Glossary of Latin Terms A


ab, abs, a, prep. with abl. (1) of motion or measurement in space, from, away from. (2) of time, from, after. (3) of separation, difference, change, from ; so of position or number, counting from ; and of the relation of part to whole, out of, of. (4) of origin and agency; especially with passive verbs, by, at the hands of, because of. (5) viewed from, on the side of : 'a tergo', in the rear; hence in connection with, as regards.

abacus -i, m. a square board ; hence sideboard, counting board, gaming board, ceiling panel.

abalienatio -onis, f. transfer of property.

abalieno -are, to make alien, separate, estrange.

abavus -i, m. great-great-grandfather.

Abdera -orum, n. pl., also -ae, f., a town in Thrace, noted for the stupidity of its inhabitants.

abdicatio -onis, f. disowning, renunciation.

abdico (1) -are, to renounce, reject; esp. of magistracies, to abdicate, often with reflex. and ablative of office.

abdico (2) -dicere -dixi -dictum, in augury, to disapprove of.

abdo -dere -didi -ditum, to put away, withdraw, remove; esp. to secrete, hide. Hence partic. abditus -a -um, concealed, secret. Adv. abdite.

abdomen -inis, n. belly; hence gluttony.

abduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, to lead or take away, detach, withdraw.

abeo -ire -ii -itum, to go away; 'abi', be off with you; 'abi in malam rem' go to the devil. Trans., to retire from office; to depart from life, die; in discussion, to digress; in form, to change; of things, to pass away, disappear, vanish; to pass over from owner to owner.

abequito -are, to ride off.

aberratio -onis, f. escape, relief.

aberro -are, to wander, deviate, escape.

abhinc, (1) hereafter. (2) ago: 'abhinc annos tres', or 'annis tribus', three years ago.

abhorreo -ere, to shrink back from; hence to be inconsistent with or opposed to; 'a fide' to be incredible. Pres. part., as adj., unseasonable, inappropriate.

abicio -icere -ieci -iectum, to throw down or away. Transf., to pronounce carelessly, break off abruptly ; to get rid of, give up; to dash to the ground, weaken, dishearten. Hence partic. abiectus -a -um; of position low, common; of character cowardly, mean; of style, without force, prosaic. Adv. abiecte, without spirit, meanly.

abiectio -onis, f. throwing away; 'animi', despondency, despair.

abiegnus -a -um, of fir wood.

abies -etis, f. the silver fir; meton., anything made of fir, such as a ship or spear.

abigo -ere -egi -actum, to drive away; of cattle, to remove, steal. Transf., to banish, be rid of: 'uxorem', to divorce.

abitio -onis, f. going away, departure; place of egress.

abitus -us, m., going away, departure; place of egress.

abiudico -are, to take away by a judgement.

abiungo -iungere -iunxi -iunctum, to unharness; hence to estrange, detach.

abiuro -are, to abjure, deny on oath.

ablativus -a -um, ablative.

ablegatio -onis, f. sending away, banishment.

ablego -are, to send away, remove to a distance.

abligurio -ire, to lick away; hence to squander.

abludo -ere, to be out of tune.

abluo -luere -lui -lutum, to wash clean; to wash away.

abnego -are, to deny, refuse.

abnepos -otis, m. great-great-grandson.

abneptis -is, f. great-great-granddaughter.

abnocto -are, to stay out all night.

abnormis -e, irregular, unconventional.

abnuo -nuere -nui, fut. partic. -nuiturus, to refuse by a gesture,to deny.

aboleo -ere -evi -itum, to destroy, do away with.

abolesco -ere -evi, to perish.

abolitio -onis, f. removing, annulling, abolition.

abolla -ae, f. a cloak of thick woollen cloth.

abomino -are and abominor -ari, dep. (1) to deprecate: 'quod abominor', God forbid. (2) to hate, detest.

aborior -oriri -ortus, dep.: of heavenly bodies, to set; poet., of the voice, to fail.

aboriscor -i, = aborior: q.v.

abortio -onis, f. untimely birth, miscarriage.

abortivus -a -um, prematurely born.

abortus -us, m. miscarriage.

abrado -radere -rasi -rasum, to scrape off, shave. Transf., to squeeze out, to extort.

abripio -ripere -ripui -reptum, to snatch away, drag off, remove, detach.

abrodo -rodere -rosi -rosum, to gnaw off.

abrogatio -onis, f. annulling, repealing.

abrogo -are, to repeal, annul, remove, take away.

abrotonum -i, n. and abrotonus -i, m. southern-wood.

abrumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum, to break off, sever; to remove, dissociate; to break off prematurely, destroy. Hence partic. abruptus -a -um, steep, precipitous, abrupt, rough. N. as subst., a steep place. Adv. abrupte.

abruptio -onis, f. tearing away; hence divorce.

abscedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, to go away, depart, retire, desert.

abscessio -onis, f. going away, separation.

abscessus -us, m. going away, withdrawal.

abscido -cidere -cidi -cisum, to cut off; to separate or take away. Hence partic. abscisus -a -um, precipitous, abrupt, short.

abscindo -scindere -scidi -scissum, to tear off, wrench away; 'venas', to cut open the veins; poet., 'abscissa comas', with her hair torn. Transf., to divide or separate.

abscondo -condere -condi (-condidi) -conditum (-consum), to conceal; to lose sight of; pass., of stars, to set. Adv. from partic., abscondite, obscurely.

absens -entis, absent; see also absum.

absentia -ae, f. absence.

absilio -ire -ii or -ui, to spring forth or away.

absimilis -e, unlike.

absinthium -i, n. wormwood.

absisto -sistere -stiti, to go away from a place or person; to desist from an action.

absolutio -onis, f. (1) acquittal. (2) perfection.

absolutorius -a -um, relating to acquittal.

absolvo -solvere -solvi -solutum, to loosen, to free: of an accused person, to acquit.; of a subject, to dispose of, relate in full; in gen. to complete. Hence partic. absolutus -a -um, perfect, complete; unfettered, unconditional. Adv. absolute, perfectly, completely.

absonus -a -um, inharmonious, discordant, disagreeing.

absorbeo -ere -ui, to swallow, gulp down; hence to carry away, engross.

absque, prep. with abl. without.

abstemius -a -um, temperate, abstemious.

abstergeo -tergere -tersi -tersum, to wipe off, clean away.

absterreo -ere, to frighten away.

abstinentia -ae, f. self-denial, temperance; sometimes fasting.

abstineo -tinere -tinui -tensum: transit., to hold back; intransit., to abstain. Hence present partic. abstinens -entis, temperate. Adv. abstinenter.

absto -are, to stand aloof.

abstraho -trahere -traxi -tractum, to drag away; hence to remove, exclude, restrain.

abstrudo -trudere -trusi -trusum, to push away, hide. Hence partic. abstrusus -a -um, concealed, secret, abstruse; of character, reserved.

absum abesse afui, (1) to be away, be absent or missing; hence to take no part in a thing, fail to help. (2) to be far away, to be distant; hence to be far from doing a thing, to be free from a fault.

absumo -sumere -sumpsi -sumptum, to reduce, consume, waste, destroy.

absurdus -a -um, unmelodious, harsh. Transf., foolish, unreasonable, out of place; of persons, incapable. Hence adv. absurde, harshly, discordantly; foolishly.

abundantia -ae, f. abundance, plenty; riches, wealth.

abunde, copiously, abundantly; with 'est' and genit., there is plenty of a thing.

abundo -are, to overflow; to grow in abundance; to abound, be rich in, esp. with abl. Hence partic. abundans -antis, overflowing; abundant, numerous; abounding in; adv. abundanter, abundantly, copiously.

abusque, prep. with abl., from.

abusus -us, m. using up, wasting.

abutor -uti -usus, dep., with abl. (1) to make full use of. (2) to abuse, waste; esp. to use a word wrongly.

ac, see atque.

Academia -ae, f., the Academy, a grove near Athens where Plato taught; meton., the Academic school of philosophy. Hence adj. Academicus -a -um,; n. pl. Academica, Cicero's treatise on the Academic philosophy.

acalanthis and acanthis -idis, f., a small bird, perhaps siskin.

acanthus -i, m. (1) bear's foot, a plant. (2) a thorny evergreen.

Acarnania -ae, f. Acarnania, a country in western Greece.

Acca Larentia, a Roman goddess; Larentalia or Accalia -ium, n. pl., her festival at Rome in December.

accedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, to approach, come near; of persons, to enter upon a course; 'ad rem publicam', to begin public life; of things, to be added; 'hic accedit ut', it is also true that, moreover.

accelero -are: transit., to quicken, accelerate; intransit., to hasten.

accendo -cendere -cendi -censum, to kindle, set alight, set on fire. Transf., to fire, inflame, excite.

accenseo -censere -censum, to reckon in addition. Hence partic. accensus -a -um, reckoned with; m. as subst., an attendant; in plural, accensi, reserve troops, supernumeraries.

acceptio -onis, f. reception, acceptance.

accepto -are, to receive.

acceptus -a -um, partic. from accipio; q.v.

accerso, = arcesso; q.v.

accessio -onis, f. a going or coming to; increase; a thing added, appendage.

accessus -us, m. approach, access; means of approach, entrance.

accido (1) -cidere -cidi -cisum, to hew or hack at; hence to weaken, ruin.

accido (2) -cidere -cidi, to fall down; 'ad pedes', to fall at a person's feet. Transf., to happen, fall out.

accieo -ere, obs. form of accio; q.v.

accingo -cingere -cinxi -cinctum, to gird on a weapon; to equip, arm a person; with reflex., or in pass., to arm oneself, hence to make oneself ready.

accio -ire -ivi (-ii) -itum, to call, summon.

accipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum, to take, receive, accept. Esp. with the senses, to hear, feel, etc.; with the understanding, to grasp, to learn; also to take, interpret in a certain sense; of persons, to receive hospitably or treat in any particular manner; in business, 'acceptum referre', to enter on the credit side of an account book, hence, to consider oneself indebted to someone for a thing. Hence partic. acceptus -a -um, welcome, pleasant, agreeable.

accipiter -tris, m. a hawk.

accitus -us, m. a summons.

Accius -a -um, name of a Roman gens; esp. of L. Accius, tragic poet (170-c.85 B.C.)

acclamatio -onis, f. a loud cry.

acclamo -are, to cry out (in approval or otherwise);with acc. of person, to name by acclamation.

acclaro -are, to make clear, reveal.

acclinis -e, leaning towards, inclined to.

acclino -are, to lean towards, incline to.

acclivis -e, inclined upwards.

acclivitas -atis, f. upward slope.

acclivus -a -um, = acclivis ; q.v.

accola -ae, m. or f. neighbor; as adj. living near, neighboring.

accolo -colere -colui -cultum, to live near.

accommodatio -onis, f.(1) proportion or adjusting.(2) courteousness.

accommodatus -a -um, partic. from accommodo; q.v.

accommodo -are, to fit, put on equipment, etc.; to make suitable, adjust, adapt. Hence partic. accommodatus -a -um, adapted, suitable; adv. accommodate, agreeably.

accommodus -a -um, fit, adapted.

accredo -credere -credidi -creditum, to believe (with dat.).

accresco -crecere -crevi -cretum, to grow, increase; with dat. to be joined to a thing.

accubitio -onis, f. the act of reclining at table.

accubitus -us, m. the act of reclining at table.

accubo -are, to lie or recline beside, esp. at table; 'apud hominem', to dine at a man's house.

accumbo -cumbere -cubui -cubitum, to lie down or recline, esp. at table.

accumulator -oris, m. one who heaps together.

accumulo -are, to heap up, accumulate; to heap things on a person, give in abundance; to ply, overwhelm a person with things; to increase. Adv. from partic. accumulate, abundantly, copiously.

accuratio -onis, f. accuracy, carefulness.

accuro -are, to take care of, prepare with care. Hence partic. accuratus -a -um, done with care, careful, exact, accurate. Adv. accurate.

accurro -currere -curri (-cucurrri) -cursum, to run to; of ideas, to occur.

accursus -us, m. running, concourse.

accusabilis -e, blameworthy.

accusatio -onis, f. an accusation, indictment.

accusator -oris, m. an accuser; hence an informer.

accusatorius -a -um, of or like an accuser; adv. accusatorie.

accusatrix -icis, f. a female accuser.

accuso -are, to accuse; in gen., to blame, find fault with.

acer (1) -eris, n. the maple tree or maple wood.

acer (2) -cris -cre, sharp, cutting, keen. Hence, to taste, biting; to touch, sharp; of sounds, shrill; of smells, penetrating; of sight, keen; of emotions, painful; of understanding, quick, vigorous, energetic. Adv. acriter, sharply, keenly.

acerbitas -atis, f. bitterness, harshness, painfulness; in plur., calamities.

acerbo -are, to make bitter, to aggravate.

acerbus -a -um, bitter. Hence, of sounds, harsh; of looks, dark, gloomy; of speech or writing, bitter; of events, etc., painful, severe; of persons, morose; from the notion of unripeness, premature. Adv. acerbe, bitterly, harshly.

acernus -a -um, made of maple wood.

acerra -ae, f. a casket for incense.

acervatim, by acclamation. 'dicere', to sum up.

acervo -are, to heap up.

acervus -i, m. a heap, mass; in logic, argument by accumulation.

acesco acescere acui, to grow sour.

acetum -i, n. vinegar.

Achaia -ae, f., the Greek country of Achaia, in the Peloponnese, or in gen. Greece; after 146 B.C., the Roman province of Achaea. Hence adj. and subst. Achaeus and Achivus, Achaean, an Achaean.

Achates -ae, m. friend of Aeneas.

Acheron -ontis, m. ( older form Acheruns -untis ) mythol. river in the lower world; the lower world itself.

Achilles -is and Achilleus -ei, m. a Greek hero, son of Peleus and Thetis. Adj. Achilleus -a -um.

Achivus -a -um, see Achaia.

acidus -a -um, sharp, sour.

acies -ei, f. keenness, edge; of the mind, penetration, insight; of the eye, a piercing look or keen vision; sometimes the pupil of the eye, or the eye itself. Milit., battle line; hence battle, battlefield.

acinaces -is, m. a Persian sabre.

acinus -i, m. and acinum -i, n. a berry; the seed of a berry.

acipenser -eris, also acipensis -is, m. the sturgeon.

aclys -ydis, f. a small javelin.

aconitum -i, n. monk's hood, aconite; strong poison.

acq-, = adq-; q.v.

acratophorum -i, n. a vessel for unmixed wine.

acredula -ae, f. a bird, perhaps thrush, owl, or nightingale.

acriculus -a -um, somewhat sharp in temper.

acrimonia -ae, f. sharpness, keenness.

acriter, adv. from acer; q.v.

acroama -atis, n. an entertainment, esp. musical; an entertainer, i.e. reader, actor, or singer.

acroasis -is, f. reading aloud, recitation.

Acroceraunia -orum, n. pl. part of the Ceraunian mountains; hence any dangerous place.

acta (1) -ae, f. seashore, beach; meton., life of the seaside.

acta (2) -orum, from partic. of ago; q.v.

Actaeon -onis, m. a hunter turned into a stag by Diana, and killed by his hounds.

actio -onis, f. action, doing; 'gratiarum', the giving of thanks. Esp. the action of a magistrate, a proposal; in the theater, a plot; at law, an action or the bringing of it or right to bring it; also a legal formula or speech on an indictment.

actito -are, to be busy, in law-court or theater.

Actium -i, n. a promontory in Acarnania, near which Augustus conquered Antony and Cleopatra (31 B.C.). Adj. Actiacus and Actius -a -um.

actor -oris, m. (1) a driver. (2) a doer; esp. a dramatic actor, player; a public speaker; the plaintiff in an action; a manager of property.

actuariolum -i, n. a small skiff.

actuarius -a -um, swift; 'actuaria (navis)', a fast-sailing vessel.

actuosus -a -um, active; adv. actuose.

actus -us, m. (1) driving, movement, esp. of cattle; hence right of way for driving cattle, etc.. (2) doing, action, esp. on stage; hence the presentation of a piece on the stage; also a division of a piece, an act.

actutum, adv. immediately, directly.

aculeatus -a -um, provided with prickles or stings; hence pointed, stinging; hair-splitting, subtle.

aculeus -i, m. sting, point; fig., esp. in plur., painful thoughts, cutting remarks.

acumen -inis, n. sharp point; hence the point of remarks, etc.; sharpness of intellect; cunning, trickery.

acuo -uere -ui -utum, to sharpen, whet; to quicken, make expert; to inflame, encourage, incite. Hence partic. acutus -a -um, sharpened, pointed, acute; to the hearing, shrill; to touch, piercing; of events etc., sharp, painful; of minds, sharp, keen, intelligent; of orators, effective. Adv. acute, keenly, sharply.

acus -us, f. a needle; 'acu pingere', to embroider; 'acu rem tangere', to hit the nail on the head.

acutulus -a -um, rather subtle.

acutus, see acuo.

ad, prep. with acc. (1) of motion, towards, to a person or place; 'ad Dianae (sc. aedem)', to Diana'a temple; 'ad me', to my house; often strengthened by usque. (2) of rest, at or near. (3) of time: either to, until or at, about. (4) of other relations: towards, for a purpose; concerning, bearing on; compared with, in addition to; in conformity with; approximating to, about; in consequence of an event; as far as, up to a certain degree ; 'ad summam', on the whole; 'ad verbum', literally.

adactio -onis, f. driving, compulsion.

adactus -us, m. bringing to, application.

adaeque, in like manner.

adaequo -are: transit., to make equal; hence, to compare; intransit., to match, come near to.

adamanteus -a -um, hard as steel.

adamantinus -a -um, made of steel.

adamas -antis, m. the hardest steel, adamant; poet., anything firm, unyielding, durable.

adambulo -are, to walk by or near.

adamo -are, to fall in love with, find pleasure in.

adaperio -aperire -aperui -apertum, to open fully.

adauctus -us, m. increase.

adaugeo -ere -auxi -auctum, to increase, augment.

adaugesco -ere, to begin to increase.

adbibo -bibere -bibi -bibitum, to drink in.

addenseo -ere, to make thick or compact.

addenso -are, to make thick or compact.

addico -dicere -dixi -dictum, to assent to; in augury, to promise well ; of a judge, (especially the praetor), to award; of an auctioneer, to knock down a lot; of an owner, to put up for sale. Hence in gen., to give up or over, doom, dedicate, surrender; partic. addictus, bound, pledged.

addictio -onis, f. a judge's word.

addisco -discere -didici, to learn in addition.

additamentum -i, n. an addition.

addo addere addidi additum, (1) to give, bring, place; of feelings, to inspire, cause. (2) to add, join; esp. in speech or writing; 'adde' or 'adde huc', or 'eo', add to this, take also into consideration.

addoceo -ere, to teach in addition.

addubito -are, to begin to doubt.

adduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, (1) to bring or lead to a person, place, or condition; of persons, to bring to a certain state of mind, to influence, induce. (2) to draw to oneself, pull in; hence to contract; partic. adductus -a -um, contracted, taut; of persons, strict. Compar. adv. adductius.

adedo -esse -edi -esum, to nibble, gnaw; to consume, waste away.

ademptio -onis, f. taking away.

adeo (1) -ire -ii -itum, to go or come to, approach, visit; 'in ius', to go to law; of business, etc., to undertake, undergo, incur; 'adire hereditatem', to enter on an inheritance.

adeo (2), adv. to that point, so far, often strengthened by usque; of space, so far; of time, so long; of degree, so much, so, to such an extent; sometimes, even, what is more; enclitically, with pron. or conjunction, just.

adeps -ipis, c. soft fat.

adeptio -onis, f. attainment, obtaining.

adequito -are, to ride to.

adesdum, or ades dum, come hither.

adfabilis -e, easy to speak to, affable.

adfabilitas -atis, f. affability.

adfabre, in a workmanlike way.

adfatim, sufficiently, enough.

adfatus -us, m. address, speech.

adfectatio -onis, f. striving, eagerness.

adfectator -oris, m. a striver.

adfectio -onis, f. manner of being affected; hence relation to a thing or person, or change, state, condition; sometimes favorable state of mind, goodwill.

adfecto -are, to strive after, grasp at, aim at, aspire to; polit. to try to win over; in literary style, to affect; partic. adfectatus -a -um, studied.

adfectus (1) -us, m. condition, disposition; esp. of the mind, a feeling; often friendly feeling, goodwill.

adfectus (2) -a -um, partic. from adficio; q.v.

adfero adferre attuli adlatum, to carry to, bring to; esp. of messages and news; absol., to bring news, report. Transf., to apply, bring to bear; 'vim' to offer violence; to cause, bring about; to bring forward by way of excuse or reason; to bring by way of help, contribute.

adficio -ficere -feci -fectum, to influence, work upon; with adverbs, to affect; with abl. of nouns, to treat with, present with; 'nominem sepultura', to bury; 'poena', to punish, 'beneficio adfici', to be benefitted; absol., of the body, to affect adversely, weaken. Hence partic. adfectus -a -um, affected, influenced; with abl. furnished with, treated with; absol., of the body, weakened, sick; of undertakings, worked upon, and so nearly finished.

adfigo -figere -fixi -fixum, to fasten to, affix; 'litteram ad caput', to brand; 'adfigi animis', to be imprinted.

adfingo -fingere -finxi -fictum, to form or invent in addition.

adfinis -e, neighboring; hence connected with, privy to; also related by marriage; as subst., a relative.

adfinitas -atis, f. relationship by marriage; meton., relations by marriage; in gen., union.

adfirmatio -onis, f. positive assertion.

adfirmo -are to strengthen; to support a statement, to prove; to assert as true. Adv. adfirmate, positively.

adflatus -us, m. blowing or breathing on, breath; 'maris', sea breeze. Transf. inspiration.

adfleo -flere -flevi -fletum, to weep at.

adflictatio -onis, f. pain, torture.

adflicto -are, to agitate, knock about, harass, distress.

adflictor -oris, m. a subverter.

adfligo -fligere -flixi -flictum, to dash, knock down, knock about; to weaken, discourage, injure; 'causam susceptam', to drop. Hence partic. adflictus -a -um, damaged, shattered; of spirits, broken down, desponding; of character, vile, contemptible.

adflo -are, to blow or breathe on.

adfluentia -ae, f. overflow, abundance.

adfluo -fluere -fluxi -fluxum, to flow to, flow near; of men, to stream, to flock together. Transf., to flow freely, to be abundant; with abl., to abound in. Hence partic. adfluens -entis, rich, abounding. Compar. adv. adfluentius.

adfor -ari, dep. to accost, address; esp. to say farewell to the dead, and to pray to the gods.

adfulgeo -fulgere -fulsi, to shine, glitter; to shine upon, favor, with dat.

adfundo -fundere -fudi -fusum, to pour upon; 'colonia amne adfusa', washed by a river; 'adfundere se', or 'adfundi', to prostrate oneself. Transf., to throw in, add.

adgemo -ere, to groan at, with dat.

adgero -gerere -gessi -gestum, to carry to, bring up.

adgestus -us, m. carrying to, accumulation.

adglomero -are, to wind on a ball; hence, to add.

adglutino -are, to glue to, fasten to.

adgravesco -ere, to grow worse (of sickness).

adgravo -are, to make heavier; hence, to make worse.

adgredior -gredi -gressus, dep. to go to, approach; with words, to address; of enemies, to attack; of business, etc., to begin, undertake, attempt.

adgrego -are, to add to the flock; so to attach, associate.

adgressio -onis, f. the introduction to a speech.

adhaereo -haerere -haesi -haesum, to hang to, stick to, adhere; of places, to border on, be near; fig., to depend on, cling to.

adhaeresco -haerescere -haesi -haesum, to hang to, adhere. Transf., to cling to, hang on, attach oneself; in speaking, to stick fast, stop.

adhaesio -onis, f. adhering, clinging.

adhaesus -us, m. adhering, clinging.

adhibeo -ere -ui -itum, to bring up to, apply, bring to bear; of persons, to invite, call in, employ for a purpose; with adv., to treat.

adhinnio -ire, to neigh after, neigh at.

adhortatio -onis, f. exhortation.

adhortator -oris, m. one who exhorts.

adhortor -ari, dep. to exhort, encourage (esp. of soldiers).

adhuc, of time, hitherto, till now, till then; still, even now; in gen., besides, also; with comparatives, even, still.

adiaceo -ere, to lie by the side of, be adjacent. N. pl. of partic. as subst. adiacentia, the neighborhood.

adicio -icere -ieci -iectum, to throw to;hence to cast, direct, apply; also to add; at an auction, to outbid.

adiectio -onis, f. addition, advance.

adiectus -us, m. addition.

adigo -igere -egi -actum, to drive, force, compel; 'hominem ad iusiurandum' or 'iureiurando', to put a man on his oath.

adimo -imere -emi -emptum, to take away. Hence partic. ademptus -a -um, poet., dead.

adipatus -a -um, fatty, greasy; n. pl. as subst., pastry. Transf., of style, bombastic.

adipiscor -ipisci -eptus, dep. to come up to, overtake; hence to obtain. Perf. partic. adeptus, used passively, = obtained.

aditio -onis, f. approach.

aditus -us, m. approach, access; hence also right or possibility of entrance; 'homo rari aditus', difficult of access; concr., an entrance to a place, approach. Transf., opportunity of obtaining.

adiudico -are, to award as a judge, assign, grant.

adiumentum -i, n. help, assistance.

adiunctio -onis, f. joining, addition, union; rhet. a limitation or repetition.

adiunctor -oris, m. one who joins.

adiungo -iungere -iunxi -iunctum, to join to, connect; 'adiunctus fundus', neighboring; of immaterial things, to associate, impart; of persons, to attach, esp. as partner, friend, etc. Hence partic. adiunctus -a -um, bound to, belonging to; n. pl. as subst. collateral circumstances.

adiuro -are, to swear in addition; to swear to a thing, promise on oath.

adiutor -oris, m. a helper, assistant, deputy.

adiutrix -icis, f., of females and f. nouns, an assistant, aid; used of reserved legions under the empire.

adiuvo -iuvare -iuvi -iutum, to help, assist, support.

adlabor -labi -lapsus, dep. to glide to, flow to, with dat. or acc.

adlaboro -are, to labor at; also to add to by labor.

adlacrimo -are, to weep at.

adlapsus -us, m. a gliding approach.

adlatro -are, to bark at, rail at.

adlaudabilis -e, praiseworthy.

adlecto -are, to entice.

adlegatio -onis, f. the sending of a person on a mission.

adlego (1) -are, to send on private business, to commission; 'adlegati', deputies. Transf., to instigate, suborn; to adduce or allege in excuse.

adlego (2) -legere -legi -lectum, to choose, elect.

adlevamentum -i, n. a means of alleviation.

adlevatio -onis, f. a lifting up; hence alleviation.

adlevo -are, to lift up, erect; hence to lighten, alleviate; pass., adlevari, to be cheered.

adlicio -licere -lexi -lectum, to allure, entice.

adlido -lidere -lisi -lisum, to strike against,dash against; pass. adlidi, to suffer damage.

adligo -are, to tie to, bind to; of wounds, to bind up. Transf., in gen., to fetter, bind, confine; esp. to bind by friendship, obligations, promises, etc.; pass., to become an accomplice in, make oneself responsible for; perf. partic. adligatus, implicated, involved.

adlino -linere -levi -litum, to smear on, bedaub.

adlocutio -onis, f. an address; esp. a word of comfort.

adloquium -i, n. exhortation, encouragement, consolation.

adloquor -loqui -locutus, dep. to address; esp. to encourage, appeal to.

adluceo -lucere -luxi, to shine at, or upon.

adludo -ludere -lusi -lusum, to jest at, sport with; of waves, to play or dash upon.

adluo -luere -lui, to wash, of the sea.

adluvies -ei, f. a pool caused by flooding.

adluvio -onis, f. alluvial land.

admaturo -are, to hasten.

admetior -metiri -mensus, dep. to measure out to.

Admetus -i, m. husband of Alcestis.

adminiculor -ari, dep. to support, prop.

adminiculum -i, n. prop, support; in gen., aid, help.

administer -stri, m. attendant, assistant.

administra -ae, f. a (female) helper.

administratio -onis, f. the giving of help; direction, government.

administrator -oris, m. administrator, manager.

administro -are, to help, assist; to manage, direct, administer: 'navem', to steer.

admirabilis -e, admirable; astonishing, strange. Adv., admirabiliter.

admirabilitas -atis, f. admirableness; admiration.

admiratio -onis, f. admiration; plur. outbursts of admiration; wonder, astonishment.

admiror -ari, dep. to admire; to be astonished, to wonder. Hence gerundive admirandus -a -um, admirable.

admisceo -miscere -miscui -mixtum, to mix with, to join; 'admisceri novis sermonibus', to become familiar with.

admissarius -i, m. stallion.

admissio -onis, f. audience, esp. with kings, etc.

admitto -mittere -misi -missum, to send to, admit; esp. of horses, to let go, put to a gallop. Transf., to allow; to admit a crime to one's record, so to commit; hence n. of partic. as subst. admissum -i, a crime.

admixtio -onis, f. an admixture.

admoderate, appropriately.

admodum, up to the measure, up to the mark; hence, completely. With adjectives and other parts of speech, wholly, quite; 'puer admodum', a mere boy; with numbers, just about; in affirmative answers, certainly.

admoneo -ere -ui -itum, to admonish, remind, of a fact or duty. N. of partic. as subst. admonitum -i, an admonition.

admonitio -onis, f. a reminding; esp. a friendly admonition.

admonitor -oris, m. one who reminds.

admonitu, abl. sing. m. by reminding, by warning.

admordeo -mordere -morsum, to bite at, gnaw; fig. to fleece.

admotio -onis, f. moving to, application.

admoveo -movere -movi -motum, to move to, bring up, apply; 'manum operi', to engage in a work; 'manus nocentibus' to lay hands on the guilty; milit. to bring up war machines or soldiers.

admugio -ire, to bellow after.

admurmuratio -onis, f. murmuring.

admurmuro -are, to murmur at.

adnato -are, to swim to or beside.

adnecto -nectere -nexui -nexum, to bind to, connect with.

adnexus -us, m. binding, connection.

adnitor -niti -nisus or -nixus, dep. to press against; lean upon. Transf., to strive after.

adno -are, to swim to, or near, or beside.

adnoto -are, to note, remark on.

adnumero -are, to count out, pay; to reckon in with, with acc. and dat.

adnuo -nuere -nui -nutum, to nod to; indicate by nodding; to nod assent to; in gen., to agree; also to agree to give or do a thing.

adoleo (1) -ere -ui, to worship, offer sacrifice, burn a sacrifice; to sacrifice on an altar; in gen., to burn.

adoleo (2) -ere, to smell.

adolescens, = adulescens; q.v.

adolesco -olescere -olevi, (1) to grow up, come to maturity. (2) to be heaped up, or perhaps to burn (cf. adoleo). Hence partic. adultus -a -um, grown up, adult, mature.

Adonis -is or -idis, a beautiful young man, beloved of Venus.

adoperio -operire -operui -opertum, to cover or close.

adopinor -ari, dep. to guess.

adoptatio -onis, f. adopting.

adoptio -onis, f. the adoption of a child.

adoptivus -a -um, adopted, connected with adoption; of plants, grafted.

adopto -are, to choose for oneself; esp. to adopt, as child or grandchild; of plants, to graft.

ador -oris, n. a species of grain, spelt.

adoratio -onis, f. praying to, adoration.

adoreus -a -um, of spelt; f. as subst. a reward for valor (originally a gift of corn ).

adorior -oriri -ortus, dep. to rise up at; hence to attack, set about, attempt, undertake.

adorno -are, to prepare, furnish, provide; to adorn.

adoro -are, to speak to; esp. to address a deity, in worship or entreaty; sometimes to ask a deity for a thing.

adp-, see under app-.

adquiesco -quiescere -quievi -quietum, to rest, repose, be undisturbed, find comfort.

adquiro -quirere -quisivi -quisitum, to acquire, get, esp. in addition to previous possessions.

adrado -radere -rasi -rasum to scrape, shave.

adrectus -a -um, partic. from adrigo; q.v.

adrepo -repere -repsi -reptum, to creep up, glide gently to.

Adria, see Hadria.

adrideo -ridere -risi -risum, to laugh to, to smile upon. Transf., to be favorable to; to please.

adrigo -rigere -rexi -rectum, to erect, lift up; hence to excite, arouse.

adripio -ripere -ripui -reptum, to seize, snatch, appropriate; poet., 'terram velis', to sail quickly to; mentally, to grasp, comprehend quickly; legal, to arrest, bring to court, accuse; hence perhaps to satirize.

adrisor -oris, m. a flatterer.

adrodo -rodere -rosi -rosum, to gnaw at.

adrogans, partic. from adrogo; q.v.

adrogantia -ae, f. assumption; hence pride, haughtiness.

adrogo -are, polit., to associate in office; in gen., either to take to oneself ('sibi'), to claim, assume; or to adjudge, grant to another (dat.); Hence partic. adrogans -antis, assuming, arrogant, haughty; adv. adroganter.

adsc-, see under asc-.

adsectatio -onis, f. respectful attendance.

adsectator -oris, m. a companion, follower.

adsector -ari, dep. to follow, attend respectfully.

adsecula (adsecia) -ae, m. follower, servant, sycophant.

adsensio -onis, f. assent, agreement, applause; philosoph. belief in the reality of sensible appearance.

adsensor -oris, m. one who assents or agrees.

adsensus -us, m. assent, agreement; philosoph. belief in the reality of sensible appearances; poet., echo.

adsentatio -onis, f. flattering assent or applause, flattery.

adsentatiuncula -ae, f. trivial flattery.

adsentator -oris, m. a flatterer.

adsentatorie, flatteringly.

adsentio -sentire -sensi -sensum and adsentior -sentiri -sensus, dep. to assent to, agree with.

adsentor -ari, dep. to assent constantly; hence to flatter.

adsequor -sequi -secutus, dep. to follow after; to reach by following, to come up to, attain; mentally, to grasp.

adsero (1) -serere -sevi -situm, to plant at or near.

adsero (2) -serere -serui -sertum, to lay hold of a slave, and thereby either claim him or declare him free; in gen. to set free, protect, or to claim.

adsertor -oris, m. one who asserts the freedom of another person or claims him as his own.

adservio -ire, to assist, help.

adservo -are, to preserve, watch.

adsessio -onis, f. a sitting by the side of one (to console).

adsessor -oris, m. one who sits by, or assists.

adseveratio -onis, f. earnestness, vehemence;esp. vehement assertion, asseveration.

adsevero -are, to be earnest; esp. to assert confidently or strongly. Adv. from partic. adseveranter, earnestly.

adsideo -sidere -sedi -sessum, to sit near, sit beside, esp. beside a person, to give comfort, advice, etc.; usually with dat. Hence to devote oneself to; to approximate to; milit., to besiege, blockade.

adsido -sidere -sedi -sessum, to sit down.

adsiduitas -atis, f. continual presence, regular attention. Hence con- stancy; constant repetition; 'epistularum', regular correspondence.

adsiduus (1) -a -um, continuously in one place, or one occupation, in gen. constant, persistent. Adv. adsidue and adsiduo, continuously, without remission.

adsiduus (2) -i, m. a taxpaying citizen.

adsignatio -onis, f. assignment, allotment.

adsigno -are, (1) to assign, allot; hence to impute, ascribe. (2) to seal; hence to impress upon.

adsilio -silire -silui, to leap to or on.

adsimilis -e, like, similar.

adsimulo -are, to make like; to compare. Hence partic. adsimulatus -a -um, similar, pretended, simulated.

adsisto adsistere adstiti or astiti, to place oneself at, to stand by; at law, to defend.

adsoleo -ere, to be accustomed; 'ut adsolet', as is usual.

adsono -are, to answer with a sound.

adsp-, see under asp-.

adsterno -ere, to strew or spread upon.

adstipulator -oris, m. a supporter.

adstipulor -ari, dep. to agree with.

adsto -stare -stiti, to stand up, stand by, esp. to stand by to help, to assist.

adstrepo -ere, to make a noise at; esp. to applaud.

adstringo -stringere -strinxi -strictum, to tighten, draw together, contract, make fast; in writing or speech, to compress; of persons, to bind, oblige; with reflex., 'se adstringere', to commit oneself to, become guilty of. Hence partic. adstrictus -a -um, tight, compressed, drawn together; close-fisted, avaricious; of oratory, concise; adv. adstricte.

adstruo -struere -struxi -structum, to build to or near;hence to add to.

adstupeo -ere, to be astonished at, with dat.

adsuefacio -facere -feci -factum, to accustom a person to a thing.

adsuesco -suescere -suevi -suetum, intransit., to grow accustomed: 'adsuevi' I am accustomed; transit., to accustom; poet., of things, to make familiar. Hence partic. adsuetus -a -um customary, usual; accustomed to.

adsuetudo -inis, f. custom, use.

adsuetus -a -um, partic. from adsuesco; q.v.

adsulto -are, to leap violently upon; to attack, assault.

adsultus -us, m. leaping up, assault.

adsum adesse adfui, to be present, to be at or near; esp. to be present and ready, to stand by; hence to support, be favorable to; sometimes to be present for a special purpose, esp. political or legal; of the mind, 'adesse animo' or 'animis', to attend; of things, to be near, at hand.

adsumo -sumere -sumpsi -sumptum, to take to oneself, or take in addition a person or thing; hence to claim, appropriate, call in; in logic, to state the minor premises of a syllogism.

adsumptio -onis, f. choice, adoption; in logic, the minor premise of a syllogism.

adsumptivus -a -um, deriving its defense from an extraneous cause.

adsuo -ere, to sew on.

adsurgo -surgere -surrexi -surrectum, to rise up, stand up; with dat., to rise in the presence of a person, as a sign of respect; of feelings, to rise, be aroused; of style, to become elevated; of material things, to rise up.

adt-, see under att-.

adulatio -onis, f. fawning, cringing, flattery.

adulator -oris, m. flatterer.

adulescens (adolescens) -entis, as adj., young, growing; as subst., a young man or young woman.

adulescentia -ae, f. youth.

adulescentulus -i, m. a young man.

adulo -are, to fawn upon.

adulor -ari, dep. to fawn; with acc. or dat., to flatter, cringe before.

adulter (1) -eri, m., adultera -ae, f. an adulterer, adulteress.

adulter (2) -era -erum, adj. adulterous.

adulterinus -a -um, adulterous; not genuine, forged.

adulterium -i, n. adultery.

adultero -are, to commit adultery, to defile. Transf. to falsify, defile, corrupt.

adultus -a -um, partic. from adolesco; q.v.

adumbratim, in outline.

adumbratio -onis, f. a sketch.

adumbro -are, to shade in, sketch,esp. in words. Partic. adumbratus -a -um, sketched; hence imperfect, shadowy, unreal.

aduncitas -atis, f. a bending, curvature.

aduncus -a -um, bent in, crooked.

adurgeo -ere, to press against; poet., to pursue closely.

aduro -urere -ussi -ustum, to set fire to, kindle, singe; of frost or wind, to nip. Hence partic. adustus -a -um, burnt: 'hominum color', sunburnt.

adusque: prep. with acc., as far as; adv. thoroughly, entirely.

advecticius -a -um, brought from a distance, foreign.

advecto -are, to convey often.

advectus -us, m. conveying, carrying.

adveho -vehere -vexi -vectum, to carry, bring, convey to a place; pass., to ride up, sail to, etc..

advelo -are, to veil.

advena -ae, c. a stranger, foreigner.

advenio -venire -veni -ventum, to come to, arrive. Transf., of time, to come; of events, to happen, come near, break out; of property, to come to an owner.

adventicius -a -um, coming from without;esp. coming from abroad, foreign.

advento -are, to approach, come near.

adventor -oris, m. a visitor, guest.

adventus -us, m. an arrival.

adversarius -a -um, (1) turned towards; n. pl. as subst. a day-book, journal, memorandum. (2) turned against, opposed, contrary; as subst., m. and f. an antagonist, rival; n. pl. the assertions of an oppo- nent.

adversor -ari, dep. to oppose, resist.

adversus (1) -a -um, partic. from adverto; q.v.

adversus (2), adversum. Adv.against, opposite; 'adversum ire' or 'venire', go to meet. Prep. with acc.: of place, towards, opposite; of action, etc., against, in answer to; of behavior, towards; of comparison, compared with.

adverto (advorto) -vertere -verti -versum, to turn towards; of the senses, etc. to direct towards an object; esp. of the mind, 'animum' or 'mentem advertere', to direct one's attention to, to perceive, and of offences, to punish; of the object of attention, to attract. Hence partic. adversus -a -um, turned towards, fronting, opposite; 'solem adversum intueri', to look straight at the sun; 'adverso flumine', against the stream; 'venti adversi', contrary winds; hence, in gen., of persons and things, opposed, unfavorable; 'adversa valetudo', ill health; 'proelium', unsuccessful; n. as subst., misfortune.

advesperascit -avit, evening approaches.

advigilo -are, to watch by, guard, be vigilant.

advocatio -onis, f. a calling to one's aid; hence legal assistance; concr., the bar.

advoco -are, to summon, call; esp. to call to one's aid: as legal t.t. to call in as adviser, to consult an advocate. M. of partic. as subst., advocatus -i, m. one called in to help, esp. in court as witness or advocate.

advolo -are, to fly to; hence to hasten or rush to.

advolvo -volvere -volvi -volutum, to roll to; of suppliants, 'advolvi', or 'se advolvere', to throw oneself down before a person.

advors-, = advers-;q.v.

advort-, = advert-;q.v.

adytum -i, n. shrine; poet., 'ex adyto cordis', from the bottom of the heart.

Aeacus -i, m. king of Aegina, grandfather of Achilles; after death a judge in the infernal regions. Hence subst. Aeacides -ae, m. a male descendent of Aeacus.

aedes (aedis) -is, f. a building; in sing., usually a temple; plur., rooms, or a house; of bees, cells.

aedicula -ae, f. a small building, esp. a small temple or shrine; in plur., a little house.

aedificatio -onis, f.: abstr., the act of building; concr., a building, structure.

aedificator -oris, m. a builder, architect.

aedificium -i, n. a building.

aedifico -are, to build, erect, establish; to create, frame.

aedilicius -a -um, relating to the aediles; m. as subst. an ex-aedile.

aedilis -is, m. an aedile, a public officer at Rome, in charge of streets, markets and public games.

aedilitas -atis, f. aedileship.

aedituens -entis, m. keeper of a temple, sacristan.

aeditumus -i, m. keeper of a temple, sacristan.

aedituus -i, m. keeper of a temple, sacristan.

Aeeta and Aeetes -ae, m., king of Colchis, father of Medea. Hence f. subst. Aeetias -adis, and Aeetine -es, = Medea.

Aegaeus -a -um, Aegean; n. as subst. Aegaeum -i, the Aegean Sea.

Aegates -um, f. pl. three islands off the west coast of Sicily.

aeger -gra -grum, sick, ill, physically or mentally; 'aeger consilii', infirm of purpose; 'aegris oculis', with envious eyes; politically, unsound, mutinous. M. as subst. an invalid. Adv. aegre, with pain, regret or difficulty; hence hardly, scarcely(cf. vix).

Aegeus -ei, m. king of Athens, father of Theseus.

Aegina -ae, f. an island near Athens.

aegis -idis, f. an aegis, or shield, esp. that of Jupiter or Minerva. Transf., a protection, bulwark.

Aegisthus -i, m. murderer of Agamemnon, afterwards husband of Clytemnestra.

aegre, adv. from aeger; q.v.

aegreo -ere, to be sick.

aegresco -ere, to fall ill; mentally, to become troubled; of bad things, to become worse.

aegrimonia -ae, f. grief, trouble of mind.

aegritudo -inis, f. sickness, esp. of the mind.

aegrotatio -onis, f. sickness, of body or mind.

aegroto -are, to be sick or ill, in body or mind.

aegrotus -a -um, sick, ill, in body or mind.

Aegyptus -i, (1) m., a king of Egypt, brother of Danaus. (2) f. Egypt; adj. Aegyptius and Aegyptiacus -a -um, Egyptian.

aelinos -i, m. a dirge.

Aemilius -a -um, name of an old patrician family at Rome. Hence adj. Aemilianus -a -um, relating to the 'gens Aemiliana'; a surname of Scipio Africanus minor.

Aemonia, = Haemonia; q.v.

aemulatio -onis, f. a striving after, emulation; in bad sense, jealousy, rivalry.

aemulator -oris, m. a rival, imitator.

aemulor -ari, dep. to rival, emulate; with dat. to envy.

aemulus -a -um, emulous, rivalling; in bad sense, jealous. M. or f. as subst., a rival, esp. in love.

Aemus, see Haemus.

Aeneas -ae, m. son of Venus and Anchises, hero of Vergil's Aeneid. Hence subst. Aeneades -ae, m. a male descendant of Aeneas; Aeneis -idos, f. Vergil's Aeneid.

aeneus and aheneus -a -um, made of copper or bronze; hard as bronze, brazen.

aenigma -atis, n. a riddle, mystery.

aenipes -pedis, brazen-footed.

aenus (ahenus) -a -um, made of copper or bronze; poet., hard as bronze. N. as subst., a brazen vessel.

Aeoles -um, m. the Aeolians, Greeks living in Greece and Asia Minor. Hence adj. Aeolicus and Aeolius -a -um, Aeolic.

Aeolia -ae, f. north part of the coast of Asia Minor.

Aeolus -i, m. ruler of the Aeolian islands and of the winds.

aequabilis -e, like, similar, equal. Transf., equal to itself, uniform, consistent, fair, impartial. Hence adv. aequabiliter, equably, uniformly, fairly.

aequabilitas -atis, f. uniformity, equability; hence evenness in style, impartiality in law.

aequaevus -a -um, of equal age.

aequalis -e, even; of places, level. Transf., equal; esp. of time, of the same age, contemporary, coexistent. M. or f. as subst., a comrade, person of the same age. Adv. aequaliter, evenly, equally.

aequalitas, -atis, f. evenness; of places, smoothness. Transf., equality, esp. equality of age.

aequanimitas -atis, f. impartiality.

aequatio -onis, f. making equal; 'bonorum' communism.

Aequi -orum, m. a people of central Italy.

aequilibritas -atis, f. equal distribution of natural forces.

aequinoctialis -e, equinoctial.

aequinoctium -i, n. the equinox.

aequiparo (aequipero) -are, to compare, equal.

aequitas -atis, f. uniformity, evenness. Transf., equanimity; also impartiality, fairness, justice.

aequo -are, (1) to make level or equal. (2) to compare. (3) to equal, come up to.

aequor -oris, n. a flat level surface; esp. a plain or the sea; rarely a river.

aequoreus -a -um, belonging to the sea.

aequus -a -um, equal. (1) equal in itself, even, level; 'ex aequo loco loqui', to speak in the senate; milit., 'aequa frons', a straight line. (2) equal to something else: 'ex aequo, in aequo', on even terms. Transf., of places or times, favorable, advantageous; of battles, even, and so indecisive; of temper, even, contented, easy; 'aequo animo', patiently, with resignation; of behavior, etc., equal, impartial; of persons, fair; 'aequum est', it is just. N. as subst. aequum -i, level ground; fairness, equity. Adv. aeque, in like manner, equally; fairly, justly.

aer aeris, m. the lower air, the atmosphere.

aerarius -a -um, of or belonging to bronze or copper; hence belonging to (copper) money; 'tribuni', paymasters. M. as subst. a copper- smith; in plur., 'aerarii', the citizens of the lowest class in Rome. M. as subst. a treasury, esp. the public treasury at Rome.

aeratus -a -um, made of or fitted with copper or bronze; hence provided with money, rich.

aereus -a -um, made of or fitted with copper or bronze.

aerifer -fera -ferum, bearing brazen cymbals.

aeripes -pedis, brazen-footed.

aerius -a -um, belonging to the air, airy; hence high in the air, lofty.

aerugo -inis, f. the rust of copper, verdigris; rusty money. Transf., envy or avarice.

aerumna -ae, f. labor, toil, hardship.

aerumnosus -a -um, adj., full of hardship.

aes aeris, n. copper ore, and the alloy of copper, bronze. Transf., anything made of bronze; a vessel, statue, trumpet, kettle; 'aera aere repulsa', cymbals; 'aes publicum', public inscriptions. Esp. copper or bronze money; 'aes grave', the as; 'aes signatum', coined money; also money generally, pay; 'aes alienum', debt.

Aeschylus -i, m. an Athenian tragic poet.

Aesculapius -i, m. the god of medicine. Hence subst. Aesculapium -i, n. a temple of Aesculapius.

aesculetum -i, n. an oak forest.

aesculeus -a -um, relating to the oak.

aesculus -i, f. the winter or Italian oak.

Aeson -onis, m. a Thessalian prince, father of Jason. Hence subst. Aesonides -ae, m. a male descendant of Aeson, = Jason; adj. Aesonius -a -um.

Aesopus -i, m. a Greek fabulist of Phrygia.

aestas -atis, f. summer; hence summer weather, summer heat.

aestifer -fera -ferum, heat-bringing.

aestimabilis -e, valuable.

aestimatio -onis, f. an appraising in terms of money; 'litis', assessment of damages. Transf., in gen., valuation, worth, value.

aestimator -oris, m. one who estimates, an appraiser.

aestimo (aestumo) -are, to appraise, rate, estimate the value of; 'litem', to assess the damages in a law-suit; in a wider sense, to value a thing or person; hence, in gen., to judge.

aestivus -a -um, relating to summer. N. pl. as subst. aestiva -orum, a summer camp, and hence, a campaign; summer pastures for cattle.

aestuarium -i, n. low ground covered by the sea at high water; a firth, creek.

aestuo -are, to be agitated or hot; of liquids, to boil, seethe; fig. of emotional excitement, to burn; of perplexity, to waver.

aestuosus -a -um, hot, agitated; adv. aestuose.

aestus -us, m. agitation, heat; of liquids, esp. of the sea, seething, raging; also of the sea's tide and spray; fig., of persons, dizziness; also emotional excitement, heat, fury; perplexity, anxiety.

aetas -atis, f. age: of human life, either a lifetime or time of life, age; 'id aetatis', of that age; 'bona (iniens) aetas, flos aetatis', youth. 'aetas ingravescens' or 'provecta', old age. Meton., the persons of a particular age: 'aetas puerilis', boys. In gen., time, age, a period of time, epoch.

aetatula -ae, f. youth.

aeternitas -atis, f. eternity, immortality.

aeterno -are, to make eternal, immortal.

aeternus -a -um, eternal, everlasting; 'aeternum' or 'in aeternum', for ever.

aether -eris, acc. -era, m. the upper air; poet., heaven, or the upper world.

aetherius -a -um, of the air or upper air; 'aqua', rain; poet., heavenly, or belonging to the upper world.

Aethiopia -ae, f. Ethiopia; adj. Aethiopicus -a -um and Aethiops -opis, Ethiopian, Negro.

aethra -ae, f. the upper air, clear sky.

Aetna -ae and Aetne -es, f. Etna, a volcano in Sicily; adj. Aetnaeus -a -um.

Aetolia -ae, f. Aetolia, a country in the west of Greece; adj. Aetolus, Aetolicus, Aetolius -a -um.

aevitas -atis, f. = aetas; q.v.

aevum -i, n., also aevus -i, m., eternity. Transf., time, lifetime, or time of life; 'flos aevi', youth. in gen., a period of life.

Afer -fra -frum, adj. and subst., African, from Africa; esp. from Carthage. Hence subst. Africa -ae, f. the continent of Africa; esp. either the country around Carthage or the Roman province of Africa. Adj. Africanus -a -um, African, belonging to Africa; esp. as a surname, conferred upon two of the Scipios. Also adj. Africus -a -um; 'ventus Africus', or simply 'Africus', the S.W. wind (bringing rain and storms).

aff-, see under adf-.

Agamemnon -onis, m. leader of the Greek expedition to Troy.

Aganippe -es, f. a fountain in Boeotia, sacred to the Muses; adj. Aganippaeus -a -um, sacred to the Muses.

agaso -onis, m. a groom, lackey.

agellus -i, m. a little field.

agema -atis, n. a corps in the Macedonian army.

Agenor -oris, m. father of Cadmus and Europa; hence adj. Agenoreus -a -um, and subst. Agenorides -ae, m. a male descendant of Agenor.

ager agri, m. land, territory; as cultivated, a field; open country, (opp.towns); land, (opp. sea).

agg-, (except agger and aggero); see adg-.

agger -eris, m. heap, mound; milit., rampart; poet., any high place.

aggero -are, to form a mound, heap up, increase.

agilis -e, easily moved, light, nimble, active.

agilitas -atis, f. quickness, agility.

agitabilis -e, easily moved, light.

agitatio -onis, f. movement, agitation, activity; 'rerum magnarum', management.

agitator -oris, m. driver; esp. charioteer.

agito -are, to put in motion, drive about (cf. ago ); of animals, to drive or hunt; of water, to toss. Transf. (1) to vex, harry, trouble persons, etc. (2)to deal with, be engaged upon, argue, discuss, consider a subject; to maintain a state of affairs; to conduct a business; to keep a holiday; to spend time; so, absol., to live.

Aglaia -ae or Aglaie -es, f. one of the Graces.

agmen -inis, n. a driving movement or a mass in (orderly) movement, a stream, band, train; esp. milit., an army on the march.

agna -ae, f. a ewe lamb.

agnascor -nasci -natus, dep., of children, to be born after their father's will. M. of partic. as subst. agnatus -i, a relation descended from a common ancestor in the male line; a child born into a family where a regular heir already exists.

agnatio -onis, f. relationship reckoned through males only.

agnellus -i, m. a little lamb.

agninus -a -um, of a lamb; f. as subst., lamb's flesh.

agnitio -onis, f. recognition; in gen., knowledge.

agnomen -inis, n. surname.

agnosco -noscere -novi -nitum, to know again, recognize; to know by inference or report, understand,; to express knowledge, admit, acknowledge.

agnus -i, m. lamb.

ago agere egi actum, to set in motion, drive; of animals, to drive or hunt. 'se agere', to go; 'animam' to give up the ghost; 'radices', to strike root. Transf., to incite to action; to deal with, be engaged upon; to treat of a subject;'hoc agere', to attend to the matter at hand; pass., to be concerned, be at stake; 'actum est de', it is settled about, so it is all over with; 'bene agere cum homine', to treat a person well; 'grates, gratias', to express thanks; 'pacem', to keep the peace; of time, to spend; so absol., to spend time, live; on the stage, to act, play; 'primas partes',to play the leading part; legal and polit., to take a matter up publicly; 'agere (iure, or lege)', to go to law; 'agere causam', to plead a cause. Pres. partic. agens -entis, as adj. effective.

agon -onis, m. a contest in the public games.

agonalia -ium and -orum, n. a festival of Janus.

agrarius -a -um, relating to land; m. pl. as subst. the agrarian party, aiming at a general distribution of land.

agrestis -e, belonging to the field or country; wild, rustic; hence, countrified, boorish, clownish. M. as subst. agrestis -is, a countryman.

agricola -ae, m. farmer.

Agricola -ae, m. Gnaeus Julius, governor of Britain, and father-in-law of Tacitus.

agricult-, see under cult-.

Agrigentum -i, n.; also Acragas -antis, m.; a Doric town in S.W. Sicily.

agripeta -ae, m. a land-grabber, squatter.

Agrippa -ae, m. a Roman family name.

Agrippina -ae, f. the name of several Roman women, esp. Nero's mother. Hence Colonia Agrippinensis (now Cologne).

ah or a, interj. ah! oh!.

Ahala -ae, m. C. Servilius, master of the horse under the dictator Cincinnatus, 439 B.C..

ai, ah!, interjection of grief.

Aiax -acis, m. name of two Homeric heroes, sons of Telamon and Oileus.

aio, defective verb, to say yes, to affirm, assert, state; 'ain tu?', you don't say?. Hence pres. partic. aiens -entis, affirmative.

ala -ae, f. a wing; poet., the sails or oars of a ship; of a man, the armpit; milit., a wing, squadron.

alabaster -stri, m., with pl. alabastra, a perfume casket.

alacer -cris -cre, and alacris -e, quick, lively, animated.

alacritas -atis, f. quickness, eagerness, animation.

alapa -ae, f. a box on the ear, given by a master to his slave when freeing him.

alaris -e, belonging to the wings of an army; m. pl. as subst. allied troops.

alarius -a -um, belonging to the wings of an army; m. pl. as subst., allied troops.

alatus -a -um, winged.

alauda -ae, f. a lark; also the name of a legion formed by Caesar in Gaul; in pl. Alaudae -arum, the soldiers of this legion.

Alba -ae, f. Alba Longa, the oldest Latin town; hence adj. Albanus -a -um.

albatus -a -um, clothed in white.

albeo -ere, to be white.

albesco -ere, to become white.

albico -are, to be white.

albidus -a -um, whitish.

Albion -onis, f. old name of Great Britain.

Albis -is, m. the river Elbe.

albulus -a -um, whitish; f. as subst. Albula -ae (sc. aqua), old name of the Tiber.

album -i, n.; see albus.

albus -a -um, white, dead white; hence pale or bright; sometimes making bright; fig., fortunate. N. as subst. album -i, white color; a white writing-tablet, a list.

Alcaeus -i, m. a Greek lyric poet (about 600 A.D.).

alcedo -inis, f. the kingfisher. Hence n. pl. alcedonia -orum, the kingfisher's time, quietness, calm.

alces -is, f. the elk.

Alcestis -is, and Alceste -es, f. wife of Admetus, who saved her husband by dying for him.

Alceus -ei and -eos, m. grandfather of Hercules. Hence subst. Alcides -ae, m. a descendant of Alcaeus, esp. Hercules.

Alcibiades -is, m. an Athenian general, pupil of Socrates.

Alcinous -i, m. king of the Phaeacians, host of Odysseus.

Alcmena -ae, also Alcmene -es, f. mother of Hercules.

alcyon -onis, f. the kingfisher.

alea -ae, f. a game of dice, game of hazard; hence chance, risk, uncertainty.

aleator -oris, m. dicer, gambler.

aleatorius -a -um, of a gambler.

alec, = allec; q.v.

ales alitis, winged; hence swift; as subst., a bird, esp. a large bird or bird of omen; poet., an omen, sign.

alesco -ere, to grow up.

Alexander -dri, m. (1) Paris, son of Priam, king of Troy. (2) Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.), king of Macedonia. Hence Alexandria or -ea -ae, f. a city founded by Alexander, esp. Alexandria in Egypt; adj. Alexandrinus -a -um, of Alexandria.

alga -ae, f. sea-weed.

algeo algere alsi, to be cold; partic. algens -entis, cold.

algesco algescere alsi, to catch cold.

algidus -a -um, cold.

Algidus -i, m. a mountain in Latium; adj. Algidus -a -um, of Algidus.

algor -oris, m. cold.

algus -us, = algor; q.v.

alias, see under alius.

alibi, (1) elsewhere, at another place; 'alibi....alibi', here...there. (2) otherwise, in other respects.

alica -ae, f. spelt, or a drink prepared from spelt.

alicubi, anywhere, somewhere.

alicunde, from anywhere, from somewhere.

alienatio -onis, f. a transference, alienation; 'mentis', aberration of mind.

alienigena -ae, m. strange, foreign; as subst., a foreigner.

alieno -are, to make something another's, let go, transfer; to estrange one person from another; to put a thing out of one's mind, to forget; with 'mentem', etc., to cause a person to lose his reason; pass., 'alienari', to go out of one's mind.

alienus -a -um, belonging to another; 'aes', another's money, and so debt; in gen., strange, foreign, unrelated; esp. of persons, not at home, unfamiliar,or estranged, unfriendly;of things,unfavorable. M. as subst. alienus, a stranger; n. as subst. alienum, another person's property.

aliger -gera -gerum, winged.

alimentarius -a -um, relating to food.

alimentum -i, n. (1) food. (2) maintenance.

alimonium -i, n. nourishment.

alio, see under alius.

alioqui and alioquin, (1) otherwise, in other respects. (2) in general, in most respects. (3) else, in other conditions.

aliorsum and aliorsus, (1) in another direction, elsewhere. (2) in another manner.

alipes -pedis, having wings on the feet; hence swift; m. pl. as subst., horses.

alipta and aliptes -ae, m. the anointer in the wrestling school, or in the baths.

aliqua, see under aliquis.

aliquamdiu, see under aliquis.

aliquammultus, see under aliquis.

aliquando, at any time, once; sometimes, occasionally.

aliquantulus -a -um, little, small; n. as adv. a little.

aliquantus -a -um, of some size, moderate. N. as subst. aliquantum -i, a good deal; acc. aliquantum, and (with compar.) abl. aliquanto, somewhat, considerably.

aliquatenus, to certain degree.

aliqui aliquae or aliqua aliquod, adj. some.

aliquis aliquid, pron. someone, something; anyone, anything. N. aliquid often with partitive genit., a certain amount or number of; as adv., in any respect. Transf. somebody or something great or significant. Hence adv. aliquo, some whither, in some direction; adv. aliqua, by some road, in some way; adv. aliquamdiu, for some time ; adj. aliquammultus, considerable in number or quantity.

aliquot, indecl., some, several.

aliquotiens, several times.

alis, alid, old form of alius, aliud; q.v.

aliter, see under alius.

alium or allium -i, n. garlic.

aliunde, from some other direction; 'alii aliunde', from various directions.

alius -a -ud, adj. and pronoun, another, other, different. Distributively, one, another; 'alii...alii', some...others; 'alii alia censent', some think one thing, some another. In comparison, other than, followed by atque, quam, etc. Rarely, in plur., all other, the rest; in sing. = alter, one of two. Hence adv. alias. (1) at another time; 'alius alias', one person at one time, another at another.(2)otherwise. Adv. alio, to another place; 'alius alio', in various directions. Transf., to another person or object; for another end. Adv. aliter. (1) otherwise, in another way; 'alius aliter', in different ways. (2) else, in other conditions.

aliusmodi, of another kind.

all-, v. also under adl-.

allec or alec -ecis, n. fish-pickle.

Allecto or Alecto, one of the three Furies.

Allia (Alia) -ae, f. river in Latium; adj. Alliensis -e.

Allobrox -ogis, and pl. Allobroges -um, m. the Allobroges, a Gallic people.

almus -a -um, nourishing, kind.

alnus -i, f. the alder; meton., a ship of alder wood.

alo alere alui altum (or alitum), to nourish, support, rear, feed; hence in gen., to strengthen, increase, promote, advance. Hence partic. altus -a -um, grown, great. As seen from below, high, hence, of the voice, shrill; of character, dignity, rank, lofty, noble. As seen from above, deep; of thoughts,secret, deep-seated; of time, reaching far back, ancient. N. as subst. altum -i, either height or depth. Adv. alte. highly, deeply.

aloe -es, f. the aloe; bitterness.

Alpes -ium, f. the Alps; adj. Alpinus and Alpicus -a -um, Alpine.

Alpheus or Alpheos -i, m. the chief river of the Peloponnese.

alsius -a -um, frosty, cold.

altaria -ium, n. pl. an erection upon an altar; hence high altars, or a high altar.

alter -tera -terum, one of two, the one, the other; as a numeralsecond, 'unus et alter', one or two; in pl., a second set. Hence of quality, second, next best; of similarity, another, a second; 'alter idem', a second self; of difference, other, changed.

altercatio -onis, f. dispute, wrangling; legal, cross-examination.

altercor -ari, dep. to dispute, contend, quarrel; legal, to cross- examine, cross-question.

alterno -are, to do first one thing, then another: transit., to interchange; intransit., to alternate, waver.

alternus -a -um, one after the other, by turns, alternate, interchanging; 'sermones', dialogue; of meter, elegiac (with hexameter and pentameter alternating).

alteruter -utra -utrum, one of two.

altilis -e, fattened, fed; f. as subst. (sc. avis), a fowl.

altisonus -a -um, sounding from on high; high-sounding, sublime.

altitudo -inis, f. (1) height; hence sublimity. (2) depth; 'animi', secrecy, reserve.

altor -oris, m. nourisher, foster-father.

altrix -icis, f. nurse, foster-mother.

altus -a -um, alte, etc. ; see under alo.

alucinor -ari, dep. to wander in mind, dream, talk idly.

alumnus -a -um, adj. used as noun, nursling, foster-child; hence pupil.

aluta -ae, f. soft leather; a shoe, purse or patch.

alvearium -i, n. beehive.

alveolus -i, m. tray, trough, bucket; gaming-board.

alveus -i, m. a hollow, cavity, trough; hence boat; also the hold of a ship; bathtub; bed of a stream; beehive; gaming-table.

alvus -i, f. belly, womb, stomach; hold of a ship, beehive.

amabilis -e, amiable, lovely; adv. amabiliter.

Amalthea -ae, f. either a nymph, the nurse of Jupiter in Crete or the goat on the milk of which Jupiter was reared.

amandatio -onis, f. a sending away.

amando -are, to send away.

amans, = partic. of amo; q.v.

amanuensis -is, m. secretary, clerk.

amaracinus -a -um, made of marjoram; n. as subst. marjoram ointment.

amaracus -i, c. and amaracum -i, n. marjoram.

amarantus -i, m. the amaranth.

amarities -ei, f. bitterness.

amaritudo -inis, f. bitterness; 'vocis', harshness of voice.

amaror -oris, m. bitterness.

amarus -a -um, bitter, pungent. Hence, of things, disagreeable, unpleasant; of persons, irritable; of speech, biting, acrimonious. Adv. amare, bitterly.

amator -oris, m. a lover, friend, admirer; esp.the lover of a woman.

amatorius -a -um, loving, amorous; n. as subst. a love philtre. Adv. amatorie.

amatrix -icis, f. mistress, sweetheart.

Amazon -onis, f.; gen. in plur. Amazones -um, myth., nation of female warriors. Hence subst. Amazonis -idis, f. = Amazon; adj. Amazonicus, Amazonius -a -um.

ambactus -i, m. vassal.

ambages, abl. -e, f. (of sing. only abl. found) a roundabout way, winding. Hence, in speech, etc., either circumlocution or obscurity, ambigui- ty.

ambedo -esse -edi -esum, to eat round, consume.

ambigo -ere, to go about or round. Transf., (1) to doubt, hesitate; 'ambigitur', impers., it is in doubt; (2) to dispute, wrangle.

ambiguitas -atis, f. ambiguity.

ambiguus -a -um, moving from side to side, doubtful, uncertain, insecure, unreliable; of speech, ambiguous, obscure; n. as subst. uncertainty, doubt, ambiguity. Adv. ambigue, ambiguously, indecisively.

ambio -ire -ivi or -ii -itum, to go round. Hence (1) to surround. (2) to go round from person to person, to approach, entreat, canvass (for votes, help, etc.).

Ambiorix -rigis, m. chief of the Eburones in Gallia Belgica.

ambitio -onis, f. canvassing for office (in a lawful manner); in gen., desire for office, popularity or fame.

ambitiosus -a -um, going round; esp. active in seeking office,popularity or fame; ambitious, ostentatious. Adv. ambitiose, ambitiously, ostentatiously.

ambitus -us, m. a going round, circuit, revolution. Hence, of things, border, edge or extent; in speech, circumlocution; in relation to persons, illegal canvassing for office, bribery, striving after popularity or effect.

ambo -ae -o, both, two together.

ambrosia -ae, f. ambrosia, the food or unguent of the gods.

ambrosius -a -um, divine, immortal, ambrosial.

ambubaia -ae, f. a Syrian flute-girl.

ambulatio -onis, f. a walk or place for walking.

ambulatiuncula -ae, f. a little walk or place for walking, promenade.

ambulo -are, to walk, go for a walk, travel, march: 'bene ambula', 'bon voyage'; with acc., to traverse.

amburo -urere -ussi -ustum, to burn round, scorch; of cold, to nip, numb; in gen., to injure.

amellus -i, m. the purple Italian starwort.

amens -entis, mad, insane, senseless.

amentia -ae, f. madness, senselessness.

amento -are, to furnish with a strap.

amentum -i, n. a strap, thong.

ames -itis, m. a forked pole.

amethystinus -a -um, amethyst-colored; n. pl. as subst., dresses of amethyst color.

amethystus -i, m. an amethyst.

amfractus, = anfractus; q.v.

amicio -icire -icui or -ixi -ictum, to clothe, wrap round, wrap up, cover, conceal.

amicitia -ae, f. friendship; in plur., concrete, = friends.

amicities -ei, f. = amicitia; q.v.

amictus -us, m. the putting on of a garment, esp. the toga. Transf., a garment, covering.

amicula -ae, f. a little mistress.

amiculum -i, n. a mantle or cloak.

amiculus -i, m. a dear friend.

amicus -a -um, friendly, well-wishing, favorable. M. as subst., amicus -i, a friend; in plur., retinue; f. as subst., amica -ae, a friend or mistress. Adv. amice and amiciter, in a friendly manner.

amissio -onis, f. loss.

amissus -us, m. = amissio; q.v.

amita -ae, f. a father's sister, aunt.

amitto -mittere -misi -missum, to send away, let go, let slip; hence, in gen., to lose.

Ammon (Hammon) -onis, m. a Libyan deity, worshipped at Rome under the name of Jupiter Ammon.

amnicola -ae, c. dwelling by the riverside.

amniculus -i, m. a little river.

amnis -is, m. a stream, river, torrent; poet., current, river water.

amo -are, to love (passionately), be fond of; 'amare se', to be selfish or pleased with oneself; 'amabo te', or 'amabo', please, be so good; with infin., to like to do a thing, also to be wont, be accustomed. Hence partic. amans -antis, loving, fond; as subst., a lover. Adv. amanter, lovingly.

amoenitas -atis, f. pleasantness, esp. of places.

amoenus -a -um, pleasant, delightful, esp. of places.

amolior -iri, dep. to remove by an effort, set aside, get rid of; 'amoliri se', to take oneself off.

amomum -i, n. an Eastern spice plant; the spice obtained from this plant.

amor -oris, m. love, passion, fondness, desire; meton., an object of love, darling; personified, Love, Cupid.

amotio -onis, f. removal.

amoveo -movere -movi -motum, to move away, withdraw; 'se admovere', to depart; 'in insulam', to banish to an island; of ideas or feelings, to put aside.

amphibolia -ae, f. ambiguity, double meaning.

Amphictyones -um, m. plur., the Amphictyons, religious representatives of the Greek states.

Amphion -onis, m. king of Thebes, husband of Niobe.

amphitheatrum -i, n. amphitheater.

Amphitrite -es, f. wife of Neptune, goddess of the sea.

amphora -ae, f. (1) a two-handled jar. (2) a measure: liquid, = about 7 gallons; of shipping, = about 1/40 of our ton.

amplector -plecti -plexus, dep. to embrace, twine round, enclose, surround. Transf., to welcome, love, esteem; in thought or speech, to take in, consider, deal with; to include, comprise.

amplexor -ari, dep. to embrace; to welcome, love.

amplexus -us, m. encircling, embrace.

amplificatio -onis, f. enlarging, heightening, amplification.

amplificator -oris, m. one who enlarges.

amplifico -are, to enlarge, heighten, increase, magnify.

amplio -are, to enlarge, increase, magnify; legal, to adjourn a case.

amplitudo -inis, f. breadth, size; greatness, dignity, grandeur.

amplus -a -um, large, spacious, ample. Transf., great, important, honorable; eminent, distinguished; 'amplissimi viri', men of the highest position; rhet., grand, full. Adv. ample and ampliter, fully, grandly. Compar. adv. and n. subst., amplius, more, further, besides; with numerals, often = more than.

ampulla -ae, f. flask, bottle. Transf., bombast.

ampullor -ari, dep. to speak bombastically.

amputatio -onis, f. cutting off, pruning.

amputo -are, to cut off, esp. of trees, to lop, prune; of limbs, to amputate; hence, in gen., to remove, diminish; 'amputata loqui', to speak disconnectedly.

Amulius -i, m. king of Alba Longa, brother of Numitor.

amurca -ae, f. oil lees.

amygdalum -i, n. almond.

Amyntas -ae, m. name of several Macedonian kings.

amystis -idis, f. the emptying of a goblet at a draught.

an, conj.: in direct questions, or; in indirect questions, or whether.

anabathrum -i, n. a raised seat.

anadema -atis, n. a head ornament, fillet.

anagnostes -ae, m. reader.

analecta -ae, m. a dining room slave.

analogia -ae, f. proportion, comparison, analogy.

anapaestus -a -um: 'pes', a metrical foot, anapest; n. as subst. a poem in anapestic verse.

anaphora -ae, f. in rhetoric, the repetition of a word at the beginning of several sentences.

anas anatis, f. duck.

anaticula -ae, f. little duck.

anatocismus -i, m. compound interest.

Anaxagoras -ae, m. a Greek philosopher of the fifth century B.C..

anceps -cipitis, two-headed; hence with two peaks or edges. Transf., coming on or from both sides; of two natures; ambiguous, uncertain, undecided; hence dangerous; n. as subst., danger.

Anchises -ae, m. father of Aeneas. Hence subst. Anchisiades -ae, m. a male descendant of Anchises, Aeneas.

ancile -is, n. a sacred shield, supposed to have fallen from heaven.

ancilla -ae, f. maidservant, female slave.

ancillaris -e, of a maidservant.

ancillor -ari, dep. to serve (as a maid).

ancillula -ae, f. a little maidservant.

ancisus -a -um, cut round.

Ancon -onis, and Ancona -ae, f. a town on the Adriatic coast of Italy.

ancora -ae, f. an anchor; 'ancoram tollere', to weigh anchor.

ancorale -is, n. a cable.

ancorarius -a -um, belonging to an anchor.

Ancus (Marcius) -i, fourth king of Rome.

Ancyra -ae, f. capital of Galatia, in Asia Minor.

androgynus -i, m. or androgyne -es, f. hermaphrodite.

Andromache -es and -cha -ae, f. wife of Hector.

Andromede -es, f. and -da -ae, f. wife of Perseus.

andron -onis, m. corridor.

Andronicus -i, m. L. Livius, Roman dramatic and epic poet of the third century B.C..

anellus -i, m. a little ring.

anethum -i, n. dill, anise.

anfractus -us, m. a turning, a bend; 'solis', revolution; 'vallis', winding. Transf., legal intricacies, circumlocution, digression.

angellus -i, m. a little corner.

angiportum -i, n. and angiportus -us, m. a narrow street.

ango -ere, to press tightly; of the throat, to strangle, throttle; in gen., to hurt, distress; of the mind, to torment, make anxious.

angor -oris, m. compression of the throat, suffocation; of the mind, distress, anguish, trouble.

anguicomus -a -um, having snaky hair.

anguifer -fera -ferum, snake-bearing.

anguigena -ae, m. snake-born.

anguilla -ae, f. an eel.

anguimanus -a -um, snake-handed.

anguineus -a -um, of a snake, snaky.

anguinus -a -um, snaky.

anguipes -pedis, snake-footed.

anguis -is, c. a snake; in astronomy, the constellation Draco, or Hydra, or the Serpent.

Anguitenens -entis, m. the Snake-holder, i.e. the constellation Ophiuchus.

angulatus -a -um, angular, cornered.

angulus -i, m. a corner, angle;esp. either a quiet corner, retired spot or fig., an awkward corner, strait.

angustiae -arum, f. pl. narrowness; hence, of space, a strait, narrow place; 'spiritus', shortness of breath; of time, shortness; of supplies, shortness, poverty; of circumstances, difficulty, distress; of disposition, narrow-mindedness; of reasoning, subtlety.

angustus -a -um, narrow, confined; 'habenae', tightly-drawn reins; 'spiritus angustior', constricted breath; of time, short; of supplies, short, scarce; of circumstances, precarious, critical; of mind or speech, narrow, petty, limited; of style, brief, simple. N. as subst. angustum -i, a narrow space. Adv. anguste, narrowly, sparingly, in a narrow, confined manner; of speech, briefly.

anhelitus -us, m. puffing, panting. Transf., in gen., breath; exhalation, vapor.

anhelo -are, to puff, pant; transit., to pant out words; also to pant for a thing, desire eagerly.

anhelus -a -um, puffing, panting; 'febris', causing to pant.

anicula -ae, f. a little old woman.

anilis -e, belonging to or like an old woman. Adv. aniliter.

anilitas -atis, f. old age (of women).

anima -ae, f. breath, wind, air. Transf., the breath of life, vital principle, soul; 'animam edere', to give up the ghost; poet., life- blood; meton., a living being; sometimes = animus, rational soul.

animadversio -onis, f. perception, observation, notice; esp. unfavorable notice; censure, blame, punishment.

animadversor -oris, m. an observer.

animadverto (animadvortor) -vertere -verti -versum, to turn or give the mind to. Hence to take notice of, attend to; to perceive, observe. Esp. to take notice of a fault, blame, censure, punish.

animal -alis, n. a living being, animal.

animalis -e, (1) consisting of air, airy. (2) living.

animans -antis, living; as subst., a living being, animal.

animatio -onis, f. animating; hence, a living being.

animo -are, (1) (anima), to animate, give life to. (2) (animus), to endow with a particular disposition. Hence partic. animatus -a -um. (1) having life, alive. (2) having a disposition, inclined, disposed; esp. having courage, spirited.

animosus -a -um, (1) (anima), full of breath, airy. (2) (animus), full of spirit or courage. Adv. animose, courageously.

animula -ae, f. a little soul, little life.

animus -i, m. the spiritual or rational principle of life in man. More specifically: (1) the seat of feeling, the heart; 'animi causa', for pleasure; loc. (or genit.) 'animi', at heart. (2) character, disposition; as a trait of character (esp. in plur.) courage, spirit, vivacity; also pride, arrogance. (3) the seat of the will, intention: 'habeo in animo', I am resolved. (4) the seat of thought, intellect, mind, memory, consciousness.

Anio -enis and poet. Anienus -i, m. the Anio, a tributary of the Tiber.

Anna -ae, f. sister of Dido; 'Anna Perenna', an Italian goddess.

annalis -e, lasting a year, or relating to a year. M. as subst., usually plur. annales -ium, yearly records, annals.

anniversarius -a -um, recurring every year.

annona -ae, f. yearly produce, crop, esp. of grain; the price of provisions, the cost of living.

annosus -a -um, full of years, long-lived.

annotinus -a -um, a year old, belonging to last year.

annus -i, m. a circuit of the sun, year; 'exeunte anno', at the end of the year; 'annos LXX natus', seventy years old; 'habere annos viginti', to be twenty; esp. year of office, or of eligibility for office; poet., time of year, season.

annuus -a -um, lasting for a year; returning every year, annual. N. plur. as subst. a salary, pension.

anquiro -quirere -quisivi -quisitum, to seek carefully, inquire after, investigate; legal, to set an inquiry on foot.

ansa -ae, f. a handle; hence, occasion, opportunity.

ansatus -a -um, with a handle; 'homo', a man with arms akimbo.

anser -eris, m. goose.

Antaeus -i, m. a giant killed by Hercules.

ante, Adv. before, of place or time; Prep. before, of place or time; 'ante urbem conditam', before the founding of the city; of preference, sooner than, above.

antea, before, formerly.

anteambulo -onis, m. a footman to clear the way ahead.

antecapio -capere -cepi -ceptum, to seize beforehand; hence to anticipate, not to wait for; philosoph., 'antecepta informatio', an innate idea.

antecedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, to go before, precede, in space or time; to excel (with dat. or acc.).

antecello -ere, to be outstanding, excel (with dat. or acc.).

antecessio -onis, f. a preceding or going before; philosoph., the antecedent cause.

antecursor -oris, m. a forerunner; in pl., pioneers.

anteeo -ire -ii, to go before, in space or time; hence to excel (with dat. or acc.).

antefero -ferre -tuli -latum, to carry before. Transf., to prefer; to anticipate, consider before.

antefixus -a -um, fastened in front; n. as subst. ornaments fixed on roofs.

antegredior -gredi -gressus, dep. to go before; philosoph., of antecedent causes.

antehabeo -ere, to prefer.

antehac, before this time, formerly.

antelucanus -a -um, happening before daybreak.

antemeridianus -a -um, before noon.

antemitto -mittere -misi -missum, to send before.

antemna or antenna -ae, f. a sail-yard.

anteoccupatio -onis, f. an exception.

antepes -pedis, m. the forefoot.

antepilani -orum, m. front line soldiers (i.e. the hastati and principes).

antepono -ponere -posui -positum, to place before, to prefer.

antequam, conjunction, before.

antes -ium, m. pl. rows or ranks.

antesignanus -i, m. usually plur., soldiers chosen for a place in front of the standards; hence, sing., a leader.

antesto (antisto) -stare -steti, to stand before; to excel, surpass.

antestor -ari, dep. legal, to call as a witness.

antevenio -venire -veni -ventum, to come before, precede. Transf., to anticipate, prevent; to prefer.

anteverto (-vorto) -vertere -verti -versum, to come or go before, precede. Transf., to anticipate, prevent; to prefer.

anticipatio -onis, f. a preconception, innate idea.

anticipo -are, to receive before, anticipate; 'viam', to travel over before.

anticus -a -um, forward, in front.

antidea, old form of antea; q.v.

antideo, old form of anteeo; q.v.

antidhac, old form of antehac; q.v.

Antigone -es, f. and Antigona -ae, f. daughter of Oedipus, put to death for burying her brother.

Antigonus -i, m. name of several of the successors of Alexander the Great.

Antiochia or Antiochea -ae, f. Antioch, name of several Asiatic towns.

Antipater -tri, m. name of several kings of Macedonia.

antiquarius -a -um, belonging to antiquity; m. or f. as subst. an antiquary.

antiquitas -atis, f. antiquity, ancient times; the history of ancient times; in plur., the ancients.

antiquitus, see antiquus.

antiquo -are, to leave in its former state; 'legem', to reject a bill.

antiquus -a -um, coming before; previous, earlier; absol., old, ancient, primitive. In compar. and superl. preferred, more important. M. pl. as subst. antiqui -orum, the people of old time, esp. ancient authors. Hence adv. antique, in the ancient manner; also antiquitus, from of old or long ago.

antistes -stitis, c. a presiding priest or priestess.

antistita -ae, f. a presiding priestess.

antisto, = antesto;q.v.

antitheton -i, n. antithesis, opposition.

Antium -i, n. an old town of Latium on the sea-coast.

antlia -ae, f. a pump.

Antoninus -i, m. name of several Roman emperors.

Antonius -a -um, the name of a Roman gens.

antrum -i, n. a cave, hollow.

Anubis -bis or -bidis, m. an Egyptian god.

anularius -a -um, of a ring; m. as subst. a ring-maker.

anulus -i, m. a ring; 'anulus equestris', the badge of knighthood at Rome.

anus (1) -i, m. the fundament.

anus (2) -us, f. an old woman; also used like adj., old.

anxietas -atis, f. anxiety, grief, anguish.

anxifer -fera -ferum, causing anxiety.

anxitudo -inis, f. anxiousness.

anxius -a -um, anxious, uneasy. Transf., causing anxiety. Adv. anxie.

Anxur -uris, n. an old town of the Volsci.

Aones -um, the Boeotians; Aonia -ae, f. part of Boeotia, resort of the Muses; hence Aonides -um, f. the Muses ; adj. Aonius -a -um. 1

Aornos -i, m. the lake of Avernus.

apage, interj. away! be off !.

Apelles -is, m. a Greek painter, friend of Alexander the Great. Adj. Apelleus -a -um.

aper apri, m. a wild boar.

aperio aperire aperui apertum, (1) to uncover, lay bare; hence in gen. to reveal. (2) to open what was shut, open up; 'ludum', to open a school; 'annum', to begin the year. Hence partic. apertus -a -um, (1) uncovered, clear, unconcealed, manifest; of speech, clear, intelligible, frank; of character, frank, straightforward, open. (2) unclosed, accessible, exposed. N. as subst., an open space. Adv. aperte, openly, frankly.

apex -icis, m. the top; esp. the top of the conical cap of the Roman 'flamines', or the cap itself; hence any crown, tiara, helmet; fig., highest honor, crown; gram., the long mark over a vowel.

aphractus -i, f. a long undecked boat.

apicatus -a -um, wearing the priest's cap.

apinae -arum, f. pl. trifles.

apis or apes -is, f. a bee.

Apis -is, m. Apis, the ox-god of the Egyptians.

apiscor apisci aptus, dep. to attain, come to, come by.

apium -i, n. parsley or celery.

aplustre -is, n. generally plur. aplustria -ium, and aplustra -orum, the carved stern of a ship.

apodyterium -i, n. the undressing-room in a bath.

Apollo -inis, m. Apollo, god of the sun, born at Delos; 'ad Apollinis' (sc. sedem), to the temple of Apollo. Adj. Apollinaris -e, and Apollineus -a -um.

apologus -i, m. a narrative, fable.

apophoreta -orum, n. pl. presents given to guests.

apotheca -ae, f. storeroom.

apparate, adv. from apparo; q.v.

apparatio -onis, f. preparation.

apparatus -us, m.: abstr., preparation, preparing; concr., provision, equipment, apparatus, esp. on a pretentious scale; hence splendor, magnificence, pomp, parade.

appareo -ere -ui -itum, to become visible, appear, be manifest; 'apparet', it is clear; sometimes to appear as a servant, to serve (with dat.).

appario -ere, to get, obtain.

apparitio -onis, f. waiting upon, serving; meton., plur. servants.

apparitor -oris, m. a servant; esp. a public servant, e.g. lictor.

apparo -are, to prepare, get ready, provide. Hence partic. apparatus -a -um, prepared, well supplied or sumptuous. Adv. apparate, sumptuously.

appellatio -onis, f. addressing, speech; legal, an appeal; a naming, name, title; pronunciation.

appellator -oris, m. an appellant.

appellito -are, to be accustomed to name.

appello, (1) -pellere -puli -pulsum, to drive to, bring to, apply; nautical, to bring to land; 'huc appelle', 'put in here'.

appello, (2) -are. (1) to address, accost, speak to; esp. of asking favors, to approach, entreat, sue; legal, to appeal to. (2) to name, entitle; hence, to mention by name, make known. (3) to pronounce.

appendix -icis, f. appendage, addition.

appendo -pendere -pendi -pensum, to weigh to, deal out by weight.

Appenninus -i, m. the chain of the Apennines.

appetentia -ae, f. desire, longing.

appetitio -onis, f. desire, longing.

appetitus -us, m. longing, appetite; plur., the passions.

appeto -ere -ivi or -ii -itum, to make for, grasp at, seek; of places, to make for or go to; in hostile sense, to attack; intransit., of time, to draw near.

appingo -pingere -pinxi -pictum,to paint to, or upon; to write in addition.

Appius -i, m., Appia -ae, f. a Roman praenomen common in the gens Claudia; as adj. Appius -a -um, Appian; 'via', the Appian way, a road from Rome to Capua, afterwards extended to Brundisium; also adj. Appianus -a -um, belonging to an Appius, Appian.

applaudo -plaudere -plausi -plausum, to strike upon, clap.

applicatio -onis, f. attachment, application.

applico -are -avi -atum, and -ui -itum, to apply to, place to or near; 'corpora corporibus', to close up the ranks; naut., to lay a ship to or beside; absol., to land. Trnasf. in gen., to attach, connect; with reflex. to attach oneself, devote oneself. Perf. partic. pass. applicatus -a -um, situated near, built near.

apploro -are, to lament, deplore.

appono -ponere -posui -positum, to place near, put to; esp. to serve, put on table; to appoint a person, to add a thing; 'appone lucro', reckon as gain. Hence partic. appositus -a -um, placed near, lying near; approaching, near to; fit, appropriate, apposite; adv. apposite, appropriately.

apporrectus -a -um, extended near.

apporto -are, to carry, bring to.

apposco -ere, to ask in addition.

apprecor -ari, dep. to worship, pray for.

apprehendo -prehendere -prehendi -prehensum, and poet. apprendo, to seize, lay hold of.

apprime, above all, exceedingly.

apprimo -primere -pressi -pressum, to press to.

approbatio -onis, f. approval, assent; in philosophy, proof.

approbator -oris, m. one who approves or assents.

approbo -are, to approve of, assent to; to prove, establish; to make acceptable to another.

appromitto -mittere -misi -missum, to promise in addition.

appropero -are, to hasten, hasten on.

appropinquatio -onis, f. approach.

appropinquo -are, to approach, draw near.

appugno -are, to assault, fight against.

Appulia, see Apulia.

appulsus -us, m. a driving towards; hence approach, influence; naut. landing.

apricatio -onis, f. sun-bathing.

apricor -ari, dep. to sun oneself.

apricus -a -um, adj. open to the sun, sunny; loving the sun.

Aprilis -e, of April; m. as subst. the month of April.

apto -are, to fit, adapt, adjust; to make ready or fit.

aptus -a -um, (1) as partic. fitted, fastened, connected. Transf., depending on; also prepared, fitted out; fitted up with, equipped with, with abl. (2) as adj. suitable, appropriate, fitting. Adv. apte.

apud, prep. with acc. at ,near, by, with; 'apud me', at my house. Of other relations; 'apud se', in one's senses; 'apud me valet', it weighs with me; 'apud patres', in our fathers' time; 'apud Ciceronem', in the works of Cicero.

Apulia or Appulia -ae, f. Apulia, a region in S. Italy. Adj. Apulicus and Apulus -a -um.

aqua -ae, f. water; 'aqua et ignis', the necessaries of life; 'aqua et igni interdicere homini', to banish a person; 'aquam terramque poscere', to demand submission. Esp. the water of the sea, a lake, a river, or rain; in plur. (medicinal) springs; often water in the water-clock.

aquaeductus -us, m. an aqueduct; the right of conveying water.

aquarius -a -um, belonging to water; m. as subst. a water-carrier or an inspector of conduits.

aquaticus -a -um, living in water, or full of water, watery.

aquatilis -e, living in water.

aquatio -onis, f. a fetching of water; meton., a watering-place.

aquator -oris, m. a water-carrier.

aquila -ae, f. an eagle; milit., an eagle as the standard of a Roman legion; architect., gable or pediment.

aquilifer -feri, m. an eagle- or standard-bearer.

aquilo -onis, m. the north wind; the north.

aquilonius -a -um, northern.

aquilus -a -um, dark-colored, blackish.

Aquitania -ae, f. Aquitania, the southwest part of Gaul. Adj. Aquitanus -a -um.

aquor -ari, dep. to fetch water.

aquosus -a -um, full of water, watery.

aquula -ae, f. a little water, small stream.

ara -ae, f. altar; hence refuge, protection; 'arae', plur., name of certain rocks at sea.

Arabia -ae, f. Arabia. Adj. Arabius and Arabicus -a -um, Arabian; adj. and subst. Arabs -abis and Arabus -a -um, Arabian, an Arabian.

Arachne -es, f. a Lydian maiden turned into a spider by Minerva.

aranea -ae, f. a spider; meton., the spider's web.

araneola -ae, f. a little spider.

araneolus -i, m. a little spider.

araneosus -a -um, full of cobwebs.

araneus (1) -a -um, of a spider; n. as subst. a cobweb.

araneus (2) -i, m. a spider.

aratio -onis, f. plowing, agriculture; meton., a plowed field.

arator -oris, m. ploughman, husbandman.

aratrum -i, n. plow.

arbiter -tri, m. a witness, spectator, legal, an umpire, arbitrator; hence any judge, ruler, master.

arbitra -ae, f. a female witness.

arbitrarius -a -um, arbitrary, uncertain.

arbitratus -us, m. will, choice, decision.

arbitrium -i, n. (1) the presence of witnesses. (2) the decision of an umpire; hence any decision, judgment, authority; 'arbitrio suo', under his own control.

arbitro -are, and arbitror -ari, dep. (1) to witness; to bear witness. (2) to arbitrate, judge, decide.

arbor (arbos) -oris, f. a tree; also any wooden object, such as an oar, mast, ship; 'arbor infelix', the gallows.

arboreus -a -um, relating to trees; treelike.

arbustus -a -um, planted with trees. N. as subst. arbustum -i, a plantation, vineyard planted with trees.

arbuteus -a -um, of the arbutus.

arbutum -i, n. the fruit, leaves, etc., of the wild strawberry or arbutus tree.

arbutus -i, f. the wild strawberry or arbutus tree.

arca -ae, f. a chest, box; esp. a money-box or coffin; also a cell.

Arcadia -ae, f. part of the Peloponnesus.Adj. Arcadius and Arcadicus -a -um.

arcanus -a -um, shut, closed; hence silent, secret. N. as subst. a secret. Adv. arcano, secretly.

Arcas -adis, m. adj. and subst., Arcadian, an Arcadian.

arceo -ere -ui, (1) to shut in. (2) to keep at a distance, hinder, prevent, keep away.

arcessitor -oris, m. a summoner.

arcessitu, abl. sing. m. at the summons of a person.

arcesso (accerso) -ere -ivi -itum, to fetch, call, summon; legal, to summon, bring before a court of justice; in gen., to fetch, derive, obtain. Hence partic. arcessitus, strained, far-fetched.

archetypus -a -um, original.

Archias -ae, m. Aulus Licinius, a Greek poet defended by Cicero.

archimagirus -i, m. head cook.

Archimedes -is, m. a mathematician and inventor, killed at the capture of Syracuse (212 B.C.).

archipirata -ae, m. chief pirate.

architecton -onis, m. master-builder.

architector -ari, dep. to build, devise.

architectura -ae, f. architecture.

architectus -i, m. an architect, master-builder, inventor, maker.

archon -ontis, m. an archon, an Athenian magistrate.

arcitenens -entis, holding the bow.

Arctos -i, f. the Great and Little Bear; hence the north.

arctous -a -um, belonging to the Bear; hence northern.

Arcturus -i, m. the brightest star of Bootes.

arcula -ae, f. a casket. Transf., rhetorical argument.

arcuo -are, to bend or shape like a bow.

arcus -us, m. a bow, arch, arc; esp. the rainbow.

ardea -ae, f. a heron.

ardelio -onis, m. a busybody.

ardeo ardere arsi, to burn, glow, be on fire; of bright objects, to gleam; of feeling (esp. of love), to burn, smart; of political disorder, to be ablaze. Hence partic. ardens -entis, hot, glowing, burning, fiery, eager; adv. ardenter.

ardesco -ere to take fire; of bright objects, to glitter; of passions, to become inflamed; of strife, to blaze up.

ardor -oris, m. flame, burning, heat; of bright objects, gleam; of feelings (esp. of love), heat, eagerness; meton., an object of love, loved one.

arduus -a -um, steep, towering, lofty. Transf., difficult to undertake or reach; n. as subst., difficulty.

area -ae, f. a level or open space, site, court-yard, threshing floor; esp. a playground; hence, in gen., play.

arefacio -facere -feci -factum, to make dry.

arena, = harena;q.v.

areo -ere, to be dry; partic. arens -entis, dry, thirsty.

Areopagus -i, m. Mars' hill at Athens, where a court sat. Hence Areopagites -ae, m. a member of the court.

Ares -is, m. the Greek god of war, Latin Mars.

aresco -ere, to become dry.

aretalogus -i, m. a babbler about virtue.

Arethusa -ae, f. a fountain at Syracuse; myth. a nymph chased by the river Alpheus under the sea to Sicily.

argentarius -a -um, relating to silver or money; 'taberna', a banker's stall. M. as subst. a money-changer, banker; f. as subst., the office or trade of a banker; also a silver mine.

argentatus -a -um, ornamented with silver.

argenteus -a -um, of silver. Transf., ornamented with silver; of the color of silver; belonging to the Silver Age.

argentum -i, n. silver; esp. silver plate or silver coin; hence, in gen., money.

Argiletum -i, n. the booksellers' district in Rome.

argilla -ae, f. white clay, potter's clay.

Argo Argus, f. the ship Argo.

Argonautae -arum, m. pl. the Argonauts, the heroes who sailed in the Argo.

Argos, n. and Argi -orum, m. pl. Argos, capital of Argolis in the Pelopon- nese. Adj. Argeus and Argivus -a -um; plur. subst. Argivi, m. the Ar- gives or Greeks. Hence f. subst. Argoles -idis, the district Argolis; adj. Argolicus -a -um.

argumentatio -onis, f. the bringing forward of a proof.

argumentor -ari, dep. to bring forward a proof, allege as a proof.

argumentum -i, n. argument, proof; subject, contents, matter.

arguo -uere -ui -utum, to put in clear light; to declare, prove; to accuse, blame, expose, convict. Hence partic. argutus -a -um: to the eye, expressive, lively; to the ear, piercing, shrill, noisy; of omens, clear, significant; of persons, sagacious, cunning. Adv. argute, sagaciously.

Argus -i, m. the hundred-eyed guardian of Io.

argutiae -arum, f. pl. liveliness, animation; of the mind, cleverness, sagacity, cunning.

argutulus -a -um, somewhat acute.

Ariadna -ae and Ariadne -es, f. daughter of Minos of Crete.

aridulus -a -um, somewhat dry.

aridus -a -um, adj. dry, arid, thirsty; 'febris', parching; 'crura', shrivelled; of living conditions, meager; intellectually, dry, jejune; of character, avaricious. N. as subst., dry ground.

aries -ietis, m. a ram; a battering ram; a prop, beam.

arieto -are, to butt like a ram.

Arion -onis, m. a cithara player, saved from drowning by a dolphin.

Ariovistus -i, m. a Germanic prince.

arista -ae, f. the beard of an ear of grain; hence the ear itself; also a harvest.

Aristophanes -is, m. the Athenian comic dramatist. Adj. Aristophaneus -a -um.

Aristoteles -is and -i, m. the Greek philosopher, pupil of Plato, founder of the Peripatetic school. Adj. Aristoteleus and Aristotelius -a -um.

arithmetica -ae and -e -es, f.; also arithmetica -orum, n. pl.; arithmetic.

arma -orum, n. pl. defensive arms, armor, weapons of war; hence war, soldiers, military power; protection, defense;in gen. tools, equipment.

armamenta -orum, n. pl. implements, tackle, esp. of a ship.

armamentarium -i, n. an armory.

armarium -i, n. a cupboard, chest.

armatu, abl. sing. m. with armor; 'gravi armatu', with heavy-armed troops.

armatura -ae, f. equipment, armor; meton., armed soldiers.

armentalis -e, belonging to a herd.

armentarius -i, m. herdsman.

armentum -i, n. cattle for plowing; coll., a herd.

armifer -fera -ferum, bearing arms, warlike.

armiger -gera -gerum, bearing arms; as subst., m. or f., an armor bearer.

armilla -ae, f. bracelet.

armillatus -a -um, adorned with a bracelet.

armipotens -entis, mighty in arms, warlike.

armisonus -a -um, resounding with arms.

armo -are, to provide with arms, arm, equip, fit out.

armus -i, m. shoulder or shoulder-blade; also, of an animal, the side.

Arnus -i, m. chief river of Etruria (now Arno).

aro -are, to plow, farm, cultivate. Transf., to furrow, wrinkle; of ships, to plow the sea.

Arpinum -i, n. a Volscian hill-town, birthplace of Cicero; adj. and subst. Arpinas -atis; adj. Arpinus -a -um.

arquatus -a -um, relating to jaundice; m. as subst., a sufferer from jaundice.

arr-, see also adr-.

arrabo, see arrha.

arrha -ae, f. and arrhabo -onis, m. earnest money.

ars -tis, f. (1) skill, method, technique; 'ex arte', according to the rules of art. (2) an occupation, profession. (3) concrete, in plur., works of art. (4) conduct, character, method of acting; 'bonae artes', good qualities.

Artaxerxes -is, m. name of several Persian kings.

arteria -ae, f. the wind-pipe; an artery.

arthriticus -a -um, gouty.

articularis -e, of the joints; 'morbus', gout.

articulatim, piecemeal, joint by joint, distinctly.

articulo -are, to articulate, speak distinctly.

articulus -i, m.: in the body, a small joint; in plants, a knob, knot; of time, a moment, crisis; in gen., a part, division, point.

artifex -ficis, m. As adj.: act., skilled, clever; pass., skillfully made. As subst., worker, craftsman, maker, creator, expert.

artificiosus -a -um, skillful, accomplished; skillfully made; hence artificial. Adv. artificiose, skillfully.

artificium -i, n. occupation, craft, art; also the theory, system of an art; concr., work of art; in gen., cleverness, skill, cunning.

arto -are, to press together, reduce, abridge.

artolaganus -i, m. a cake made of meal, wine, milk, etc..

artopta -ae, m. a baker; a bread pan.

artus (1) (arctus) -a -um, narrow, tight, close; 'somnus', fast, sound; of supplies, small, meager; of circumstances, difficult, distressing. N. as subst. a narrow space; in gen., difficulty, constraint. Adv. arte, narrowly, tightly, closely; 'dormire', soundly, fast; 'artius appellare', to cut a name short.

artus (2) -us, m. normally plur., the joints; 'dolor artuum', gout; poet., limbs.

arula -ae, f. a little altar.

arund-, see harund-.

Aruns, an Etruscan name for a younger son.

arvina -ae, f. fat, lard.

arvus -a -um, plowed. N. as subst. arvum -i, plowed land, a field; in gen., a region.

arx -cis, f. fortress, citadel, stronghold, height; fig., bulwark, protection, headquarters.

as assis, m. a whole, a unit, divided into 12 parts (unciae); 'heres ex asse', sole heir; as a small coin, the as; as a weight, a pound.

Ascanius -i, m. son of Aeneas.

ascendo -scendere -scendi -scensum, to mount, ascend, rise.

ascensio -onis, f. ascent; 'oratorum', lofty flight.

ascensus -us, m. a going up, ascent; meton., a way up.

ascia -ae, f. a carpenter's axe; a mason's trowel.

ascio -scire, to take to oneself, adopt as one's own.

ascisco asciscere ascivi ascitum, to receive, admit; of persons, to adopt; of things, to take up, approve. Hence partic. ascitus -a -um, foreign, acquired.

Ascra -ae, f. town in Boeotia, home of Hesiod; adj. Ascraeus -a -um.

ascribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum: of things, to write in, add in writing; hence to attribute, impute; of persons, to enrol, include, put on a list.

ascripticius -a -um, enrolled as member of a community.

ascriptio -onis, f. addition in writing.

ascriptor -oris, m. one who approves.

asella -ae, f. a she-ass.

asellus -i, m. ass.

Asia -ae, f. (1) a town and district in Lydia. (2) the continent of Asia. (3) the peninsula of Asia Minor. (4) the Roman province of Asia, formed in 133 B.C.. Hence adj. Asianus, Asiaticus and Asius -a -um; subst. Asis -idis, f., poet., Asia.

asilus -i, m. gad-fly.

asina -ae, f. she-ass.

asinus -i, m. ass.

asotus -i, m. sensualist, libertine.

asparagus -i, m. asparagus.

aspargo, = aspergo;q.v.

aspectabilis -e, visible.

aspecto -are, to look at earnestly, look towards, observe, attend to.

aspectus -us, m.: act., looking, sight, range or power of vision; pass., sight, power of being seen, look, aspect, appearance.

aspello -ere, to drive away.

asper -era -erum, rough, uneven; to the taste, pungent, sour; to the hearing, harsh, grating; of weather, rough, stormy; of character or circumstances, rough, wild, harsh, difficult, severe. N. as subst. roughness, a rough place. Adv. aspere, roughly.

aspergo (1) -spergere -spersi -spersum, to sprinkle upon or besprinkle with.

aspergo (2) -inis, f. sprinkling, spray.

asperitas -atis, f. roughness, unevenness; to the taste, sourness; to the ear, harshness. of character or circumstances, harshness, fierceness, severity, difficulty.

aspernatio -onis, f. contempt.

aspernor -ari, dep. to despise, reject, spurn.

aspero -are, to make rough or sharp; to excite, arouse.

aspersio -onis, f. sprinkling.

aspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum, to look at, behold, survey, inspect, confront. Transf., mentally, to investigate, consider; of places, to look towards, face.

aspiratio -onis, f. breathing, exhalation; in speech, pronunciation of the letter H, aspiration.

aspiro -are: intransit., to breathe, blow, exhale: fig. to be favorable, assist; also to climb up, reach towards a thing; transit., to blow air; fig. to infuse spirit, etc..

aspis -idis, f. an adder, asp.

asportatio -onis, f. a taking away, carrying off.

asporto -are, to carry off, take away.

aspreta -orum, n. pl. rough, uneven places.

asser -eris, m. a stake, pole.

assula -ae, f. a shaving, clip.

assus -a -um, dried, roasted; n. pl. as subst. a sweating bath.

ast, = at;q.v.

ast-, see also adst-.

astrologia -ae, f. astronomy.

astrologus -i, m. an astronomer or astrologer.

astrum -i, n. a star, or constellation. Transf., esp. plur., the heights, glory, immortality.

astu, n. a city, esp. Athens.

astus -us, m. cleverness, cunning.

astutia -ae, f. adroitness, craft; in pl. tricks.

astutus -a -um, adroit, clever, crafty: adv. astute.

asylum -i, n. a sanctuary, place of refuge.

asymbolus -a -um, contributing nothing to the cost of an entertainment.

at (ast), but, yet, moreover; sometimes introducing an imaginary objection, but, you may say.

atat, attat, attatae, attattatae, etc. interj. oh! ah! alas!.

atavus -i, m. a great-great-great-grandfather; in gen., an ancestor.

Atella -ae, f. a city in Campania; adj. Atellanus -a -um; f. as subst. (sc. fabella) a kind of popular farce; m. as subst., a player in these farces; adj. Atellanius or Atellanicus -a -um, of Atellan farces.

ater atra atrum, dead black, dark; poet. clothed in black. Transf., dark, gloomy, sad; malicious, poisonous.

Athenae -arum, f. pl. Athens; meton., learning. Adj. Athenaeus -a -um, Athenian, an Athenian.

atheos and atheus -i, m. an atheist.

athleta -ae, m. wrestler, athlete.

athleticus -a -um, relating to an athlete;adv. athletice, athletically.

Atlas -antis, m. (1) a mountain in Mauritania. (2) a mythical king and giant, changed into Mount Atlas. Hence Atlantiades -ae, m. a male descendant of Atlas; Atlantis -idis, f. a female descendant of Atlas; adj. Atlanticus and Atlanteus -a -um.

atomus -i, f. an atom.

atque and ac, and, and also, and indeed. In comparisons: of similarity, with such words as aequus or idem, as; of difference, with such words as alius or secus, than, from.

atqui, nevertheless, but in fact; sometimes confirmatory, indeed, certainly.

atramentum -i, n. black fluid, such as ink or shoemaker's black.

atratus -a -um, clothed in black, in mourning.

Atreus -ei, m. son of Pelops, father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. Hence Atrides or Atrida -ae, m. a son of Atreus.

atriensis -is, m. head slave, steward.

atriolum -i, n. a little atrium, an antechamber.

atrium -i, n. the hall or entrance in a Roman house, temple or public building.

atrocitas -atis, f. frightfulness, cruelty, harshness, barbarity.

Atropos -i, f. one of the three Parcae or Fates.

atrox -ocis, terrible, cruel, horrible; of human character, harsh, fierce, severe. Adv. atrociter.

attactu, abl. sing. m., by touch, by contact.

attagen -enis, m. and attagena -ae, f. the black partridge.

Attalus -i, m. name of several kings of Pergamum: adj. Attalicus -a -um.

attamen or at tamen, but yet.

attempero -are, to fit, adjust to; adv. from partic., attemperate, appropriately.

attendo -tendere -tendi -tentum, to stretch to; usually with animum (animos) or absol., to direct the attention towards, attend to. Hence partic. attentus, attentive, careful: adv. attente.

attentio -onis, f. attentiveness, attention.

attento or attempto -are, to try, test, essay; to tamper with, try to corrupt, or to attack.

attenuo -are, to make thin, reduce, weaken. Hence partic. attenuatus, made weak; of style, abbreviated, overrefined, or unadorned; adv. attenuate, simply, without ornament.

attero -terere -trivi (-terui) -tritum, to rub against, rub away; in gen., to weaken, ruin. Hence partic. attritus -a -um, rubbed away, worn out; fig., 'frons', shameless.

attestor -ari, dep. to attest, bear witness to.

attexo -texere -texui -textum, to weave or plait on or to; hence, in gen., to add.

Atthis -idis, f. adj., Attic, Athenian.

Attica -ae, f. Attica, the district of Greece containing Athens.

Atticus (1) -a -um, belonging to Attica or Athens, Attic, Athenian; adv. Attice, in the Attic or Athenian manner.

Atticus (2), T. Pomponius, the friend of Cicero.

attineo -tinere -tinui -tentum: transit., to hold, keep, detain;intransit., to pertain to, or concern, only in the third person: 'quod ad me attinet' as far as I am concerned; 'nihil attinet', it is pointless.

attingo -tingere -tigi -tactum, to touch, to reach; of places, to border upon; of enemies, to attack, strike. Transf., to handle, manage, be concerned or connected with; of feelings, to affect a person; in writing or speech, to touch upon, to mention.

attollo -tollere, to raise, lift up. Transf. to elevate, excite, exalt.

attondeo -tondere -tondi -tonsum, to cut, clip, prune; in gen., to diminish.

attono -tonare -tonui -tonitum, to strike with thunder, stun. Hence partic. attonitus -a -um, struck by thunder; stunned, senseless; inspired, frantic.

attorqueo -ere, to whirl, swing upward.

attraho -trahere -traxi -tractum, to draw, drag, attract.

attrecto -are, to touch, handle, lay hands on.

attribuo -uere -ui -utum, to allot, assign, hand over. Transf., in gen., to give, ascribe, add; of taxes, to impose. N. of partic. as subst. attributum -i, a predicate, attribute.

attributio -onis, f. the assignment of a debt; rhet. an attribute.

attritus -a -um, partic. from attero; q.v.

au, interj., oh!.

auceps -cupis, n. a fowler, bird-catcher; a spy, eavesdropper.

auctificus -a -um, increasing.

auctio -onis, f. an increasing; hence, from the bidding, an auction.

auctionarius -a -um, relating to an auction.

auctionor -ari, dep. to hold an auction.

auctito -are, to increase very much.

aucto -are, to increase very much.

auctor -oris, m. one who gives increase. Hence (1) an originator, causer, doer; founder of a family; architect of a building; author of a book; originator of or leader in an enterprise; source of or warrant for a piece of information. (2) a backer, supporter, approver, surety.

auctoramentum -i, n. a contract; wages.

auctoritas -atis, f. (1) support, backing, lead, warrant; polit., sanction (esp. of the senate). (2) power conferred, rights, command; legal, title. (3) in gen., influence, authority, prestige; meton., an influential person.

auctoro -are, to bind or hire for money.

auctumnus, = autumnus; q.v.

auctus -us, m. increase, enlargement, growth.

aucupatio -onis, f. fowling, bird-catching.

aucupium -i, n. bird-catching, fowling; hence, in gen.,hunting, watching, eavesdropping; 'aucupia verborum', cavilling, quibbling.

aucupor -ari, dep. to catch birds; in gen., to watch out for, lie in wait for.

audacia -ae, f. courage, daring; in bad sense, audacity, impudence, temerity; in plur., audacious deeds.

audax -acis, bold (in good or bad sense).

audentia -ae, f. boldness, courage.

audeo audere ausus sum, to be daring; to dare, venture, bring oneself to. Hence partic. audens -entis, daring, bold; compar. adv. audentius.

audientia -ae, f. hearing, attention.

audio -ire, to hear, listen; to learn a thing by hearing; sometimes to listen to and believe (or obey); rarely to be called; 'bene audire', to be well spoken of. Hence partic. audiens -entis, as adj., obedient;as subst. a hearer.

auditio -onis, f. hearing, listening; concr., hearsay reports.

auditor -oris, m. a hearer, auditor, scholar.

auditorium -i, n. a place of audience, lecture-room, court of justice, etc..

auditus -us, m. hearing, sense of hearing; concr., a report.

aufero auferre abstuli ablatum, to carry away, remove; in bad sense, to make away with, carry off, steal.

Aufidus -i, m. a river in Apulia.

aufugio -fugere -fugi, to flee, escape.

augeo augere auxi auctum, to enlarge, increase; of rivers, in pass., to be swollen; in speech, to extol, set forth; with abl., to enrich with, furnish with; in transit. (rare), to grow. Hence partic. auctus -a -um, increased, enriched.

augesco -ere, to increase, begin to grow.

augmen -inis, n. increase, growth.

augur -uris, c. augur, soothsayer, seer.

auguralis -e, relating to an augur or augury; n. as subst. augurale -is, part of the Roman camp, where auspices were taken.

auguratio -onis, f. divining, soothsaying.

auguratus -us, m. the office of augur.

augurium -i, n. the office and work of an augur, observation and interpretation of omens, augury; in gen., an omen, prophecy, presentiment.

augurius -a -um, relating to an augur.

auguro -are, to act as an augur, take auguries; 'locus auguratur', the place is consecrated by auguries; in gen., to have a foreboding or presentiment.

auguror -ari, dep. to act as an augur, foretell by auguries; hence, in gen. to foretell or to guess.

Augusta -ae, f. a name for any female relative of the Roman emperor, or town named after him.

Augustalis -e, belonging to or in honor of the Emperor Augustus.

augustus -a -um, consecrated, holy; majestic, dignified. Adv. auguste, reverently.

Augustus (1) -i, m. a name assumed by all Roman emperors.

Augustus (2) -a -um, relating to Augustus; 'mensis', August.

aula (1) -ae, f., forecourt, courtyard; poet. = atrium, an inner court. Transf., a palace, royal court; meton., courtiers.

aula (2), = olla; q.v.

aulaeum -i, n. usually plur., embroidered work, tapestry, curtains (esp. of a theater).

aulicus -a -um, of the court, princely.

auloedus -i, m. one who sings to the flute.

aura -ae, f. air, esp. air breathed or blowing, breath, wind; poet., esp. plur., upper air, heaven; 'superas ad auras', to the light of day; 'ferre sub auras', to make known; poet. (rarely), smell, glitter, or echo.

aurarius -a -um, golden, of gold; f. as subst., a gold mine.

auratus -a -um, golden or adorned with gold.

Aurelius -a -um, name of a Roman plebeian gens.

aureolus -a -um, golden, glittering, splendid.

aureus -a -um, golden, made of gold or adorned with gold; poet., of the color of gold, and, in gen., excellent, beautiful.

aurichalchum, = orichalchum; q.v.

auricomus -a -um, with golden hair or leaves.

auricula -ae, f. the lobe of the ear; in gen., the ear.

aurifer -fera -ferum, gold-bearing, gold-producing.

aurifex -ficis, m. a goldsmith.

auriga -ae, c. charioteer, driver; of a ship, helmsman; as a constellation, the Wagoner.

auriger -gera -gerum, gold-bearing.

aurigo -are, to drive a chariot.

auris -is, f. the ear; hence hearing; of a plow, the earth- or mould-board.

auritus -a -um, long-eared; hence attentive.

aurora -ae, f. dawn, break of day; personified, Aurora, goddess of morning. meton., the east.

aurum -i, n. gold; anything made of gold, gold plate, coin, a cup, ring, etc.; the golden age.

Aurunca -ae, f. a town in Campania.

auscultator -oris, m. a listener.

ausculto -are, to hear attentively, listen to; sometimes also to obey; of servants, to attend, wait.

ausim, as subjunctive of audeo; q.v.

Ausonia -ae, f. Ausonia, Lower Italy, and in gen., Italy; adj. Ausonius -a -um.

auspex -icis, c. one who watches birds and divines from them; esp. an official witness of marriage contracts; poet., in gen., a leader.

auspicium -i, n. divination by means of birds, the taking of or right to take auspices. Transf., any omen or sign; poet. leadership, guidance.

auspico -are, to take the auspices. Hence partic. auspicatus -a -um, consecrated by auguries; as adj., favorable, auspicious. Abl. abs. auspicato, after taking auspices; hence in a fortunate hour.

auspicor -ari, dep. to take the auspices; hence to begin favorably.

auster -stri, m. the south wind; meton., the south.

austeritas -atis, f. harshness, strictness, severity.

austerus -a -um, sour, harsh, strict, severe, gloomy. Adv. austere.

australis -e, southern.

austrinus -a -um, southern.

ausum -i, n. a daring deed, undertaking.

aut, or, or else; repeated, aut....aut...., either....or.

autem, but, on the other hand, however, moreover, now.

authepsa -ae, f. a cooking stove.

Automedon -ontis, m. charioteer of Achilles.

autumnalis -e, autumnal.

autumnus (1) -i, m. autumn.

autumnus (2) -a -um, adj. autumnal.

autumo -are, to say, assert.

auxiliaris -e, giving help, assisting; m. pl. as subst., auxiliary or allied troops.

auxiliarius -a -um, helping; 'milites', auxiliary troops.

auxiliator -oris, m. a helper.

auxiliatus -us, m. help, assistance.

auxilior -ari, dep. to help, assist, support.

auxilium -i, n. help, aid, assistance; milit., often plur., auxiliary troops, or in gen., military power.

avaritia -ae, f. avarice, covetousness.

avarus -a -um, covetous, greedy; adv. avare and avariter.

aveho -vehere -vexi -vectum, to carry off, bear away; pass., to ride or sail off.

avello -vellere -vulsi (-volsi) -vulsum (-volsum), to tear away, pluck away (esp. with violence).

avena -ae, f. oats or wild oats; hence oaten pipe, shepherd's pipe; in gen., any stalk, straw.

Aventinum -i, n. and Aventinus -i, m. the Aventine, one of the seven hills of Rome.

aveo (1) -ere, to long for, desire.

aveo (2) (haveo) -ere, to be well; found only in imperat. and infin.; 'ave', hail! or farewell!.

Avernus -i, m. a lake near Puteoli, said to be an entrance to the infernal regions; meton., the infernal regions; adj. Avernus -a -um, Avernalis -e.

averrunco -are, to turn away, avert.

aversabilis -e, from which one must turn away, horrible.

aversor (1) -ari, dep. to turn away (in shame, disgust, etc.); with acc., to turn away from, avoid, shun.

aversor (2) -oris, m. an embezzler.

averto (avorto) -vertere -verti (-vorti) -versum (-vorsum), to turn away, remove: 'flumina', to divert; of feelings, to estrange; of property, to carry off, appropriate, embezzle; poet., intransit., to retire. Hence partic. aversus -a -um, turned away, backward, behind; of feeling, disinclined, unfavorable, hostile.

avia -ae, f. a grandmother.

aviarium -i, n. an aviary; also the haunts of wild birds.

aviditas -atis, f. desire, longing; esp. desire for money, avarice.

avidus -a -um, desiring, longing for; esp.greedy for money, avaricious; adv. avide.

avis -is, f. a bird; often a bird of omen, and in gen., an omen.

avitus -a -um, of a grandfather, ancestral.

avius -a -um: of places, out of the way, untrodden; of persons, wandering, astray, lost.

avocatio -onis, f. a calling away, diversion.

avoco -are, to call away, or off, to withdraw, remove, divert.

avolo -are, to fly away, hasten away.

avunculus -i, m. a mother's brother, uncle.

avus -i, m. a grandfather; poet., in gen., an ancestor.

axis (or assis) -is, m. an axle. Hence (1) a wheel; meton., a chariot, wagon. (2) the axis of the earth; meton. the north pole or the heavens; 'sub axe', in the open air. (3) a board, plank.