Illustrated History

Antiochus IV Epiphanes

Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 BC), was the 8th ruler of the Seleucid empire. He was violently bitter against the Jews, and he made a furious and determined effort to exterminate them and their religion. He devastated Jerusalem (168 BC), defiled the Temple, offered a sow on its altar, erected an altar to Jupiter, prohibited Temple worship, forbade circumcision on pain of death, sold thousands of Jewish families into slavery, destroyed all copies of Scripture that could be found, and slaughtered everyone discovered in possession of such copies, and resorted to every conceivable torture to force Jews to renounce their religion. This led to the Maccabaean revolt, one of the most heroic feats in history.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/antio...

Ziggurat at Ur

Reconstruction Sketch of the Ziggurat at Ur

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/art/ur_zi...

Temple of Marduk

Reconstruction Sketch of the Temple of Marduk, Babylon

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/recon...

Oval Temple at Khafaje

This sketch is a reconstruction of the ancient Sumerian "Oval Temple" at Khafaje from around 2500 BC. Archaeologists unearthed this site in the 1930's.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/oval-temp...

Mayan Acropolis at Copan

This sketch is a reconstruction of the ancient multi-plaza "acropolis" at Copan which was a major Maya Classic settlement and religious center.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/mayan-acr...

Temple of Amun at Karnak

This sketch is a reconstruction of the great ancient temple of Amun at Karnak, the ram-headed god of Thebes. His union was with the sun-god Re and thus Amun-Re.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/karnak-te...

Luxor - Amun Cult Center near Karnak

This sketch is a reconstruction of Luxor, near Karnak which was another cult center of the Amun.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/luxor-amu...

Ancient Altars

Altars of sacrifice in the ancient world.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Palace of Caiaphas

The high priest at the time of Jesus' ministry in Jerusalem, Caiaphas, did not live there but in another section of the Upper City. Jesus' informal trial before the Sanhedrin probably took place in one of the large halls of his palace. Peter denied Jesus in one of these courts. The Ossuary of Caiaphas was discovered in Jerusalem by archaeologists. It was carved from limestone and bears the name "Caiaphas", the name of the Temple High Priest during the time of Christ. Ossuaries were typically used to hold the bones of the dead.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/palac...

Roman Centurion

The centurions who commanded the centuries belonged to the plebeian class. Between the rank of common soldier and centurion there were a large number of subalterns, called principales, who correspond roughly to the non-commissioned officers and men detailed from the ranks for special duties in modern armies.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/roman...

The Colosseum

The Colosseum was the largest and most famous of all Roman amphitheaters. It was originally constructed by the Emperor Vespasian just after 70 AD., and was dedicated by his son Titus in 80 AD. It was known in ancient Rome as the Flavian Amphitheatre, and was completed by Titus' younger son Domitian. The Colosseum was built in the valley between the Palatine, Caelian and Esquiline hills. It could accommodate 70,000 people, who came to watch the games. Many Christians were thrown to the wild beasts in the arena.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/the-f...

Crown of Thorns

Symbolized the "Last Adam" bearing the sins of the world and becoming a cursed sin offering. The thorn is a type of the curse which will be removed at the time of the redemption of the sons of God.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/crown...

Damascus Gate

The Damascus gate and Herod's gate were in the north wall of Jerusalem. The Damascus Gate was the chief entrance into the city.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/damas...

Hasmonean Palace

The Hasmonean Palace was the palace of the famous Hasmonean dynasty. It was located on the Western side of the Upper City. It contained a roof called the Xystus with where the people in the large square below could be addressed. It had large courts, living quarters, baths, and a service court.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/hasmo...

Ancient Israelite House

Illustration of an ancient house of an Israelite commoner.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Israelite Houses

First Century Israelite Houses in the Lower City.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/first...

Wealthy Israelite House

Illustration of a Wealthy Israelite Home

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/wealt...

Jewish Religious Leader

"Pharisee" is from a Greek word (pharisaios) taken from the Heb/Aramaic "Perisha" meaning "Separated one." In the time of Jesus the Pharisees were one of the three chief Jewish sects, the others were the Sadducees and the Essenes. Of the three, the Pharisees were the most separated from the ways of the foreign influences that were invading Judaism, and from the ways of the common Jewish people in the land.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/jewis...

Ancient Phylacteries

Phylacteries (tephillin). These are strips of leather to which is attached little square box made of parchment and painted black. The box contains four parts of the Torah written on parchment: Exodus 13:1 and 11:6; Deuteronomy 6:4-9; 11:13-21. According to Deut 6:4-9 two phylacteries were used, one for the head and one for the arm. These (called frontlets in Deuteronomy) were put on in such a way that one box rested on the head, between the eyes (seat of the mind) and the other on the left arm opposite the heart (seat of the actions and the emotions, denoting that one loves the Lord with one's heart). They are referred to as phylacteries in the New Testament (Mat 23:5).

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Roman Procurator

History teaches that Pontius Pilate was appointed governor of Judea by Tiberius in 26 A.D. and immediately made bad relations with the Jews by centering the headquarters of his army, previously in Caesarea, to Jerusalem.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/roman...

Greek Ships

Illustration of an ancient Greek ship.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/greek...

Capernaum Synagogue

Numerous synagogues were set up in Jerusalem, including one for freedmen, or ex-slaves. There were no less than 480 synagogues in Jerusalem during Jesus' time. The well preserved synagogue at Capernaum dates from the first or second century AD and could be the site of the building where Jesus spoke. About the only synagogue visible today which for certain, dates to the first century AD, is the building excavated at Masada.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/caper...

Tax Collector

The Jewish people were under the yoke of foreign oppressors ever since the Babylonian captivity. During the New Testament times the land of Israel was within the province of Syria and the tax collectors were collectors of Roman taxes, they were extortioners, and very despised. The Jews detested these tax collectors not only on account of their abusive and tyrannical attitude, but because the very taxes that they were forced to collect by the Roman government were a badge of servitude and a constant reminder that God had forsaken His people. The tax collectors were always classed by the people with the harlots, usurers, gamblers, thieves, and dishonest herdsmen, who lived promiscuous, lawless lives. Some of the common terms for the tax collectors were "licensed robbers" and "beasts in human shape."

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/tax-c...

Jerusalem Temple

It is interesting that in the Middle East certain places have remained holy throughout the centuries, even if another religion may have taken possession of them. Today the Moslem Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is the prominent building where the Jewish temple once stood. When Jesus came to Jerusalem, the Temple had just been marvelously rebuilt by Herod the Great. The Temple area had been enlarged to a size of about thirty-five acres.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/jerus...

Jesus Reading Isaiah Scroll

Jesus was reading from a scroll of the prophet Isaiah, when He spoke the incredible words, "today this Scripture is fulfilled."

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/jesus...

Ancient Torah Scroll

Illustration of an Ancient Torah Scroll

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Egyptian Goddess

The women of the ancient Near East used to paint their eyebrows and their eyelids with a black dye, as seen in this sketch of an Egyptian Goddess, copied from the Sarcophagus of Oimenepthah. The process was repeated often and sometimes painful to the eyes. Solomon warned of the seductress who uses her painted eyes to lure men. When Queen Jezebel heard about Jehu coming to slay her she went in and painted her eyes and looked out a window.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/egypt...

Ancient Sheep Fold

Shepherds brought their sheep into the fold in the wilderness for safety. The shepherd would lay in front of the door to protect the sheep from an attacker.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Sling

In ancient times the "sling and stone" was sort of like a loaded weapon, and quite a valuable weapon if one had the skill to use it. The sling itself was usually made of wool, twined together, though some cultures used leather. In the middle there was a thick pouch (like a plaited thong) for holding and slinging the stone. The stones could be kept in a small pouch for rapid fire slinging. The user would place the stone in the pouch, hold both ends, waive it around the head, and fling it by letting go of one of the ropes. In the Bible "slingers" were part of the Israelite army like the archers.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Solomon's Temple Court

Illustration of the court of the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/solom...

Ancient Helmuts

Illustrations of different helmuts worn by soldiers in ancient times.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Standards

Standards of king's, deities and various symbols were used by armies to rally their soldiers together. In the ancient world every known culture had standards, including the Hebrews. In fact the Lord said that He Himself was Israel's banner, "Yahweh Nissi", and He would even rally the gentiles to Himself.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Egyptian Dancers

Illustration of Egyptians dancing in the ancient world.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Music Playing

Assyrian musicians from the ancient world

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Ox Carts

Illustration of ox carts used by the ancient Philistines

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Solomon's Bronze Laver

The laver of cleansing in the outer court of Solomon's Temple.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/solom...

Tracks Between Walls

Illustration of how people travelled between city walls.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Women Traveling

Illustration of Women Traveling in Ancient Times

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Pharos Lighthouse of Alexandria

In the ancient world there once stood the 500 foot Pharos Lighthouse on an island in Egypt. Built in 290 B.C. one could easily notice it when approaching the famous Alexandria Harbor. It was one of the wonders of the ancient world.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/pharo...

Nebo, God of Babylon

In ancient times Nebo, or Nabu was the Chaldean deity of the Babylonians and Assyrians. King Nebuchadnezzar's name means "May Nebo protect my boundary."

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/nebo-...

Nebuchadnezzar Cameo

On display in the museum of Florence, Italy is an onyx stone cameo with a cuneiform inscription reading, "In honor of Merodach, his lord, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, in his lifetime had this made." It is dated to about 585 B.C.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/nebuc...

Nebuchadnezzar Inscription

This clay tablet reads, "In the thirty-seventh year of Nebuchadnezzar, king of the country of Babylon, he went to Egypt [Misr] to make war. Amasis, king of Egypt, collected [his army], and marched and spread abroad." The inscription is now on display in the British Museum in London. In the ruins of ancient Babylon most of the clay inscriptions are about Nebuchadnezzar, son of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/nebuc...

Ancient Roman Army Standards

In ancient Rome the standards were an important part of the army. The standards contained many symbols: an eagle, a god, the Emperor, a wolf, a Minotaur, a horse, a boar, a ram, and others. The eagle was the symbol of the Roman legion. The standard bearer was called the Signifer.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Temple of Diana Coin

In ancient times Diana was the Goddess of the Ephesians. Her Greek name was Artemis and she was also represented as Astarte. Her Temple was one of the wonders of the ancient world, and her statue was believed to have fallen from heaven.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Temple of Diana Coin

In ancient times Diana was the Goddess of the Ephesians. Her Greek name was Artemis and she was also represented as Astarte. Her Temple was one of the wonders of the ancient world, and her statue was believed to have fallen from heaven.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Thessalonica

The ancient city of Thessalonica mention in the Bible

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Statue of Diana

In ancient times Diana was the Goddess of the Ephesians. Her Greek name was Artemis and she was also represented as Astarte. Her Temple was one of the wonders of the ancient world, and her statue was believed to have fallen from heaven.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Aqueducts

Ancient Roman aqueducts were large bridges with pipes or channels set into them. These pipes carried water from rivers and lakes around the country, into Rome and other urban centers. One famous ancient Roman aqueduct that still remains today is the Pont du Gard in France.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Fig Trees

Figs and fig trees are mentioned often in the ancient world, especially in Israel. The Mount of Olives was famous for its fig trees, even to this day. It was a common expression for peace and prosperity to "sit under one's own fig tree." Figs were pear shaped and the young figs were especially sweet and tasty. They were eaten raw or made into cakes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Fishermen

Fishing goes back to the earliest of times. The Nile River in Egypt abounded in fish, and the fishing industry was very profitable there. In ancient times fish were usually caught with either a hook, a spear, or a net. In Israel the Sea of Galilee was famous for its quantities and types of fish.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Flat Roofs

This illustration shows ancient homes with flat roofs. In Israel it was common for a family to spend much time upon their housetops. The climate was usually mild and ideal for gatherings. The roof usually had three layers: the wooden beams, straw mats, and a clay top. The clay would be pressed down tight with a stone roller.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Men's Hair

In Israel, the Hebrew men and women wore long hair, yet it was trimmed to show humility. Baldness was wholly despised and extremely long hair was the characteristic of the Nazarite. By the time of Jesus men wore their hair much shorter. They also left their sides uncut near the ears. In Israel it was customary for hair to be kept neat and when hair was messy it was usually a sign of mourning or distress.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Lamps

In the ancient world there wasn't electricity like today, in fact the inside of a home was about as dim as a 40-watt light bulb. In the earliest of times lamps were stone bowls filled with animal fat. They would float a wick of twisted plant fibers. Later the bowls were made of pottery filled with olive oil. Most homes would contain several oil lamps because olive oil was in abundance and therefore not expensive.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Men's Head Covering

In ancient Israel there seems to have been no covering for the head except on certain occasions. For example, during times of great distress it was customary to wear a head covering.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Mezuzah in Doorway

The word "mezuzah" is Hebrew for doorpost. Moses commanded that the Word of God should be written on the doorposts of every house in order to keep His words constantly in their minds and in their hearts. At a later time the Jews took this literally, by placing Scriptures (Deuteronomy 6:4-9 and 11:13-21) on a small parchment scroll within a cylinder and upon each post of every room in their houses.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Oil Vases

Oil was stored in earthenware vessels (Heb. Asak). They were deep and narrow, with the narrowest part at the bottom. They had no handles and were usually inserted into a stone or wooden stand, or simply placed into holes in the ground. The top was capped with wood or some soft material.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Olive Press

This sketch looks similar to a first century olive press discovered at the ruins of ancient Capernaum in Israel. In ancient times September was not only time to prepare for the New Year, but it was also time for harvesting olives. It lasted through November. Near the orchards there was usually an olive press, as sketched in the image above.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Roads

Throughout history "˜the road' has provided an excellent metaphor for life's journey. With amazement, we can look back over the winding grades of difficulty, the narrow pass of opportunity, the choice between security or adventure, when our road divided and we had to make the call.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Windows

The ancient window looked very much like a fisherman's net, and was used in warm middle eastern countries. It was formed of reticulated work, and highly ornamental. They also had hinges which allowed them to be open or shut. On very hot days then sun is kept out while the air is let in through the trellis openings. .

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Women's Head Covering

Illustration of a Head covering for women in ancient times

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Patriarch's Clothing in the Time of Abraham

This is how a man would have dressed in ancient times about the time of Abraham which was around 1800 BC. From inside to out he wore an under garment which was bound by a girdle. Over this he wore a coat or outer garment, sometimes called a vesture. Around the head was the head cloth which was a scarf wrapped around the head. He also wore sandals and carried a tall staff.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/patri...

Jesus Written in Hebrew

This is how the name "Jesus" would have been written in ancient Hebrew documents. The four letters or consonants from right to left are Yod, Shin, Vav, Ayin (Y, SH, OO, A). Jesus is the Greek name for the Hebrew name Joshua or Y'shua.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/the-n...

Watchtower in the Vineyard

This was also called a watchman's booth, which was a small sheltered tower in the midst of a vineyard. They were very important during harvest time, where the whole family would often reside. The watchtower was a symbol of protection from enemies and thieves and rising above them.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/watch...

Ancient Seals and Signets

The ancient seal was a stamp or engraving set in stone, metal or some hard substance like crystal. It was usually a symbol or a figure that was used to make an impression on clay or wax, or some other soft substance. It was usually attached to an object like a possession or a document, in order to give it authenticity, ownership or authority. It was used often in the ancient world, especially in Egypt, Babylonia and Assyria and surrounding nations including Israel.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/seals...

Bronze Mirrors

These polished bronze mirrors were used to reflect the face. They were made of molten bronze or copper. They were round, oval, square and most of the time they had a handle. If any rust developed it was easily polished new. Later in ancient Rome mirrors were made of tin, silver and even gold..

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/bronz...

Dining in Ancient Rome

The ancient Hebrews, Egyptians, and Greeks. used to eat sitting on mats spread on the floor. The Romans actually reclined on couches around a table. The couches were arranged forming three sides of a square.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/dinin...

Sun Dial

This ancient sun dial reveals the hours in a day. It has a surface with hour lines and a stick or gnomon which casts a shadow as the sun advances in its daily course. The sun dial is mentioned in the Bible as far back as the time of King Ahaz. Herodotus mentions that the sun dial was in use before his time in Babylonia.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/sun-d...

Ancient Lattice Windows

The lattice window looked very much like a fisherman's net, and was used in warm middle eastern countries. It was formed of reticulated work, and highly ornamental. They also had hinges which allowed them to be open or shut. On very hot days then sun is kept out while the air is let in through the trellis openings.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Cuneiform Writing

Cuneiform is the earliest -known system of writing. It was invented in Sumer around 3000 B.C. The name cuneiform comes from the Latin word "cuneus", meaning wedge.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/cunei...

Ancient Harp from Ur

In ancient times the harp was played with the hand while walking. It had multiple strings and sometimes a sounding board, as with this harp excavated in the ruins of ancient Ur, where Abraham originally lived. Notice this harp has 11 strings with a nicely ornamented sounding board with a ram's head at the end.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Jewish Captives Playing the Lyre

Jewish captives playing the Lyre as they are led away. The ten tribes of Israel were condemned by God for their rebellion and idolatry. God raised up an invincible army to plunder them, the ancient Assyrians.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/jewis...

Beards and Styles

In the ancient Near East beards were prized as a sign of strength and pride. Beards came in many sizes and shapes as seen in this illustration.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Symbol of Asshur

The monuments excavated at Nineveh have revealed much about the religion of the ancient Assyrians. They worshipped the sun, moon and stars, and among their idols were heroes and rulers from earlier times who were made deities. Asshur was the father of the Assyrians and the country was named after him. He was regarded as "the great god, king of all the gods."

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/the-g...

Ancient Diadems

The ancient diadem was the highly adorned and richly gemmed head-dress, worn by kings. In the east the diadem was a symbol of absolute power. It was usually a headband about two inches wide, tied in the back and made of silk, and inlaid with gold and the most precious gems. The crown was a symbol of glory, and the diadem was a symbol of beauty.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Crowns

The crown in the ancient world came in many shapes and forms. They were made of very costly material, symbolizing royalty and sovereignty. When King David conquered Rabbah, he took the crown of the king of the Ammonites which contained a talent of gold and precious stones. Solomon said that a virtuous wife was a crown to her husband.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/crown...

Shishak of Egypt Mentions Judah

Archaeologists discovered some sculptures upon the walls of Thebes in ancient Egypt at the magnificent temple of Karnak. Among them was this figure of an enemy captive with his arms tied behind his back, with a shield covering him. Upon the shield was written in Egyptian hieroglyphics: "Judah-Melek-Land" which means "the kingdom of Judah."

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/shish...

Sennacherib King of Assyria

This figure of the mighty Assyrian king Sennacherib was discovered on the walls of his palace in Khorsabad, near the ruins of ancient Nineveh. The ancient Assyrian ruins reveal much about the wealth of this powerful monarch. Sennacherib reigned from 720 BC to about 683 BC. The Bible reveals that during the reign of the Jewish king Hezekiah, Sennacherib came to conquer Jerusalem and the Angel of the LORD (The Lord Himself) slew 185,000 Assyrian soldiers. When he returned to Assyria his own sons murdered him.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/senna...

Phasael Tower

Herod the Great built the Phasael Tower and named it after his brother who died before he came to power. It was the largest of the three towers built to protect the western side of the city of Jerusalem and his grand palace. It stood 145 feet high. The most beautiful of the three was the Mariamne Tower named after his favorite wife..The Hippicus Tower was named after his friend. We know about Herod and his buildings through the writings of Josephus, Strabo, Dio Cassius, Jewish Literature, archaeology and the Bible.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/phasa...

Herod the Great's Fortified Palace

King Herod the Great built his magnificent fortified palace to provide protection for Jerusalem's Upper City. It also guarded the west side of the city along with Herod's three towers. Just like Herod's Temple, his Palace was constructed on a platform, about 1000 feet (from north-south), and 180 feet (from east-west). The Palace consisted of 2 main buildings, each with its banquet halls, baths, and accommodations for hundreds of guests. It was surrounded with groves of trees, canals, and ponds studded with bronze fountains.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/herod...

Herod's Theater

Herod the Great built a marvelous theater in Jerusalem's Upper City. It was a large auditorium with no roof and semicircular rows of seats ascending from the center stage. Wealthy Jews came there to watch the best of Greek and Roman drama. Most traditional Jews, however, scorned this and other outgrowths of Greco-Roman culture as immoral.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/herod...

Hippicus Tower

The Hippicus Tower was named after Herod the Great's general and friend. It stood 132 feet high. It was one of the three towers built to protect Jerusalem on the northwest side. It was located near Herod's Palace to the north and in the middle of Jerusalem's northern wall, to the west of the western wall of the Temple Mount. It is undoubtedly located on the exact same site as Nehemiah's Tower of Hananeel, according to Josephus.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/hippi...

Monument of King Alexander Jannaeus

The Monument of King Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BC) was located near the Pool of the Sheepmarket. Josephus wrote of the monument of Alexander (Jannaeus) on the east of the city (5 Wars vii. 3)

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/monum...

Pool of Bethesda

The Pool of Bethesda was located on the eastern side of the city near the Fortress of Antonia. The name Bethesda means "house of mercy." The water source was a nearby spring. The Pool had five porches and according to the Bible there was a tradition that an angel moved the waters at certain times and healed the sick. It was here at the Pool of Bethesda that Jesus healed the man who was lame for thirty-eight years.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/pool-...

Tomb of David

Behind the Palace of Caiphus stood the Tomb of David which is a monument that marks the spot where David's tomb was located. The real spot for the tomb is on the southeast hill in David's city.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/tomb-...

Tomb of Absalom

The traditional site of Absalom's Tomb is located on the eastern slope of the Kidron Valley, on the east side of Jerusalem. Josephus wrote about this tomb, which existed in the first century A.D. (Antiquities vii. 10, § 3). It stands twenty feet high and twenty-four feet square.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/tomb-...

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were considered one of the wonders of the ancient world. The Greek historian Herodotus described Babylon in great detail. King Nebuchadnezzar built them in 580 BC apparently for his wife Amytis, daughter of the Median King Astyages, who was homesick for the mountains and vegetation of her native land.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/hangi...

Pool of Siloam

The Pool of Siloam was the only permanent water source for the city of Jerusalem in the first century AD. It was fed by the waters of the Gihon Spring diverted through Hezekiah's Tunnel, built in the 8th century BC. Jesus told the blind man to go wash at the Pool of Siloam, and after doing it he received his sight. This was significant since the Hebrew word Siloam means "sent" and Jesus was the Messiah "sent" from heaven. The english equivalent is the word "apostle."

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/the-p...

Ancient Cymbals

Cymbals were used in Biblical times to praise the Lord. In the above sketch an Assyrian musician is shown playing a cymbal. The cymbal made a loud noise by clanging two brass bowls against each other making a rhythm. Cymbal players were often seen with a company of musicians during processions.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Harp

In ancient times the harp was played with the hand while walking. It had multiple strings and sometimes a sounding board.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Horns

In ancient times the horn was a musical instrument and used to call the people together.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Drums

In ancient times certain drums were made from a clay jar, with a donkey skin stretched over the big open side. Some drums were made of wood with leather stretched over the open end.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Bagpipes

In ancient times the dulcimer or bagpipe contained a goatskin with two reed pipes.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Flutes or Pipes

In ancient times flutes or pipes were very popular and made of bone, reed, ivory or metal.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Handbells

In ancient times the handbell was played as a musical instrument.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Harps

In ancient times the harp was played with the hand while walking. It had multiple strings and sometimes a sounding board. Some contained rare woods, gold, silver and precious gems.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Lutes

In ancient times the lute was used as a musical instrument much like the harp.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Trumpets

In ancient times the trumpet was long and made of metal. It was used to call the people to assembly.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Rattles

In ancient times the Sistrum or rattle was a musical instrument used in processions.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Tambourines

In ancient times the tambourine was a musical instrument and was used by dancers.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Triangle Instrument

In ancient times the triangle was a musical instrument.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/ancie...

Ancient Nineveh

Sketch of Ancient Nineveh in the land of Assyria

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/art/ninev...

Nebuchadnezzar's City of Babylon

Sketch of Nebuchadnezzar's City of Babylon

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/sketc...

Abdon, Khirbet Adben

Plan of Abdon Reconstruction. Khirbet Adben

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/plan-...

Palace of Minos at Knossos

Sketch of the Palace of Minos at Knossos

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/palace-of...

Dagon the Fish-God of the Philistines

Dagon was the god of the Philistines. This image shows that the idol was represented in the combination of both man and fish. The name "Dagon" is derived from "dag" which means "fish."

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/dagon-the...

Asshur of Ancient Assyria

The monuments excavated at Nineveh have revealed much about the religion of the ancient Assyrians. They worshipped the sun, moon and stars, and among their idols were heroes and rulers from earlier times who were made deities. Asshur was the father of the Assyrians and the country was named after him. He was regarded as "the great god, king of all the gods."

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/the-g...

Apis the Sacred Bull of Egypt

The bull symbolized fearless vigor, strength, and enduring fury. Egypt chose this animal to represent God and bull worship became prevalent in the ancient world. After the Israelites were delivered from Egypt, Moses came down from the mountain and found Aaron had set up a golden calf or young bull, that the people might worship God in this form. When the northern kingdom of Israel divided from their brothers in the south, Jeroboam introduced bull worship and set up two idols, one at Bethel and the other at Dan.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/apis-...

Nisroch God of Ancient Assyria

The Assyrian god Nisroch was depicted as an eagle-headed diety with wings and exaggerated muscles. In this sculptured relief from Nineveh he is sprinkling the sacred tree with water. He is holding a water vessel in his left hand and a fir cone (sponge) in his right. It was to this god that Sennacherib, king of Assyria was praying when he returned from his campaigns in Israel. The previous verse reveals that the Angel of the Lord routed the Assyrian army.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/assyr...

Jupiter the Chief God of Rome

In ancient Roman religion, Jupiter was the chief of the gods. The name "Jupiter" means "the best and greatest" (Optimus Maximus). He was identified with the Greek god Zeus.

Jupiter was the spirit of the sky and worshiped as the god of thunder and lightning. During wartime he was sought to protect in battle and was the 'giver of victory.' During peacetime he was the god of justice and morality. He was believed to be present during the giving of oaths and transactions. His temple was on the Capitoline Hill.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/jupit...

Juno the Roman Savior of Women

In ancient Roman religion, the Goddess Juno was worshiped by women in the Roman Empire. Her festival was Matronalia and celebrated on March 1.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/juno-...

Mars the Roman God of War

In ancient Roman religion, Mars was the god of war. He was considered to be the second most important Roman deity, Jupiter was the 'chief.' It was also believed that Romulus, the founder of Rome, was the son of Mars. He was worshiped during wartime and his priests, the Salii, danced in full armor carrying the sacred shields. His altar was in the Campus Martius where warfare exercises were held. Mars was considered to be the Greek Ares and the son of Juno.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/mars-...

Assyrian Death Penalty

This sketch represents the usual death penalty given by the Assyrians which was hoisting on poles. The victims were tied with their stomachs or throats on the point of a stake so that their own weight thrust them downwards.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/assyrian-...

Assyrians Blinding Their Prisoners

This sketch represents part of a scene from a marble slab discovered at Khorsabad. The Assyrian king is using a spear to blind one of his many prisoners. In his left hand he holds a cord with a hook attached at the opposite end which are inserted into the prisoners lips. The Assyrians would thrust the point of a dagger or spear into the eye. Their are many representations that have been discovered revealing that the Babylonians, Assyrians and Persians made use of the same cruel punishment.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/assyrians...

Israelites Forced to Labor

This sketch is taken from a marble relief found in the palace of Sennacherib. It illustrates how the Israelite prisoners were assembled into gangs and forced to perform heavy labor. They are clothed in short skirted garments and are carrying heavy loads of rocks.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/israelite...

Assyrian Fetters

Pairs of bronze fetters were used to fasten prisoners. They were made of various shapes and materials. The ones that were put on Zedekiah and Samson were made of brass or copper. The sketch on top is from a pair of Fetters found in Nineveh, currently in the British Museum. They weigh 8 lbs. 11 oz. and are 16 ½ inches long. The part which enclosed the ankles is thinner so that they could be hammered small after the feet were placed in them. The Egyptians enclosed the hands of their prisoners in an elongated shackle of wood, made of two opposite segments nailed together at each end.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/assyrian-...

Roman Scourging

The Romans would, according to custom, scourge a condemned criminal before he was put to death. The Roman scourge, also called the "flagrum" or "flagellum" was a short whip made of two or three leather (ox-hide) thongs or ropes connected to a handle as in the sketch above. The leather thongs were knotted with a number of small pieces of metal, usually zinc and iron, attached at various intervals. Scourging would quickly remove the skin.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/flagrum...

Assyrian Hooking the Lips

This sketch is an archaeological discovery from the ruins of Ancient Assyria. It reveals an Assyrian king blinding a captive king while holding his head still with a hook in his lips. The other kings are waiting for the same fate. The Bible reveals accounts of prisoners being blinded and this metaphor is used of God leading rebellious people and nations.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/hooks...

Philistine Ships

Philistine ships were sailing ships and had no oars. In the front and rear was a vertical prow and sternpost. In this image they were carved in the shape of a swans neck. At the top of the mast was a crows nest. Notice the ship below contains two Philistine warriors carrying their round army shields and the warrior on the right is also holding a special dagger in his right hand.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/philistin...

Phoenician Ships

Phoenician ships had a curved shape with similar stems and sternposts. The masts had two large yardarms. Notice all the ropes used in the yard rigging. The ships also had high washboards with strakes around the deck to prevent cargo from falling off during heavy seas. The prophet Ezekiel described the building of these ships.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/phoenicia...

Pompeii Illustration Rolling Up a Sail

A mural found in the ruins of ancient Pompeii reveals how sails were furled (rolled up). The mainmast was in the center, made of one piece and held by strong ropes running from the sides of the ship to the main top. The large yard was fixed to the mainmast which enabled it to carry the sail. Four-inch strips of leather was sewn across the sail to reinforce it..

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/pompeii-s...

Paul's Ship to Malta

It was actually a grain ship like the image above. It was of enormous size and the corn ship that Paul traveled on carried 276 men. Ships of this size had a tonnage of 2,600 tons. The hull ran up to a bird's-head carving above the bows and a bird's-tail at the stern. In the midst was a high mast, usually of cedar wood and near the prow was a smaller one for hoisting a small sail. Two large oars were used to steer. On the deck was a wooden hut for the helmsman which was also used as a temple of worship containing an idol.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/pauls-shi...

Seige of Lachish

Assyrian Seige of Lachish Sketch

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/art/lachi...

Trodding the Neck

This Assyrian king places his foot upon the neck of his enemy to symbolize complete subjugation and possession of the captured king.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/assyrian-...

Prisoners Under the Footstool

This sketch is from a larger one where Pharaoh (Amenhotep II 1448-1420 BC) places his feet upon his enemies, in this case his enemies were Negroes and Semites, who were caught in a snare. Notice that the subjugated persons have their arms tied behind their backs and "have now been made his footstool." The "footstool" is mentioned in Scripture as apart of the throne of the king and symbolizes God's throne.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/prisoners...

Counting Dead Men's Hands

This sketch represents how the Egyptians would count the severed hands of enemy corpses after a battle. They would usually cut off the hands or the genitals of the dead and make a heap before their king. In one case 12,535 of these "battle trophies" were counted and assembled into a mound after a victory of Ramsees III over the Libyans.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/egyptians...

Counting Dead Men's Hands

This sketch represents how the Egyptians would count the severed hands of enemy corpses after a battle. They would usually cut off the hands or the genitals of the dead and make a heap before their king. In one case 12,535 of these "battle trophies" were counted and assembled into a mound after a victory of Ramsees III over the Libyans.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/egyptians...

Egyptian Staff of Inheritance

This engraving reveals the staff of inheritance in the left hand. If it were in the right hand it would be a scepter.

Link: https://bible-history.com/past/egyptian-...

Ancient Obelisk

The ancient obelisk was a monumental pillar made of stone and was a major symbol of sun worship of the god ra in ancient Egypt. The Lord referred to them as idols of jealousy and swore that He would destroy the obelisks of Heliopolis and "overthrow idolatry."

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/the-a...

Judea Capta Coins

Two Roman medals that commemorate the capture of Jerusalem.

Link: https://bible-history.com/sketches/judea...