Ancient Egypt

Egypt: Daily Life

Ancient Egypt was a narrow strip of land along the Nile River. Each year the river flooded its banks, leaving behind a fertile fringe of soil they called "the Black Land," while the desert all around the Nile valley was called "the Red Land." It was here the Ancient Egyptians built their homes. The people of ancient Egypt highly valued family life. They treasured children and regarded them as a great blessing. In the lower class families, the mother raised the children. The wealthy and nobility, had slaves and servants that helped take care of the children by attending to their daily needs. If a couple had no children, they would pray to the gods and goddesses for help. They would also place letters at the tombs of dead relatives asking them to use their influence with the gods. Magic was also used as an attempt to have children. In event that a couple still could not conceive a child, adoption was also an option.

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Life in Ancient Egypt for Kids

Just as in the modern world, in ancient Egypt life was very different for people, depending on their wealth. For example, kings and high officials in ancient Egypt lived entirely differently than poor workers. Ancient Egypt has always fascinated people, because of the way that they lived more so than the way that they died. Ancient Egyptians were also devoted to their families, which were apparent in the activities that they enjoyed with friends, music, parties, swimming, fishing, hunting, sailing, and especially their children.

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Ancient Egyptian Society and Family Life

The nuclear family was the core of Egyptian society and many of the gods were even arranged into such groupings. There was tremendous pride in one's family, and lineage was traced through both the mother's and father's lines. Respect for one's parents was a cornerstone of morality, and the most fundamental duty of the eldest son (or occasionally daughter) was to care for his parents in their last days and to ensure that they received a proper burial. Countless genealogical lists indicate how important family ties were, yet Egyptian kinship terms lacked specific words to identify blood relatives beyond the nuclear family. For example, the word used to designate "mother" was also used for "grandmother," and the word for "father" was the same as "grandfather"; likewise, the terms for "son," "grandson," and "nephew" (or "daughter," "granddaughter," and "niece") were identical. "Uncle" and "brother" (or "sister" and "aunt") were also designated by the same word. To make matters even more confusing for modern scholars, the term "sister" was often used for "wife," perhaps an indication of the strength of the bond between spouses.

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Family Structure in Ancient Egypt

It is important to assert that much of the archaeological reference to family structure in Ancient Egypt reflects the life of well-to-do families. It it is fair, however, to assume that many of the habits and customs we find in text, documents, paintings and sculpture of Ancient Egypt can also be applied to the working classes. A typical family structure in Ancient Egypt would be similar to what we find in today's Egypt, with the father as husband and head of household responsible for the economic well-being of the family. In ancient times, upper-class men earned their living as priests or government officials, while men of lower classes worked as farmers, hunters, artists, sculptors, potters or other craftsmen. It was possible to rise in social rank through the army or by learning to read and write and becoming a scribe.

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A Kid in Ancient Egypt

They owned dolls with real hair knotted into the heads, they played ball and stick games, they ran around naked until puberty, and imitated their mothers and fathers at their work at home or in the field. These are the children of ancient Egypt. Although they were kids like kids of every age and place, we have discovered some very intriguing things about the lives of ancient Egyptian children. First, you were considered fortunate to be born and survive to age one in ancient Egypt. Many women died in childbirth and many infants died within days, weeks and months after birth from infections and other diseases. To protect herself and her newborn child, an ancient Egyptian mother may have kept protective deities in her homes, such as Bastet""the cat goddess of fertility. She also wore special amulets, such as the Eye of Horus, to ward off evil spirits.

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The Manners & Customs of Ancient Egyptians

Full Text of "The Manners & Customs of Ancient Egyptians" by Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson

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Life in Ancient Egypt: Daily Life

To understand the everyday life of ancient Egyptians, archaeologists draw on many sources. The most valuable sources include tomb paintings, reliefs, and the objects included in tombs that the Egyptians used in their daily life. Artifacts from the few towns that have been excavated and hundreds of documents written by the ancient Egyptians shed additional light on their life. Much of the day-to-day running of their households, however, remains obscure.

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Life in Ancient Egypt: Funerary Customs

Much of our knowledge about ancient Egyptian culture comes from archaeological evidence uncovered in tombs. Objects, inscriptions, and paintings from tombs have led Egyptologists to conclude that what appeared to be a preoccupation with death was in actuality an overwhelming desire to secure and perpetuate in the afterlife the "good life" enjoyed on earth.

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Burial Customs in Ancient Egypt

Too often 'ancient Egypt' is treated in general books as a monolithic block, nowhere more so than in coverage of funerary archaeology. There is no such phenomenon as 'the ancient Egyptian burial' as a general type: burial customs evolved continuously throughout Egyptian history. Studying the developments allows us to separate the history of these customs into broad periods:

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Egyptian Customs

Article written by Herodotus, The Histories 2. 35-36. About Egypt I shall have a great deal to relate because of the number of remarkable things which the country contains, and because of the fact that more monuments which beggar description are to be found there than anywhere else in the world. That is reason enough for my dwelling on it at greater length. Not only is the Egyptian climate peculiar to their country, and the Nile different in its behavior from other rivers elsewhere, but the Egyptians themselves in their manners and customs seem to have reversed the ordinary practices of mankind.

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Ancient Egypt: Burial Customs

The Egyptians believed that each person had a ba, or soul, and a ka, an invisible twin of the deceased person, which were released from the body after death. The ba visited family and friends and the ka traveled back and forth from the body to the underworld. In order for a person to live on forever, the ba and the ka had to be able to recognize the body when they returned to it every night. The process of mummification was a crucial practice for the ancient Egyptians as it ensured the survival of a person's remains, thus promising eternal life.

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Ancient Egypt: Education and Learning

In Ancient Egypt the child's world was not as clearly separated from the adult's as it tends to be in modern Western society. As the years went by childish pastimes would give way to imitations of grown-up behavior. Children would more and more frequently be found lending a hand with the less onerous tasks and gradually acquiring practical skills and knowledge from their elders. By precept and example, parents would instill into them various educational principles, moral attitudes and views of life. Thus from a tender age they would receive their basic education in the bosom of the family. For girls, this was usually all the schooling they would get, but for boys it would be supplemented by proper training in whatever line they chose, or was chosen for them.

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Ancient Egypt: Domestic Trade

In a society where most of the population made a living from agriculture and surpluses were small, trade was limited. The needs of the farming population were basic: grain for baking bread and brewing beer, dried fish, vegetables, some linen for a simple loincloth and mud bricks for a hut. Food and flax they could grow themselves. Mud was found at the nearby river bank. And sometimes there was a surplus which could be exchanged for little luxuries. Trade was done by barter, a reasonably efficient method when mostly basic necessities were exchanged. Even after coined money was introduced in the second half of the first millennium BCE, barter continued to be widespread among the farming population for centuries.

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Education in Ancient Egypt

In ancient Egypt, parents would instill in their children various educational principles, moral attitudes, and views of life from a tender age. They would receive their basic education in the bosom of the family. This was about all of the schooling that girls would get; for boys it would be supplemented by proper training in whatever line they chose, or was chosen for them. Ancient Egyptian education covered both the general upbringing of a child and their training for a particular vocation.

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Childbirth and Childcare in Ancient Egypt

By Marie Parsons, Children were considered a blessing in ancient Egypt. Sons and daughters took care of their parents in their old age. They were often called "the staff of old age," that is, one upon whom the elderly parents could depend upon for support and care. The scribe Ani instructed that children repay the devotion of Egyptian mothers: "Repay your mother for all her care. Give her as much bread as she needs, and carry her as she carried you, for you were a heavy burden to her. When you were finally born, she still carried you on her neck and for three years she suckled you and kept you clean."

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Aspects of Life in Ancient Egypt

One of the most astonishing facts about Egypt is how little everyday life changed over the millennia. The rhythm of Egyptian life was the rhythm of the Nile until a few years ago, when the Aswan dam was erected. Even today one can find the ancient shadoof, oxen pulling ploughs and houses made of mud bricks. The gods are gone, so are the pharaohs, the language and the writing. The cities look European in a ramshackle sort of way, transportation is partly 20th century, there's some industry, and radio and television are everywhere. But villages in the farther off corners of the country must still look very much like those of thousands of years ago.

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Medicine and Health Care in Ancient Egypt

External injuries like wounds and fractures were often obvious. The Egyptian concept of the human body was seen as a series of interconnecting canals, likened to the Nile and its tributaries, in which air, blood, urine, faeces and semen flowed. They therefore believed that the precondition of good health was the free flow of these canals, and that illness and ailments were the result of a blocked canal. Internal ailments were usually attributed to the influences of the gods, who could be malevolent or benevolent, sometimes sending down a sickness as a punishment to the wrongdoer.

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Ancient Egyptian Medicine

If you had to be ill in ancient times, the best place to do so would probably have been Egypt. Not that it would have been much fun. Unlike the injuries received through accidents or fighting which were dealt with by the zwn.w (sunu) [37], or scorpion stings and snake bites for which the xrp srqt (kherep serqet) [37], the exorcist of Serqet, knew the appropriate spells and remedies, illnesses and their causes were mysterious. The Egyptians explained them as the work of the gods, caused by the presence of evil spirits or their poisons, and cleansing the body was the way to rid the body of their influence. Incantations, prayers to the gods - above all to Sekhmet [9] the goddess of healing, curses, and threats, often accompanied by the injection of nasty smelling and tasting medicines into the various bodily orifices, were hoped to prove effective.

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Ancient Egypt Medical Care

The Life of Ancient Egyptians. For Every Malady a Cure. Of all the branches of science pursued in ancient Egypt, none achieved such popularity as medicine. Homer put it aptly in the Odyssey (IV, 229-232): That fecund land brings forth abundant herbs, Some baneful, and some curative when duly mixed. There, every man's a doctor; every man Knows better than all others how to treat All manner of disease ...

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Houses of Ancient Egypt

The Egyptians lived in houses made of bricks. The bricks were made of mud and chopped straw. They mixed the mud and straw and then poured the mixture into molds. The molds were placed in the sun to bake into hard bricks. Some of the tools used to make homes were the T-square which was used for measuring angles. They also had a mallet, which is a type of big hammer. Of course, they had the brick molds to make bricks. They had plumb lines which they used to make sure the houses were built straight and level.

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Ancient Egypt Houses

According to Diodorus Siculus' somewhat speculative report the first Egyptian dwellings were constructed of reeds, a building technique not completely abandoned by the first century BCE: Traces thereof remain among the herdsmen of Egypt who, to these days, do not have habitations but they are made of reeds, which they consider to be sufficient. He explained the fact that Egyptian housing was made of perishable materials in his Historical Library as follows: The inhabitants think little of life on earth; while they put greatest value on the continued existence in glorious memory after death. They call the dwellings of the living 'hostels' given that we dwell in them for a short time only. The tombs of the dead they call 'eternal homes' as they assume their eternal continuation in the underworld. This is the reason they invest little effort in the building of houses; but are eager to furnish their tombs with unsurpassable equipment.

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Egyptian Papyrus Boat

Egyptian ship made of papyrus is one of the ancient in the world. Firstly it represented itself only a papyrus raft and to about 3500 year B.C. it became already a real ship. The ship was used only for navigation on the river Nile. Her bow and her stern were raised specially to pull her across shallows. But foreseeing the possibility to raise the bow and the stern higher with the help of ropes, Egyptians started their voyages at sea. The known expeditions of Tour Heyerdal on the papyrus rafts Ra-1 (1969) and Ra-2 (1970) showed that papyrus could stand two months of seafaring. Of course, Ra-1 had sunk earlier but it was due to great roughness at sea and the fault of the crew who did not pull the rigging steering the curve of the stern. On Ra-2 the stern was raised sufficiently from the very beginning of the seafaring. Ra-2 departed ÑÀÃ"È and in two months she reached Bridgetown, the capital of Barbados. Constructively Ra-2 was made of short papyrus bundles as they saturated less water. Bolivian Indians from the lake of Titikaka built Ra-2. From ancient times up to nowadays they navigate on such cane vessels calling them 'totorus'.

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Barques, Barges and Byblos Boats

By Anita Stratos. The ancient Egyptians once again reached out of the past to awe the world with another of their buried secrets - the Abydos ships. In 1991 in the desert near the temple of Khentyamentiu, archaeologists uncovered the remains of 14 ships dating back to the early first dynasty (2950-2775 BC), possibly associated with King Aha, the first ruler of that dynasty. These 75 foot long ships are buried side by side and have wooden hulls, rough stone boulders which were used as anchors, and "sewn" wooden planks. Also found within their desert graves were remains of the woven straps that joined the planks, as well as reed bundles that were used to seal seams between planks. The Abydos ships have the honor of being the world's oldest planked boats.

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Phoenician War Galley

Maritime History/ Ancient Mesopotamian Ships/ Phoenician War Galley This 19th century print depicts a Phoenician bireme, a war galley with two banks of oars, battering ram, and single mast. Deck, passengers and pavisade were above the rowers. This design was also favored by early Greek and Tyrian galleys. The bireme introduced by the Phoenicians c. 800 BC became the leading warship of the Mediterranean world in the centuries to follow. Notwithstanding this depiction, these vessels became very large in later centuries. B.C.

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Abydos Royal Boats

After 5,000 year voyage, world's oldest built boats deliver. Archeologists' first look confirms existence of earliest royal boats at Abydos by Richard Pierce. A fleet of the oldest built wooden boats in the world, located in the desert sands of Abydos, Egypt "" more than eight miles from the river Nile "" are painstakingly being excavated by archeologists. The work is revealing remarkable new evidence about the wealth, power and technological prowess of the earliest days of Egyptian civilization. The work is being conducted under the authority of Egypt's Minister of Culture, Dr. Farouk Hosni, and the Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, Dr. Gaballa Ali Gaballa.

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Cheops Ships

In 1954 two intact Egyptian ships were found at the foot of the Great Pyramid. Around 2600 BC, during the Old Kingdom, the two planked ships were dismantled and buried in two pits, just outside the great pyramid of Pharaoh Cheops (Khufu). Each pit is 30 m long, carved in the rock and covered with a lid of large stone blocks.

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Cheops Ship Details

Cheops 1 is 42 m long. The hull is flat- or slightly round-bottomed, built "shell first" with cedar-wood planks joined edge to edge by "mortise-and-tenon" fashion and fixed together with rope. It has 10 oars but no mast or sail. The ship is papyriform, imitating a papyrus boat, with the bow and stern ends formed as papyrus bundles.

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Cairo Dashur Boats

Digital Exhibit

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Cairo Dashur Boats

Digital Exhibit. The Dashur Boats of The Egyptian Museum Cairo. Combined Image Gallery

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Ancient Egypt: Ships and Boats

The slow flowing Nile was ideal for transportation and from earliest times Egyptians built boats for transportation, fishing and enjoyment. Their importance in everyday life is reflected in the role they played in mythology and religion. Little is left of actual boats. Remains of Old Kingdom boats were found at Tarkhan and Abydos, and King Khufu's ship is well known and demonstrates best how ships were built during that period.

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Ancient Egyptian Boats

Egyptians pioneered the development of river craft and there were many different types built for various uses. Agricultural produce, troops, cattle, stone and funeral processions were all carried on the Nile and its canals. These boats were made of bundles of bound papyrus reeds. Papyrus is different from paper because papyrus is a laminated material made from thinly cut strips from the stalk of Cyprus Papyrus plant. It was believed to be first used about 4000 B.C., and became Egypt's major exports.

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Egyptian Ships in Ancient Egypt

Ancient Ships in Art History: Egyptian Ships in Ancient Egypt and Egptian Art Hapshetsut's Expedition to Punt The record of ancient seafaring and trade as recorded in Egyptian art at Queen Hatshepsut's temple at Deir el-Bahri Circa 1480 BCE. Hatshepsut is well known for her ambitious building projects in Egypt particularly the erection of several Obelisks' at Karnack and her funerary Temple at Deir el-Bahri. In her time Hatshepsut was a model of feminine mystic, power and political acumen. Her accomplishments in ancient Egypt rank well when compared with , Queen Ferdinand of Spain, Queen Elizabeth 1 of England and Catherine the Great of Russia. After examining the contribution she made to the new Kingdom, historians generally agree this person was one of the greatest contributors to Egypt's ancient legacy in world history. Hatshepsut's character and personal history is another story, this page is dedicated to her expedition to Punt. This expedition is an indicator of her leadership and skill in motivating and governing the Egyptian society of her time to high achievement... The story of Hatshepsut's expedition to punt is recorded for posterity in the Egyptian art on the wall of her memorial temple.

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Egyptian Galleons in Ancient Egypt

Ancient Ships in Art History: Egyptian Galleons in Ancient Egypt and Egyptian Art This ship is typical of the vessels used during the reign of Pharaoh Sahure over 4500 years ago in Egyptian history. During this time Egypt's expanding interests in trade goods such as ebony, incense such as Myrrh and frankincense, gold, copper and other useful metals inspired the ancient Egyptians to build suitable ships for navigation of the open sea. They traded with Lebanon for cedar and traveled the length of the Red Sea to the Kingdom of Punt, which is modern day Ethiopia and Somalia for ebony, ivory and aromatic resins. Ship builders of that era did not use pegs (treenails) or metal fasteners, but relied on rope to keep their ships assembled. Planks and the superstructure were tightly tied and bound together...

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The Ancient Egyptian Navy

By Troy Fox. The use of river vessels and ships in Egyptian warfare is as old as conflict in Egypt itself, though probably at first there was little capability for sea travel. The Nile was always the principal means of transport in Egypt, and the sailing and construction of boats can be traced back to the papyrus rafts of the Predynastic Period. Boats (see also Bargues, Barges and Byblos Boats) were commonly depicted in red paint on the buff colored pottery of the Naqada II Period.

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World's Oldest Ship Found in Egypt

Remains of World's Oldest Ship Found in Egypt By Heather Whipps, Special to LiveScience. Excavations at an ancient Egyptian shipyard have unearthed remains of the world's oldest seafaring ships. The 4,000-year-old timbers were found alongside equally ancient cargo boxes, anchors, coils of rope and other naval materials just as old, at what archaeologists are calling a kind of ancient military administration site.

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Egyptian Sea Vessel Artifacts

Archaeology News "" Egyptian Sea Vessel Artifacts Discovered At Pharaonic Port of Mersa Gawasis Along Red Sea Coast. Discovery includes steering oars, other evidence of Egypt's sea-faring past. (Boston) -- When Kathryn Bard reached through the small hole that opened in a hillside along Egypt's Red Sea coast, her hand touched nearly 4,000 years of history. The opening that Bard, an associate professor of archaeology at Boston University, and her team's co-leader Rodolfo Fattovich, a professor of archaeology at Italy's University of Naples "L'Orientale," discovered was the entrance to a large, man-made cave. Two days later at a site about 30 meters beyond this cave, the team removed sand covering the entrance to a second cave, one that held the well-preserved cedar timbers of an ancient Egyptian sea-faring vessel.

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World's Most Ancient Ship Timbers Found in Egypt

UsaToday.com World's Most Ancient Ship Timbers Found in Egypt Ship timbers from a mothballed Middle Kingdom industrial shipyard at Wadi Gawasis in Egypt provide the most ancient direct evidence for seafaring in complex watercraft anywhere in the world. In addition to marine incrustations and destruction by marine mollusks (shipworms), the technology and dimensions of hull components are consistent with what is expected of seagoing ships in the Middle Kingdom and offer unique testimony to the organization and achievement of the ancient Egyptian's sailing expeditions to Africa.

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Ancient Egypt: Early Ship Construction

Khufu's Solar Boat. In modern ship construction a skeleton is built first which is then covered with a skin. During the Old and Middle Kingdoms ships were built from the outside in. This way of doing things was mostly due to a lack of timber suitable for keels, but continued for centuries after they began importing cedar wood from Byblos which was long enough for keels. Mortises were cut into the planks into which wooden tenons were inserted. The V-shaped holes did not penetrate the outer surface.

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Ancient Egypt: Solar Ships and Funerary Boats

Mythology, Funerary Boats and Religious Ceremonies

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The Egyptian Mastery of Ships

Rediscover Ancient Egypt: The Egyptian Mastery of Ships Transferring people, minerals, and goods between Ancient Egypt and other faraway places was much more extensive and common than is generally imagined. The seas were not barriers, but high roads for active international commerce. Traveling by water has been (and continues to be) the most effective, economical, and safest way to travel for both people and goods. Travel by land complements travel by water for major/large goods. The Ancient Egyptians had the means to travel the high seas""with a large number of high quality ships. They also had the geographic knowledge to travel the open seas. The evidence shows that their means and knowledge enabled them to reach the farthest countries of the earth. The following pages will detail the wealth of high quality ships and the Ancient Egyptian knowledge of high seas travel.

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Shipbuilding in Ancient Egypt

Eternal Egypt "" Shipbuilding in Ancient Egypt Beginning in the Old Kingdom, numerous reliefs and paintings depict shipbuilding. The most distinguished of them is found in Saqqara in the mastaba of the official Ti from the Fifth Dynasty. Workers are shown lopping the trunk of a tree with axes and smoothing it with an adze, an axlike tool with a curved blade at right angles to the handle. One man is sawing a log, perhaps a deck beam, while two other men with chisels and clubs are cutting holes for pegs in a plank. On one of the hulls, a plank, probably the bulwark, is being fastened. At least seven pegs can be counted in the gap between the plank and the side of the ship.
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Seagoing Vessels of Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egpt: Seagoing Vessels - Warships and Merchant Men Keelless seagoing vessels like this one from the time of King Sahure (2500 BCE) traded with the Phoenician cities, importing cedar wood and other merchandise, and were sent as the first Egyptian trade expedition to the Land of Punt. The bipedal mast carried a vertical sail. It was steered by six oars and had sixteen rowing oars. The bow was decorated with an eye. A rock served as anchor [1]. Being rounded its action was solely based on its weight and the friction created when dragging over the bottom of the sea. When winds were strong it was mostly useless and the seamen were forced to seek shelter in the lee of some land or even beach the vessel.

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Ships and Boats of Egypt

By Marie Parsons. When men live by water, whether marsh, river, or sea, they eventually discover ways to build vehicles to move across that water. Egypt's life has always turned around its River, the Nile, and its marshes in the Delta.The cheapest form of primitive boat was the pot boat, simply a clay container large enough to accommodate a passenger. It was meant for places free of rocks and was ideal for getting around the marshy areas of the Nile delta. Egypt was fairly treeless and it would be difficult to find other means of building boats. The Egyptians did find enough wood to make planked boats. There is evidence that the Old Kingdom of Egypt had the first planked boats ever made. These were used even in burial rituals. Fourteen have recently been found buried in the region of Abydos.

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Ancient Egyptian Ships and Shipping

JSTOR: Ancient Egyptian Ships and Shipping By William Edgerton. University of Chicago. The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 39, No. 2 (Jan., 1923), pp. 109-135 (article consists of 27 pages) Structurally speaking all boats known to have been employed by the Ancient Egyptians may be divided into two classes: reed boats and boats build by wooden planks.

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Eternal Egypt - Ancient Egyptian Nile Boats

Boats and ships were very important means of transport on the River Nile. Egyptians traveled within the country and to the Sudan and to other African countries to bring back animals such as lions, elephants, leopards, baboons, and cattle. They also imported exotic products such as leather, gold, ivory, ebony, electrum, ostrich feathers, and incense. Electrum is a natural alloy of gold and silver. When traveling to the south, or upstream, sails were required but on the way north, or downstream, the masts were not needed and were placed horizontally on board.
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The Ptolemaic Navy

Eternal Egypt "" The Ptolemaic Navy The Ptolemies intended to rule the Mediterranean Sea to ensure the safety of Egypt's northern shores. This was achieved by building a powerful fleet of ships. Their navy was one of the cornerstones of the empire, protecting Egypt and guaranteeing its political and economic independence. King Ptolemy the First Soter was the founder of this massive sea force and it continued to grow under his successors. He was so dedicated to the development of his naval fleet that his contemporaries called him "the Prince of Ships." http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/HomeServlet?ee_website_action_key=action.display.module&module_id=271&language_id=1&story_id=17&text=text

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Ancient Egyptians Boat

By Dr. Sherin ElKhawaga. Egyptians pioneered the development of river craft and there were many different types built for various uses. Agricultural produce, troops, cattle, stone and funeral processions were all carried on the Nile and its canals. These boats were made of bundles of bound papyrus reeds. Papyrus is different from paper because papyrus is a laminated material made from thinly cut strips from the stalk of Cyprus Papyrus plant. It was believed to be first used about 4000 B.C., and became Egypt's major exports.

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Amarna Period State Ship

The state ship of an Egyptian magnate of the time of Tutankhamun. Essentially a large and gaily decorated version of the standard Nile passenger vessel, the state ship of Huy, Viceroy of Nubia in 1360 B.C., is provided with quarters (forward of the deckhouse) for his chariot horses. Traditional scenes of the god Montu smiting the king's foreign enemies decorate the overhanging stern and the fore and after "castles", partly to frighten away evil influences. A falcon standard serves the function of identifying the ship as the viceroy's.

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A Warship of Ramesses III Fleet

A seagoing warship of Ramesses III's fleet. A temple wall at Thebes shows us such ships in a naval battle with a fleet of the "Peoples of the Sea", a wave of migrating nations that appeared in the eastern Mediterranean about 1200 B.C. The ship is provided with high hoardings on the bulwarks to protect rowers and marines from missiles. The steering oars seem to be of the free-swinging type seen in the Phoenician trader. The great advance, however, is in the rig. Here for the first time we see the labour-saving single-yard sail with brails (lines running through rings on the sail and handled from the deck to furl the sail), which became the standard Mediterranean, and later European, type of sail and lasted until the coming of steam.

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A Typical Byblos Ship

A seagoing ship of the Fifth Dynasty. The seagoing craft of the Egyptians differed markedly from their river craft. The vessel here shown under oars belonged to a royal fleet the hogging truss that seems to have been characteristic of Egyptian seagoing craft. The stem-post at the bow reflects the foreign origin of the prototype, whereas the stern-post has been Egyptianized in the form of the head of a papyrus plant. Although referred to in the accompanying inscriptions as "Byblos-ships", the five vessels were in fact part of an expedition sailing the Red Sea to Punt, the modern Somaliland. The rig differs in no way from the standard form in use in Nile ships of the day.

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A Freighter of the 6th Dynasty - 2200 BC

A Freighter of the late Sixth Dynasty (ca 2200 B.C.)The vessel pictured here was the common bulk-cargo carrier of the Nile in late Old Kingdom times. In its capacious open bunker on deck, grain could be carried loose or cattle could be stalled. A few pairs of oars on the foredeck served to manoeuvre the ship into shore or to supplement the current when the ship was travelling downstream; the usual wide square sail, spread to the prevailing north wind, would carry it upstream against the current. A pair of rudder stanchions, now permanently fixed, supported a single steering oar, hung to port or to starboard as the ship's course dictated.

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Queen Hatshepsut's Trading Vessel

A seagoing ship of the Empire Period. One of a fleet of five ships represented in a scene in the temple of Queen Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri (ca 1500 B.C.), this vessel shows clearly the hogging truss that seems to have been characteristic of Egyptian seagoing craft. The stem-post at the bow reflects the foreign origin of the prototype, whereas the stern-post has been Egyptianized in the form of the head of a papyrus plant. Although referred to in the accompanying inscriptions as "Byblos-ships", the five vessels were in fact part of an expedition sailing the Red Sea to Punt, the modern Somaliland. The rig differs in no way from the standard form in use in Nile ships of the day.

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Queen Hatshepsut's Trading Vessel

A seagoing ship of the Empire Period. One of a fleet of five ships represented in a scene in the temple of Queen Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri (ca 1500 B.C.), this vessel shows clearly the hogging truss that seems to have been characteristic of Egyptian seagoing craft. The stem-post at the bow reflects the foreign origin of the prototype, whereas the stern-post has been Egyptianized in the form of the head of a papyrus plant. Although referred to in the accompanying inscriptions as "Byblos-ships", the five vessels were in fact part of an expedition sailing the Red Sea to Punt, the modern Somaliland. The rig differs in no way from the standard form in use in Nile ships of the day.

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Ancient Egypt: Solar Ships and Funerary Boats

Mythology, Funerary Boats and Religious Ceremonies

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The Ancient Egyptian Navy

Predynastic through Middle Kingdom. The use of river vessels and ships in Egyptian warfare is as old as conflict in Egypt itself, though probably at first there was little capability for sea travel. The Nile was always the principal means of transport in Egypt, and the sailing and construction of boats can be traced back to the papyrus rafts of the Predynastic Period. Boats (see also Bargues, Barges and Byblos Boats) were commonly depicted in red paint on the buff colored pottery of the Naqada II Period.

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The Barge of Pharaoh Khufu

The state barge of King Khufu of the Fourth Dynasty. Based on the preserved Nile barge found beside the Great Pyramid and a relief representation from the Fifth Dynasty temple of Sahure, this reconstruction shows a royal state ship of the type known to the Egyptians as a dwa-towy (that which the Two Lands praise). The Great Pyramid example, which was built for King Khufu about 2570 B.C., measured 43.4 m in length. It has here been reconstructed with the double mast and sail (see drawing below) that it probably normally used, although they were not found in the burial pit. In such a vessel the Pharaohs of the Old Kingdom made their official visits to the provinces.

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A Noble's Yacht of the Middle Kingdom

A nobleman's personal ship of the Middle Kingdom. Known from well-made funerary models, as well as from tomb wall-pictures, such vessels were used in the Middle Kingdom (2040- 1786 B.C.) to transport potentates and their bodyguards. The oars of the period are characteristically scoop-shaped and sometimes mounted on outswerving wooden thole-pins of the kind shown here. The bull-hide shields hung on the deckhouse are a testimony to the warlike times. The rig remains unchanged from that of the late Old Kingdom, but the single steering oar is now placed exactly amidships and sometimes worked by a tiller stick held in the helmsman's hand.

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A Nile ship of the Sixth Dynasty

A Ship of 6th Dynasty. Before the middle of the Sixth Dynasty the bipod mast had generally disappeared in favour of a single stick of lesser height. Better designed to carry the wider, lower sail that had been evolving. The lower yard, slightly longer than the upper, is now fixed to the mast well above the deck, and clearly is capable of a wider arc of swing than the old short yard, which lay at or near deck level. The heavy single steering oar with its tiller is supported on a stanchion by a rope sling, to relieve the helmsman of its weight. The vessel shown here, from a tomb painting at Thebes of about 2259 B.C., was apparently primarily a passenger vessel. The patterned sail was probably made of heavy matting, a cheaper substitute for the usual canvas.

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The Barge of the God Amun

The ceremonial barge of the god Amun. Among the many annual festivals in honour of the state god Amun, king of the gods, were some in which the god - in the form of his image - was ferried on the river at Thebes, the god's own city. For the purpose, a gorgeous barge of royal type was used; it was built of Lebanon cedar and overlaid down to the waterline with gold. This barge was named Amun-woser-het (Amun is powerful of aspect). The ship is shown here as it appeared in the reign of King Amunhotep III (1417 - 1379 B.C.) of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Inside the shrine-shaped cabin of the fifty-metre-long vessel stood a smaller, portable, gilded boat in whose cabin the god's statue rested, protected from vulgar gaze by a veil.

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Queen Hatshepsut's State Barge

A state barge of Queen Hatshepsut. Carved on the walls of Queen Hatshepsut's funerary temple at Deir el-Bahri, opposite modern Luxor, are several representations of Egyptian fleets... One scene shows a group of state barges being rowed on the Nile; one of the barges is pictured here. The hull is of a traditional style resembling that of the dwa-towy ship of King Khufu. The cheeks of the bow bear the sacred eye of Horus, a sphinx standard indicates that the ship belongs to the royal fleet, and a light pavilion, standing amid- ships, shelters the royal passenger and her attendants. When the queen is not actually on board, as is the case here, a ceremonial fan lying on a throne symbolizes her potent presence.

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Ancient Egypt: River Boats

Fishing Boats, Transportation Barges and Pleasure Boats. While some Egyptians thought fish to be unclean, dried fish were nevertheless a staple food for most of the population. Reed rafts served for fishing. Nets and weir baskets were made from willow branches. The Nile didn't just feed the Egyptians, it was both an obstacle and the main highway. Too wide to be bridged, there must have been a great many ferryboats carrying people and wares from one shore to the other. If you wanted to go anywhere, going by river would generally have been a good choice. We tend to forget that, until the invention of the steam engine, travelling by ship was generally faster and cheaper than any other kind of locomotion

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Egyptian Royal Barge (replica)

There were many different types of boats such as the warship. The warship was a boat that was steered by a large bladed oar in the stern; it usually had a wooden hull, cloth sail and rigging of papyrus fiber. This ship needed about 250 soldiers. Another type of boat carried the dead to the afterlife. Also boats were used to ship things to different places. The early boats were made from papyrus reeds bound together with string made from reed fibers. Most Egyptians used ferries to cross the Nile. Noblemen used grand boats for business and pleasure. The sun boat was used to carry the sun god Rah on his daily journey from one side of the world to the other. Huge river barges towed by a fleet of small boats carrying heavy cargo such as stones were called cargo boats. Egyptian farmers used flat deck wide boats to transport animals. These boats were called cattle boats. Huge canopy boats for the pharaoh were called royal boats. Without boats the Egyptians would not have been able to travel from place to place getting valuable items.

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Maps of Ancient Egypt

Excellent thumbnails of maps.

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The Evolution of Warfare

Egypt was considered to be the most peaceful country in the ancient world. Its natural boundaries (the First Cataract on the Nile at Aswan, the deserts east and west of the Nile Valley, and the Mediterranean coast to the north) provided plenty of protection from outsiders, and Egyptians themselves were not a society of invaders or conquerors. Therefore, the country didn't consider the need for a professional army "" until the invasion of the Hyksos during the 15th Dynasty in the Second Intermediate Period.

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The Armed Forces of Ancient Egypt

Until the takeover of Lower Egypt by the Hyksos, most conflicts the Egyptians had fought had been civil wars, where mainly armies of conscripted peasants and artisans led by noblemen opposed each other, or relatively short campaigns south into Nubia extending the southern borders of the realm, or east and west into the desert regions.

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The Ancient Egyptian Navy

Predynastic through Middle Kingdom. The use of river vessels and ships in Egyptian warfare is as old as conflict in Egypt itself, though probably at first there was little capability for sea travel. The Nile was always the principal means of transport in Egypt, and the sailing and construction of boats can be traced back to the papyrus rafts of the Predynastic Period. Boats (see also Bargues, Barges and Byblos Boats) were commonly depicted in red paint on the buff colored pottery of the Naqada II Period.

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The Egypian Army In History

The most prominent development added to the ancient Egyptian army was the use of the war wheels, the weapon that was taken from "Heksos" but highly developed and used by Egyptians to the extent that they started to breed horses, an animal that was not very common in Egypt, and modified the designs of the war wheels. It was mentioned, that the Egyptian army under the command of "Tohotmos the third" captured 24 war wheels and 2238 horses in the well-known battle of "Magedo".

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Egyptian Monuments

Descriptions and photographs of the ancient Egyptian monuments

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Ancient Egyptian Monuments - The Pyramids

The Pyramids of Giza are the oldest and only remaining monuments of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. These massive structures were created as tombs for the rulers of the Old Kingdom . Even after more than four thousand years of exposure and weathering, the Pyramids of Giza stand as awe-inspiring monuments to the genius and creativity of a long-dead culture.The pyramids were tombs made for the pharaohs.

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Reconstructing Ancient Egyptian Tombs and Monuments

It is ironic that the Ancient Egyptian tombs, once sealed, were not intended to be seen by outsiders. Yet the highly valued and often reproduced tomb decorations have had a profound influence on art and have contributed significantly to our understanding of the Ancient Egyptian culture. We describe how recent advances in computational and digital technology can add a new perspective to these marvels of antiquity. Of particular interest to us has been the development of a technique for digital reconstruction of tombs, allowing for the creation of undistorted panoramic views of tomb interiors that are simply unattainable with traditional imaging methods. We have also applied similar computational techniques to bring a new perspective to several monuments of Ancient Egypt.

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Monuments of Ancient Egypt

Several good images and sites.

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The Great Pyramid and the Bible

Time can be shown in the measurements of length and volume.The Bible and the Great Pyramid lead us to these measurements.

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Egypt: Magi Tours

We are one of the leading Travel Agencies in Egypt, Hotel & Nile Cruise Reservation, Tour packages, Classic Trips to Cairo, Sharm, Hurghada, Aswan, Luxor and many more places, come in and have a look.

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The Egyptian Law Firm

The Egyptian Law Firm http://www.egypt-law.com

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Map Of Egypt Ancient Cairo

Safari Egypt offers a nice colletion of maps for all parts of Egypt.

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Nile River Cruises of Egypt

Contains some of the Finest Most Luxuries Nile Cruises that Travel Through the River Nile.

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Ancient Coins of Egypt

Greek Kings of Egypt, and Egypt under the Romans.

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Coins of Ancient Egypt

Lots of nice photos.

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Theban Mapping Project

During the last decade, the TMP has concentrated on the Valley of the Kings. Modern surveying techniques were used to measure its tombs. From the data collected, the TMP is preparing 3-D computer models of the tombs. And of course, the TMP is continuing its excavation of KV 5. For the TMP staff, sharing their work with the interested public is just as important as what they do in the field. This has been done through a series of publications and this growing website.

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ABZU Bibliography: Search Oriental Institute

Abzu is a guide to the rapidly increasing, and widely distributed data relevant to the study and public presentation of the Ancient Near East via the Internet.

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Pharaoh's Pump Foundation

How the Great Pyramid At Giza was built, and Why! Explanations with graphics and animations. Focus is on the water punmping system that was used, and how it can be used today. Lots of info.

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The Rosetta Stone

A brief study about the deciphering of the ancient Hieroglyphs and the discovering of the Rosetta Stone. [Bible History Online Study]

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Picture of The Rosetta Stone

This stone held the key to the deciphering of the ancient Hieroglyphs of Egypt [Bible History Online Study]

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The Great Pyramid

Since the earliest of times the "Great Pyramid" of Giza (Arab. Al Jizah ) along with its 2 other main pyramids have been considered one of the wonders of the world. The Great Pyramid is still among the world's largest structures, standing almost as tall as a 50 story skyscraper. Brief study of the Pyramid and its builders. [Bible History Online Study]

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Egypt1

Nice Photo

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Egypt2

Nice Photo

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Pyramid1

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Egypt2

Nice Photo

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Cat Mummies

One of the most popular cults to arise in Late Period Egypt was of the cat goddess Bast. At this time many thousands of Cats were mummified for sale to pilgrims, who presented them to the goddess as an offering.

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NMS Mummy Project

The National Museums of Scotland (NMS) are blessed with an excellent collection of Ancient Egyptian artefacts. This includes several mummies excavated by such famous Egyptologists as Alexander Rhind and Flinders Petrie. In order to find out more about the collection, and also to assess the conservation required, a 4 year project was initiated to investigate fully various items from the collection.

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Gize Pyramid Links

A selection of links to Egyptology & Pyramid related websites.

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Daily Life in Ancient Egypt

To understand the everyday life of ancient Egyptians, archaeologists draw on many sources. The most valuable sources include tomb paintings, reliefs, and the objects included in tombs that the Egyptians used in their daily life. [Carnegie Museum of Natural History]

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Life in Ancient Egypt - Funerary Customs

Much of our knowledge about ancient Egyptian culture comes from archaeological evidence uncovered in tombs. Objects, inscriptions, and paintings from tombs have led Egyptologists to conclude that what appeared to be a preoccupation with death was in actuality an overwhelming desire to secure and perpetuate in the afterlife the "good life" enjoyed on earth. [Carnegie Museum of Natural History]

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Ancient Egypt for Kids - Daily Life

The ancient Egyptians were fascinating people, and thanks to the movies, are often misunderstood. The ancient Egyptians were not in love with death, but with life! They enjoyed their life to the fullest. They worked very hard, but saved time to enjoy family, friends, music, parties, swimming, fishing, hunting, sailing, and especially their children, all of which were very important to the ancient Egyptians.

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Agriculture in Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptian agriculture: irrigation, ploughing and planting, harvest, crops

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Life in Ancient Egypt - Scribes

Even though much ancient Egyptian written material is still extant, it surely represents only a fraction of what originally existed. To produce such a mass, there must have been an impressive arsenal of scribes. In fact the word sesh, "scribe," was among the most frequently used titles in ancient Egypt. It is also one of the earliest recorded, and there are representations of scribes carrying the tools of their craft (pigments, water pot, and pen) over their shoulders from various periods beginning with the Old Kingdom. [Carnegie Museum of Natural History]

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Ancient Egypt: the Mythology

Comprehensive site on ancient Egyptian mythology.

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Gods and Religion

The ancient Egyptians interpreted every occurrence in terms of the relationship between natural and supernatural forces. Those phenomena that figured prominently in their lives included the annual cycle of the Nile River`s flood, the enormous size and unchanging harshness of the surrounding desert, and the daily cycle of the sun`s appearance in the east, gradual movement across the sky, and eventual disappearance in the west. The ancient Egyptians developed a world view in which these and other events and conditions were attributed to the actions of multiple, related gods and goddesses. [Carnegie Museum of Natural History]

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Theban Mapping Project

The largest Egyptological website on the internet, offering complete coverage of the Valley of the Kings in images, text and maps. Produced by the Theban Mapping Project and directed by Kent Weeks.

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Main Map of Ancient Egypt

Click on the map to go to that region.

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The Nile Delta near Alexandria

NASA image: This view from the southeast overlooks the green expanse of the Nile delta, with the Suez Canal and portions of the Red Sea in the background.

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Egyptian Statues and Reliefs

Store selling pieces made of hydrostone, a gypsum compound suitable for indoor or outdoor placement.

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British Museum Statues

The collection of the British Museum is one of the largest and most famous in the world. The range and variety of items on display is impressive, although the damage sustained in the original monuments when the exhibits were removed does not bear thinking about. This section gives a small sample of the items on display.

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Cleopatra's Needle

Cleopatra's Needle is located on the Thames Embankment in London close to the Embankment underground station. The Obelisk was actually constructed for Tuthmose III and is carved with Hieroglyphics praising Tuthmose and commemorating his third sed festival. Later inscriptions were added by Ramesses II to commemorate his victories.

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Luxor Museum

The museum in Luxor, although not on the scale of it's illustrious Cairo predecessor does house a large collection of tremendously significant objects. These include statues from the famous Cachette found buried in Luxor temple as well as a small selection of items from the tomb of Tutankhamun.

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Egyptian Chronology: Dynasties

Egyptian Chronology: Dynasties 1-5 Ancient Egypt was called the land of Khem. It was originally divided into Upper (Southern) and Lower (Northern) Egypt. There are various theories as to how Egypt became united - approximately 3000 BC.

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Egyptian Chronology: Dynasties

Egyptian Chronology: Dynasties 1-5 Ancient Egypt was called the land of Khem. It was originally divided into Upper (Southern) and Lower (Northern) Egypt. There are various theories as to how Egypt became united - approximately 3000 BC.

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Ancient Egypt

Museum of Natural History. Ancient Egypt was a narrow strip of land along the Nile River. Each year the river flooded its banks, leaving behind a fertile fringe of soil they called "the Black Land," while the desert all around the Nile valley was called "the Red Land."

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The Ancient Egyptian Culture Exhibit

Daily Life Art Military Architecture Hieroglyphs Religion Maps History Archaeology Links - Book References

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History of Alexandria: Cleopatra

Cleopatra, the Last Pharaoh (B.C. 69-30). When Cleopatra VII ascended the Egyptian throne, she was only seventeen. She reigned as Queen Philopator and Pharaoh between 51 and 30 BC, and died at the age of 39. Before glancing at Cleopatra's reign, let us first have a look at the keys to her rise and fall. The demise of the Ptolemies power coincided with the rise of the Roman Empire. Having little choice, and seeing city after the other falling into Rome's grip, the Ptolemies decided to ally with the Romans, a pact that lasted for two centuries. During the rule of the later Ptolemies, Rome gained more and more power over Egypt, and was even declared guardian of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Cleopatra's father, Ptolemy XII had to pay tribute to the Romans to keep them away from his Kingdom. Upon his death, the fall of the Dynasty seemed even closer.

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Cleopatra VII

Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as well as a younger sister, Arsinoe IV. There were two younger brothers as well, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV.

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More Powerful than Cleopatra? Hatshepsut

Video: Hatshepsut, a woman, ruled Egypt during a time of great prosperity. Dr. Kara Cooney talks about this unprecedented situation in Egypt's history.

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The Queens of Egypt - Cleopatra

Egypt: Tour Egypt Monthly: Queens of Egypt, Part III - Cleopatra

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The King List

The Early Dynastic Period
The Old Kingdom
The First Intermediate Period
The Middle Kingdom
The Second Intermediate Period
The New Kingdom
The Third Intermediate Period - High Priests (Thebes)
The Late Period
The Graeco-Roman Period - Macedonian Kings
Ptolemys

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Akhenaten of Amarna

18th Dynasty Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. This page is an introduction to the pharaoh Akhenaten, and the mysteries of his life, his religion, and his reign.

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Akhenaten's Story

Who was Akhenaten ? Akhenaten was a Ruler of Egypt during the period known as the 18th Dynasty.

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Akhenaten: The Great Heretic Ruler

Akhenaten will always be remembered as a great heretic ruler, who uprooted traditional Egyptian religions, and conjured a monotheistic religion that is very close in nature to Christianity and Judaism. His political power was not his strong point, but with the creation of his religion, and the vast change in art forms, Akhenaten will never be forgotten.

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The Mysteries of Akhenaten

Although we know a great deal about Akhenaten compared to some of the other Pharaohs, there are still some major mysteries concerning his reign. Various 'experts' have differing theories concerning this enigmatic ruler. On this page I will detail some of the various theories which have been presented, along with their relative pros and cons.

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Tutankhamun

King Nebkheperura Tutankhamun remains the most famous of all the Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, but in fact he was a short lived and fairly insignificant ruler during a transitional period in history. Little was known of him prior to Howard Carters methodical detective work, but the discovery of his tomb and the amazing contents it held ultimately ensured this boy king of the Immortality he sought.

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Nefertiti

Famed throughout the ancient world for her outstanding beauty, Akhenaten's queen Nefertiti remains the one of the most well known of the queens of Egypt. The famous statue of Nefertiti, found in a sculptors workshop in Akhetaten, is one of the most immediately recognisable icons from this period of history. It has escaped the excesses of the Amarna artistic style, and survived the wholesale destruction of Akhenaten's monuments after his death.

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King Tut

The most famous of all the kings found in the Valley of the Kings was Tutankhamun, also known as KingTut. He died in mid-January, 1343 B.C. It is thought that he was murdered by an official because his skull was bashed in and only a person of great importance could get near enough to harm him.

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Howard Carter Biography

Those that recognize the name, Howard Carter, usually associate it with the discovery of King Tutankhamun's tomb.

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Pharaoh Maatkare Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut' Temple. The King's Daughter, God's Wife, King's Great Wife, Lady of the Two Lands, Hatshepsut, says "Oh my mother Nut, stretch thyself over me, that thou mayest place me among the imperishable stars which are in thee, and that I may not die." Prayer to the Goddess Nut from the lid of one of Hatshepsut's sarcophagus.

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Hatshepsut The Female Pharaoh

Hatshepsut, was the daughter of Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose Nefertari. Hatshepsut (1473-1458 BC) was married to her half brother Thutmose II perhaps in order to strengthen his claim to the throne. Hatshepsut had a daughter by her husband/half brother Thutmose II, but the heir to the throne, the future Thutmose III, was in fact the son of one of his father's concubines.

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The Story of Hatshepsut

Born in the 15th century BC, Hatshepsut, daughter of Tuthmose I and Aahmes, both of royal lineage, was the favorite of their three children. When her two brothers died, she was in the unique position to gain the throne upon the death of her father. To have a female pharaoh was unprecedented, and probably most definitely unheard of as well. When Tuthmose I passed away, his son by the commoner Moutnofrit, Tuthmose II, technically ascended the throne. For the few years of his reign, however, Hatshepsut seems to have held the reins. From markings on his mummy, archaeologists believe Tuthmose II had a skin disease, and he died after ruling only three or four years. Hatshepsut, his half sister and wife, had produced no offspring with him (her daughter Nefrure was most likely the daughter of her lover Senmut), although he had sired a son through the commoner Isis. This son, Tuthmose III, was in line for the throne, but due to his age Hatshepsut was allowed to reign as queen dowager.

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Karnak Temple

The Temple of Karnak is actually three main temples, smaller enclosed temples, and several outer temples. This vast complex was built and enlarged over a thirteen hundred year period. The three main temples of Mut, Monthu and Amun are enclosed by enormous brick walls. The Open Air Museum is located to the north of the first courtyard, across from the Sacred Lake. The main complex, The Temple of Amun, is situated in the center of the entire complex. The Temple of Monthu is to the north of the Temple of Amun, while the Temple of Mut is to the south.

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Food of the Ancient Egyptians

Food: Bread, beer, and all good things. The Egyptians` staple food was bread. It was made from barley and emmer wheat, their most common crops. Bread was usually baked in a conical mold that was placed over an open fire. There were also dome-shaped ovens where net loaves of bread were baked by placing them against either the hot interior or exterior of the dome. The main beverage of ancient Egypt was beer, but the frequent depictions of grape arbors on tomb walls and the numerous wine vessels found throughout Egypt indicate that wine was also popular. However, only the nobility could afford to drink wine on a regular basis.

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Anubis, The God of Embalming

The Ancient Egyptians held a great reverence for the Jackal headed god Anubis, who oversaw the embalming and mummification process as well as escorting the deceased through the procedures for entering the underworld.

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Ancient Egypt Artifacts and Antiquities

The cornerstone for Egyptian society was laid around 3100 BC with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the rule of a single King. This king, known as Pharaoh, was the central figure of the Egyptian state which built pyramids during the Old Kingdom, mainly in the 3rd Dynasty, starting at Saqqara (c. 2650 BC). The most notable of these was the Great Pyramid at Giza built by Khufu (Cheops). Later-Dynasty Pharaohs turned their attention to the building of temples with large halls and stylized columns. Dynastic rule in ancient Egypt ended in approximately 300 BC with the beginning of the Macedonian Kings and Ptolemaic reign which itself ended with its conquest by the Roman Empire and the death of Cleopatra in 31 BC.

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Akhet Egyptology Home

Explore the wonders of the past. Find out about the people of this amazing culture, and learn about the gods they worshiped, the Pharaohs they followed and the tombs and statues they left behind. Tutankhamun, the elaborate preparations they made for an eternal life. Masks and jewelry which the dead took with them into their tombs and the elaborate mythology that inspired it.

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Akhet Egyptology Index

An ideal place to start exploring the wonders of the past. Find out about the people of this amazing culture, and learn about the gods they worshiped, the Pharaohs they followed and the tombs and statues they left behind.

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Akhenaten by Megaera Lorenz

Akhenaten was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh who reigned about 3,500 years ago. He made some major, but rather short-lived changes to various aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, the most notable one being his religious revolution. Akhenaten also made major changes in the ancient Egyptian art style, and presented himself in a very different manner from any of his predecessors.

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THE EGYPTIAN COLLECTION

The Metropolitan Museum of Art

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Nubia: The Land Upriver

The Rise of Kush Power Vacuum in Nubia. The Egyptian New Kingdom came to an end in ca. 1070 BC. The succeeding royal government of the Twenty-first Dynasty (ruling from Tanis) abandoned all claim to Nubia, apparently creating a power vacuum there that lasted over 400 years. Since no textual records or cemeteries have been detected in Nubia for this period, most archaeologists believe that Lower Nubia was fairly deserted at this time, perhaps due to low Nile levels and increased desiccation of the region. The Nubian inhabitants, they suggest, migrated southward, where they collected around Napata. Ultimately, a strong independent state did grow up centered around that city, i.e., the resurgent Kingdom of Kush. On the other hand, some archaeologists argue that certain sites in Lower Nubia actually do show continuous Nubian occupation through this period and later--down to the succeeding Kushite kingdom, e.g., Qasr Ibrim. They suggest that Lower Nubia was not deserted at this time, but contained various indigenous polities that were absorbed even earlier than previously suspected by the growing Kushite state at Napata.

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Scottish Egyptology

This section was where Akhet all started, many years ago on CompuServe. Here you will find a guide to Egyptological collections as well as original photographs of the best that Scotland has to offer.

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The Ancient Egypt Site

Explore more than 3.000 years of Ancient Egyptian history, monuments, language and more. History starting with the end of prehistory at around 3.000 BC to the closing of the last Egyptian temple in 535/537 A.D. A time-line helps you navigate through history and discover the formidable Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt.

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Tombs and Temples

The temples of Ancient Egypt remain as a constant reminder of the power and glory of the Egyptian state and it's Gods. Each of the major gods had their own cult center with a temple complex as well as the 'state' temples at Luxor and Karnak.

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The Egyptian Book of the Dead

The Papyrus of Ani by E. A. WALLIS BUDGE [1895]

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Mummification

Many ancient civilizations believed in life after death. We identify mumification with ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians - during the time of the dynasties - believed that mummification would guarantee the soul passage into the next life. Some believed that the dead lived on in the tomb. While others thought of the dead as having gone to a blessed afterworld in some far-distant place. That being the case they provided for both worlds. In no other civilization have such elaborate preparations for the afterlife been made in the preservation of the dead.

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Mummies of Ancient Egypt

A project of the Cultural Heritage Initiative for Community Outreach at the University of Michigan School of Information.

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Great Pyramid of Giza Research Association

New research on the great pyramid from the world's largest research association. Ancient Egypt

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Pharaohs: Short biographies

of some of the more well-known pharaohs of Egypt from Neferchichi`s Tomb site.

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Theban Mapping Project - Valley of the Kings

Wadi Biban al Molouk, Wadi al Moluk. See the Valley of the Kings in Virtual Reality.

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Deep in the Tombs of Egypt

WELL, GOLLY GEE, IT`S ARCHAEOLOGY Deep in the Tombs of Egypt

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The Royal Tomb

The royal tomb at Akhetaten stands as a silent monument both to the destruction wrought in the Anti-Atenist backlash, and the destruction caused in modern times by man's greed and ignorance. The tomb is yet another example of how the condition of ancient monuments has deteriorated more in the last 100 years than in the previous three millennia.

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The Enigma of Tomb KV55

Perhaps the most controversial find ever made in the Valley of the Kings was tomb KV55. This tomb was discovered on the 3rd of January 1907 by Edward Ayrton. The tomb contained a number of Amarna objects. These included a large gilded shrine, originally prepared by Akhenaten for the Akhetaten burial of his mother Tiye.

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Ancient Scripts

Gives an introduction to writing systems

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Egyptian Hieroglyphs

Writing Numbers and Fractions Eye of Horus Downloads Links

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Hieroglyphic Alphabet

These are signs that make the sound of one consonant. These glyphs are used to translate into our modern alphabet.

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The Rosetta Stone Images and Information

The Rosetta Stone is 3 feet 9 inches long and 2 feet 41/2 inches wide - (114x72x28cm). It is dark grey-pinkish granite stone (originally thought to be basalt in composition) with writing on it in two languages, Egyptian and Greek, using three scripts, Hieroglyphic, Demotic Egyptian and Greek. Because Greek was well known, the stone was the key to deciphering the hieroglyphs.

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THE STONE OF ROSETTE

The Rosetta Stone (image with info). The name Rosetta is attached to the stone of Rosette. This is a compact basalt slab (114x72x28 cm) that was found in July 1799 in the small Egyptian village Rosette (Raschid), which is located in the western delta of the Nile. Today the stone is kept at the British Museum in London. It contains three inscriptions that represent a single text in three different variants of script, a decree of the priests of Memphis in honour of Ptolemaios V. (196 b.c.).

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Four Sons Of Horus

The Four Sons of Horus were traditionally the guardians of the internal organs of the deceased. Each was associated with a particular organ, and also with a different cardinal point on the compass.

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The Cairo Museum

The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities in Cairo is an unbelievable treasure house of riches. As it develops this section of the site will contain unique photographs of the exhibits there.

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The Sphinx Temple

The Great Sphinx is, like many other monuments in Egypt, a complex rather than simply a single colossal statue. At the Sphinx on the Giza Plateau near Cairo, there are actually two Sphinx temples.

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Egypt: Alexander the Great in Egypt

Alexander III of Macedon (356-323 bc), better known to history as 'Alexander the Great', spent several months in Egypt as part of his on-going campaign against the mighty Persian Empire of Darius III. After conquering Persia's naval bases all along the coastline of Asia Minor and Syria-Israel, Alexander marched south into Egypt where he remained for some six months.

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Crystalinks:Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great, Megas Alexandros (July 20, 356 BC­June 10, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336­323 BC), was one of the most successful Ancient Greek military commanders in history. The name 'Alexander' derives from the Greek words "alexo" meaning refuge, defense, protection) and "aner" meaning man). Before his death, he conquered most of the world known to the ancient Greeks. Alexander is also known in the Zoroastrian Middle Persian work Arda Wiraz Namag as "the accursed Alexander" due to his conquest of the Persian Empire and the destruction of its capital Persepolis. He is known as Eskandar-e Maqduni (Alexander of Macedonia) in Persian, Al-Iskander Al-Makadoni (Alexander of Macedonia) in Arabic, Alexander Mokdon in Hebrew, and Tre-Qarnayia in Aramaic (the two-horned one, apparently due to an image on coins minted during his rule that seemingly depicted him with the two ram's horns of the Egyptian god Ammon),(Alexander the Great) in Arabic, Sikandar-e-azam Sikandar, his name in Urdu and Hindi, is also a term used as a synonym for "expert" or "extremely skilled".

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Story of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great World conqueror by Chris Whitten

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Macedonia FAQ: Bucephalus

Contians Bronze statue of Alexander on Bucephalus Museo Nazionale di Villa Guilia, Rome, Italy

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Alexandria -- Related links

WWW Links Related to Alexandria. The Library of Alexandria The Decline of the Library and the Mouseion (technical paper) Hypatia of Alexandria (at cosmopolis.com) Hypatia of Alexandria (book review) The Mysterious Fate of the Great Library of Alexandria The Library of Alexandria (technical paper) The New Bibliotheca Alexandrina Bibliotheca Alexandrina: Landscape and Design History and Tradition Alexander the Great's Home Page Alexander the Great on the Web Alexandria: Cosmology, Philosophy, Myth, and Culture Alexandria Preservation Trust Amicale Alexandrie Hier Aujourd'hui Ancient World Web Archaeology Article in the Christian Science Monitor Cavafy's Alexandria (book review) Cavafy's Poems Classics Archive (The Tech/MIT) Clement of Alexandria's "the Stromateis" Constantine P. Cavafy History of the Patriarchs of Alexandria History of Mathematics: Alexandria The House of Ptolemy Philo of Alexandria

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Alexandria: The Ptolemaic Dynasty

For the next three centuries the Ptolemaic Dynasty would hold sway over Egypt, surviving both family feuds and external conflicts while living an unusual combination of Hellenic and Egyptian life. And under them Alexandria grew mighty and prosperous, the center of an empire that extended around the coast of Syria to the Aegean Sea. In fact, if Alexandria had been any more prosperous, it might have replaced Rome as the center of the world, as Rome was neither as strategically located nor as culturally diverse. But all this is not to say that Alexandria was a city completely at peace with itself. With the large numbers of people and cultures coming through the city, it was inevitable that conflict would arise. Certainly racial tensions, by no means an invention of the twentieth century, played a strong part. Additionally, a number of more tradition-minded Egyptians resented the presence of the Greeks, nations brought their feuds with them to the streets and businesses of Alexandria, and there was always the wildly unpredictable Alexandrian Mob to lend spice to things.

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Decline of Library of Alexandria

The Library of Alexandria, in reality two or more libraries in the ancient Egyptian capitol, has achieved an almost mythic stature in the study of classics from the time of the Renaissance. The apocryphal burning of the Library during Julius Caesar`s occupation of the city has been described as the greatest calamity of the ancient world, wherein the most complete collection of all Greek and Near Eastern literature was lost in one great conflagration. In reality, the Library and its community of scholars not only flourished during the Hellenistic era of the Ptolemies, but continued to survive through the Roman Empire and the incessant turbulence of the Empire`s most volatile and valuable city. For valuable indeed was the granary of the empire, which was also a prosperous trade center between east and west, linked to the Mediterranean and, not far to the east, to the Red Sea and Indian traderoutes via a canal. This cosmopolitan city drew Greeks, Egyptians, Romans, and Jews into a unique and not entirely harmonious coexistence. The Alexandrian Museum and Library, then, was an ideal place for scholars from these different cultures to meet and exchange learning, and was a repository for the literature and accounts of the Alexandrian intelligensia and the Roman Empire in general. However, while sources agree on the Museum`s uniqueness and value, no surviving account of its activities actually exists, and modern scholarship has largely ignored this poorly-documented portion of history.

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Neferchichi's Egyptian Graphics

Shop for your favorite Egyptomaniac (even if that's you) in our Gift Shop Bazaar! You'll find lots of cool books, toys, posters, videos & DVDs, games, clocks, mouse pads, tote bags, and lots of other Egyptian-inspired merchandise. Here's a small sample of our wares...

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Pyramid Crossword Puzzle

Puzzle about Egypt. Ancient Egypt's Deepest Secrets Revealed Bartlett Elementary School 2000

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Ancient Egyptian Coloring Book

The following drawings are renderings based on actual ancient Egyptian wall paintings, sculpture and everyday objects discovered in tombs and temples. Most of them are from the shrines and tombs at Thebes (modern Luxor) on the Nile which were unearthed in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by European explorers and archeologists.

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NM's Creative Impulse: Medieval World

With their eyes and minds on eternity, the Egyptians built a society that remained constant for nearly 3000 years. Many of their monuments still attest to that permanence. Ancient eyes of monumental sculptures and the Sphinx still stare at us through the centuries. The tombs in the Valley of Kings and at Beni Hasan and the ruins of massive pylon temples at Luxor and Karnak reminded us of the importance of religious belief in Egyptian society. The only remaining Wonder of the Ancient World still stands proudly at the pyramid complex at Giza.

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Michael C. Carlos Museum

On the campus of Emory University. Collections include mummies and other artifacts from ancient Egypt

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Akhet Egyptology

Resource for Egyptology, including a clickable mummy, original photography, and UK Egyptology resources.

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Akhenaten's World

No Pharaoh of Egypt causes quite so much debate as the 'Heretic' Akhenaten. Despised by his successors and all but erased from history, only now are some of the details being painstakingly put together of this man and the profound effect he had on an empire.

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Guardian's Sphinx

The Sphinx of Giza is a symbol that has represented the essence of Egypt for thousands of years. Even with all of the pictures that we see of the Sphinx, nothing can really prepare you for the time that you finally see the Sphinx with your own eyes. Here's a look at the Sphinx that will give you a hint of what you can expect to see if you visit Egypt.

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Luxor Temple, Hypostyle Hall

Egypt, Luxor (East Bank), Luxor Temple was built by the New Kingdom Pharaoh Amenophis III. It was dedicated the Theban Triad of Amun-Min, Mut and Khonsu. The hypostyle hall is the first inner room of the temple itself and features four rows of eight columns each.(Tony Stone Images)

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Ancient Egyptian wall frieze, Nile Goddess,

food offering, lotus flowers(Tony Stone Images)

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Sun Temple of Ramesses II illuminated at night

Egypt, Abu Simbel, (Tony Stone Images)

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Hathor Temple

Egypt, Abu Simbel, (Tony Stone Images)

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Temple of Hathor

Egypt, Aswan, Abu Simbel, Great Temple of Abu Simbel (Tony Stone Images)

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Statue of Ramesses II illuminated at night

Egypt, Luxor, Luxor Temple, (Tony Stone Images)

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Avenue of Sphinxes at sunset

Egypt, Luxor, Luxor Temple, (Tony Stone Images)

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Pyramid and Sphinx illuminated at night

Egypt, Cairo, Giza, (Tony Stone Images)

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Sun Temple of Ramesses II illuminated at night

Egypt, Abu Simbel, (Tony Stone Images)

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Sun Temple of Ramesses II, head of figure

Egypt, Abu Simbel, (Tony Stone Images)

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Sun Temple of Ramesses II, head of figure 2

Egypt, Abu Simbel, (Tony Stone Images)

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man in robes sculpture of Rameses II

Egypt, ,Luxor Temple, (Tony Stone Images)

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Pyramids of Giza

Egypt, Cairo, Giza, The pyramids were considered by the ancient Greeks to be one of the Seven Wonders of the World. They, and the temples of Giza, were built from stone quarried locally and from the Moqattam Hills.They were built between about 2700 BC to about 1000 BC. (Tony Stone Images)

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Avenue of Sphinxes illuminated at sunset

Egypt, Luxor, Luxor Temple, (Tony Stone Images)

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Temple of Isis, low angle view of reliefs

Egypt, ancient Dendera, (Tony Stone Images)

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Queen Hatshepsut relief

Egypt, Luxor, Temple of Karnak, (Tony Stone Images)

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Tourists by statue of Ramesses II

Egypt, Luxor, Temple of Karnak, (Tony Stone Images)

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Couple looking down over Valley of the Kings

Egypt, Valley Of The Kings, (Tony Stone Images)

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Colossi of Memnon, arab in foreground

Egypt, Thebes, West Bank, (Tony Stone Images)

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Ram-headed sphinxes

Egypt, by road from Luxor Temple to Karnak Temples (Tony Stone Images)

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Tourist photographing statue of Ramesses II

Luxor, Karnak Temple, Ramses II statue We are now in the temple area. The temple of Karnak should be called the temples of Karnak, because in this area you will find several temples. The three main ones are: the temple of mut, the temple of Monthu and the temple of Amun (the three of them are enclosed by high walls). Outside the walls there is the open air museum, the sacred lake and several other temples. In front of us you can admire the statue of Ramses II. At its left, you can see part of the second pylon, built during Ramses II reign. At our right there is the entrance to the hypostyle hall, one of the most amazing sights in Egypt, which we will see later. Now it is time to go to the Ramses III courtyard (at our back). Egypt, Luxor, Karnak,

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Zoser, The Step Pyramid

Egypt, Saqqara, (Tony Stone Images)

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Sphinx and Pyramid of Chephren, low angle view

Egypt, Cairo, Giza, (Tony Stone Images)

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Sphinx and Pyramid

Egypt, Cairo, Giza, (Tony Stone Images)

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Sphinx and Pyramid of Chephren, low angle view 3

Egypt, Cairo, Giza, (Tony Stone Images)

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History of Egypt

The information on Egyptian history is taken from a number of sources, including Sir Alan Gardiner's Egypt of the Pharaohs. Many sources are used so as to reflect a wide variety of theories and ideas about Egypt's history, particularly its early days. Note: This is one of the nices and most informative sites I have seen for historical reference on Pharaonic history.

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Monuments in Egypt

We have documented many of the ancient monuments of Egypt, including not only the pharaonic monuments but those of Islam and early Christianity. Note: Lots of images with brief descriptions.

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Rulers of Ancient Egypt

The kings and pharaohs of ancient Egypt from the 1st dynasty to the Byzantine emperors. Note: Brief descriptions.

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Who's Who of Egypt

We have all heard of rulers such as Rameses the Great, but what about the other important people of Egypt. Throughout the history of this great land, there have always been people working alongside the rulers to make things happen. We have compiled an extensive list of these important, but sometimes forgotten people. Note: Brief descriptions.

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Egyptian Mythology

This brief overview is meant only to explain some of the basic concepts and to introduce some of the gods. Note: Brief descriptions.

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Virtual Museum

where you can take a tour of important Egyptian relics around the world.

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Virtual Museum

where you can take a tour of important Egyptian relics around the world.

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Ancient Egypt Glossary of Terms

Over Egypt's past, many terms from many origins have come into use. In order to understand the Egyptian past, we have included a glossary of terms.

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The Construction of the Pyramids

Ever wonder how the pyramids were built? We have put together some general information on their construction.

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A History of Christianity in Egypt

Learn how the Land of the Pharaohs proved to be fertile ground for the young religion. "When writing about the history of any religion, regardless of time and place, I have found that it is often difficult to separate history from tradition. In some cases, the two are one and the same, while in others, one account can be radically different from another. It is my purpose in these articles neither to vilify nor praise any one system of belief, but merely to present the story of a fascinating aspect of our world's history."

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Historical Astrology In Egypt

Find out how Egypt provided the basis for modern Astrology.

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Historical Astrology In Egypt

Find out how Egypt provided the basis for modern Astrology.

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The Egyptian Book of the Dead

1240 BC. The Papyrus of Ani; Translated by E.A. Wallis Budge We have a complete Egyptian Book of the Dead on line. Check it out.

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Temple of Queen Nefertari

Egypt, Abu Simbel, man cleaning Hathor. The Hathor Temple of Queen Nefertari is situated just north of the the Great Temple of Rameses II. Both were built during the reign of Rameses II (1290-1224 BC). The Hathor Temple is guarded by 6 statues, 4 representing Rameses and 2 of Queen Nefertari. (Tony Stone Images)

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Karnak Temple at Night

Egypt, Luxor, Karnak Temple, First Pylon, lit at night. (Tony Stone Images)

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Statue of Ramses II at entry

Egypt, Luxor Temple, lit at night. (Tony Stone Images)

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Dendra Necropolis Columns

Egypt, Dendera, Outer Hypostyle Hall, man looking up at columns. The Dendra necropolis is a well preserved complex of a temple, Early Dynastic tombs and underground passages.The main Temple of Hathor is almost intact. In the Outer Hypostyle Hall Hathor`s head forms the top of all 24 columns. (Tony Stone Images)

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Temple of Hatshepsut

Egypt, Luxor, West Bank, Valley of the Kings. Discovered in the mid 19th century it is still being restored. Mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut who ruled from 1495 BC for 20 years. Valley of the Kings contains many royal burial grounds. (Tony Stone Images)

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Temple of Hatshepsut

Egypt, Luxor, West Bank, Valley of the Kings. Discovered in the mid 19th century it is still being restored. Mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut who ruled from 1495 BC for 20 years. Valley of the Kings contains many royal burial grounds. (Tony Stone Images)

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Temples of Karnak

Egypt, Luxor, East Bank. Karnak was built over a 1500 year period. During the height of Theban power it was the most important temple in Egypt. View from the south. Obelisk(Tony Stone Images)

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Ramesses II statue being cleaned

Egypt, Luxor, Temple of Luxor. (Tony Stone Images)

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Cheops Pyramid (Nice)

Egypt, near Cairo, Pyramids of Giza, buildings in foreground. (Tony Stone Images)

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Pyramids of Giza (Man riding camel foreground)

Egypt, Cairo, native man riding camel, pyramids behind (Tony Stone Images)

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Temple of Hatshep sut

Egypt, Necropolis of Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, (Tony Stone Images)

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Temple of Hatshepsut (Scenic Background)

Necropolis of Thebes, Deir El-Bahri, (Tony Stone Images)

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View of Ramses II statue and tourists

Egypt, Abu Simbel, (Tony Stone Images)

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Court of Nactanebo with obelisk in foreground

Egypt, Luxor Temple. Built by New Kingdom Pharoah Amenophis III and dedicated to Amun`s `Harem of the South`. Added to Tutankhamun, Rameses II and Alexander the Great amongst others (Tony Stone Images)

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Temple of Karnak (Pillar)

Egypt, Luxor, man leaning on pillar in evening light (Tony Stone Images)

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Pyramid of Chephren, aerial view

Egypt, Giza, Middle pyramid of the Giza Pyramids (Tony Stone Images)

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Pyramid of Mycerinus aerial view

Egypt, Giza. Smallest of the Giza Pyramids (Tony Stone Images)

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Sunrise at Valley of Kings

Egypt, Deir Al-Bahri, Hatshepsut Temple, (Tony Stone Images)

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Karnak Temple, ram sphinxes by temple walls,

Egypt, Luxor, sunset (Tony Stone Images)

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HistoryWiz: Ancient Egypt Images

Multimedia World History. The history of Ancient Egypt, with photos of pyramids and the Nile. [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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The Art of Ancient Egypt Posters

Large selection for purchase at AllPosters.com [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Amenemhet III

Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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The Rosetta Stone Photos

Pictures of the Rosetta Stone Royalty Free Pictures* [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Temple of Queen Nefertari, Abu Simbel, Egypt

Boat cruising by. [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Temple of Amun in Karnak

Forecourt Colossus of Ramesses II [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Pyramids, Giza, Egypt

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Sunset pyramid, Giza, Egypt

Camel Rider. Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Obelisk Through Arch at the Great Temple of Amon

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Pompey`s Pillar and sphinx, Alexandria, Egypt

Ptolemaic Sphinx Statue Near Pompey`s Pillar. Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Osiris pillars, Ramesseum Temple, Luxor, Egypt

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Pyramid, Giza, Egypt

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Great Sphinx and Pyramid at Luxor Resort

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Sphinx and pyramid, Giza, Egypt

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Sphinx and pyramid, Giza, Egypt (Closer)

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Pyramid of Khafre, Giza, Egypt

View of the Great Sphinx and Pyramid of Khafre at Night Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Pyramid, Giza, Egypt

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Temple of Ramses, Egypt (close)

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, Egypt

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Rider on Camel Beside Pyramid

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Head of The Great Sphinx

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Man Painting Sphynx and Giza, Egypt

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Hieroglyphs

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Stonehenge, England

Corbis Images [Ancient England] [Images]

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Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, England

Corbis Images [Ancient England] [Images]

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Egyptian Hieroglyphics

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Sphinx from Ptolemaic Sphinx Statues

Detail Showing One Sphinx from Ptolemaic Sphinx Statues near Pompey`s Pillar. Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Zeus Temple Remains in Ancient city

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Felucca on Nile, Aswan, Egypt

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Pyramid of Cheops at Night, Giza, Egypt

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Temple of Horus and Sobek, Kom Ombo, Egypt

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Obelisk of Amon Ra, Karnak, Egypt

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Herbs and spices, Aswan, Egypt

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Abu Simbel, Egypt

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Egypt (Flag)

Corbis Images [Modern Egypt] [Images]

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Egypt (Flag)

Corbis Images [Modern Egypt] [Images]

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Camel and rider, Egypt

Corbis Images [Modern Egypt] [Images]

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Egyptian Obelisk

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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The Pyramids at Giza

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Great Pyramid at Giza

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Roman theater, Alexandria, Egypt

Corbis Images [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Aswan dam on the Nile

Corbis Images [Modern Egypt] [Images]

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Aswan dam on the Nile

Corbis Images [Modern Egypt] [Images]

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Statue of Ramses II

Cairo, Egypt; The head of the Colossal Statue of Ramses II was discovered in 1870 at the capital of the old kingdom of Ancient Egypt. [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Napoleon`s Conquest of Egypt

(1798-1800) did not last more than two years. Yet its` consequences to the area were spectacular. This latest museum in the Pharaonic Village attempts to capture this. It highlights some of the main historic events, including: The Battle of the Pyramids: This is the battle where Napoleon and his army defeated the Mamelukes - warlords of Egypt. The battle was fought at Imbaba, 13 miles north of the pyramids. [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Egyptian Picture Gallery

Pyramids Navigation Pyramids at Giza Pyramids at Giza #2 Pyramid of Khufu Pyramid Khufu #2 Pyramid of Khafre Pyramid of Merkure Bent Pyramid of Dashur Step Pyramid of Djoser Pyramid of Userkaf Royalty Free Images* Djoser Step Pyramid Pyramids Khafre Pyramid Khufu Pyramid Other Pyramids Images from Giza Wall Paintings Great Sphinx Giza Great Sphinx #2 Great Sphinx #3 Sphinxes at Luxor Sphinxes at Karnak Sphinx of Memphis Colossus of Memnon Colossus of Memphis Sculptures of Ramesses Sculptures from Tombs Misc. Sculptures Royalty Free Images* Sphinxes Great Sphinx Great Sphinx Sphinxes at Karnak Sphinxes at Karnak Sphinx at Memphis Great Sphinx with Pyramid in Background Sculptures Colossus of Memnon Colossus of Memnon Colossus of Memphis Sculpture at Karnak Sculpture at Luxor Other Sculptures Temples Navigation Abu Simbel Abu Simbel #2 Hatshepsut Isis Mednet Habu Mortuary Hathor & Khnum Royalty Free Images* Hatshepsut Temple #1 Hatshepsut Temple #2 Hatshepsut #3 Temple Idfu Temple Idfu #2 Karnak and Luxor Temples ancient Engravings Pictures, Nile River Pictures, Egyptian Farming and Country Side Navigation Farming Countryside #1 Countryside #2 Egyptian Village Egyptian House [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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Ancient Egyptian Hairstyles

For children [Ancient Egypt] [Images]

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The Lighthouse of Alexandria

A colossus of Helios the sun-god, erected by the Greeks near the harbor of a Mediterranean Island. [General] [Egypt]

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Mummies of the World

A mummy, to put it bluntly, is an old dead body. But unlike a skeleton or a fossil, a mummy still retains some of the soft tissue it had when it was alive -- most often skin, but sometimes organs and muscles, as well. This tissue preservation can happen by accident or through human intervention but, in either case, it occurs when bacteria and fungi are unable to grow on a corpse and cause its decay. [Nova] [General] [Egypt]

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Empires and Cities (Egypt)

Until this section is finished being indexed into the main database you can click here to see a list of links including the Bible History Online general resources on this subject, although many of these links are outdated. [Ancient Egypt]

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Egyptology Resources

(University of Cambridge) [History] [Egypt]

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The International Association of Egyptologists

[International] [Professional Societies]

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The International Association of Egyptologists

[International] [Professional Societies]

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The Egypt Exploration Society

[Europe] [Professional Societies]

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The Sudan Archeological Research Society

The British Museum, London. Through lectures, seminars and newsletters, the Sudan Archaeological Research Society aims to promote interest in the Sudan`s cultural heritage and raise awareness of its place in the history of mankind. Most significantly, the Society mounts expeditions to excavate and record threatened sites before they are lost to knowledge forever. [Egyptology] [Europe] [Professional Societies]

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Sussex Egyptology Society online

one of Britain's most successful regional Egyptology groups. It is also a gateway to the whole of Britain's Egyptological scene - and, of course, to the wonders of Egypt's ancient civilisation. [Egyptology] [U.S.] [Professional Societies]

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Egyptologica Vlaanderen VZW

[Egyptology] [Europe] [Professional Societies]

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American Research Center in Egypt

[Egyptology] [United States] [Professional Societies]

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ARCE Orange County California Chapter

[Egyptology] [United States] [Professional Societies]

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ARCE Northern California Chapter

[Egyptology] [United States] [Professional Societies]

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Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities

[Egyptology] [United States] [Professional Societies]

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Ancient Egypt Research Associates

[Egyptology] [United States] [Professional Societies]

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Ancient Egypt Research Associates

Official web site of Ancient Egypt Research Associates (AERA). [History] [Egypt]

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Guardian`s Egypt Main Gate

Welcome to Guardian`s Egypt where you can explore the mystery and splendor of ancient Egypt from the comfort of your own computer. Guardian`s Egypt was founded in 1994 by Andrew Bayuk. [History] [Egypt]

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Egyptian Archaeology

Egyptian Archaeology - Directory of Online Resources

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Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology

Archaeological discoveries continually enrich our understanding of the people, culture, history, and literature of the Middle East. The heritage of its peoples -- from urban civilization to the Bible -- both inspires and fascinates. Near Eastern Archaeology brings to life the ancient world from Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean with vibrant images and authoritative analyses. [History] [Egypt]

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Odyssey in Egypt

When we think about Egypt, camels, pyramids, and mummies often come to mind! That's not surprising since much of what we know about ancient Egypt comes from the tombs of Egyptians and the objects found buried with them. No one knows exactly what life was like in ancient Egypt, but these objects tell us a lot. Egyptian fashion, religious beliefs, recreational activities, and much more can be explored through the art they created and included in their burials. [History] [Egypt]

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Egyptian Museum Artifacts

Mummies, Coffins, Artifacts. You are in for a surprise when you open this page.[History] [Egypt]

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Roemer-und Pelizaeus Museum collecton

Phoenix Art Museum is the only venue in the Southwest to present Splendors of Ancient Egypt, the largest exhibition of ancient Egyptian treasures ever to tour America and one of the most spectacular collections in the world. [History] [Egypt] Phoenix Art Museum.

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Institute of Egyptian Art and Archaeolgy

Contains excellent Egyptian Artifacts Exhibit [History] [Egypt] University of Memphis

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Annual Egyptological Bibliography

The online Annual Egyptological Bibliography (AEB) website. The AEB is published by the International Association of Egyptologists in cooperation with the Netherlands Institute for the Near East. [History] [Egypt]

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Egyptian Art Galleries

Richard Deurer. The Egyptian Galleries contain my paintings, photographs and sculptures. You will also find valuable information about Ancient Egypt. Please, go to the gallery that you find the most interesting. [General] [Egypt]

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Reeder's Egyptian Gallery

The Egyptian Portfolio, Cairo: The Islamic Monuments. , The Pharaonic Monuments, Black & White Photography, Digital Egypt Ephemera [General] [Egypt]

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Egyptian Art Exhibit

Some Old Kingdom sculptures present an idealized version of their subject, but other royal and non-royal images exhibit features that identify them as distinct individuals. The more realistic faces range from thin to fleshy, with traces of character as well as signs of age. Especially noticeable in this regard are the individual facial features in the sculptures of King Menkaure shown here. In some instances, similarities between portraits in relief and statuary help to identify otherwise anonymous individuals. The most enigmatic of Old Kingdom portraits are the "reserve heads" found in a select group of tombs at Giza. These heads, with their strikingly individual faces, were complete works of art in themselves, rather than part of a larger statue; none is identified by name. [General] [Egypt] (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

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Death in Ancient Egypt

[General] [Egypt] (Oriental Institute)

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Mansoor Amarna Collection

The M.A. Mansoor Collection of Amarna Era art, their world-renowned collection is justifiably honored as one of the most extraordinary single groupings of Egyptian art in existence. Pieces of the Amarna Collection are included in the permanent collections of the Louvre and the Denver Art Museum and San Francisco State University. [General] [Egypt]

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Egyptian Temple Rituals

The Daily Temple Rituals Morning Service - Ritual Purity - Awakening the God - Serving the God - Midday and Evening Rituals [General] [Egypt]

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Alexandria Landmarks and Alexandria Monuments

The vast majority of Alexandria's most significant landmarks and monuments are leftovers from the Romans. These ancient monuments are unique and fascinating to tour. Not to be missed are the Roman Amphitheatre, the only one in Egypt, and Pompey's Pillar, a huge freestanding structure. More modern landmarks in Alexandria include the ornate Abbas al-Mursi Mosque, while the city's harbours hide hundreds of ancient treasures, which can only be observed on a diving trip. Here are Alexandria's main landmarks and monuments. [General] [Egypt]

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Thebes Photographic Project

[General] [Egypt] Oriental Institute

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Trumpet of Tutankhamun

Click to download the audio of King Tut's Trumpet [General] [Egypt]

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Tomb of Niankhkhnum & Khnumhotep

The Tomb of Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep was discovered by Mounir Basta in 1964 in Saqqara. Basta found the tomb by crawling through a series of passages in the escarpment facing the causeway to the pyramid of Unas. [General] [Egypt]

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The Great Pyramid of Giza

A gigantic stone structure near the ancient city of Memphis, serving as a tomb for the Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu. [General] [Egypt]

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Three slaves and a stern Ramses II

Egypt's king, Ramses II, written about in the Old Testament, is now thought to have reigned between 1290-1224 B.C.E. The Egyptian wall art to the right depicts Ramses holding what is suspected to be three slaves. One is black, one appears to be East Asian, and the third, in the foreground, appears to be Semitic. The blacks and Semite came from close by. The East Asian leaves us wondering. (Photo)

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Cleopatra

Photos and images from exhibit: Cleopatra, the queen - egyptian archaeology photographic image of Naples, National Archaeological Musemu, painting of a woman, maybe Cleopatra VII, I century A.D. Cleopatra had the advantages that went with wealth. She was of Macedonia descent -- and whomever the royal Ptolemies mated with.

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Model Boat with Figures

Egyptian, Middle Kingdom, Dynasty XII-XIII: Model Boat with Figures, c. 2052-1778 B.C. Wood with gesso and paint, H. 30 1/2 x W. 20 1/2 x L. 41 in. The North Carolina Museum of Art at North Carolina State University.

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Mummy Case of Djed Mout

Egyptian, Late Period, Dynasty XXII-XXXIII: Mummy Case of Djed Mout, c. 945-712 B.C. Wood with gesso and polychrome, H. 71 in. The North Carolina Museum of Art at North Carolina State University.

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Mummy Case of Amonred

Egyptian, Late Period: Mummy Case of Amonred; Dynasty XXII-XXXII, c.945-712 B.C. Wood, gesso, polychrome, H. 71 in. The North Carolina Museum of Art at North Carolina State University.

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Reliefs from the Tomb of Khnumti in Saqqarah

Egyptian, Old Kingdom, VI Dynasty; Reliefs from the Tomb of Khnumti in Saqqarah, 2420-2258 B.C. (#2) White limestone. The North Carolina Museum of Art at North Carolina State University.

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Bust of the Goddess Sekhmet

Egyptian, New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII; Bust of the Goddess Sekhmet, c. 1570-1340 B.C. Granite, H. 23 in. North Carolina Museum of Art- the Egyptian Collection.

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Map of the Nile Valley

from Talla to Geziret Shandawil

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Great Sphinx from Gizeh

Great Sphinx from Gizeh: c2500 BC. 65 feet high [Image from Yale University]

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Great Pyramids of Gizeh

Great Pyramids of Gizeh: Khufu (Cheops) c2530 BC; Khafre (Chefren) c2500 BC; Mankure (Mycerinus) c2740 BC. [Image from Yale University]

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Court and Stepped Pyramid of King Zoser

Court and Stepped Pyramid of King Zoser: c2610-2600 BC; Saqqara. [Image from Yale University]

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Khafre from Gizeh

Khafre (Chefren) from Gizeh: c2500 BC. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Diorite 66" high. [Image from Yale University]

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Akhenaten

Akhenaten; c1375 BC. from a pillar statue in the Temple of Amen-Re, Karnak. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Sandstone Approximately 13 feet high. [Image from Yale University]

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Palette of Narmer

Palette of Narmer: c3000 BC. from Hierakonpolis, Upper Egypt Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Slate 25" high. [Image from Yale University]

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Temple of Ramses II

Temple of Ramses II. Egypt, 19th Dynasty; Site: Abu Simbel (now relocated); Period Date: 1314-1197 BCE. Object Date: c.1275-1225 BCE. [Lots of images and enlargments]

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Death Mask of Tutankhamen

Death Mask of Tutankhamen from innermost coffin; Sculpture (gold with inlaid semi-precious stones). Egypt, 18th Dynasty. Site: Thebes, Tomb of Tutankhamen. Period Date: 1570-1314 BCE. Object Date: c. 1325 BCE. This mask of solid gold, beaten and burnished, was placed over the head and shoulders of Tutankhamun's mummy, outside the linen bandages in which the whole body was wrapped. It weighs about twenty - four pounds. Although it is difficult to judge how closely the face represents a true likeness of the king, it is at least an approximation. The rather narrow eyes, the shape of the nose, the fleshy lips, and the cast of the chin are all in agreement with the features visible in his mummy, and the whole countenance is unmistakably youthful. Perhaps it is slightly idealized, but essentially it seems to be a faithful portrait.

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Death Mask of Tutankhamen Image

Death Mask of Tutankhamen from innermost coffin; Sculpture (gold with inlaid semi-precious stones). Egypt, 18th Dynasty. Site: Thebes, Tomb of Tutankhamen. Period Date: 1570-1314 BCE. Object Date: c. 1325 BCE. The death mask really is magnificent even to someone with no knowledge of the finer points of Egyptian antiquities. Made of solid gold and inlaid with semi-precious stones, it weighs 11 kilograms. At the top you can see representations of a vulture and a cobra. You'll often see the latter referred to as a "uraeus", which is the Latinised form of the Greek word for "cobra"! Wallpaper images are available.

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Senmut with Princess Nefrua (block statue)

Senmut with Princess Nefrua (block statue); Medium Sculpture (carved granite); Era or Culture Egypt, 18th Dynasty; Site Thebes; Country Egypt (Ancient); Period Date 1570-1314 BCE. Object Date c.1490-1460 BCE.

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Seated Scribe

Seated Scribe; Medium Sculpture (carved and painted limestone); Era or Culture Egypt, 5th Dynasty; Site Saqqara (from a mastaba tomb); Country Egypt (Ancient); Period Date 2565-2420 BCE. Object Date c. 2500-2400 BCE. Here is a good link full of images: http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/e/egyptian.html

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Seated Hatshepsut

Seated Hatshepsut: Medium Sculpture (carved limestone, partially restored); Era or Culture Egypt, 18th Dynasty; Site Deir el Bahri; Country Egypt (Ancient); Period Date 1570-1314 BCE. Object Date c. 1490-1460 BCE. Hatshepsut reign dates: c .1504-1482 BCE.

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Painted Chest

Painted Chest: Medium Applied Arts (wood chest with paint); Era or Culture Egypt, 18th Dynasty; Site Thebes, Tomb of Tutankhamen; Country Egypt (Ancient); Period Date 1570-1314 BCE. Object Date c. 1325 BCE. Reign dates for Tutankhamen: c. 1334-1325 BCE.

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Small Throne of Tutankhamen

Small Throne of Tutankhamen: Medium Applied Arts (Wood covered with sheet gold and enamel); Era or Culture Egypt, 18th Dynasty; Site Thebes, Tomb of Tutankhamen; Country Egypt (Ancient); Period Date 1570-1314 BCE. Object Date c. 1325 BCE. Reign dates for Tutankhamen: c. 1334-1325 BCE. The throne of Tutankhamen, with carved figures of the young pharaoh and his wife under the rays of the Sun, from his tomb in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes, Egypt; in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Ency. Brit.

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Innermost Coffin of Tutankhamen

Innermost Coffin of Tutankhamen: Medium Sculpture (gold with inlaid semi-precious stones and enamel); Era or Culture Egypt, 18th Dynasty; Site Thebes, Tomb of Tutankhamen; Country Egypt (Ancient); Period Date 1570-1314 BCE. Object Date c. 1325 BCE. Reign dates for Tutankhamen: c. 1334-1325 BCE.

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Innermost Coffin of Tutankhamen (side view)

Innermost Coffin of Tutankhamen: Medium Sculpture (gold with inlaid semi-precious stones and enamel); Era or Culture Egypt, 18th Dynasty; Site Thebes, Tomb of Tutankhamen; Country Egypt (Ancient); Period Date 1570-1314 BCE. Object Date c. 1325 BCE. Reign dates for Tutankhamen: c. 1334-1325 BCE. [Image from Yale University]

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Portable Chest-Shrine with Anubis Figure

Portable Chest-Shrine with Anubis Figure: Medium Sculpture (carved wood, painted and gilded); Era or Culture Egypt, 18th Dynasty; Site Thebes, Tomb of Tutankhamen; Country Egypt (Ancient); Period Date 1570-1314 BCE. Object Date c. 1325 BCE. Reign dates for Tutankhamen: c. 1334-1325 BCE.

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King Menkaure and Kha-mere-nebty II

Egypt (Old Kingdom): King Menkaure (Mycerinus) and his Queen, Kha-mere-nebty II,: ca. 2548-2530 B.C. [Dynasty IV] Menkaure and His Queen 4th Dynasty 2548-2530 BCE Greywacke Height: 4 feet 67/8 inches (139.5 cm) (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)

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King Menkaure and Kha-mere-nebty II Detailed

Egypt (Old Kingdom): King Menkaure (Mycerinus) and his Queen, Kha-mere-nebty II, Detail: ca. 2548-2530 B.C. Menkaure is portrayed in the familiar Egyptian pose standing as if at attention with his left leg extended forward, his arms held stiff at his sides, and his fists clenched holding some unidentified cylindrical objects. His stance appears assertive, indicative of his power. He is represented as a mature yet vigorous man, perhaps in his thirties, with slender hips, broad shoulders, and well-developed arms. His body has been made to appear lifelike and, except, as is common to all Egyptian statues, in such areas as the knees, which are over-emphasized, and the edge of the shin-bone, which is too sharp, is anatomically correct. Overall, he appears to represent the ideal of manly beauty in Old Kingdom Egypt. Menkaure's face also appears to have been idealized, though its features, which are not particularly refined or aristocratic looking, have been particularized to the degree that it strikes us as being a portrait. Projecting from his chin is a short transversely striped, squared-off, wedge-shaped ceremonial beard. On his head he wears a nemes, or headdress, the sides of which are pulled back behind his rather large ears, with the lappets falling to either side of his chest. The beard and the headdress are the primary symbols of his pharaonic status. Besides the headdress, the only other article of clothing he wears is a shendjyt kilt which is folded across the front, with one end falling down beneath, and held in place with a belt round his waist.

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Akhenaten

Supper Part of a Colossal Statue of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) JE 49258 Cairo Antiquity Museum Egypt (New Kingdom): Akhenaten: sunk relief from Tell el-Amarna, ca. 1350 B.C. [Dynasty XVIII]. Art Images for College Teaching.

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Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Meketaten, and the Royal Princesses

Meketaten. Egypt (New Kingdom): Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and the Royal Princesses: sunk relief fragment from Tell el-Amarna, ca. 1350 B.C. [Dynasty XVIII] Art Images for College Teaching.

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Aten, the Solar Disk, Blessing the Royal family

Egypt (New Kingdom): Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and the Royal Princesses: Aten, the Solar Disk, blessing the Royal family; detail of sunk relief fragment from Tell el-Amarna, ca. 1350 B.C. [Dynasty XVIII]. AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Akhenaten Daughter Meritaten

Egypt (New Kingdom): Akhenaten and his daughter Meritaten: detail, Left side, of sunk relief framgent from Tell el-Amarna, ca. 1350 B.C. [Dynasty XVIII] AICT: Art Images for College Teaching.

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Nefertiti With Her Daughters

Egypt (New Kingdom): Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and the Royal Princesses: Nefertiti with her daughters Maketaton and Ankhesenpaaton, detail R. of sunk relief frament from Tell el-Amarna, ca. 1335 B.C. King Akhenaton (left) with his wife, Queen Nefertiti, and three of their daughters under the rays of the sun god Aton, altar relief, mid-14th century bc; in the State Museums at Berlin. Ency. Brit.

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Queen Nefertiti

Egypt (New Kingdom): Queen Nefertiti: (front view), ca. 1350 B.C. [Dynasty XVIII] Berlin, Germany: Altes Museum: bust of Queen Nefertiti (around 1340 BC)

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Queen Nefertiti (R. profile view)

Egypt (New Kingdom): Queen Nefertiti: (R. profile view), ca. 1350 B.C. [Dynasty XVIII] Nefertiti was the wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (later Akhenaten), and mother-in-law of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun. Her name roughly translates to "the beautiful one is come". She also shares her name with a type of elongated gold bead that she was often portrayed as wearing, known as "nefer" beads. Famed throughout the ancient world for her outstanding beauty, Nefertiti remains the one of the most well known Queen of Egypt. Though Akhenaten had several wives, Queen Nefertiti was his chief wife.

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Queen Nefertiti (Rear View)

Egypt (New Kingdom): Queen Nefertiti: (Rear view), ca. 1350 B.C. [Dynasty XVIII]

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Royal Couple in a Garden

Egypt (New Kingdom): Royal Couple in a Garden (Semenkhkare and Meritaten?): ca. 1335 B.C. [Dynasty XVIII]

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Ancient Egypt: the Mythology

Ancient Egypt: the Mythology is a comprehensive site on ancient Egyptian mythology. It contains over 40 gods and goddesses, 30 symbols and complete myths. Also view their featured are articles about egyptian culture and history. The website is divided into five major sections: the Gods An encyclopedia of the major gods and goddesses in Egyptian mythology. Most Popular: Bastet, Anubis, Osiris New entries: Renenutet, Baal, Ihy, Reshep the Myths The major myths & folktales of the ancient Egypt. Most Popular: Isis & Osiris, The Story of Re, The Great Queen Hatshepsut the Symbols A guide to common symbols in ancient Egyptian art and religion. Most Popular: Scarab, Colors, Eye of Horus the Land Articles about Egyptian religion as practiced in local cult centers like Thebes, Memphis & Heliopolis. Also, includes articles about Egyptian history & daily life. Most Popular: the Ennead of Heliopolis, Common Myths about Cleopatra, the Funerary Texts the Resources A collection of links to other quality websites about ancient Egypt. [Mythology and Religion]

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The Probert Egyptian Mythology Encyclopaedia

Brief explanations and searchable [Mythology and Religion]

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Encyclopaedia Mythica

Great resouce for many various ancient mythologies. The indigenous beliefs of ancient Egypt from predynastic times (4th millennium BC) to the disappearance of the traditional culture in the first centuries AD. [Mythology and Religion]

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Christus Rex et Redemptor Mundi

Vast resource, scholarly, and devotional [Mythology and Religion]

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Coptologia

Christianity in Egypt through the ages. As an overdue inquiry into the rich world of the Copto-Pharaonic heritage, this research publication attempts to fill a lacuna which is deeply felt by Coptologists, Mid-Eastern scholars and Egyptologists. The main objective is to increase awareness of an indispensable area that has long been minimized or deplorably neglected particularly in the West.

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Great African Queens

Known and unknown [People in History]

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Archaeologists find new treasures of ancient Egypt

GIZA, Egypt (CNN) -- Archaeologists have uncovered new treasures of ancient Egypt: three exquisitely preserved wooden statues of a royal palace official, a small pyramid of an Old Kingdom queen and part of the queen's temple. "This discovery proves that you never know what the sand of Egypt hides in secrets," said Professor Zahi Hawass, director of the antiquities-rich Giza plateau. [archaeology]

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Centre for Archaeology at Monash University

in Victoria, Australia. Currently excavating in Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt; Dakhleh Oasis lies 800km south-west of Cairo and has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Situated above artesian springs, Dakhleh Oasis forms part of a chain of oases and trade routes that start in the Nile Valley in the north of the country and rejoin the river at modern Luxor, Aswan and in the northern Sudan.

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Cleopatra's Children

Check out this unique series brought to you by Bible History Online Includes Real Audio. Trace the interesting history of the children of the great Queen of Egypt [Ancient Egypt Rome] [People] [Cleopatra]

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Brittanica Ancient Web sites

Provides vast resources chosen and rated by the editors [Ancient History]

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Who Was Who Among the Royal Mummies

Identifying Egyptian Mummies [People in History]

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Myths & Legends

Quite exhaustive. Indicies and site reviews Encyclopedias, Dictionaries and Archives Offline sources Myth and Story Collections Essays and Commentary Creatures of Myth and Legend Miscellany [Myths and Mythology]

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Cleopatra, the Last Pharaoh

When Cleopatra VII ascended the Egyptian throne, she was only seventeen. She reigned as Queen Philopator and Pharaoh between 51 and 30 BC, and died at the age of 39. Before glancing at Cleopatra's reign, let us first have a look at the keys to her rise and fall. The demise of the Ptolemies power coincided with the rise of the Roman Empire. Having little choice, and seeing city after the other falling into Rome's grip, the Ptolemies decided to ally with the Romans, a pact that lasted for two centuries. During the rule of the later Ptolemies, Rome gained more and more power over Egypt, and was even declared guardian of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Cleopatra's father, Ptolemy XII had to pay tribute to the Romans to keep them away from his Kingdom. Upon his death, the fall of the Dynasty seemed even closer. [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

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Siege Warfare in Ancient Egypt

It is clear that the Egyptians did posses the means to conduct siege warfare, though in reality, like other powers in the region such as the Assyrian, they tried to avoid this type of battle where possible. They preferred, rather, to force a military decision on the battlefield. However, with the large number of fortified cities throughout Israel and Canaan, they were forced to employ siege warfare at times, though they were probably less adapt at this form of battle then some of their neighbors. [General Ancient War Links]

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Coins references/bibliography

Nicely done, in color. [Ancient Near East] [Coins]

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The Egyptian calendar

The earliest Egyptian calendar was based on the moon's cycles, but the lunar calendar failed to predict a critical event in their lives: the annual flooding of the Nile river. The Egyptians soon noticed that the first day the "Dog Star," which we call Sirius, in Canis Major was visible right before sunrise was special. The Egyptians were probably the first to adopt a mainly solar calendar. This so-called 'heliacal rising' always preceded the flood by a few days. Based on this knowledge, they devised a 365-day calendar that seems to have begun in 4236 B.C., the earliest recorded year in history.

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A Timeline Of Ancient Egypt

Theban mapping project presents a timeline on ancient Egypt from Dynasty I in 3100 BC to Roman Emperors in 395 AD. In A.D. 395, a separation occurred between the western and eastern parts of the Roman Empire, leaving Constantinople with the supremacy of the East. Egypt maintained its role as grain provider for the Empire, but Alexandria lost its predominant position to Constantinople. As a consequence, Egypt was left out of the conflicts created by the imperial successions and international politics.

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A Timeline of the New Kingdom

Theban Mapping Project presents a timeline on the New Kingdom. It goes from 1546 BC with Ahmes I to 1070 BC with Rameses XI. Pictures are included. Dynasty 18 through Dynasty 20, known as the New Kingdom, witnessed a time of international prestige and prosperity for Egypt. The kings of this period conducted extensive military [14770], diplomatic and trade relations with Nubians as far south as the Fourth Cataract in Nubia, with the Hittite Empire and the city states as far north as far as the Euphrates River in Syria, and with other Mediterranean states. In some areas Egypt exercised outright control. Several New Kingdom pharaohs (Thutmes IV, Amenhetep III and Rameses II) strengthened their international relations by marrying the daughters of foreign monarchs, and building Egyptian temples in foreign outposts [14278]. Foreigners were also active in all levels of Egyptian society, from slaves to personal aides to the king. Egyptian religion, language and art received some influences from these foreign contacts.

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History Timeline of Ancient Egypt

Greek Dynasty- (332 - 30 B.C.)
Persian Period II - (342 - 332 B.C.)
Late Period II - (425 - 342 B.C.)
Persian Period I - (517 - 425 B.C.)
Late Period I - (1069 - 517 B.C.)
New Kingdom -(1550 - 1069 B.C.E.)
Intermediate Period II - (1650 - 1550 B.C.)
Middle Kingdom - (2125 - 1650 B.C.)
Intermediate Period I -(2181 - 2125 B.C.)
Old Kingdom - (3100 - 2181 B.C.E.)
Archaic Period - (3414 - 3100 B.C.)
Predynastic Period - (5464 - 3414 B.C.)

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Egyption Kings

A timeline that starts with the 1st Dynasty from 3050 - 2890 with the Egyption Kings and ends at Roman Emperors such as Augustus in 30 B.C. - 14 A.D.

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Timeline of Ancient Egyptian History

The History of Ancient Egypt. Dynasties. Periods. Significant People. Timeline of Ancient Egyptian History. (Contains a chronological timeline with things such as periods and dynasties.) Also includes a tour of the houses of Caesar, Mark, Antony, and Cleopatry.

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Table of Events

A timeline table of events that goes from Predynastic Period (c.5000-31000 BC)aboutThe kingdom of the Red Land all the way to the New Kingdom (1567-1085 BC)1113-1085: Ramesses XI.

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Ancient Egypt History Timeline

A timeline from 6500-2900 BC the Neolithic Period to 1453 AD when Eastern Rome dissolves.

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Biographical Egyption Timeline

Grolier Electronic Publishing presents a complete biographical timeline starting with the early cultures like the Inca's all the way to the New Kingdom with the Pharaoh's.

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Egyption Chronology

Mark T. Rigby presents a timeline dating from Pre-Dynastic Period: c.5000-3100 BC to Roman Period: 30 BC-c.AD 450.

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Dynasty

Historical Timeline of Ancient Egypt. Includes the Largest Ancient Egyptian photo gallery on the internet.

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Shabti - Servants For The Afterlife

In Ancient Egyptian burial it was important that the deceased had a workforce to carry out their every day tasks in the underworld so they would not have to dirty their hands. Originally in high ranking Old Kingdom burials servants were buried with their masters. It is not known if these were sacrifices, or people honored with a resting place beside their King when they died.

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Thoth

The god Thoth was worshiped in the form of an Ibis, and is often shown in human form with the unusual head of that bird. Thoth was primarily thought to be the god of wisdom. He was patron of arts and science and also the patron god of scribes. He was the inventor of the words of god, or Hieroglyphs.

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Osiris And Isis

Osiris is perhaps the most famous of the gods of Ancient Egypt. Here he is shown in his typical guise as a mummified pharaoh holding the hook and flail, the traditional symbols of royal authority. Osiris is usually depicted wearing the feathered Atef crown.

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Egyptian Book of the Dead

1240 BC The Papyrus of Ani Parts Translated by E.A. Wallis Budge and Allen and Faulkner. An Introduction to the Book of the Dead by Marie Parsons

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Mummy Masks - Faces Of The Dead

Masks were a very important aspect of Ancient Egyptian burials. In common with the anthropoid coffin they provided the dead with a face in the afterlife. In addition they also enabled the spirit to recognise the body.

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Ancient Sudan/Nubia Site Map

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. This first installment of the Oriental Institute Map Series presents seven Site Maps covering the ancient Near East (Egypt, Sudan, The Levant, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran), locating primary archaeological sites, modern cities, and river courses set against a plain background. They enlarge to 300 dpi.

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Map of Trade Routes and Empires

Map of Trade Routes and great empires of the 1st Century AD.

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The Giza Plateau.

"From atop these pyramids, forty centuries look down upon you." -- Napoleon Bonaparte to his soldiers before the Battle of Giza, 1798 When Khufu, perhaps better known by his Greek name, Cheops, became king of Egypt after the death of Sneferu, there was no convenient space remaining at Dahshur, where Sneferu was buried, for Khufu's own pyramid complex. Hence, he moved his court and residence farther north, where his prospectors had located a commanding rock cliff, overlooking present day Giza, appropriate for a towering pyramid. This rock cliff was in the northernmost part of the first Lower Egyptian nome, Ineb-hedj ("the white fortress"). Giza is located only a few kilometers south of Cairo, several hundred meters from the last houses in the southernmost part of the city proper, where a limestone cliff rises abruptly from the other side of a sandy desert plateau. The ancient Egyptians called this place imentet, "The West" or kher neter, "the necropolis". [images] [Archaeology]

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The Sphinx

The Sphinx of Giza is a symbol that has represented the essence of Egypt for thousands of years. Even with all of the pictures that we see of the Sphinx, nothing can really prepare you for the time that you finally see the Sphinx with your own eyes. Here's a look at the Sphinx that will give you a hint of what you can expect to see if you visit Egypt. [images] [Archaeology]

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Guardian's Giza - The Great Pyramid

The Great Pyramid The Pyramid of Khufu See a plan of the interior READ about the pyramid. After the Great Pyramid was initially sealed, it's original entrance was hidden and faced with smooth limestone. Because this blended in so well with the surrounding casing, the opening was invisible. Around 820 AD, Abdullah Al Mamun mobilized men to bore a tunnel into the pyramid to search for chambers and treasure. Due to the difficulty of the task of breaking up the hard rock, fires were built to heat the rock and then cold vinegar was poured over the heated rock. Battering rams were used to pound away the weakened rock and clear a tunnel. Eventually, a passageway was found which descended into the lowest chamber of the pyramid. Following this passageway back upward, the original entrance was finally located. In these pictures of the NORTH side you can see the intrusive entrance lower down, and the original entrance higher up flanked by angled stones [images] [Egypt]

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EGYPT - Abu Simbel

Tour Egypt: Perhaps after the Giza pyramids, or coincident with them, the great temple of Abu Simbel presents the most familiar image of ancient Egypt to the modern traveler and reader. When the conservation efforts to preserve the temple from the soon-to be built High Aswan Dam and its rising waters were begun in the 1960s, images of the colossal statues filled newspapers and books. The temples were dismantled and relocated in 1968 on the desert plateau, 200 feet above and 600 feet west of their original location. Abu Simbel lies south of Aswan on the western bank of the Nile, 180 miles south of the First Cataract in what was Nubia. The site was known as Meha in ancient times and was first documented in the 18th Dynasty, when Ay and Horemheb had rock-cut chapels hewn in the hills to the south. Also see the Photographic Archive Series (with high resolution photos) at the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu

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EGYPT - Luxor

Lots of nice photos.

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EGYPT - Sakkara

Tour Egypt - An Overview of Saqqara Proper in Egypt. Also see the Photographic Archive Series with high resolution photos. Oriental Institute, University of Chicago

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EGYPT - Tutankhamun Statue

Photographic Archive Series with high resolution photos. Oriental Institute, University of Chicago.

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Thebes Photographic Project

Photographic Archive Series (with high resolution photos)

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
http://www-oi.uchicago.edu

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Clickable Mummy

Welcome to the Clickable Mummy. Click on different parts of the Mummy to view interesting facts and information about the mummification process. The mummy shown here dates from the Roman Period. It has a distinctive painting inlaid into the head part, and is intricately bandaged and studded. The feet are molded in gold painted plaster, which is typical of the period.

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Coffin Art - Birds

A common feature of coffin art, especially from the Middle Kingdom, was the inclusion of divine wings wrapped around the deceased. These symbolised the that the deceased was blessed with divine protection in the afterlife

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ANCIENT EGYPT IMAGES

Lots of Ancient Images. J. Cohen

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Netherlands Institute for the Near East

NINO initiates, supports, and conducts scholarly research in the civilizations of the Near East from the ancient to the early modern period. In particular, it concentrates on the archaeology, history, languages, and cultures of Egypt, Levant, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Persia. In addition to its scientific research, NINO supports and advances the cultural relations between the Netherlands and the Near East. NINO is an independent foundation with ties to the academic community of the Netherlands. It is located on the premises of Leiden University

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Nubia Exhibits

Oriental Institute Museum (University of Chicago)

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The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh

...1883. Sir Flinders Petrie's 1st Edition online which surveys the Gizaplateau pyramids.

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Ancient Nubia

Nubia was also called - Upper & Lower Nubia, Kush, Land of Kush, Te-Nehesy, Nubadae, Napata, or the Kingdom of Meroei. The region referred to as Lower Egypt is the northernmost portion. Upper Nubia extends south into Sudan and can be subdivided into several separate areas such as Batn El Hajar or "Belly of Rocks", the sands of the Abri-Delgo Reach, or the flat plains of the Dongola Reach. Nubia, the hottest and most arid region of the world, has caused many civilizations to be totally dependent on the Nile for existence.

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3D models of Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt in 3D Models for Universities.

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Roman Portraits from Egypt

Located some one hundred kilometers south of Cairo, Fayyum is a green and fertile region in a vast circular depression. Its diameter from east to west is approximately 60 kilometers, northwest of the lake of Birket Qarun. The ancient Egyptians called this region Mer-our (The Great Lake). Fayyum played a significant role during the 12th Dynasty, and later under the Ptolemies. The Fayyum portraits conflict in an intriguing manner, scattered as they are around the world in museums and collections and, which, here, bring together the image to be viewed as a whole. An ideal museum, which may be visited city by city, to which we soon become attached, to the extent that, during the visit, already familiar traits await us, as one of this art's truly ambiguous features is its ability to multiply effigies which, at first sight, quickly, even too quickly, elicit a feeling of déjà -vu. Here is the work belonging to the Basel Museum.

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The people of ancient Egypt

The people of ancient Egypt: the population, numbers and composition, the language

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Tomb of Niankhkhanum and Khanumhotep

In 1964 in the ancient necropolis of Saqqara, Egyptian archaeologist Ahmed Moussa discovered a series of tombs with rock-cut passages in the escarpment facing the causeway that lead to the pyramid of Unas. Soon after the Chief Inspector Mounir Basta reported crawling on his hands and knees through the passages, entering one of the Old Kingdom tombs.

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EGYPTOLOGY ONLINE

Egyptology Online is the free information resource for students studying Egyptology with the National Home Study College. Egyptology describes the study of mummification, the pyramids, Hyksos, scarabs, and lots more!

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Alexandria, Egypt

The City of Alexandria, Egypt - The Building of Alexandria - The second largest city in Egypt, Alexandria, known as "The Pearl of the Mediterranean", has an atmosphere that is more Mediterranean than Middle Eastern ; its ambience and cultural heritage distance it from the rest of the country although it is actually only 225 km. from Cairo. Founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC, Alexandria became the capital of Graeco-Roman Egypt, its status as a beacon of culture symbolized by Pharos, the legendary lighthouse that was one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The setting for the stormy relationship between Cleopatra and Mark Antony, Alexandria was also the center of learning in the ancient world. But ancient Alexandria declined, and when Napoleon landed, he found a sparsely populated fishing village. From the 19th century Alexandria took a new role, as a focus for Egypt's commercial and maritime expansion. This Alexandria has been immortalized by writers such as E-M- Forster and Cavafy. Generations of immigrants from Greece, Italy and the Levant settled here and made the city synonymous with commerce, cosmopolitanism and bohemian culture. Alexandria is a city to explore at random. It's as important to enjoy the atmosphere as it is to see the sights. Old Alexandria - Dinocrates built the Heptastadion, the causeway between Pharos and the mainland. This divided the harbors into the Western and Eastern. The Eastern harbor was really where the old harbor from the Middle Ages was located.

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Ancient Egyptian History and Documents

Index of Ancient Documents Pharaonic Related 400 Year Stela, The Abbott Papyrus: An investigation into tomb robberies held under Ramses IX Admonitions of Ipuwer, The Astarte and the Insatiable Sea Autobiography of Ahmose, Son of Abana, The Autobiography of Ankhtifi, The Autobiography of Bekenkhonsu, The Autobiography of Ahmose Pen-nekhbet (18th dynasty) Battle of Kadesh, Egyptian Account of Battle of Kadesh, Egyptian Account of (Poem) Battle of Megiddo, Egyptian Account of (c. 1482 BC) Bentrech Stele, The Biography of Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet Blinding of Truth by Falsehood, The Book of the Dead Contendings of Horus and Seth, The Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden Edict of Horemheb, The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus Eloquent Peasant, The Tale of Famine Stele, The Ghost Story, A History of Creation, The Hymn to the Aten, The Hymn of Merneptah Hymn to the Nile (c. 2100 BC) Hymn to Osiris and the Legend of the Origin of Horus, A Hymn to Senusret III Ideal autobiography (18th dynasty) Ikhernofret's Description of the Osiris Passion Play at Abydos Inscription (Autobiography) of Wini, The Inscriptions from the Tomb of Harkhuf Inscription of Kamose Inscriptions of Kheti II (First Intermediate Period Inscription of Ptahshepses, The Instruction of Amenemope, The Instructions of Kagemni, The Instructions of Khety (Middle Kingdom) Inscription of Khnumhotep (12th dynasty) Installation of the Vizier, The Koller Papyrus - Model letter: The equipment of a Syrian expedition Koller Papyrus: Warnings to the idle scribe Koller Papyrus: A letter concerning Nubian tribute Legend of Horus of Behutet and the Winged Disk, The Legend of Ra and Isis, The Legend of the Destruction of Mankind, The Loyalist Instruction from the Sehetepibre Stela, The Man Who was Tired of Life, The The Magic Book of Princess Ahura (c. 1100 BC) Mouse as Vizier Naukratis Decree Negative Confessions from the Papyrus of Ani, The Peace Treaty between Ramesses II and Hattusili III Precepts of the prefect, the lord Ptah-hotep (c. 2200 BC) Prophecies of Neferti, The Quarrel of Apophis and Seknenre, The Restoration Stele of Tutankhumn (c. 1330 BC) Semna stela of the viceroy Merimose (18th dynasty) Shabaka Stone, The Shipwrecked Sailor, The (c. 2200 BC) Stela of King Nesbanebded (Smendes I) Commemorating the re-opening of the quarry at Geelein Stela of Piye Story of Sinuhe, The Taking of Joppa, The Tale of the Doomed Prince Tale of Two Brothers, The Turin King List Teaching of King Ammenemes I to His Son Sesostris, The Teaching for Merikare, The Victorious King (Tuthmosis III), The Victory Stele of Merneptah Wenamen's Journey Non-Egyptian Text Archaic Herododus: An Account of Egypt: Being the Second Book of His Histories Called Euterpe Manetho on the Hyksos Modern A Thousand Miles Up the Nile by Amelia B. Edwards The Burden of Isis by James Teackle Dennis Discovery of the Source of the Nile, The by John Hanning Speke Egypt Magic by Wallis Budge Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life by Wallis Budge Egyptian Mythology and Egyptian Christianity by Samuel Sharpe The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh by W. M. Flinders Petrie Analysis and Information Amarna Letters, The Amduat, The Book of Caverns Book of the Celestial Cow, The Book of the Dead, The Book of the Earth Book of Gates, The Books of the Sky (Heavens) Coffin Text, The The Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld Litany of Re, The Literature in Ancient Egypt: A Prominent Component of Civilization Major Egyptian Books of the Underworld Offering Formula and Ritual Pyramid Text, The Wisdom Literature Islamic Related The Capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, 1187 Christian Related History of the Egyptian Monks (Historia Monachorum in Aegypto) Lausiac History (Historia Lausiaca) Sayings of the Egyptian Fathers Quasi-Christian Manichaean Psalm-Book, Part II

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The Ancient Egypt Site

Explore more than 3.000 years of Ancient Egyptian history, from the end of prehistory at around 3.000 BC to the closing of the last Egyptian temple in 535/537 AD A timeline helps you navigate through history and discover the formidable Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt.

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Annual Egyptological Bibliography

The AEB is published by the International Association of Egyptologists in cooperation with the Netherlands Institute for the Near East. Since 1 november 2007 access to this website is only possible through subscription.

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Apis Bull 1

Anthropomorphic representation of the Apis Bull (Graphic 1)

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Apis Bull 2

Anthropomorphic representation of the Apis Bull (Graphic 1)

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Bir Umm Fawakhir Project

Oriental Institute. Archaeological Survey in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Bir Umm Fawakhir is the first intensively studied ancient gold-mining town in Egypt, and the only one of its period in the Byzantine empire. Fawakhir is one of only two excavated Coptic/Byzantine towns (vs. monasteries) of the 5th - 6th century in Egypt, and the other, Jemê, at Medinet Habu across the Nile from Luxor, was removed to reach the New Kingdom temple. Bir Umm Fawakhir and other recently explored sites in the Eastern Desert of Egypt indicate that the Byzantine government was not too weak to control the desert, as has long been thought, but in fact continued to exploit its economic resources.

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Ancient Egyptian to English wordlist

(ASCII text file, 726 Kb in German and 1.1 Mb in English) This is the Beinlich Egyptian wordlist. The handlist of Ancient Egyptian words known to Egyptologists as the "Beinlich Wordlist" was announced by Horst Beinlich and Friedhelm Hoffmann

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Math of Egypt

Bruce's Hieratic (Middle Kingdom) Math of Egypt Page Working to decrypt the Hieratic RMP. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus is a fascinating document (1650 B.C.E.) copied from an older papyrus circa 1850 B.C.E.

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3D models of Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt in 3D Models for Universities.

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Color Tour of Egypt

Abu Simbel Abydos Aswan Cairo Dendera Edfu Giza Kom Ombo Luxor Saqqara The West Bank/Luxor

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Egypte, the Land of Civilization

In Dutch and English. This site includes: A diary and photographs of a recent trip to Egypt including Cairo. A story about researchers of the Giza Pyramid. News about Egypt, icluding a story by Franck Goddio about the discovery of ancient cities. Rated and commented weblinks to sites about Egypt (worldwide).

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Best Egyptian Museums Outside of Egypt

Egypt has long been a mysterious and inviting land, enticing everyone from Napoleon to modern travelers. The country bursts with history, culture and legend. Yet a trip to the Nile Valley is often too expensive or too much of a hassle for many of those who dream of mummies and pyramids. Fortunately, there are many places outside of Cairo that allow people to experience the grandeur of Egypt without making the long trek to the desert. Here are our picks of the best.

1. Museo Egizio
2. Metropolitan Museum of Art
3. The Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum
4. The Louvre
5. Allard Pierson Museum
6. The Oriental Museum
7. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Travel Channel

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Egyptian Unit Fractions

Nowadays, we usually write non-integer numbers either as fractions (2/7) or decimals (0.285714). The floating point representation used in computers is another representation very similar to decimals. But the ancient Egyptians (as far as we can tell from the documents now surviving) used a number system based on unit fractions: fractions with one in the numerator. This idea let them represent numbers like 1/7 easily enough; other numbers such as 2/7 were represented as sums of unit fractions (e.g. 2/7 = 1/4 +1/28). Further, the same fraction could not be used twice (so 2/7 = 1/7 + 1/7 is not allowed). We call a formula representing a sum of distinct unit fractions an Egyptian fraction.

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Egyptological Fieldwork Directory

Pages Hosted by Academic Institutions & Museums

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The Weights and Measures of Ancient Egypt

An examination of the Great Pyramids of Egypt and other buildings makes it clear that the Egyptians at a very early stage incorporated a measurement system, though really their system of weights and measures was fundamental to all sorts of functions and essential for the smooth running of their bureaucracy.

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The Griffith Institute (Oxford)

Includes Tutankhamun: Anatomy of an Excavation

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History of Ancient Egypt

University of South Carolina

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The Egyptian Collection

MUSEO CIVICO ARCHEOLOGICO DI BOLOGNA

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Images de Synthèse

Computer Generated

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The Journal of the Archaeological Institute of America

American Journal of Archaeology Abbreviations

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Isis )

(Graphic

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Ancient Egypt at the British Museum

Ancient Life, Geography, Gods and Goddesses, Mummifications, Pharaoh, Pyramids, Temples, Times, Trades, Writing

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EIKON Image Database for Biblical Studies

The EIKON Image Database for Biblical Studies is a faculty-library initiative at Yale Divinity School that provides digital resources for teaching and research in the field of Biblical studies.

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Akhet Egyptology

One of the UK's oldest Egyptology sites, including original photos from Egypt and various collections.

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