Cleopatra I of Egypt

Cleopatra I Syra in Wikipedia

Cleopatra I Syra (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Σύρα), c. 204–176 BC was a queen of Ptolemaic Egypt Family Cleopatra I was the daughter of Antiochus III and Laodice III. She married Ptolemy V in 193 BC. They had at least three children [3] [4]: * Ptolemy VI of Egypt born in 186 BC * Cleopatra II of Egypt born ca 187 - 185 BC * Ptolemy VIII Physcon born ca 184 BC Biography In 197 BC Antiochus III had captured some Ptolemaic cities in Asia Minor. The Romans supported the Egyptian interests, when they negotiated with the Seleucid king in Lysimachia in 196 BC. But Antiochus III answered, that he wanted to make peace with Ptolemy V and to marry his daughter Cleopatra I to him. They were really betrothed in 195 BC and their marriage was celebrated in the beginning of 193 BC in Raphia.[5] At that time Ptolemy V was about 16 years and Cleopatra I about 10 years old. Later Ptolemaic propaganda claimed that Cleopatra I had received Coele-Syria as dowry and this land therefore again belonged to Egypt. It is not clear if this promise was really made, but in any case Coilesyria remained since the Battle of Panium in 198 BC always in the possession of the Seleucid kingdom.[6] In Alexandria, Cleopatra I was called the Syrian.[7] In the Ptolemaic cult she was honoured with her husband as Theoi Epiphaneis. In old Egyptian manner she was also named adelphe (= sister) of Ptolemy V. A priest synod held at Memphis in 185 BC transferred all honours that Ptolemy V had received in 196 BC (written on the Rosetta stone) to his wife. The royal couple had two boys (Ptolemy VI and VIII) and a daughter (Cleopatra II). Her older son Ptolemy VI was born in about 186 BC; the dates of the birth of her younger children are unknown. In 187 BC, Cleopatra I was appointed vizier and upon her husband's death in 180 BC, she ruled on behalf of her minor son Ptolemy VI. She was the first Ptolemaic queen to exercise all the power alone. This can be concluded from date formulas of Papyri written in the years from 179 BC to 176 BC, where Cleopatra I is called Thea Epiphanes and her name is written before that of her son. She also minted her own coins, which also bear her name before that of her son. On June 22, 2010, archaeologists uncovered a gold coin bearing her image at Tel Kedesh in Israel near the Lebanon border. It was reported to be the heaviest and most valuable gold coin ever found in Israel.[8] Just before his death Ptolemy V had planned to make war against the Seleucid kingdom but when his widow started to rule she immediately ended the war preparations directed against her brother Seleucus IV Philopator. Cleopatra I died sometime between 178 BC and 176 BC.

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Cleopātra in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

1. A daughter of Idas and Marpessa, and the wife of Meleager (Hom. Il. ix. 557). 2. The wife of Philip of Macedon, whom that monarch married after he had repudiated Olympias. After the death of Philip, Olympias compelled her to destroy herself (Just.ix. 7). 3. A daughter of Philip and Olympias, and sister to Alexander the Great. She married Alexander of Epirus, who fell in Italy (Just. ix. 6, 1). After the death of Alexander of Macedon, her hand was sought by Perdiccas and others of his generals, but she was put to death by Antigonus. 4. A daughter of Mithridates, and the wife of Tigranes (Just.xxxviii. 3). 5. A daughter of Antiochus III. of Syria. She married Ptolemy V., king of Egypt, and was left guardian of her infant son Ptolemy VI., but she died soon after her husband, to the great regret of her subjects. 6. A daughter of Ptolemy Philometor, was the wife of three kings of Syria, and the mother of four-namely, of Antiochus Dionysius, by her first husband, Alexander Balas; of Seleucus V. and Antiochus VIII., by Demetrius Nicator; and, lastly, of Antiochus IX. , surnamed Cyzicenus, by Antiochus Euergetes or Sidetes. She was compelled by her son, Antiochus VIII., to drink the poison which she had prepared for him, B.C. 120. 7. The most famous of the name was the daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, and remarkable for her beauty and personal accomplishments. According to the usage of the Alexandrian court, she married her young brother, Ptolemy XII., and began to reign with him in her seventeenth year. Both she and her husband, being minors, were placed by the will of their father under the guardianship of Rome, an office which the Senate assigned to Pompey. An insurrection breaking out in the Egyptian capital soon after the commencement of this reign, Cleopatra was compelled to yield to the tide of popular fury, and to flee into Syria, where she sought protection in temporary exile. The flight of this princess, though mainly arising from the tumult just mentioned, was unquestionably accelerated by the designs of the young king and his ambitious ministers. Their object became manifest when Cleopatra , after a few months' residence in Syria, returned towards her native country to resume her seat on the throne. Ptolemy prepared to oppose her by force of arms, and a civil war would inevitably have ensued, had not Caesar at that very juncture sailed to the coast of Egypt in pursuit of Pompey. A curious interview soon took place between Cleopatra and the Roman general. She placed herself on board a small skiff, Cleopatra. (From a Composite Photograph of the Heads on four Egyptian Coins. Reproduced by permission from Gorringe's Egyptian Obelisks. ) under the protection of Apollodorus, a Sicilian Greek, set sail from the coast of Syria, reached the harbour of Alexandria in safety, and had herself conveyed naked into the chamber of the Roman commander in the form of a large package of goods. The stratagem proved completely successful. Cleopatra was now in her twentieth year, distinguished by extraordinary personal charms, and surrounded with all the graces which give to those charms their greatest power. Her voice was extremely sweet, and she spoke a variety of languages with propriety and ease. She could, it is said, assume all characters at will, which all alike became her, and the impression that was made by her beauty was confirmed by the fascinating brilliancy of her conversation. The day after this singular meeting, Caesar summoned before him the king, as well as the citizens of Alexandria, and made arrangements for the restoration of peace, procuring Cleopatra , at the same time, her share of the throne. Pothinus, however, one of Ptolemy's ministers, in whose intriguing spirit all the dissensions of the court had originated, soon stirred up a second revolt, upon which the Alexandrian War commenced, in which Ptolemy was defeated and lost his life by drowning. Caesar now proclaimed Cleopatra queen of Egypt; but she was compelled to take her brother, the younger Ptolemy, who was only eleven years old, as her husband and colleague on the throne. The Roman general continued for some time at her court, and she bore him a son, called, from the name of his putative father, Caesarion. During the six years which immediately followed these events, the reign of Cleopatra seems not to have been disturbed by insurrection, nor to have been assailed by foreign war. When her brother, at the age of fourteen, demanded his share in the government, Cleopatra poisoned him, and remained sole possessor of the regal authority. The dissensions among the rival leaders who divided the power of Caesar had no doubt nearly involved her in a contest with both parties; but the decisive issue of the battle of Philippi relieved her from the hesitation under which some of her measures appear to have been adopted, and determined her inclinations, as well as her interests, in favour of the conquerors. To afford her an opportunity of explaining her conduct, Antony summoned her to attend him in Cilicia, and the meeting which she gave him on the river Cydnus has employed the pen, not only of the historian, but of the prince of English dramatists. The artifices of this fascinating princess, now in her twenty-seventh year, so far gained upon Antony as not only to divert his thoughts from his original purpose of subjecting her kingdom to the payment of tribute, but entirely to lull his ambition to sleep, and make him sacrifice his great stake as a candidate for the empire of the world. After a fruitless attack upon the territory of Palmyra, he hastened to forget his disgrace in the society of the Egyptian queen, passing several months at Alexandria in the wildest and most delirious dissipation. The death of his wife, and his subsequent marriage with Octavia, delayed for a time the crisis which his ungoverned passions were preparing for him. But, though he had thus extricated himself from the snares of Alexandria, his inclinations too soon returned to that unlucky city; for we find that when he left Rome to proceed against the Parthians, he despatched in advance his friend Fonteius Capito to conduct Cleopatra into Syria. Cleopatra. On his return from this disgraceful campaign, he incurred still deeper dishonour by once more willingly submitting to that bondage which had rendered him contemptible in the eyes of most of his followers. Passing over events which have been alluded to in the article Augustus Caesar, we come to the period that followed the battle of Actium, at which the desertion of Cleopatra with her galleys and the pursuit of her by the infatuated Antony changed the destiny of the Roman Empire (B.C. 30). When Octavianus advanced against Egypt, and Antony had been a second time defeated under the walls of Alexandria, Cleopatra shut herself up with a few attendants and the most valuable part of her treasures in a strong building which appears to have been intended for a royal sepulchre. To prevent intrusion by friend or enemy she caused a report to be circulated that she had retired into the monument to put herself to death. Antony resolved to follow her example, and threw himself upon his sword; but being informed, before he expired, that Cleopatra was still living, he caused himself to be carried into her presence, and breathed his last in her arms. Octavianus, after this, succeeded in getting Cleopatra into his power, and the queen at first hoped to subdue him by her attractions; but finding at last that her efforts were unavailing, and suspecting that her life was spared only that she might grace the conqueror's triumph, she ended her days, if the common account is to be credited, by the bite of an asp; though some ascribed her death to poison administered internally. A small puncture in the arm was the only mark of violence which could be detected on the body of Cleopatra , and it was therefore believed that she had procured death either by the bite of a venomous reptile or by the use of a poisoned bodkin. She died in her thirty-ninth year, having reigned twenty-two years from the death of her father. Octavianus, it is said, though deprived by this act of suicide of the greatest ornament of his approaching triumph, gave orders that she should have a magnificent funeral, and that her body, as she desired, should be laid by that of Antony. Her two children by Antony were reared by the neglected wife Octavia. The name of Cleopatra has been linked by romance and poetry with those of the most fascinating women the world has seen-Helen of Troy, Mary Stuart, and Ninon de Lenclos-and has always exercised a powerful influence upon the imagination of men. In English literature the genius of Shakespeare and of Dryden has made her story the theme of dramas; while the resources of art have been exhausted to produce types that should satisfy the eye and the mind of the critic.

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