Parmenion

Parmenĭdes in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Παρμενίδης). A Greek philosopher and poet, born of an illustrious family about B.C. 510, at Elea in Lower Italy. He was held in high esteem by his fellow-citizens on account of his excellent legislation, to which they ascribed the prosperity and wealth of the town; and also on account of his exemplary life. A "Parmenidean life" was proverbial among the Greeks (Cebes, Tabula, 2). Little more is known of his biography than that he stopped at Athens on a journey in his sixty-fifth year, and there became acquainted with the youthful Socrates. He is the chief representative of the Eleatic philosophy. Like his great teacher, Xenophanes, he also formulated his philosophical views in a didactic poem, On Nature (Περὶ Φύσεως), the form of which was considered inartistic (Acad. ii. 74). According to the proem, which has been preserved (while we only possess fragments of the rest), the work consisted of two divisions. The first treated of the truth, the second of the world of illusion; that is, the world of the senses and the erroneous opinions of mankind founded upon them. In his opinion truth lies in the perception that existence is, and error in the idea that non-existence also can be. Nothing can have real existence but what is conceivable; therefore to be imagined and to be able to exist are the same thing, and there is no development; the essence of what is conceivable is incapable of development, imperishable, immutable, unbounded, and indivisible; what is various and mutable, all development, is a delusive phantom; perception is thought directed to the pure essence of being; the phenomenal world is a delusion, and the opinions formed concerning it can only be improbable. The best edition of the fragments is that in Karsten's Philosophorum Graecorum Reliquiae (Amsterdam, 1835). They have been rendered into English hexameter by T. Davidson (Journal of Speculative Philosophy, St. Louis, 1870), and paraphrased in prose by Courtney in his Studies in Philosophy (1882). See Philosophia.

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Parmenion

Parmenion (also Parmenio) (in Greek, Παρμενίων, ca. 400–Ecbatana, 330 BC) was a Macedonian general in the service of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. Parmenion was the son of a Macedonian nobleman Philotas. During the reign of Philip II Parmenion obtained a great victory over the Illyrians in 356 BC; he was one of the Macedonian delegates appointed to conclude peace with Athens in 346 BC, and was sent with an army to uphold Macedonian influence in Euboea in 342 BC. General of Philip Parmenion was Philip II's most trusted general, and a major influence in the formation of the tough, disciplined and professional Macedonian army whose tactics would dominate land warfare for the succeeding centuries, arguably until the battle of Pydna between Macedonia and Rome in 168 BC. The essential tactical strategy of Macedon under Philip (and perfected by Alexander) was to hold the enemy infantry and central cavalry units in place with the sarissa armed phalanx along the centre and left, while the superb cavalry forces would wheel around and attack decisively from the flank. This tactic, while by no means innovative, was performed using a variety of new military concepts of the time. One of the most effective was the phalanx technique of advancing in the oblique, which allowed a phalanx to become an offensive force. Using this formation and arming the infantry with a new weapon, the sarissa, an eighteen-foot pike, made them devastating against more conventional infantry, especially the Greek hoplites. Parmenion is generally credited today with being instrumental in the realisation of Philip's vision.[citation neede General of Alexander

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Parmenion

Parmenion (also Parmenio) (in Greek, Παρμενίων, ca. 400–Ecbatana, 330 BC) was a Macedonian general in the service of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. Parmenion was the son of a Macedonian nobleman Philotas. During the reign of Philip II Parmenion obtained a great victory over the Illyrians in 356 BC; he was one of the Macedonian delegates appointed to conclude peace with Athens in 346 BC, and was sent with an army to uphold Macedonian influence in Euboea in 342 BC. General of Philip Parmenion was Philip II's most trusted general, and a major influence in the formation of the tough, disciplined and professional Macedonian army whose tactics would dominate land warfare for the succeeding centuries, arguably until the battle of Pydna between Macedonia and Rome in 168 BC. The essential tactical strategy of Macedon under Philip (and perfected by Alexander) was to hold the enemy infantry and central cavalry units in place with the sarissa armed phalanx along the centre and left, while the superb cavalry forces would wheel around and attack decisively from the flank. This tactic, while by no means innovative, was performed using a variety of new military concepts of the time. One of the most effective was the phalanx technique of advancing in the oblique, which allowed a phalanx to become an offensive force. Using this formation and arming the infantry with a new weapon, the sarissa, an eighteen-foot pike, made them devastating against more conventional infantry, especially the Greek hoplites. Parmenion is generally credited today with being instrumental in the realisation of Philip's vision.[citation neede General of Alexander

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