Weapons & Warfare

The Armory - Roman Scutum Shield

This shield is designed after the ones used by Roman foot soldiers. It is primarily intended to be used as a decorative piece and is crafted from 20 gauge steel. It is beautifully painted and features bronzed-steel embossing and a baked-enamel. The trim and fittings are crafted from solid brass and this piece comes equipped with chain hangers and brackets for attaching one or two swords. This shield is 29 3/4" by 18 1/4". (Replica)

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Ancient Catapults

By Werner Soedel and Vernard Foley Scientific American, March 1979, pp. 150 - 160 In 399 B.C. Dionysius the Elder, ruler of the Greek colony of Syracuse in Sicily, prepared his city for a long war with Carthage by undertaking search and development program. Utilizing such now familiar techniques as the assembly of large teams of specialists, the division of labor to break down the tasks into manageable units, and the provision of financial and psychological incentives. Dionysius clearly aimed from the outset at the production of novel weapons. Out of the program came quadriremes and possibly quinqueremes, ships with the equivalent of four or five banks of oars and so with more potential power behind their rams than the standard three bank triremes. Dionysius' engineers also devised the first catapults.

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The Ballista

The Roman engineers wanted a bigger machine with a greater range, so in 50 b.C., they invented the ballista. The ballista was, unlike the Greek Catapulta, built almost entirely out of wood. The ballista used an older spring frame type that was more powerful as the arms could travel further, but it was also more expensive so it was used primarily for big stone throwing machines. The ballista also had the ratchet device on the outside, made out of steel. It was larger than the catapulta, in fact, some of the machines were the biggest ever made in the Roman period! They were also very expensive, because of the size and of the older, but more powerful spring frame.

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Greek Artillery

Ancient Greek Artillery Technology: From Catapults to the Architronio Canon - Bows (the first machine invented by man?) were used at least since 8000 BC according to cave paintings in 'les Dogues' (Castellón, France). Probably bows were invented much earlier (around 20000 BC). The word Catapult comes from the Greek words kata and peltes. (Kata means downward and peltes describes a small shield ). Catapult means therefore shield piercer. Catapults were first invented about 400 BC in the Greek town Syracus under Dionysios I (c. 432-367 BC). The Greek engineers first constructed a comparatively small machine, the gastraphetes (belly-bow), a version of a crossbow. Thegastraphetes is a large bow mounted on a case, one end of which rested on the belly of the person using it. When the demands of war required a faster, stronger weapon, the device was enlarged, and a winch pull-back system and base were added.

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Weapons and Warfare in Ancient Israel

The book of Judges describes the period when the Israelites were settling into the Promised Land following the Exodus from Egypt. Because the conquest was not complete, warfare was frequent, and resulted in the hero stories preserved in Judges. These heroes were known as "judges", meaning, not people who decided court cases, but military leaders who delivered Israel from her enemies. What weapons did these heroes use, and what was their strategy in defeating their enemies?The Bible does not usually give a detailed description of weapons or of military strategy. Yet we have a good knowledge of weapons from archaeological discoveries and drawings, paintings and reliefs. by James Moyer Ph.D.

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Ancient Greek weaponry

The Hellenistic Age began with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and lasted until the true establishment of the Roman Empire upon the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. The method of warfare inancient Greece, and the world, consisted of arrows spears, swords, axes and shields. Because of its ease of casting and superiority in strength, bronze was preferred in the making of weapons.

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Ancient Egypt Edged Weapons

One distinguishes between two kinds of battle axe: the cutting and the piercing axe. Both were used by Egyptian soldiers, but under different circumstances. The cutting axe is a blade fastened to a sizable handle, the idea being to keep as far as possible from harm's way. As relatively little power was exerted the affixing of the blade to the handle was not very critical. The head was generally inserted into a hole or groove in the wooden handle and tied fast.

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Weapons in Ancient Egypt

The Old Kingdom had soldiers equipped with a great variety of weapons: shields, spears, cudgels, maces, daggers, bows and arrows... Quivers and battle axes came into use before the second Intermediary Period, which was a time of revolution in the Egyptian martial arts. The earliest metal arrowheads date from the 11th dynasty (ca.2000 BCE), made of copper hardened by hammering.

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Defensive Equipment of the Egyptian Army

Ultimately, and outside of military architecture such as fortresses, the ancient Egyptians used three forms of defensive military equipment, which included body armor and helmets, shields and siege shelters, though most of these items were seen fairly late in the Dynastic period (with the exception of the shield, which may be dated back as for as the predynastic period. By Troy Fox

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Ancient Egypt Projectiles, Javelin, Bow and arrow, slingshot

Ancient Egyptian Weapons: Projectiles, Javelin, Bow and arrow, slingshot. The Throw Stick This somewhat boomerang shaped weapon had little military value, but was, according to the tomb depictions of hunting scenes, extensively used for hunting fowl in the thickets of the Delta reed marshes. They were cheap to make (unlike the much more sophisticated arrows) and their loss was of little importance. Decorative throw sticks were found in Tutankhamen's tomb.

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The Chariot in Egyptian Warfare

Actually, the chariot is difficult to classify as a piece of militaryequipment. It was certainly a mode of transportation, but at the same time, most analyst consider it a weapon. Clearly, in the hands of the Hittites, one of Egypt's chief opponents during the New Kingdom, their heavy machines were weapons used to crash into the troops of their enemies. However, the Egyptian chariots were not used in the same manner, and their use was more of a supporting role to the archers who manned them. By Troy Fox

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Assyrian Warfare

From about 900 B.C. Assyrian kings sent out their armies to conquer new lands. Over 300 years Mesopotamia and lands further to the east and west became part of an Assyrianempire. Conquering foreign cities brought wealth.Regions which had been conquered by the Assyrian army had to pay tribute to the king every year. If they rebelled against his rule, or refused to give tribute, the king would lead his army against them.

Link: http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/warfare/hom...

Ancient Greek Military Technology

Ancient Greeks invented the use of technology in warfare. It is the base of military superiority of the civilization of the West. The first such invention was the Phalanx which was used against the Persians. The Athenians produced very fast triremes. The Greeks in Sicily developed the first advanced catapults. In the period of Alexander the Great colossal siege engines were produced. Alexander introduced an army that could move very fast (even today very important) a fact which requires an organization and planning. The Greek Ptolemaic kings of Egypt produced very large ships. The wars of the Diadochi for the control of the territory conquered by Alexander the Great continued for many years. The Romans very fast acquired the Greek military technology and developed the most organized military system the world ever has seen. The small city states of Greece were intergrated in an Empire that could afford the loss of many thousands of soldiers in a battle or in catastrophical events.Pyrrhus of Epirus experienced this fact. Approximately 400000 Roman soldiers died in the Carthaginian war. Around 100000 Romans died in a storm off Cape Pachynus in 255 BC which destroyed a Roman fleet. By Michael Lahanas

Link: http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/WarTech.ht...

Ancient Egypt War Weapons

To win a war, the successful adversary must have a leading superiority in tactics and weapons. Even though a tactic could fail, if the army had good weapons, it could still help the soldiers to win. Even if the strategy to save more people actually meant more losses because it did not work, there could still be a victory in the end. Every army must have weapons that are efficient, handy, and not so bulky and light enough to carry, those are the principles to a good weapon. The Egyptians had all the characteristics in their tactics and weapons.

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Projectile Type Weapons of Ancient Egypt

Projectile weapons were used by the ancient Egyptian army, as well as other period military, as standoff weapons, usually used in order to soften up the enemy prior to an infantry assault. At various times during Egypt's history, different weapons were used, including throw sticks, spears or javelins, bows and arrows and slingshots. Of these, certainly the bow and arrow became the primary projectile weapon for most of Egypt's history, and yet, all of these weapons continued in some use almost throughout the Dynastic period. by Troy Fox

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Roman Spears - The Weighted Pilum

When the swords wouldn't do, the Roman soldiers relied heavily on their Pilum, which was essentially a long spear (javellin). The Pilum could either be thrown, or used in hand combat. It was usually thrown before engaging the enemy with swords.

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The Hoplite Spear

The hoplite spear, used by the Ancient Greek heavy infantryman, known as a hoplite, from the mid 7th century BC through to the 4th century BC, was the archetypal "stick sharpened at both ends" having a large iron spearhead at one end and a heavy bronze spike at the other. We might very well be puzzled, just as young Ralph was, as to why a weapon like the hoplite spear should have two sharp-ends. The answer lies in understanding that a weapon is a tool, designed to do a particular job in a particular way, and that the form of a particular weapon reflects its intended function. The two ends of the hoplite spear are different shapes and made of different materials because they were intended to perform different functions, and these differences can provide us with important clues about what it was like to be on the sharp-end of a hoplite battle. [Ancient Warfare]

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Ancient Greek Hoplite Reenactment

The primary weapon of the Hoplite was the long, stabbing spear. A heavily counterbalanced weapon that was designed to be used in close formation and that had a number of design features built in. To begin with, the counterbalance weight, known as the sarouter or 'lizard sticker' helped bring the centre of gravity back to around 2 feet from the bottom. This 'shifting' of the centre of balance was also aided by using a tapered shaft, most likely at around 1.5 or 1.25 inches at the base thinning to around 1 inch or .75 inches at the front.

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Spears of Ancient Greece

Photos taken from the British Museum

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Ancient Greek Helmets,Spears and armor

Photos taken from the British Museum

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Achaemenid Organisation & Equipment - Spears

The main hand to hand weapon of the Persian infantry and their allied troops was the short stabbing-spear, about 7 ft in length fitted with a iron head. The reverse end was fitted with a counter weight of bronze, gold or silver. The spear is shown held one handed in an overhand thrusting manner in both Greek and Persian sources.

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Roman Verutum (Javelin) -(300 BC - AD 100)

The verutum, or plural veruti (Latin: spit) was a short javelin used in the Roman army from around 300 BC onwards. During the early Republican period, this javelin was used by the Roman light infantry known as velites who would carry seven veruta into combat, proving to be quite effective weapons, even against war elephants as proven in the battle of Zama (202 BC).

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Roman Light Pilium (Spear) - (300-100 BC)

The Light Pilum (plural pila) was a light javelin. around 5-6 feet in length, commonly used by the Roman Republican army around 300 - 100 BC. During this time period, each leginoary carried two pila into battle - the light pila, and the heavy pila which was some 7 feet in length.

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Greek Hoplite Spear

The primary weapon of the Greek Hoplite was the spear, not the sword. In tight phalanx formation with a dense mass of spears pointed towards the enemy, the Greek spear was the bane of cavalry and infantry alike. This Greek Hoplite Spear is over 9 feet long! Features a carbon steel spear tip, hardwood pole and a brass end spike. The end spike would be used to anchor the spear in the ground to accept a cavalry charge, and would function as a back up weapon if the primary point was broken off in battle. (Replica)

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Ancient Greek Armor, Shields and Helmets

Early Sixth or late 7th century BC. Inside of an hoplite shield with the central arm band (porpax). The shield (Aspis) today is called hoplon which is a general name in Greek for weapon. It was made by wood covered by bronze. Inside covered with leather. The weight around 8 kg. The shield was decorated with different images sometimes with a Gorgon head.

Link: http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/war/Armor2...

Roman - scutum, lorica segmentata, galerus

Roman Shields and Ancient Armour, scutum, lorica segmentata, galerus. Roman shields, Belts, and Ancient armour at RomeGiftShop.com! Let us take you back to the days of the Roman Empire! Relive the days of the Roman Gladiators and Roman Soldiers with these Ancient Roman shields and armour: scutum, parma, galerus, lorica segmentata! All expertly hand-crafted and authentic!

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Achaemenid Organisation & Equipment - Shields

Early Achaemenid armies were characterised by a number of interesting and unique shields. A large wicker shield called the gerrha or the Persian word 'spara'. A violin shaped shield protrayed on the reliefs at Persepolis and a 'pelta' which shows a Greek influence.

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Greek Corinthian Helmet

This is an authentic reproduction of the medieval helmets worn by the Hoplite - the warriors of Ancient Greece. This helmet originated in Greece in the 7th Century B...C. and was later adopted by the Romans. It was a popular style all the way up to the 4th Century B.C. and was the basis for many Helmets of the Renaissance Period. (Replica)

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Alexander The Great Linen Cuirass

The Alexander The Great Linen Cuirass is a traditional Greek body armor made of stiffened layers of linen with steel scales around the waist. Features a traditional Gorgon head symbol hand painted on the front. One size fits most. Tunic available separately. (Replica)

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Early Corinthian Helmet

Spartans Early Corinthian Helmet made of Brass Sold By The Sword Inc... Corinthian helmets originally came out of Greece and were carried to Greek colonies in Sicily, Italy and Spain. Traces have also been found in Celtic graves. This Spartan helmet represents an early type of Corinthian Helmet used from around 500 BC. (Replica)

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Greek Spartan Shield

This Greek style shield is made of thick dished steel with a rolled edge. Hand painted in the traditional design of Sparta, a silver lambda on a bright red background. Fully usable with leather grips on the back. (Replica)

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Athenian Hoplite Helmet Thracian Helmet With Phrygian Cap

Athenian Hoplite Helmet Thracian Helmet With Phrygian Cap by The Sword Inc. Athenian Hoplite Helmet is a Thracian type helmet with its cap in the Phrygian style and cheek pieces decorated as a moustache and beard. From 400 BC with bronzed finish. (Replica)

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Alexander The Great Helmet

Alexander the Great, or Alexander III, was an ancient Greek king of Macedon around 323 BC. Alexander was one of the most successful military commanders in history, and was undefeated in battle. By the time of his death, he had conquered most of the world known to the ancient Greeks. (Replica)

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Weapons and Warfare

Until this section is finished being indexed into the main database you can click here to see a list of links including the Bible History Online general resources on this subject, although many of these links are outdated. [Weapons and Warfare]

Link: https://bible-history.com/resource/gener...

Warfare in the Ancient World (Bibliographies)

Greek Warfare Greek Military History Roman Warfare Roman Military History Late Roman Army bibliography (short) Units of the Roman Army Roman Fortifications Byzantine Warfare Byzantine Military History Byzantine Fortifications General and Comparative Material [Weapons and Warfare]

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Warfare in the Roman World

This page is a collection of resources relevant to the subject of Warfare in the Roman World. It covers material from the Republic and Empire, as late as the Arab Invasions of the seventh century

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Ancient Galleys

"Until about 800 B.C. a variety of ships were used in the Aegean sea. However, they had not yet developed the basic forms of the classical age. Most ships were more or less symmetrical in design (similar to Viking ships, though much more primitive and less seaworthy), and the standard fighting technique was to board the enemy vessel. Then, around 800 B.C., the ram was developed as a ship-to-ship weapon. Suddenly, speed and maneuverability became prime concerns. Includes info on the penteconter, the triaconter, the bireme, the trireme, the quadrireme, quinquereme, Liburnes. Note: The Latin Bireme, Trieme, Quadrireme, Quinquereme correspond to the Greek Biere, Triere, Tetrere and Pentere. The terms are usually used interchangable today. There is some confusion about the use of the term Biere in early Greek - apparently, the old terms Triakonteros and Pentekonteros were originally used to describe both one and two decked ships, and the term Biere was only used later, as a translation of the Latin term Bireme." [by Stephan Schulz]

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Ancient Military History Resources

This Military History resource page is intended to ease the search for quality sites.

Link: http://www.historesearch.com/ancientmil....

History of Warfare - Land

Mesopotamia and Egypt Preliminary skirmishes Foot soldiers Fortification and siege A pharaoh on the warpath From chariot to cavalry The Assyrian war machine Medes and Persians Greece and Rome Byzantium and Islam Middle Ages The footsoldier Gunfire Science of the battlefield Warfare in the Ancient World

Link: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/Plai...

Rome: The Punic Wars

The seventh chapter of the learning module, Rome; this chapter narrates the history of the three conflicts between Rome and Carthage which left Rome in control of the Carthaginian Empire.

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The Second Punic War

(218-202 BC). The Second Punic War, fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic from 218-202 BC, marked the end of major Carthaginian military opposition to Rome. The term "punic" comes from the Latin "poeni," which means "Phoenician" and refers to the Carthaginians. [North Park University]

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Siege Warfare: The Art of Offence and Defence

The Glory That Was Rome. Siege Warfare Artillery and Fortifications. The development of fortification has always been partly dictated by the type of siege tactics and equipment used against them. The basic techniques of siege craft established in the ancient world continued to dominate siege warfare until the introduction of the cannon, some techniques were still employed in this day and age. Basically, an attacker confronted by a wall has five options, if you include retreat. The are as follows; 1) Blockade "" to cut off supply of provisions and re-enforcements to the fortification. 2) Escalade "" to attack the wall using scaling ladders and or siege towers. 3) Breach "" to cause a breach in the wall by attacking the masonry of the wall using siege equipment (bore, ram, mouse). 4) Mining "" to cause a breach in the wall by undermining it, or combination of escalade, breaching and mining. 5) Retreat "" to retreat was also an option when attacked or threatened by a relieving force. (6) trickery- to gain access by means of ruse or treason. [General Ancient War Links]

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Web Sources For Military History

Ancient War History Links, Early European War, Napoleonic WAR Links, US Revolutionary War Links, French Revolution Links, War of 1812, US Civil War Links, United States Civil War Photos, World War I Links, World War II, Korean War Links, Vietnam War Links, Persian Gulf War Links, [General Ancient War Links]

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Ancient and Medieval History

Good help. Created by Ann Ivey and Mark M. Minzak. [General Ancient War Links]

Publix weekly ad, Kroger weekly ad, aldi ad, Walgreens weekly ad

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Medieval Siege Warfare

Medieval siege warfare: A reconnaissance By Bernard S. Bachrach from The Journal of Military History [General Ancient War Links]

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Warfare in the Ancient World

Warfare in the Ancient World (Until the end of the Roman Empire) [General Ancient War Links]

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Ancient Battles

Miniature Wargaming Information on Warhammer Alexander the Great, how to paint military miniature soldiers, ancient battle maps, miniature wargaming rules, alexander the great's campaigns. [General Ancient War Links]

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Naval Warfare in Ancient India

India has an extensive sea-board, being bounced on three sides of her borders by the sea. She has a net-work of large and navigable rivers, free from the freezing effects of a severely cold climate. She has also a wealth of forests, abounding in strong timber which might be readily utilised for the construction of ships and boats. These natural advantages--coupled with the steadiness in the direction of the monsoons over the Indian Ocean and China Sea--aided the Hindus to acquire that nautical skill and enterprise for which they were justly famous in the ancient world. [General Ancient War Links]

Link: http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/c...

Ancient warfare - Wikipedia

Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. In Europe and the Near East, the end of antiquity is often equated with the fall of Rome in 476. In China, it can also be seen as ending in the 5th century, with the growing role of mounted warriors needed to counter the ever-growing threat from the north. In India, the ancient period ends with the decline of the Gupta Empire (6th century) and the beginning Islamic conquests from the 8th century. In Japan, the ancient period can be taken to end with the rise of feudalism in the Heian period. [General Ancient War Links]

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_wa...

Chariots in Greece

A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. In Latin biga is a two-horse chariot, and quadriga is a four-horse chariot. It was used for battle during the Bronze and Iron Ages, and continued to be used for travel, processions and in games after it had been superseded militarily. Early forms may also have had four wheels, although these are not usually referred to as chariots. The critical invention that allowed the construction of light, horse-drawn chariots for use in battle was the spoked wheel. In these times, most horses could not support the weight of a man in battle; the original wild horse was a large pony in size. Chariots were effective in war only on fairly flat, open terrain. As horses were gradually bred to be larger and stronger, chariots gave way to cavalry. The earliest spoke-wheeled chariots date to ca. 2000 BC and their usage peaked around 1300 BC (see Battle of Kadesh). Chariot races continued to be popular in Constantinople until the 6th century.

Link: http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/GreekChari...

Weapons and Armor

Headgear Photos from Univ. Penn.

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Bronze ´Piceno-Corinthian´ Helmet

ca. 550 BC Ascoli Piceno (ancient Asculum), Italy, Tomb of the Warrior MS 1534 This helmet originally carried a detachable horsehair crest. In perhaps a local modification by the Piceni, a tribe of central Italic people on the Adriatic coast northeast of Rome, the protective cheek and lower jaw pieces are formed from a single sheet of bronze. The nose piece has been restored from another helmet. Headgear Photos from Univ. Penn.

Link: https://bible-history.com/images2/greek_...

Bronze ´Corinthian´ Helmet

ca. 600 BC Italy MS 1608 The most common type of helmet in use during the Archaic period. Beaten out of a single sheet of bronze, it provided good protection to the forehead, nose and cheek areas. The two cheek pieces are separated to leave a gap exposing the mouth. Its shape only approximates the contours of the human skull, necessitating a fur or felt lining. Headgear Photos from Univ. Penn.

Link: https://bible-history.com/images2/greek_...

East Greek Hoplite Aryballos

ca. 600&endash;570 BC 31-9-1 This little container, intended to hold perfume or scented unguents, gives a naturalistic impression of a warrior´s face staring out from behind his protective helmet. Compare this Ionian helmet type, with its separately attached cheek pieces, with the bronze examples (MS 1608, MS 1534). H. 6.5; L. 6.0; W. 5.5 cm. Photo courtesy Public Information Office, Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum

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Silver Decadrachm (Chariot)

ca. 400&endash;375 BC Syracuse 29-126-41 "Racing four-horse chariot with a flying Nike personifying Victory crowning the driver. The space below is filled with captured Punic arms. This spectacular coin may commemorate the victory of Dionysius I over the Carthaginian general Himilcon and the deliverance of Syracuse from its Punic siege in 396 BC The reverse of the coin is signed by Euaenetus, one of the most renowned coin designers of antiquity. Commemorative types became especially popular in the Hellenistic period after Alexander´s death in 323 BC" Dia. 34.0 mm. Photo courtesy Public Information Office, Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum

Link: https://bible-history.com/images2/chario...

King Darius Battles

Deals with the Persian Empire battles: The Ionian Revolt, The Battle of Marathon, The Battle of Thermopylae. The Persian Wars. Events leading up to the Persian Wars, the Lydians, King Croesus and the Persians.and the formation of the Delian League. [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

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Warfare in Ancient Rome

Roman military technique and technology was not an indigenous invention but an adaptation and evolution of the knowledge of other civilizations. The success of Roman warfare methods and equipment is plainly seen from the fact that not only did they command a large empire of ever-increasing area, they also managed to keep their kingdom united until the 5th century CE - a task which could not be fulfilled even by the Greeks. During the first period of its history, Rome was an empire in the making, establishing its own territory and fending off aggression. During this time its leadership frequently changed hands, resulting in changing trends in military technology. [General Ancient War Links]

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Warfare in Ancient Greece

As the economic resources of Greek city-states and individuals increased during the seventh century B.C., armies of foot soldiers were formed within the wealthier city-states. Known as hoplites, these soldiers were characteristically equipped with about seventy pounds of armor, most of which was made of bronze. The typical panoply included an eight- to ten-foot thrusting spear with an iron tip and butt, and bronze armor consisting of a helmet, cuirass (chest armor), greaves (shin guards), and a large shield about thirty inches in diameter. The heavy bronze shield, which was secured on the left arm and hand by a metal band on its inner rim, was the most important part of a hoplite's panoply, as it was his chief defense. [General Ancient War Links]

Link: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/gwar/hd...

Ancient Egyptian Warfare

Ancient Egyptian Warfare for Kids [General Ancient War Links]

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Images of Medieval Armor

These portraits are from a collection I picked up on a recent sojourn to southern France, near the walled fortress at Mondragon along the Rhone River. The credit for these wonderful illustrations goes to a brilliant artist named August Racinet, whom I was sadly unable to meet, despite my best efforts. [General Ancient War Links]

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Peloponnesian War

Peloponnesian War Links to Brief descriptions about the battles [Greece Ancient War Links]

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Peloponnesian Wars - Thucydides

The History of Peloponnesian War. Thucydides. [Greece Ancient War Links]

Link: http://classics.mit.edu/Thucydides/pelop...

Athenian Vases with painting of equipments

Arms and Armour: Representations of Warfare. UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE; THE SHEFTON MUSEUM OF GREEK ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY. In addition to the actual items of arms and armour in the Shefton Museum, there are several Athenian vases on which the paintings show further details of the equipment. These vase-paintings are, therefore, an important source for the study of the hoplite's equipment, but they do not represent the battles and fighting tactics truly. The artist was strongly influenced by the heroic warfare of the epic and Homeric poems, where individual champions met to fight isolated duels.

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Ancient Swords (Greece)

Pictures of swords and armor, replicas.

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Phalanx Formation

The phalanx (Ancient Greek: φάλαγξ, Modern Greek: φάλαγγα, phālanga) (plural phalanxes or phalanges (Ancient and Modern Greek: φάλαγγες, phālanges)) is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, or similar weapons. The term is particularly (and originally) used to describe the use of this formation in Ancient Greek warfare. The word phalanx is derived from the Greek word phalangos, meaning the finger. The term 'phalanx' itself does not refer to a distinctive military unit or division (e.g., the Roman legion or the contemporary Western-type battalion) but to the general formation of an army's troops. Thus a phalanx did not have a standard combat strength or composition. Many spear-armed troops historically fought in what might be termed phalanx-like formations. Indeed, the word has come into use in common English to describe "a group of people standing, or moving forward closely together" [1]; c.f. "a phalanx of police" [2]. As well, the bone structure in the hands and feet earned its name, the Phalanx bones, from the arrangement of bones and joints which, when viewed from the sides, appear to be standing in a phalanx formation. This article, however, focuses on the use of the military phalanx formation in Ancient Greece, the Hellenistic world, and other ancient states heavily influenced by Greek civilization.

Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phalanx_fo...

Hoplite Sword (Greece)

The hoplite sword was essentially a slashing weapon and was generally worn slung from a baldric over the right shoulder so that it hung almost horizontally on the left. Alexander the Great is shown with a sword of this type in a period mosaic from Pompeii.

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Ancient Greek Infantry

I. Tactical Warfare: Formation of the phalanx; defensive and offensive fronts. II. Armor and Weapons: Hoplite armaments, shields, swords etc.; chariots. III. Military Hierarchy: Infrastructure from Generals to "packers". IV. Military Pay: Integration of monetary funds for military duties, mercenaries. V. Military Duty: Duty to the state and to the gods. VI. Bibliography:

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Ancient Greek Infantry : Tactical Warfare

Formation of the phalanx; defensive and offensive fronts. Prior to the evolution of the phalanx during the seventh-century BC, war was fought by very limited forces derived exclusively from the social infrastructure of Greek city-states. Quite commonly the aristocratic class constituted the majority of the army. Battles were usually won with specialized offensive charges from which the strongest forces in the army, being that of the chariots and cavalry, often became the decisive factor. Chariots and horses were obtained solely for the nobility; through their wealth and social supremacy nobles could afford to purchase these military luxuries and would have the leisure time to practice them. Often battles were clashes between the noble classes of differing city-states, henceforth, leading to their hegemony over the rest of the population.

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Ancient Greek Infantry : Armor and Weapons

Hoplite armaments, shields, swords etc.; chariots. The armor and weapons used during war varied in accordance to the wealth of the soldier, technological advancements, and battle tactics. The heavy-infantry soldier was perhaps the most formidable soldier because of his wealth and social stature. The hoplites, who were armed with a variety of armaments, were formed into heavy-infantry phalanxes.

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Ancient Greek Infantry : Military Hierarchy

Infrastructure from Generals to "packers". The military hierarchy of ancient Greece could in retrospect be viewed as running parallel to its social hierarchy. The aristocratic class were the wealthiest and most politically powerful individuals of the populace. Their social position gave them an identical stature in the military hierarchy, for they assumed complete authority as trierarchs of both land and sea forces. Not only did they instigate wars but they also led them on the battle fields.

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Ancient Greek Infantry : Military Pay

Integration of monetary funds for military duties, mercenaries. Pay for military services rendered was essentially nonexistent. Military duty was concieved of as a duty to the state which meant that warfare was part of a citizen's responsibilities. Prior to military salaries, soldiers obtained pay through their victories; they sacked cities and confiscated booty which came to be their reward for military service. Not until the early fifth-century B.C. did payments for military service become common. The Athenians initiated their pay system in a time of peace during the thirty-year truce between the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League .

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Ancient Greek Infantry : Military Duty

Duty to the state and to the gods. Military duty in ancient Greece was perceived and practiced by citizens as an important component of civic duty as well as piety to the gods. The causes of war were usually political , naturally imbued with pious issues, and were also instigated by breaches in good faith between city-states. The citizen of ancient Greece was also a soldier, allowing him to engage in war and to become involved in civic duties. The predominant duty of the citizen was his participation in war, through which he was partaking in the act of defence of the values and honor of his city-state, regardless of whether the war was defensive or offensive.

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Anthropomorphic Celtic Sword

The Anthropomorphic Celtic Sword (084-PP) is a first century B.C. design that features a hilt in human shape. The guard and pommel are brass while the grip is wood. The blade is of high-carbon spring steel. [Early Period Swords from Iberia]

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Julius Caesar Sword

ichly Detailed, Decorative Gladius from Toledo "- The Finest Looking Gladius We Carry "- Blade and Hilt Ornately Carved and Enraved "- Roman Eagle on Pommel, SPQR on Guard "- Highest Quality Stainless Steel [Early Period Swords from Gladius]

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Alexander the Great Sword (Gold)

The Alexander the Great sword commemorates Alexander III, King of Macedonia and the first king to be called "the Great". [Early Period Swords from Gladius]

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Alexander the Great Swords (Bronze, Gold)

- Alexander the Great. Brass - Alexander the Great. Black/Gold As the sun set on june 13 th 323 a.c. a heroic figure who ruled the then known world dias in babilonia, aged 33. This man -some say he was a God- was Alexander The Great. His vast empire from Egypt to India covered lands of over 27000 kilometres and he spent his life fighting great battles to unite his knigdom. Art Gladius seek to honour this great commander by recreating his majestic sword. Based on historical research and data compiled over the past night years this sword rellects the Greek Persian influence with a slylizad double edged blade and richly decorated golden hilt featuring some of his famous victories a magnificant collectors piece from Art Gladius.

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Early Period Swords

Ancient swords can be date back to several millennium BC. However, the best know cultures to use swords as a close combat weapon were the Egyptian, Greek, Celtic and Roman The Egyptians did not use swords as their primary weapon. They preferred spears, axes and clubs. Most of the swords used in Egypt were long daggers or very short swords with the exception of the Khopesh or sickle sword. The Greeks employed the more famous Hoplite sword Designed for their heavily armed infantry. This leaf shaped two foot swords was mainly used as a backup weapon like the Egyptians. The Celts around 700-600 BC employed the same style swords as the Greeks but much longer and heavier. The most popular ancient sword is the Roman Gladius sword. It was standard issue for the Roman Legions for several centuries. This 24 inch double edged stabbing sword was a couple inches wide and had a grip with ridges to fit securely in the soldier's hand. It is during the Roman era we see swords and armor used to represent rank and royalty.

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Alexander the Great Sword by Marto

Alexander the Great was the King of Macedonia from 336 - 323 BC. He was less than 20 years old when he ascended the throne. In a series of great battles he defeated Greece`s old enemy, Achaemenid Persia. This gold finished sword honors one of the ancient world`s greatest warrior kings. This type of sword is commonly called a hoplite sword, named after the heavily armed Greek foot-soldier of the classical period. The hoplite sword was essentially a slashing weapon and was generally worn slung from a baldric over the right shoulder so that it hung almost horizontally on the left. Alexander the Great is shown with a sword of this type in a period mosaic from Pompeii. [Early Period Swords from Marto] [Tuscany Trading Co.]

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Roman Sword

This style of sword is known as a gladius hispaniensis and dates from at least the early part of the first century BC. It was essentially a thrusting sword capable of rupturing mail. This sword is an accurate reproduction of a first century AD Roman sword. [Early Period Swords]

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Viking Sword

Medieval Sword Resource: Viking/Flemish. Dating from around 700 AD. The Vikings admired the sword above all other weapons and the settling of personal feuds by sword-fight is well documented. [Early Period Swords]

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Nebuchadnezzar Sword

Nebuchadnezzar was the King of Babylon from 605-562 BC. By recovering long-lost provinces, he once again made Babylon a mighty nation. Nebuchadnezzar is also known for his conquest of Jerusalem and for the building of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The Nebuchadnezzar Sword commemorates one of history's great leaders. This beautifully crafted sword features a gold finished guard and pommel with a silver finished grip. The guard features winged beasts while the pommel is a likeness of Nebuchadnezzar himself. The blade is of stainless steel and features a deep fuller. [Early Period Swords from Marto]

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Celtic Sword

A tribal people, the Celts occupied central and Northern Europe including the British Isles in the pre-Roman period and were known as fierce warriors. The Celtic Sword (M-528) celebrates these hardy people and closely replicates a third century BC original. The human-shaped hilt is typical of the period. The blade is 420 stainless steel. [Early Period Swords from Marto]

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Greek Sword

Greek Sword feature fancy hilts and a scabbard decorated with ancient Greek scenes. [Early Period Swords from Denix]

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Roman Sword by Denix

The Roman Sword, or "Gladius", evolved from weapons captured during the Romans' campaign in the Iberian peninsula. By the first century A.D., it had been refined to the form shown in this replica by Denix. The short stabbing blade, slightly "waisted" and abruptly pointed had shown its worth in many campaigns, and officer's models were showing surprising levels of artistry in their decoration. The blades of Denix daggers and swords are cast from a metal alloy and cannot be sharpened, making them safe for display in family environments. [Early Period Swords from Denix] [

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Roman Dagger

Replica of a 1st century BC Roman dagger. The Roman dagger, or Pugio, was a standard weapon carried by the Roman Legions. Most were fairly plain but some examples remain that show great artistry in their decoration. This replica by Denix of a museum piece illustrates the skill of the artisan and the taste of the Roman officer who wore the original. The blades of Denix daggers and swords are cast from a metal alloy and cannot be sharpened, making them safe for display in family environments.

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Roman Dagger (sheath)

replica of a 1st century BC Roman dagger. Roman dagger is a perfect accessory for any of our Roman or Egyptian costumes. Roman Dager plastic knife, gold handle with jeweled accent sheath with Roman design easily attaches to your belt approximately 18" long

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Roma Sword

The Roma Sword is an attractive display piece. Although the name would indicate a sword of Roman origin, this weapon is actually patterned after Greek weapons of the 5th and 6th centuries BC. [Early Period Swords]

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Roma Sword (Hilt)

The Roma Sword is an attractive display piece. Although the name would indicate a sword of Roman origin, this weapon is actually patterned after Greek weapons of the 5th and 6th centuries BC. [Early Period Swords]

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Ancient Europe: Text and Documents

Ancient Greece and Rome The Presocratics Anaxagoras Anaximander Anaximenes Empedocles Parmenides Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans Thales Zeno Weapons & Warfare.

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Museums

Weapons & Warfare.

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Achaemenid Persia - its history, people and warfare.

This site has been inspired by the stories and images of Ancient Persia. It is meant to be a resource for those interested in Iran, its people and their history. In particular, it focuses on the romance and colour of the "Achaemenid Empire". It contains information on the achievements, the events and the individuals that shaped its history. For those who have an interest in recreating a Persian army in miniature, there are descriptions of the armies and warfare of the Achaemenid period including detailed notes on their battles, organisation and equipment. Weapons & Warfare.

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Classics Greek and Latin Discussion Group

Archives of [email protected] Classical Greek and Latin Discussion Group Weapons & Warfare.

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The Ancient Greek World Index

LAND and ARCHAEOLOGICAL TIME, DAILY LIFE, ECONOMY, RELIGION and DEATH, and more. University of Pennsylvania Museum

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Ancient Scripts and World History

Weapons & Warfare. [Lots of Links]

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Greek Art and Architecture

A Historical Overview; Architecture; Sculpture; Painting and Pottery; Decorative Arts; Greek Revivals. Weapons & Warfare.

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Classical Archaeology Glossary

The Faculty of Classics and the Museum of Classical Archaeology. Weapons & Warfare.

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Ancient Roman Technology

Perhaps the greatest areas of roman technology were those where roman civilization excelled: technology for building and warfare. Roman roads and Julius Caesar's construction of the bridge over the river Rhine are fine examples of roman capability; which clearly depended greatly on roman technology. Weapons & Warfare.

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Archaeology of Greece

Study guides for individual periods of Greek archaeology. Weapons & Warfare.

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Documents in Ancient Military History

Egyptian History; The Battle of Megiddo, 1469 BC., The Battle of Kadesh, 1294 BC., Roman History; Caesar`s Battles with Vercingetorix, 52 BC., Antony`s Campaign Against the Medes, 36 BC., The Battle of Actium, 31 BC., Augustus` Speech Before the Battle., Antony`s Speech Before the Battle., The Battle., The Battle of Teutoburg Forest, AD 9. Description of the Roman Army, AD 70., The Invasion of Galilee, AD 70., The Siege of Jerusalem, AD 70., The Siege of Masada, AD 72., Description of the Roman Army, AD 163., The Battle of Adrianople, AD 378., [Egyptian History. Roman History. Weapons & Warfare.]

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ALEXANDER 'the Great'

A L E X A N D E R "The Great" (356 -323 B.C.) A L E X A N D R O S by Plutarch In an amazing eleven-year journey of conquest, young Alexander of Macedonia conquered all the way from Egypt to India. Behind him came Greek institutions and the Greek language, which became the standard of the ancient world. The intoxication of power caused Alexander to become strange to his friends, and he died unhappy. Weapons & Warfare.

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Alexander the Great and His Army

by Gerald L. Conroy. Conroy discusses in his article the tactics and strategies of Alexander and his army. Weapons & Warfare.

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Siege Warfare

The development of fortification has always been partly dictated by the type of siege tactics and equipment used against them. The basic techniques of siege craft established in the ancient world continued to dominate siege warfare until the introduction of the cannon, some techniques were still employed in this day and age. Basically, an attacker confronted by a wall has five options, if you include retreat. The are as follows; 1) Blockade "" to cut off supply of provisions and re-enforcements to the fortification. 2) Escalade "" to attack the wall using scaling ladders and or siege towers. 3) Breach "" to cause a breach in the wall by attacking the masonry of the wall using siege equipment (bore, ram, mouse). 4) Mining "" to cause a breach in the wall by undermining it, or combination of escalade, breaching and mining. 5) Retreat "" to retreat was also an option when attacked or threatened by a relieving force. (6) trickery- to gain access by means of ruse or treason. Weapons & Warfare.

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Ancient History

Warfare / Battles / Weapons / Arms & Armor / Violence & Aggression Resources on ancient battles, wars, conflicts, weapons, and armor, as well as violent punishments and gladiators. Art of War - Gladiators @ Battles and Wars - War Gamers - Crucifixion @ Warriors and Soldiers - Egyptian Military @ Weapons / Warfare / Armor - Weapons & Warfare.

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Mesopotamian Chronology 9000-500

Mesopotamia 9000 - 500 B.C. Weapons & Warfare.

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Egyptian Museum, Cairo

120,000 objects in the museum. Weapons & Warfare.

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Chronology of Ancient Egypt

Carnegie Museum of Natural History [Weapons & Warfare.]

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Egyptian Dynasties

Egyptian Middle Kingdom Dynasties 18th Dynasty Ahmosis 1539-1514 Amenophis I 1514-1493 Thutmosis II 1483-1479 Hatshepsut 1479-1458 Thutmosis III 1479-1426 Amenophis II 1426-1400 Thutmosis IV 1400-1390 Amenophis III 1390-1353 Akhenaten 1353-1336 Smenkhkare 1334-1333 Ay 1323-1319 Tutankhamum 1333-1323 Thutmosis I 1493-1483 Horemheb 1319-1292 19th Dynasty Ramses I 1292-1290 Seti I 1290-1279 Ramses II 1279-1213 Merneptah 1213-1204 Seti II 1204-1198 Amenmesse 1203-1200 Siptah 1198-1193 Tawosret 1193-1190 20th Dynasty Sethnakhte 1190-1187 Ramses III 1187-1156 Ramses IV 1156-1150 Ramses IV 1150-1149 Ramses VI 1145-1137 Ramses VII 1137-1129 Ramses VIII 1129-1128 Ramses IX 1128-1110 Ramses X 1110-1106 Ramses XI 1106-10 21st Dynasty 22nd Dynasty 23rd Dynasty 24th Dynasty BIBARCHâ„-.

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Louvre Museum

Weapons & Warfare.

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Electronic Resources for Classicists

University of California, Irvine. Weapons & Warfare.

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Perseus Project

Weapons & Warfare.

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Interactive Historical Atlas

Historic Atlas Resource - Europe. Weapons & Warfare.

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Vatican Museums

Weapons & Warfare.

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Archaeological Museum, Nauplion

Late Helladic (Mycenaean) finds from Asine, Berbati, Dendra, Kazarma, Midea, Nauplia and Tiryns (1600-1100 B.C.) - Geometric finds from Asine, Nauplia, Tiryns and private colections (1100-700 B.C.) - Archaic finds from Tiryns, Myloi and Corinthia (700-480 B.C.) - Classical finds from Tiryns, Halieis, and private collections (480-323 B.C.), - Hellenistic finds from Asine and Mycenae (323 - 146 B.C.) and Roman finds from Mycenae (up to ca. 500 A.D.) Weapons & Warfare.

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Voice of the Shuttle - Classics

GENERAL CLASSICS RESOURCES. Weapons & Warfare.

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Ancient Near East

Since the beginning of civilization, the reality of war and the imposition of one persons will upon another has been a constant threat. In the sixth millennium BCE, as people began to settle the Mesopotamian region, disputes among cities naturally arose and the first raids took place. By the fourth millennium, enough cities had arisen to make distances between some as little as 20 to 30 miles. Here, arguments arose over who had the right to water sources or even questions of where boundaries lay. This continued to snowball until the terrible truth of warfare emerged. Weapons & Warfare.

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Armamentarium: Roman Arms and Armor

The book of Roman arms and armour. Weapons & Warfare.

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A Beginner`s Guide to Roman Arms and Armour

Museum of Antiquities in Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom A `virtual book` that provides an illustrated introduction to the arms and armour of Roman soldiers. [ancient weapons] [Weapons and Warfare]

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Greek and Roman Military History

Roman Military History List of Recommended Readings. Weapons & Warfare.

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Ships of the Ancient Greeks

Ancient Greek Ships, Michael Lahanas. Neolithic period ships. Minoan ship. Homeric ship. Post-Homeric, Classical Period ships. Hellenistic Period ships. Stories and quotes.

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Persian Wars

Weapons & Warfare.

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Ancient Greek Military

I. Tactical Warfare: Formation of the phalanx; defensive and offensive fronts. II. Armor and Weapons: Hoplite armaments, shields, swords etc.; chariots. III. Military Hierarchy: Infrastructure from Generals to "packers". IV. Military Pay: Integration of monetary funds for military duties, mercenaries. V. Military Duty: Duty to the state and to the gods. Weapons & Warfare.

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