Metrodorus (Greek: Μητρόδωρος, Mētrodōros, "mother's gift") is the name of numerous historical figures, including:
* Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the elder) (5th century BC) - philosopher from the school of Anaxagoras
* Metrodorus of Cos (5th century BC) - Pythagorean writer
* Metrodorus of Chios (4th century BC) - philosopher from the school of Democritus
* Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the younger) (331–278 BC) - Epicurean philosopher
* Metrodorus of Athens (mid 2nd century BC) - philosopher and painter
* Metrodorus of Stratonicea (late 2nd century BC) - philosopher, originally Epicurean, later a follower of Carneades
* Metrodorus of Scepsis (1st century BC) - writer, orator and politician
* Metrodorus (grammarian) (c. 6th-century) - grammarian and mathematician, who collected the mathematical epigrams in the Greek Anthology
* Metrodorus (4th century BC) - physician who married Aristotle's daughter Pythias
* Metrodorus (late 3rd, early 2nd century BC) - general in the employ of Philip V of Macedon during the Cretan War
* Metrodorus (late 1st, early 2nd century AD) - pupil of the physician Sabinus
（Μητρόδωρος). A name of several Greek philosophers, the most important of whom was a native of Lampsacus or Athens, an Epicurean philosopher, and the most distinguished of the disciples of Epicurus, with whom he lived on terms of the closest friendship. He died 277, in the fiftythird year of his age, seven years before Epicurus, who would have appointed him his successor had he survived him. The philosophy of Metrodorus appears to have been of a more grossly sensual kind than that of Epicurus. Perfect happiness he made to consist in having a well-constituted body. He found fault with his brother Timocrates for not admitting that the stomach was the test and measure of every thing that pertained to a happy life. He was the author of several works, quoted by the ancient writers.
Another Metrodorus, of Scepsis, was raised to a position of great influence and trust by Mithridates Eupator, being appointed supreme judge without appeal even to the king. Subsequently he was led to abandon his allegiance, when sent by Mithridates on an embassy to Tigranes, king of Armenia. Tigranes sent him back to Mithridates, but he died on the road. According to some accounts he was despatched by order of the king; according to others he died of disease. In consequence of his hostility to the Romans he was surnamed "the Roman-hater" (Cic. De Orat. ii. 88, 360; Strabo, p. 609).