Gylippus in Wikipedia

Gylippus (Greek: Γύλιππος) was a Spartan general of the 5th century BC; he was the son of Cleandridas, who was the adviser of King Pleistoanax and had been expelled from Sparta for accepting Athenian bribes in 446 BC and fled to Thurii, a pan-Hellenic colony then being founded in the instep of Italy with Athenian help and participation. His mother may have been a helot, which meant he was not a true Spartiate but a mothax, a man of inferior status. Despite this, however, from an early childhood he was trained for war in the traditional Spartan fashion and on reaching maturity had been elected to a military mess, his dues contributed by a wealthier Spartiate patron. For an individual of marginal origins, war was an opportunity to gain honour and eminence. When Alcibiades urged the Spartans to send a general to lead the Syracusan resistance against the Athenian expedition, Gylippus was appointed (414 BC), and his arrival was a turning point of the struggle. More daring than Nicias, the Athenian commander he faced, he was able to gain an upper hand by driving the Athenians from key strategic locations and essentially break the siege. When Athens sent Demosthenes with reinforcements, he too was defeated by Gylippus, which ultimately led to the downfall of the Athenian campaign in Syracuse. Diodorus, probably following Timaeus, represents him as inducing the Syracusans to pass sentence of death on the captive Athenian generals, but there is also the statement of Philistus (Plutarch, Nicias, 28), a Syracusan who himself took part in the defence, and Thucydides (vii. 86), that he tried, though without success, to save their lives, wishing to take them to Sparta as a signal proof of his success. Gylippus, like his father, met his downfall in a financial scandal; entrusted by Lysander with a treasure of silver coins for delivery to the ephors at Sparta, he could not resist the temptation to embezzle part of the shipment. Upon discovery of this theft, Gylippus fled Sparta and went into exile. He was condemned to death in absentia and disappears from historical records.

Read More

Gylippus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

(Γύλιππος). A Lacedaemonian, sent, B.C. 414, by his countrymen to assist Syracuse against the Athenians, which he effected by the overthrow of Nicias and Demosthenes. He afterwards joined Lysander off Athens, and aided him by his advice in the capture of that city. Lysander sent him to Lacedaemon with the money and spoils which had been taken, the former amounting to 1500 talents (B.C. 404). But Gylippus, unable to resist the temptation, unsewed the bottom of the bags, thus leaving the seals untouched at the top, and abstracted 300 talents. His theft, however, was discovered by means of the memorandum contained in each bag, and to avoid punishment he went into voluntary exile (Nicias; Diod. Sic.xiii. 106).

Read More