Protagŏras in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

(Πρωταγόρας). A celebrated Sophist, born at Abdera, in Thrace, probably about B.C. 480, and died about 411, at the age of nearly seventy years. It is said that Protagoras was once a poor porter, and that the skill with which he had fastened together, and poised upon his shoulders, a large bundle of wood, attracted the attention of Democritus, who conceived a liking for him, took him under his care, and instructed him in philosophy (Diog. Laert. ix. 53; x. 8; Gell. v. 3). This well-known story, however, appears to have arisen out of the statement of Aristotle that Protagoras invented a sort of porter's knot for the more convenient carrying of burdens. In addition to this, Protagoras was about twenty years older than Democritus. Protagoras was the first who called himself a Sophist, and taught for pay; and he practised his profession for the space of forty years. He must have come to Athens before B.C. 445, since he drew up a code of laws for the Thurians, who left Athens for the first time in that year. Whether he accompanied the colonists to Thurii, we are not informed; but at the time of the plague (430 B.C.) we find him again in Athens. Between his first and second visit to Athens he had spent some time in Sicily, where he had acquired great fame; and he brought with him to Athens many admirers out of other Greek cities through which he had passed. His instructions were so highly valued that he sometimes received 100 minae from a pupil; and Plato says that Protagoras made more money than Phidias and ten other sculptors. In 411 he was accused of impiety by Pythodorus, one of the Four Hundred. His impeachment was founded on his book on the gods, which began with the statement, "Respecting the gods, I am unable to know whether they exist or do not exist" (Diog. Laert. ix. 52). The impeachment was followed by his banishment, or, as others affirm, only by the burning of his book. His doctrine was, in fact, a sort of agnosticism based upon the impossibility of attaining any absosolute criterion of truth. It is summed up in the sentence, "Man is the measure of all things" (πάντων ἄνθρωπος μέτρον, or, in Latin, homo mensura omnium), implying that each one must be his own final authority; for just as each thing appears to any individual, so it really is for him. This doctrine is therefore styled Individualism. Protagoras wrote a large number of works, of which the most important were entitled Truth (Ἀλήθεια) and On the Gods (Περὶ Θεῶν). The first contained the theory refuted by Plato in the Theaetetus. Plato gives a vivid picture of the teaching of Protagoras in the dialogue that bears his name. Protagoras was especially celebrated for his skill in the rhetorical art. By way of practice in the art he was accustomed to make his pupils discuss theses (communes loci), an exercise which is also recommended by Cicero. He also directed his attention to language, and endeavoured to explain difficult passages in the poets. He is said to have been the first to make the grammatical distinctions of moods in verbs and of genders in nouns.

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Protea in Wikipedia

Protea (pronounced /ˈproʊtiːə/)[1] is both the botanical name and the English common name of a genus of flowering plants, sometimes also called sugarbushes. The genus Protea was named in 1735 by Carolus Linnaeus after the Greek god Proteus, who could change his form at will, because proteas have such different forms. Linneaus's genus was formed by merging a number of genera previously published by Herman Boerhaave, although precisely which of Boerhaave's genera were included in Linnaeus's Protea varied with each of Linnaeus's publications. Proteas attracted the attention of botanists visiting the Cape of Good Hope in the 17th century. Many species were introduced to Europe in the 18th century, enjoying a unique popularity at the time amongst botanists. The Proteaceae family to which proteas belong is an ancient one. Its ancestors grew in Gondwanaland, 300 million years ago. Proteaceae is divided into two subfamilies: the Proteoideae, best represented in southern Africa, and the Grevilleoideae, concentrated in Australia and South America and the other smaller segments of Gondwanaland that are now part of eastern Asia. Africa shares only one genus with Madagascar, whereas South America and Australia share many common genera - this indicates they separated from Africa before they separated from each other. Most protea occur south of the Limpopo River. However, Protea kilimanjaro is found in the chaparral zone of Mount Kenya National Park. 92% of the species occur only in the Cape Floristic Region, a narrow belt of mountainous coastal land from Clanwilliam to Grahamstown, South Africa. The extraordinary richness and diversity of species characteristic of the Cape Flora is thought to be caused in part by the diverse landscape where populations can become isolated from each other and in time develop into separate species. Classification Within the huge family Proteaceae, they are a member of the subfamily Proteoideae, which has Southern African and Australian members. Species (listed by section: a section has a name in two parts, consisting of the genus name and an epithet). * Protea section Leiocephalae o Protea caffra (Common Protea) o Protea dracomontana o Protea glabra o Protea inopina o Protea nitida (The Wagon Tree) o Protea nubigena o Protea parvula o Protea petiolaris o Protea rupicola o Protea simplex * Protea section Paludosae o Protea enervis * Protea section Patentiflorae o Protea angolensis o Protea comptonii o Protea curvata o Protea laetans o Protea madiensis o Protea rubropilosa o Protea rupestris * Protea section Lasiocephalae o Protea gaguedi o Protea welwitschii * Protea section Cristatae o Protea asymmetrica o Protea wentzeliana * Protea section Cynaroidae o Protea cynaroides (King Protea) * Protea section Paracynaroides o Protea cryophila (Snow Protea) o Protea pruinosa o Protea scabriuscula o Protea scolopendriifolia * Protea section Ligulatae o Protea burchellii o Protea compacta o Protea eximia o Protea longifolia o Protea obtusifolia o Protea pudens o Protea roupelliae o Protea susannae * Protea section Melliferae o Protea aristata o Protea lanceolata o Protea repens (Common Sugarbush Protea) * Protea section Speciosae o Protea coronata o Protea grandiceps o Protea holosericea o Protea laurifolia o Protea lepidocarpodendron o Protea lorifolia o Protea magnifica o Protea neriifolia (Oleander-leaf Protea) o Protea speciosa o Protea stokoei * Protea section Exsertae o Protea aurea o Protea lacticolor o Protea mundii o Protea punctata o Protea subvestita o Protea venusta * Protea section Microgeantae o Protea acaulos o Protea convexa o Protea laevis o Protea revoluta o Protea ungustata * Protea section Crinitae o Protea foliosa o Protea intonsa o Protea montana o Protea tenax o Protea vogtsiae * Protea section Pinifolia o Protea acuminata o Protea canaliculata o Protea nana o Protea pityphylla o Protea scolymocephala o Protea witzenbergiana * Protea section Craterifolia o Protea effusa o Protea namaquana o Protea pendula o Protea recondita o Protea sulphurea * Protea section Obvallatae o Protea caespitosa * Protea section Subacaules o Protea aspera o Protea denticulata o Protea lorea o Protea piscina o Protea restionifolia o Protea scabra o Protea scorzonerifolia National symbol Together with the springbok antelope, the protea had been treated as a sometimes controversial national symbol in South Africa, both during and after apartheid. The former South African Prime Minister and architect of apartheid, Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd, had a dream to change the then-current flag of South Africa and have in its center a leaping springbok antelope over a wreath of six proteas. This proposal, however, aroused too much controversy and was never implemented.[citation needed] After the demise of apartheid, the ANC government decreed that South African sporting teams, hitherto called "Springboks" were to be known as the "Proteas", although an exemption was made for the rugby union team, who remain "Springboks". In apartheid times, the "Proteas" was the Cape Coloured representative team.[2]

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Prusias I of Bithynia in Wikipedia

Prusias I Cholus (Προυσίας Α' ὁ Χωλός "the Lame") (ca. 228 BC – 182 BC) was a king of Bithynia. The son of Ziaelas, he formed a marriage alliance with Demetrius II of Macedon, receiving the latter's daughter, Apama III, as his wife. Prusias fought a war against Byzantium (220 BC), then defeated the Gauls that Nicomedes I had invited across the Bosporus. He expanded the territories of Bithynia in a series of wars against Attalus I of Pergamum and Heraclea Pontica on the Black Sea. Philip V of Macedon granted him the ports of Keios and Myrleia in 202, which he renamed Prusias and Apameia respectively. Although he granted sanctuary to Hannibal, who fought against the Attalids for him, he remained neutral during the Roman Republic's war with Antiochus III the Great. He was succeeded by his son Prusias II.

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