which remains unknown. However, it may have been Tiberius, as that praenomen was very common among those whose families had been granted citizenship by these emperors. Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy) is a Greek name. It occurs once in Greek mythology, and is of Homeric form. It was quite common among the Macedonian upper class at the time of Alexander the Great, and there were several among Alexander's army, one of whom in 323 BC made himself King of Egypt: Ptolemy I Soter; all the kings after him, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC, were also Ptolemies. There is little evidence on the subject of Ptolemy's ancestry (though see above on his family's Roman citizenship), but most scholars and historians consider it unlikely that Ptolemy was related to the royal dynasty of the Ptolemies.[citation needed] Beyond his being considered a member of Alexandria's Greek society, few details of Ptolemy's life are known. He wrote in Ancient Greek and is known to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data.[5][6] Although he was a Roman citizen, most scholars have concluded that Ptolemy was ethnically Greek,[7][8][9] while some suggest that he was a Hellenized Egyptian.[8][10][11] He was often known in later Arabic sources as "the Upper Egyptian",[12] suggesting that he may have had origins in southern Egypt.[13] Later Arabic astronomers, geographers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic: بطليموس‎ Batlaymus.[14] Astronomy The Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Babylonian astronomers had developed arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena; Greek astronomers such as Hipparchus had produced geometric models for calculating celestial motions. Ptolemy, however, claimed to have derived his geometrical models from selected astronomical observations by his predecessors spanning more than 800 years, though astronomers have for centuries suspected that his models' parameters were adopted independently of observations.[15] Ptolemy presented his astronomical models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets.[16] The Almagest also contains a star catalogue, which is an appropriated version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus. Its list of forty-eight constellations is ancestral to the modern system of constellations, but unlike the modern system they did not cover the whole sky (only the sky Hipparchus could see). Through the Middle Ages it was spoken of as the authoritative text on astronomy, with its author becoming an almost mythical figure, called Ptolemy, King of Alexandria.[17] The Almagest was preserved, like most of Classical Greek science, in Arabic manuscripts (hence its familiar name). Because of its reputation, it was widely sought and was translated twice into Latin in the 12th century, once in Sicily and again in Spain.[18] Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was almost universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric models during the scientific revolution. His Planetary Hypotheses went beyond the mathematical model of the Almagest to present a physical realization of the universe as a set of nested spheres,[19] in which he used the epicycles of his planetary model to compute the dimensions of the universe. He estimated the Sun was at an average distance of 1210 Earth radii while the radius of the sphere of the fixed stars was 20,000 times the radius of the Earth.[20] Ptolemy presented a useful tool for astronomical calculations in his Handy Tables, which tabulated all the data needed to compute the positions of the Sun, Moon and planets, the rising and setting of the stars, and eclipses of the Sun and Moon. Ptolemy's Handy Tables provided the model for later astronomical tables or zījes. In the Phaseis (Risings of the Fixed Stars) Ptolemy gave a parapegma, a star calendar or almanac based on the hands and disappearances of stars over the course of the solar year. Geography Ptolemy's other main work is his Geographia. This also is a compilation of what was known about the world's geography in the Roman Empire during his time. He relied somewhat on the work of an earlier geographer, Marinos of Tyre, and on gazetteers of the Roman and ancient Persian Empire, but most of his sources beyond the perimeter of the Empire were unreliable.[citation needed] The first part of the Geographia is a discussion of the data and of the methods he used. As with the model of the solar system in the Almagest, Ptolemy put all this information into a grand scheme. Following Marinos, he assigned coordinates to all the places and geographic features he knew, in a grid that spanned the globe. Latitude was measured from the equator, as it is today, but Ptolemy preferred in book 8 to express it as the length of the longest day rather than degrees of arc (the length of the midsummer day increases from 12h to 24h as one goes from the equator to the polar circle). In books 2 through 7, he used degrees and put the meridian of 0 longitude at the most western land he knew, the "Blessed Islands", probably the Cape Verde islands (not the Canary Islands, as long accepted) as suggested by the location of the six dots labelled the "FORTUNATA" islands near the left extreme of the blue sea of Ptolemy's map here reproduced. Ptolemy also devised and provided instructions on how to create maps both of the whole inhabited world (oikoumenè) and of the Roman provinces. In the second part of the Geographia he provided the necessary topographic lists, and captions for the maps. His oikoumenè spanned 180 degrees of longitude from the Blessed Islands in the Atlantic Ocean to the middle of China, and about 80 degrees of latitude from Shetland to anti-Meroe (east coast of Africa); Ptolemy was well aware that he knew about only a quarter of the globe, and an erroneous extension of China southward suggests his sources did not reach all the way to the Pacific Ocean. The maps in surviving manuscripts of Ptolemy's Geographia, however, date only from about 1300, after the text was rediscovered by Maximus Planudes. It seems likely that the topographical tables in books 2-7 are cumulative texts - texts which were altered and added to as new knowledge became available in the centuries after Ptolemy (Bagrow 1945). This means that information contained in different parts of the Geography is likely to be of different date. Maps based on scientific principles had been made since the time of Eratosthenes (3rd century BC), but Ptolemy improved projections. It is known that a world map based on the Geographia was on display in Augustodunum, Gaul in late Roman times. In the 15th century Ptolemy's Geographia began to be printed with engraved maps; the earliest printed edition with engraved maps was produced in Bologna in 1477, followed quickly by a Roman edition in 1478 (Campbell, 1987). An edition printed at Ulm in 1482, including woodcut maps, was the first one printed north of the Alps. The maps look distorted as compared to modern maps, because Ptolemy's data was inaccurate. One reason is that Ptolemy estimated the size of the Earth as too small: while Eratosthenes found 700 stadia for a great circle degree on the globe, in the Geographia Ptolemy uses 500 stadia. It is highly probable that these were the same stadion since Ptolemy switched from the former scale to the latter between the Syntaxis and the Geographia, and severely readjusted longitude degrees accordingly. If they both used the Attic stadion of about 185 meters, then the older estimate is 1/6 too large, and Ptolemy's value is 1/6 too small, a difference explained as due to ancient scientists' use of simple methods of measuring the earth, which were corrupted either high or low by a factor of 5/6, due to air's bending of horizontal light rays by 1/6 of the Earth's curvature.[citation needed] See also Ancient Greek units of measurement and History of geodesy. Because Ptolemy derived many of his key latitudes from crude longest day values, his latitudes are erroneous on average by roughly a degree (2 degrees for Byzantium, 4 degrees for Carthage), though capable ancient astronomers knew their latitudes to more like a minute. (Ptolemy's own latitude was in error by 14'.) He agreed (Geographia 1.4) that longitude was best determined by simultaneous observation of lunar eclipses, yet he was so out of touch with the scientists of his day that he knew of no such data more recent than 500 years before (Arbela eclipse). When switching from 700 stadia per degree to 500, he (or Marinos) expanded longitude differences between cities accordingly (a point first realized by P.Gosselin in 1790), resulting in serious over-stretching of the Earth's east-west scale in degrees, though not distance. Achieving highly precise longitude remained a problem in geography until the invention of the marine chronometer at the end of the 18th century. It must be added that his original topographic list cannot be reconstructed: the long tables with numbers were transmitted to posterity through copies containing many scribal errors, and people have always been adding or improving the topographic data: this is a testimony to the persistent popularity of this influential work in the history of cartography. Astrology Ptolemy's treatise on astrology, known in Greek as both the Apotelesmatika ("Astrological Outcomes" or "Effects") and "Tetrabiblios" ("Four Books"), and in Latin as the Quadripartitum ("Four books"), was the most popular astrological work of antiquity and also had great influence in the Islamic world and the medieval Latin West. It was first translated from Arabic into Latin by Plato of Tivoli (Tiburtinus), while he was in Spain (FA Robbins, 1940; Thorndike 1923). The Tetrabiblos is an extensive and continually reprinted treatise on the ancient principles of horoscopic astrology in four books (Greek tetra means "four", biblos is "book"). That it did not quite attain the unrivaled status of the Almagest was perhaps because it did not cover some popular areas of the subject, particularly electional astrology (interpreting astrological charts for a particular moment to determine the outcome of a course of action to be initiated at that time), and medical astrology, which were later adoptions. The great popularity that the Tetrabiblos did possess might be attributed to its nature as an exposition of the art of astrology and as a compendium of astrological lore, rather than as a manual. It speaks in general terms, avoiding illustrations and details of practice. Ptolemy was concerned to defend astrology by defining its limits, compiling astronomical data that he believed was reliable and dismissing practices (such as considering the numerological significance of names) that he believed to be without sound basis. Much of the content of the Tetrabiblos was collected from earlier sources; Ptolemy's achievement was to order his material in a systematic way, showing how the subject could, in his view, be rationalized. It is, indeed, presented as the second part of the study of astronomy of which the Almagest was the first, concerned with the influences of the celestial bodies in the sublunar sphere. Thus explanations of a sort are provided for the astrological effects of the planets, based upon their combined effects of heating, cooling, moistening, and drying. Ptolemy's astrological outlook was quite practical: he thought that astrology was like medicine, that is conjectural, because of the many variable factors to be taken into account: the race, country, and upbringing of a person affects an individual's personality as much if not more than the positions of the Sun, Moon, and planets at the precise moment of their birth, so Ptolemy saw astrology as something to be used in life but in no way relied on entirely. Music Ptolemy also wrote an influential work, Harmonics, on music theory and the mathematics of music. After criticizing the approaches of his predecessors, Ptolemy argued for basing musical intervals on mathematical ratios (in contrast to the followers of Aristoxenus and in agreement with the followers of Pythagoras) backed up by empirical observation (in contrast to the overly theoretical approach of the Pythagoreans). Ptolemy wrote about how musical notes could be translated into mathematical equations and vice versa in Harmonics. This is called Pythagorean tuning because it was first discovered by Pythagoras. However, Pythagoras believed that the mathematics of music should be based on the specific ratio of 3:2 whereas Ptolemy merely believed that it should just generally involve tetrachords and octaves. He presented his own divisions of the tetrachord and the octave, which he derived with the help of a monochord. Ptolemy's astronomical interests also appeared in a discussion of the "music of the spheres". Optics His Optics is a work that survives only in a poor Arabic translation and in about twenty manuscripts of a Latin version of the Arabic, which was translated by Eugene of Palermo (circa 1154). In it Ptolemy writes about properties of light, including reflection, refraction, and colour. The work is a significant part of the early history of optics.[21] Named after Ptolemy There are several characters or items named after Ptolemy, including: * The crater Ptolemaeus on the Moon; * The crater Ptolemaeus[22] on Mars; * the asteroid 4001 Ptolemaeus; * a character in the fantasy series The Bartimaeus Trilogy: this fictional Ptolemy is a young magician (from Alexandria) whom Bartimaeus loved; he made the journey into "the Other Place" being hunted by his cousin, because he was a magician; * the name of Celestial Being's carrier ship in the anime Mobile Suit Gundam 00. * track number 10 on Selected Ambient Works 85–92 by Aphex Twin. * the Ptolemy Stone used in the mathematics courses at both St. John's College campuses. * English astronomer and TV presenter Sir Patrick Moore has a cat named Ptolemy. Ptolemy in pop culture In Jonathan Stroud's Bartimaeus Trilogy, the djinni Bartimaeus often assumes Ptolemy's form and frequently refers to him as one of his favorite masters. The third and final book in the series is also called Ptolemy's Gate.

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Pyrrho in Wikipedia

Pyrrho (ca. 360 BC - ca. 270 BC), a Greek philosopher of classical antiquity, is credited as being the first Skeptic philosopher, and the inspiration for the school known as Pyrrhonism founded by Aenesidemus in the 1st century BC. Life Pyrrho was from Elis, on the Ionian Sea. Diogenes Laertius, quoting from Apollodorus, says that Pyrrho was at first a painter, and that pictures by him were exhibited in the gymnasium at Elis. Later he was diverted to philosophy by the works of Democritus, and according to Diogenes Laertius became acquainted with the Megarian dialectic through Bryson, pupil of Stilpo.[1] Pyrrho, along with Anaxarchus, travelled with Alexander the Great on his exploration of the East, and studied under the Gymnosophists in India and the Magi in Persia. This exposure to Eastern philosophy seems to have inspired him to adopt a life of solitude; returning to Elis, he lived in poor circumstances, but was highly honored by the Elians and also by the Athenians, who conferred upon him the rights of citizenship. Pyrrho wrote nothing. His doctrines were recorded in the satiric writings of his pupil Timon of Phlius (the Sillographer). Unfortunately these works are mostly lost. Today Pyrrho's ideas are known mainly through the book Outlines of Pyrrhonism written by the Greek physician Sextus Empiricus. Philosophy The main principle of Pyrrho's thought is expressed by the word acatalepsia, which connotes the ability to withhold assent from doctrines regarding the truth of things in their own nature; against every statement its contradiction may be advanced with equal justification. Secondly, it is necessary in view of this fact to preserve an attitude of intellectual suspense, or, as Timon expressed it, no assertion can be known to be better than another. Thirdly, Pyrrho applied these results to life in general, concluding that, since nothing can be known, the only proper attitude is ataraxia, "freedom from worry". ("By suspending judgment, by confining oneself to phenomena or objects as they appear, and by asserting nothing definite as to how they really are, one can escape the perplexities of life and attain an imperturbable peace of mind.") The proper course of the sage, said Pyrrho, is to ask himself three questions. Firstly we must ask what things are and how they are constituted. Secondly, we ask how we are related to these things. Thirdly, we ask what ought to be our attitude towards them. Pyrrho's answer was that things are indistinguishable, unmeasurable, undecidable, and no more this than that, or both this and that and neither this nor that. He concluded that human senses neither transmit truths nor lie.[2] Humanity cannot know the inner substance of things, only how things appear. The impossibility of knowledge, even in regard to our own ignorance or doubt, should induce the wise man to withdraw into himself, avoiding the stress and emotion which belong to the contest of vain imaginings. This theory of the impossibility of knowledge is the first and the most thorough exposition of noncognitivism in the history of thought.[citation needed] Its ethical implications may be compared with the ideal tranquility of the Stoics and the Epicureans.

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Pyrrhus of Epirus in Wikipedia

Pyrrhus or Pyrrhos (Greek: Πύρρος, Pyrros; 319/318 BC-272 BC) was a Greek[1][2][3] general and statesman of the Hellenistic era.[4] He was king of the Greek tribe of Molossians[3], of the royal Aeacid house[5] (from ca. 297 BC), and later he became King of Epirus (306-302, 297-272 BC) and Macedon (288-284, 273-272 BC). He was one of the strongest opponents of early Rome. Some of his battles, though successful, cost him heavy losses, from which the term "Pyrrhic victory" was coined. He is the subject of one of Plutarch's Parallel Lives. Early life Pyrrhus was the son of Aeacides and Phthia, a Thessalian woman, and a second cousin of Alexander the Great (via Alexander's mother, Olympias). Pyrrhus was only two years old when his father was dethroned, in 317 BC, his family taking refuge with Glaukias, king of the Taulantians, one of the largest Illyrian tribes.[4] Pyrrhus was raised[6] by Beroea[7], Glaukias's wife and a Molossian Aeacidae dynasty. Glaukias restored Pyrrhus to the throne in 306 BC until the latter was banished again, four years later, by his enemy, Cassander. Thus, he went on to serve as an officer, in the wars of the Diadochi, under his brother-in-law Demetrius Poliorcetes. In 298 BC, Pyrrhus was taken hostage to Alexandria, under the terms of a peace treaty made between Demetrius and Ptolemy I Soter. There, he married Ptolemy I's stepdaughter Antigone (daughter of Berenice I of Egypt, Ptolemy's mistress, and a Macedonian noble) and, in 297 BC, with Ptolemy I's financial and military aid, restored his kingdom in Epirus and had Neoptolemus II - puppet of the now-deceased Seleucus and Pyrrhus' co-ruler for a short while - murdered. Through his marriage to Antigone, she bore him a son called Ptolemy and possibly a daughter called Olympias. [8] In 295 BC, Pyrrhus transferred the capital of his kingdom to Ambrakia (modern Arta). Next, he went to war against his former ally and brother-in-law Demetrius, and, by 286 BC, he had taken control over the kingdom of Macedon. Pyrrhus was driven out of Macedon by Lysimachus in 284 BC. Struggle with Rome In 281 BC, the Greek city of Tarentum, in southern Italy, fell out with Rome and was faced with a Roman attack and certain defeat. Rome had already made itself into a major power, and was poised to subdue all the Greek cities in Magna Graecia. The Tarentines asked Pyrrhus to lead their war against the Romans.[4] Pyrrhus was encouraged to aid the Tarentines by the oracle of Delphi. His goals were not, however, selfless. He recognized the possibility of carving out an empire for himself in Italy. He made an alliance with Ptolemy Ceraunus, King of Macedon and his most powerful neighbor, and arrived in Italy in 280 BC. He entered Italy with an army consisting of 3,000 cavalry, 2,000 archers, 500 slingers, 20,000 infantry and 20 war elephants in a bid to subdue the Romans.[4] The elephants had been loaned to him by Ptolemy II, who had also promised 9,000 soldiers and a further 50 elephants to defend Epirus while Pyrrhus and his army were away. Due to his superior cavalry and his elephants, he defeated the Romans, led by Consul Publius Valerius Laevinus, in the Battle of Heraclea in 280 BC. There are conflicting sources about casualties. Hieronymus of Cardia reports the Romans lost about 7,000 while Pyrrhus lost 3,000 soldiers, including many of his best. Dionysius gives a bloodier view of 15,000 Roman dead and 13,000 Greek. Several tribes including the Lucani, Bruttii, Messapians, and the Greek cities of Croton and Locri joined Pyrrhus. He then offered the Romans a peace treaty which was eventually rejected. Pyrrhus spent winter in Campania.[4] When Pyrrhus invaded Apulia (279 BC), the two armies met in the Battle of Asculum where Pyrrhus won a very costly victory. The consul Publius Decius Mus was the Roman commander, and his able force, though defeated, broke the back of Pyrrhus' Hellenistic army, and guaranteed the security of the city itself. The battle foreshadowed later Roman victories over more numerous and well armed successor state military forces and inspired the term "Pyrrhic victory", meaning a victory which comes at a crippling cost. At the end, the Romans had lost 6,000 men and Pyrrhus 3,500 but, while battered, his army was still a force to be reckoned with.[4] Ruler of Sicily In 278 BC, Pyrrhus received two offers simultaneously. The Greek cities in Sicily asked him to come and drive out Carthage, which along with Rome was one of the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean. At the same time, the Macedonians, whose King Ceraunus had been killed by invading Gauls, asked Pyrrhus to ascend the throne of Macedon. Pyrrhus decided that Sicily offered him a greater opportunity, and transferred his army there.[4] Pyrrhus was proclaimed king of Sicily. He was already making plans for his son Helenus to inherit the kingdom of Sicily and his other son Alexander to be given Italy. In 277 Pyrrhus captured Eryx, the strongest Carthaginian fortress in Sicily. This prompted the rest of the Carthaginian-controlled cities to defect to Pyrrhus. In 276 BC, Pyrrhus negotiated with the Carthaginians. Although they were inclined to come to terms with Pyrrhus, supply him money and send him ships once friendly relations were established, he demanded that Carthage abandon all of Sicily and make the Libyan Sea a boundary between themselves and the Greeks. The Greek cities of Sicily opposed making peace with Carthage because the Carthaginians still controlled the powerful fortress of Lilybaeum, on the western end of the island. Pyrrhus eventually gave in to their proposals and broke off the peace negotiations. Pyrrhus' army then began besieging Lilybaeum. For two months he launched unsuccessful assaults on the city, until finally he realised he could not mount an effective siege without blockading it from the sea as well. Pyrrhus then requested manpower and money from the Sicilians in order to construct a powerful fleet. When the Sicilians became unhappy about these contributions he had to resort to compulsory contributions and force to keep them in line. These measures culminated in him proclaiming a military dictatorship of Sicily and installing military garrisons in Sicilian cities.[9] These actions were deeply unpopular and soon Sicilian opinion became inflamed against him. Pyrrhus had so alienated the Sicilian Greeks that they were willing to make common cause with the Carthaginians. The Carthaginians took heart from this and sent another army against him. This army was promptly defeated. In spite of this victory Sicily continued to grow increasingly hostile to Pyrrhus, who began to consider abandoning Sicily. At this point Samnite and Tarentine envoys reached Pyrrhus and informed him that of all the Greek cities in Italy only Tarentum had not been conquered by Rome. Pyrrhus made his decision and departed from Sicily. As his ship left the island, he turned and said to his companions: "What a wrestling ground we are leaving, my friends, for the Carthaginians and the Romans."[10] Retreat from Italy While Pyrrhus had been campaigning against the Carthaginians, the Romans rebuilt their army by calling up thousands of fresh recruits. When Pyrrhus returned from Sicily, he found himself vastly outnumbered against a superior Roman army. After the inconclusive Battle of Beneventum in 275 BC Pyrrhus decided to end his campaign in Italy and return to Epirus which resulted in the loss of all his Italian holdings. Before leaving Italy Pyrrhus sent requests for military and financial assistance to Greece and Macedon, as well as to the Hellenic empires of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid dynasties. These appeals were all in vain.[11] Last wars and death Though his western campaign had taken a heavy toll on his army as well as his treasury, Pyrrhus went to war yet again. Attacking King Antigonus II Gonatas, he won an easy victory and seized the Macedonian throne. In 272 BC, Cleonymus, a Spartan of royal blood who was hated among fellow Spartans, asked Pyrrhus to attack Sparta and place him in power. Pyrrhus agreed to the plan intending to win control of the Peloponnese for himself but unexpected strong resistance thwarted his assault on Sparta. He was immediately offered an opportunity to intervene in a civic dispute in Argos. Entering the city with his army by stealth, he found himself caught in a confused battle in the narrow city streets. During the confusion an old Argead woman watching from a rooftop threw a roofing tile which stunned him, allowing an Argive soldier to behead him. The same year, upon hearing the news of Pyrrhus' death, the Tarentinians surrendered to Rome. Legacy While he was a mercurial and often restless leader, and not always a wise king, he was considered one of the greatest military commanders of his time. Plutarch records that Hannibal ranked Pyrrhus as the greatest commander the world had ever seen,[12] though Appian gives a different version of the story, in which Hannibal placed him second after Alexander the Great.[13] Pyrrhus was also known to be very benevolent. As a general, Pyrrhus' greatest political weaknesses were his failures to maintain focus and to maintain a strong treasury at home (many of his soldiers were costly mercenaries). His name is famous for the term "Pyrrhic victory" which refers to an exchange at the Battle of Asculum. In response to congratulations for winning a costly victory over the Romans, he is reported to have said: "One more such victory will undo me!" (In Greek: Ἂν ἔτι μίαν μάχην νικήσωμεν, ἀπολώλαμεν.) Pyrrhus and his campaign in Italy was effectively the only chance for Greece to check the advance of Rome towards domination of the Mediterranean world. Rather than banding together, the various Hellenic powers continued to fight among themselves, sapping the financial and military strength of Greece and to a lesser extent, Macedon and the greater Hellenic world. By 197 BC, Macedonia and the southern Greek city-states were under the control of Rome and the age of Greece as a major power was well and truly over. In 188 BC, the Seleucid Empire was forced to cede most of Asia Minor to Rome and Egypt was left as the last vestige of Alexander's Empire. Pyrrhus wrote Memoirs and several books on the art of war. These have since been lost, although, according to Plutarch, Hannibal was influenced by them,[12] and they received praise from Cicero.[14]

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Pythagoras in Wikipedia

Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: Ὁ Πυθαγόρας ὁ Σάμιος, O Pythagoras o Samios, "Pythagoras the Samian", or simply Ὁ Πυθαγόρας; c. 570-c. 495 BC[1]) was an Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. Most of the information about Pythagoras was written down centuries after he lived, thus very little reliable information is known about him. He was born on the island of Samos, and may have travelled widely in his youth, visiting Egypt and other places seeking knowledge. He had a teacher named Themistoclea, who introduced him to the principles of ethics[2][3]. Around 530 BC, he moved to Croton, a Greek colony in southern Italy, and there set up a religious sect. His followers pursued the religious rites and practices developed by Pythagoras, and studied his philosophical theories. The society took an active role in the politics of Croton, but this eventually led to their downfall. The Pythagorean meeting-places were burned, and Pythagoras was forced to flee the city. He is said to have ended his days in Metapontum. Pythagoras made influential contributions to philosophy and religious teaching in the late 6th century BC. He is often revered as a great mathematician, mystic and scientist, and he is best known for the Pythagorean theorem which bears his name. However, because legend and obfuscation cloud his work even more than with the other pre-Socratic philosophers, one can say little with confidence about his teachings, and some have questioned whether he contributed much to mathematics and natural philosophy. Many of the accomplishments credited to Pythagoras may actually have been accomplishments of his colleagues and successors. Whether or not his disciples believed that everything was related to mathematics and that numbers were the ultimate reality is unknown. It was said that he was the first man to call himself a philosopher, or lover of wisdom,[4] and Pythagorean ideas exercised a marked influence on Plato, and through him, all of Western philosophy. Biographical sources Accurate facts about the life of Pythagoras are so few, and most information concerning him is of so late a date, and so untrustworthy, that it is impossible to provide more than a vague outline of his life. The lack of information by contemporary writers, together with the secrecy which surrounded the Pythagorean brotherhood, meant that invention took the place of facts. The stories which were created were eagerly sought by the Neoplatonist writers who provide most of the details about Pythagoras, but who were uncritical concerning anything which related to the gods or which was considered divine.[5] Thus many myths were created – such as that Apollo was his father; that Pythagoras gleamed with a supernatural brightness; that he had a golden thigh; that Abaris came flying to him on a golden arrow; that he was seen in different places at one and the same time.[6] With the exception of a few remarks by Xenophanes, Heraclitus, Herodotus, Plato, Aristotle, and Isocrates, we are mainly dependent on Diogenes Laertius, Porphyry, and Iamblichus for the biographical details. Aristotle had written a separate work on the Pythagoreans, which unfortunately has not survived.[7] His disciples Dicaearchus, Aristoxenus, and Heraclides Ponticus had written on the same subject. These writers, late as they are, were among the best sources from whom Porphyry and Iamblichus drew, besides the legendary accounts and their own inventions. Hence historians are often reduced to considering the statements based on their inherent probability, but even then, if all the credible stories concerning Pythagoras were supposed true, his range of activity would be impossibly vast.[8] Life Herodotus, Isocrates, and other early writers all agree that Pythagoras was born on Samos, the Greek island in the eastern Aegean, and we also learn that Pythagoras was the son of Mnesarchus.[9] His father was a gem-engraver or a merchant. His name led him to be associated with Pythian Apollo; Aristippus explained his name by saying, "He spoke (agor-) the truth no less than did the Pythian (Pyth-)," and Iamblichus tells the story that the Pythia prophesied that his pregnant mother would give birth to a man supremely beautiful, wise, and beneficial to humankind.[10] A late source gives his mother's name as Pythais.[11] As to the date of his birth, Aristoxenus stated that Pythagoras left Samos in the reign of Polycrates, at the age of 40, which would give a date of birth around 570 BC.[12] It was natural for the ancient biographers to inquire as to origins of Pythagoras' remarkable system. In the absence of reliable information, however, a huge range of teachers were assigned to Pythagoras. Some made his training almost entirely Greek, others exclusively Egyptian and Oriental. We find mentioned as his instructors Creophylus,[13] Hermodamas,[14] Bias,[13] Thales,[13] Anaximander,[15] and Pherecydes of Syros.[16] The Egyptians are said to have taught him geometry, the Phoenicians arithmetic, the Chaldeans astronomy, the Magians the principles of religion and practical maxims for the conduct of life.[17] Of the various claims regarding his Greek teachers, Pherecydes is mentioned most often. It was the standard belief in antiquity that Pythagoras had undertaken extensive travels, and had visited not only Egypt, but Arabia, Phoenicia, Judaea, Babylon, and even India, for the purpose of collecting all available knowledge, and especially to learn information concerning the secret or mystic cults of the gods.[18] The journey to Babylon is possible, and not very unlikely. Plutarch asserted in his book On Isis and Osiris that during his visit to Egypt, Pythagoras received instruction from the Egyptian priest Oenuphis of Heliopolis. [19]. Other ancient writers asserted his visit to Egypt.[20] Enough of Egypt was known to attract the curiosity of an inquiring Greek, and contact between Samos and other parts of Greece with Egypt is mentioned.[21] It is not easy to say how much Pythagoras learned from the Egyptian priests, or indeed, whether he learned anything at all from them. There was nothing in the symbolism which the Pythagoreans adopted which showed the distinct traces of Egypt. The secret religious rites of the Pythagoreans exhibited nothing but what might have been adopted in the spirit of Greek religion, by those who knew nothing of Egyptian mysteries. The philosophy and the institutions of Pythagoras might easily have been developed by a Greek mind exposed to the ordinary influences of the age. Even the ancient authorities note the similarities between the religious and ascetic peculiarities of Pythagoras with the Orphic or Cretan mysteries,[22] or the Delphic oracle.[23] There is little direct evidence as to the kind and amount of knowledge which Pythagoras acquired, or as to his definite philosophical views. Everything of the kind mentioned by Plato and Aristotle is attributed not to Pythagoras, but to the Pythagoreans. Heraclitus stated that he was a man of extensive learning;[24] and Xenophanes claimed that he believed in the transmigration of souls.[25] Xenophanes mentions the story of his interceding on behalf of a dog that was being beaten, professing to recognise in its cries the voice of a departed friend. Pythagoras is supposed to have claimed that he had been Euphorbus, the son of Panthus, in the Trojan war, as well as various other characters, a tradesman, a courtesan, etc.[26] Many mathematical and scientific discoveries were attributed to Pythagoras, including his famous theorem,[27] as well as discoveries in the field of music,[28] astronomy,[29] and medicine.[30] But it was the religious element which made the profoundest impression upon his contemporaries. Thus the people of Croton were supposed to have identified him with the Hyperborean Apollo,[31] and he was said to have practised divination and prophecy.[32] In the visits to various places in Greece - Delos, Sparta, Phlius, Crete, etc. which are ascribed to him, he usually appears either in his religious or priestly guise, or else as a law­giver.[33] After his travels, Pythagoras moved (around 530 BC) to Croton, in Italy (Magna Graecia). Possibly the tyranny of Polycrates in Samos made it difficult for him to achieve his schemes there. His later admirers claimed that Pythagoras was so overburdened with public duties in Samos, because of the high estimation in which he was held by his fellow-citizens, that he moved to Croton.[34] On his arrival in Croton, he quickly attained extensive influence, and many people began to follow him. Later biographers tell fantastical stories of the effects of his eloquent speech in leading the people of Croton to abandon their luxurious and corrupt way of life and devote themselves to the purer system which he came to introduce.[35] His followers established a select brotherhood or club for the purpose of pursuing the religious and ascetic practices developed by their master. The accounts agree that what was done and taught among the members was kept a profound secret. The esoteric teachings may have concerned the secret religious doctrines and usages, which were undoubtedly prominent in the Pythagorean system, and may have been connected with the worship of Apollo.[36] Temperance of all kinds seems to have been strictly urged. There is disagreement among the biographers as to whether Pythagoras forbade all animal food,[37] or only certain types.[38] The club was in practice at once "a philosophical school, a religious brotherhood, and a political association."[39] Such an aristocratic and exclusive club could easily have made many people in Croton jealous and hostile, and this seems to have led to its destruction. The circumstances, however, are uncertain. Conflict seems to have broken out between the towns of Sybaris and Croton. The forces of Croton were headed by the Pythagorean Milo, and it is likely that the members of the brotherhood took a prominent part. After the decisive victory by Croton, a proposal for establishing a more democratic constitution, was unsuccessfully resisted by the Pythagoreans. Their enemies, headed by Cylon and Ninon, the former of whom is said to have been irritated by his exclusion from the brotherhood, roused the populace against them. An attack was made upon them while assembled either in the house of Milo, or in some other meeting-place. The building was set on fire, and many of the assembled members perished; only the younger and more active escaping.[40] Similar commotions ensued in the other cities of Magna Graecia in which Pythagorean clubs had been formed. As an active and organised brotherhood the Pythagorean order was everywhere suppressed, and did not again revive. Still the Pythagoreans continued to exist as a sect, the members of which kept up among themselves their religious observances and scientific pursuits, while individuals, as in the case of Archytas, acquired now and then great political influence. Concerning the fate of Pythagoras himself, the accounts varied. Some say that he perished in the temple with his disciples,[41] others that he fled first to Tarentum, and that, being driven from there, he escaped to Metapontum, and there starved himself to death.[42] His tomb was shown at Metapontum in the time of Cicero.[43] According to some accounts Pythagoras married Theano, a lady of Croton. Their children are variously stated to have included a son, Telauges, and three daughters, Damo, Arignote, and Myia. Writings No texts by Pythagoras are known to have survived, although forgeries under his name - a few of which remain extant - did circulate in antiquity. Critical ancient sources like Aristotle and Aristoxenus cast doubt on these writings. Ancient Pythagoreans usually quoted their master's doctrines with the phrase autos ephe ("he himself said") - emphasizing the essentially oral nature of his teaching. Mathematics The so-called Pythagoreans, who were the first to take up mathematics, not only advanced this subject, but saturated with it, they fancied that the principles of mathematics were the principles of all things. -Aristotle, Metaphysics 1-5 , cc. 350 BC Pythagorean theorem Since the fourth century AD, Pythagoras has commonly been given credit for discovering the Pythagorean theorem, a theorem in geometry that states that in a right-angled triangle the square of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle), c, is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides, b and a-that is, a2 + b2 = c2. While the theorem that now bears his name was known and previously utilized by the Babylonians and Indians, he, or his students, are often said to have constructed the first proof. It must, however, be stressed that the way in which the Babylonians handled Pythagorean numbers implies that they knew that the principle was generally applicable, and knew some kind of proof, which has not yet been found in the (still largely unpublished) cuneiform sources.[44] Because of the secretive nature of his school and the custom of its students to attribute everything to their teacher, there is no evidence that Pythagoras himself worked on or proved this theorem. For that matter, there is no evidence that he worked on any mathematical or meta-mathematical problems. Some attribute it as a carefully constructed myth by followers of Plato over two centuries after the death of Pythagoras, mainly to bolster the case for Platonic meta-physics, which resonate well with the ideas they attributed to Pythagoras. This attribution has stuck down the centuries up to modern times.[45] The earliest known mention of Pythagoras's name in connection with the theorem occurred five centuries after his death, in the writings of Cicero and Plutarch. Musical theories and investigations According to legend, the way Pythagoras discovered that musical notes could be translated into mathematical equations was when one day he passed blacksmiths at work, and thought that the sounds emanating from their anvils being hit were beautiful and harmonious and decided that whatever scientific law caused this to happen must be mathematical and could be applied to music. He went to the blacksmiths to learn how this had happened by looking at their tools, he discovered that it was because the hammers were "simple ratios of each other, one was half the size of the first, another was 2/3 the size, and so on." Pythagoreans elaborated on a theory of numbers, the exact meaning of which is still debated among scholars. Another belief attributed to Pythagoras was that of the "harmony of the spheres". Thus the planets and stars moved according to mathematical equations, which corresponded to musical notes and thus produced a symphony.[46] Tetractys Pythagoras was also credited with devising the tetractys, the triangular figure of four rows, which add up to the perfect number, ten. As a mystical symbol, it was very important to the worship of the Pythagoreans, who would swear oaths by it: And the inventions were so admirable, and so divinised by those who understood them, that the members used them as forms of oath: "By him who handed to our generation the tetractys, source of the roots of ever-flowing nature." -Iamblichus, Vit. Pyth., 29 Religion and science Pythagoras’ religious and scientific views were, in his opinion, inseparably interconnected. Religiously, Pythagoras was a believer of metempsychosis. He believed in transmigration, or the reincarnation of the soul again and again into the bodies of humans, animals, or vegetables until it became immortal. His ideas of reincarnation were influenced by ancient Greek religion. Heraclides Ponticus reports the story that Pythagoras claimed that he had lived four lives that he could remember in detail,[47] and, according to Xenophanes, Pythagoras heard the cry of his dead friend in the bark of a dog.[48] Lore Pythagoras became the subject of elaborate legends surrounding his historic persona. Aristotle described Pythagoras as a wonder-worker and somewhat of a supernatural figure, attributing to him such aspects as a golden thigh, which was a sign of divinity. According to Muslim tradition, Pythagoras was said to have been initiated by Hermes (Egyptian Thoth).[49] According to Aristotle and others' accounts, some ancients believed that he had the ability to travel through space and time, and to communicate with animals and plants.[50] An extract from Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable's entry entitled "Golden Thigh": Pythagoras is said to have had a golden thigh, which he showed to Abaris, the Hyperborean priest, and exhibited in the Olympic games.[51] Another legend describes his writing on the moon: Pythagoras asserted he could write on the moon. His plan of operation was to write on a looking-glass in blood, and place it opposite the moon, when the inscription would appear photographed or reflected on the moon's disc.[52] Pythagoreans Both Plato and Isocrates affirm that, above all else, Pythagoras was famous for leaving behind him a way of life.[53] Both Iamblichus and Porphyry give detailed accounts of the organisation of the school, although the primary interest of both writers is not historical accuracy, but rather to present Pythagoras as a divine figure, sent by the gods to benefit humankind.[54] Pythagoras set up an organization which was in some ways a school, in some ways a brotherhood, and in some ways a monastery. It was based upon the religious teachings of Pythagoras and was very secretive. The adherents were bound by a vow to Pythagoras and each other, for the purpose of pursuing the religious and ascetic observances, and of studying his religious and philosophical theories. The claim that they put all their property into a common stock is perhaps only a later inference from certain Pythagorean maxims and practices.[55] On the other hand, it seems certain that there were many women among the adherents of Pythagoras.[56] As to the internal arrangements of the sect, we are informed that what was done and taught among the members was kept a profound secret towards all. Porphyry stated that this silence was "of no ordinary kind." Candidates had to pass through a period of probation, in which their powers of maintaining silence (echemythia) were especially tested, as well as their general temper, disposition, and mental capacity.[57] There were also gradations among the members themselves. It was an old Pythagorean maxim, that every thing was not to be told to every body.[58] Thus the Pythagoreans were divided into an inner circle called the mathematikoi ("learners") and an outer circle called the akousmatikoi ("listeners").[59] Iamblichus describes them in terms of esoterikoi and exoterikoi (or alternatively Pythagoreioi and Pythagoristai),[60] according to the degree of intimacy which they enjoyed with Pythagoras. Porphyry wrote "the mathematikoi learned the more detailed and exactly elaborated version of this knowledge, the akousmatikoi (were) those who had heard only the summary headings of his (Pythagoras's) writings, without the more exact exposition." There were ascetic practices (many of which had, perhaps, a symbolic meaning) in the way of life of the sect.[61] Some represent Pythagoras as forbidding all animal food. This may have been due to the doctrine of metempsychosis.[62] Other authorities contradict the statement. According to Aristoxenus,[63] he allowed the use of all kinds of animal food except the flesh of oxen used for ploughing, and rams.[64] There is a similar discrepancy as to the prohibition of fish and beans.[65] But temperance of all kinds seems to have been urged. It is also stated that they had common meals, resembling the Spartan system, at which they met in companies of ten.[66] Considerable importance seems to have been attached to music and gymnastics in the daily exercises of the disciples. Their whole discipline is represented as encouraging a lofty serenity and self-possession, of which, there were various anecdotes in antiquity.[67] Iamblichus (apparently on the authority of Aristoxenus)[68] gives a long description of the daily routine of the members, which suggests many similarities with Sparta. The members of the sect showed a devoted attachment to each other, to the exclusion of those who did not belong to their ranks.[69] There were even stories of secret symbols, by which members of the sect could recognise each other, even if they had never met before.[70] Influence Influence on Plato Pythagoras, or in a broader sense, the Pythagoreans, allegedly exercised an important influence on the work of Plato. According to R. M. Hare, this influence consists of three points: (1) The platonic Republic might be related to the idea of "a tightly organized community of like-minded thinkers", like the one established by Pythagoras in Croton. (2) There is evidence that Plato possibly took from Pythagoras the idea that mathematics and, generally speaking, abstract thinking is a secure basis for philosophical thinking as well as "for substantial theses in science and morals". (3) Plato and Pythagoras shared a "mystical approach to the soul and its place in the material world". It is probable that both were influenced by Orphism.[71] Aristotle claimed that the philosophy of Plato closely followed the teachings of the Pythagoreans,[72] and Cicero repeats this claim: Platonem ferunt didicisse Pythagorea omnia ("They say Plato learned all things Pythagorean").[73] Bertrand Russell, in his History of Western Philosophy, contended that the influence of Pythagoras on Plato and others was so great that he should be considered the most influential of all Western philosophers. Influence on esoteric groups Pythagoras started a secret society called the Pythagorean brotherhood devoted to the study of mathematics. This had a great effect on future esoteric traditions, such as Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry, both of which were occult groups dedicated to the study of mathematics and both of which claimed to have evolved out of the Pythagorean brotherhood.[citation needed] The mystical and occult qualities of Pythagorean mathematics are discussed in a chapter of Manly P. Hall's The Secret Teachings of All Ages entitled "Pythagorean Mathematics". Pythagorean theory was tremendously influential on later numerology, which was extremely popular throughout the Middle East in the ancient world. The 8th-century Muslim alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan grounded his work in an elaborate numerology greatly influenced by Pythagorean theory.[citation needed] Today, Pythagoras is revered as a prophet by the Ahl al-Tawhid or Druze faith along with his fellow Greek, Plato.

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Pythagŏras in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

A celebrated Greek philosopher, a native of Samos, and the son of Mnesarchus, who was either a merchant, or, according to others, an engraver of signets. The date of his birth is uncertain; but all authorities agree that he flourished in the times of Polycrates and Tarquinius Superbus (B.C. 540-510). He studied in his own country under Creophilus, Pherecydes of Syros, and others, and is said to have visited Egypt and many countries of the East for the purpose of acquiring knowledge. We have not much trustworthy evidence, either as to the kind and amount of knowledge which he acquired, or as to his definite philosophical views. It is certain, however, that he believed in the transmigration of souls; and he is said to have pretended that he had been Euphorbus, the son of Panthoüs, in the Trojan War, as well as various other characters. He is further said to have discovered the propositions that the triangle inscribed in a semicircle is right-angled; that the square on the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the sides. There is a celebrated story of his having discovered the arithmetical relations of the musical scale by observing accidentally the various sounds produced by hammers of different weights striking upon an anvil, and suspending by strings weights equal to those of the different hammers. The retailers of the story of course never took the trouble to verify the experiment, or they would have discovered that different hammers do not produce different sounds from the same anvil, any more than different clappers do from the same bell. Discoveries in astronomy are also attributed to Pythagoras. There can be little doubt that he paid great attention to arithmetic, and its application to weights, measures, and the theory of music. Apart from all direct testimony, however, it may safely be affirmed that the very remarkable influence exerted by Pythagoras, and even the fact that he was made the hero of so many marvellous stories, proves him to have been a man both of singular capabilities and of great acquirements. It may also be affirmed with safety that the religious element was the predominant one in the character of Pythagoras, and that religious ascendancy in connection with a certain mystic religious system was the object which he chiefly laboured to secure. It was this religious element which made the profoundest impression upon his contemporaries. They regarded him as standing in a peculiarly close connection with the gods. The Crotoniats even identified him with the Hyperborean Apollo. And, without viewing him as an impostor, we may easily believe that he himself, to some extent, shared the same views. He pretended to divination and prophecy; and he appears as the revealer of a mode of life calculated to raise his disciples above the level of mankind, and to recommend them to the favour of the gods. No certainty can be arrived at as to the length of time spent by Pythagoras in Egypt or the East, or as to his residence and efforts in Samos or other Grecian cities, before he settled at Crotona in Italy. He probably removed to Crotona because he found it impossible to realize his schemes in his native country while under the tyranny of Polycrates. The reason why he selected Crotona as the sphere of his operations it is impossible to ascertain; but soon after his arrival in that city he attained extensive influence, and gained over great numhers to enter into his views. His adherents were chiefly of the noble and wealthy classes. Three hundred of these were formed into a select brotherhood or club, bound by a sort of vow to Pythagoras and each other, for the purpose of cultivating the religious and ascetic observances enjoined by their master, and of studying his religious and philosophical theories. Everything that was done and taught among the members was kept a profound secret from all without its pale. It was an old Pythagorean maxim, that everything was not to be told to everybody. There were also gradations among the members themselves, as in the distinction of ἀκουσματικοί or "hearers" as contrasted with μαθηματικοί or esoteric students. In the admission of candidates Pythagoras is said to have placed great reliance on his physiognomical discernment. If admitted, they had to pass through a period of probation, in which their powers of maintaining silence were especially tested, as well as their general temper, disposition, and mental capacity. As regards the nature of the esoteric instruction to which only the most approved members of the fraternity were admitted, some have supposed that it had reference to the political views of Pythagoras. Others have maintained, with greater probability, that it related mainly to the orgies, or secret religious doctrines and usages, which undoubtedly formed a prominent feature in the Pythagorean system, and were peculiarly connected with the worship of Apollo. There were some outward peculiarities of an ascetic kind in the mode of life to which the members of the brotherhood were subjected. Some represent him as forbidding all animal food; but all the members cannot have been subjected to this prohibition, since the athletic Milo, for instance, could not possibly have dispensed with animal food. According to some ancient authorities, he allowed the use of all kinds of animal food except the flesh of oxen used for ploughing, and rams. There is a similar discrepancy as to the prohibition of fish and beans. But temperance of all kinds seems to have been strictly enjoined. It is also stated that they had common meals, resembling the Spartan syssitia, at which they met in companies of ten. Considerable importance seems to have been attached to music and gymnastics in the daily exercises of the disciples. Their whole discipline is represented as tending to produce a lofty serenity and self-possession, regarding the exhibition of which various anecdotes were current in antiquity. Among the best ascertained features of the brotherhood are the devoted attachment of the members to each other, a