Aristides

Aristeas in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

(Ἀριστέας). An epic poet of Proconnesus, of whose life we have only fabulous accounts. His date is quite uncertain. He is represented as a magician, whose soul could leave and re-enter its body according to its pleasure. He was connected with the worship of Apollo, which he was said to have introduced at Metapontum. He wrote an epic poem on the Arimaspi (q.v.), in three books, from which the pseudoLonginus quotes. See Herod. iv. 13.

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Mark Antony in Roman Biography

Antonius, (Marcus,) surnamed the Triumvir, called in English Mark Antony, [Fr. Marc-Antoine, miRk'- ON'twin',] a famous Roman general and politician, a son of M. Antonius Creticus, was born about 83 B.C. His mother was Julia, a daughter of L. Julius Caesar, who was consul in 90 B.C. He distinguished himself in his youth by his talents, extravagance, and audacious defiance of the laws. He commanded the cavalry under Gabinius in Syria and Egypt in 57-56 B.C., and was elected quaestor in 53 or 52. In the latter year he served in Gaul as lieutenant of Caesar, by whose influence he obtained the offices of augur ancf tribune in 50 B.C. Antony used his power as tribune to promote the interest of Caesar in his contest with the senate. In January, 49, he fled from the city to the camp of Caesar, and in the civil war which ensued he became the lieutenant of that chief, who, when he passed from Italy tc Spain, intrusted to Antony the chief command in the former country. He proved himself a brave and able general, and commanded the left wing at the battle of Pharsalia, 48 B.C. When Caesar became dictator, 47 B.C., Antony was appointed his master of the horse. He married Fulvia, the widow of P. Clodius, in th». year 46, and was the colleague of Caesar in the consulship in 44. Many of the conspirators who killed the dictator wished to involve Antony in the same fate; but this design was overruled by Brutus. Having obtained possession of the papers of Caesar he aspired to supreme power, but opened insidious negotiations with Brutus and Cassius, consented to an amnesty, and procured from the senate a decree to ratify the acts of the late dictator. By his artful and eloquent funeral oration over the body of Caesar, he aroused the fury of the populace against the conspirators, who were, in consequence, driven out of Rome. He found a power- ful rival in young Octavius, (the adopted son and heir of Caesar,) whom he at first treated with contempt. Antony's popularity was also damaged by the Philippics of Cicero. The consuls Hirtius and Pansa raised an army against Antony, who was defeated at Mu'tina (now Modena) in 43 B.C. Before the end of this year, Octavius deserted the cause of the senate, and united with Antony and Lepidus to form a triumvirate. It was on the demand of Antony that Cicero was included in the fatal proscription-list of the triumvirs. The conduct of the war against Brutus and Cassius devolved chiefly on Antony, to whose skill the victory at Philippi, 42 B.C., must be ascribed. In the division of the provinces, Asia and the East in general were allotted to Antony, who there indulged without restraint his love of luxury and dissolute vices. He was captivated by the charms of Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, and became so infatuated as almost wholly to neglect his affairs. The intrigues of Fulvia caused a rupture between Antony and Octavius in 41, but after her death in 40 B.C. they were reconciled, and the former married Octavia, the sister of Octavius. Antony's army, under Ventidius, defeated the Parthians in the year 38. About the end of that year the triumvirate was renewed for a second period of five years. Antony soon renewed his connection with Cleopatra, and divorced Octavia. The rival triumvirs began to prepare for war in 32 B.C., or earlier, and fought in 31 a decisive naval battle at Actium, where Antony was defeated. (See Augustus.) He retreated to Alexandria, and was deserted by his rleet. Finding his case desperate, he killed himself, in 30 B.C. He had by Fulvia two sons, lulus and Antyllus, who survived him. Antony is a conspicuous character in two of Shakspeare's dramas,-"Julius Caesar" and "Antony and Cleopatra." See "Antony," in Plutarch's "Lives;" Dion Cassius, " History of Rome ;" Drumann, " Geschichte Roms;" Appian, " Bellum Civile."

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Aristides in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

An Athenian, surnamed "the Just," son of Lysimachus, of an ancient and noble family. He fought at the battle of Marathon, B.C. 490; and in the next year, 489, was archon. He was the great rival of Themistocles, and it was through the influence of the latter with the people that he suffered ostracism (q.v.) in 483 or 482. He was still in exile in 480 at the battle of Salamis, where he did good service by dislodging the enemy, with a band raised and armed by himself, from the islet of Psyttalea. He was recalled from banishment after the battle, was appointed general in the following year (479 B.C.), and commanded the Athenians at the battle of Plataea. In 477, when the allies had become disgusted with the conduct of Pausanias and the Spartans, he and his colleague Cimon had the glory of obtaining for Athens the command of the maritime confederacy (see Confederacy of Delos); and to Aristides was by general consent intrusted the task of drawing up its laws and fixing its assessments. The first tribute of four hundred and sixty talents, paid into a common treasury at Delos, bore his name. This is his last recorded act. He probably died in 468, and so poor that he did not leave enough to pay for his funeral. His daughters were portioned by the State, and his son Lysimachus received a grant of land and of money.

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Milesian tale in Wikipedia

The Milesian tale (Milesiaka, in Latin fabula milesiaca, or Milesiae fabula) originates in ancient Greek and Roman literature. According to most authorities, it is a short story, fable, or folktale featuring love and adventure, usually being erotic and titillating. M. C. Howatson, in The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (1989), voices the traditional view that it is the source "of such medieval collections of tales as the Gesta Romanorum, the Decameron of Boccaccio, and the Heptameron of Marguerite of Navarre." But Gottskálk Jensson of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, offers a dissenting view or corrective, arguing that the original Milesian tale was a type of first-person novel, a travelogue told from memory by a narrator who every now and then would relate how he encountered other characters who told him stories which he would then incorporate into the main tale through the rhetorical technique of narrative impersonation. [1] This resulted in "a complicated narrative fabric: a travelogue carried by a main narrator with numerous subordinate tales carried by subordinate narrative voices." The best complete example of this would be Apuleius' The Golden Ass, a Roman novel written in the second century of the Common Era. Apuleius introduces his novel with the words "At ego tibi sermone isto Milesio varias fabulas conseram" ("But let me join together different stories in that Milesian style") [2], which suggests that it isn't each story that is a Milesian tale but rather the entire joined-together collection. The idea of the Milesian tale also served as a model for the episodic narratives strung together in Petronius' Satyricon. In any case, the name Milesian tale originates from the Milesiaka[1] of Aristides of Miletus (flourished second century BCE), who was a writer of shameless and amusing tales with some salacious content and unexpected plot twists. Aristides set his tales in Miletus, which had a reputation for a luxurious, easy-going lifestyle, akin to that of Sybaris in Magna Graecia; there is no reason to think that he was in any sense "of" Miletus himself. Later, in the first century BCE, the serious-minded historian Lucius Cornelius Sisenna for an intellectual relaxation translated Aristides into Latin under the title Milesiae fabulae (Milesian Fables), and the term "Milesian tale" gained currency in the ancient world. Milesian tales gained a reputation for ribaldry: Ovid, in Tristia, contrasts the boldness of Aristides and others with his own Ars Amatoria, for which he was punished by exile. In the dialogue on the kinds of love, Erotes, Lucian of Samosata-if in fact he was the author-praised Aristides in passing, saying that after a day of listening to erotic stories he felt like Aristides, "that enchanting spinner of bawdy yarns." This suggests that the lost Milesiaka had for its framing device Aristides himself, retelling what he had been hearing of the goings-on at Miletus. Plutarch, in his Life of Crassus, tells us that after the defeat of Carrhae in 53 BCE, some Milesian fables were found in the baggage of the Parthians' Roman prisoners.[2] Though the idea of the Milesian tale served as a model for the episodic narratives strung together in Petronius' Satyricon and The Golden Ass of Lucius Apuleius (second century CE), neither Aristides' Greek text nor the Latin translation survived the centuries of literate disapproval of such disgraceful secular hijinks, written with verve and panache, essential elements of the style. The lengthiest survivor from this literature is the tale of Cupid and Psyche, found in Apuleius, which Sir Richard Burton observed, "makes us deeply regret the disappearance of the others." [3] Aristidean saucy and disreputable heroes and spicy, fast-paced anecdote resurfaced in the medieval fabliaux. Chaucer's The Miller's Tale is in Aristides' tradition, as are some of the saltier tales in Boccaccio's Decameron or the Heptameron of Margaret of Angoulême.

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Aristides in Wikipedia

Aristides (or Aristeides from the Greek: Ἀριστείδης, 530 BC - 468 BC) was an Athenian statesman, nicknamed "the Just". Biography He was the son of Lysimachus, and a member of a family of moderate fortune. Of his early life we are only told that he became a follower of the statesman Cleisthenes and sided with the aristocratic party in Athenian politics. He first came to notice as strategos in command of his native tribe Antiochis at the Battle of Marathon, and it was no doubt in consequence of the distinction which he then achieved that he was elected archon for the ensuing year (489-488). In pursuance of a conservative policy which aimed at maintaining Athens as a land power, he was one of the chief opponents of the naval policy proposed by Themistocles. The conflict between the two leaders ended in the ostracism of Aristides, at a date variously given between 485 and 482. It is said that, on this occasion, an illiterate voter, who did not know him, came up to him, and giving him his voting sherd, desired him to write upon it the name of Aristides. The latter asked if Aristides had wronged him. "No," was the reply, "and I do not even know him, but it irritates me to hear him everywhere called the just."[1] Early in 480 Aristides profited by the decree recalling exiles to help in the defence of Athens against the Persian invaders, and was elected strategos for the year 480-479. In the Battle of Salamis he gave loyal support to Themistocles, and crowned the victory by landing Athenian infantry on the island of Psyttaleia and annihilating the Persian garrison stationed there. In 479 he was re-elected strategos, and given special powers as commander of the Athenian forces at the Battle of Plataea; he is also said to have suppressed a conspiracy among some oligarchic malcontents in the army. He so won the confidence of the Ionian allies that, after revolting from the Spartan admiral Pausanias, they gave him the chief command and left him with absolute discretion in fixing the contributions of the newly formed confederacy, the Delian League. His assessment was universally accepted as equitable, and continued as the basis of taxation for the greater part of the league’s duration. He continued to hold a predominant position in Athens. At first he seems to have remained on good terms with Themistocles, whom he is said to have helped in outwitting the Spartans over the rebuilding of the walls of Athens. He is said by some authorities to have died at Athens, by others on a journey to the Black Sea. The date of his death is given by Nepos as 468; at any rate he lived to witness the ostracism of Themistocles, towards whom he always displayed generosity but he died before the rise of Pericles. His estate seems to have suffered severely from the Persian invasions, for apparently he did not leave enough money to defray the expenses of his burial, and it is known that his descendants even in the 4th century received state pensions.

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