Ancient Rome

The Pilate Inscription

A limestone block was discovered among the ruins of a theatre at the site of ancient Caesarea in Israel. It contained 4 lines of writing in Latin which revealed a dedicatory inscription from Pontius Pilate of Judea to Tiberias Caesar in Rome. It is now in the Israel Museum (Jerusalem).

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The Pilate Inscription

A limestone block was discovered among the ruins of a theatre at the site of ancient Caesarea in Israel. It contained 4 lines of writing in Latin which revealed a dedicatory inscription from Pontius Pilate of Judea to Tiberias Caesar in Rome. It is now in the Israel Museum (Jerusalem).

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61 Online Bibles

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Origen in Wikipedia

Origen (Greek: Ὠριγένης Ōrigénēs, or Origen Adamantius, c. 185–254[1]) was an early Christian scholar and theologian, and one of the most distinguished writers of the early Christian Church despite not being considered a Church father by most Christians who recognize this distinction.[2] According to tradition, he is held to have been an Egyptian[3] who taught in Alexandria, reviving the Catechetical School of Alexandria where Clement of Alexandria had taught.[4] The patriarch of Alexandria at first supported Origen but later expelled him for being ordained without the patriarch's permission.[5] He relocated to Caesarea Maritima and died there after being tortured during a persecution.[6] Using his knowledge of Hebrew, he produced the Hexapla and a corrected Septuagint.[7] He wrote commentaries on most of the books of the Bible.[7] In De principiis (On First Principles), he articulated one of the first philosophical expositions of Christian doctrine.[7] He interpreted scripture allegorically and developed certain doctrines with similarities to Neo-Pythagorean and Neo-Platonist thought.[7] Like Plotinus, he wrote that the soul passes through successive stages of incarnation before eventually reaching God.[7] He imagined even demons being reunited with God. For Origen, God was the First Principle, and Christ, the Logos, was subordinate to him.[7] His views of a hierarchical structure in the Trinity, the temporality of matter, "the fabulous preexistence of souls," and "the monstrous restoration which follows from it" were declared anathema in the 6th century.[8] Etymology His Greek name, Ōrigénēs (Ὠριγένης), probably means "child of Horus" (from Ὡρος, "Horus", and γένος, "born").[9] His nickname or cognomen Adamantius derives from Greek ἀδάμας, which means "unconquerable" or "unbreakable". Life Origen was educated by his father, Leonides, who gave him a standard Hellenistic education, but also had him study the Christian Scriptures. In 202, Origen's father was killed in the outbreak of the persecution during the reign of Septimius Severus. Legend has it that Origen wished to follow in martyrdom, but was prevented only by his mother hiding his clothes. The death of Leonides left the family of nine impoverished when their property was confiscated. Origen, however, was taken under the protection of a woman of wealth and standing; but as her household already included a heretic named Paul, the strictly orthodox Origen seems to have remained with her only a short time. Since his father's teaching enabled him also to give elementary instruction, he revived, in 203, the Catechetical School of Alexandria, whose last teacher, Clement of Alexandria, was apparently driven out by the persecution. But the persecution still raged, and the young teacher unceasingly visited the prisoners, attended the courts, and comforted the condemned, himself preserved from harm as if by a miracle. His fame and the number of his pupils increased rapidly, so that Bishop Demetrius of Alexandria, made him restrict himself to instruction in Christian doctrine alone. Origen, to be entirely independent, sold his library[10] for a sum which netted him a daily income of 4 obols, on which he lived by exercising the utmost frugality. Teaching throughout the day, he devoted the greater part of the night to the study of the Bible and lived a life of rigid asceticism. Eusebius reported that Origen, following Matthew 19:12 literally, castrated himself.[11] This story was accepted during the Middle Ages and was cited by Abelard in his 12th century letters to Heloise.[12] Scholars within the past century have questioned this, surmising that this may have been a rumor circulated by his detractors.[13] The 1903 Catholic Encyclopedia does not report this.[14] However, renowned historian of late antiquity Peter Brown finds no reason to deny the truth of Eusebius' claims. During the reign of emperor Caracalla, about 211-212, Origen paid a brief visit to Rome, but the relative laxity during the pontificate of Zephyrinus seems to have disillusioned him, and on his return to Alexandria he resumed his teaching with zeal increased by the contrast. But the school had far outgrown the strength of a single man; the catechumens pressed eagerly for elementary instruction, and the baptized sought for interpretation of the Bible. Under these circumstances, Origen entrusted the teaching of the catechumens to Heraclas, the brother of the martyr Plutarch, his first pupil. His own interests became more and more centered in exegesis, and he accordingly studied Hebrew, though there is no certain knowledge concerning his instructor in that language. From about this period (212-213) dates Origen's acquaintance with Ambrose of Alexandria, whom he was instrumental in converting from Valentinianism to orthodoxy. Later (about 218) Ambrose, a man of wealth, made a formal agreement with Origen to promulgate his writings, and all the subsequent works of Origen (except his sermons, which were not expressly prepared for publication) were dedicated to Ambrose. In 213 or 214, Origen visited Arabia at the request of the prefect, who wished to have an interview with him; and Origen accordingly spent a brief time in Petra, after which he returned to Alexandria. In the following year, a popular uprising at Alexandria caused Caracalla to let his soldiers plunder the city, shut the schools, and expel all foreigners. The latter measure caused Ambrose to take refuge in Caesarea, where he seems to have made his permanent home; and Origen left Egypt, apparently going with Ambrose to Caesarea, where he spent some time. Here, in conformity with local usage based on Jewish custom, Origen, though not ordained, preached and interpreted the Scriptures at the request of the bishops Alexander of Jerusalem and Theoctistus of Caesarea. When, however, the confusion in Alexandria subsided, Demetrius recalled Origen, probably in 216. Of Origen's activity during the next decade little is known, but it was probably devoted to teaching and writing. The latter was rendered the more easy for him by Ambrose, who provided him with more than seven stenographers to take dictation in relays, as many scribes to prepare long-hand copies, and a number of girls to multiply the copies. At the request of Ambrose, he now began a huge commentary on the Bible, beginning with John, and continuing with Genesis, Psalms 1-25, and Lamentations, besides brief exegeses of selected texts (forming the ten books of his Stromateis), two books on the resurrection, and the work On First Principles. Conflict with Demetrius and removal to Caesarea About 230, Origen entered on the fateful journey which was to compel him to give up his work at Alexandria and embittered the next years of his life. Sent to Greece on some ecclesiastical mission, he paid a visit to Caesarea, where he was heartily welcomed and was ordained a priest, that no further cause for criticism might be given Demetrius, who had strongly disapproved his preaching before ordination while at Caesarea. But Demetrius, taking this well-meant act as an infringement of his rights, was furious, for not only was Origen under his jurisdiction as bishop of Alexandria, but, if Eastern sources may be believed, Demetrius had been the first to introduce episcopal ordination in Egypt. The metropolitan accordingly convened a synod of bishops and presbyters which banished Origen from Alexandria, while a second synod declared his ordination invalid. Origen accordingly fled from Alexandria in 231, and made his permanent home in Caesarea. A series of attacks on him seems to have emanated from Alexandria, whether for his self-castration (a capital crime in Roman law) or for alleged heterodoxy is unknown; but at all events these fulminations were heeded only at Rome, while Palestine, Phoenicia, Arabia, and Achaia paid no attention to them. At Alexandria, Heraclas became head of Origen's school, and shortly afterward, on the death of Demetrius, was consecrated bishop. At Caesarea, Origen was joyfully received, and was also the guest of Firmilian, bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, and of the empress-dowager, Julia Mamaea, at Antioch. The former also visited him at Caesarea, where Origen, deeply loved by his pupils, preached and taught dialectics, physics, ethics, and metaphysics; thus laying his foundation for the crowning theme of theology. He accordingly sought to set forth all the science of the time from the Christian point of view, and to elevate Christianity to a theory of the Universe compatible with Hellenism. In 235, with the accession of Maximinus Thrax, a persecution raged; and for two years Origen is said, though on somewhat doubtful authority, to have remained concealed in the house of a certain Juliana in Caesarea of Cappadocia. Little is known of the last twenty years of Origen's life. He preached regularly on Wednesdays and Fridays, and later daily. He evidently, however, developed an extraordinary literary productivity, broken by occasional journeys; one of which, to Athens during some unknown year, was of sufficient length to allow him time for research. After his return from Athens, he succeeded in converting Beryllus, bishop of Bostra, from his adoptionistic (i.e., belief that Jesus was born human and only became divine after his baptism) views to the orthodox faith; yet in these very years (about 240) probably occurred the attacks on Origen's own orthodoxy which compelled him to defend himself in writing to Pope Fabian and many bishops. Neither the source nor the object of these attacks is known, though the latter may have been connected with Novatianism (a strict refusal to accept Christians who had denied their faith under persecution). After his conversion of Beryllus, however, his aid was frequently invoked against heresies. Thus, when the doctrine was promulgated in Arabia that the soul died and decayed with the body, being restored to life only at the resurrection (see soul sleep), appeal was made to Origen, who journeyed to Arabia, and by his preaching reclaimed the erring. There was second outbreak of the Antonine Plague, which at its height in 251 to 266 took the lives of 5,000 a day in Rome. This time it was called the Plague of Cyprian. Emperor Gaius Messius Quintus Decius, believing the plague to be a product of magic, caused by the failure of Christians to recognize him as Divine, began Christian persecutions.[15] This time Origen did not escape.[16] He was tortured, pilloried, and bound hand and foot to the block for days without yielding.[dubious – discuss][original research?][citation needed][17] Though he did not die while being tortured, he died three years later due to injuries sustained at the age of 69.[18] A later legend, recounted by Jerome and numerous itineraries place his death and burial at Tyre, but to this little value can be attached.[19] Works Exegetical writings According to Epiphanius,[20] Origen wrote about 6,000 works (i.e., rolls or chapters). A list was given by Eusebius in his lost Life of Pamphilus,[21] which was apparently known to Jerome.[22] These fall into four classes: textual criticism; exegesis; systematic, practical, and apologetic theology; and letters; besides certain spurious works. By far the most important work of Origen on textual criticism was the Hexapla, a comparative study of various translations of the Old Testament. The full text of the Hexapla is no longer extant. Some portions were discovered in Milan indicating that at least some individual parts existed much longer than was previously thought. The Hexapla has been referred to by later manuscripts and authors, and represented the precursor to the parallel bible. The Tetrapla was an abbreviation of the Hexapla in which Origen placed only the translations (Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, and the Septuagint) in parallels. He was likewise keenly conscious of the textual difficulties in the manuscripts of the New Testament, although he never wrote definitely on this subject. In his exegetical writings he frequently alludes to the variant readings, but his habit of making rough citations in his dictation, the verification being left to the scribes, renders it impossible to deduce his text from his commentaries. Eusebius in Ecclesiastical History 6.25.7 strongly implies Origen disputed the authenticity of the Letters of Paul when he wrote that Paul did not write to all the churches that he taught and even to the ones he wrote he only sent a few lines. However, Origen's own writings refer often to the words of Paul. The exegetical writings of Origen fall into three classes: * scholia, or brief summaries of the meaning of difficult passages * homilies * "books", or commentaries in the strict sense of the term. Jerome states that there were scholia on Leviticus, Psalms i.-xv., Ecclesiastes, Isaiah, and part of John. The Stromateis were of a similar character, and the margin of Codex Athous Laura, 184, contains citations from this work on Rom. 9:23; I Cor. 6:14, 7:31, 34, 9:20-21, 10:9, besides a few other fragments. Homilies on almost the entire Bible were prepared by Origen, these being taken down after his sixtieth year as he preached. It is not improbable that Origen gave no attention to supervising the publication of his homilies, for only by such a hypothesis can the numerous evidences of carelessness in diction be explained. The exegesis of the homilies was simpler than that of the scientific commentaries, but nevertheless demanded no mean degree of intelligence from the auditor. Origen's chief aim was the practical exposition of the text, verse by verse; and while in such barren books as Leviticus and Numbers he sought to allegorize, the wealth of material in the prophets seldom rendered it necessary for him to seek meanings deeper than the surface afforded. Whether the sermons were delivered in series, or the homilies on a single book were collected from various series, is unknown. The homilies preserved are on Genesis (17), Exodus (13), Leviticus (18), Numbers (28), Joshua (16), Judges (9), I Sam. (2), Psalms xxxvi-xxviii (9), Canticles (2), Isaiah (9), Jeremiah (7 Greek, 2 Latin, 12 Greek and Latin), Ezekiel (14), and Luke (39). Extant commentaries of Origen The object of Origen's commentaries was to give an exegesis that discriminated strictly against historical significance, in favour of a "hidden" spiritual truth. At the same time, he neglected neither philological nor geographical, historical nor antiquarian material, to all of which he devoted numerous excursuses. In his commentary on John he constantly considered the exegesis of the Valentinian Heracleon (probably at the instance of Ambrose), and in many other places he implied or expressly cited Gnostic views and refuted them. Unfortunately, only meagre fragments of the commentaries have survived. Besides the citations in the Philocalia, which include fragments of the third book of the commentary on Genesis, Ps. i, iv.1, the small commentary on Canticles, and the second book of the large commentary on the same, the twentieth book of the commentary on Ezekiel, and the commentary on Hosea, and of the commentary on John, only books i, ii, x, xiii, xx, xxviii, xxxii, and a fragment of xix. have been preserved. The commentary on Romans is extant only in the abbreviated version of Rufinus, though some Greek fragments also exist. The eight books preserved of the commentary on Matthew likewise seem to be either a brief reworking or a rough outline. Codex Vaticanus 1215 gives the division of the twenty-five books of the commentary on Ezekiel, and part of the arrangement of the commentary on Isaiah (beginnings of books VI, VIII, XVI; book X extends from Isa. viii.1 to ix.7; XI from ix.8, to x.11; XII, from x.12 to x.23; XIII from x.24 to xi.9; XIV from xi.10 to xii.6; XV from xiii.1 to xiii.16; XXI from xix.1 to xix.17; XXII from xix.18 to xx.6; XXIII from xxi.1 to xxi.17; XXIV from xxii.1 to xxii.25; XXV from xxiii.1 to xxiii.18; XXVI from xxiv.1 to xxv.12; XXVII from xxvi.1 to xxvi.15; XXVIII from xxvi.16 to xxvii.11a; XXIX from xxvii.11b to xxviii.29; and XXX treats of xxix.1 sqq.). Codex Athous Laura 184, in like manner, gives the division of the fifteen books of the commentary on Romans (except XI and XII) and of the five books on Galatians, as well as the extent of the commentaries on Philippians and Corinthians (Romans I from 1:1 to 1:7; II from 1:8 to 1:25; III from 1:26 to 2:11; IV from 2:12 to 3:15; V from 3:16 to 3:31; VI from 4:1 to 5:7; VII from 5:8 to 5:16; VIII from 5:17 to 6:15; IX from 6:16 to 8:8; X from 8:9 to 8:39; XIII from 11:13 to 12:15; XIV from 12:16 to 14:10; XV from 14:11 to the end; Galatians I from 1:1 to 2:2; II from 2:3 to 3:4; III from 3:5 to 4:5; IV from 4:6 to 5:5; and V from 5:6 to 6:18; the commentary on Philippians extended to 4:1; and on Ephesians to 4:13). Dogmatic, practical, and apologetic writings Among the systematic, practical, and apologetic writings of Origen, mention should first be made of his work On First Principles, perhaps written for his more advanced pupils at Alexandria and probably composed between 212 and 215. It is extant only in the free translation of Rufinus, except for fragments of the third and fourth books preserved in the Philokalia, and smaller citations in Justinian's letter to Mennas. In the first book the author considers God, the Logos, the Holy Ghost, reason, and the angels; in the second the world and man (including the incarnation of the Logos, the soul, free will, and eschatology); in the third, the doctrine of sin and redemption; and in the fourth, the Scriptures; the whole being concluded with a résumé of the entire system. The work is noteworthy as the first endeavor to present Christianity as a complete theory of the universe, and was designed to remove the difficulties felt by many Christians concerning the essential basis of their faith. Earlier in date than this treatise were the two books on the resurrection (now lost, a fate which has also befallen two dialogues on the same theme) dedicated to Ambrose. After his removal to Caesarea, Origen wrote the works, still extant, On Prayer, On Martyrdom, and Against Celsus. The first of these was written shortly before 235 (or possibly before 230), and, after an introduction on the object, necessity, and advantage of prayer, ends with an exegesis of the Lord's Prayer, concluding with remarks on the position, place, and attitude to be assumed during prayer, as well as on the classes of prayer. The persecution of Maximinus was the occasion of the composition of the On Martyrdom, which is preserved in the Exhortation to Martyrdom. In it, Origen warns against any trifling with idolatry and emphasizes the duty of suffering martyrdom manfully; while in the second part he explains the meaning of martyrdom. The eight books against Celsus, Contra Celsum [23] were written in 248 in reply to the polemic of the pagan philosopher against Christianity. Eusebius had a collection of more than one hundred letters of Origen,[24] and the list of Jerome speaks of several books of his epistles. Except for a few fragments, only a short letter to Gregory Thaumaturgus and the epistle to Sextus Julius Africanus (defending the authenticity of the Greek additions to the book of Daniel) have been preserved. For forgeries of the writings of Origen made in his lifetime cf. Rufinus, De adulteratione librorum Origenis. The Dialogus de recta in Deum fide, the Philosophumena of Hippolytus of Rome, and the Commentary on Job by Julian of Halicarnassus have also been ascribed to him. Philosophical and religious

Roman Society

Equality as we know it was practically unknown the Romans. Women were treated as inferiors, the slave trade was booming, and, as one person put it, Rome was a great civilization for the few built on the backs of many. In any event, Roman society held different rules for different demographics, such as those below.

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Roman Entertainment

Entertainment was essential to daily life in Ancient Rome. As noted by Juvenal, it seemed that all Romans were interested in was "bread and circuses." And with theaters, amphitheaters, circuses, and public baths galore, the Romans never seemed to get bored.

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Roman Cuisine

The expression "you are what you eat" could not have been more true than at Ancient Rome. While plebeians sustained themselves on cereals and bread, members of the senatorial class dined on exotic foods from far away lands and enjoyed three course meals over luxurious dinners. Wine, anyone?

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Roman Families

IN EARLY TIMES, under the Kingdom and the Republic: (600 BCE to about 1c CE) Before the Imperial Age, in very early Roman times, a typical Roman family included unmarried children, married sons and their families, other relatives, and family slaves.

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Roman Houses - The Atrium

The lower class Romans (plebeians) lived in apartment houses, called flats, above or behind their shops. Even fairly well-to-do tradesmen might chose to live in an apartment-building compound over their store, with maybe renters on the upper stories. Their own apartments might be quite roomy, sanitary and pleasant, occasionally with running water. But others were not that nice.

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Clothing & Hairstyles

CLOTHING & HAIR STYLES: The very early Romans wore a toga. It looked like a white sheet 9 yards long. Togas were arranged very carefully, in a stylish way. Togas fell out of style rather early. (The toga was inconvenient, and people felt the cold when they wore it.) To get anyone to wear them, even very early emperors had to legislate the wearing of togas by at least senators. Eventually, the emperors gave up. The Romans switched to comfortable tunics, which looked like long tee-shirts. They were far more practical. Tunics were made of cool linen, for summer wear, and warm wool, for winter wear. Sometimes, they worn trouser like affairs.

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Roman School

Rome as a Kingdom: In early Roman days, kids did not go to school. A Roman boy's education took place at home. If his father could read and write, he taught his son to do the same. The father instructed his sons in Roman law, history, customs, and physical training, to prepare for war. Reverence for the gods, respect for law, obedience to authority, and truthfulness were the most important lessons to be taught.

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Ancient Roman Weddings

When did they get married? Both parties had to be adults, and they could not marry more than one person at a time. For the first 500 years in Rome, divorce was unknown. So, a great deal of care was taken selecting a marriage partner. Probably the groom had to be at least 14 years old, and the bride had to be at least 12 years old. The bride and groom could not be closed related. In general, marriage was forbidden between relatives four times removed, and between anyone connected by marriage. Thus, in ancient Rome, if you happened to fall in love with your fourth cousin, or your sister's husband's brother, too bad!

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Status of Women in Ancient Rome

Women were not citizens of Rome. Only adult free men were citizens. The ancient Roman men believed that a women had to be under a guardianship. That guardianship could be a father or a husband. But they believed a women was unable to direct her own activities. As Cicero once said of early Roman men, 'Our ancestors, in their wisdom, considered that all women, because of their innate weakness, should be under the control of guardians.'

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Odyssey Rome: Daily Life

Throughout our exploration of ancient cultures on Odyssey Online, we've used museum objects to learn about the people who made and used them. But, for the most part, we don't know the exact "context," or place, where each object was found. Archaeologists and other specialists study ancient sites and the artifacts found there to try and shed light on the cultures that produced these objects.

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Odyssey Rome: Death & Burial

Like most people living in ancient times, the Romans had a short life expectancy. Diseases were common, and medical knowledge was limited. Funerary rituals and practices played a central role in Roman life because remembering and honoring the deceased members of their family was important to the Romans.

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Roman Cooking

Where would we be without food? Romans, while disdaining the Greeks for decadence and luxury, were quite fond of it themselves, at least in the upper classes. Poorer Romans made due on fish, bread, grain, olives, and the obligatory wine. Patricians, and many of those in the middle class, ate from a slightly more interesting menu. Many tales are recorded of the fabulous banquets thrown by the rich and powerful. Below are some places you can check out before attempting your own Roman banquet.

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Death and Funerals

Most of the Romans believed that the spirits of the dead were rowed across a mythological river called the Styx, to the underworld. There, the spirit was said to be judged whether it was to go to heaven Elysium, or hell Tartarus. Funerals were held to prepare the spirit for this journey. To pay the ferry fare across the Styx, a coin was placed underneath the tongue.

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Marriage

Roman girls were allowed to marry at the age of 12, but most waited until they became 14. The young Romans did not have a lot of choice about whom they married. Parents made the choice, and they were often for business, political or social reasons.

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Roman Marriage

Prior to 445 BC, intermarriage (connubium) between patricians and plebeians was forbidden. After that the children of such marriages took the social rank of the father, be it patrician or plebeian, regardless of the mother's status.

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Marriage and Customs and Roman Women

Marriage in Roman times began as a sacred institution. Divorce was unknown. Patricians married only patricians, and they were married in the stately form of marriage called confarreatio (the only legal form of marriage at the time). The patrician took his bride from her father's family into his own, with the direct consent of the gods (revealed by the auspices), in the presence of representatives of his gens. In this form, the wife passed in manum viri (under her husband's authority) and her husband would also become, in a way, her master. The ceremony involved the joining of hands of the bride and groom by the pronuba (a matron who had been married only once and was still living with there husband) in front of ten witnesses, representing the ten clans of the curia, an old patrician division of the people. The term confarriato came from the cake of far (spelt, an old variety of wheat), which was dedicated to Jupiter by the high priest and the priest of Jupiter.

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Ancient Roman Family and Marriage

600 BC to about 1 AD - Before the Imperial Age, in very earlyn Roman times, families were organized rather like mini Greek city-states. Everybody in one family lived in one home, including the great grandparents, grandparents, parents and children. The head of the family was the oldest male. That could be the father, the grandfather, or perhaps even an uncle.

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Roman Marriage

The chief purpose of Roman matrimony, as stated in marriage contracts and various laws, was the obvious one of producing and bringing up children. The Roman government often made efforts to encourage marriage and large families; in particular, the Emperor Augustus introduced a law which laid down penalties for those who remained unmarried (for example, by forbidding them to receive legacies; see bachelor) and offered special privileges to married couples who produced three or more children. Nevertheless the birth rate in Rome dropped steadily from the second century BC onwards, especially among the senatorial class.

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Life in Roman Times

The average Roman family consisted of father, mother, children,married sons, their family, and slaves. If you didn't get married by the age of 15-16, you were punished. The person who decided who his children marry was the head of the house, the father (PATERFAMILIAS). The family was very important to the Romans. Women were under control of their husbands but controlled how the house was run and were known as (MATERFAMILIAS).

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Romans - Families and Children

Life in Roman times for women was quite hard. The father was the most important member of the family. He had the power of life or death over everyone. When a new baby was born it would be laid at its father's feet - if the father picked the baby up it would live, and if he ignored the baby it would be taken away to die. Mothers and children were never seen as important.

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Roman Family Law and Traditions

Roman Law One of the greatest legacies of Rome is their legal system... The development of Roman law began with the Twelve Tables in the mid-fifth century B.C. During a period of over 1000 years, the Roman jurists created a rich literature about all aspects of law: property, marriage, guardianship and family, contracts, theft, and inheritance. Roman law laid the foundations for much of Western civil and criminal law.

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Ancient Roman Women: A Look at their Lives

Any historical investigation into the lives of ancient women involves individual interpretation and much speculation. One can read the ancient sources concerned with women and their place in society, but to a large degree, they are all secondary sources that were written by men about women. No ancient journals or personal diaries written by Roman women were uncovered, so it is not known what their hopes and dreams were, or if they had any. What Roman women felt about most political issues and the numerous wars and upheavals is also a mystery. Nor can we read about what women thought of slavery, marriage, or the fact they had no legal rights over their children or even themselves.

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Ancient Roman Food and Dining

The usual dishes of Roman foods contained peacock brains, pike livers, cock crests, lark tongues, bear, and lion. Also, frequently served for breakfast were cold meats, eggs, veggies, and bread. Herbs and spices livened up their meals to have cooking that was spicy and sweet. The most commonly used spice was pepper to give flavoring to game-birds, fish, shellfish, lamb, kid, and wild boar. In addition, a fish sauce and fish pickle was popular where "The gills, blood, and intestines of a mackerel were placed in a jar with salt, vinegar, and herbs. The mixture was stirred and pounded into a paste or sauce, which was left in the sun to ferment."

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Ancient Roman Medicine

Roman Medicine: We, in our overmedicated and over-modified world, have visions of primitive medical practices in "ancient" Europe. We think of unsanitary curbside surgeries by traveling barbers, poisons distributed as medicines (and vice versa, if you had enemies), herbs and simples with minimal value, bleeding and purging, superstition. There was some of that in the Roman world, but most of the excesses actually came later, when Roman knowledge had been lost.

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Roman Children

Only children from wealthy families went to school. Poor families needed their children to help work. Schools were not free. Poor families could not pay the tuition. Often children from poor families were taught by their parents at home. Some Roman families paid school masters to teach their children. The school year started on March 24. Schools were usually just one room. There were about twelve students in a class. Often the teachers were Greek slaves. The Romans thought the Greeks were smart.

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Roman Funerals

The Romans had a short life expectancy due to disease, limited medical knowledge and almost constant wars. Funerary rituals and practices played an essential part in their lives, as they believed that honouring the deceased members of their family and a proper burial were essential for the Afterlife. Central to the Romans very detailed view of the Afterlife was the belief that the spirits of the dead were taken across the mythological river Styx to the Underworld, where the spirit was judged whether it was to find its place in heaven, Elysium, or hell, Tartarus. Funerals were seen as a way of preparing the spirit for this journey. There were numerous customs that were followed to ensure that the deceased was properly laid to rest, would have an auspicious Afterlife and would not return to haunt the living. These were also intended to reflect the deceased's place in the family and the continued importance of the surviving family.

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The Roman Funeral

Roman. When a Roman was at the point of death, his nearest relation present endeavoured to catch the last breath with his mouth (Virg. Aen. IV.684; Cic. Verr. V.45). The ring was taken off the finger of the dying person (Suet. Tib. 73); and as soon as he was dead his eyes and mouth were closed by the nearest relation (Virg. Aen. IX.487; Lucan, III.740, who called upon the deceased by name (inclamare, conclamare), exclaiming have or vale (Ovid, Trist. III.3.43, Met. X.62, Fast. IV.852; Catull. ci.10). The corpse was then washed, and anointed with oil and perfumes by slaves, called Pollinctores, who belonged to the Libitinarii, or undertakers, called by the Greeks íåêñÃ-èÜðôáé (Dig. 14 tit. 3 s5 § 8). The Libitinarii appear to have been so called because they dwelt near the temple of Venus Libitina, where all things requisite for funerals were sold (Senec. de Benef. vi.38; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 23; Liv. XLI.21; Plut. Num. 12). Hence we find the expressions vitare Libitinam and evadere Libitinam used in the sense of escaping death (Hor. Carm. III.30.6; Juv. XII.122). At this temple an account (ratio, ephemeris) was kept of those who died, and a small sum was paid for the registration of their names (Suet. Ner. 39; Dionys. Ant. Rom. IV.15).

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Roman Society

In the beginning was the census. Every five years, each male Roman citizen had to register in Rome for the census. In this he had to declare his family, wife, children, slaves and riches. Should he fail to do this, his possessions would be confiscated and he would be sold into slavery. But registration meant freedom. A master wishing to free his slave needed only to enter him in the censor's list as a citizen (manumissio censu).

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Roman Slaves

Slaves were very important to the Romans. Without slaves, the wealthy of Rome would not have been able to lead the lifestyles that they wanted to. Who were slaves? They were people who were frequently captured in battle and sent back to Rome to be sold. However, abandoned children could also be brought up as slaves. The law also stated that fathers could sell their older children if they were in need of money.

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Roman Education

A Roman Education: Just as it is in much of the world today, the amount and kind of education you got in Rome depended on your family's wealth, status, and connections. There was no legal requirement to educate your children, but in most times and places during the long span of "ancient Rome" there was broad acceptance of the idea that knowledge was the key to a happy and prosperous future. Parents tried to provide the best available education for their offspring. Kids learned early on both a sense of duty to the family and the value of applying themselves to academics, so they generally made a real effort to learn as much as possible. The "best available" and "as much as possible" varied immensely. Think of the kind of education that was available to Americans 100 years ago in different parts of the US, and then think of what could be had by Western Europeans in 1000 AD -- similar distances and times spanned "Rome".

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The Roman House

Early Italian houses grouped around the atrium, with a small garden, the so-called hortus, at the back. The classic Roman house, however, was divided into two parts. The first part grouped around the atrium, the second around the peristylium. The peristylium having developed out of the earlier hortus.

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Roman Houses

Most people living in the Roman Empire lived with their whole family in one room of a sort of apartment house. These were built, like many cheap apartment houses in the United States today, around two or three sides of a courtyard, one or two stories high. The other sides of the courtyard had high walls to keep out burglars. Today we use these courtyards for parking, but Roman people (who didn't have cars) used them for cooking, and for children to play in. The apartment houses were generally mud-brick, with flat roofs that you could sleep on in good weather.

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Roman Medicine

Ancient Roman medicine was a combination of some limited scientific knowledge, and a deeply rooted religious and mythological system. While knowledge of anatomy was quite impressive, and many surgical techniques were only surpassed in the modern age, the application of medicines and cures was simplistic and largely ineffective. Much of the Roman system was adopted from the Greeks, and primarily the teachings of Hippocrates.

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Medicine in Ancient Rome

The Ancient Romans, like the Ancient Greeks and Ancient Egyptians, made a huge input into medicine and health, though their input was mainly concerned with public health schemes. Though the Roman "˜discoveries' may not have been in the field of pure medicine, poor hygiene by people was a constant source of disease, so any improvement in public health was to have a major impact on society.

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Medicine & Surgery in Ancient Rome

Early Romans had a religious, yet fundamental understanding of medicine. Deriving knowledge from the Medical Treatises and Methods of the Greeks, the Etruscans, the Egyptians, the Persians and other conquered peoples, the Romans came up with one of the best and most sophisticated Medical Systems of the Ancient World. The science of medicine and the human body was evolving. Ancient Roman medicine was a combination of physical techniques using various tools and holistic medicine using rituals and religious belief systems.

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Roman Traditions

Weddings- Marriages were arranged by the father of the bride and the future husband. The boy had to be at least 14 years old and the girl, 12 years. The Romans were the first to wear the engagement ring on the third finger of the left hand. A wedding ceremony was not needed for the marriage to be legal, however for wealthy couples a ceremony was considered an important rite. It was not uncommon for the groom to be absent from the ceremony. He would send a letter with his vows if he could not be there. A cake was present during the ceremony as an offering. A dinner party followed and ended with a procession to the grooms house. Nuts were usually thrown instead of rice.

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Ancient Roman Festivals

Feriae - Ancient Roman Festivals. Bacchanalia | Dionysiac festivals held in honor of the god Bacchus, Bacchanalia were so notorious in ancient Rome that the Roman Senate suppressed the celebration of these rites in 186 B.C.

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Roman Lifestyle

The Romans encompassed thousands of different cultures and comprised of diverse social, religious, ethnic and economic classes. The Roman family consisted of the father of the family, the wife, the children and the slaves of the household. The Roman family structure was patriarchal, with the oldest father of the family being the head. They lived in joint family systems where the sons' families lived with his father under the same roof. The Romans had very short working days, working at an average for 6 hours a day. The men in the families went for work whereas the women were housewives. They lived in sophisticated brick houses.

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Ancient Roman Meals

History, Facts and Information about Ancient Roman Meals. The content of this article provides interesting history, facts and information about life in Ancient Rome including Ancient Roman Meals, the customs and religious observances.

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Roles of Men, Women and Children in Ancient Rome

After learning about where the Romans lived and what hobbies they enjoyed, you might be wondering what roles the men, women, and children played in ancient Rome. Keep reading to learn about what you, your friends, and your family would have been expected to do in ancient Rome.

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Mesopotamia - Daily Life

THE CLOTHING THAT PEOPLE IN ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA WORE. The normal day of a Mesopotamian was based on mostly their work. The majority of the people worked at farming. Other than farmers there was potters, builders, traders, slaves, servants, priests, kings, and elders. Their clothes consisted of a garment which was a flounced skirt.

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Houses and Shops

From the grandest villa to the vilest tenements, the living residences of Ancient Rome continue to strike a sense of wonder into the hearts of those who lay eyes upon them. Over the centuries, Roman houses developed into a unique and functional style all their own.

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Roman Ceremonies

The Roman people were deeply rooted in tradition and custom. Ceremonies such as those listed below would have meant an enormous amount to a Roman family. Far more important to the Romans than the day of birth of a child, the dies lustricus, they day when the baby was to be named, was a joyous occasion. The custom of handing down names to children was of great importance to Romans and their families.

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Roman Fashions

Roman fashions did not change much over the centuries, but they did vary regionally. In general, children wore smaller versions of adult clothing. Roman fashions did not change much over the centuries, but they did vary regionally. In general, children wore smaller versions of adult clothing.

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Amphitheatrum Castrense

Having paid the almost obligatory visit to the Colosseum, most visitors to Rome never realize, and others are surprised to learn, that a second ancient amphitheater remains in the city. Indeed, at various times during the life of ancient Rome, even more amphitheaters existed. We know of at least one built of stone "" the amphitheater of Statilius Taurus "" and one of wood built by Nero: both stood among the sports and military training facilities in the Campus Martius complex. In fact, technically, there remain even now vestiges of yet a third amphitheater in Rome: a small training arena right next to the Colosseum, to the E, used by gladiators as they prepared for the real combat. It also seems reasonable to imagine that in so large a city as Rome, several further smaller structures of this type may have existed as well, not recorded in extant sources; and some of them may even have been of brick as well, since other brick amphitheatres are known, for example at Nola.

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The Colosseum

The Colosseum was considered the greatest amphitheatre of the antiquity, it was built in Rome, Italy, over 1920 years ago. It is considered an architectural and engineering wonder, and remains as a standing proof of both the grandeur and the cruelty of the Roman world. After the splendour of imperial times, the Colosseum was abandoned, and in turn it became a fortress for the medieval clans of the city, a source of building materials, a picturesque scenery for painters, a place of Christian worship. Today it is a challenge for the archaeologists and a scenario for events and shows.

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Baths of Agrippa

Baths of Agrippa - built 27 BC. These were built by Agrippa as a private bath house, but given to the public in Agrippa's will. It was fed by the Aqua Virgo upon its completion in 19 BC.

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The Colosseum and The Forum of Augustus

Ancient Rome: Monuments Past and Present: The Colosseum and The Forum of Augustus

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The Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome

Book By Samuel Ball Platner, WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY

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Theater of Marcellus

The Theater of Marcellus was built by Emperor Augustus in 13 BC. It was the largest theater in ancient Rome. After Julius Caesar defeated Pompey in the struggle for control over Rome, he wanted to build a theater rivaling the Pompey theater which Caesar's his bitter enemy had built in 55 BC. When Caesar was killed in 44 BC the project had only just started. In 22 BC Augustus, known as the emperor who turned Rome from a city of brick into a city of marble, restarted the project.

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Amphitheater of C. Statilius Taurus

The amphitheatre C. Statilius Taurus, at the top right of the picture, had the privilege to be the first amphitheatre in Rome. It was built in 29 BC by consul C. Statilius Taurus. The first building was of stone, nevertheless it disappeared in the fire of the town under Nero in 64. It seems that Nero had it rebuilt in wood. Almost all sources cease mentioning it after the Great Fire. Yet Sylvia Pressouyre, in her historical atlas of town planning and architecture of Rome, lets this remarkable building disappear only in the High Middle-Ages. It is this version that I'm suggesting.

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The Region of the Baths of Commodus

The Baths of Commodus , that you can see in the centre left of the picture, were built on a natural hillock from which the panorama included the Baths of Caracalla, in the upper part of the picture, and the famous Via Appia further down on the right. Vast gardens harmoniously completed the landscape.

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Circus Maximus

The Circus Maximus was the largest stadium in ancient Rome. At one point the Circus could seat 250.000 people, one quarter of Rome's population... Chariot races were one of the Roman's most popular form of entertainment. Romulus, the first of Rome's seven kings, is said to have held chariot races. The origins of the Circus Maximus go back to the 6th century BC when Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, created a track between the Palatine and Aventine hills. The first permanent starting gates were created in 329 BC. In 174 BC the gates were rebuilt and seven wooden eggs were placed on top of the spina, the central wall in the arena. The eggs were used to count the number of laps; after each lap one egg was removed. In 33 BC seven bronze dolphins were added to the spina for the same purpose.

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The Gardens of Lucullus

Among all the great gardens of the Pincius, the Gardens of Lucullus are probably the most famous and most impressive, together with the Gardens of Sallustus. They were built by Lucullus, victor of Mithridate (74-66). The whole showed a perfect harmony and overhang the Campus Martius. One of the main characteristics was this monumental stair that linked the levels up to a gigantic nymphÃ"um in hemicycle. The other gardens, those of Sallustus on the east side and those of Pompey towards the Villa Medici are not represented on this model.

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Porticus Aemila

Closely linked to the late 3rd c. BC river port built south of the Aventino hill, the Porticus Aemilia was a vast complex of warehouses situated in the area behind the Emporium or a market for wares.

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Porticus Deorum Consentium

The Portico of the Dei Consentes (Porticus Deorum Consentium) was a sanctuary for the twelve major gods and goddesses of the Roman pantheon, maybe in the style of the Greek dodecatheon. The portico is located on the slope of the Capitoline Hill towards the Forum Romanum, on the Clivus Capitolinus in a corner between the Temple of Saturn and the Temple of Vespasian and Titus. The remains of the portico was first found in 1834, and during restorations of 1858 some of the columns were re-erected.

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Portico di Ottavia (Porticus Octaviae)

The only one conserved of the large ones you carry to us that they limited, on the northern side, the public square of the Flaminio Circus (Porch of Ottavio, Porch of Filippo, Porch of Ottavia) is the Porch of Ottavia. It was preceded on the same place from a more ancient building, the porch of Metello, begun from Q. Cecilio Metello Macedonico in the 146, after its Victoria and the triumph on the pseudo-Andrisco, and inaugurated probably in the 131 a.C.

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The Theatres

Originally, the Theatre in Rome is only a simple wooden platform, put down after each play, which the audience attends standing. This global view allows to see, in the Campus Martius, the four great active theatres of Rome. On the left side of the picture, the Odeon, in the centre, the great Theatre of Pompey, and in the background on the right, the Theatre of Balbus and the Theatre of Marcellus.

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The Saepta Julia

The SÃ"pta Julia on the Campus Martius. These grandiose porticoes were the meeting place for bargaining of luxury products.

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Basilica Aemilia

The Basilica Aemilia, or the Basilica Fulvia-Aemilia, is largest""and the only surviving""of the basilicas of the Roman Republic. It is located on the NE side of the main square of the Forum Romanum, between the Curia Julia and the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. The Basilica Aemilia was first built in 179 BCE by the censors M. Aemilius Lepidus and M. Fulvius Nobilior. In the following centuries it was actively maintained and improved by the gens Aemilia. The first complete reconstruction took place in the years between 55 BCE and 34 BCE, which incorporated into the building the series of shops, the tabernae novae, that stood in front of the basilica. The building was destroyed by a fire in 14 BCE and was rebuild by Augustus. A last restoration happened after a fire in 410 CE, following the sacking of the town by the Visigoths of Alaric.

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Basilica Julia

The Basilica Julia was built in 54-48 BCE by Julius Caesar as a part of his reorganisation of the Forum Romanum, where it replaced the Basilica Sempronia. It is located on the S. side of the main square of the Forum Romanum, between the Temple of Saturn and the Temple of Castor and Pollux.

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Forum Romanum

The Roman Forum (Forum Romanum) was the political and economical centre of Rome during the Republic. It emerged as such in the 7th century BCE and maintained this position well into the Imperial period, when it was reduced to a monumental area. It was mostly abandoned at the end of the 4th century.

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Curia Julia

The Curia was the normal meeting place of the Senate and the Curia Julia (Curia Iulia) was the third meeting hall for the senate in the Forum Romanum. The Curia Julia is located on the main square of the Forum Romanum, on the ancient Comitium, between the Arch of Septimius Severus and the Basilica Aemilia.

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Comitum

The Comitium was the centre of all political activity in the Roman Republic. The senate met in the Curia, which was a part of the Comitium, and the consuls and other magistrates spoke to the Roman people from the Rostra, the speakers platform. Some of the most ancient monuments of archaic Rome has been found near or under the Comitium, such as the Vulcanal and the Lapis Niger, with the oldest known inscription in the Latin language.

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Regia - The House of Roman Kings

and later the Pontifex Maximus. The Regia was originally the residence of the kings of Rome, and later the office of the pontifex maximus, the high priest of Roman religion. It occupied an area between the Temple of Vesta, the Temple of Divus Julius and Temple of Antoninus and Faustina in the Forum Romanum. According to ancient tradition it was build by the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius.

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Rostra Vetera

The Rostra was the speakers platform on the Forum Romanum in Imperial Rome. It was also called the Rostra vetera to distinguish it from the new speakers platform in front of the Temple of Divus Julius. The Rostra is located in the main square, between the Arch of Septimius Severus and the Temple of Saturn, in front of the Temple of Concord and the Temple of Vespasian and Titus.

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Tabularium

Built in 78 BC and restored by Claudius in 46 AD, the Tabularium or record office was the repository for official State archives, its arcade of eleven large arches providing a dramatic terminus for the western end of the Forum.

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Forum of Augustus

The second of the imperial fora, built to rival that of Julius, the Forum of Augustus and its Temple of Mars Ultor (the Avenger) were vowed by Octavian on the eve of the battle of Philippi (42 BC), where he avenged the assassination of Caesar, his adoptive father. Having consolidated his power and then completed the building projects initiated by Caesar, it may not have been until 20 BC, when Augustus negotiated the return of military standards lost by Marcus Crassus to the Parthians (and so avenged Rome a second time), that work on the temple actually began (Dio, LIV.8.3). Or it may have been later still, in 17 BC, when Augustus, having "commanded those who celebrated triumphs to erect out of their spoils some monument to commemorate their deeds" (Dio, LIV.18.2), set the example, himself. The site was on private property and had to be purchased ex manubiis, that is, from the spoils of war in Spain and Germany, Dalmatia and Egypt. Augustus, in the Res Gestae (XXI), relates the cost to have been a hundred million sesterces. Even then, not all the land could be acquired. There also were architectural delays (Macrobius, II.4.9), and the temple still was unfinished when the forum was dedicated on 2 BC.

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Imperial Forums

The heart of the ancient Roman Empire, the Imperial Forums were a gathering place and a center for religion and politics. The Imperial Forums, not to be confused with the older Roman Forum, are a series of public squares that were constructed between 46 BC and 113 AD. For many decades, they were the center of city life and important figures gathered here to discuss the economy or expound upon their beliefs about politics or any other hot subjects of the era.

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Forum Boarium

Close to the Tiber River, the Forum Boarium was the site of Ancient Rome's cattle market. Together with the nearby Forum Olitorium, the vegetable and herb market, it was the mercantile center of the Republic of Rome. The oldest forum in Rome, dating back to the Roman Republic, the Forum Boarium sat near the Tiber River between three of Rome's seven ancient hills: the Palatine, Capitoline, and Aventine. The area was a swamp until it was reclaimed by the Etruscan Kings. In the 6th century BC, Servius Tullius, one of the Etruscan Kings also built a port here, the Portus Tiberius. Thanks to the port and a historic trade route that passed through here, the Forum Boarium was a busy commercial area that experienced lots of pedestrian traffic.

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Aqua Alsietina

The Aqua Alsietina (sometimes called also Aqua Augusta), on the other side of the Tiber, was constructed by Augustus from the Lacus Alsietinus (Lago di Martignano), which lay 6500 passus to the right of the fourteenth milestone on the Via Claudia, to the part of the Regio Transtiberina below the Janiculus. Its length was 22,172 passus, of which only 358 were on arches; and its water was so bad that it could only have been intended for the supply of Augustus's Naumachia, and for watering gardens. Its reservoir was 1800 feet long by 1200 wide (Frontin. 11).

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Aqua Appia

This aqueduct was built in 312 B.C. It was built during the Roman Republic, by Appius Claudius Caecus. This is the oldest aqueduct in Ancient Rome. This aqueduct is sixteen kilometers long. This aqueduct also runs underground. When described in how low it traveled under ground, the Aqua Appia was the lowest. This aqueduct stretched 8 miles to the Sabine Hills outside Rome. This aqueducts structure is much like the Greek and Egyptian Aqueducts.

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Roman Aqueducts

Ancient Rome had eleven major aqueducts, built between 312 B.C. (AquaAppia) and 226 A.D. (Aqua Alexandrina); the longest (Anio Novus) was 59 miles long. It has been calculated that in imperial times, when the city's population was well over a million, the distribution system was able to provide over one cubic meter of water per day for each inhabitant: more than we are accustomed to use nowadays.

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Pons Aemilius

The oldest stone bridge in Rome, the Pons Aemilius was begun in 179 BC and completed in 142 BC. It stood almost intact until 1598, when floods swept away two supporting piers and three of the arches. Two remaining arches were dismantled in 1885, leaving only a single arch standing in mid-river.

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The Pons Cestius

The Pons Cestius (today's Ponte Cestio) is an ancient Roman bridge still remaining today, leading from the western shore of the Tiber to the Isola Tiberina, the island in the river.

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Bridge of Fabricius

The island in the Tiber is connected with the rivers banks by two bridges. The Pons Cestius between the island and Trastevere was destroyed between 1888 and 1892 and replaced by a modern bridge. According to the historian Cassius Dio, the elegant Pons Fabricius was built in 62 BCE and still survives. A satellite photo can be found here.

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Ponte Milvio

This is one of the oldest bridge in Rome. It was rebuilt by Emilio Scauro in 109BC. During the centuries, it was rearranged many times. The tower, rebuilt by Valadier in 1805, was certainly a part of Aurelian's fortifications. On the head of the bridge there are two statues: S. Giovanni Nipomuceno (by Cornacchini, 1731) and the Immacolata ( by Pigiani, half 19C).

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Pons Sublicius

The earliest known bridge of ancient Rome, Italy, the 'Pons Sublicius', spanned the Tiber River near the Forum Boarium ("cattle forum") downstream from the Tiber island, near the foot of the Aventine Hill. According to tradition, its construction was ordered by Ancus Martius around 642 BC, but this date is approximate because there is no ancient record of its construction. Martius wished to connect the newly fortified Janiculum Hill on the Etruscan side to the rest of Rome, augmenting the ferry that was there. The bridge was part of public works projects that included building a port at Ostia, the then location of worked salt deposits.

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The Appian Way

The Appian way is the oldest and most famous road built by the ancient Romans. It was built in 312 BC by the Roman censor Appius Claudius Caecus. The road went south from the Servian Wall in Rome to Capua. It passed through Appii Forum and Terracina, and later on was extnede so that it reached Brundisium, now called Brindisi. The main route to Greece, the Appian Way was more than 560 km (more than 350 mi) long.

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Cloaca Maxima

The Cloaca Maxima was one of several large ditches that drained water from inhabited areas of the City of Rome. The Cloaca Maxima drained the valleys between the Esquiline, Viminal, and Quirinal Hills, as illustrated here:

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Servian Wall

The so-called Servian wall. Although the ancient sources state that this wall was built by king Servius Tullius in the sixth century, it is more plausible that it was in fact constructed after 375 BC. The stones, tufa from Veii, can not have been obtained before this city was captured. This pictures shows the largest surviving part of the wall; it is near Stazione Termini, which can be seen in the background. A satellite photo can be found here.

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Porta Capena

The Porta Capena, the southern gateway in Rome's old Servian Wall (see a stretch of the wall on the Aventine), was the starting point for those journeying to the south. The Aqua Marcia, a leaky old aqueduct which was in constant need of repairs, crossed above the Porta Capena and was responsible for making it "soaked," madidam.

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Arch of Augustus

The Arch of Augustus (Arcus Augusti) was dedicated to Augustus in 29 BCE to celebrate his victory over Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra at Actium in 31 BCE. The arch is spanning the road between the Temple of Castor and Pollux and the Temple of Caesar, near the Temple of Vesta.

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Pyramid of Cestius

The pyramid of Cestius was built during the reign of the emperor Augustus, probably between 18 and 12 BCE. It is a remarkable monument, made of white Carrara marble and exactly 100 Roman feet (30 meters) high. Here, the pyramid can be seen from the Protestant cemetery, west of the tomb. In the background is the Porta Ostiensis.

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Tomb of Eurysaces

The tomb of Eurysaces near the Porta Maggiore, seen from the north. It was built in c.30 BCE by a man named Marcus Vergilius Eurysaces. A former slave, he had started a bakery and had become rich, which is shown in the decoration. Later, several aqueducts were constructed but the tomb was respected, and it was later included in one of the towers of a city gate belonging to the wall of Aurelian. When this gate was demolished in the nineteenth century, the tomb became visible again.

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Ara Pacis Augustae

In 13 BCE, the Roman Senate decreed that the Ara Pacis be built to celebrate Augustus' triumphant return from the wars in Spain and Gaul, although the dedication or official inauguration took place about three and a half years later, in January 9 BCE. This altar to Peace was located in the Campus Martius (the Field of War), a place ironically where the military did exercises. In the succeeding centuries, however, the altar was eventually covered up as the level of the area was raised until finally it was buried and forgotten, only to be uncovered in part in the Renaissance, with slabs of the altar dispersed to various locations. Eventually the area was excavated and slabs were recovered from a number of owners; the altar was restored and installed in its own pavilion in 1938. Today, the Ara Pacis is installed in a new museum, which opened in 2006 (not entirely finished by the time I photographed it).

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The Temple of Veiovis

The Temple of Veiovis was only brought to light in 1939, during the excavation underneath Piazza del Campidoglio for the creation of the Gallery Junction. The parts of the building which make up the Palazzo Senatorio are superimposed both over the temple and over the nearby Tabularium, thereby managing to obscure the Roman building almost completely and as a result saving it from destruction. According to ancient sources, and based on the discovery, in the area of the cella, of a marble statue used for religious purposes, it has been possible to identify the divinity to whom this temple was dedicated: Veiovis, the youthful God of the underworld who was the ancient Italic version of Jupiter.

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Temple of Capitoline Jupiter

The Temple of Capitoline Jupiter was dedicated to the Optimus Maximus Jupiter, together with the other two divinities that made up the Capitoline triad - Juno and Minerva. The building was begun by Tarquinius Priscus and completed by the last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, although it was only inaugurated at the beginning of the Republican era in 509 BC.

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Temple of Juno Moneta

The Temple of Juno Moneta, the result of a vow taken by L. Furius Camillus during the war against the Auruncii, was built on the Arx in 344 BC. Ancient sources, in referring to the episode of Juno's sacred geese that warned the Romans during the Gallic siege of 390 BC, appear to suggest the existence of a previous temple building, which has been linked to two terracotta Archaic architectural artefacts found in the Garden of Aracoeli and dating to between the end of the VI and the beginning of the V century BC. The remains of a square wall, built in cappellaccio and tufa-stone from Fidene, which have been preserved in the same garden and which some scholars have attributed to the fortification work of the Arx, might possibly go back to the supposed Archaic and Mid-Republican phases of the Juno Moneta Temple. Examples of the Imperial Age remodelling of the building can be seen in the two parallel walls in cementitious material which run into the tufa-stone structures at right-angles.

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The Pantheon

Built more than 1800 years ago, the magnificent Pantheon building still stands as a reminder of the great Roman empire. The building's dome, more than 43 meters high is most impressive. It was the largest dome in the world until 1436 when the Florence Cathedral was constructed. At the top of the dome is a large opening, the oculus, which was the only source of light... The front portico has three rows of 8 columns, each one with a diameter of 1.5m. A huge bronze door gives access to the cylindrical building. Its diameter equals the interior height of 43,3m.

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Temple of Apollo Sosianus

Vowed to Apollo Medicus (the healer) in 433 BC because of a plague and dedicated two years later by an ancestor of Julius Caesar (Livy, IV.29), this was the only temple of Apollo in Rome until the one built by Augustus on the Palatine. The Ludi Apollinares were instituted in 212 BC to honor the god and were celebrated in July. The temple, itself, which was restored or rebuilt several times, received its final restoration by Gaius Sosius, one of Caesar's lieutenants and consul in 32 BC. Although the epithet Sosianus still was used by Pliny in the AD 70s, Sosius was an opponent of Octavian and had sided with Antony at Actium in 31 BC. Given the rich decoration of the cella, it may be that the temple actually was completed by Augustus, who changed the dedication date to his birthday on September 23 and was building his own temple to Apollo on the Palatine, which was dedicated in 28 BC. The frieze, too, depicts a battle against northern barbarians, and Augustus did have a triumph for his victories over the German tribes in 29 BC.

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Temple of Castor and Pollux

The Temple of Castor and Pollux (Templum Castorum or Aedes Castoris) introduced the Greek cult of the dioscuri into Rome, in its very heart, the Forum Romanum, where it is located between Basilica Julia across the Vicus Tuscus, the Temple of Divus Julius, the Arch of Augustus and the Temple of Vesta.

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Temple of Jupiter Stator

The Temple of Jupiter Stator was first vowed, according to ancient tradition, by Romulus after a battle with the Sabines. The city of Rome was hardly more than a settlement on the Palatine Hill, and the battle was taking place in the valley, in the Forum Romanum. The Romans were forced to retreat up hill by the Via Sacra, but at the Porta Mugonia they managed to regroup and hold their ground against the Sabines, who were eventually defeated.

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The Temple of Hercules Victor

The Temple of Hercules Victor is often misnamed the Temple of Vesta, maybe because it is similar in size and shape to the temples of the Goddess of the Hearth. It is dedicated to Hercules, the patron of oil sellers and is made of Greek marble from Mount Pentelicus. The central cell is surrounded by 20 corinthian columns and has an entrance on its east side. It was designed by a Greek architect from Salamis called Hermodorus in the late 2nd Century BC.

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Temple of Portunus

The Temple of Portunus, the god of the port, is one of the two temples on the Forum Boarium ("cattle market") that have survived to the present day. Here, it is seen from the east, from the forum itself. Behind it you can see the cars on the Lungotevere, the street along the Tiber. Behind the cars, invisible, is the ruin of the ancient Pons Aemilius, the Aemilian bridge.

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Monuments of Rome

Rome, the Eternal City is renewed for its various monuments.Here follows a list of the main ones.

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Rome Monuments

List of the greatest historical architecture from the Roman Empire

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Julius Caesar

104 - 44 B. C. In 44 B.C. the Senate bestowed upon him the title of "Imperator" which is where the word "emperor" originates. Though he was acting as dictator, he would not allow himself to be referred to publicly as king or emperor but "Caesar" instead.

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Augustus

27 B.C. - 14 A.D. Twenty seven years before Jesus Christ was born, the Senate of Rome bestowed upon Octavian the title Augustus. Augustus became the first "Emperor", which comes from the military title imperator.

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Tiberius

The empress Livia bore a son from a previous marriage whom she named "Tiberius." The reign of Tiberius was damaged by treason trials, scandal, absence, indulgence, and his own personal orgies. In 26 A.D. Tiberius was 67 years old when he was persuaded by Sejanus, the reckless leader of the praetorian guard. He was advised to leave Rome and spend his life on the island of Capri, near the Bay of Naples.

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Caligula

37 - 41 A.D. His own troops nicknamed the boy Caligula which means "Baby-boots". He appeared to be a good emperor at the start, but he was absolutely corrupt, utterly immoral, and he committed incest with his own sisters. He dealt severely with his senators, humiliating them publicly. He was a complete psychopath thinking he was a god.

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Claudius

41 - 54 A.D. Claudius was the uncle of Caligula and fourth Emperor of Rome. He was a scholar who had the historian Livy as one of his tutors. He also stumbled as he walked. He suffered from a deformity because of polio, paralyzed as an infant. He was not taken very seriously until he became emperor or Rome, and gained prominence by his decisions. He added at least five provinces to the Empire, including Britain and Morocco (Mauretania).

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ROMAN SHIPWRECKS FROM THE WINE-DARK SEA

The John C. Rouman Lecture Series in Classical and Hellenic Cultures. The development in the last ten years of the new robotic technology to explore the sea floor at depths of up to 6000 m. has revolutionized underwater archaeology . While over three-fifths of planet earth is covered with water, over 95% of the oceans still remain unexplored. But now with the new robotic technology developed in the past ten years, archaeologists can explore at depths where man previously was unable to go.

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The Comacchio Wreck

The Roman ship of Comacchio was discovered on the city outskirts near the initial section of the Water Collection Canal, the principal drainage channel of the Valle Ponti basin which was reclaimed between 1919 and 1922... The first clues of the vessel's presence were revealed in the fall of 1980 (signalled by the Comacchio Archaeological Group) when, during dredging operations in the canal, several timber fragments -- later identified as belonging to a vessel -- came to the surface. The entire upper portion of the wreck was brought to light and the cargo recovered during an extensive excavation season in the summer of 1981. Subsequently, the vessel was submerged beneath the watertable in order to preserve the timber pieces.

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Yassiada 7th C. Shipwreck Excavation

During the summers of 1961-64, an expedition of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania under the direction of George F. Bass excavated the wreck of a 7th-century Byzantine ship that had struck a reef just off the small coastal island of Yassi Ada located between the Turkish mainland and the Greek island of Kos. The wreck lay at an ideal working depth of 32 to 39 m on a moderately steep but fairly even slope and appeared to be well preserved. Then visible was a relatively small amphora mound with a pile of iron anchors at one end and a well-defined area containing kitchen utensils and hearth and roof tiles at the other. (for more information, see Site & Excavation)

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The Porticello Wreck

A 5th Century B.C. Merchantman in Italy. Like the Byzantine ship at Yassi Ada (INA Newsletter Vol. 1, No.2) the Porticello shipwreck was excavated by INA staff members while still working for the University Museum. The wreck, located on the Italian side of the Straits of Messina, near the village of Porticello, was discovered by a local Italian fisherman and heavily plundered by him and diving associates in the Fall of 1969. Because of a dispute among the looters, the wreck's existence was brought to the attention of the local antiquities authorities. Dott. Giuseppe Foti, superintendent of antiquities in Calabria, Italy, sought the aid of Franco Colosimo, a Sicilian diver who had assisted in the excavation of other ancient wrecks in Italian waters, and a group of specially trained divers of the Italian state police. They mapped the site and recovered remains still visible on the seabed.

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The Marsala Punic Warship

An exceptional wreck means far more than the sum of its wooden parts; many features of this well preserved after-end of a cargo-less vessel are unique and heavy with implication. Phoenicio-Punic writing is one of them: when first excavated the black calligraphy showed clearly on pine-wood planking that was still yellow, just as the "dunnage" (or leafy branches laid to protect bottoms from ballast) was still green. Both soon faded on exposure to the light and oxygen in the water, but not before focusing attention on the wreck's chemical environment and - for reasons of "nationality" - on its geographic background. The place where a seagoing ship sank is usually of minor interest because, unlike river craft, ancient seagoing vessels usually carry no clue to where and by whom they were built, or to how many owners they may have had before sinking. This makes it impossible to assign any particular design of hull to any particular Mediterranean region, so leaving a serious gap in our knowledge of ship architecture.

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Two Bronze Etruscan Helmets from a Roman Wreck

Two Bronze Helmets of Etruscan Typology from a Roman Wreck, from a Roman Wreck Found at the Les Sorres Anchorage (Gavà -Viladecans, Catalonia). Under Franco's regime, a great number of Catalan archaeological sites were partially or totally spoliated and/or destroyed, the public powers being absolutely unconcerned about this fact. A paradigmatic example of this situation is the Les Sorres anchorage, a vast site a few kilometres south of Barcelona, under the river Llobregat delta.

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Wrecks Sardinia Spargi

The Roman vessel of Spargi Island II Century B.C. The famous Ship of Spargi was a Roman trade vessel sunk near the Secca Corsara off Spargi Island, probably between 120 and 100 B.C. She carried a cargo of olive oil, of wine in Dressel 1 amphorae (below) and a large amount of Campanian pottery... Some small bronze statuettes (right) have been stolen by abusive antiquities hunters.

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Wrecks Sardinia Capo Testa

The Roman vessel of Capo Testa I Century B.C. The Ship of Capo Testa was a Roman trade vessel, about 20m long, carrying a cargo of iron and lead ingots (left): she sank near Capo Testa (East of Bocche di Bonifacio) during the first Century B.C.

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Wrecks Sardinia Arbatax

The Roman vessel of Arbatax I Century B.C. The Ship of Arbatax was a Roman trade vessel sunk near Capo Bellavista (Arbatax) during the second half of the first Century B.C.

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Wrecks Sardinia of Costa Rey

The Roman vessels of Costa Rey I Century B.C. Two ancient ships have been discovered on the seabottom off Costa Rey: they are both Roman trade vessels, sunk near Punta Santa Giusta (Costa Rey) in different occasions during the first Century B.C.

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Wrecks of Sardinia Mal di Ventre

The Roman vessel of Isola Mal di Ventre ("the thousand ingots wreck") 50-70 B.C. The Ship of Mal di Ventre was a large Roman trade vessel, about 36m long, carrying from Spain an extraordinary cargo of 33 tons of lead ingots (right), engraved with the name of the producer.

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Nautical Pompeii Found in Pisa

Pisa is famous for its leaning tower, but archeologists there are now uncovering an amazing fleet of ancient ships, some complete with crew and cargo. The San Rossore train station on the edge of Pisa, Italy, is a lonely stop. Tourists who visit this city to see its famous leaning tower generally use the central station across town. But San Rossore is about to be recognized as one of the country's most significant archeological digs. For nearly a decade archeologists have been working near and under the tracks to unearth what is nothing short of a maritime Pompeii. So far the excavation has turned up 39 ancient shipwrecks buried under nine centuries of silt, which preserved extraordinary artifacts. The copper nails and ancient wood are still intact, and in many cases cargo is still sealed in the original terra cotta amphorae, the jars used for shipment in the ancient world. They have also found a cask of the ancient Roman fish condiment known as garum and many mariners' skeletons""one crushed under the weight of a capsized ship. One ship carried scores of pork shoulder hams; another carried a live lion, likely en route from Africa to the gladiator fights in Rome.

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Roman Merchant Ship

Roman Merchant Ship. Small Wooden Merchant Ship With Two White Sails... Jonothan Potter (c) Dorling Kindersley

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Roman Ship - Picture - MSN Encarta

Most Roman ships designed for commerce or war featured distinctive square sails. Long banks of oars propelled the ships swiftly through the water. Warships often had additional protective coverings to shield the crew from fire and missiles.

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Sketch of a Roman Warship

Sketch of a Roman warship, part of a Roman merchant ship and a vessel with sail set. National Maritime Museum, London. The Romans used galleys, both as merchant ships for trading, and as warships. They made many long sea journeys in these vessels, but stayed quite close to the coast. Their fighting galleys were powered by rowers, sitting in one, two or three lines. The main weapon of the galley was a ram, a pointed piece of wood fixed to the bow of the ship. The ram was crashed into the side of the enemy ship at speed. The ships also carried archers and men with spears. Sometimes the galleys were fitted with a mast and one square sail, but they were taken down during battles.
http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/server/show/conMediaFile.664/Sketch-of-a-Roman-warship-part-of-a-Roman-merchant-ship-and-a-vessel-with-sail-set.html

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Ancient Roman Warship B.C. 50. Model

Roman warships were feared by other war vessels during the Great Roman Empire. The ships were powered by sail and oarsmen. Armed with Roman Legionaries and sophisticated armaments, the ship became a deadly adversary to other warships of the ancient world. The battering ram was one of the key weapons to devastate another sea going vessel.

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Parts of a Roman Warship

These were the basic parts of the Roman Quinquireme, an long, slender warship propelled by rowers and on occasion by sail and suited for naval combat on the Mediterranean during Classical times. Corvus, Beak, Towers, Gunwales, Oars, Rudders, Sail and Roman Seamen.

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Roman Warship

This is the sort of warship that was the backbone of the Roman fleet in the time of Julius Caeser. It would also have made up the fleets that engaged each other when Octavius Caeser went after Anthony and Cleopatra.

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A Cache of Vintage Ships

By Andrew L. Slayman. Summoned last April to survey a construction site in Pisa, Italian archaeologist Stefano Bruni never imagined what he would find: nine well-preserved Roman ships--the largest group of ancient vessels ever discovered in a single place--and part of Pisa's classical port. Eight months of patient testing had yielded little, and construction of an office building at the San Rossore train station was proceeding. Then, in December, builders sinking a corrugated steel retaining wall to support the sides of the foundation pit realized they had bisected an ancient ship, nearly intact, its wooden frame and planks still held together by copper nails. During the next five months, eight others were found, dating between the second century B.C. and the fifth century A.D., from Pisa's florescence as a Republican naval naval base to the end of the Roman Empire. Bruni's original cores had stopped in what seemed like sterile soil three inches shy of the discovery of a lifetime.

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Ancient Roman Transportation

From earliest times the Romans displayed remarkable skill at building and engineering. They constructed bridges across the river Tiber, aqueducts to supply Rome with water, and sewers to drain the Forum and keep the city healthy.As they expanded their power across Italy, the Romans linked the capital with other communities they had conquered by a network of roads so well designed that many still lie beneath the motorways of modern Italy.After the neglect of the provinces during the civil wars, Augustus was determined to improve the infrastructure to promote economic growth. With Transportation by sea.

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Roman Warship 31 B.C

... (for Poser). The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. "fleet") comprised the naval forces of the Roman state. Unlike modern naval forces, it never existed as an autonomous service, but operated as an adjunct to the Roman army. Founded in ca. 311 BC, and massively expanded course of the First Punic War, the Roman navy played a vital role in the early stages of the Roman Republic's ascension to hegemony in the Mediterranean Sea, especially in the wars against Carthage, but was gradually reduced in size and significance, undertaking mainly policing duties, under the Empire. In the 4th century, the bulk of the Roman fleet was moved to the Eastern Roman Empire, and continued to serve as the Byzantine navy. This ship is a Penteconter, a precursor to the later biremes and triremes. The development of the ram in about 800 BC changed the nature of naval warfare, which had until that point involved boarding and hand-to-hand fighting. Now a more maneuverable ship could render a slower ship useless by staving in its sides.

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A Guide to Greek and Roman Warships?

JSTOR article. The Classical Review New Series Vol 51 No. 1 (2001)pp. 103-105.

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The Fleets and Roman Border Policy

Through the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C. the destiny of the Roman Empire was decisively influenced by a sea-battle for the final time. Following it Rome dominated the seas; enemies with their own large fleets no longer existed. Despite this, the Roman navy was not disbanded; indeed, it was expanded further. This clearly demonstrates that the fleets did not play an inconsiderable role in Roman imperial policy. As a result, one has to ask oneself what functions the fleets performed.

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Roman Warship Liburna

Image Bank "" Roman Warship Liburna

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Galleys on Roman Coins

When people think of the spread of the Roman empire, it is the armies that come to mind. Well organised, well trained, using efficient methods, they drove all before them (with a few exceptions, of course!). But just as important for a Mediterranean empire was sea power. It was the battle of Actium - a sea battle - that sealed the fate of Anthony and Cleopatra. Well built and well armed galleys, swift liburnians, these kept the seas open and kept down the numbers of pirates; and massive cargo ships fed Rome with Afican grain. Naturally, galleys and other types of ship made an appearance on many coins. These two chunky bronze coins are from the Roman republic, an as on the left (169-157 BCE) and a triens on the right (211-206 BCE). The front of a galley in a rather skeletal or diagrammatic form was a standard design on Republican bronzes. These examples are rather worn, which is quite typical.

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Caesar's Galley Model Ship

Roman warships were fearsome weapons and a major factor in the expansion of the Roman Empire. The ships were powered by sails and oars, and armed with the spears and swords of the soldiers on board. Protection was provided by many removable shields along the sides of the craft. A unique "proboscus" on the front of the ship was a reinforced ram often used to spear enemy ships. Whent an enemy ship remained skewered to the Roman ship, the soldiers leap aboard and engage in hand-to-hand combat.

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Roman Merchantman Boat Model

Dating from before the time of Christ and remaining in use for several centuries after, the merchant ships of the Roman Empire represented an important stage in the evolution of the cargo ship. Some of these vessels were very large, like the ones used for carrying grain from the fertile Nile valley to Rome. The could measure 180 feet long.

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Rome Reborn

Rome Reborn is an international project launched in 1996 at UCLA and since 2004 based at the Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH), a research unit of the University of Virginia. The goal of the project is to create a real-time digital model illustrating the entire urban development of ancient Rome from the first settlement in the late Bronze Age (ca. 1000 BC) to the end of the Gothic Wars (552 AD)

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The Pompeii Forum Project

The Pompeii Forum Project is a collaborative research venture that is archaeologicaly based, heavily dependent upon advanced technology, and so conceived as to address broad issues in urban history and urban design. Evidence gathered to date challenges commonly held and widely published notions about the evolution of the forum, especially during the final years of the city's life. The goals are to provide the first systematic documentation of the architecture and decoration of the forum, to interpret evidence as it pertains to Pompeii's urban history, and to make wider contributions to both the history of urbanism and contemporary problems of urban design.

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Forum Romanum

The Roman Forum (Forum Romanum) was the political and economical centre of Rome during the Republic. It emerged as such in the 7th century BCE and maintained this position well into the Imperial period, when it was reduced to a monumental area. It was mostly abandoned at the end of the 4th century. The Forum Romanum is located in a valley between the Capitoline Hill on the west, the Palatine Hill on the south, the Velia on the east and Quirinal Hill and the Esquiline Hill to the north. The Velia was levelled in Antiquity.

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Ancient Roman Navy

The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis) operated between the First Punic war and the end of the Western Roman Empire. History and Evolution. The Roman navy was very much inferior, both in prestige and capability, to the Roman army. Before the First Punic War in 264 BC there was no Roman navy to speak of as all previous Roman war had been fought in Italy. But the war in Sicily against Carthage, a great naval power, forced Rome to quickly build a fleet and train sailors. The first few naval battles of the First Punic War were disasters for Rome, and it was not until the invention of the Corvus, a grappling engine which made it easier for Romans to board the Carthaginian vessels, that Rome was able to win the war. This meant that Rome could use her superior army in naval combat, and was a significant shift away from the tactics of all other navies at the time.

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Ancient Roman Ships

The location of Rome, protected amongst hills on the banks of the river Tiber, not far from its mouth to the Mediterranean sea is a defining element of Rome's naval and commercial strength based on the might of the ancient roman ships. The enormous strategic importance of Rome's local Geography was recognized by men such as Cicero who admitted that Romulus and the gods themselves would have found it difficult to make a better choice of location.

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Roman Galleons

Ancient Ships "" The Ship of Antiquity "" Roman Galleons A typical Roman war ship of the first Century B.C. this Bireme was driven by two rows of oars. Out riggers stabilized the ship and the whales protected the hull from the protruding bows of enemy ships. While fast under oar, this type of vessel capsized easily under too much sail. This ship was built with plank on bulkhead construction.

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Greek Triremes VS Roman Triremes

Warships have ignited the imagination of countless ages and innumerable authors. Few actually know the history of the warship, though. Purpose built warships originated in ancient Greece and Rome, two great Mediterranean powers. They both had invariably different navies, though. The construction of their warships were of different materials and had different needs and qualifications. They both had different methods to get their ships on the move. Finally, their ships performed quite differently in battle. The Roman navy's quinqueremes were far superior ships in many aspects than Greek, mainly Athenian, triremes.

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Best Preserved Warship of Ancient Times

Roman Warship found near Pisa's tower is "best preserved ship of ancient times" By Peter Popham in Rome. A long-vanished harbour 500 metres from the leaning Tower of Pisa has yielded its most precious treasure to date: an intact ancient Roman warship, 12 metres (40ft) long, "the best-preserved ship of antiquity ever found" according to the project director at the site, Andrea Camilli.

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Roman Trade Page

Trade was vital to Ancient Rome. The Empire cost a huge sum of money to maintain and trade brought in much of that money. The population of the city of Rome was one million and such a vast population required many things that could only be got from distant lands ,So people had to turn to trade to get these items. The Roman Empire was criss-crossed with trade routes. There were sea routes that covered the Mediterranean and Black Seas and numerous land routes using the roads built by the Romans. Trade and moving the Roman Army around were the two principle reasons for building roads. The Romans did what they could to make sea journeys safe - lighthouses were built as were safe harbours and docks. The Roman Navy did what it could to make the Mediterranean Sea safe from pirates.

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Ancient Roman Navy

The Roman Navy was always considered an inferior arm and was strictly under army control. But the, Romans proved itself capable of launching a fleet capable of checking an established naval power such as Carthage. Romans were no sailors though. They had no knowledge of ship building. Their ships were in fact built copying the example of captured Carthaginian vessels, combined with the expertise supplied by the Greek cities of southern Italy.

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The Etruscans and the Sea

Maritime Trading. There is no doubt that the Etruscan sea ports, or emporia were important international trading centres, and therefore of great economical and cultural significance for the Etruscans. Judging from the Greek and Phoenician sanctuaries found in Graviscae and Pyrgi respectively they were probably populated by mixed peoples, and attracted merchants and artisans from far afield. We have a historical example of such a trader in Demeratos of Corinth. Livy tells us that he sold Etruscan goods to the Greeks and Greek goods to the Etruscans, and that he brought with him a number of artists from Corinth. The presence of Proto-Corinthian and Corinthian ware in Caere and Tarquinia would appear to be consistent with this account.

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Roman Seas Photo

Roman Civil War: 41 B.C. Sextus Pompeius vs Octavian and Agrippa. Pompeius' ships attack a Roman convoy. Ship model photo of re-enactment of the ship battle.

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First Century Roman Corbita Photo

1st Century Roman Corbita Photo

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Barbarians VS Rome Ship Set

Roman Seas: Barbarians VS Rome Ship Set Roman Seas: The Barbarian vs Rome Ship Set contains a set of high quality, professionally rendered PDF ancient Roman and Barbarian ship models by renown RPG and mapping artist, Eric Hotz. The Barbarian vs Rome Navy Set models are based on the ships from 68BC - 400AD. Just print out the files onto paper/card-stock from your own computer/printer and then start building. Make as many as you want, when you need them!

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Roman Fleet

The Roman Navy was always considered an inferior arm and was strictly under army control. But already during the First Punic War, Rome proved itself capable of launching a fleet capable of checking an established naval power such as Carthage. Romans were no sailors though. They had no knowledge of ship building. Their ships were in fact built copying the example of captured Carthaginian vessels, combined with the expertise supplied by the Greek cities of southern Italy. Rather unexpected success in battle was obtained by a logical Roman idea that a warship was little more than a floating platform on which the soldiers could be brought into close contact with the enemy.

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Roman Quinquereme

A picture of a Roman Quinquereme. This ship is very similar to the Greek Trireme. See the link below for a good explanation of the differences.

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Julius Caesar Bust

Was Julius Caesar a Friend of the Jews? The face of the Roman dictator, Julius Caesar. When Julius Caesar served as proconsul of Gaul (ancient France), he conquered countless Celtic and Belgic armies in the hundreds of thousands. He invaded Britain twice before it became a province in 43 A.D. under the Emperor Claudius. Later Pompey persuaded the Senate to force Caesar to retire as proconsul of Gaul when his term was up. Caesar immediately rebelled against them and crossed the Rubicon River in 49 B.C., and started a civil war. Though Pompey had a much larger army he was easily defeated by Julius Caesar on the plains of Pharsalus in northern Greece. Pompey fled to the great port of Alexandria, Egypt but he was murdered as he landed. Julius Caesar arrived a short time later and met Queen Cleopatra, the last of the Ptolemaic rulers in Egypt, whom he became infatuated with. He actually met with great opposition in Alexandria and defeated them with the help of the Jews.

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Map of Imperial Rome at the Time of Augustus

Sites and places in the city of Rome at the time of Augustus.

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Augustus Caesar on Bible History Online

Augustus Caesar - Introduction , Overview , Background , His Adoption , Octavian , The First Triumvirate , The Second Triumvirate , Augustus Caesar , The Principate , His Empire , His Death , Dictionaries , Encyclopedias , Scriptures , Maps and Images , Timeline , Ancient Texts , Index , Conclusion ,

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Dining in Ancient Rome

The ancient Hebrews, Egyptians, and Greeks. used to eat sitting on mats spread on the floor. The Romans actually reclined on couches around a table. The couches were arranged forming three sides of a square.

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Aqueducts

Ancient Roman aqueducts were large bridges with pipes or channels set into them. These pipes carried water from rivers and lakes around the country, into Rome and other urban centers. One famous ancient Roman aqueduct that still remains today is the Pont du Gard in France.

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Ancient History - Nefer Seba

A list of online resources on Classical Studies, Latin language, and archaeology (Latin dictionaries, phrases and mottoes, Classical and archaeological organizations, excavation sites, encyclopedias on the topic, etc.)

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Flavian Amphitheatre

The Colosseum was the largest and most famous of all Roman amphitheaters. It was originally constructed by the Emperor Vespasian just after 70 AD., and was dedicated by his son Titus in 80 AD. It was known in ancient Rome as the Flavian Amphitheatre, and was completed by Titus' younger son Domitian. The Colosseum was built in the valley between the Palatine, Caelian and Esquiline hills. It could accommodate 70,000 people, who came to watch the games. Many Christians were thrown to the wild beasts in the arena.

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Atlas of the Greek and Roman World

Classical Atlas Project Univ. of North Carolina [Greece] [Maps and Geography]

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AUGUSTUS A Cistophoric Tetradrachm

struck between c. 19-18 B.C.at the mint in Pergamum. [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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AUGUSTUS A Cistophoric Tetradrachm (reverse)

struck between c. 19-18 B.C.at the mint in Pergamum. [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Coponius (6 - 9 AD)

Coins relating to the Roman Procurators : Coponius (6 - 9 AD) AE Prutah 6 AD Hendin 635, SGIC 5606 17 mm. 1.91 gm. Die position=12h Procurator under Augustus reverse Obverse: Ear of barley; KAICAPOC. Reverse: Eight-branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates; date in field L[lambda][stigma] (year 36). [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

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Coponius (6 - 9 AD) reverse

Coins relating to the Roman Procurators : Coponius (6 - 9 AD) AE Prutah 6 AD Hendin 635, SGIC 5606 17 mm. 1.91 gm. Die position=12h Procurator under Augustus reverse Obverse: Ear of barley; KAICAPOC. Reverse: Eight-branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates; date in field L[lambda][stigma] (year 36). [Israel] [Coin Collecting]

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Marcus Ambibulus (9 - 12 AD)

Coins relating to the Roman Procurators :Marcus Ambibulus (9 - 12 AD) AE Prutah 9 AD Hendin 636, SGIC 5607 17 mm. 1.86 gm. Die position=12h Procurator under Augustus obverse Obverse: Ear of barley; KAICAPOC. Reverse: Eight-branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates; date in field L[lambda][theta] (year 39).[Israel] [Coin Collecting]

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Mark Antony Denarius Reissued

Relating to the Middle Empire (Adoptive Emperors) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Commodus A.D. 177-192

Relating to the Middle Empire (Adoptive Emperors) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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3 Republican Denarii - Same or Different

Unlike modern coins, it is common for ancient coins to be available with a great variety of minor variations. In some cases this is an accident caused by individually hand cut dies each being a little different even when every attempt was made to make them the same. In other cases, the differences were part of the plan to control mint operations and, by chance, provide collectors with both major and minor varieties for the collection. Relating to the Middle Empire (Adoptive Emperors) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Alexandria mint denarii

Commodus, Pertinax and Clodius Albinus [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Alexandria Denarii of Commodus, Pertinax & Albinus

Alexandria mint denarii. Commodus, Pertinax and Clodius Albinus Severan Period. (not Septimius or Domna) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Pescennius Niger Denarius

Severan Period (not Septimius or Domna) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Caracalla or Elagabalus?

Two Emperors Named Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius. Severan Period (not Septimius or Domna) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Worn out but rare coins

The collectors who own these coins love them for what they are. Would you be caught with these in your collection? Severan Period (not Septimius or Domna) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Roman Imperial Plated Coins

Severan Period (not Septimius or Domna) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Geta: The One Who Died A.D. 209-212

Severan Period (not Septimius or Domna) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Macrinus A Greek Imperial of Laodocea and two denarii

Macrinus attempted to rule well and made some effort to reduce expenses. This was always dangerous when dealing with soldiers and after a short reign of a little more than a year, Macrinus was killed by the army that had elevated him. The coup that defeated him was led by Julia Maesa, sister of Julia Domna, in the name of her fourteen year old grandson known to history as Elagabalus. This restored the Severan Dynasty which ruled Rome from 193 to 235 AD except for the brief reign of Macrinus. Severan Period (not Septimius or Domna) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Macrinus: An AE 30 Neocorate issue of Nikomedia, Bithynia

Severan Period (not Septimius or Domna) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Roman Imperial coins of Macrinus

Severan Period (not Septimius or Domna) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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`Unlisted` Denarii of Maesa & Elagabalus?

Two coins not found in the standard catalogs. Severan Period (not Septimius or Domna) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Imperial coins of Severus Alexander

Severan Period (not Septimius or Domna) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Bronzes of Severus Alexander

Severan Period (not Septimius or Domna) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Gordian III the Boy King

Gordian III became Emperor at the end of the confusion of 238 AD. That he was largely a figurehead is made obvious by his young age (about 15) but, compared to other `boy kings`, Gordian did a good job as ruler of Rome. The grandson of the respected Gordian I (and nephew of Gordian II), Gordian III was selected to restore peace following the deaths of all the contestants for power during that terrible year. Actual power during the reign fell to the Praetorian Prefects, first Timisitheus and later Philip the Arab. Under Timisitheus, Gordian married his mentor`s daughter Tranquillina. The death of Timisitheus resulted in his replacement by a man with a son of his own and no need to support a young puppet. Gordian III was killed and Philip I became Emperor. Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Gordian III, A.D. 238-244

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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3 Gordian III & Tranquillina Greek Imperial

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Philip the Arab & Family - coins of the First Family

The reign of Marcus Julius Philippus, Philip I, (244-249 AD - sometimes called "the Arab" after the origin of his family) is clouded in history by the way it began. Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Philip II Marcianopolis Bronzes

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Trajan Decius

Trajan Decius became emperor midway through the third century and near the beginning of the chaos that characterized the period between the relative stability of the Severans and the formation of the Tetrarchy by Diocletian. Silver coins of this period declined year by year until there was almost no silver content. The most common denomination was the double denarius or antoninianus first issued by Caracalla late in 214 AD. By the time of Decius, the coin was still struck in silver alloy of a silvery color but the weight had fallen off from the earlier issues. Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Agonistic Bronzes Coins Commemoratives of the Games

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Valerian II & Saloninus

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Postumus, Emperor of Gaul

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Revolt of Aureolus

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Reverse Brockages of the Gallic Empire

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Florian Politics, Succession and Death

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Probus Antoniniani - Looking Closely

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Probus Antoninianus A.D. 276-282

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Medusa on Probus` Shield

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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A Silvered Antoninianus of Numerian

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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`Coded` Antoniniani

The identification of joint Emperors Diocletian and Maximianus with the gods (respectively) Jupiter and Hercules was documented by a strange series of silvered antoniniani from the mint at Siscia. Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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XXI and Other Letters

Things Found on Roman Reverses of the Late Third Century AD. Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Maximinus, Maximianus etc.

Separating Coins of Maximianus, Galerius, Maximinus & Maxentius. Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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A Roman Coin of John Quincy Adams of Galerius Caesar

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Maximinus II, A.D. 309-313

Coins Relating to Military Emperors [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Constantine: the Road to Greatness

Coins Relating to the Constantinian Period (Christianity in Rome) [Coin Collecting]

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A Follis of Constantine I

Coins Relating to the Constantinian Period (Christianity in Rome) [Coin Collecting]

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Crispus (Caesar A.D. 317-326)

Coins Relating to the Constantinian Period (Christianity in Rome) [Coin Collecting]

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Delmatius (Caesar A.D. 335-337)

Coins Relating to the Constantinian Period (Christianity in Rome) [Coin Collecting]

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Stirrups? on a coin of Constantius II

Coins Relating to the Constantinian Period (Christianity in Rome) [Coin Collecting]

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Bavarian Collection

Coins Relating to the Constantinian Period (Christianity in Rome) [Coin Collecting]

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By This Sign, You Shall Be Victorious (Milvian Bridge)

Coins Relating to the Constantinian Period (Christianity in Rome) [Coin Collecting]

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Delmatius (Caesar A.D. 335-337)

Christogram Chi Rho standard. Coins Relating to the Constantinian Period (Christianity in Rome) [Coin Collecting]

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An AE4 of Theodosius I A.D. 379-395

Coins Relating to the End of the Empire (Valentinian and later) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Arcadius AE2 Inverted overstrike and the hand of God

Coins Relating to the End of the Empire (Valentinian and later) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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5th Century AD Roman Bronze

Coins relating to the End of the Empire (Valentinian and later) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Coins of Barbarians

"Barbarian" was a term applied to any people not of Greek or Roman origin. By the time of the late Roman Empire, what was considered barbaric in one generation would frequently become more civilized and be adopted into the Roman "family" to the point that Roman Emperors after the first century AD were rarely of Italian lineage. Coins relating to the End of the Empire (Valentinian and later) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Greek & Roman cast coins

Greek & Other Ancient Coins [Greece] [Coin Collecting]

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Tiberius, Tribute Penny

[Bible] [Rome] [Coin]

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Divus Caracalla - Bronze sestertius

- died 217 AD - Rome mint - 22g DIVO ANTONINO MAGNO / CONSECRATIO SC Bare head right / Funeral pyre of 4 steps topped with quadriga [Rome] [Coin]

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Coin of Caesar Augustus with Comet on reverse

A coin of Caesar Augustus that is wildly popular due to its reverse type. In 17 BC, a comet appeared in the sky and was interpreted as the Divine Julius Caesar returning to watch over Rome. The comet is shown as a star of eight rays with a feathery tail trailing behind. The legend is DIVVSIVLIVS [Rome] [Coin]

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Roman Imperatorial Coinage of Ahenobarbus

Ahenobarbus, Imperator in 42 BC, died 39 BC [Rome] [Coin]

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Septimius Severus Coins

Septimius Severus issued a Legionary Series of denarii naming all of the legions that supported his bid for power from the beginning. Of these, the hardest to find is Legion XXII Primigenia which was stationed at Mainz. To make matters worse, two varieties are known for this legion. This, the rarer, names the Legion LEG XXII PRI; the other is simply LEG XXII. [Rome] [Coin]

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Ancient Greek & Roman Coins - Overview for Beginners

Recommended reading for those who might be interested in collecting ancient coins [Rome] [Coin] [Greece]

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Abbreviations on Roman Imperial Coins

Abbreviations on Roman Imperial Coins SC TRP IMP COS etc. [Coin Collecting]

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Imperial Coin Denominations

Imperial Coin Denominations A survey of silver & bronze coins [Coin Collecting]

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Common Constantinian Copper Coins

from bulk lots and junk boxes [Coin Collecting]

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Valentinian & Theodosius Coins

the junk boxes: Part 2 [Coin Collecting]

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Septimius Severus, A.D. 193-211

Relating to the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Septimius Severus & His Wife Julia Domna

Relating to the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Septimius Severus `Emesa` Mint Denarii

Relating to the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Barbaric Coins of Septimius Severus

Relating to the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Legion III Coins of Septimius Severus

Rome and Alexandria. Legionary coins of the Alexandria, Egypt, mint honor the North African Legion III Augusta which `freed` Egypt from the clutches of Pescennius Niger at the very end of 193 AD. A good percentage of the coins of Septimius issued at Rome by this time were the Legionary standards type with legends honoring each of the legions that supported Septimius from the very beginning of his bid for the Empire. Relating to the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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GRADING: Conditions of Preservation

Other than wear, which is addressed by the currently popular grading standards, many thing could happen to an ancient coin on its travels into our collections. [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Septimius, Julia & Venus

More commonly special `feminine` types were created for use by the Augusta. These could honor personifications of feminine virtues (Modesty, Fertility, Piety etc.) or goddesses (Cybele, Vesta, Diana etc.). From the beginning of the reign of Septimius Severus, coins were issued in the name of his wife Julia Domna. Venus, patron goddess of the Julii, was the most common reverse of the early period of the reign (193-196 AD). Relating to the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Legion III Coins of Septimius Severus Rome and Alexandria

Legionary coins of the Alexandria, Egypt, mint honor the North African Legion III Augusta which `freed` Egypt from the clutches of Pescennius Niger at the very end of 193 AD. A good percentage of the coins of Septimius issued at Rome by this time were the Legionary standards type with legends honoring each of the legions that supported Septimius from the very beginning of his bid for the Empire. Relating to the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Minerva Athena

Relating to the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Coins of Septimius Severus

Relating to the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Fourree Mule Denarius Septimius / Caracalla

Relating to the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Septimius Severus Caesarea Drachm Greek Imperial - Year R

Relating to the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Septimius Severus

Relating to the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Julia Domna Alexandria Tetradrachm Greek Imperials

Second wife of Septimius Severus, who reigned AD 193-211, mother of Caracalla and Geta. Relating to the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Cast Ancient Coins Aes Rude, Aes Grave & Greek cast coins

Relating to the Roman Republic [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Fourree Serrate Denarius

Claudius Nero 78-77 BC [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Comparing Three Republican Denarii

Relating to the Roman Republic [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Caesar/Augustus, Augustus and two Severans

Relating to the Early Empire (12 Caesars) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Tiberius: The Tribute Penny Render Unto Caesar......

Relating to the Early Empire (12 Caesars) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Indian Denarius of Tiberius A barbaric coin of good silver

Relating to the Early Empire (12 Caesars) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Nero A.D. 54-68

Relating to the Early Empire (12 Caesars) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Plated Denarii NUMUS MONETA

304 Roman Republican plated denarius (209 B.C.). In each case the original Greek word is a form of "denarius", although the term is variously rendered in modern translations in order to make it meaningful to the average modern reader. For example, the venerable King James Version renders the term as "penny", which is understandable when one considers that the modern British abbreviation for "pence" is "d", which originally was an abbreviation for the "denier", a descendent of the denarius. Relating to the Early Empire (12 Caesars) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Vespasian Bronzes of Lugdunum

Relating to the Early Empire (12 Caesars) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Flavian Mintmarked Denarii Three Eastern mint denarii

Relating to the Early Empire (12 Caesars) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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A Denarius of Domitian - The dolphin of Neptune & more

Titus Flavius Vespasianus ("Vespasian") survived the civil wars of 68-69 AD as undisputed ruler of the Roman world. He had two sons: The elder (with the same name) is known to history as "Titus" succeeded his father and ruled for two years before his death in 81 AD. The younger brother, Titus Flavius Domitianus, then became emperor ruling until 96 AD. Relating to the Early Empire (12 Caesars) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Imperial Plated Coins

Relating to the Middle Empire (imperial) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Hadrian An overview of a popular ruler

Among the most popular choices for collectors who select a single Emperor as a speciality is Hadrian. Ruling from 117 to 138 AD, Hadrian was the adopted son of Trajan and continued the adoptive line by selecting Antoninus Pius as his successor. Coins of Hadrian are especially varied with a `complete` collection numbering well over 2000 items. I will show a few samples of his coins that might be considered representative of the thousands not shown. Relating to the Middle Empire (Adoptive Emperors) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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A Fourree Brockage of Hadrian

Relating to the Middle Empire (Adoptive Emperors) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Antoninus Pius Caesar - The politics of succession on coins

Relating to the Middle Empire (Adoptive Emperors) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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Antoninus Pius, A.D. 138-161

Relating to the Middle Empire (Adoptive Emperors) [Rome] [Coin Collecting]

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The Roman Army

The core of the Roman legion consisted of heavily armored infantry. Disciplined and well trained these soldiers fought in closed ranks. At every level the men of a legion fought together toward ultimate victory. In contrast most of the armies Rome faced were warrior based where each man fought for personal glory. This combination of superior organization and disciplined armored infantry gave the Romans a tremendous advantage in battle. Training Formation, Organization, Armor, Arms (Weapons), Tactics.

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Siege Warfare Artillery and Fortifications

The Romans brought combat engineering to such an art that it wasn`t matched again until the Second World War. A high level of organization plus a determination to thoroughly address all aspects of battle led the Romans to integrate a wide range of tactics and tools into their fighting.

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Siege Warfare Artillery and Fortifications

Development of the Roman Legion from the late Republic to the height of the Empire. Campaigns and battles. Tactics and weapons of the Roman armies. Siege warfare / fortification. Profiles of the greatest military commanders. [The Glory That Was Rome]

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Roman Naval Warfare

The Quinquereme, The Corvus. Service in the fleet was for 26 years after which sailors received citizenship. Water ways were patrolled to control piracy and keep shipments of supplies and troops free to go where they were needed.

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The Commanders

Development of the Roman Legion from the late Republic to the height of the Empire. Campaigns and battles. Tactics and weapons of the Roman armies. Siege warfare / fortification. Profiles of the greatest military commanders.

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The History of Rome: Battles and Campaigns of the Empire

Battle of Cannae 216 BC... The Battle of Zama 202 BC... The Battle of Cynoscephalae 197 BC... The Jewish Wars 70 AD... Trajan's Campaigns Against Dacia 101-106 A.D

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Roman Emperors List

Emperors names (common and Imperial) dynasty, class and notes [The Glory That Was Rome]

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Timeline of The Republic

The Roman Republic - 509-31 B.C. [The Glory That Was Rome]

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Warfare in the Roman World

Bibliography; General Works The Army of the Republic Legions, Augustus to Diocletian Auxiliaries, Augustus to Diocletian The Late Roman Army Fleet Guard Troops Recruiting Equipment Pay Logistics Enemies Strategy Collections of Papers Command

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Coin of Tiberius, 14-37 A.D.

TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS Rev. PONTIF MAXIM. Female figure seated r. hld. scepter and palm branch [Ancient Coins] [Rome]

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Coin of M. Junius Brutus

This coin was issued by Marcus Junius Brutus, the chief assasin of Julius Caesar, when he held the lower political office of moneyer during his early career. The types honor Brutus` ancestors who were involved in overthrowing tyrannies in the early Republic and are an allusion to his contemporary oppostion to Sulla. [Ancient Coins] [Rome]

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Coin of Nero, 54-68 A.D.

[Ancient Coins] [Rome]

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Coin of Nero (2), 54-68 A.D.

[Ancient Coins] [Rome]

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Roman Emperors and Rulers

A Brief History of Roman Emperors, Rulers, and Their Families [Ancient Rome] [People]

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Augustus the First Roman Emperor

63 B.C. - 14 C.E. [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

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Caesar By Plutarch

63 B.C. - 14 C.E. Written 75 A.C.E. Translated by John Dryden [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

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Caesar By Plutarch

63 B.C. - 14 C.E. Written 75 A.C.E. Translated by John Dryden [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

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Antony By Plutarch

(died 30 B.C.E.) Written 75 A.C.E. Translated by John Dryden [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

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The Rulers of the Roman World

The Roman Emperors, Imperators, and Caesars [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

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Neferchichi`s Tomb

Full of treasure for kids, teachers, & amateur Egyptologists: free clip art & fonts, e-postcards, gift shop, lesson plans, fun & games, and lots of information about Egypt. [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

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ROME & CHRISTIANITY TIMELINE

CHRISTIAN TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

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The First Ladies of Rome

LordBest's Gallery of Roman Emperors and Empresses. Version 2.0 The Empresses Rome was host to many powerful women in its time, many of the female relations of the reigning Emperor exercised considerable power, others were mere pawns in political games. All of them, however, were the fashion setters of their time, influencing hairstyles and fashions all accross the empire. In chronological order.

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head of Costantine II statue

Italy, Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori (Tony Stone Images)

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Roman Temple of Trajan

Turkey, Pergamum, Hellenistic Kingdom, (Tony Stone Images)

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Roman Forum and Colosseum

Italy, Latium, Rome, View from Capitol Hill. The Colosseum was commisioned by the Roman Emperor Vespasian. The Forum started as a mix of food stalls and temples, before becoming the business and law centre of the Empire.(Tony Stone Images)

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Temple of Ceres

Italy, Campania, Paestum, The Temple of Ceres was built in a Doric style around the 6th Century BC. The city of Paestum was founded by the Greeks before being taken by the Romans in 273 BC.(Tony Stone Images)

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Roman Sculpture (Constantine Head)

Corbis Images [Ancient Rome] [Images]

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Roman Sculpture (Constantine Head)

Corbis Images [Ancient Rome] [Images]

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Septimius Severus Coins

[Coins] [Ancient Rome]

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Septimius Severus Coins

[Coins] [Ancient Rome]

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Severus II

[Coins] [Ancient Greece]]

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Colosseum, Rome, Italy

Corbis Images [Ancient Rome] [Images]

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Colosseum, Rome, Italy (Interior)

Corbis Images [Ancient Hidalgo] [Images]

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Colosseum, Rome, Italy (Interior)

Corbis Images [Ancient Rome] [Images]

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Low-Earth-Orbit View of Malta and Sicily

Corbis Images [Ancient Rome] [Images]

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Colosseum, Rome, Italy (Model)

Model of Ancient Rome Showing the Colosseum and the Complex of Ludus Magnus Corbis Images [Ancient Rome] [Images]

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Empires and Cities (Rome)

Until this section is finished being indexed into the main database you can click here to see a list of links including the Bible History Online general resources on this subject, although many of these links are outdated. [Ancient Rome]

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ORB Online Encyclopedia--Late Roman Army

Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean. The birth of the Late Roman Army is usually taken to be the reforms of Diocletian (284-305) and Constantine (305-337). Their reforms were not completely innovative and forerunners of all their changes can be seen in the institutions and practices of the army of the third century AD. From the early fourth century, the army was a remarkably stable institution with few changes in practice or structure, suggesting that contemporaries were satisfied with its effectiveness. [Warfare] [Rome]

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ORB Online Encyclopedia--Collapse of the Roman Empire

Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean. The Collapse of the Roman Empire--Military Aspects. Hugh Elton. Modern historians explain the collapse of the western Roman empire in the fourth and fifth centuries in one of two ways. One group follows an institutional approach, which finds the reasons in the long-term and looks closely at internal structures. A second group has adopted a political approach and looks at short term causes of collapse. [Warfare] [Rome]

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ORB Online Encyclopedia--Barbarization

The term `barbarization` is used to describe the use of soldiers whose origins were outside the Roman Empire in the late Roman army. It has been argued (especially by Ramsay MacMullen) that this caused the army to decline in efficiency, though this is a view that is coming under some revision. There were two types of this `barbarization`. [Warfare] [Rome]

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The Armies of The Roman Empire

Development of the Roman Legion from the late Republic to the height of the Empire. Campaigns and battles. Tactics and weapons of the Roman armies. Siege warfare / fortification. Profiles of the greatest military commanders. [Warfare] [Rome]

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The Legio X Gemina Homepage

This is the homepage of the Gemina Project, a Dutch reenactment society that portrays Roman soldiers and civilians as they would have appeared in the last quarter of the first century AD when the legio X Gemina was stationed at the castra of Nijmegen. [Warfare] [Rome]

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Famous People of Ancient Rome

Information about CAESAR, ANTONY, CICERO, MAECENAS, MARCUS AURELIUS

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Caesar's Campaigns in Gaul (58-50 BC)

[Athena Review Image Archive]

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A Gazetteer of the Roman World

A very large collection of info, images, and resources.

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A Gazetteer of the Roman World

A very large collection of info, images, and resources.

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LacusCurtius: into the Roman World

A very large collection of info, images, and resources.

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4 pages at The Museum of Ara Pacis

The Ara Pacis is one of the city's great sights: the great sacrificial altar consecrated by the Emperor Augustus himself in 9 BC is enclosed in a magnificent frieze of Roman portraiture at its best. It is essentially intact. [ 4 pages of images ]

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The Palatine Hill

The Palatine Hill is a sort of 2800-year-old palimpsest of landscaping. Called the cradle of Rome because they found and raised babies in it -- Romulus and Remus, according to tradition -- it has by turns been the seat of the rich and powerful, an abandoned waste, a luxury escape for Renaissance popes, and now, less successfully, a mass of excavations. This rather weak subsite teases you with the so-called House of Livia and the Farnese Gardens. [ 3 pages, 8 images ]

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The gardens of the Villa Borghese

The gardens of the Villa Borghese are on yet another hill: a beautifully landscaped large park with just the right density of tempietti, fountains and statues. If you are a non-Italian visitor to Rome, you're probably not even giving this place a thought -- mistake. The place to get some cool air surrounded by Roman families on their day off. [ 3 pages, 10 images ]

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Trajan's Column

built in the early 2d century AD to commemorate the emperor's campaigns in Dacia, this 30m column was once the centerpiece of a major urban complex including libraries, a temple, a basilica, and markets: only these last remain in anything like their ancient state. The column, however, is virtually intact. Recognized as the single best extant example of Roman monumental sculpture, it is also a storehouse of information on the Roman army, trade in the empire, and daily life. [ 3 pages, 37 images ]

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The Arch of Constantine

The Arch of Constantine: built in the early 4th century AD to commemorate Constantine's tenth year in power, the arch was intended as yet another great monument of Roman propaganda. Over the long term, however, it fails miserably: in cobbling together for it some excellent sculpture of previous centuries and adding a few crabbed friezes of its own, the Romans created a fascinating comparative art gallery -- in which the Constantinian age does not come out well. 70 pictures

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The Pantheon

The best-preserved of all Roman temples, and an astonishing feat of engineering. (Other than a major scholarly article cribbed from an 1875 book, this is a rather weak site for the moment, put up on 2/10/99.) [ 3 pages, 7 images ]

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The Amphitheatrum Castrense

The Amphitheatrum Castrense is one of those flukes of archaeology: built by Elagabalus, this brick amphitheatre was very likely one of many in ancient times. Today, however, it's a rarity, having survived because it was incorporated into a great work of fortification. [ 1 page, 3 images ]

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A Topography of Ancient Rome

A Topography of Ancient Rome by Samuel Ball Platner (as revised by Thomas Ashby in 1929), is a solid resource now in the public domain. A scholarly encyclopedia with hundreds upon hundreds of articles on the remains of antiquity within the city of Rome, it is an excellent reference work for hills, streets, roads and monuments of all kinds, providing ancient sources and modern bibliographies. I'm putting a small selection of articles from it online. [ 2/28/99: 7 articles ]

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A Topography of Ancient Rome

A Topography of Ancient Rome by Samuel Ball Platner (as revised by Thomas Ashby in 1929), is a solid resource now in the public domain. A scholarly encyclopedia with hundreds upon hundreds of articles on the remains of antiquity within the city of Rome, it is an excellent reference work for hills, streets, roads and monuments of all kinds, providing ancient sources and modern bibliographies. I'm putting a small selection of articles from it online. [ 2/28/99: 7 articles ]

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Language Map of Ancient Italy

Shows where in Italy: Gaulish, Greek, Oscan, Ligurian, Messapic, Etruscan, Umbrian were spoken. Aeq.- Aequian; Aur.- Auruncan; Fal.- Faliscan; Hern.- Hernican; Lat.- Latin; Marr.- Marrucinian; Mars.- Marsian; Nov.- Novilara; Pael.- Paelignian; Vest.- Vestinian;

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The Roman Colosseum

The Coliseum in Rome, the site of gladiatorial combats and other spectacles in Ancient Rome. [Corbis]

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Colosseum (Flavin Amphitheater)

Roman (Flavian period): Colosseum (Flavin Amphitheater): exterior view from N. ca. 70 - 82 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Colosseum (Flavin Amphitheater): Detail

Roman (Flavian period): Colosseum (Flavin Amphitheater):exterior, detail of superposed Corinthian, Ionic, and doric architectural orders. ca. 70 - 82 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Colosseum (Flavin Amphitheater): Street Level

Roman (Flavian period): Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater): exterior, detail of arcaded construction of entrance at street level. ca. 70 - 82 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Colosseum (Flavin Amphitheater): Entrance Passage

Roman (Flavian period): Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater): arena interior, view through entrance passage. ca. 70 - 82 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Colosseum (Flavin Amphitheater): Arena Interior

Roman (Flavian period): Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater): arena interior, view towards E. showing substructure. ca. 70 - 82 A.D. A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Arch of Titus, Rome

Roman Empire: Arch of Titus, Rome: view from W. [through the forum]. ca. 81 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Arch of Titus: showing

Roman Empire: Arch of Titus, Rome: detail of C. arch [from W.], showing "Triumph of Titus" relief panel. ca. 81 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Arch of Titus: showing "Triumph of Titus" relief panel 2

Roman Empire: Arch of Titus, Rome: detail of inner [N.] facing of arch showing "Triumph of Titus" relief panel. ca. 81 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Arch of Titus: Spoils of the Temple in Jerusalem

Roman Empire: Arch of Titus, Rome: Spoils of the Temple in Jerusalem: relief panel from inner facing of the Arch. ca. 81 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Trajan's Column

Roman: Trajan's Column: view from S. (through Basilica Ulpia). ca. 113 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Trajan's Column: Detail

Roman: Trajan's Column: detail, middle registers of frieze on E. side, Roman campaigns against the Dacians. ca. 113 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Trajan's Column: Detail 3

Roman: Trajan's Column: detail, lower registers of frieze on W. side, legionaries on campaign against the Dacians. ca. 113 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Trajan's Column: Detail 4

Roman: Trajan's Column: detail, lower registers of frieze on W. side, departure of legionaries from their garrison. ca. 113 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Trajan's Column: Detail 5

Roman: Trajan's Column: detail, bottom register of frieze on W. side, (River god Danuvius watching legionaries crossing a pontoon bridge). ca. 113 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Amphitheater (Arena), Pompeii

Roman (Campania): Amphitheater (Arena), Pompeii: interior view from SW.. orig. ca. 80 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Portrait Bust of a Flavian Lady

Roman Empire (Flavian period): Portrait bust of a Flavian Lady: [L. profile]. ca. 90 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Portrait Bust of a Flavian Lady (Rear)

Roman Empire (Flavian period): Portrait bust of a Flavian Lady: [rear view, detail of coiffure]. ca. 90 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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The Tetrarchs

Roman Late Empire: The Tetrarchs: ca. 305 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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The Tetrarchs: Diocletian and Maximian

Roman Late Empire: The Tetrarchs: detail of the Augusti (Diocletian and Maximian). ca. 305 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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The Tetrarchs: Diocletian and Maximian (Detail)

Roman Late Empire: The Tetrarchs: detail of the Augusti (Diocletian and Maximian). ca. 305 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Constantine, Head and Fragments from a Colossal Statue

Roman Late Empire: Constantine, head and fragments from a colossal statue: on display in the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Consevatori, Rome. ca. 313-315 (or 330) A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Constantine, Head and Fragments from a Colossal Statue 2

Roman Late Empire: Constantine, head and fragments from a colossal statue: on display in the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Consevatori, Rome. ca. 313-315 (or 330) A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Sarcophagus, Relief: Dionysis Attended by the Four Seasons

Roman: Sarcophagus, relief: Dionysis attended by the Four seasons, Tellus (Earth) and Oceanus (River). ca. 220-230 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Aphrodite of Cyrene

Roman, after Hellenistic original: Aphrodite of Cyrene, 1st Century. Marble, H. 67 1/2 in. (171.5 cm.). Purchased with funds from the State of North Carolina and from the North Carolina Art Society. The North Carolina Museum of Art at North Carolina State University.

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Herakles

Roman, after Hellenistic original: Herakles, 2nd Century Marble, H. 65 in. (165.1 cm.). The North Carolina Museum of Art at North Carolina State University.

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Funerary Monument

Roman: Funerary Monument for Sextus Maelius Stabilio, Vesinia Iucunda, and Sextus Maelius Faustus, 1st Century. Marble. The North Carolina Museum of Art at North Carolina State University.

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Roman Gods and Goddesses Info

Goddess information, M Goddesses, Meditrina, Mutt, Minerva

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Portrait of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius

Roman: Portrait of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, Late 2nd Century, Marble, H. 26 5/16 in. "Marcus Aurelius ruled the Roman Empire from 161-180, the last of the five "good emperors" of the second century after Christ. The North Carolina Museum of Art at North Carolina State University.

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Roman Aqueduct

Roman Aqueduct: 1st to 2nd century AD. Segovia, Spain. [Image from Yale University]

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Five Roman Orders

Five Roman Orders: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan, Composite. [Image from Yale University]

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Ruins of Roman Forum

Roman Forum: Ruins of Roman Forum; 203-608 AD. Rome. [Image from Yale University]

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Baths of Caracalla: Air View

Baths of Caracalla: Air View. c215 AD. Rome. [Image from Yale University]

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Romulus and Remus suckling

Etruscan: She-Wolf of the Capitoline: (Romulus and Remus suckling, Renaissance additions). ca. 500 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Temple of Portunus

Roman (Republic): Temple of Portunus: (formerly known as the temple of Fortuna Virilis), Rome: exterior view from NE, [in L. background, Temple of Vesta]. ca. late 2nd to mid-1st century B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Temple of Portunus: Detail

Roman (Republic): Temple of Portunus (formerly known as the temple of Fortuna Virilis), Rome: exterior view from NE, detail of entoblature with Ionic capitals. ca. late 2nd to mid-1st century B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Temple of Portunus: Detail 2

Roman (Republic): Temple of Portunus: (formerly known as the temple of Fortuna Virilis), Rome: exterior view from NE, detail of podium and entrance stairs. ca. late 2nd to mid-1st century B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Temple of Portunus: Detail 3

Roman (Republic): Temple of Portunus: (formerly known as the temple of Fortuna Virilis), Rome: exterior view from NE, detail of engaged columns on E. side. ca. late 2nd to mid-1st century B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Ara Pacis Augustae

Roman: Ara Pacis Augustae: detail of long R. wall and rear angle. ca. 13 - 9 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Ara Pacis Augustae: Detail

Roman: Ara Pacis Augustae: detail, Italia ("Tellus") relief from top register of rear wall. ca. 13 - 9 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Ara Pacis Augustae: Detail 2

Roman: Ara Pacis Augustae: detail, sacrificial procession from long R. wall. ca. 13 - 9 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Ara Pacis Augustae: Detail 3

Roman: Ara Pacis Augustae: detail, sacrificial procession from long R. wall. ca. 13 - 9 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Villa of Livia, Primaporte

Roman (Augustan): Villa of Livia, Primaporte: courtyard with environmental garden murals. ca. 30 - 20 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Maison Carree, Nimes

Roman (Gaul): Maison Carree, Nimes: exterior, view from NE.. ca. 20 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Maison Carree, Nimes: Detail

Roman (Gaul): Maison Carree, Nimes: exterior, detail of engaged columns on W. side. ca. 20 B.C. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Pont-du-Gard Aquaduct

Roman (Gaul): Pont-du-Gard aquaduct: ca. 19 - 14 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Pont-du-Gard Aquaduct: Detail

Roman (Gaul): Pont-du-Gard aquaduct: detail ca. 19 - 14 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Pont-du-Gard Aquaduct: Detail 2

Roman (Gaul): Pont-du-Gard aquaduct: detail of arcade unit. ca. 19 - 14 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Pont-du-Gard Aquaduct: Water Channel

Roman (Gaul): Pont-du-Gard aquaduct: detail of topmost course showing (originally) covered and lead-lined water channel. ca. 19 - 14 A.D. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Ancient and Modern Inscriptions on the Arch of Titus

First, the ancient inscription on the E face of the monument. For nearly 2000 years it has been the first sight to meet the eyes of any Roman descending the Sacred Way: The inscription on the E face "" or, to be technical, the holes left now that the bronze letters of the actual inscription have gone. It is, as one might expect of a major monument to a victorious emperor at the entrance to the Sacred Way, perfectly carved; except to modern eyes, for the minimal spacing between words: but notice that the interpuncts are there to mark word division...and much more

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Roman Deities & Mythological Figures

A quick glossary - gods, goddesses, heros, and other figures with a 1-2 line description. [Mythology and Religion]

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Encyclopaedia Mythica

Great resouce for many various ancient mythologies. [Mythology and Religion]

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Christus Rex et Redemptor Mundi

Vast resource, scholarly, and devotional [Mythology and Religion ]

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Mythography

Greek, Roman, and Celtic mythology in art and literature. [Mythology and Religion]

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Mythology in Western Art

Dr. Sonia Klinger of the Department of Art History, University of Haifa. [Mythology and Religion]

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Gaius Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar was born on 12 July 100 BC in Rome, son of Gaius Caesar and Aurelia. Governor of Gaul 58-49 BC. Appointed dictator for ten years in 47 B, for life on 14 February 44 BC. Married initially to Cornelia (one daughter, Julia), then to Pompeia, alas to Calpurnia. Assassinated on 15 March 44 BC. Deified in 42 BC. Caesar was tall, fair-haired, well built and of sound health. though he did suffer from the occasional epileptic fit. [People in History]

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Priscus at Attilla's Court

Roman historian Priscus' encounter with the Huns, and Attila with unique profiles. [People in History]

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Prosopographia Imperii Romani: Stichwortliste: Suchmaske

search for individual and prominant Romans by name! [German] [People in History]

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Timeline: Ancient Rome

chrononology with hyperlinks, quotes, and images. [People in History]

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Byzantium: Timeline

Early, Middle, and Late Byzantium [People in History]

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Cleopatra's Children

Check out this unique series brought to you by Bible History Online Includes Real Audio. Trace the interesting history of the children of the great Queen of Egypt [Ancient Egypt Rome] [People] [Cleopatra]

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Ancient Warfare

Greek and Roman warfare. Essays. Texts. Pictures [Weapons and Warfare]

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Armamentarium: The Book of Roman Arms and Armour

glossary, search engine, bibliography, and more. [Weapons and Warfare]

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Armamentarium: The Book of Roman Arms and Armour

glossary, search engine, bibliography, and more. [Weapons and Warfare]

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Britannia: A Roman Military Bibliography

glossary, search engine, geography,opponent, weapon, and more. [Weapons and Warfare]

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DBM Miniatures Wargame Page

useful bibliography and related links [Weapons and Warfare]

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The Battle of Trasimeno

Hannibal's battle in text, maps, and pictures. [Weapons and Warfare]

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Core Values Internet Resource Library

Links to ancient weapons. [Weapons and Warfare]

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Brittanica Ancient Web sites

Provides vast resources chosen and rated by the editors [Ancient History]

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Attila the Hun

A biography of Attila in the context of his people and his time. ATTILA THE HUN BIOGRAPHY 406-453 Attila the Hun was an infamous, vicious barbarian King who attacked the Roman Empire and was so fierce he was named "THE SCOURGE OF GOD"! Attila the Hun was the legendary king of the Huns - a Mongoloid people who began invading the Roman Empire in the 300's. Attila was so furious in his attacks, he was named "SCOURGE OF GOD"! The Huns were originally from a tribe of Mongolians from Central Asia, who settled in the area known later as Hungary. Attila was born in 406 and in 434, at the age of 28, Attila succeeded his uncle as leader of the Huns. Attila at first ruled with his brother, Bleda, but murdered Bleda in 445 to take complete control. By the 5th Century, the Roman Empire was almost totally disintegrated and the Huns ruled a large empire. From 435 to 439, Attila conquered, pillaged and attacked his way through eastern and central Europe. The Eastern Emperor of the Byzantine empire was paying Attila an amount to keep the Huns from attacking his empire. But the emperor could not keep up the payments and Attila invaded the Byzantine Empires in 2 attacks in 441 and in 447. In 447, he led his horsemen to take over the Balkan Land, attacking Greece and threatening Constantinople, which was the center of the Roman Empire in the East. [People in History]

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Pelopennesian War (431-404 B.C.)

Wars and Military History

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The Punic Wars

During the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, three wars were fought between Rome and Carthage. The name Punic, which is used to describe them, is derived from the Latin and Greek words for Phoenician. The city of Carthage, located in what is now Tunisia in North Africa, had been founded in 814 BC by Phoenicians from Tyre in Lebanon. The first two wars were long, lasting for 23 years and 17 years, separated by an interval of 23 years. The third war lasted nearly three years. It started 52 years after the end of the second war. All three wars were won by Rome, which subsequently emerged as the greatest military power in the Mediterranean Sea. The enmity of Carthage impelled Rome to build up its large army and to create a strong navy. The great military leaders of the war for Carthage were Hamilcar Barca and his sons Hasdrubal and Hannibal. Rome's outstanding leaders were Scipio Africanus and his adopted grandson, Scipio Aemilianus. The first war saw Rome fighting to break Carthage's growing hold on the chain of islands that enable it to control the W Mediterranean. The second war directly pitted the ambitions of the two commercial powers; the initial area of conflict was Sicily. The last war was the final, desperate attempt of Carthage to preserve its freedom. Wars and Military History

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Military affairs in late antiquity

(bibliography supplied by Hugh Elton (Trinity College).

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Military affairs in late antiquity

Warfare in the Ancient World (BIBLIOGRAPHIES) Greece and Rome.

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The Roman Roads of the Mediterranean Region

Discover the different facets of the Roman roads in the Mediterranean region --The history, the geography, the practical and tourist information necessary. Engineering, Trade, Via Domitia; Via Egnatia; Via Flamina; Via Augusta; Roman roads; road; Roman; geography; climate; Languedoc; Roussillon; Mediterranean Sea; plain of Massif Central; shoreline; coast; lagoons; heathland; schist; granite; limestone; Pyrenees

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The Surgery of Ancient Rome

A Display of Surgical Instruments from Antiquity. Univ. of Virginia

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The Roman History

A history of ancient Rome from its founding to collapse including its leaders, emperors, philosophies and contribution to civilization

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The Roman army

Nowhere does the Roman talent for organization show itself so clearly as in its army. The story of the Roman army is an extensive one, demonstrated in part by the scale of this chapter. The first part of this chapter considers the history of the Roman army (concentrating on the legions), trying to explain as much background as possible. The later part of the chapter seeks to explain specific points such as various different units, the workings of the army, etc.

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Gaius Julius Caesar Coins

Gaius Julius Caesar rose from relative obscurity to supreme power in the late Roman republic. A brilliant general and formidable politician, he defeated all rivals to become dictator of Rome. Caesar achieved distinction relatively late in life. His early career is noteworthy for opposition of the aristocratic Senatorial conservatives in favor of the more "common" man. For years a protégé of the powerful and immensely wealthy Crassus, Caesar was able to capitalize on the rivalry of Crassus with the equally powerful Pompey. In 60 BC, the three men formed the First Triumvirate, a pact which effectively divided rule among them.

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Gaius Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (100 - 44 BCE) is the most famous Roman general and statesman, conqueror of Gaul (58 - 50 BCE) who brought about the effective end of the Republic. After building up an army in Gaul, Caesar marched against the Senate in 49 BCE, and defeated his rival Gnaeus Pompeus Magnus at the battle of Pharsalus. As dictator of Rome, he launched a series of political and social reforms before he was assasinated by a group of nobles in the Senate House on the Ides of March.

Julius Caesar : Youth (100 - 78 BCE) ... Julius Caesar : Politics (77 - 59 BCE) ... Julius Caesar : Gaul (58 - 50 BCE) ... Julius Caesar : Insurrection (49 - 48 BCE) ... Julius Caesar : Dictator (47 - 44 BCE) ... Julius Caesar : Reforms (47 - 44 BCE) ... Julius Caesar : Final Act (44 BCE) ... Julius Caesar : Epilogue (43 - 31 BCE) ... Julius Caesar : References ... Julius Caesar : Reading

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Every day life in Rome

Ancient Rome "" What was Daily Life Like? A day in Ancient Rome began with breakfast, and depending on whether you are upper class (patrician) or lower class (plebian), breakfast was dependent on what was affordable. After breakfast, adults might venture down to the Forum to do their shopping and banking. The Forum was the main marketplace and business center, as well as a place for public speaking, as ancient Romans were considered great orators. It was also used for festivals and religious ceremonies.

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Daily Life in Rome - Holidays and special days

Ancient Roman Holidays & Festivals at The Detective & the Toga.

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Religion

The Romans had a religion that had lots of gods: they were polytheists. They built buildings called temples to worship the gods. In the temples they had sacrifices to worship the gods. They believed that to worship a god you had to do it in exactly the right way to be heard by the gods. They had many gods. They had household gods such as Lar which was god of the house, They had a god called Janus which was for the doorway. There was also Vesta the goddess of households. The god Neptune was firstly god of fresh water but he then became god of the sea. The goddess of fertility was called Cybele. She was the symbol of earth. They made sacrifices and offered during that time. They used a flute player to drown the other sounds that could be heard. Every home had a shrine or altar so that they could pray without going to the temples. [ The Goddess Diana ] [ Mithraism ] [ Prometheus, creator of man ] [ Greek Mythology ]

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Ancient Roman Transportation

The streets in Rome and other large were crowded and narrow. Freight was delivered by wagons at night, as wagons were banned from the city by day because of the congestion. Travel within the cities was often done on foot by rich and poor alike. The proper way for a wealthy woman of Senatorial rank to travel was by carpentum, a large four wheel covered coach. [Ancient Rome]

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The great builders

[Ancient Rome]

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Art architecture and sculpture

The Romans developed or improved their art by copying the art from the Greeks for the statues. Statues were made from clay or marble. Metal was sometimes added to the statues so that they had added strenght. Statues were well made, were nude and they were made of gods or important leaders which were recognised . The fact that the statues had important people meant that they had to be done as well as possible since it was honouring their gods. [Ancient Rome]

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The Roman Baths

The Official Roman Baths Museum Web Site in the City of Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom, includes detailed information on Roman Britain, the Thermal Springs and an online Virtual Tour. [Ancient Rome]

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The Roman cities

[Ancient Rome]

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Rome: The Conquest of the Hellenistic Empires

While Rome was engaged in internal politics and the conquest of Italy, the Macedonian Greeks first conquered the Greek mainland and peninsula, and then, literally, the whole of the world. By 324 BC, when Rome still didn't control much of Italy and the city was still struggling with friction between the patricians and the plebeians, the entire world east of Rome, everything, was under the control of a single man, Alexander the Great. While there were numerous Greek cities on the Italian peninsula and while Rome was heavily influenced by Greek culture and thought, the Romans didn't seem to pay this ground-shaking development with much concern. Although the Hellenistic world fractured in pieces, nonetheless the end of the fourth century saw three great empires controlling the world east of Rome. The Romans, however, didn't seem overly concerned, occupied with problems of their own; the Romans, you see, were not particularly interested in world domination, but rather on their own immediate security. And the Hellenistic empires were not viewed as a threat. [Ancient Rome]

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Entertainment

[Ancient Rome]

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Slavery

[Ancient Rome]

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Pompeii

[Ancient Rome]

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Jerash, Jordan

Photos of Jerash, Jordan taken by Galen R. Frysinger

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Ancient City of Damascus

Founded in the 3rd millenium B.C. it is one of the oldest cities in the Middle East. In the Middle Ages Damascus was the centre of a flourishing artisan industry (swords and laces). Amongst the 125 monuments from the different periods of its history, the 8th-century Great Mosque of the Umajjades is one of the most spectacular, built on the site of an Assyrian sanctuary. [Ancient Rome]

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Latin phrases and their meaning

A collection of usual phrases in Latin, with their approximate meaning. Latin Mottos, Latin Phrases, Latin Quotes and Latin Sayings. [Ancient Rome]

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Latin Mottos, Latin Phrases, Latin Quotes and Latin Sayings

A collection of usual phrases in Latin, with their approximate meaning. [Ancient Rome]

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ANCIENT ROMAN EDUCATION

The children studied reading, writing, and counting. They read scrolls and books. They wrote on boards covered with wax, and used pebbles to do math problems. They were taught Roman numerals, and recited lessons they had memorized. [Ancient Rome]

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Characters of Greek Mythology

This site provides a description of the gods, goddesses, nymphs, creatures, etc. of Greek Mythology, as well as fun stuff like planets, constellations, word origins, mythical clipart, and beautiful artwork to aid the imagination! [People in History]

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The Punic Wars

Nicely done.

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Hannibal Crosses the Alps

Punic Wars. The crossing of the Alps was a heroic effort. Many classical authors told the story; the account by Livy is as good as any. The mountains themselves were dangerous, of course, but they were made even more dangerous by the fact that local tribes cheerfully fought anyone who entered their mountains, so Hannibal had to fight his way over the mountains. He arrived in Italy with only 26,000 men and about two dozen elephants. So, while it is true that Hannibal brought his elephants across the Alps, he did so only at great loss. Most died either at the Rhone or in the Alps.

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First Punic War (Chronology of Events)

First Punic War (264-241 B.C.) Barbara Saylor Rodgers

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First Punic War (Chronology of Events)

First Punic War (264-241 B.C.) Barbara Saylor Rodgers

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The Second Punic War

(218-202 BC). The Second Punic War, fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic from 218-202 BC, marked the end of major Carthaginian military opposition to Rome. The term "punic" comes from the Latin "poeni," which means "Phoenician" and refers to the Carthaginians. [North Park University]

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Silver Decadrachm (Chariot)

ca. 400&endash;375 BC Syracuse 29-126-41 "Racing four-horse chariot with a flying Nike personifying Victory crowning the driver. The space below is filled with captured Punic arms. This spectacular coin may commemorate the victory of Dionysius I over the Carthaginian general Himilcon and the deliverance of Syracuse from its Punic siege in 396 BC The reverse of the coin is signed by Euaenetus, one of the most renowned coin designers of antiquity. Commemorative types became especially popular in the Hellenistic period after Alexander´s death in 323 BC" Dia. 34.0 mm. Photo courtesy Public Information Office, Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum

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Three Roman Slave Rebellion

The First Servile War of 135""132 BC was an unsuccessful slave uprising against the Romans on the island of Sicily.

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SPARTACUS AND A DECLINE IN SLAVERY

A Roman soldier named Spartacus became an outlaw, perhaps after having deserted. For survival he joined drifters in bandit raids, and he was caught. For punishment, Roman authorities sold him as a slave. He became a prisoner at a training school for gladiator contests in the city of Capua. And there, in 73 BCE, he and seventy-seven other prisoners and slaves escaped and seized control of nearby Mount Vesuvius. As before, news of the revolt encouraged other slaves to revolt, and they joined Spartacus on Mount Vesuvius - an army of from fifty to a hundred thousand. Thus began what historians called the Third Servile War.

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Roman Pregnancy and Childbirth

Fertility,Pregnancy and Childbirth on the Coinage of Ancient Rome

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Women in Ancient Rome

The Augustan Reformation , Intrigue and the Emperor's Women , Julia, Daughter of Augustus , Justinian's Law as it Applied to Women and Families , Legal Status of Women in Ancient Rome , Vestal Virgins , Women and Marriage in Ancient Rome , Women and Slavery in Ancient Rome

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Tiberius Roman Emperor

The reign of Tiberius was damaged by treason trials, scandal, absence, indulgence, and his own personal orgies. The ancient writer Suetonius wrote many scandalous stories regarding Tiberius and his orgies, indulgences, and sadistic displays. Tiberius learned of the treachery of Sejanus in 31 A.D. and had him executed. Sometime around 30 A.D. Jesus of Nazareth was crucified under the rule of Sejanus' prefect, Pontius Pilate, a fact which was known by the Roman historian, Tacitus. © RomanEmperors.com

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Women of Ancient Rome: Biographies

Women of the Roman Empire 31 BCE to 395 CE. Information on their lives, plus biographies of some of the key women who wielded power during the Empire.

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Romans - Families and Children

KS2 history - Information on family, home and school life for the Romans, together with activities and a quiz.

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Roman Family Law and Traditions

Roman Law One of the greatest legacies of Rome is their legal system. The development of Roman law began with the Twelve Tables in the mid-fifth century B.C. During a period of over 1000 years, the Roman jurists created a rich literature about all aspects of law: property, marriage, guardianship and family, contracts, theft, and inheritance. Roman law laid the foundations for much of Western civil and criminal law. The Roman Family The family came first for the Romans, before all other obligations; such as, civil, politic, and military obligations. The family was the vehicle for transmission of moral character. The institution of the Roman family was strengthened by a healthiness, a solidarity, and a spirit of uprightness and self-restraint superior to that of perhaps all other ancient peoples. Roman families were very diverse. The Basis of Roman civil law was the familia, a group consisting of a head, the paterfamilias, and his descendants in the male line. Free members and slaves, all under the guardianship and control of the paterfamilias, were also part of the familia. Free members were the wives, unmarried children (biological and adopted) and other dependents. The members of the familia had no voice in the Curiae, yet they were subject to its decisions and laws, as well as to the decisions made on the family level by the patriarch.

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Women on Roman Coins

Part 1: Octavia to Crispina Part 2: Manlia Scantilla to Galeria Valeria Part 3: Helena to Aelia Verina

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Women In Medicine

The shift from female control to male involvement came about largely because men were suspicious of women's reproductive autonomy. Female patients described in the Hippocratic treatises, and for that matter, in Greek literature in general, were often suspect by men. A wife's potential to sabotage her husband's lineage was a great source of anxiety for men. Thus, women's struggle to control their own bodies was a volatile issue in antiquity, even as it is today.

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Roman Religion

Roman Religion, including Early Religion, Coming of the Foreign Gods, Religion of Numa, Priestly Colleges, the College of Vesta, Religion of the Family, Devotion, State Religion, Revival, and the Imperial Age.

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What the Roman Lady Wears

Roman Clothing. The women of the Roman Empire were not considered important like the men were. This social distinction left an impact on the female clothing.

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Myths & Legends

Quite exhaustive Myths and Mythology

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Origins of the Days of the Week

DAY of the Week Name Origin (Roman/Greek) Attribute Name Origin (Norse) Attribute
Sunday Sun's-day Helios: god of the sun prior to replacement by Apollo in late Greek and Roman mythology; Apollo: twin of Artemis; god of music, prophesy, poetry, healing, archery Sun's-day no known equivalent
Monday Moon's-day Selene: goddess of the moon prior to replacement by Artemis in late Greek and Roman mythology; Diana (Artemis):7: twin of Apollo; goddess of the hunt and the moon. Moon's-day no known equivalent
Tuesday Mars'-day Mars (Ares): god of war, battle rage and initiation; son of Zeus/Hera Tiw's-day Tiw (Tyr): god of battle and victory
Wednesday Mercury's-day Mercury (Hermes): god of commerce; Messenger of the gods; Trickster god; son of Zeus/Maia Woden's-day Woden/Wotan (Odin): Father and ruler of the gods and mortals; god of war, learning, poetry and the dead
Thursday Jupiter's (Jove's)-day Jupiter/Jove (Zeus): son of Kronos/Rhea; Supreme god, Lord of Heaven (Olympus) and mortals Thor's-day Thor: god of thunder and sky, and good crops; son of Odin and Frigg
Friday Venus's-day Venus (Aphrodite): goddess of sexual desire, love, beauty and procreation Frigg's (Friia's)-day Frigg (Friia): wife of Odin; great mother of the gods; goddess of married love
Saturday Saturn's-day Saturn (Kronos): god of fertility, agriculture, time; ruler of the Titans; father of first generation of Greek gods Saturn's-day no known equivalent

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Cleopatra of Egypt

Cleopatra of Egypt: From History to Myth, at The Field Museum. [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

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Warfare in Ancient Rome

[General Ancient War Links]

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The Seven Hills of Rome

Of Early Rome: Cermalus Cispius Fagutal Oppius Palatium Sucusa Velia Of Later Rome: Aventinus (Aventine) Caelius (Caelian) Capitolium (Capitoline) Esquiliae (Esquiline) Palatium (Palatine) Quirinalis (Quirinal) Viminalis (Viminal)

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Rome: Historical Background

The glorious Roman civilization had its origins in small groups of farmers and shepherds who settled along the banks of the Tiber, on the Palatine hills and the surrounding areas.

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The Roman Republic

from The Revolt against King Tarquin to Octavian the sole ruler of Rome. The Latin words res publica which are perhaps best translated as 'public affairs' are the source of today's term 'republic'. Before setting out on reading about the history of the Roman republic, please find here the various offices and assemblies which were created in order to rule of the Roman state.

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The Organization of the Roman Republic

The Romans never had a written constitution, but their form of their government, especially from the time of the passage of the lex Hortensia (287 B.C.), roughly parallels the modern American division of executive, legislative, and judical branches, although the senate doesn't neatly fit any of these categories. What follows is a fairly traditional, Mommsenian reconstruction, though at this level of detail most of the facts (if not the significance of, e.g., the patrician/plebian distinction) are not too controversial. One should be aware, however, of the difficulties surrounding the understanding of forms of government (as well as most other issues) during the first two centuries of the Republic.

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The First Triumvirate - Pompey, Crassus, Caesar

Although Sulla gets credit from moderns for resigning his dictatorship, the measures he undertook to ensure that the Republican system would continue to work were not adequate. Things had gone too far; all of the ominous trends which we have noticed in the previous two lectures, i.e political violence in the city, armies whose loyalty belonged in the first instance to individual commanders and only secondarily to the state itself, agitation for land distributions, and threats to the traditional prerogatives of the Senate, all these intensify in this period. [David L. Silverman] Classics 373

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The Jewish Diaspora: Rome

The Jewish community in the Roman Diaspora dates back to the second century BCE and was comparatively large. Several synagogues and catacombs are known. After the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, the community remained at some distance from the new, rabbinical Judaism of Judaeae, maintaining several archaic traits. The history of the Jewish community of ancient Rome is known from several classical, Latin and Greek sources. Some additional information on cult practices can be found in the Talmud. The inscriptions found in the catacombs are valuable sources of information on the synagogues.

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The triumvirate

Britannica online encyclopedia article on triumvirate:in ancient Rome, a board of three officials. There were several types: Tresviri capitales, or tresviri nocturni, first instituted about 289 bc, assisted higher magistrates in their judicial functions, especially those relating to crime and the civil status of citizens.

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The History of Rome - Part One 743 - 136 B.C.

From the Dawn of Rome to the Third Punic War.

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The Mistresses and Prostitutes in Ancient Rome

Ancient Roman Prostitutes, harlots, and brothels - Notes on Roman Prostitutes from the Satyricon."

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Ancient Rome Daily Life

Ancient Rome for Kids

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COOKING FOR THE GODS

The research coordinator and research associate at The University of Pennsylvania for this project have been Michael W. Meister and Pika Ghosh; the curator at the Newark Museum is Valrae Renolds; the exhibition draws on the Nalin collection in the Newark Museum and on the generous gifts of Dr. David Nalin to the University of Pennsylvania for preparation of the exhibition. Photographs are courtesy of Dr. Nalin.

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MEALTIME IN THE ROMAN HOUSE

AGE, GENDER, AND STATUS DIVISIONS AT MEALTIME IN THE ROMAN HOUSE: a synopsis of the literary evidence. From: Pedar W. Foss, "Kitchens and Dining Rooms at Pompeii: the spatial and social relationship of cooking to eating in the Roman household.

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Sample Plan of a Roman House

This reconstructed model of the House of the Tragic Poet in Pompeii shows the exterior of the house from the front, the back and one side. Click here for a cut-away drawing of a domus.

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Every day life in Rome

The Baths Entertainment Breakfast Siesta/Lunch Roman Families Clothing/Hair Styles Roman Houses Weddings The Forum Toys & Games Life in the Country School! Dinner Time Great Builders

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The Roman amphitheatre

The Roman amphitheatre was the centre of entertainment in Rome, and all over the Roman Empire. Ruins of amphitheaters can be found all over the empire . The largest amphitheatre in the empire was the Colosseum. It could seat up to 50,000 people at once. The amphitheatre was the place where people went to see fights. These fights were between slaves, prisoners of war or criminals, and sometimes wild animals.These fights were so popular that schools were set up to train ordinary men as special fighters known as Gladiators This idea once started out as entertainment at funerals.Two fighters would begin and the crowd would watch. Eventually the crowds got so big, they had to build a place to hold them. This was not only the reason for building the amphitheatre. When the democratic system was changed to an imperial one, the emperors needed a way to keep the people happy, although they had lost the right to vote. The fights fulfilled this role. From the ruins of the Colosseum, archaeologists have put together an idea of what happend at these fights.

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The Johns (toilets) of Rome

This picture shows part of bank of toilet seats in public bathroom serving both the Roman Arena and the Roman theatre in Merida (Augustus Emeritus), Spain. This city was known as a retirement community for Roman military in Spain (it was the city from which Gladiator's Maximus supposedly hailed). Toilets were against wall, base of which is visible. This area of ruins was full of water channels for fresh and sewer water. ~Dan Reynolds

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Greek and Roman Sculpture in Rome

Images. Not many words needed, the beauty speaks for itself. Examples of Greek and Roman sculptures, All in Roman Museums

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Mr. Donn Ancient Rome Daily Life

Introduction The Baths Entertainment Breakfast Siesta/Lunch Roman Families Clothing/Hair Styles Roman Houses Weddings The Forum Toys & Games Life in the Country School! Dinner Time Great Builders [for kids] Lin and Don Donn

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RomanSites Home Page

Architecture Aqueducts Baths Buildings & Homes Calendar Clocks Clothing - Hair Styles Coins - Numismatics Culture Education Family - Marriage Food Language - Alphabet - Writing Medicine - Surgery Recreation - Sports & Games - Gladiators Roads Transportation Science - Technology Slavery Tattoo Volcanoes Mythology Gods And Goddesses Art & Artists - Glass Theaters Libraries Literature - Dramas - Epics - Mime - Livy - Naevius - More Rise And Fall Of The Roman Empire Roman Kings Law & Government Politics Julius Caesar Emporers Empresses - Women Military Navy Punic Wars Antioch Byzantine Empire Carthage Etruscans Religion Popes Christianity Mithraism Philosophy Current Archaeological Discoveries

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Baylor University : Classics Department

Baylor University, Waco, Texas

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ROMARCH: Roman art and archaeology

The ROMARCH pages are the original crossroads for Web resources on the art and archaeology of Italy and the Roman provinces, ca. 1000 BC - AD 700. ROMARCH is sponsored by the Department of Classics and the Interdepartmental Program in Classical Art and Archaeology (IPCAA) at the University of Michigan.

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Roman Emperors

Images, photos, busts, statues, coins, information and more about the Roman Emperors.

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Forum Romanum

Forum Romanum is a collaborative project among scholars, teachers, and students with the broad purpose of bringing classical literature out of college libraries and into a more accessible, online medium. Toward this end, we host a number of materials for students of the classical world, including texts, translations, and other pedagogical resources.

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The Roman Empire at its Greatest Extent

This map of the Roman Empire was scanned from pages 16 & 17 of a 1925 reprint of the 1907 Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography in the Everyman Library, published by J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd. and is, by Canadian copyright law, in the public domain, to the best of my knowledge.

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Heart of Wisdom Rome Links

WWW-VL HISTORY: ANCIENT ROME GENERAL SITES

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RomanSites - History

Greek and Roman History Links, Documents, Notes

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Electronic Resources in Classical Studies

Internet Resources by Subject. Art and Archaeology: Epigraphy: Geography: Greek and Latin Authors History Language Mythology and Religion Numismatics Paleography Papyrology Philosophy Science and Medicine Theatre and Drama Women Full-Text Databases Electronic Journal Web Sites Images and Exhibits Discussion Groups Organizations and Individuals Academic Programs in Classics Software in Classics, For Fun. The University Library, University of California, Davis

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Graffiti From the Walls of Pompeii

Each inscription begins with a reference to where it was found (region.insula.door number). The second number is the reference to the publication of the inscription in the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Volume 4.

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Roman Slavery

Other slaves were forced to work deep underground in the mines, getting gold or silver or copper or iron or tin for the Roman government. They also suffered and died after just a few years. The Roman government, and private traders, owned many men who rowed ships as slaves, often chained to their oars. Many of these men were sentenced to the mines or to the ships because they were criminals. We don't use men to power ships anymore, and we don't send criminals to the mines, but miners still have difficult and very dangerous work.

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About The Everyday Lives Of Roman Slaves

Although some information survives to us about Roman slavery, and due to archeological conquests, a great deal of knowledge can be gathered about the general slave system, little is known about the everyday lives of slaves. However, enough is known to give general overview of slave`s lives. It is understood that slaves performed a wide variety of different jobs, ranging from economic to field labor roles, to being forced into gladiatorial combat like Spartacus. [Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y]

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SLAVE-MISTRESS RELATIONSHIPS

"Marriage more shameful than adultery": slave-mistress relationships, "mixed marriages," and late roman law. JUDITH EVANS-GRUBBS

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Biography of Hannibal of Carthage

In 218 B.C., Hannibal of Carthage, 28, set off from Spain with 90,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry (estimates run as high as 40,000) and "a number of elephants"--the usual guess is 40. His goal was to besiege Rome by crossing the French Alps and entering Italy from the north through the Po River Valley.

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Rome: The Punic Wars

The seventh chapter of the learning module, Rome; this chapter narrates the history of the three conflicts between Rome and Carthage which left Rome in control of the Carthaginian Empire. [Richard Hooker]

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The Punic Wars

A Retelling of the Struggle between Rome and Carthage

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The Aeneid of Virgil

The Aeneid By Virgil Written 19 B.C.E Translated by John Dryden

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German Tribes Invaded the Roman Empire

German Tribes invaded the Roman Empire and the Slavs occupied the Illyrian Provinces.

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Changing Concept of Roman Weapons and Tactics

Development of the Roman Legion from the late Republic to the height of the Empire. Campaigns and battles. Tactics and weapons of the Roman armies. Siege warfare / fortification. Profiles of the greatest military commanders. [Warfare] [Rome]

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Roman Military Sites in Britain

Legionary Forts Vexillation Forts Auxiliary Forts Marching Camps Fortlets Stations/Towers Practice Works

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Roman Military Glossary

actuarius, ala(e), ala quingenaria, ala milliaria, armamentarium, Armilustrium, ascensi, auguratorium, Campestres, campus, cardo decumanus, cardo maximus, carnarium, cella, centuria , centurio, cippi, clavicula, contubernium, cornicularius, custos armorum, fabrica, Feriale Duranum, fossae, fossa fastigata, fossa punica, groma, gyrus, horrea, immunes, intervallum, latera praetorii, legatus, liberarii, lilia, papilio(nes), portae, porta decumana, porta praetoria, portae principales, portae quintanae, praefectus alae, praefectus annonae, praefectus castrorum, praefectus cohortis, praefectus praetorio, praefectus urbi, praefectus vigilum, praetentura, praetorium, principia, quaestorium, retentura, sacellum, scholae, signa, signifer(i), stabulum, tabularium, tertiata, thermae, titulum, tolleno, tribunal, turma(e), valetudinarium, vallum, veterinarium, viae, via decumana, via praetoria, via principalis, via quintana, via sagularis, viae vicinariae, vivarium

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The Roman Army

Nowhere does the Roman talent for organization show itself so clearly as in its army. The story of the Roman army is an extensive one, demonstrated in part by the scale of this chapter. The first part of this chapter considers the history of the Roman army (concentrating on the legions), trying to explain as much background as possible. The later part of the chapter seeks to explain specific points such as various different units, the workings of the army, etc.

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Warfare in Roman Europe

Book. Despite the importance of warfare in the collapse of the Roman Empire, there is no modern, comprehensive study available. This book discusses the practice of warfare in Europe, from both Roman and barbarian perspectives, in the late fourth and early fifth centuries. It analyses the military practices and capabilities of the Romans and their northern enemies at policy, strategic, operational, and tactical levels, and covers civil wars, sieges, and naval warfare. Dr Elton analyses in depth the issue of barbarization, and shows that it did not affect the efficiency of the Roman army. Other sections of the book discuss organization, fortifications, and equipment.

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Collapse of the Roman Empire - Military Aspects

Modern historians explain the collapse of the western Roman empire in the fourth and fifth centuries in one of two ways. One group follows an institutional approach, which finds the reasons in the long-term and looks closely at internal structures. A second group has adopted a political approach and looks at short term causes of collapse. Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean. Hugh Elton

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Management Plan for the Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site

Hadrian's Wall and its associated features are the most complex and best preserved of all the frontier works of the Roman Empire comprising the Wall itself, the Vallum, which probably marked the rear edge of the Wall zone, 16 forts (surrounded by civilian settlements) along or near the Wall, the Roman towns of Carlisle and Corbridge lying behind the Wall, and outpost forts protecting the approaches from the north. There are also many earlier Roman military works such as marching camps and permanent bases along the east-west Stanegate road which may itself have begun as a control line before the decision was taken to build the Wall. The landscape of the Tyne-Solway isthmus is very varied. In the east, on Tyneside, the setting of the Wall is predominantly urban. In east Northumberland, the country is mainly arable and open while in the central sector the ground rises to over 300 metres above sea level and the land-use is pastoral. East Cumbria too is pastoral, except for the built-up areas of the City of Carlisle. West of Carlisle, the landscape changes again as the defences run along the edge of the Solway tidal marshes, and there are further differences along the west Cumbrian coast, part open, part industrial and urban.

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Roman Military Forts and Camps

The Roman Military in Britain. The Roman fortification, whether it was a temporary overnight camp in enemy territory, an auxilliary outpost fort set to guard a strategic location, or a large fortress to garrison the might of the Roman legions, all were posessed of an internal layout which almost invariably followed the same basic pattern. A Roman camp was always enclosed by a defensive system comprising at least three components; 1. At least one ditch or fosse. 2. An inner rampart or agger containing the ditch outcast. 3. A palisade or vallum surmounting the rampart.

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ARMAMENTARIVM: the Book of Roman Arms and Armour

A dynamic illustrated source book about Roman military equipment.

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Reenactment Roman army

Online community of students and enthusiasts of the ancient Roman Army. We aim to provide an encyclopedia about the Roman military, a translation of Ritterling's classic article 'Legio', a travelogue section and a database of images of Roman military tombstones with the picture of the soldier on it.

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Warfare in the Roman World

Topics covered on this site: Ancient Rome Medieval England Tudor England Stuart England Britain 1700 to 1900 World War One World War Two The role of British women in the Twentieth Century Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany Inventions and Discoveries of the Twentieth Century

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The Development of the Roman Empire

The most marvelous witnesses to the character of Roman civilization are the Roman ruins east of the Jordan in Syria.

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The Siege of Masada

Flavius Josephus - AD 72 [text]

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The Hunterian Museum: Romans in Scotland

This exhibition tells the story of the Roman presence in Scotland in the first and second centuries AD, with emphasis on the Antonine Wall frontier and the life lived by the soldiers based in forts along its line.

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Barbarization in the Late Roman Army

Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean. The term `barbarization` is used to describe the use of soldiers whose origins were outside the Roman Empire in the late Roman army.

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Gaul -- Encarta® Concise Encyclopedia Article

Gaul (Latin Gallia), ancient Roman designation of that portion of western Europe which is substantially identical with France, although extending beyond the boundaries of the modern country. It was bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Pyrenees Mountains and the Mediterranean Sea, on the north by the English Channel, and on the east by the Alps and the Rhine River. The inhabitants, called the Gauls (Latin Galli), were among the most prominent of Celtic peoples and played an important role in the ethnic distribution of the early peoples of Europe. The first historic mention of Gaul occurs about 600 BC, when Phocaean Greeks founded the colony of Massalia (Marseille) on the southern coast. Greeks of a later period called the country Galatia, which in Roman times became Gallia.

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The Gracchi

Tiberius Gracchus, Gaius Gracchus. The importance of the two Gracchan episodes can not be underestimated.

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Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix

(b. 138 BC - d. 78 BC, Puteoli), was the great Roman general who as dictator carried out remarkable constitutional reforms in an attempt to preserve the Republic, and reinforce the traditional power of the Senate. Yet in spite of these reforms, his most lasting impact was not the preservation of the Republic, but its destruction. For in the precedent of his dictatorship and his march on Rome, he paved the way for Julius Caesar and the rise of the Imperial Monarchy.

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Marius and Sulla

The domestic political scene during the period in between the death of Gaius Gracchus and the dictatorship of L. Cornelius Sulla, 120-81 BC. The ancient sources see the political situation in this period as ever more factionalized, with politicians belonging to one of two parties, optimates or populares.

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HWC, The Fall of the Republic

In this chapter, the lives and impact of Caesar, Octavian, Antonius (Antony) and even Cleopatra, along with the continuing stories of men like Pompey, Crassus and Cicero will be examined. The Fall of the Republic was more than a single man or event. It was a culmination of several individual actions or achievements, coupled with social conditions that weighed heavily on Roman society. Additionally, massive and rapid expansion from Rome's foundation as a fledgling city 700 years earlier until the mid 1st century BC, created monumental holes in the political and governing ability of the Senate. Periods of stability were mixed in with those of near collapse while powerful generals or inciters of the Roman mob jockeyed for position.

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Gaius Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (100 - 44 BCE) is the most famous Roman general and statesman, conqueror of Gaul (58 - 50 BCE) who brought about the effective end of the Republic. After building up an army in Gaul, Caesar marched against the Senate in 49 BCE, and defeated his rival Gnaeus Pompeus Magnus at the battle of Pharsalus. As dictator of Rome, he launched a series of political and social reforms before he was assasinated by a group of nobles in the Senate House on the Ides of March.

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The reign of Tiberius

TIBERIUS, AN UNPOPULAR BUT ABLE RULER. The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. [[1]] In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

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The Roman Empire

The Roman Army Roman Emperors Roman Clothing Roman Roads Roman Houses Women Gladiators Theatre Amphitheatre Map of Empire Trade The Collaseum Education Public Baths Chariot Racing Numerals Calendar Signs of Zodiac Cooking Aquaducts

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Timeline of the Roman Empire

THE CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

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ROMAN EMPIRE AND DICTATORSHIP

ROME INTERVENES ABROAD. Frank E. Smitha [Roman Empire, Republic and Politics by Violence]

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JUDAEA AND CIVIL WAR

REVOLT, INDEPENDENCE, AND RELIGIOUS DIVISIONS. Frank E. Smitha

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Caesar Augustus

Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus Born: 23-Sep-63 BC Birthplace: Rome, Italy Died: 19-Aug-14 AD Location of death: Nola, Italy Cause of death: unspecified Gender: Male Race or Ethnicity: White Sexual orientation: Straight Occupation: Royalty Nationality: Ancient Rome Executive summary: Roman Emperor, 23 BC to 14 AD Augustus (from augeo, increase, venerable, majestic), the title given by the Roman senate, on the 17th of January 27 BC, to Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, or as he was originally designated, Gaius Octavius, in recognition of his eminent services to the state, and borne by him as the first of the Roman emperors. The title was adopted by all the succeeding Caesars or emperors of Rome long after they had ceased to be connected by blood with the first Augustus.

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The reign of Augustus as Emperor

Augustus had won the war, but the question (a question I think Vergil had) was whether he could win the peace.

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Augustus Caesar on Roman Emperors

27 years before Jesus Christ was born, the Senate of Rome bestowed upon Octavian the title Augustus. Augustus became the first "Emperor", which comes from the military title imperator. In actuality he became no more than first senator, but he skillfully combined within himself all the powers of consul, tribune, and other offices, and he really had no rival.

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Collapse of the Roman Empire - Military Aspects

Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean. Modern historians explain the collapse of the western Roman empire in the fourth and fifth centuries in one of two ways. One group follows an institutional approach, which finds the reasons in the long-term and looks closely at internal structures. A second group has adopted a political approach and looks at short term causes of collapse. Hugh Elton.

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Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

Detailed Table of Contents (with links to quotations). The "Best of" Edward Gibbon`s

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Bibliomania: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

Full text of History of The Decline And Fall of The Roman Empire by Gibbon

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Why Rome Fell

Western New England College.

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Romans

Important People / Main Events / Town Tour / Web Links A Child's Life / Military / Art & Craft / Fun & Games

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The Roman Empire

Aenas Ascanius Aggripina Augustus Bathhouses Caesar, Julius Caligula Claudius Clientes Colosseum Domus Food and games Forum Romanum Gladiators Houses Ilium Imperator Insulae Iulian - Claudian House Jesus of Nazareth Julius Caesar Nero Octavianus Paedagogus Patriciër Patronus Pax Romana Roads Salutatio Seianus Senate Senators Sportula Storage accommodations of the villa-complex Tiberius Toga candida Toga picta Toga praetexta Toga virilis Troy Veni, vidi, vici Villa-complex Villa rustica Villa urbana Vitruvius

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Timeline of the Roman Empire

A comprehensive timeline of the Roman Empire.

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Link to Ancient Rome

History Link 101's Ancient Rome page connects you to the best of Art, Biographies, Daily Life, Maps, Pictures, and Research on Rome.

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Romans

KS2 history - Information and activities on the Romans and the Roman Empire

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The Roman History

Roman History The Land and People The Etruscans The Roman Kingdom The Roman Republic The Conquest of Italy The Punic Wars The Conquest of the Hellenistic Empires The Republican Crisis Julius Caesar Augustus Imperial Rome, 14-180 AD The Calamitious Century. 180-284 AD The Late Empire

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Pax Romana Home Page

Starting with the reign of Augustus and ending with that of Marcus Aurelius was a period of Roman peace that is known as the Pax Romana (literally "The Roman Peace"). Its stand-out characteristic is the polyglot origins of its emperors (known as the "five good emperors" who ruled between 96 and 18 A.C.E. and then the Severan dynasty until 235 A.C.E.). The tranquility spread throughout the Mediterranean world (as far as North Africa and Persia). Every province was protected and governed (with their own laws as long as they accepted Roman taxation and military control). This period of change spanned over 200 years; throughout the large empire there was unity, peace and national stability for all of the Romans.

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Ancient Roman Civilization Links

Roman Archaeology - Roman Pottery - Roman Medicine - Roman Houses

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Roman and Latin

Latin was brought to Italy about 1000 BC by Indo-European immigrants from Northern Europe. It began, as all languages do, as an isolated local tongue of a small territory on the Tiber River called Latium. As the people in Latium developed into an organized community, the city of Rome was eventually founded in, according to legend, 753 BC.

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Latin Quotes and Phrases

Over 1,900 Latin Mottos, Latin Phrases, Latin Quotes and Latin Sayings with English Translations. Bis vivit qui bene vivit He lives twice who lives well.

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Steel in Ancient Greece and Rome

The melting point of pure iron is 1540°C. Landels points that even by Roman times European furnaces were not producing heat much over 1100°C[9]. Smelting of iron, unlike the smelting of the lower melting point metals, copper, zinc and tin, did not involve the iron turning to the liquid state. Instead, it was a solid state conversion requiring chemical reduction of the ore. Ore was placed in a pit and mixed in a hot charcoal fire. Air was forced into the dome covered structure via bellows through a fireproof clay nozzle called a tuyere. After a sustained temperature of 1100°-1200°C, slag (oxidised non-metallics) fell to the bottom leaving the spongy mass containing the iron. Holes forming the sponge texture were a result of the removal of the non-metallics when the slag melted out. The spongy mass is called a bloom by some[10, 11]. This spongy mass was then pounded, usually while still hot, and more slag dropped out as the metal was concentrated into a denser mass. The pounded metal was called wrought iron.

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Roman Health and Medicine

Ancient Roman medicine was a combination of some limited scientific knowledge, and a deeply rooted religious and mythological system.

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Antiqua medicina: Etruscan and Roman Medicine

Pliny, in his Natural History, says that the first doctor (medicus) to come to Rome was Arcagathus. He arrived from the Greek Peloponnese in 219 BCE and was well received. Arcagathus was accorded the rights of citizenship and a medical shop was set up at state expense for his use. Prior to this time, Rome had no physicians and only home remedies were used. Because Arcagathus was an expert wound surgeon (uulnerarius), he immediately became popular; however, his popularity did not last. His vigorous use of the knife and cautery soon earned him the title "Executioner"(Carnifex). Over 100 years lapsed before we hear that another Greek physician (Asclepiades of Bithynia, ca. 100 BCE) had taken up residence in Rome.

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Antiqua Medicina: Surgery

Surgery and Surgical Instruments. Recovered surgical instruments used during the Roman Empire indicate that the art of surgery progressed and proliferated greatly during this time. Both Galen and Celsus emphasized the importance of surgery in the training of the conscientious physician, although they came from divergent medical traditions (Celsus, prooemium VII; Galen, II, 272). Technical competence in surgery became better as new medical tools were devised. New metals and alloys were found to provide sharper edges and cheaper equipment. Most instruments were made of bronze, or occasionally of silver. Iron was rarely used because, as in most ancient cultures, it was considered a religious taboo by both the Greeks and Romans. The full repertoire of Roman surgical equipment is still far from completely known.

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Antiqua Medicina: The Doctor in Roman Society

As a profession, medicine was more highly regarded in Greece than in Rome. Physicians were basically craftsmen, probably enjoying some esteem among their customers, but not being part of the socio-political elite. Roman doctors did not fare so well. Many doctors were freed Greek slaves, hence the social standing of doctors was quite low. Because recovery rates were so low, many people were skeptical or even scornful of doctors. Their skepticism is easily understood. Roman literature tells us much about the reactions of individuals to medicine and doctors. Listening to the Roman authors, we hear tales of quackery and chicanery at all levels of society. There were no licensing boards and no formal requirements for entrance to the profession. Anyone could call himself a doctor. If his methods were successful, he attracted more patients; if not, he found himself another profession. Medical training consisted mostly of apprentice work. Men trained as doctors by following around another doctor. Plutarch grumbles that practitioners used all sorts of questionable methods to gain patients, ranging from escorting the prospective patient home from bars to sharing dirty jokes with him.

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SLAVE-MISTRESS RELATIONSHIPS

"Marriage more shameful than adultery": slave-mistress relationships, "mixed marriages," and late roman law. JUDITH EVANS-GRUBBS

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The Deification of Roman Women

The Deification of Roman Women Marleen B. Flory (Gustavus Adolphus College) The Ancient History Bulletin 9.3-4 (1995) 127-134

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The FORUM ROMANUM - The Centre of Power

The Forum Romanum, the Roman name for what we usually call the Roman Forum, was the place where the victorious legions held their triumphal marches, where the deaths of famous persons were made public, where the corpses of emperors were burned, where the heads of emperors rolled, in short the centre of power of the Roman empire. At this web site you find a description of the Roman Forum between 100 BC and 100 AD. The Roman Forum was the centre of ancient Rome. At this web site the Forum is the centre of exploration. It will be the starting point for a great variety of wanderings. Many interesting aspects of Rome and its inhabitants can be met. Descriptions and views of many historic buildings can be found. The most important social, political, cultural and religious functions of the Roman Forum are dealt with. Attention is paid to the celebrities of that time and the roles they played in public life. All this is put against the background of the Roman Forum. The site presents emperors, senators, writers, artists and architects. Those works of art that originate in the Roman Forum but that are to be found in various museums are presented as well.

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Hellenistic / Roman Religion & Philosophy

The Jewish Roman World of Jesus. Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls | Christian Origins and the New Testament Ancient Judaism. James D. Tabor

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Ancient Roman Education

In the early Roman society, before the 6th century BC, children were taught by their parents. The mothers taught their daughters to do housework and anything else the mothers thought might be useful for their daughters to know. The mothers also taught their sons before the age of seven. After the age of seven, boys moved under the control of their fathers. The father would decide what his son needed to know in order to succeed in life, and would give his son lessons. Learning by following examples was considered important, so the son accompanied his father on all important occasions.Later in the history, Romans adopted Greek educations principals. By then, Greek was the international language spoken by many Roman neighbors. From the 2nd century BC a Roman was considered fully educated only if he received the same education as a native Greek in parallel with instructions in Latin.

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Roman Children

As soon as a child was born, it was laid at its father's feet. If he raised the child in his arms, he was acknowledging as his own and admitting it to all rights and privileges of membership in a Roman family. If he did not take it out, the child was an outcast, without family or protection. If a child was to be disposed of, it was exposed; that is, taken from the house by a slave and left by the roadside. This likely did not often occur. No actual instances of exposure are known during the Republic.

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The Re-Creation of a Young Roman Girl

At seven years old this young, upper-class1 Roman girl, daughter of a prominent political figure, is posing for a portrait of her face. Her father is demanding her whole family have one done so that everyone can see their family displayed for years to come. As predicted by her father, Roman art historians are very interested in these portraits and the past they represent. In 1998 this bust is a rare and exceptional find among art collectors. This portrait is now one of twenty-one sculptures found in the Riley Collection of Roman Portrait Sculpture at the Cedar Rapids Museum of Art.

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Roman Boys becoming Men

Did young people in ancient times with their responsible public functions mature earlier, or were they fickle, sometimes idealistic, adolescents? In the book Jeugd in het Romeinse Rijk (Young People in the Roman Empire), Leiden historian Johan Strubbe and his colleague from Leuven, Christian Laes, analyse a current debate. Do literary sources and inscriptions contradict one another?

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Roman Holidays

The ludi were not holidays (feriae), as such, although they did have their origins in religion and ritual, and the days of their celebration were considered dies festi. The oldest and most famous of the public games were the Ludi Romani (Roman Games), which originally were vowed in honor of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, whose temple was dedicated on September 13, 509 BC, as a votive offering if victory were won in battle. They were celebrated in the Circus Maximus following the triumphal procession (pompa) from the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitol. By 366 BC, they had become an annual event, no longer associated with the triumph, and were held for several weeks in September.

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School Time and Play Time for Roman Children

Most Roman kids did not go to school. Like their parents, they worked in the fields hoeing and weeding and plowing as soon as they were old enough. Their parents needed them to work, to get enough to eat. They did not learn to read or write or do math.

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Roman Gods and Goddesses of Children and Childhood

Gregory Flood's Roman Gods and Goddesses.

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Family Values in Ancient Rome

The Romans had their own evolutionary story about family mores, and it had nothing to do with the invention of affection, which they took to be natural and eternal in the family. However, their story did contain elements of the decline of paternal authority and the stable family. Roman authors--all men--often lamented that in the late Republic wives no longer played the ideal role that they had fulfilled for centuries. According to the Roman writers of the first century BCE and first century CE, divorce became increasingly frequent after 200 BCE, initiated easily by the husband or the wife. In addition, wives had their own property, which they could sell, give away or bequeath as they liked. As a result, women became more liberated and less dependent on their husbands. In fact, by the late Republic a rich wife who could divorce and take her wealth with her had a real threat against her husband and could wield influence over him. The sense of independence also showed up in increasing sexual promiscuity and adultery.

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TRAJAN'S ROME: The Man, the City, the Empire

Produced in conjunction with the Getty Education Institute for the Arts, this unit's six lessons use both primary source texts and the visual arts to situate Roman art in a broader context of social, cultural, and political meaning. Grades 6""9. National Center for History in the Schools, 139 pages.

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History House: Stories: Circus Maximus-Rome's Astrodome

The races were on, a type of spectacle which has never had the slightest attraction for me. I can find nothing new or different in them: once seen is enough, so it surprises me all the more that so many thousands of adult men should have such a childish passion for watching galloping horses and drivers standing in chariots, over and over again.... When I think how this futile, tedious, monotonous business can keep them sitting endlessly in their seats, I take pleasure in the fact that their pleasure is not mine. And I have been very glad to fill my idle hours with literary work during these days which others have wasted in the idlest occupations. - Pliny the Younger

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Scipio Africanus Personality

Scipio Africanus : Princeps (200 - 190 BCE). "It was said that the people had once been rebuked by Scipio for wishing tomake him consul for an indefinite period and dictator; that he had forbidden the erection of statues to himself in the Comitium, on the Rostra, in the Curia, on the Capitol, in the shrine of Jupiter; that he had also forbidden a decree that a likeness of himself in in triumphal costume should be represented coming out of the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus." - Livy, The History of Rome from its Foundation XXVIII.57

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The Roman Navy

The Roman navy was very much inferior, both in prestige and capability, to the Roman army. Before the First Punic War in 264 BC there was no Roman navy to speak of as all previous Roman war had been fought in Italy. But the war in Sicily against Carthage, a great naval power, forced Rome to quickly build a fleet and train sailors. The first few naval battles of the First Punic War were disasters for Rome, and it was not until the invention of the Corvus, a grappling engine which made it easier for Romans to board the Carthaginian vessels, that Rome was able to win the war. This meant that Rome could use her superior army in naval combat, and was a significant shift away from the tactics of all other navies at the time. Rome was able to use her superior army in preference to her navy in most of the wars she fought afterwards. By the late Empire Roman control over the Mediterranean coast meant that there were no non-Roman navies to fight. Indeed, Rome's last major naval battle was fought between Romans, Octavian and Marc Antony, at Actium. However, she still maintained a large navy which patrolled not just the Mediterranean, but the various major rivers in the empire. Although the quality of the navy did degrade into the later imperial period, emperors such as Diocletian put significant effort into rebuilding the navy. The average estimate of manpower strength of the navy ranges from 50,000-100,000.

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Roman Navy

The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis) operated between the First Punic war and the end of the Western Roman Empire. History and Evolution The Roman navy was very much inferior, both in prestige and capability, to the Roman army. Before the First Punic War in 264 BC there was no Roman navy to speak of as all previous Roman war had been fought in Italy. But the war in Sicily against Carthage, a great naval power, forced Rome to quickly build a fleet and train sailors. The first few naval battles of the First Punic War were disasters for Rome, and it was not until the invention of the Corvus, a grappling engine which made it easier for Romans to board the Carthaginian vessels, that Rome was able to win the war. This meant that Rome could use her superior army in naval combat, and was a significant shift away from the tactics of all other navies at the time. Rome was able to use her superior army in preference to her navy in most of the wars she fought afterwards. By the late Empire Roman control over the Mediterranean coast meant that there were no non-Roman navies to fight. Indeed, Rome's last major naval battle was fought between Romans, Octavian and Marc Antony, at Actium. However, she still maintained a large navy which patrolled not just the Mediterranean, but the various major rivers in the empire. Although the quality of the navy did degrade into the later imperial period, emperors such as Diocletian put significant effort into rebuilding the navy. The average estimate of manpower strength of the navy ranges from 50,000-100,000.

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List of Roman Emperors

From Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Augustus) to Flavius Anastasius

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A Visual Compendium of Roman Emperors

The goal of this page is to present an illustrated list of Roman Emperors. While I was in Rome In July of 1995 the idea for this page hit me at some point in the Vatican museum. I had seen lists of emperors on the net and I figured these lists would be much more interesting if they had pictures as well. Thus, I tried to snap pics of as many emperors as I could find in various museums.

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Family Rule frm Tiberius to Nero

TIBERIUS, AN UNPOPULAR BUT ABLE RULER. Frank E. Smitha

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De Imperatoribus Romanis: Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

DIR is an on-line encyclopedia on the rulers of the Roman empire from Augustus (27 BC-AD 14) to Constantine XI Palaeologus (1449-1453). The encyclopedia consists of (1) an index of all the emperors who ruled during the empire`s 1500 years, (2) a growing number of biographical essays on the individual emperors, (3) family trees ("stemmata") of important imperial dynasties, (4) an index of significant battles in the empire`s history, (5) a growing number of capsule descriptions and maps of these battles, and (6) maps of the empire at different times. Wherever possible, these materials are cross-referenced by live links.

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More Greek and Roman Links

This page contains links to sites devoted to history, law, society, commerce and biography.

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CALIGULA: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Barbara F. McManus, The College of New Rochelle

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Roman Emperors - The Imperial Index

the emperors are listed in a chronological table in order of their dates of rule. The name of each emperor for whom a biographical essay is complete offers a live link to the essay.

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Constantine: The First Roman Emperor to Sponsor Christianity

Constantine's Christianity. Constantine was a key figure in Roman, Christian, and Byzantine history. He was born in February in the late 280`s A.D., in what is now the city of Nis, in Yugoslavia. His father had risen to the rank of Caesar or deputy emperor and had served under Maximian in the west. When his parents were divorced, Constantine was brought up in the court of Diocletian in the eastern part of the empire. [Alice Jagger]

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Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus

Rome, 1st century, A.D. -- The porcine Roman emperor had a succession of singularly unpleasant relationships with women. Perhaps it was because he was a feral, sadistic, sexually depraved, homicidal lunatic.

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Lead and the Fall of Rome: A Bibliography

Since the nineteenth century, there have been sporadic suggestions that the large-scale use of lead in antiquity contributed to the fall of Rome through heavy-metal poisoning.

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The End of the Roman Empire Revisited

The Fall of the Roman Empire Revisited: Sidonius Apollinaris and His Crisis of Identity By Eric J. Goldberg

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Lead and the Fall of Rome: A Bibliography

Since the nineteenth century, there have been sporadic suggestions that the large-scale use of lead in antiquity contributed to the fall of Rome through heavy-metal poisoning.

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History of Tunisia: Carthaginians and Romans

In ancient times Tunisia was part of the mighty Carthaginian Empire. Its chief city, Carthage, was reputedly founded in 814BC by Phoenician traders, who had previously established several small trading posts along the North African coast. The site of Carthage, which became the largest and most famous of these Phoenician settlements, is thought to have been slightly to the north-east of the modern city of Tunis. The Carthaginian Empire dominated most of North Africa, as well as parts of the Iberian Peninsula, Sardinia and Sicily. By the third century BC, however, trouble was brewing for the Carthaginians, in the shape of the fast-expanding Roman Empire.

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Hannibal The African Warrior

In 218 B.C., Hannibal began the most daring military move in history, that of invading Rome by way of the Alps. But why did this African military genius decide to war against Rome? Before Hannibal's birth, the Romans ruled Italy, and the Carthaginians ruled Carthage in North Africa. The Carthaginians also ruled the Mediterranean Islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Syracuse (now know as Sicily). The Carthaginians were content as things were, but the Romans were military expansionists. So the Romans broke their treaty with the Carthaginians by expanding their empire into Sicily, and the First Punic War began (264 B.C.). In 247 B.C., Hamilcar Barca took command of the Carthaginian army and his son, Hannibal, was born. Hannibal was born to one of the most distinguished families in Carthage--the Barcas.

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The First Roman Emperor to Sponsor Christianity

Constantine was a key figure in Roman, Christian, and Byzantine history. He was born in February in the late 280`s A.D., in what is now the city of Nis, in Yugoslavia. His father had risen to the rank of Caesar or deputy emperor and had served under Maximian in the west. When his parents were divorced, Constantine was brought up in the court of Diocletian in the eastern part of the empire.

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ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY and JUDAISM

In ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY and JUDAISM, Manfred Davidmann proves what Jesus really taught: The social laws of the Torah have to be followed. These social laws guarantee equality, social justice and security, and a good life for all members of the community. These laws protect people from exploitation, oppression and enslavement through need. Early Christians, being mostly Jews, followed these laws. Manfred Davidmann then proves how these essential social laws of the Torah were bypassed and ceased to be observed, in Judaism and in Christianity at the same time.

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Pompey`s War

Wars between the Jews and Romans: the subjugation of Judaea (63 BC)

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The Early Church

Church history - extensive notes covering the period up through the Reformation.

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The Ecole Initiative: Early Church History of the Web

Hypertext Encyclopedia of Early Church History on the World-Wide Web

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Early Church Fathers

Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College.

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Early Sources of Christianity

The official Roman dislike of Christianity was surprising, for the Romans were usually quick to adopt the gods of other faiths into their own religion. For instance, when Rome conquered Greece, the Romans readily accepted the Greek gods and goddesses and their myths, and altered many established Roman deities to resemble their Greek counterparts. The Roman god Jupiter, for example, took on many traits of Zeus, the Greek god of the heavens.

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Roman Architecture

Roman Architecture: Arches, Columns, Temples, Theaters, Amphitheaters, Baths, Basilicas that the great architects that built them. As far as Roman Architecture goes, it is difficult to compare it with that of other nations, because the Romans applied architecture to so many and such varied purposes, and so constructed monuments involving both architectural and engineering skill, as to make it doubtful to what class they belonged. The Romans were the first people to treat architecture as a minister to the numberless needs of a great nation. Before them, except in the Greek theatres, it had served the gods, the royal families, and the dead, alone.

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ROMARCH: Roman art and archaeology

The ROMARCH pages are the original crossroads for Web resources on the art and archaeology of Italy and the Roman provinces, ca. 1000 BC - AD 700. ROMARCH is sponsored by the Department of Classics and the Interdepartmental Program in Classical Art and Archaeology (IPCAA) at the University of Michigan.

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Monuments of Ancient Rome

Rome, the capital city of Italy since 1871, is a city with an incredibly rich history. It was the main city of the vast Roman Empire, whose control reached from Rome to places as far away as England. The Roman Empire left an enduring legacy throughout Western civilization -- and many enduring ruins throughout Rome.

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Roman Women And their Houses

What were Roman houses like? Through excavation we know what these houses looked like and how people lived. ALAE ATRIUM CUBICULUM CULINA EXEDRA HOUSE LARARIUM PERISTYLIUM ROMAN WOMEN TABERNAE TABLINUM TRICLINIUM VESTIBULUM

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Roman Architecture: Construction Techniques

The recognition Ancient Romans did not receive from art historians came from modern engineers who investigated and admired the construction techniques the Romans used to build roads, aqueducts, baths, tribunals, circuses, walls and obviously temples and houses.

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Roman Art and Architecture

Roman art is traditionally divided into two main periods, art of the Roman Republic and art of the Roman Empire (from 27 bc on), with subdivisions corresponding to the major emperors or to imperial dynasties. When the Republic was founded, the term Roman art was virtually synonymous with the art of the city of Rome, which still bore the stamp of its Etruscan past. Gradually, as the Roman Empire expanded throughout Italy and the Mediterranean and as the Romans became exposed to other artistic cultures, notably that of Greece, Roman art shook off its dependence on Etruscan art; during the last two centuries before Christ a distinctive Roman manner of building, sculpting, and painting emerged.

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Roman Colosseum

The Roman COLOSSEUM , Flavian amphitheater built over the remains of Nero's "Golden House" in Rome, c. 80 AD. The primary function of an amphitheater was to house spectacles of blood sports--gladiators combats and hunts of wild animals. Early Roman Christians were persecuted in this manner in the Colosseum. The design of an amphitheater basically requires the construction of two semicircular theaters placed face to face. Tiers of seats were supported by vaulted substructures constructed of tile and mortar. Elevators raised and lowered animals to the floor of the arena from caged areas below. Seating capacity of the Colosseum is estimated around 50,000.

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The Historical Coliseum

The Coliseum (Coloseum, Colosseum), was built during the reign of Emperor Vespasiano c. 72 AD and dedicated in 80 AD by his son Titus. The popular name of Coliseum came about because the immense oval stadium was situated next to a colossal statue of Nero. The original name of this ancient Roman sports arena, the largest arena of its kind, is The Amphitheatrum Flavium.

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The FORUM ROMANUM - Exploring an ancient market place

The Forum Romanum, the Roman name for what we usually call the Roman Forum, was the place where the victorious legions held their triumphal marches, where the deaths of famous persons were made public, where the corpses of emperors were burned, where the heads of emperors rolled, in short the centre of power of the Roman empire. At this web site you find a description of the Roman Forum between 100 BC and 100 AD. The Roman Forum was the centre of ancient Rome. At this web site the Forum is the centre of exploration. It will be the starting point for a great variety of wanderings. Many interesting aspects of Rome and its inhabitants can be met. Descriptions and views of many historic buildings can be found. The most important social, political, cultural and religious functions of the Roman Forum are dealt with. Attention is paid to the celebrities of that time and the roles they played in public life. All this is put against the background of the Roman Forum. The site presents emperors, senators, writers, artists and architects. Those works of art that originate in the Roman Forum but that are to be found in various museums are presented as well.

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Ancient Rome: The Roman Forum

The Roman Forum is a square which is surrounded by some of the most ancient Roman monuments. The Forum is also the origin of the first Latin population 2600 years ago.

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The Roman Forum: Through the Ages

The Forum in the Time of the Kings and the Early Republic
The Forum in the Time of the Republic, the Civil Wars and the Age of Augustus
The Forum in the Time of the Empire: From the Julio-Claudian Dynasty to the Antonine Dynasty and the Time of Hadrian (including Imperial Fora)
The Forum in the Late Empire: From Hadrian to the Sack of Rome by the Vandals
The Forum Today: The Archaeological Record
The Role of the Forum in Everyday Life; Conclusion

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Ancient Rome: The Pantheon

The Pantheon was a temple in honor of the Olympic gods; in fact, the word pantheon is Greek for "of all the gods." It is the best-preserved of all the Roman monuments. The original Pantheon was constructed by M. Vispanius Agrippa in 27 B.C. The Pantheon we see today, however, is a reconstruction built by the Emperor Hadrian, perhaps after a fire. In A.D. 609, Pope Boniface VIII received the building as a gift from the emperor of Byzantium. He made it into a Christian church dedicated it to the Madonna and the martyrs.

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The Virtual Roman House

The Atmosphere world below represents a Roman house of a type known as a domus or atrium house. Though this particular house is an imaginary one, it incorportates elements drawn from various actual Roman houses (for example, the atrium wall decoration imitates that of the House of Sallust in Pompeii). To enter the 3D environment, click inside the image at the right. Once inside, you can move around within the space using the arrow keys or the mouse. You can adjust your viewpoint by using the arrow keys or mouse while holding down the control key.

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Roman Architecture: Past and Present

In this section of Architecture Through the Ages you will learn how Rome looked a long time ago and how it looks now. These series of pictures show the original plan for that area of Rome (left), and how it looks now (right). I hope that you enjoy these pictures and you learn how time can destroy even the most wonderful buildings. The Colosseum, Inside the Colosseum, The Great Square of the Colosseum, The Forum of Caesar, The Forum Square, The Circus Maximus, The Pantheon, Temples of the Forum Boarium

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Sources of Information on Antiquities Theft

antiquities theft, archaeological theft, artifact theft, looting, plunder, archaeology

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The Roman cities

The Forum, The marketplace with shops and taverns, Fountains, Thermes and Baths, Houses, Insulae and more.

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Roman Sports Edifices and Centers

Roman Sports Buildings. CIRCUS MAXIMUS, CIRCUS FLAMINIUS, THEATER OF POMPEY, THEATER OF MARCELLUS, COLOSSEUM, STADIUM OF DOMITIAN, BATHS OF CARACALLA, BATHS OF DIOCLETIAN, CIRCUS OF GAIUS AND NERO, NAUMACHIA AUGUSTI

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Roman circuses were large entertainment buildings

Images. Found all over the Roman Empire, a circus is a building for public entertainment, including chariot racing.

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Chart of Roman Emperors

List of Roman Emperors from Augustus to Justinian.

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Ancient Roman Chariot Races

Ancient Roman chariot races were held in the Circus, such as the Circus Maximus. The festivities such as the Ludi Magni which were celebrated with the chariot races in honour of Jupiter, generally began early in the morning with a religious procession called the "pompa circensis". The procession included religious representatives, all the chariot racing teams accompanied by their standards, musicians, attending magistrates and workers of the Circus. Images of the gods such as the Dioscuri twins (one was a famed rider the other a boxer), Cibele mother of the gods and Neptune god of horses also accompanied the procession on little chariots of their own. The procession started at sunrise at the Capitol, proceeded through the Forum and into the "porta Triumphalis" (triumphal gate) of the Circus itself. The dignitaries would take their seats and to the sound of trumpets, the chariots and competitors entered the arena from the stables called "carceres", accompanied by their entourage of six slave assistants . The stables were situated in the flat end of the circus called the "officium".

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THE CIRCUS: ROMAN CHARIOT RACING

The first-century CE satirist Juvenal wrote, "Long ago the people shed their anxieties, ever since we do not sell our votes to anyone. For the people""who once conferred imperium, symbols of office, legions, everything""now hold themselves in check and anxiously desire only two things, the grain dole and chariot races in the Circus" (Satires 10.77-81). Juvenal's famous phrase, panem et circenses ("bread and circuses") has become proverbial to describe those who give away significant rights in exchange for material pleasures. Juvenal has put his finger on two of the most important aspects of Roman chariot races""their immense popularity and the pleasure they gave the Roman people, and the political role they played during the empire in diverting energies that might otherwise have gone into rioting and other forms of popular unrest. The image above bears witness to the popularity of the races; found in the imperial baths in Trier (Germany), this centerpiece of a large mosaic floor depicts a charioteer for the Reds, holding in his hands the palm branch and laurel wreath, symbols of victory. Both the driver, Polydus, and his lead horse, Compressor, are identified by name, as though they were great state heroes. We can deduce something of the political role of chariot racing from the fact that the same word, factiones, was used to designate the four racing stables as had been applied to the political factions (the populares and the optimates) that had such large followings in the Republic.

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Gladiators

History & Origins Who were the Gladiators? Gladiator Training & Combat Public Perception of Gladiators The Venatio: Hunting Animals Female Gladiators Return of the Gladiator The Movie "Gladiator" in Historical Perspective

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LacusCurtius - The Roman Circus

(Smith's Dictionary, 1875). CIRCUS (ἱπποδρόμος) a place for chariot-races and horse-races, and in which the Roman races (Circenses Ludi) took place. When Tarquinius Priscus had taken the town of Apiolae from the Latins, as related in the early Roman legends, he commemorated his success by an exhibition of races and pugilistic contests in the Murcian valley, between the Palatine and Aventine hills; around which a number of temporary platforms were erected by the patres and equites, called spectacula, fori, or foruli, from their resemblance to the deck of a ship; each one raising a stage for himself, upon which he stood to view the games (Liv. I.35; Festus, s.v. Forum; Dionys. III. p192, &c.). This course, with its surrounding scaffoldings, was termed circus; either because the spectators stood round to see the shows, or because the procession and races went round in a circuit (Varr. De Ling. Lat. V.153, 154, ed. Müller). Previously, however, to the death of Tarquin, a permanent building was constructed for the purpose, with regular tiers of seats in the form of a theatre (cf. Liv. and Dionys. ll. cc.) To this the name of Circus Maximus was subsequently given, as a distinction from the Flaminian and other similar buildings, which it surpassed in extent and splendour; and hence, like the Campus Martius, it is often spoken of as the Circus, without any distinguishing epithet.

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Circus, Stadia and Entertainment

Chariot racing was Rome's oldest and most popular pastime, dating back to at least the Roman monarchy. Greek chariot races were held in hippodromes in the east, but in the west they were held in circuses. Other events eventually infiltrated the circus games (ludi circenses), such as Greek athletics and wrestling, but chariot racing remained the popular favorite. As a sport, it was highly expensive, but organized into a highly profitable business. There were four chariot facing factions, the blues, greens, whites, and reds, the colors of which were worn by respective charioteers during races. If successful, a charioteer could become rich and famous throughout Rome. Images of charioteers survive in sculpture, mosaic, and molded glassware, sometimes even with inscribed names. The factions rivaled greatly, sometimes leading to violence among supporters. In general, however, the greens and blues were the favorites.

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The holding capacity for the Circus Maximus

The holding capacity for the Circus Maximus was a quarter of a million people! This was about one quarter of Rome's population. The Circus Maximus was a track used primarily for horse-racing, although it was used on occasion for hunts or mock battles. It had 300,000 seats and was famous throughout the ancient world. Built in the 6th century B.C. during the time of the Tarquins, the history of the Circus Maximus is troubled. It was twice destroyed by fire and on at least two occasions the stands collapsed, killing many people. There was a long barrier (spina) that ran down the middle of the track, in the area of the picture where you now see only grass. In addition to obelisks, fountains, statues, and columns, there were also two temples on the spina, one with seven large eggs and one with seven dolphins. At the end of each lap of the seven lap race, one egg and one dolphin would be removed from each temple, to keep the spectators and the racers updated on how many laps had been completed. In the Circus Maximus, unlike the amphitheaters of the day, men and women could sit together. The Circus Maximus also had the ancient equivelant of the skyboxes you see now in stadiums for professional sports. The Emperor had a reserved seat, as did senators, knights, those who financially backed the race, those who presided over the competition, and the jury that awarded the prize to the winners. The last race held at the Circus Maximus was in 549 A.D., nearly a full millenium after the track's construction.

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Amphitheaters

Most people have heard of the Colosseum in Rome, but there were many other amphitheaters all over the Roman Empire. The first gladiatorial fights, in Etruscan times, were held anywhere that there was a flat place near a hill, so that people could sit on the hillside and watch the fights being held down on the flat area. But there isn't always a convenient hill like that, so before long, around 300 BC, rich men and city governments started to build temporary wooden amphitheaters for people to sit in, like artificial hills, or like the seating for events at county fairs or festivals today. They were called amphitheaters because they were built like two theaters facing each other.

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The Colisseum's Description

The amphitheater is a vast ellipse with tiers of seating for 50,000 spectators around a central elliptical arena. Below the wooden arena floor, there was a complex set of rooms and passageways for wild beasts and other provisions for staging the spectacles. Eighty walls radiate from the arena and support vaults for passageways, stairways and the tiers of seats. At the outer edge circumferential arcades link each level and the stairways between levels.

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Construction of the Colisseum

The Colosseum - the greatest amphitheatre of the antiquity - was built in Rome, Italy, about 1920 years ago. It is considered an architectural and engineering wonder, and remains as a standing proof of both the grandeur and the cruelty of the Roman world.

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Roman Forum

This is the main forum in Rome, the biggest and the most important of the Roman fora (one forum, two fora). People first began meeting in this forum around 500 BC, at the time of the founding of the Roman Republic. The Senate met in the brick building on the right of the photograph (actually this is a later replacement for an older building that burned down). Little by little, rich men added temples, statues, triumphal arches, and basilicas to the forum, until by the time of Julius Caesar the forum was very crowded.

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Roman Coliseum Facts

The Roman coliseum was originally known as the "Flavian Amphitheater". It is a massive and huge building of the ancient Roman Empire. The Roman Emperor Vespasian initiated the construction of the Roman Coliseum in the year 70 AD. He was the founder of the Flavian dynasty. The Roman coliseum was completed in 80 AD after the death of the emperor. The next heir to the throne, Emperor Titus, opened it to the public. It is said, the inaugural ceremony lasted for more than 100 days.

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The arena was used for both naval and gladiatorial battles

Like chariot racing, contests of gladiators probably originated as funeral games; these contests were much less ancient than races, however. The first recorded gladiatorial combat in Rome occurred when three pairs of gladiators fought to the death during the funeral of Junius Brutus in 264 BCE, though others may have been held earlier. Gladiatorial games (called munera since they were originally "duties" paid to dead ancestors) gradually lost their exclusive connection with the funerals of individuals and became an important part of the public spectacles staged by politicians and emperors (click here for some modern assessments of the cultural meaning of the arena). The popularity of gladiatorial games is indicated by the large number of wall paintings and mosaics depicting gladiators; for example, this very large mosaic illustrating many different aspects of the games covered an entire floor of a Roman villa in Nennig, Germany. Many household items were decorated with gladiatorial motifs, such as this lamp and this flask.

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Amphitheater

The amphitheater was a microcosm of Roman society. The seating arrangements reflected the stratification of Roman society. On a large podium the emperor had a special box and senators sat on marble seating divided into fourteen sections.

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Roman Colosseum - Rome, Italy - Great Buildings Online

The Colosseum or Flavian Amphitheater was begun by Vespasian, inaugurated by Titus in 80 A.D. and completed by Domitian. Located on marshy land between the Esquiline and Caelian Hills, it was the first permanent amphitheater to be built in Rome. Its monumental size and grandeur as well as its practical and efficient organization for producing spectacles and controlling the large crowds make it one of the great architectural monuments achieved by the ancient Romans.

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The Roman Colosseum

The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and engineering. Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started between 70 and 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus, with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81­96). The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius, from the gens Flavia). Originally capable of seating around 50,000 spectators, the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles. It remained in use for nearly 500 years with the last recorded games being held there as late as the 6th century. As well as the traditional gladiatorial games, many other public spectacles were held there, such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building eventually ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such varied purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry and a Christian shrine. <> Although it is now in a ruined condition due to damage caused by earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum has long been seen as an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome. Today it is one of modern Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession to the amphitheatre.

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Roman Ball Games

Ball-playing was popular among the Romans, and they often spent their morning exercises playing games on the fields (palaestra) or ball-courts (sphaerista). The Romans enjoyed a variety of ball games, including Handball (Expulsim Ludere), Trigon, Soccer, Field Hockey, Harpasta, Phaininda, Episkyros, and certainly Catch and other games that children might invent, like perhaps Dodge Ball. Pila was the term used for ball playing in general, but is here used to define the circular version of harpasta, which may have been the most popular ball game in Roman times. An additional game called Roman Ball is invented here in an attempt to fill in the gaps of our knowledge about ancient circular ball games. The pages linked on the right provide descriptions of these games.

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Roman Board Games

Knucklebones (Tali & Tropa) , Dice (Tesserae) , Roman Chess (Latrunculi), Petteia (Single Stone Latrunculi), Latrunculi , Roman Checkers (Calculi) , The Game of Twelve Lines (Duodecim Scripta) , The Game of Lucky Sixes (Felix Sex) , Tic-Tac-Toe (Terni Lapilli) , Roman Backgammon (Tabula)

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Roman Calendar

Our modern calendar is closely based on that implemented by Julius Caesar during 46-45BC, and amended by Pope Gregory XIII in AD1582. The ancient Roman calendar was closely linked to the science of astrology, and the teachings of Claudius Ptolemaeus, which were prevalent throughout the entire lifetime of Imperial Rome. Ptolemy's teachings were based, in turn, on those of Plato and Pythagoras who both expounded a geocentric, 'earth-centred' view of the universe in which the sun, moon and planets all revolved about a stationary Earth, positioned as it should be, at the very hub of the cosmos.

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The Roman Calendar

Attributed to Romulus, the Roman calendar originally had only ten months, common among `primitive` agricultural people. (They were apparently unconcered about the passage of time during the winter months when it was impossible to work in the fields.) At some later time (traditionally under Numa, 715-676BC), the calendar was reformed to include 12 months of 28 days, with an extra month to keep the calendar aligned with the sun. Julius Caesar, as Pontifex Maximus, reformed the calendar as of Jan. 1, 45BC, and introduced the calendar as we basically know it today, 12 months with varying days each, totaling 365 days a year with a leap year every 4 years.

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Roman Month Divisions

Describes the early Roman method of dividing months into sections that ended with days named Calends, Nones and Ides.

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Roman Calendars from Romulus to Julius Caesar

Story of the Roman Calendar from Romulus` time to that of Julius Caesar, including several methods used to reconcile it with solar year length.

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Caesar`s Calendar Changes (Julian Calendar)

Describes Julius Caesar`s 45 B.C. calendar changes. Also has Calendrical Terms for definitions.

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Octavian`s Calendar Changes (Octavian Calendar)

Changes to the Julian Calendar made during the time of Caesar Augustus. Prior pages in this series were: An Introduction to Calendars, Days and Weeks, Months and Years, Calendar Structures, 8th to 4th Century B.C. Calendar Changes, 360 - The Trial, Early Roman Calendars, Julian Calendar, Following sections concern: Gregorian Calendar, Fixed-Week Calendar.

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Lupercalia Festival

The History of St. Valentine`s Day

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LacusCurtius - Codrington's Roman Roads in Britain

A Web-enhanced version of Roman Roads in Britain by Thomas Codrington published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge London, 1903

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The great builders

Perhaps more than any other civilization the Romans are famed for their incredible constructions There appeared almost no limit to what they could do with stones, bricks, mortar and wood. Bridges over the Danube and Rhine, Colosseum, Roads, Aquaeducts, Hagia Sophia, Hadrian's Wall.

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Ships of the Ancient Greeks

Ancient Ships: The Ships of Antiquity War Ships of the Greeks

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Grave Art: Early Christian Tombs and Figures of Mourning

In Augustine's Confessions. Roman emperors loved bronze and stone, but their best poets vaunted written poetic language as a much better medium of monuments-- indeed, of immortality.

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Medieval World

Medieval Europe was a constant battleground, from petty border disputes to internal power struggles and National rivalries. The Church was as much a competitor as it was a peace keeper. Feudalism, the Roman Catholic Church and the Code of Chivalry provided the framework for the social, political and economic environments of Europe during the Middle Ages. Emphasis was on manor life in the Early Middle ages but shifted to the cities and commercial activities during the later period. Monasteries gave way to Universities as centers of learning. Medieval art was primarily art of the Church. After the period of migration (AD500 - 800) in which the art was small and personal, the Germanic tribes settled into the old Roman Empire. Intricate and organic designs dominated this period. Later, beautiful illuminated manuscripts as well as relief sculpture was use to instruct an illiterate faithful. Massive Romanesque and then richly ornate Gothic cathedrals with ethereal stain glass windows soared to unbelievable heights. The journey from pessimism and superstition to intellectual and creative revival was reflected in the changing styles of art.

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Byzantium

The Metropolitan Museum of Art`s on-line exploration of Byzantium

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The Byzantine Empire

It is not possible to effectually distinguish between the later empire in Rome and the Byzantine empire centered around Constantinople. For the Byzantines were the Roman Empire, not simply a continuation of it in the East. The capital city, Constantinople, had been founded as the capital of Rome by the Emperor Constantine, but a uniquely Greek or Byzantine character to the Roman Empire can be distinguished as early as Diocletian. When Rome was seized by Goths, this was a great blow to the Roman Empire, but it didn't effectively end it. Although Rome was under the control of foreigners who themselves claimed to be continuing the empire, the Byzantine empire continued as before, believing themselves to be the Roman Empire.

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A Chronology of Early Byzantine History

Includes a LIST OF BYZANTINE EMPERORS. Timothy E. Gregory

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Byzance

A Great Empire; The Byzantines

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ORB -- Early Byzantium (To 1000) Index

Early Byzantium A Guide to Online Resources

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The City of Rome

ROME, Caput Mundi during the Roman Empire, capital of Italy since 1870, home of the Catholic Church and the Italian government, is placed on the banks of the Tiber, there where the river, running weakly among the seven hills, creates vast meanders which originate little plains.

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Modern Equivalent Of Ancient Roman Place Names

A glossary of ancient Roman place names and their modern (circa 2001) equivalent. Kenneth Wellesley

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Nova Roma

ROMA RESURGENS. Dedicated to the restoration of Classical Roman religion, culture, and virtues

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The Atrium: For Devotees of Ancient Greece & Rome

The latest incarnation of the Atrium, your portal to the worlds of Greece and Rome.

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Ancient Roman Art Resources

ART HISTORY RESOURCES ON THE WEB: Ancient Roman Art

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Roman Coins of the Early Empire

Roman Numismatic Gallery: Roman Coins, Sculpture, Military Equipment

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Ancient Roman and Greek Coins

Answers to frequently asked questions about ancient Roman and Greek coins and how to collect them.

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Maps and Codices of the Roman Empire

A few maps of parts of Rome and the provinces. With a timeline of the Roman Empire.

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Constantine I

Britannica online encyclopedia article on Constantine I (Roman emperor):Constantine I, colossal marble head, c. ad 325.The Granger Collection, New Yorkthe first Roman emperor to profess Christianity. He not only initiated the evolution of the empire into a Christian state but also provided the impulse for a distinctively Christian culture that prepared the way for the growth of Byzantine and Western medieval culture.

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Timeline: Roman Emperors

Brought to you by Calvary Chapel Library. Nicely laid out for easy online viewing.

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Coins references/bibliography

Nicely done, in color. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]

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Romaion/Byzantine Empire (coins)

Renamed Constantinople in 330 AD, the ancient city of Byzantion gave its name to a combined Greek and Roman culture that lasted for almost 1000 years. The `Byzantines` never referred to each other as such; they called themselves Romaioi, the Greek word for Roman. In 1453 AD, the Ottoman Turks overran Constantinople, putting an end to the Romaioi and the Middle Ages. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]

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Romaion/Byzantine Empire 2 (coins)

Renamed Constantinople in 330 AD, the ancient city of Byzantion gave its name to a combined Greek and Roman culture that lasted for almost 1000 years. The `Byzantines` never referred to each other as such; they called themselves Romaioi, the Greek word for Roman. In 1453 AD, the Ottoman Turks overran Constantinople, putting an end to the Romaioi and the Middle Ages. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]

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Romaion/Byzantine Empire 3 (coins)

Renamed Constantinople in 330 AD, the ancient city of Byzantion gave its name to a combined Greek and Roman culture that lasted for almost 1000 years. The `Byzantines` never referred to each other as such; they called themselves Romaioi, the Greek word for Roman. In 1453 AD, the Ottoman Turks overran Constantinople, putting an end to the Romaioi and the Middle Ages. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]

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A milliarium (Roman Milestone),

Barca da Mó, near Caldas do Gerês, Portugal. This Hadrianic milestone is one of several in place along the Roman military road to Bracara Augusta (modern Braga). © 1993 Craig R. Bina [Images] [Archaeology]

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The Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD

The cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried by an avalanche of boiling mud and lava. Pompeii was buried about 20-40 feet under and Herculaneum was under 60-75 feet. The cities were abandoned and their location forgotten. In 1595 their were some expeditions in the area of Pompeii by the order of Charles III, King of the Two Sicilies, and some artifacts were discovered which caused much pillaging. Then some Archeological excavations began in the mid-nineteenth century. Today much of Pompeii has been excavated, and along with it ghostly stories of people who had been trying to save their lives. There are numerous molds of people and animals found.

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Legio III Gallica.

"LEGIO III GALLICA is a re-enactment group dedicated to presenting living history displays of life in the Roman legions in the latter part of 1st century AD. Our weapons, armor, and accessories are thoroughly researched for historical accuracy and are mostly constructed by our own hands and at our own expense. Our group is based in the NOVUM CENABUM (New Orleans, Louisiana) area and is the first Roman re-enactment group based in the American Gulf South." [Rome] [Military History]

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The Roman Army - Roman Legions

By Gary Brueggeman. The purpose of the models presented here is to help visualize the legion. The models have been built from data from a variety of experts, many of whom do not agree with each other. The hope is that the models themselves may serve as a tool to clarify questions, identify solutions which are more or less likely, and lead to a further refinement of knowledge about the legion. [Rome] [Military History]

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TIMELINE: ANCIENT ROME

Provides a chronological index of the history of Ancient Rome with extensive links to internet resources. Emphasis is placed upon the use of primary source material and new perspectives upon the roles of women in ancient time.

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Legio XV Apollonaris.

"Welcolme to the homepage of the Legio XV Apollonaris, the Norwegian group for Roman re-enactment and Roman live role playing. Our aim is to portray a Roman unit of the second half of the 1st century AD, and use it in a live roleplaying- setting. As far as we know we are the only group in Europe combining live roleplaying and re-enactment in this manner. We would love to hear from others." [Rome] [Military History]

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Legio VI Ferrata.

"Welcome to the home page of the Legio VI Ferrata! We are establishing a living history group dedicated to re-enacting the glory of Rome, and its military. We are garrisoned here in Tucson, Arizona; a legion in thedesert. We are now recruiting members and hope to be ready to take the field in the spring of MCMXCIX (1999)." [Rome] [Military History]

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The Antonine Guard Roman Research Society.

"The Antonine Guard was formed in 1996. It is a Roman Historical / Re-enactment group concentrating on the period of Roman occupation of Scotland in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Our prime aim is to promote a greater awareness of Roman Scotland for the general public." [Rome] [Military History]

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Colchester Roman Society.

"The Colchester Roman Society was formed in the summer of 1987, initially as the Balkerne Gate Guard. The aim of the society was, and continues to be, research into and the recreation of equipment, training and lifestyles of the Roman military and civilians during the 1st and 2nd Centuries AD. Originally adopting the LEG XIIII GEMINA, in 1997 the society decided to concentrate on auxiliary units and adopted the COH I FIDA VARDULLORUM MILLIARIA EQ CR." [Rome] [Military History]

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Legio Secunda Augusta.

"Legio Secunda Augusta (LEG II AUG) is the title of a society based in Portsmouth, Hampshire that seeks to re-create the "living history" - in both its military and civilian aspects - of Roman Britain during the first two centuries AD." [Rome] [Military History]

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Legio X Fretensis.

"Now LEGIO X FRETENSIS is the military historical club. We make reconstruction weapon, armor, eguipment and life of roman legionaries from reign of Emperor Marcvs Ulpivs Traianvs (98-117 AC)." [Rome] [Military History]

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Reconstruction of the Orbis Terrarum

according to Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (20 A.D.) Courtesy of Cartographic Images. [Rome] [Maps]

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Reconstruction of the World map according to Pomponius Mela

(ca. 40 A.D.). Courtesy of Cartographic Images. [Rome] [Maps]

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Maps of the Roman Empire

Clickable Maps from Roman-Empire.net [Rome] [Maps]

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Learning to Read Rome's Ruins

[Rome] [Archaeology Resources]

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Roman Archaeology Field Reports

By Patrick Conway. [Archaeology Resources]

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Capitolium.org.

"Capitolium.org, an official source of live information on the archaeological site of the Imperial Forums. Day by day, on-line visitors can follow the development of the work which is being carried out by top-level scholars of Roman antiquity". [Archaeology Resources]

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E-Hawk: Home of the Military History timeline

An extensive collection of resources for the study of military history. [Rome] [Military History]

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Capitolium.org: The Official Website of the Imperial Forums

Here, in this site, you can find: technical details of the excavations and findings; a historical narration of the Age of the Emperors; reproductions of moments and daily life among the antique Romans; archived and live images. And thanks to virtual reconstruction, you'll also be able to see what once occupied today's excavation area. Moreover, you'll be able to see excavation progress live, thanks to the ultra-modern system of webcameras."

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The Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins

Welcome to the NEW version of the Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins, a Web site devoted to helping students and teachers learn more about ancient Roman coins. These pages contain images and descriptions of coins from the Early Republic through the end of the 4th century A.D. and the formal division of the Roman Empire into east and west. The VCRC is an innovative project based on the collaboration of private coin collectors and dealers and a college professor who wants to create a useful resource for his students, other teachers and their students, and the general public.

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Pictures of History - Roman Empire

John Hauser; Rome (38 images) Ostia (40) Pompeii (108)

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The Rome Project

Links to many informative sites

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Maps of the Roman World

in the First Century C.E. [Century One Foundation Bookstore]

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Central Italy, with the adjacent countries

from the Peutingerian Tables constructed about 393 A.D. (580K)From A Classical Atlas by Alexander G. Findlay. New York: Harper and Brothers 1849. [Rome] [Maps]

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Osshe Historical & Cultural Atlas Resource

"This project was designed to provide a corpus of material for use by faculty in many fields and on many campuses within the OSSHE system to enhance the learning experience for students. Developed cooperatively between the University of Oregon Department of History, UO New Media Center and Department of Geography InfoGraphics Lab. All of the atlas resources contained in this site are original materials produced for this project." [Rome] [Maps]

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Maps and Codices of the Roman Empire:

From the library of Trimalchio. [Rome] [Maps]

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Periodical Historical Atlas

Historical maps of Europe from 001 AD to 900 AD. Courtesy of the De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors . [Rome] [Maps]

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A Roman Atlas

Abdara (Abdra) "- Abdera (in Baetica) "- Abila "- Acinipo "- Ad Adrum Flumen "- ad Aginos "- Ad Aras "- ad Centesimum "- ad Martis "- ad Martis "- Ad Rubras "- Ad Septem Aras "- Ad Turres "- Aegabrum "- Alatrum "- Alba Fucentia (Alba Fucens) "- Albula R. "- Ameria "- Ammaea "- Anagnia "- Anduna "- Anticaria (Antiquaria) "- Aquinum "- Arci "- Arenae Montes "- Arpinum "- Arsa "- Artigi "- Arucci Novum "- Arunda "- Arx "- Asculum Picenum "- Asido "- Asta "- Asta Regia "- Aurigitanum "- Baccana Baelon (Belon) "- Baetia Fl. "- Balneum Regis "- Balsa "- Barba "- Barbesola "- Barbesula "- Barbesula Fl. "- Bastia "- Budua Calabona "- Calentum "- Calipos Fl. "- Calpe "- Calpurniana "- Camerte "- Capena "- Capionis Turris "- Carcuvium "- Carisa (Carissa) "- Carsulae (Carsioli) "- Carteia "- Castrum Novum "- Castulo "- Cavichim "- Celti "- Chryssus Fl. "- Cimbis "- Clitunni (Cliternum) "- Conistorgis "- Contosolia "- Contributa "- Corduba "- Corfinium "- Cuneus Pr. "- Cures "- Curica "- Cutilia Ebora "- Emerita Augusta "- Epora "- Eretium "- Erythia I. "- Esuris "- Fabrateria "- Falerii (Falerium) "- Ferentinum "- Ferentinum "- Fescennium Fines "- Forum Cassii "- Fraxin. . . "- Fregellae "- Fretum Gaditanum (Fretum Herculeum) "- Frusino "- Fucinus L. Gades (Gadira) "- Giniana "- Hadria Haetara "- Herculis Templum "- Hispalis Ilipa "- Ilipula M. "- Illiberis "- Illipula M. "- Illurco "- Iluro "- Interamna (Interamnia, Interamnia Nahars) "- Interamna Praetutiora "- Ipagro "- Italica Junonis Pr. Laelia "- Laminium "- Latinus R. "- Leppa "- Libystinus L. "- Lucus Feroniae Maenoba "- Maenoba Fl. "- Malaca "- Malceca "- Mariana "- Marianus Mons "- Marrubium "- Marruvium "- Mellaria "- Mentesa Ba. . . "- Metellinum "- Mirobriga "- Miturgis "- Munda "- Myrtilis Nabrissa (Nebrissa) "- Narnia "- Nepeta (Nepete) "- Nertobriga "- Nomentum "- Nursia "- Ocricolum (Ocriculum) Onoba "- Oretum "- Orippo "- Ossigi "- Ossonoba Pax Julia "- Pax Julia Augusta "- Perceiana "- Pinna "- Plagiaria "- Portus Albus "- Portus Gaditanus "- Praesidium "- Privernum Raesippo "- Rarapia "- Reate "- Regiana "- Regina Saduba Fl. "- Salduba "- Saxitanum "- Selambina "- Serpa "- Setra "- Signia "- Singili "- Singulis Fl. "- Sisapo "- Sora "- Soracte "- Spoletium "- Sublaqueum "- Suel Tartessus "- Teba "- Testrina "- Tingis "- Tucci "- Tuder "- Tugia Ugia "- Ulia "- med.: Urbs Vetus "- Urcao "- Urium Fl. "- Urso "- Vallia R. "- Veii "- Venafrum "- Vicus Novus "- Volsinii "- Vomanus R. "- Xeresium [Rome] [Maps]

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Imperial Battle Map Index

by Hugh Elton, Cartography by Christos Nüssli Courtesy of the De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors . [Rome] [Maps]

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Growth of Roman Dominions under the Empire

Romans Spread From Roma Across the Roman Empire [Rome] [Maps]

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Map of the Roman Empire 120 A.D. clickable by province

This map is clickable by province. By clicking within the borders of a certain province on the map, or by clicking on the name of the province below the map, you can link to the resources on the Web that are related to that province of the Roman Empire. [Rome] [Maps]

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The City of Rome

Interactive map: Aqua Alsietina"" Aqua Anio Novus"" Aqua Anio Vetus"" Aqua Antoniana"" Aqua Appia"" Aqua Claudia"" Aqua Julia"" Aqua Trajan"" Aqua Virgo"" Arch of Piety"" Baths of Agrippa"" Baths of Caracalla"" Baths of Constantine"" Baths of Diocletian"" Baths of Nero"" Baths of Titus"" Baths of Trajan"" Camp of Imperial Horse Guard"" Circus Maximus"" Colosseum"" Curia"" Forum of Augustus"" Forum of Julius Caesar"" Forum of Nerva"" Forum Romanum"" Forum of Trajan"" Forum of Vespasian"" Hadrian's Mausoleum"" Horologium"" Mausoleum of Augustus"" Odeum of Domitian"" Palace of Domitian"" Pantheon"" Pompey's Theatre"" Pons Aelius"" Pons Aemilius"" Pons Aurelius"" Pons Cestius"" Pons Fabricius"" Pons Neronianus"" Pons Probi"" Porticus Aemilia"" Porticus Militariensis"" Praetorian Camp"" Saeptia Julia"" Servian Wall"" Stadium of Domitian"" street - Alta Semita"" street - Clivus Orbius"" street - Clivus Pullius"" street - Clivus Salutis"" street - Clivus Suburanus"" street - Vicus Cyclopis"" street - Vicus Drusianus"" street - Vicus Iugarius"" street - Vicus Longus"" street - Vicus Minervii"" street - Vicus Piscinae Publicae"" street - Vicus Portae Raudusculanae"" Temple of Aesculapius"" Temple of the divine Claudius"" Temple of Elagabalus"" Temple of Hadrian"" Temple of Juno Moneta"" Temple of Jupiter"" Temple of Neptune"" Temple of Venus and Roma"" Theatre of Balbinus"" Theatre of Marcellus"" Via Appia"" Via Ardeatina"" Via Asinaria"" Via Aurelia"" Via Collatina"" Via Cornelia"" Via Flaminia"" Via Labicana"" Via Latina"" Via Nomentana"" Via Ostiense"" Via Salaria Nova"" Via Tiburtina"" Via Tiburtina Vetus"" Via Tusculana [Rome] [Maps]

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Italy and Sicily

Courtesy of Antiquity Online. [Rome] [Maps]

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The Roman Empire, A.D. 12

Courtesy of Antiquity Online. [Rome] [Maps]

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The Roman Empire, A.D. 150

Courtesy of Antiquity Online. [Rome] [Maps]

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The Roman Empire, A.D. 500

Courtesy of Antiquity Online. [Rome] [Maps]

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Reconstruction of world map according to Dicaearchus

(300 B.C.) Courtesy of Cartographic Images. [Rome] [Maps]

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The world according to Eratosthenes, ca. 220 B.C.

Courtesy of Cartographic Images. [Rome] [Maps]

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Reconstruction of the Crate's Globe

(Crates of Mallos)(180-150 B.C.)B.C.) Courtesy of Cartographic Images. [Rome] [Maps]

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World map according to Posidonius

(150-130 B.C.). Based on a 1630 reconstruction. Courtesy of Cartographic Images. [Rome] [Maps]

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Reconstruction of World map according to Strabo

(18 A.D.) Courtesy of Cartographic Images. [Rome] [Maps]

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Victori: The Roman Military

"This web site is designed to help people interested in Roman history,particularly its military. Explore, and marvel at the wonder of efficiency, precision, and force that was the Roman Army!." Copyright © 1998 ThinkQuest Team 21665. All rights reserved [Rome] [Military History]

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Roman Military Diploma from Slavonski Brod Military

"The regional museum in Slavonski Brod, Croatia, managed to obtain an extremely valuable antique artefact in 1997. It is a Roman military diploma dating from the first century A.D, which had been discovered by chance, while recovering sand from the Sava river bed." [Rome] [Military History]

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The Roman Navy of the First Punic War

1 - Intro 2 - War Begins 3 - Roman Fleets 4 - Quinqueremes 5 - Tactics 6 - Spring 260 7 - Corvus 8 - Mylae & Duilius 9 - 259-257 10 - Fleet Sizes 11 - Ecnomus 12 - Tactics at Ecnomus 13 - Ecnomus 3 14 - Siege of Lilybaeum 15 - Drepanum 16 - 247 17 - Aegates Islands 18 - Results and Consequences Works Cited. Dan Diffendale. [Rome] [Military History]

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The Roman Army in the Late Republic and Early Empire

"The following information is intended to give a generic picture of military organization, armor, weaponry, etc. during the late Republic and early Empire." Courtesy of Barbara F. McManus, The College of New Rochelle. [Rome] [Military History]

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The Roman Army, Part II

"...information on legionary armor, auxiliary troops, army activities and pay, and punishments and rewards." Courtesy of Barbara F. McManus, The College of New Rochelle. [Rome] [Military History]

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The Roman Republican Constitution

A discussion of the political offices and responsibilities of the various branches of the Roman Republican government from the University of Texas, Department of Classics.

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The Law of the Twelve Tablets

(from E. H. Warmington, Remains of Old Latin III, circa 450 B.C.). [Rome] [Political Resources]

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The Law of the Twelve Tablets

(from E. H. Warmington, Remains of Old Latin III, circa 450 B.C.). [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Roman Law Resources

"This site provides information on Roman law sources and literature, the teaching of Roman law, and the persons who engage in the study of Roman law. " by Ernest Metzger Faculty of Law, University of Aberdeen. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Ius Romanum

Leges Rei Publicae Gaius Justinian Theodosian Code, The Latin Library [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Legal Status in the Roman World

Laws, Customs, Culture and more. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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The Julian marriage laws

In 18 B.C., the Emperor Augustus turned his attention to social problems at Rome. Extravagance and adultery were widespread. Among the upper classes, marriage was increasingly infrequent and, many couples who did marry failed to produce offspring. Augustus, who hoped thereby to elevate both the morals and the numbers of the upper classes in Rome, and to increase the population of native Italians in Italy, enacted laws to encourage marriage and having children (lex Julia de maritandis ordinibus), including provisions establishing adultery as a crime. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Corpus Iuris Civilis:

The Digest and Codex:Marriage Laws This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Roman Government Officials

During the Late Republic by Rich Hamper. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Ordinary Consuls of the Roman Republic and Empire

ORDINARY CONSULS OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC AND EMPIRE 300 BC -- 68 AD [Rome] [Political Resources]

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The Consular Year and the Roman Historical Tradition

Structuring Roman History: the Consular Year and the Roman Historical Tradition by John Rich (University of Nottingham) [Rome] [Political Resources]

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HISTOS:The New Electronic Journal of Ancient Histography

at the University of Durham [Rome] [Political Resources]

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The Censors of the Roman Republic

The identities of the early Censors are not all known to us, buta continuous list exists from 280 BC onwards. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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The Censors of the Roman Republic

The identities of the early Censors are not all known to us, buta continuous list exists from 280 BC onwards. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Imperium Romanorum

David Rumsey Collection: Imperium Romanorum inde a Constantini Magni tempore. (with) Imperium Romanum in partibus Orientis atque in partibus Occidentis sec. notitiam dignitatum (401-405 p. Ch.). Corr. Menke 1865. Gothae: Justhus Perthes. Spruner-Menke atlas antiquus. (1865) [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Those Wacky Emperors

A somewhat irreverent survey of fifty-one men, from Julius Caesar through Diocletian, who held supreme power in the empire that owned the entire Mediterranean Sea for four hundred years. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Roman Emperers

Julio-Claudian Dynasty Caesar Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero The Year of Four Emperors Servius Sulpicius Galba Marcus Salvius Otho Flavian Dynasty Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Titus Titus Flavius Domitianus Nervan-Antonian Dynasty - Five Good Emperors Nerva Trajan List of Emperors Continued [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Rulers of Ancient Rome

"The following lists are full tables of rulers (kings, consuls, emperors, etc.) of ancient Rome. It should be noted that the original Roman system of nomenclature is used (the tria nomina) with full names and filiation to the extent of grandchildren." By Joe Shelter. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors "Welcome to De Imperatoribus Romanis, a web site which simply allows its users to retrieve short biographical essays of all the Roman emperors from the accession of the Emperor Augustus to the death of the Emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus. Each essay on this site,which is peer reviewed, is written by a scholar and is accompanied by a bibliography,illustrations, and footnotes". [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Vicesima - Quarta Legion XXIV Media Atlantia

"Legion XXIV Media Atlantia was established in 1997 to defend the frontiers of ancient Rome in the Mid Atlantic Region of North America. It is intended as a re-enactment unit to display Roman and other ancient military dress, battle tactics and history at faires, schools or other public functions." [Rome] [Military History]

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Historical Reenactors .

" People from across the world have for decades come together to reenact historical military and civilian life at various periods in time. A large number of these are dedicated to the Roman era. The level of historical detail required varies from Legion to Legion, and some engage in mock combat while others display their prowess at period drill and camp life. As part of our efforts to bring ancient Rome back to life, Nova Roma is beginning to sponsor the activities of various Legions across the world." [Rome] [Military History]

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The Siege of Syracuse from Plutarch's Parallel Lives:

Marcellus. Translated by Ian Scott-Kilvert,Penguin Books, New York, 1965 [Rome] [Military History]

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The Siege of Syracuse :Introduction.

Courtesy of Drexel University [Rome] [Military History]

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Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic and Civil Wars:

with the Supplementary Books attributed to Hirtius. From the Electronic Text Center at the University of Virginia. [Rome] [Military History]

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The African Wars By Julius Caesar.

Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. From Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Military History]

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Roman Military Research Society

Welcome to the updated homepage of the award - winning Roman Military Research Society and its display unit, the Vexillatio Legionis XIIII GMV. The RMRS is a research and re-enactment group specialising in recreating the Roman Army and Roman life during the latter part of the first century A.D. In particular, we represent a detachment of the Fourteenth Legion, Gemina Martia Victrix, one of the most famous units of the Roman army in Britain. [Rome] [Military History]

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Canadian Forces College,

Department of National Defence (Canada) Guide to links on mililitary history in the Ancient World. [Rome] [Military History]

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The Siege of Syracuse by Polybius.

Translated by Ian Scott-Kilvert, Penguin Books, New York, 1979 [Rome] [Military History]

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The Siege of Syracuse by Livy

from Livy's History of Rome from its Foundation (59 BC-17 AD) . Translated by Aubrey de Selincourt, Penguin Books, New York, 1965 [Rome] [Military History]

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The Alexandrian Wars By Julius Caesar.

Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. From Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Military History]

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The Civil Wars By Julius Caesar.

Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. From Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Military History]

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The Civil Wars By Julius Caesar.

Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. From Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Military History]

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The Spanish Wars By Julius Caesar.

Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. From Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Military History]

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Armamentarium:The book of Roman arms and armour.

"ARMAMENTARIVM has the ultimate aim of providing a successor to H. Russell Robinson's seminal volume The Armour of Imperial Rome, published in 1975 and long out of print. As such, ARMAMENTARIVM will exploit the latest available technology to function as a dynamic book: it will be updated as and when new material becomes available and so will be as true a reflection as possible of the current state of scholarship on Roman military equipment". [Rome] [Military History]

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ArmaList.

"ArmaList is intended to act as a forum to discuss all issues relating to Roman military equipment studies, but it is hoped that it will primarily serve for debate on the form and structure of ARMAMENTARIVM, and it will be the main location for posting new contributions to the Web site as they are added." [Rome] [Military History]

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Casques Italiques

The evolution of Roman helmets. In French [Rome] [Military History]

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Roman Military Sites in Britain

"A non-specialist's introduction to the fortresses, forts, watchtowers, temporary camps, depots and industrial sites, built by the Roman Army in Britain. Plus background material on the Roman Army and the military history of the province." © Peter Green 1997 [Rome] [Military History]

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Roman Period Living History Groups (100BC - 500AD)

"A non-specialist's introduction to the fortresses, forts, watchtowers, temporary camps, depots and industrial sites, built by the Roman Army in Britain. Plus background material on the Roman Army and the military history of the province." © Peter Green 1997 [Rome] [Military History]

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Pontius Pilate

The fifth Roman procurator of Judea (ruled 26-36 AD), who issued the official order sentencing Jesus to death by crucifixion. Bible History Online.

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Northern Britain in the 5th Century AD

The eclipse of the Roman Empire in the West (c. 395-500) and the German migrations. Invasions in the early 5th century. ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. [Rome] [Military History]

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The Battle of Trasimeno

by the Borough of Tuoro sul Trasimeno "In the steps of Hannibal at the scene of the battle." [Rome] [Military History]

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Rome: The Punic Wars

Courtesy of World Cultures: An Internet Classroom and Anthology [Rome] [Military History]

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Ralegh and the Punic Wars by Charles G. Salas

Journal of the History of Ideas 57.2 (1996) 195-215. Copyright © 1996 The Journal of the History of Ideas, Inc.. All rights reserved. [Rome] [Military History]

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Ancient History Sourcebook:

Polybius (c.200-after 118 BCE): The Third Punic War, 149-146 BCE [The Histories, Book XXXVI-XXXIX] From: Polybius, The Histories of Polybius, 2 Vols., trans. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (London: Macmillan, 1889), II.499-507, 511-515, 528-530.ourtesy of the Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]

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The Battle of Cannae

[Rome] [Military History]

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Trajan's Column:

A Record of the Dacian Campaign and a Monument to Logistics Courtesy of Lacus Curtius by Bill Thayer [Rome] [Military History]

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Rekonstruktion eines Reiters der Ala II Flavia milliaria

"In Aalen war die Ala II Flavia pia fidelis milliaria stationiert, ein 1 000 Mann starke Kavallerieregiment. Diese Reitereinheiten bildeten die Elite der am Limes stationierten Hilfstruppen" The text is in German accompanied by photographs. Courtesy of the Limesmuseum Aalen. [Rome] [Military History]

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Models of the Roman Legion By Gary Brueggeman

"The purpose of the models presented here is to help visualize the legion. The models have been built from data from a variety of experts, many of whom do not agree with each other. The hope is that the models themselves may serve as a tool to clarify questions, identify solutions which are more or less likely, and lead to a further refinement of knowledge about the legion." [Rome] [Military History]

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Ancient Warfare

"Welcome to the Ancient Warfare Homepage. It is our endevor to create a comprehensive webpage focusing primarily on Roman and Greek warfare." [Rome] [Military History]

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Ancient History Sourcebook:Livy:

The Roman Way of Declaring War, c. 650 BCE From: William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, pp. 7-9. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]

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Ancient History Sourcebook:

Mithridates & The Roman Conquests in the East, 90-61 BCE From: William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, pp.118-120, 123-127. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]

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Polybius (c.200-after 118 BCE):

The Roman Maniple vs. The Macedonian Phalanx From:Polybius, The Histories of Polybius, 2 Vols., trans. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (London: Macmillan, 1889), pp. 226-230. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]

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Polybius (c.200-after 118 BCE): The Battle of Cannae, 216 BC

From:Polybius, The Histories of Polybius,vol. I. 264-275., trans. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (London: Macmillan, 1889), pp. 226-230. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]

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Polybius (c.200-after 118 BCE):

Rome at the End of the Punic Wars From:Polybius, The Histories of Polybius,vol. 6. , trans. Oliver J. Thatcher (Milwaukee: University Research Extension Co., 1907.), pp. 166-193 Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]

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Pharsalia (aka "The Civil War")

By Lucan (Marcus Annaeus Lucanus) A.D. 39 - A.D. 65 "The text of this edition is based on that published as The Pharsalia of Lucan, as translated by Sir Edward Ridley (Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1896)." Courtsey of the Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #16b. [Rome] [Military History]

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The Battle of Teutoburg Forest

from Gaius Velleus Paterculus (c.19 BCE-after 30 CE) Roman History. Translated by John Selby Watson. (New York: 1881), pp. 511-514. [Rome] [Military History]

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Warfare in the Ancient World

Bibliography supplied by Hugh Elton Trinity College [Rome] [Military History]

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The Collapse of the Roman Empire

Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean--Military Aspects by Hugh Elton . Courtesy of the On- line Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Orb Online Encyclopedia. Copyright (C) 1996, Hugh Elton. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. [Rome] [Military History]

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The Late Roman Army by Hugh Elton .

Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean: Courtesy of the On- line Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Online Encyclopedia. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. [Rome] [Military History]

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"Barbarization" in the Late Roman Army

Barbarization" in the Late Roman Army by Hugh Elton . Courtesy of the On- line Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Online Encyclopedia. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. [Rome] [Military History]

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Roman Legionary Forces in Sicily During the Second Punic War

The Number of Legions Stationed on the Island from 214 to 210 B.C. by E. D. Clark The Ancient History Bulletin , vol 8.4 (1994) 133-140. [Rome] [Military History]

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Britannia Military History Bibliographical Database

Bibliography of Roman Military History in Britain [Rome] [Military History]

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Military affairs in late antiquity

Bibliography supplied by Hugh Elton Trinity College [Rome] [Military History]

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Military History of the Roman State

A listing of works relevant to particular campaigns and battles in Roman History supplied by Hugh Elton Trinity College [Rome] [Military History]

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The Roman Army: A Bibliography

A listing of works relevant to the study of Roman warfare provided by John Paul Adams California State University Northridge [Rome] [Military History]

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Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies.

The Journal (ISSN 09613684) is dedicated to the Study of the Weapons, Armour, and Military Fittings of the Armies and Enemies of Rome and Byzantium. It covers all aspects of the subject and its source material - archaeological, literary, sub-literary, iconographic/representational, and experimental. [Rome] [Military History]

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ROMEC:The Roman Military Equipment Conference.

"The first Roman Military Equipment Research Seminar was held in the Department of Ancient History and Classical Archaeology (now, sadly, defunct) at the University of Sheffield (GB) in 1983. It has since grown and now visits various international venues, but still retains the same goals as that first seminar: to further the study of Roman military equipment with contributions from professional or amateur, academic or re-enactor, archaeologist or historian." [Rome] [Military History]

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A Beginner`s Guide to Roman Arms and Armour

Museum of Antiquities in Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom A `virtual book` that provides an illustrated introduction to the arms and armour of Roman soldiers. [ancient weapons] [Weapons and Warfare]

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Catapults in Greek and Roman Antiquity.

By D. Baatz [Rome] [Military History]

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Attila the Hun and the Battle of Chalons by Arthur Ferrill

Draft of an article that appeared in a slighty different form in The Quarterly Journal of Military History MHQ. [Rome] [Military History]

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SAMH: The Society for Ancient Military Historians

The Society of Ancient Military Historians is an organization dedicated to the promotion of the study of warfare in the Ancient World. Members sponsor and contribute to the publication of our newsletter, Res Militares. Our leadership works with and within the American Philological Association to arrange contact between our members and within the larger academic community. [Rome] [Military History]

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Roman Scotland: Outpost of an Empire.

Exhibition at the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow. This exhibition tells the story of the Roman presence in Scotland in the first and second centuries AD, with emphasis on the Antonine Wall frontier and the life lived by the soldiers based in forts along its line. [Rome] [Military History]

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The Ermine Street Guard.

The Ermine Street Guard is a society dedicated to research into the Roman Army and the reconstruction of Roman armour and equipment. The reconstructions are primarily from the latter half of the first century A.D. although equipment from other Roman periods is reproduced for experimental and display purposes. [Rome] [Military History]

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Legio IX Hispana

The Ninth `Spanish` Legion [Rome] [Military History]

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Leg VIIII Hspa Pagina Domus

"The aims of the somewhat anarchic collective of interested individuals (hereinafter known as 'The Society') are: To recreate all aspects of life in the Roman Legions of the last half of the first century anno domini, including campaign, drill, combat and leisure activities as accurately as possible using the tools of living history and practical archaeology." [Rome] [Military History]

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The Legio X Gemina Homepage

Home-page of THE GEMINA PROJECT, a Dutch Roman Military reconstruction and reenactment group. [Rome] [Military History]

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Imperial Service quarantees citizenship:

Would you like to know more? The homepage of Sander van Dorst with numerous links for the study of the Roman army. [Rome] [Military History]

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Roman Expansion to 133 BC

Roman and Etruscan Kings; Republic of Rome 509-343 BC; Rome`s Conquest of Italy 343-264 BC; Rome at War with Carthage 264-201 BC; Republican Rome`s Imperialism 201-133 BC. [Ethics] [Rome] [Military History]

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Military Resources

Dedicated links to the study of the ancient Roman military. The Dalton School[Rome] [Military History]

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The Roman Army

Nowhere does the Roman talent for organization show itself so clearly as in its army. The story of the Roman army is an extensive one, demonstrated in part by the scale of this chapter. The first part of this chapter considers the history of the Roman army (concentrating on the legions), trying to explain as much background as possible. The later part of the chapter seeks to explain specific points such as various different units, the workings of the army, etc. [Rome] [Military History]

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The Imperial Roman Twentieth Legion:

Bringing Ancient Rome to Life "The Twentieth Legion was founded in 1991 to recreate the soldiers of the Roman Army for public demonstrations and living history displays" [Rome] [Military History]

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Legio VIII Augusta.

Interessengemeinschaft für experimentelle Archäologie und Geschichtsdarstellung. [Rome] [Military History]

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Ancient Rome Lesson Links

The following are the links from the lessons in the ThemeWorks Ancient Rome Unit: [Rome] [Military History]

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Legio X Fretensis.

"Now LEGIO X FRETENSIS is the military historical club. We make reconstruction weapon, armor, eguipment and life of roman legionaries from reign of Emperor Marcvs Ulpivs Traianvs (98-117 AC)." [Rome] [Military History]

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Legio VIII Augusta MGV;

A living historical society depicting 1st and 2nd century Roman Britain. "We are a group of enthusiasts from Wales and the North of England who aim to authentically depict the society which existed in Roman Britain during the late 1st and early 2nd Century AD." [Rome] [Military History]

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Legio XIII GEM ;

A living historical society depicting 1st and 2nd century Roman Britain. " You are now on the Homepage of the Society for Roman History in Austria, an Austrian Roman Military and Civilian reconstruction and reenactment group." [Rome] [Military History]

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Egeria & The Liturgy of Jerusalem

Hypertext version developed by Michael Frasier, Department of Theology, University of Durham. [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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A Glossary of Rhetorical Terms with Examples

From Kentucky Classics [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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Agis

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Alcibiades

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Marriage Contract From Egypt

This Greek document shows a Marriage Contract From Egypt written in 13 BC. It mentions Caesar Augustus and a Roman Drachma.

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Alexander

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Antony

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Aratus

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Aristides

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Divorce Agreement from Egypt

This Greek document shows a Marriage Contract From Egypt written in 13 BC. It mentions Caesar Augustus and a Roman Drachma.

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Artaxerxes

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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Loeb Classical Library

[Rome] [Literary Resources]

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Aemilius Paulus

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Agesilaus

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Caesar

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Caius Gracchus

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Caius Marius

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Camillus

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Chronology of Roman Rulers

Chronology of Roman Rulers (200 BCE""565 CE). By Dr. K.C. Hanson

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Cato The Younger

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Chronology of Roman Rulers

Chronology of Roman Rulers (200 BCE""565 CE). By Dr. K.C. Hanson

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Cicero

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Augustus: Images of Power

AUGUSTUS: IMAGES OF POWER Mark Morford, Classics Department, University of Virginia. 17 photos of: The Mausoleum, The Ara Pacis, The Statue of Augustus at Prima Porta, the Gemma Augustea.

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Cimon

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Augustus: Images of Power

AUGUSTUS: IMAGES OF POWER Mark Morford, Classics Department, University of Virginia. 17 photos of: The Mausoleum, The Ara Pacis, The Statue of Augustus at Prima Porta, the Gemma Augustea.

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Cleomenes

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Augustus

Emperor Augustus [photos and text] (Cedar Rapids Museum of Art)

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Alcibiades With Coriolanus (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Augustus

Emperor Augustus [photos and text] (Cedar Rapids Museum of Art)

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Crassus With Nicias (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Demetrius And Antony (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Demosthenes And Cicero (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Dion And Brutus (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Fabius With Pericles (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Lucullus With Cimon (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Lysander With Sylla (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Numa With Lycurgus (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site

This site has everything you need to know about planning a trip to Hadrian's Wall.

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The Throne of the Caesars: Trajan

Emperor A.D 98 - 117. Trajan was governor of Upper Germany when he was adopted by the emperor Nerva and made heir to the throne. He became emperor when Nerva died in A.D. 98. Trajan was a professional soldier who had worked his way up through the ranks. He had served honorably with Domitian as a general in his German campaigns. While Nerva was not trusted by the army because he was suspected of being involved in the murder of their favorite emperor Domitian, Trajan was liked by the soldiers because he was one of them. He continued to lead his Roman legions to conquer so much more territory that by the time of his death in A.D. 117, the Roman Empire covered more territory than at any other time in its 700 year history.

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Numa With Lycurgus (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Pelopidas With Marcellus (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Roman Provincial Administration

Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies

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Philopoemen With Flamininus (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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The Pilate Inscription

The Pilate Inscription [text & interpretation] Language: Latin; Medium: limestone; Size: 82 centimeters high 65 centimeters wide; Length: 4 lines of writing; Genre: Building Dedication Dedicator: Pontius Pilate (praefect of Judea) Approximate Date: 26-37 CE; Place of Discovery: Caesarea, Israel; Date of Discovery: 1961; Current Location: Israel Museum(Jerusalem)

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Pompey With Agesilaus (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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The Pilate Inscription

The Pilate Inscription [text & interpretation] Language: Latin; Medium: limestone; Size: 82 centimeters high 65 centimeters wide; Length: 4 lines of writing; Genre: Building Dedication Dedicator: Pontius Pilate (praefect of Judea) Approximate Date: 26-37 CE; Place of Discovery: Caesarea, Israel; Date of Discovery: 1961; Current Location: Israel Museum(Jerusalem)

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Poplicola With Solon (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Romulus With Theseus (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Sertorius With Eumenes (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Tiberius And Caius Gracchus With Agis And Cleome(Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources] [Plutarch]

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Anecdotes & Stories

Anecdotes as Historical Evidence for the Principate. By Richard Saller.

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Timoleon With Aemilius Paulus (Comparison)

This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literature] [Plutarch]

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Index of Imperial Stemmata.

live links lead to the family trees of important imperial dynasties. Live links from the family trees will take you to individual biographies. By Michael DiMaio, Jr. Courtsey of De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Index of Imperial Stemmata.

Live links lead to the family trees of important imperial dynasties. Live links from the family trees will take you to individual biographies. By Michael DiMaio, Jr. Courtsey of De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Julius Caesar Roman Emperors

Julius Caesar may not be technically referred to as the first "Emperor" of Rome, but he began a dynasty that would rule the Roman Empire for a hundred years. In 44 B.C. the Senate bestowed upon him the title of "Imperator" which is where the word "emperor" originates. Though he was acting as dictator, he would not allow himself to be referred to publicly as king or emperor but "Caesar" instead. He was assassinated in 44 B.C. by some of his close friends, including Brutus on the Ides of March, the 15th. [romanemperors.com]

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Ides of March

In 44 BC, at the celebration of the Lupercalia, Julius Caesar, seated in a gilded chair at the front of the Rostra, publicly refused the diadem of kingship presented to him by Antony. He already exercised the power of dictator, and many regarded the gesture as nothing more than pretense. Indeed, for Appian, "the difference it made was only of a word since in reality the dictator is exactly like a king." A month later, on the Ides of March (Idus Martiae), the would-be king was dead. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Josephus' References to Crucifixion

"Josephus (b. 37 C.E.) is our best literary source for the practice of crucifixion in Israel during the Greco-Roman period. As a general in command of the Jewish forces of Galilee in the Great Revolt against Rome (66-73 C.E.), he reports his attempts to save the lives of three crucified captives by appealing directly to the Roman general Titus. One survived the cross under a physician's care, the other two could not be saved." by Dr. James D. Tabor

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Beneficiarii Consularis

A Reassessment of the Functions of beneficiarii consularis by Robert L. Dise, Jr. (The University of Northern Iowa) The Ancient History Bulletin, vol 9.2 (1995) 72-85 [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Aurelian

Lucius Domitius Aurelianus was born of poor parents on 9 September AD 214 in Lower Moesia. His father was a tenant farmer of a wealthy senator Aurelius, after whom the family were named. Aurelian rose through the ranks of the army, serving with distinction on the Danube frontier. By AD 268, when Aureolus rebelled against Gallienus, he held a cavalry commanding north Italy. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Diocletian & the Tetrarchy

[Rome] [Political Resources]

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Diocletian the Builder

Diocletian the Builder and the Decline of Architecture by Michael Greenhalgh. Diocletian's apparent love of ritual was accompanied by a passion for building. Being an Emperor, he did not need to stint on either energy or materials in this notoriously expensive passtime - one which led Elizabeth I of England's Lord Chancellor to warn: Put not thy finger in the mortar! [Rome] [Political Resources]

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A Visual Compendium of Roman Emperors

The goal of this page is to present an illustrated list of Roman Emperors. While I was in Rome In July of 1995 the idea for this page hit me at some point in the Vatican museum. I had seen lists of emperors on the net and I figured these lists would be much more interesting if they had pictures as well. Thus, I tried to snap pics of as many emperors as I could find in various museums. By Justin D. Paola Digital Image Analysis Laboratory Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Ammianus Marcellinus on the Emperor Valens

Ancient History Sourcebook: Ammianus Marcellinus (330-395 AD): The Battle of Hadrianopolis, 378 AD [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Josephus' References to Crucifixion

Crucifixion in Antiquity - The Jewish Roman World of Jesus by Joe Zias. "Undoubtedly, one of the cruelest and most humiliating forms of punishment in the ancient world was, according to ancient sources, crucifixion. The Jewish historian Josephus best described it following the siege of Jerusalem by the Romans in AD 66-70 as "the most wretched of deaths."1 Whereas in Seneca's Epistle 101 to Lucilius, he argues that suicide is preferable to the cruel fate of being put on the cross." Zias cites references from Josephus, Plutarch, Rufus, and others. Joe Zias was the Curator of Archaeology/Anthropology for the Israel Antiquities Authority from 1972 to 1997.

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Lenocinium Scope and Consequences

by Andrew M. Riggsby Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stifung fur Rechtsgeschite, romanische Abteilung 112 (1995) 423-7. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Oratorical Proof

Appropriation and the Reversal as a Basis for Oratorical Proof by Andrew M. Riggsby Originally CP 90.3 (1995) 245-56. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Rome's Treatment of Rhodes in 168

Sparing a Hornets Nest: Rome's Treatment of Rhodes in 168 Text of the 1992 APA Abstract by Rob S. Rice [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Rome's Settlement of Lycia and Caria after 188

Not as Slaves, but as Friends and Allies: Rome's Settlement of Lycia and Caria after 188 Text of the 1994 APA Abstract by Rob S. Rice [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Cicero Bibliography of Print Resources

Bibliography of primary and secondary sources [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Augustus:Images of Power

By Mark Morford [Rome] [Political Resources]

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The Deeds of the Divine Augustus

, By Augustus, Written 14 A.C.E. Translated by Thomas Bushnell, BSG, Courtesy of the Internet Classics Archive. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Mausoleum of Augustus and the Res Gestae

The Mausoleum of Augustus and the Res Gestae Courtesy of Professor John Paul Adams, Department of Modern and Classical Languages & Literatures at the California State University at Northridge. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Resources for Augustan Studies

Courtesy of Eric Kondratieff. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Ancient History Sourcebook: Augustan Encomiums

, c. 31 BCE - 14 CE by Horace From: William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, pp. 174-179. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Theodosius I

The Catholic Encyclopedia. [Rome] [Political Resources]

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Resources for Greek and Latin Classics

from the Library of Congress The Library of Congress Resources for Greek and Latin Classics Page. Here you will find information about the Library's resources for Classical Studies, and links to resources available on the Internet. [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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Classical Studies Resources & General Links

Created by librarian Mike Madin [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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Greek and Latin Classics Internet Resources

"Welcome to the Library of Congress Greek and Latin Classics Internet Resources Page. Here you will find links to resources for Classics and certain related disciplines (Medi¾val Studies, Renaissance Studies, Patristics, etc.) on the Internet. [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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Project Libellus

"Welcome to project Libellus, an ongoing attempt to provide a library of classical Latin (and Greek) texts with minimal redistribution restrictions. The archive is physically located at the University of Washington, Seattle, and is currently being run by Konrad Schroder and Owen Ewald." [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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The American Society of Greek and Latin Epigraphy

"This is the home page of the American Society of Greek and Latin Epigraphy." [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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Virgil.org

A very useful collection of links and resources by David Wilson-Okamura. Copyright © 1998 David Wilson-Okamura. [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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Pagina domestica P. Vergili Maronis Vergil's Home Page

Links to Vergil sites of all sorts..... [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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A Bibliographic Guide to Vergil`s Aeneid

by Shirley Werner "It would be folly to try to list everything written on or relevant to the Aeneid, and this bibliography does not pretend to do so. Nevertheless, as I contemplate the dangers of thoroughness on the one hand, and arbitrary selectiveness on the other, it seems to me best to steer cautiously closer to the former. Many items still need to be added. My focus is contemporary, but no time limit was imposed." [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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Labyrinth Library: Latin Texts

This page is filled with classical Latin texts and influential Greek texts. [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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The Aeneid of Virgil

Anonymous Translation. This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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The Georgics by Virgil

Translated by John Dryden. This work is provided bythe Internet Classics Archive [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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Ludus Sanae Mentis Latin Page

Latin Texts [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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Index of Images from Vergil

MSS VAT. lat. 3225 and 3867. [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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The VERGILProject

The Vergil Project is a collaborative enterprise dedicated to collecting, creating, and disseminating resources for teaching and research about Vergil. Its main goal is to develop an on-line, interactive hypertext database of all materials that might be of interest to any student of Vergil, from the novice to the professional scholar, from the passionate amateur to the casual browser. The purpose of this resource is to facilitate the study and enjoyment of Vergil's poetry and to make it freely accessible to the widest possible audience. [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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Read classical authors on-line!

Page maintained by John R. Lenz at Drew University [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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The Internet Classics Archive

"WELCOME to the Internet Classics Archive, an award-winning, searchable collection of almost 400 classical Greek and Roman texts (in English translation) with user-provided commentary." [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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Classical Texts from the University of Washington

Including the works of Apuleius, Ausonius, Caesar, Catullus, Cicero, Horace, Livy, Nepos, Ovid, Propertius, Prudentius, Sallust, Tibullus, and Vergil. [Rome] [Literary Resources]

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Cn. Domitius Corbulo and the Parthian War

Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]

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Josephus (37- after 93 CE):

The Roman Army in the First Century CE From: Flavius Josephus: The Jewish War. III.5-6, trans. William Whiston. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]

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Medieval Sourcebook: Jordanes:

The Battle of Chalôns, 451 CE From: From: William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, pp. 322-325. Courtsey of the Internet Medieval Source Book. [Rome] [Military History]

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Imperial Battle Map Index by Hugh Elton,

Cartography by Christos Nüssli Courtesy of the De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors . [Rome] [Military History]

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Imperial Battle Description Index by Hugh Elton

Courtesy of the De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors . [Rome] [Military History]

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Loricae Romanae

"This set of pages presents images and information about the construction, decoration and function of Imperial cuirasses of the first two centuries A.D. and the problems in dealing with archaeological and iconographic evidence. Note: Quotes from other sources and Roman words denoted by Italics." [Rome] [Military History]

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Looking to the Next War:

Laws of War in the Roman Empire 350 TO 380 AD. by Andrew Drummond "Presented to the Mid-America Conference on History, 17-19 September 1992, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. The following material has been made available in electronic form through the courtesy of the author. It may be copied, reproduced, and redistributed freely in its entirety provided full credit is given to the author. Distribution of portions of the text, or inclusion of all or parts in printed and published form should be performed only with the express consent of the author. The electronic distribution of this material does not preclude its later publication in other forms." [Rome] [Military History]

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Roman Print Collection

Courtesy of Aero Art International Online. [Rome] [Military History]

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Josephus (37- after 93 CE): An Imperial Triumph, 71 CE

From: Flavius Josephus: VII. 3-7, trans. William Whiston. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]

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Petition to the Emperor Philip,

On Official Military Extortion, 246 CECE From:Petition of the Araguenians and Rescript of the Emperor Philip [r. 243-249 CE] on Official & Military Extortion, 246 CE. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]

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Ammianus Marcellinus (330-395 CE):

The Battle of Hadrianopolis, 378 CE From: Ammianus Marcellinus, The Roman History of Ammianus Marcellinus During the Reigns of The Emperors Constantius, Julian, Jovianus, Valentinian, and Valens, trans. C. D. Yonge (London: G. Bell & Sons, 1911), pp. 609-618. Courtsey of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. [Rome] [Military History]

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Mithraism

"The legacy of the Roman Empire's final pagan state religion." by David Fingrut, SEED Alternative School Toronto, 1993. Courtesy of Bill Thayer of LacusCurtius. copyright © William P. Thayer. The Architecture of Marcus Vitruvius Pollio

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Mithraism

"The legacy of the Roman Empire's final pagan state religion." by David Fingrut, SEED Alternative School Toronto, 1993. Courtesy of Bill Thayer of LacusCurtius. copyright © William P. Thayer. The Architecture of Marcus Vitruvius Pollio

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ArchNet

"ArchNet serves as the World Wide Web Virtual Library for Archaeology. This server provides access to archaeological resources available on the Internet. Information is categorized by geographic region and subject."

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Classics and Mediterranean Archaeology Home Page

"This server collects links to known internet resources of interest to classicists and Mediterranean archaeologists."

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Pompeii Forum Project: Home Page

"The Pompeii Forum Project is a collaborative research venture that is archaeologicaly based, heavily dependent upon advanced technology, and so conceived as to address broad issues in urban history and urban design. Evidence gathered to date challenges commonly held and widely published notions about the evolution of the forum, especially during the final years of the city's life. The goals are to provide the first systematic documentation of the architecture and decoration of the forum, to interpret evidence as it pertains to Pompeii's urban history, and to make wider contributions to both the history of urbanism and contemporary problems of urban design."

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CAD and the reconstruction of Pompeii

Using CAD for the reconstruction of the forum at Pompeii has allowed the project to study aspects of the forum that were not possible to explore without such technology. The project goal was to construct an accurate 3D model of the forum as it exists today, a model that presents not only walls and columns, but more importantly, describes the different construction phases of the forum based on John Dobbins' observation and analysis.

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WebAcropol

Provides viewers with a virtual tour of the Acropolis in Athens.

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ROMARCH List Home Page

"The ROMARCH home page is a crossroads for Web resources on the art and archaeology of Italy and the Roman provinces, from ca. 1000 B.C. to A.D. 600. ROMARCH is an Internet discussion group sponsored by the Interdepartmental Program in Classical Art and Archaeology (IPCAA) at the University of Michigan, currently with more than 350 subscribers world-wide."

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Romarch: Roman art and archaeology.

The ROMARCH pages are the original crossroads for Web resources on the art and archaeology of Italy and the Roman provinces, ca. 1000 BC - AD 700.

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Scrolls from the Dead Sea:

The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Scholarship "The exhibition Scrolls From the Dead Sea: The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Scholarship brings before the American people a selection from the scrolls which have been the subject of intense public interest."

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Archaeology and Architecture

This page contains all kinds of archaeological information for European archaeology,especially the Mediterrenean. It also provides a lot of interesting links to archaeology and/or architecture related web-sites.

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Archaeological Fieldwork Server

"This service is designed to allow those seeking archaeological fieldwork opportunities to browse postings submitted by those who have them to offer."

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Map of Trade Routes and Empires

Map of Trade Routes and great empires of the 1st Century AD.

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Simon James`s ANCIENT CELTS PAGE

"This is an experimental home page, presenting "some stuff" about the peoples referred to as Ancient Celts written from the view point of an archaeologist.

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PIB's Archaeology Page

A meta-index guide to links concerned with archaeological research in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas.

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Voice of the Shuttle: Archaeology Page

The "Voice of the Shuttle: Web Page for Humanities Research" woven by Alan Liu. A meta-index guide to archaeological resources on the web focusing on general resources, archaeological sites, projects and Musueums, historical preservation, journals, departments and programs, course syllabi and teaching resources, listservers and newsgroups, and conferences and call for papers.

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The Archaeology of Early Latium

Brief descriptions of the pre-Roman settlements at Ficana, Lavinium, and Osteria dell` Osa. [Vergil`s Aeneid: Commentary]

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Archaeological Resource Guide for Europe

Virtual Library for European Archaeology

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Spanish Excavations at Mount Testaccio (Rome)

"Mount Testaccio is an artificial hill located within the Aurelian wall of Rome.It is at the south of the modern part of the city and behind the old river port. It has a perimeter of almost one kilometer and a maximum altitude over the sea-level of 45 meters. This hill is exclusively made of the remains of millions of amphorae that arrived in Rome during the first three centuries of our era".

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The University of Arizona excavations at Lugnano,

in Teverina, Italy by Professor David Soren, University of Arizona, Photography by Noelle Soren.

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The Second Campaign of Excavations:

Chianciano Terme, Tuscany, Italy. by Professor David Soren, University of Arizona, Photography by Noelle Soren. With the help of the community of Chianciano Terme, a team from the University of Arizona has initiated excavation of an archaeological zone in the locality of central Chianciano known as Mezzomiglio. The zone was partially excavated in 1993 by Giulio Paolucci, the well known archaeologist and author of Etruscan studies from Chianciano Terme.

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A Guide to Underwater Archaeology Resources on the Internet

"This Web page began as a project for a class entitled "Internet Resources and Services" taught in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, at the University of Texas - Austin. We chose the term "underwater" in order to include any archaeology done underwater."

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Texas A&M University Nautical Archaeology Program

- Faculty; Fredrick Hocker [Biblical Archaeology]

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Archaeological Excavations 1999

by the Israel Foreign Ministry "This list of archaeological expeditions which accept volunteers is compiled by the Israel Foreign Ministry as a service to the public. The excavation details contained herein have been contributed by the individual expeditions, who bear responsibility for their contents."

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DIRT Societies

"Groups of people who study old, or ancient, ways of human life."

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Horace's Villa Project

"This Web site presents Horace's Villa near Licenza, Italy and our new project jointly undertaken there in the period 1997-2000 under the institutional sponsorship of the American Academy in Rome and the Archaeological Superintendency for Lazio of the Italian Ministry of Culture."

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Archaeological Institute of America

"The Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) has been dedicated to the encouragement and support of archaeological research and publication and to the protection of the world's cultural heritage for more than a century. A non-profit cultural and educational organization chartered by the U.S. Congress, it is the oldest and largest archaeological organization in North America, with more than 10,000 members around the world."

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Learning Sites Inc.

"Digitally Reconstructed Ancient Worlds for Interactive Education and Research."

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Archaeology Resources for Education.

"People that this list may be useful to include: archaeology on the Net; educators creating an archaeology unit for Individual and Society, Science in Society, and/or History; an Educational Archaeologist looking to use multimedia and computers in her program; students looking for information about archaeology and a possible career in archaeology...the list is potentially endless."

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Janiculum Mills Excavations:

Roman water-mills on the Janiculum Hill, Rome. "At the invitation of the American Academy in Rome, and with the kind permission of the Soprintendenza Archeologica di Roma, a 5-week excavation season was undertaken in June and July 1998 to investigate the Aqua Traiana and a large Roman water-mill complex in the Academy's parking lot, on the Janiculum Hill in Rom." Courtesy of Dr Andrew Wilson

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Aerial Archaeology.

"First French site exclusively devoted to aerial archaeology as well as convergent moderns techniques. Currently without equivalent in the world, it presents texts and images with a will of information and initiation for a very large audience. From Neolithic era to Medieval, the outstanding stages of discoveries in Poitou-Charentes are illustrated by photographs of the principal times of archaeological chronology." A site by Jacques Dassié.

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The Dung File.

"The Dung File consists of a list of references dealing with pollen, parasites, and plant remains in coprolites and latrine fills from archaeological and paleoenvironmental sites. The focus is on studies in North America. Compiled and copyrighted by Alwynne B. Beaudoin.

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Internet Archaeology

"Internet Archaeology is the world's first fully refereed electronic journal for archaeology. We aim to become one of the world's archaeological journals of record and we have set ourselves the task of publishing papers of high academic standing which also try to utilise the potential of electronic publication. We wish to present the results of archaeologicalresearch in a readable manner and yet make it possible for readers to explore the data upon which conclusions are based."

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The aquaduct outside of Ceasarea

The Aqueduct brought running water to the old city of Caesarea, along a raised aqueduct. The source of the water was the springs of Shummi, 10KM away. Herod build the aqueduct in the 1st C BC. later, in the 2nd C AD it was expanded by the Romans. Later, 2 more aqueducts were built. [images] [Archaeology]

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Ancient Art

(Greek and Roman) in the collection of the North Carolina Museum of Art

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The Second Punic War (218-202 BC) Timeline

Almost yearly timeline of events leading up to and through the Second Punic War. Also Livy`s analysis of the causes of the Second Punic War | Causes of the Second Punic War | Timeline of the Second Punic War | Alternative scenarios | After the Second Punic War

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ANCIENT ROME IMAGES

Lots of Ancient Images. J. Cohen

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The Gladiator

Accurate historical data about the ancient Gladiator and his owner (lanista) with references and notes from the Classics Dept at Brooklyn College.

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The Romans

HTML Supplement to my BKA 40a program "The Romans" which can be downloaded from ZDnet.com

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Commodus - Emperor A.D 180 - 192

It is unfortunate that the emperor Marcus Aurelius did not choose to adopt a capable man as his son to succeed him on the throne. He chose instead Commodus, the spoiled son of Aurelius and his wife, Faustina the Younger. From The Rulers of the Roman World, from Jay King, The College of Education at San José State University.

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Marcus Aurelius

The study of philosophy and other scholarly pursuits were the things that Marcus Aurelius loved most of all, but it was his lot to spend most of his reign fighting barbarians far from the city of Rome. From The Rulers of the Roman World, from Jay King, The College of Education at San José State University.

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Lucius Aurelius Commodus (AD 161 - AD 192)

Commodus didn't only fail to measure up to the high standards set by his father, he went down in history as a monster., a megalomaniac who thought himself a god, had the months renamed in his honour and delighted in playing the gladiator in the circus. From the Illustrated History of the Roman Empire at roman-empire.net

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Roman World: Urbanization and Roads

Osshe Historical &Cultural Atlas Resource. Shockwave Movie.

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Roman World: citizen communities outside Italy

Osshe Historical &Cultural Atlas Resource. Shockwave Movie.

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Roman World: Origin of the Emperors

Osshe Historical &Cultural Atlas Resource.

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Spread of Christianity: 2nd-4th cent. A.D.

Osshe Historical & Cultural Atlas Resource.

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Roman Italy Interactive Map

Illustrated History of the Roman Empire.

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Italy and Sicily

Antiquity Online.

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The Roman Map of Britain 410 A.D.

Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923

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The Roman Forum (Plan)

Click on the dots to access the monuments. With the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium in 31 BC, Octavian, Caesar's adopted son and heir, was left undisputed ruler of Rome. Proclaimed Augustus four years later, he sought to build a capital worthy of the empire over which it ruled, boasting that he had "found Rome a city of brick and left it a city of marble." And, indeed, the Roman Forum essentially is Augustan: the Temples of Saturn, Concord, Castor and Pollux, Divine Julius, the Basilicas of Julia and Aemilia, the Curia and Rostra--all took their final form during his triumvirate and principate.

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Ancient Rome Interactive Map.

Illustrated History of the Roman Empire.

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Maps and Codices of the Roman Empire

A few maps of parts of Rome and the provinces. With a timeline of the Roman Empire.

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Theaters outside of Greek and Rome

Osshe Historical &Cultural Atlas Resource.

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Barbarian Migrations in Late Antiquity

Osshe Historical & Cultural Atlas Resource. Shockwave Movie.

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Map of the Roman Empire

This map is clickable by province. By clicking within the borders of a certain province on the map, or by clicking on the name of the province below the map, you can link to the resources on the Web that are related to that province of the Roman Empire. New Laboratory for Teaching and Learning, The Dalton School

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Map of Trade Routes

First Century. New Laboratory for Teaching and Learning, The Dalton School

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Trade in the Roman Empire

Osshe Historical & Cultural Atlas Resource. Shockwave Presentation.

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Atlas of the Greek and Roman World

Home page for the Classical Atlas Project, a joint effort of the American Philological Association and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Includes information about the forthcoming Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman world, a reference work of permanent value. The atlas has an exceptionally broad appeal to everyone worldwide with an interest in ancient Greeks and Romans, the lands they penetrated, and the peoples and cultures they encountered in Europe, North Africa and Western Asia. The site includes information about the atlas, its contents, how it was developed and how copies can be obtained.

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Atlas historique de l'Antiquité tardive

L'Antiquité tardive est la période de l'Histoire couvrant la fin des Empires romain et sassanide, la formation des royaumes barbares en Occident, la transformation de l'Empire romain d'Orient en Empire byzantin et la première expansion musulmane. C'est la fin de l'Antiquité et le début du haut Moyen Âge. Jadis méconnue, elle fait aujourd'hui l'objet d'une attention particulière. Ce site a pour but d'offrir des repères utiles à la compréhension de la géopolitique complexe de cette époque.

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OSSHE Historical & Cultural Atlas Resource

European Collection. Developed cooperatively between the University of Oregon Department of History, UO New Media Center and Department of Geography InfoGraphics Lab.

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Interactive Ancient Mediterranean

IAM is an on-line atlas of the ancient Mediterranean world designed to serve the needs and interests of students and teachers in high school, community college and university courses in classics, ancient history, geography, archaeology and related fields.

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WHKMLA Historical Atlas of Europe

This is an on-line historical atlas which uses colorful maps to show Europe in different time periods.

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Antique and Medieval Atlas

An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. The DIR and ORB Ancient and Medieval Atlas. Christos Nüssli

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Some Maps of the Roman Empire

The maps on this section of my website are taken from an unidentified late 19c English-language school atlas of the Roman world.

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Imperial Battle Map Index

Hugh Elton, Cartography by Christos Nüssli. To find an Imperial Battle Map on De Imperatoribus Romanis, click on the first letter of name of the battle you wish to find. If there was a series of battles in a specific location, click on that year in which you are interested. Sorted by Name.

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2nd Punic War Map

CLICK MAP FOR INTERACTIVITY

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The Forum of Trajan in Rome (Getty Center)

This virtual reality (VR) model re-creates an ancient urban environment based on the best archaeological evidence available today. A real-time visual simulation model of the Forum of Trajan, the largest of the Imperial Fora in the Forum Romanum, was commissioned in 1996-1997 by the J. Paul Getty Trust for 'Beyond Beauty: Antiquities as Evidence,' one of the major opening exhibitions at the Getty Center in Los Angeles

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Growth of The Roman Empire Map

A&E Television Network

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Roman Empire Expansion

Osshe Historical & Cultural Atlas Resource. Shockwave Presentation.

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Expansion during the Early Roman Republic

Territorial Expansion of the Roman World. 509 - 265 B.C.)

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18 centuries of Roman Empire

1790 years, to be exact. The Roman Empire began in 338 BC, when the city of Rome (a republic) imposed its direct rule upon the former league of Latin cities. It ended in 1453, as the last Roman Emperor, Constantine XI, died defending the walls of New Rome against the Turks. Not to my knowledge has any other state had a continuous existence for this long; the nearest would perhaps be Japan (arguably since about 400 A.D.). Over these 18 centuries the fortunes of the Empire have waxed and waned greatly. However, for about the middle 3/4 of this time, from 146 BC to 1204 AD, it was without doubt the greatest and wealthiest power in the northern Mediterranean. Below are some small maps which give an idea of the Empire's changing territorial extent (including client states) over this period of greatness.

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The Roman Empire, 12 AD.

Map 18, Antiquity Online

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Rome and Romania, 27 BC-1453 AD.

Large list and chronology with maps. Kelley L. Ross.

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Roman Frontier Map

Osshe Historical &Cultural Atlas Resource. Shockwave presentation.

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300 BC Map of the World

Reconstruction of world map according to Dicaearchus (300 B.C.), modern interpretive drawing. Cartographic Images.

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220 BC Map of the World

The world according to Eratosthenes, ca. 220 B.C., modern interpretive drawing. Cartographic Images.

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150 BC Map of the World (Globe)

Reconstruction of Crate's Globe (ca. 150 B.C.), Cartographic Images.

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150-130 BC Map of the World

World map according to Posidonius (150-130 B.C.), Cartographic Images.

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18 A.D. Map of the World

Reconstruction of World map according to Strabo (18 A.D.), Cartographic Images.

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20 A.D. Map of the World

Reconstruction of the Orbis Terrarum (20 A.D.), Cartographic Images.

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40 A.D. Map of the World

Reconstruction of the World map according to Pomponius Mela (ca. 40 A.D.), Cartographic Images.

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1628 Reconstruction

by Petrus Bertius of the world map, Cartographic Images.

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124 A.D. Map of the World

Reconstruction of the world map according to Dionysius (124 A.D.), Cartographic Images.

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Map of Roads in the Roman Empire

At the height of the Empire there were more than 50,000 miles of roads stretching from Britain to Mesopotamia.

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Roman World: Urbanization in the 2nd cent. A.D.

Osshe Historical &Cultural Atlas Resource.

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