Glossary of Latin Terms I


Iacchus -i, m. name of Bacchus; meton., wine.

iaceo iacere iacui, to lie, be situated; to lie low, lie flat; to lie sick or overthrown or killed; of hair or clothes, to hang loosely; fig., to be neglected, despised; to be overthrown; to be cast down, dejected.

iacio iacere ieci iactum. (1) to lay. (2) to throw, cast, hurl; to fling away, shed; to scatter, diffuse; to let fall in speaking, to utter.

iactantia -ae, f. boasting, bragging.

iactatio -onis, f. a tossing, shaking. Transf., violent emotion; boasting, ostentation.

iactator -oris, m. boaster, braggart.

iactatus -us, m. shaking, quick movement.

iactito -are, to toss about; to bandy.

iacto -are, to throw, cast, toss, fling away or about; to diffuse, spread, scatter; to harass, disturb a person; to broadcast words; to bring up, discuss a subject; to keep bringing up, boast of. With reflex., or in pass., to gesticulate; also 'to throw one's weight around', make oneself conspicuous. Pres. partic. iactans -antis, boastful; adv. iac- tanter.

iactura -ae, f. throwing away; loss, sacrifice.

iactus -us, m. cast, throw; 'intra iactum', within range.

iaculabilis -e, able to be thrown.

iaculator -oris, m. a thrower; esp. a javelin-man, light-armed soldier.

iaculatrix -icis, f. the huntress (Diana).

iaculor -ari, dep. to throw a javelin; to shoot at a target; to throw, cast, hurl a missile. Transf. to make a verbal attack; to aim at, strive after; to utter.

iaculum -i, n. (1) a dart, javelin. (2) a casting net.

iaculus -a -um, thrown, darting.

iam, adv. now, by now, already; of future time, immediately, presently, soon; henceforth; further, moreover; just, indeed; 'iam diu, iam dudum, iam pridem', now for a long time.

iambeus -a -um, iambic.

iambus -i, m. an iambus, a metrical foot; a metrical poem.

iamdudum; see iam.

iampridem; see iam.

Ianiculum -i, n. a hill west of Rome.

ianitor -oris, m. door-keeper, porter.

ianitrix -icis, f. portress.

ianthinus -a -um, violet-colored.

ianua -ae, f. door; entrance, approach.

ianus -i, m. a covered passage, arcade; personif., Ianus, Janus, an old Italian deity with two faces; adj. Ianalis and Ianualis -e; hence also adj. Ianuarius -a -um, of Janus or of January; 'Ianuarius (mensis)', Januar- y.

Iapyx -pygis, m. a west-northwest wind.

Iason -onis, m. leader of the Argonauts.

iaspis -idis, f. jasper.

Iber-; see hiber-.

ibi, adv. there, at that place; then, thereupon; therein, in that matter or person.

ibidem, adv. in the same place; at that moment; in that matter.

ibis, genit. ibis and ibidis, f. the ibis.

ibiscum; see hibiscum.

Icarus -i, m. son of Daedalus, drowned while flying with wings made by his father; adj. Icarius -a -um, of Icarus. 1

iccirco; = idcirco; q.v.

Iceni -orum, m. a British people in East Anglia.

ichneumon -onis, m. the ichmeumon.

icio or ico icere ici ictum, to strike, hit, smite; esp., to strike a bargain.

ictericus -a -um, jaundiced.

ictus -us, m. a blow, stroke; in music, beat.

Ida -ae and Ide -es, f. name of two mountains, one in Crete, one in Phrygia, near Troy; adj. Idaeus -a -um. 1

idcirco (iccirco), on that account; for that reason or purpose.

idem eadem idem, the same; with dat., or ac, et, etc., the same as; by way of addition, also; of contrast, yet; 'alter idem', a second self.

identidem, repeatedly, again and again.

ideo, adv. on that account, therefore; for that reason or purpose.

idiota -ae, m. an ignorant, uneducated man.

idolon -i, n. a specter.

idoneus -a -um, fit, appropriate, suitable; adv. idonee.

Idumaea -ae, f. a district in Palestine.

Idus -uum, f. pl. the Ides, a day in the Roman month; the fifteenth day of March, May, July, October; the thirteenth in other months. 1

iecur iecoris and iocineris, n. the liver; supposed seat of the passions.

iecusculum -i, n. a little liver.

ieiunitas -atis, f. hungriness, emptiness.

ieiunium -i, n. fast, abstinence, hunger; hence, leanness.

ieiunus -a -um, fasting, hungry, thirsty; of objects, poor, scanty; of spirit, poor, mean; of style, meager, weak. Adv. ieniune, of style, meagerly.

ientaculum -i, n. breakfast.

iento -are, to breakfast.

igitur, therefore, then; so, as I was saying; to emphasize, I say.

ignarus -a -um: act. ignorant, inexperienced in (with genit.); pass., unknown.

ignavia -ae, f. idleness, listlessness; cowardice.

ignavus -a -um. (1) idle, listless, inactive, inert, sluggish. (2) cowardly; m. as subst. a coward. Adv. ignave and ignaviter, lazily, without spirit.

ignesco -ere, to kindle, catch fire; to glow with passion.

igneus -a -um, fiery, burning, glowing, ardent.

igniculus -i, m. a little fire, flame, spark.

ignifer -fera -ferum, fire-bearing, fiery.

ignigena -ae, m. born of fire.

ignipes -pedis, fiery-footed.

ignipotens -entis, ruler of fire.

ignis -is, m. fire, conflagration; a watch-fire, beacon; a firebrand; lightning; in gen. glow, glitter. Transf. a firebrand (of war); glow of passion; the beloved.

ignobilis -e, unknown, obscure; of humble birth.

ignobilitas -atis, f. obscurity; humble birth.

ignominia -ae, f. degradation, disgrace, dishonor.

ignominiosus -a -um: of persons, disgraced; of things, ignominious, disgraceful.

ignorabilis -e, unknown.

ignorantia -ae, f. ignorance.

ignoratio -onis, f. ignorance.

ignoro -are, to be ignorant of, not to know; rarely, to neglect, ignore.

ignosco -noscere -novi -notum, to overlook, forgive, pardon.

ignotus -a -um: pass. unknown; ignoble, obscure; act. ignorant.

ile -is, n., pl. ilia -ium, intestines, guts; loin, flank; 'ilia ducere', to become broken-winded.

Ilerda -ae, f. a town in Spain (now Lerida).

ilex -icis, f. holm oak.

Ilia -ae, f. mother of Romulus and Remus. 1

Iliacus; see Ilion. 1

ilicet. (1) a formula, it is all over. (2) immediately, forthwith.

ilicetum -i, n. an ilex grove.

ilico (illico), on the spot; immediately.

ilignus -a -um, of ilex or holm oak.

Ilion or Ilium -i, n. and Ilios -i, f. Troy; adj. Ilius and Iliacus -a -um, Trojan; Ilienses -ium, m. pl. Trojans; Iliades -ae, a son of Troy Ilias -adis, f. a Trojan woman, or the Iliad of Homer. 1

ill-, for words compounded from in/l..., see in-.

illa, by that way.

illac, by that way, there; 'illac facere', to belong to that party.

ille illa illud (older forms olle and ollus), pron. that, that yonder, that one; emphatically, that well-known; in contrast with hic, the former, (sometimes the latter); 'ille qui', he who, the one who.

illic (1) illaec illuc, that one; interrog. illicine?

illic (2) or illi, there, at that place; therein, in that matter.

illim, from that place or person.

illinc, from that place, on that side.

illo, thither, to that place; to that matter or point.

illuc, thither, to that place; to that matter or person.

Illyrii -orum, m. pl. a people on the Adriatic.

imaginarius -a -um, imaginary.

imaginatio -onis, f. imagination, fancy.

imaginor -ari, dep. to imagine, conceive, picture to oneself.

imago -inis, f. an image, copy, likeness; any representation, portrait, statue; in plur. waxen figures, portraits of ancestors; the shade or ghost of the dead; an echo; a mental picture, idea, conception; rhet., metaphor, simile, image; abstr. mere form, appearance, pretence.

imbecillitas -atis, f. weakness, feebleness.

imbecillus -a -um, weak, feeble. Compar. adv. imbecillius, somewhat weakly.

imbellis -e, unwarlike, not fighting, indisposed or unable to fight; hence feeble, peaceful, quiet.

imber -bris, m. a shower or storm of rain, pelting rain; a rain-cloud; water or any fluid; a shower of missiles.

imberbis -e, beardless.

imberbus -a -um, beardless.

imbibo -bibere -bibi, to drink in; mentally, to conceive; to resolve, determine.

imbrex -icis, c. a hollow tile used in building.

imbrifer -fera -ferum, rain-bringing.

imbuo -uere -ui -utum, to wet, steep, saturate; fig. to stain, taint; mentally, to accustom, initiate, instruct.

imitabilis -e, that can be imitated.

imitamen -inis, n. an imitation; plur. an image.

imitamentum -i, n. imitating, imitation.

imitatio -onis, f. imitation; pretence.

imitator -oris, m. an imitator.

imitatrix -icis, f. an imitator.

imitor -ari, dep. to imitate, copy; to depict; to be like, act like.

immadui, infin. -isse, to have become moist.

immanis -e, enormous, immense, monstrous; of character, savage, horrible, inhuman.

immanitas -atis, f. savagery, frightfulness.

immansuetus -a -um, unripe, immature; untimely.

immaturitas -atis, f. immaturity; untimely haste.

immaturus -a -um, unripe, immature.

immedicabilis -e, incurable.

immemor -moris, unmindful, forgetful, heedless.

immemorabilis -e, indescribable; unworthy of mention; silent, uncommunicative.

immemorata -orum, n. pl. things not related.

immensitas -atis, f. immensity.

immensus -a -um, immense, vast, boundless; n. as subst. immense size, immensity.

immerens -entis, not deserving, innocent.

immergo -mergere -mersi -mersum, to dip in, plunge in, immerse.

immeritus -a -um: act. not deserving (punishment), innocent; pass., undeserved; adv. immerito, undeservedly.

immersabilis -e, that cannot be sunk.

immetatus -a -um, unmeasured.

immigro -are, to move away into.

immineo -ere, to project, overhang; in time, to be imminent; hang over; to threaten; to be on the watch or look out.

imminuo -uere -ui -utum, to lessen, diminish; to weaken, infringe.

imminutio -onis, f. diminishing, weakening; rhet. meiosis.

immisceo -miscere -miscui -mixtum, to mix in, intermingle; to join with, unite.

immiserabilis -e, unpitied.

immisericors -cordis, unmerciful; adv. immisericorditer.

immissio -onis, n. letting grow.

immitis -e, unripe, sour; harsh, cruel, stern.

immitto -mittere -misi -missum. (1) to send in, put in, work in; to engraft (2) to let loose; esp. to let grow. (3) to let go against, launch against; 'se in hostes', to attack; of feelings, to instil.

immixtus, partic. from immisceo; q.v.

immo, on the contrary; yes indeed, no indeed; say rather.

immobilis -e, immovable or hard to move; inexorable.

immoderatio -onis, f. excess.

immoderatus -a -um, immeasurable, endless; immoderate, unrestrained; adv. immoderate.

immodestia -ae, f. want of restraint.

immodestus -a -um, unrestrained, extravagant; adv. immodeste.

immodicus -a -um, immoderate, excessive; unrestrained, unbridled; adv. immodice.

immodulatus -a -um, inharmonious.

immoenis; see immunis.

immolatio -onis, f. a sacrifice.

immolator -oris, m. sacrificer.

immolitus -a -um, built up, erected.

immolo -are, to sacrifice; to devote to death, to slay.

immorior -mori -mortuus, to die in or over.

immorsus -a -um, bitten, stimulated.

immortalis -e, deathless, immortal, imperishable. Adv. immortaliter, infinitely.

immortalitas -atis, f. immortality; everlasting renown; extreme happiness.

immotus -a -um, unmoved, motionless; undisturbed, calm; firm, steadfast.

immugio -ire, to bellow in or on.

immulgeo -ere, to milk into.

immundus -a -um, impure, foul.

immunio -ire, to fortify.

immunis -e, without duty, free, exempt; in gen. not working or not contributing; not sharing in, devoid of; stainless.

immunitas -atis, f. exemption, from offices or burdens; immunity.

immunitus -a -um, unfortified; unpaved.

immurmuro -are, to murmur at.

immutabilis -e, unchangeable.

immutabilitas -atis, f. immutability.

immutatio -onis, f. change, alteration; rhet. metonomy.

immutatus (1) -a -um, unchanged.

immutatus (2) -a -um, partic. from immuto; q.v.

immuto -are, to change, alter; 'immutata oratio', allegory.

impacatus -a -um, restless.

impallesco -pallescere -pallui, to turn pale.

impar -paris, unequal, uneven; unlike, discordant; ill-matched; of numbers, odd; 'modi impares', hexameter and pentameter. Adv. impariter, un- evenly, unequally.

imparatus -a -um, unprepared, unprovided.

impart-; see impert-.

impastus -a -um, unfed, hungry.

impatibilis; = impetibilis; q.v.

impatiens -entis, unable to endure, impatient; adv impatienter.

impatientia -ae, f. impatience, inability to endure.

impavidus -a -um, fearless, undaunted.

impedimentum -i, n. hindrance, impediment; in plur. the baggage of an army or traveller.

impedio -ire, to entangle, ensnare, obstruct, surround; to embarrass, hinder, prevent. Hence partic. impeditus -a -um, entangled, hindered; milit. hindered by baggage; of places, impassable, blocked; in gen. embarrassed, obstructed; awkward, complicated.

impeditio -onis, f. hindrance.

impello -pellere -puli -pulsum. (1) to drive against, strike upon. (2) to set in motion; to incite, urge on, impel; esp. to push over one already slipping.

impendeo -ere, to hang over, overhang; to threaten, be close at hand.

impendium -i, n. expenditure, outlay, cost; interest on money. Abl. as adv. impendio, colloq., by much, very much.

impendo -pendere -pendi -pensum, to weigh out; hence to expand, lay out; partic. impensus -a -um, of price, considerable, great; in gen. strong, vehement. Adv. impense, at great cost; urgently, eagerly.

impenetrabilis -e, impenetrable.

impensa -ae, f. expense, outlay.

imperator -oris, m. commander, leader; milit., the commander-in-chief; also of the Roman emperors.

imperatorius -a -um, of a general; imperial.

imperatrix -icis, f. a female commander.

imperceptus -a -um, unperceived.

impercussus -a -um, not struck.

imperditus -a -um, not lain, undestroyed.

imperfectus -a -um, incomplete, unfinished.

imperfossus -a -um, unstabbed, unpierced.

imperiosus -a -um, commanding; 'sibi', master of oneself; in bad sense, imperious, tyrannical.

imperitia -ae, f. inexperience, ignorance.

imperito -are, to command, be in command, give an order.

imperitus -a -um, unskilled, inexperienced, ignorant; adv. imperite.

imperium -i, n. an order, a command; the right to order, power, mastery, command; esp. political power, authority, sovereignty; 'in imperio esse', to hold office; meton. empire, and in plur., persons in authority.

imperiuratus -a -um, by which no one swears falsely.

impermissus -a -um, forbidden.

impero -are, to impose; hence to requisition, order a thing; to order an action to be done, give orders to a person; to rule over, govern, com- mand.

imperterritus -a -um, undaunted, fearless.

impertio -ire, to give a person a share in; to share a thing with a person, to impart, bestow.

imperturbatus -a -um, undisturbed, calm.

impervius -a -um, impassable.

impetibilis -e, insufferable.

impeto -ere, to make for, attack.

impetrabilis -e: pass. obtainable; act. successful.

impetratio -onis, f. obtaining by request.

impetrio -ire, to seek by favorable omens.

impetro -are, to get, accomplish, effect; esp. to obtain by asking.

impetus -us, m. an attack, onset; any rapid motion; mental impulse, passion, force.

impexus -a -um, uncombed; rude, uncouth.

impietas -atis, f. undutifulness; impiety, unfilial conduct, disloyalty.

impiger -gra -grum, diligent, active; adv. impigre.

impigritas -atis, f. activity.

impingo -pingere -pegi -pactum, to thrust, dash, drive against; fig., to press upon, bring upon a person.

impius -a -um, undutiful, unpatriotic; adv. impie.

implacabilis -e, implacable; compar. adv. implacabilius.

implacatus -a -um, unappeased, unsatisfied.

impleo -plere -plevi -pletum, to fill in, fill up, complete; to satisfy, content a person; to fulfil, perform; to contaminate.

implexus -a -um, involved, entwined.

implicatio -onis, f. entwining, interweaving; embarrassment.

implico -are -avi -atum and -ui -itum, to enfold, entwine, entangle, involve; to associate, unite; partic. implicatus -a -um, confused, entangled; adv. implicite, confusedly.

imploratio -onis, f. an imploring for help.

imploro -are, to call upon with tears, to beseech, implore; to call for, beg for.

implumis -e, unfledged.

impluo -pluere -plui, to rain upon.

impluvium -i, n. an opening in the roof of a Roman house, or the basin for rain-water below it.

impolitus -a -um, rough, unpolished; adv. impolite.

impollutus -a -um, undefiled.

impono -ponere -posui -positum, to put, lay, place in or upon; naut. to put on board ship, to embark; fig., to lay or put upon, impose; to put over as master; to impose upon, cheat, deceive (with dat.).

importo -are, to bring in, import, introduce; to bring upon, cause.

importunitas -atis, f. self-assertion, inconsiderateness, insolence.

importunus -a -um, unsuitable, ill-adapted, unfavorable; troublesome, tire- some; of character, assertive, inconsiderate.

importuosus -a -um, without harbors.

impos -potis, having no power over.

impositus -a -um, partic. from impono; q.v.

impotens -entis, feeble, powerless; with genit., not master of; esp. unable to command oneself, violent, unrestrained. Adv. impotenter, weakly; intemperately, passionately.

impotentia -ae, f. poverty; lack of self-restraint, violent passion.

impraesentiarum, in present circumstances, for the present.

impransus -a -um, without breakfast, fasting.

imprecor -ari, dep. to invoke harm upon, to call down upon.

impressio -onis, f. physical pressure, an attack, assault; rhet. distinct expression, emphasis; philos. sense-data, the impression of the senses.

imprimis, especially, first of all.

imprimo -primere -pressi -pressum, to press upon or into; to seal, chase, emboss; to make by pressing, imprint.

improbatio -onis, f. disapproval, blame.

improbitas -atis, f. badness, depravity.

improbo -are, to disapprove, blame, reject.

improbulus -a -um, somewhat wicked.

improbus -a -um, inferior, bad; morally bad, perverse, wilful; bold, per- sistent, mischievous; m. pl. as subst. the unpatriotic. Adv. improbe, badly, wickedly; impudently, boldly.

improcerus -a -um, small, low of stature.

improdictus -a -um, not postponed.

impromptus -a -um, not ready.

improperatus -a um, somewhat hurried, slow.

improsper -era -erum, unfortunate; adv. improspere.

improvidus -a -um, without forethought, improvident; adv. improvide.

improvisus -a -um, unforeseen, unexpected; '(ex) improviso', unexpected- ly.

imprudens -entis, not foreseeing, not expecting; not knowing, unaware; unwise, rash, imprudent. Adv. imprudenter, without forethought; un- awares; unwisely.

imprudentia -ae, f. lack of foresight or knowledge; ignorance; lack of wisdom, imprudence.

impubes -beris and -pubis. (1) youthful; 'genae', beardless; plur. as subst. boys. (2) unmarried.

impudens -entis, shameless, impudent; adv. impudenter.

impudentia -ae, f. shamelessness, impudence.

impudicitia -ae, f. incontinence, unchastity.

impudicus -a -um, shameless; esp. unchaste.

impugnatio -onis, f. assault, attack.

impugno -are, to attack, assail.

impulsio -onis, f. pressure; fig., impulse, instigation.

impulsor -oris, m. instigator.

impulsus -us, m. pressure, impulse; incitement, instigation.

impune, with impunity, unpunished, safely.

impunitas -atis, f. impunity, exemption from punishment.

impunitus -a -um, unpunished, exempt from punishment; unrestrained; adv. impunite.

impuratus -a -um, vile, infamous.

impuritas -atis, f. moral impurity.

impurus -a -um, unclean, foul; morally, impure, vile, infamous. Adv. impure.

imputatus (1) -a -um, unpruned, untrimmed.

imputatus (2) -a -um, partic. form imputo; q.v.

imputo -are, to lay to a charge, enter in an account; to reckon as a merit or fault in someone, to impute to; to reckon as a service done or gift given to someone.

imus -a -um, superl. from inferus; q.v.

in, prep. (1) with acc., into, on to, towards, against; of time, until; 'in omne tempus', for ever; 'in diem vivere', to live for the moment; of tendency or purpose, for; in adverbial phrases, indicating manner or extent: 'in universum', in general; 'in vicem', 'in vices', in turn. (2) with abl., in, on, among; of time, in, at, within; of a person, in relation to, in the case of.

inaccessus -a -um, inaccessible.

inacesco -acescere -acui, to become sour.

Inachus (Inachos) -i, m. mythical king of Argos, father of Io, after whom the river Inachus in Argolis was named. 1

inadfectatus -a -um, natural, unaffected.

inadsuetus -a -um, unaccustomed.

inadustus -a -um, unsinged.

inaedifico -are, to build in or upon; to build up, block up, barricade.

inaequabilis -e, uneven, unequal; adv. inaequabiliter.

inaequalis -e, uneven, unequal, various; making unequal, disturbing. Adv. inaequaliter, unevenly.

inaequalitas -atis, f. unevenness.

inaequo -are, to make even, level up.

inaestimabilis -e, that cannot be estimated; hence priceless, inestim- able; also having no value.

inaestuo -are, to boil, rage (in).

inaffectatus; see inadf-.

inamabilis -e, unloved, hateful.

inamaresco -ere, to become bitter.

inambitiosus -a -um, unpretentious.

inambulatio -onis, f. walking up and down.

inambulo -are, to walk up and down.

inamoenus -a -um, unlovely, dismal.

inanimus -a -um, lifeless, inanimate.

inanio -ire, to empty, make void.

inanis -e, empty, void; 'equus', riderless; 'navis', unloaded; 'corpus', soulless; with genit. or abl., empty of; of persons, empty-handed, poor; fig. vain, hollow, idle. N. as subst. empty space, emptiness, vanity. Adv. inaniter, vainly, uselessly.

inanitas -atis, f. emptiness, empty space; uselessness.

inaratus -a -um, unplowed, fallow.

inardesco -ardescere -arsi, to catch fire, burn, glow.

inaresco -arescere -arui, to become dry.

inassuetus; see inadsuetus.

inattenuatus -a -um, undiminished, unimpaired.

inaudax -acis, timid, fearful.

inaudio -ire, to hear; esp. to hear as a secret.

inauditus -a -um, unheard (esp. of accused person); unheard of, unusual.

inauguro -are: intransit. to take the auguries; transit. to consecrate, install, inaugurate; inaugurato, after taking the auguries.

inaures -ium, f. pl. earrings.

inauro -are, to cover with gold, gild, enrich.

inauspicatus -a -um, without auspices; inauspicato, without consulting the auspices.

inausus -a -um, not dared, not attempted.

incaeduus -a -um, not cut, unfelled.

incalesco -calescere -calui, to glow, become warm or passionate.

incalfacio -facere, to heat, warm.

incallidus -a -um, ingenuous, unskillful; adv. incallide.

incandesco -candescere -candui, to begin to whiten, esp. with heat.

incanesco -canescere -canui, to become gray.

incanto -are, to enchant.

incanus -a -um, quite gray.

incassum, in vain.

incastigatus -a -um, unchastised.

incautus -a -um, adj. incautious, careless, unwary; unguarded; not guarded against, unforeseen. Adv. incaute.

incedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, to walk, step, march; to proceed, come on; of feelings, with dat., to come over.

incelebratus -a -um, not spread abroad.

incenatus -a -um, without dinner.

incendiarius -a -um, fire-raising, incendiary.

incendium -i, n. a conflagration, fire; a torch, firebrand; of passion, fire, glow, heat; in gen., destruction, ruin.

incendo -cendere -cendi -censum, to kindle, set fire to, burn; to make bright, illumine; to fire with passion, excite, incense.

incensio -onis, f. burning.

incensus (1) -a -um, partic. from incendo; q.v.

incensus (2) -a -um, not enrolled by the censor, unassessed.

inceptio -onis, f. a beginning; an enterprise.

incepto -are, to begin; to attempt, undertake.

inceptor -oris, m. a beginner.

inceptum -i, n. of partic. of incipio; q.v.

incerno -cernere -crevi -cretum, to sift.

incero -are, to cover with wax.

incertus -a -um, uncertain, doubtful, not sure. (1) as to fact; act., of persons, not knowing, doubting; pass., of things, unknown, obscure; n. as subst. uncertainty. (2) as to action, hesitating, irresolute, undecided; 'incertam securim', not surely aimed.

incesso -cessere -cessivi, to attack, assail.

incessus -us, m. march, walk; manner of walking, gait; attack, assault; entrance, approach.

incesto -are, to defile, pollute, dishonor.

incestus (1) -a -um, impure, defiled; sinful, unchaste; n. as subst., unchastity, incest. Adv. inceste.

incestus (2) -us, m. unchastity, incest.

inchoo; see incoho.

incido (1) -cidere -cidi -casum, to fall in or upon; to fall in with; 'in hostem', to attack; 'in aes alienum', to run into debt; 'in mentio- nem', to happen to mention; of abstr. things, to occur, happen, 'crop up'.

incido (2) -cidere -cidi -cisum, to cut into, cut open; to inscribe, engrave an inscription; to make by cutting; to cut through; fig., to cut short, bring to an end, break off. Hence, from partic., n. subst. incisum -i = incisio; q.v.; adv. incise = incisim; q.v.

incile -is, n. a ditch, trench.

incilo -are, to blame, scold.

incingo -cingere -cinxi -cinctum, to surround.

incino -ere, to sing.

incipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum (cf. coepi), to take in hand, begin, commence; sometimes, to commence to speak. N. of partic. as subst. inceptum -i, a beginning; an attempt, enterprise.

incisim, in short clauses.

incisio -onis, f. a clause of a sentence.

incitamentum -i, n. inducement, incentive.

incitatio -onis, f.: act. inciting, instigating; pass. violent motion, excitement, vehemence.

incito -are, to put into rapid motion, urge on, hasten; in pass., or with reflex., to quicken one's pace, hasten. Transf., to excite, spur, in- spire; to incite against, stir up; to increase. Hence partic. incitatus -a -um, rapid, vehement; 'equo incitato', at full gallop; compar. adv. incitatius, more violently.

incitus (1) -a -um, in rapid motion.

incitus (2) -a -um, unmoved.

inclamo -are, to call upon loudly; esp. to scold.

inclaresco -clarescere -clarui, to become famous.

inclemens -entis, unmerciful, harsh, rough; adv. inclementer.

inclementia -ae, f. unmercifulness, harshness.

inclinatio -onis, f. leaning, bending, inclination; in gen., movement, tendency, change; good-will, liking.

inclino -are: transit. to bend, incline, turn; change, sometimes for the worse; in pass., to fall back, waver; intransit. to take a turn, verge, incline, change; milit., to waver, yield. Hence partic. inclinatus -a -um, inclined, prone; sinking; of the voice, low, deep.

includo -cludere -clusi -clusum, to shut in, enclose; esp. to block, obstruct, confine.

inclusio -onis, f. shutting up, confinement.

inclutus (inclitus) -a -um, celebrated, famous, renowned.

incoctus (1) -a -um, uncooked, raw.

incoctus (2) -a -um, partic. from incoquo; q.v.

incogitabilis -e, inconsiderate, thoughtless.

incogitans -antis, inconsiderate, thoughtless.

incogitantia -ae, f. thoughtlessness.

incogitatus -a -um: pass., unstudied; act., inconsiderate.

incogito -are, to contrive, plan.

incognitus -a -um, unexamined, unknown; unrecognized, so unclaimed.

incoho -are, to take in hand, begin. Hence partic. incohatus -a -um, only begun, not finished.

incola -ae, c. an inhabitant, native; sometimes a foreign resident.

incolo -colere -colui, to inhabit, dwell (in).

incolumis -e, uninjured, safe and sound.

incolumitas -atis, f. safety, preservation.

incomitatus -a -um, unaccompanied, without retinue.

incommendatus -a -um, not entrusted; hence without protector.

incommoditas -atis, f. inconvenience, disadvantage, unseasonableness.

incommodo -are, to be unpleasant or troublesome.

incommodus -a -um, inconvenient, troublesome, disagreeable, annoying; n. as subst., inconvenience, disadvantage; 'incommodo tuo', to your disadvan- tage; adv. incommode, inconveniently.

incommutabilis -e, unchangeable.

incomparabilis -e, incomparable.

incompertus -a -um, unknown.

incompositus -a -um, not in order, irregular; adv. incomposite.

incomprehensibilis -e, impossible to catch; incomprehensible.

incomptus -a -um, unkempt, untrimmed; rude, rough.

inconcessus -a -um, not allowed, forbidden.

inconcinnus -a -um, awkward, inelegant, absurd.

inconcussus -a -um, unshaken, firm.

inconditus -a -um, not arranged, disorderly, confused; adv. incondite.

incongruens -entis, not agreeing, inconsistent.

inconsideratus -a -um, thoughtless, inconsiderate; pass. unadvised, reckless. Adv. inconsiderate, without consideration.

inconsolabilis -e, inconsolable; incurable.

inconstans -stantis, changeable, inconsistent; adv. inconstanter.

inconstantia -ae, f. changeableness, inconsistency.

inconsultus -a -um: pass. not consulted; act. without asking advice, unadvised; hence inconsiderate, imprudent. Adv. inconsulte, in- discreetly.

inconsumptus -a -um, unconsumed, undiminished.

incomtaminatus -a -um, unpolluted.

incontentus -a -um, not stretched; 'fides', untuned.

incontinens -entis, incontinent; adv. incontinenter.

incontinentia -ae, f. incontinence.

inconveniens -entis, not suiting, dissimilar.

incoquo -coquere -coxi -coctum, to boil in or with; to dye.

incorrectus -a -um, unamended, unimproved.

incorruptus -a -um, not corrupted, untainted, unspoilt, unimpaired; adv. incorrupte.

increbresco -ere -crebrui and increbesco -ere -crebui, to become strong or frequent; to increase, prevail.

incredibilis -e, not to be believed, incredible; adv. incredibiliter.

incredulus -a -um, incredulous.

incrementum -i, n. growth, increase; meton. the makings of anything, also, offspring.

increpito -are, to call loudly to; to reproach, chide.

increpo -are -ui (-avi) -itum (-atum), to rustle, make a noise; to be noised abroad; transit. to cause to sound. Of persons, to chide, rebuke.

incresco -crescere -crevi, to grow (in or on).

incretus -a -um, partic. from incerno; q.v.

incruentatus -a -um, bloodless.

incruentus -a -um, bloodless.

incrusto -are, to cover with rind, encrust.

incubo -are -ui -itum, to lie in or on or over; to watch over; to hang over, lie heavily upon; to dwell in.

inculco -are, to trample in, press in, force upon, impress upon.

inculpatus -a -um, unblamed, blameless.

incultus (1) -a -um, uncultivated, untilled; n. pl. as subst. wastes, de- serts; of dress, etc., neglected, untidy; in gen. unpolished, rude. Adv. inculte.

incultus (2) -us, m. neglect, want of cultivation.

incumbo -cumbere -cubui -cubitum, to lie upon, put weight on, lean over, overhang; to apply oneself to, concentrate upon a thing; to incline to favor, further a cause or movement.

incunabula -orum, n. pl. swaddling-clothes; hence infancy; birthplace; in gen., source, origin.

incuratus -a -um, uncared for, unhealed.

incuria -ae, f. carelessness, neglect.

incuriosus -a -um: act. careless, negligent; pass. neglected. Adv. incuriose, carelessly.

incurro -currere -curri (-cucurri) -cursum, to run into; milit., to assail, attack, make a raid into. Transf., to attack with words, to inveigh against; to come upon, fall in with; in space, to extend in- to; in time, to coincide with.

incursio -onis, f. a clash, onset; collision; milit., attack, raid, invasion.

incurso -are, to run against, strike against, attack.

incursus -us, m. an attack, assault; of the mind, efforts, impulses.

incurvo -are, to bend, curve, make crooked.

incurvus -a -um, bent, curved, crooked.

incus -cudis, f. anvil.

incusatio -onis, f. blame, reproach, accusation.

incuso -are, to accuse, blame, find fault with.

incussu, abl. sing. m. by a clash.

incustoditus -a -um: pass. unwatched, unguarded; act. incautious, imprudent.

incusus -a -um, forged, fabricated.

incutio -cutere -cussi -cussum, to dash, beat against; to strike into the

mind, inspire with.

indagatio -onis, f. investigation.

indagator -oris, m. investigator, explorer.

indagatrix -tricis, f. investigator, explorer.

indago (1) -are, to track down, as hounds hunting; to explore, investigate.

indago (2) -inis, f. surrounding and driving of game.

inde, thence, from there; 'hinc....inde', on this side....on that; from that cause, for that reason; from that time, thereafter; thereupon, then.

indebitus -a -um, not owed, not due.

indecens -centis, unbecoming, unseemly, unsightly; adv. indecenter.

indeclinatus -a -um, unchanged, firm.

indecor -oris or indecoris -e, unbecoming, shameful.

indecoro -are, to disgrace, dishonor.

indecorus -a -um, unbecoming; unseemly, unsightly; disgraceful. Adv. indecore.

indefensus -a -um, undefended, unprotected.

indefessus -a -um, unwearied, indefatigable.

indefletus -a -um, unwept.

indeiectus -a -um, not thrown down.

indelebilis -e, imperishable.

indelibatus -a -um, uninjured, undiminished.

indemnatus -a -um, uncondemned.

indeploratus -a -um, unwept, unlamented.

indeprensus -a -um, undiscovered.

indesertus -a -um, not forsaken.

indestrictus -a -um, untouched, unhurt.

indetonsus -a -um, unshorn.

indevitatus -a -um, unavoided.

index -dicis, m. an informer; a sign, token; the forefinger; a title; a touchstone.

Indi -orum, m. pl. the Indians; sing. Indus -i, m. an Indian, or Ethiopi- an; an elephant-driver, mahout. Adj. Indus and Indicus -a -um, Indian; subst. India -ae, f. India.

indicente, abl. sing., not saying; 'me indicente', without my saying a word.

indicium -i, n. (1) information, evidence; leave to give evidence; a reward for giving evidence. (2) any mark, sign, token.

indico (1) -are, to make known, show, indicate; esp. to inform against, give evidence about; to put a price on, value.

indico (2) -dicere -dixi -dictum, to make publicly known, proclaim; 'bellum', to declare war.

indictus (1) -a -um, not said, unsaid; 'indicta causa', without a hearing.

indictus (2) -a -um, partic. from indico (2); q.v.

indidem, from the same place or matter.

indifferens -entis, indifferent; neither good nor bad; unconcerned. Adv. indifferenter.

indigena -ae, c. native.

indigentia -ae, f. want, need; desire.

indigeo -ere -ui, to want, need, require; also to long for. Hence partic. indigens -entis, in need.

indiges -getis, m. native, indigenous.

indigestus -a -um, disordered, confused, unarranged.

indignabundus -a -um, filled with indignation.

indignatio -onis, f. indignation; matter for indignation; rhet., the exciting of indignation.

indignitas -atis, f. unworthiness, vileness; unworthy behavior or treatment of others, indignity; indignation at unworthy treatment.

indignor -ari, dep. to consider unworthy, take as an indignity, be offended. Hence partic. indignans -antis, offended.

indignus -a -um: of persons, unworthy, not deserving (with abl. or genit.); of things, unworthy; hence disgraceful, shameful. Adv. indigne, un- worthily, dishonorably; impatiently, indignantly.

indigus -a -um, needing, in want of.

indiligens -entis, negligent; adv. indiligenter.

indiligentia -ae, f. carelessness, negligence.

indipiscor -dipisci -deptus, dep. and indipisco -ere, to reach, obtain; to attain, get.

indireptus -a -um, unpillaged.

indiscretus -a -um, unsevered, undivided; undistinguished; indistinguish- able.

indisertus -a -um, not eloquent; adv. indiserte.

indispositus -a -um, disorderly, confused.

indissolubilis -e, indissoluble.

indissolutus -a -um, undissolved.

indistinctus -a -um, not separated; indistinct, obscure; unpretentious.

individuus -a -um, indivisible, inseparable; n. as subst. an atom.

indo -dere -didi -ditum, to put in or on; of names, to give, confer; of abstr. things, to introduce, cause, occasion.

indocilis -e, unteachable, untaught; ignorant, rude, artless; of subjects, unable to be learned.

indoctus -a -um, untaught, untrained, unskilled; adv. indocte.

indolentia -ae, f. freedom from pain.

indoles -is, f. native constitution or quality; nature, disposition, character, talents.

indolesco -dolescere -dolui, to be pained or grieved (at).

indomitus -a -um, untamed, wild.

indormio -ire -ivi -itum, to sleep on or over; to be negligent about, with dat. or 'in'.

indotatus -a -um, without dowry; 'corpora', without funeral honors; 'ars', unadorned, poor.

indu, archaic form of in; q.v.

indubitatus -a -um, undoubted, certain.

indubito -are, to feel doubt of with dat.

indubius -a -um, not doubtful, certain.

induciae; = indutiae; q.v.

induco -ducere -duxi -ductum. (1) to draw over, spread over so as to cover; also to cover one thing with another; to put on clothing or arms; to erase writing, and hence to revoke, make invalid. (2) to lead or bring in, to introduce; to enter in an account-book; to lead on, induce, per- suade; with animum, or in animum, to decide to do, or decide that a thing is so.

inductio -onis, f. leading or bringing in, introduction;'animi', resolve, intention; 'erroris', misleading; in logic, induction.

inductu, abl. sing. m., by instigation.

indulgentia -ae, f. tenderness, indulgence.

indulgeo -dulgere -dulsi: intransit. to be forbearing, patient, indulgent; fig., to give oneself up to, indulge in; transit. to grant, allow, con- cede. Hence partic. indulgens -entis, kind, tender, indulgent; adv. indulgen- ter.

induo -duere -dui -dutum, to put on, esp. of dress. Transf., to clothe, surround, cover; to put on, assume, take up, engage in; 'se', with dat. or 'in', to fall into, fall on; to entangle.

induresco -durescere -durui, to become hard or firm.

induro -are, to make hard or firm.

industria -ae, f. industry, diligence; 'de (or ex) industria', on purpose, intentionally.

industrius -a -um, diligent, painstaking, industrious; adv. industrie.

indutiae -arum, f. pl. truce, armistice, suspension of hostilities.

indutus -us, m. a putting on, clothing.

inebrio -are, to intoxicate; to saturate.

inedia -ae, f. fasting, abstinence from food.

ineditus -a -um, not published, unknown.

inelegans -antis, not choice, tasteless; adv. ineleganter.

ineluctabilis -e, from which one cannot struggle free.

inemorior -emori, dep. to die in or at.

inemptus -a -um, unbought.

inenarrabilis -e, indescribable, inexpressible; adv. inenarrabiliter.

inenodabilis -e, inextricable, inexplicable.

ineo -ire -ii -itum: intransit. to go or come in, to enter; of time, to begin, commence; transit. to go or come into; to enter upon, start, be- gin; 'consilium', to form a plan; 'numerum', 'rationem', to go into figures, make a calculation.

ineptia -ae, f. foolish behavior, silliness, absurdity.

ineptio -ire, to talk foolishly.

ineptus -a -um, unsuitable, tasteless, silly; adv. inepte.

inermis -e, unarmed, defenseless, helpless.

inermus -a -um, unarmed, defenseless, helpless.

inerrans -antis, not wandering, fixed.

inerro -are, to rove about in.

iners -ertis, untrained, unskillful; inactive, lazy, idle, calm; cowardly; ineffective, dull, insipid.

inertia -ae, f. unskillfulness; idleness.

ineruditus -a -um, illiterate, ignorant.

inesco -are, to allure, entice, deceive.

inevitabilis -e, unavoidable.

inexcitus -a -um, unmoved, quiet.

inexcusabilis -e, without excuse; inexcusable.

inexercitatus -a -um, untrained, unpracticed.

inexhaustus -a -um, unexhausted.

inexorabilis -e, not to be moved by entreaty, stern, severe.

inexperrectus -a -um, not awakened.

inexpertus -a -um: act. inexperienced in, unacquainted with; pass., untried, untested, unattempted.

inexpiabilis -e, inexpiable; implacable, irreconcilable.

inexplebilis -e, insatiable.

inexpletus -a -um, unfilled, insatiate.

inexplicabilis -e, that cannot be untied; intricate, difficult; inexplicable, beyond explanation; inconclusive, without result.

inexploratus -a -um, unexplored, uninvestigated; abl., inexplorato, without reconnoitering.

inexpugnabilis -e, unconquerable, impregnable.

inexspectatus -a -um, unlooked-for, unexpected.

inexstinctus -a -um, unextinguished, inextinguishable.

inexsuperabilis -e, insurmountable.

inextricabilis -e, that cannot be disentangled or unravelled.

infabre, unskillfully.

infabricatus -a -um, unwrought, unfashioned.

infacetiae (infic-) -arum, f. pl. crudity.

infacetus and inficetus -a -um, dull, crude, without humor or wit; adv. infacete (infic-).

infacundus -a -um, not eloquent.

infamia -ae, f. dishonor, disgrace; also a cause of disgrace.

infamis -e, disgraced, disreputable.

infamo -are, to put to shame, disgrace.

infandus -a -um, unutterable, abominable.

infans -fantis, speechless, unable to speak; esp. of children; as subst., a little child. Transf., tongue-tied, embarrassed; youthful, fresh; childish, silly.

infantia -ae, f. inability to speak; slowness of speech; infancy.

infarcio (infercio) -ire, to stuff in, cram in.

infatuo -are, to make a fool of.

infaustus -a -um, unlucky, unfortunate.

infector -oris, m. a dyer.

infectus (1) -a -um, unworked, unwrought; not done, unfinished, incomplete; 'reddere infectum', to make void, revoke; impracticable, impossible.

infectus (2), partic. from inficio; q.v.

infecunditas -atis, f. barrenness, sterility.

infecundus -a -um, barren, sterile.

infelicitas -atis, f. ill-luck, misfortune.

infelix -icis, unfruitful, barren; 'arbor', the gallows. Transf., unhappy, unlucky; act. sense, causing unhappiness. Adv. infeli- citer, unluckily.

infenso -are, to attack, ravage.

infensus -a -um, hostile, aggressive; of weapons, aimed, ready; in spirit, embittered, dangerous.

infer -a -um, inferi -orum; see inferus.

inferiae -arum, f. offerings in honor of the dead.

infercio; see infarcio.

inferior, inferius; see infra and inferus.

inferne, on the lower side, beneath.

infernus -a -um, below, coming from below; of the lower world, infernal. As subst., m. pl. inferni, the shades; n. pl. inferna, the lower world.

infero inferre intuli inlatum, to carry in, to put or place on; 'templis ignes inferre', to set fire to; milit., 'signa in hostem', to attack, charge; 'bellum', with dat., to make war on; 'se inferre', and pass. 'inferri', to betake oneself, to go; of abstract things, to bring on, introduce, occasion; in accounts, to enter; in logic, to infer, con- clude.

inferus -a -um, below, lower, southern; of the lower world.M. pl. as subst. inferi -orum, the dead, the lower world. Compar. inferior -ius, lower 'ex inferiore loco dicere', to speak from the body of the court; of time, later, junior; of number, rank, etc. lower, inferior. Superl. (1) in- fimus (infumus) -a -um, lowest; 'ab infima ara', from the bottom of the altar; of rank, etc. lowest, meanest.Superl.(2) imus -a -um, lowest n. as subst. the bottom; of tone, deepest, lowest; of time, last; n. as subst., the end.

infervesco -fervescere -ferbui, to begin to boil, grow hot.

infesto -are, to attack, disquiet.

infestus -a -um: act. aggressive, hostile, dangerous; pass. infested, beset, unsafe. Adv. infeste, in a hostile manner.

inficetus, inficete; see infacetus, infacete.

inficio -ficere -feci -fectum. (1) to tinge, dye, stain; to steep, imbue. (2) to poison, taint, corrupt.

infidelis -e, untrue, disloyal, faithless; adv. infideliter.

infidelitas -atis, f. disloyalty.

infidus -a -um, untrue, disloyal.

infigo -figere -fixi -fixum, to fix, fasten or thrust in; to imprint, impress.

infimus -a -um, superl. of inferus; q.v.

infindo -findere -fidi -fissum, to cut into.

infinitas -atis, f. infinity, endlessness.

infinitio -onis, f. infinity.

infinitus -a -um, infinite, unbounded, immense; n. as subst., infinite space; of time, endless, unceasing; of number, countless; also indefinite, general. Adv. infinite, infinitely, endlessly.

infirmatio -onis, f. weakening; refuting, invalidating.

infirmitas -atis, f. weakness, feebleness; instability, fickleness.

infirmo -are, to weaken, impair, shake; to refute; to annul.

infirmus -a -um, weak, feeble; timorous. Adv. infirme, weakly, faintly.

infit, defective, he (or she) begins; esp. begins to speak.

infitialis -e, negative, containing a denial.

infitias ire, to deny.

infitiatio -onis, f. denying.

infitiator -oris, m. a denier; who denies a debt or deposit.

infitior -ari, dep. to deny; esp. to deny a debt, refuse to restore a deposit.

inflammatio -onis, f. setting fire; 'animorum', inspiration.

inflammo -are, to kindle, set fire to; to inflame, excite.

inflatio -onis, f. inflation, flatulence.

inflatus -us, m. a blowing into, blast; inspiration.

inflecto -flectere -flexi -flexum, to bend, bow, curve. Transf., to warp, change; to sway, affect; to modulate the voice.

infletus -a -um, unwept, unlamented.

inflexio -onis, f. bending, swaying.

inflexus -us, m. bending, curving.

infligo -fligere -flixi -flictum, to strike, knock, dash against; to inflict a blow, cause damage.

inflo -are, to blow into; to play on wind instruments; to give a blast; to blow out, puff out. Transf., to inspire; to puff up, elate. Hence partic. inflatus -a -um, inflated, swollen; puffed up, pompous; of style, turgid. Compar. adv. inflatius, too pompously, on a gran- der scale.

influo -fluere -fluxi -fluxum, to flow in. Transf. to steal in, to stream in, to rush in.

infodio -fodere -fodi -fossum, to dig in, bury.

informatio -onis, f. conception, idea.

informis -e, formless, shapeless; deformed, hideous.

informo -are, to give form to, to shape, fashion; mentally, to form, dispose; to form an idea or conception of.

infortunatus -a -um, unfortunate, miserable.

infortunium -i, n. misfortune, ill luck; punishment.

infra. Prep. with acc., below, under, in position, size, or rank; in time, later than. Adv. below, underneath; in the lower world; to the south; in rank, lower. Compar. inferius, lower down.

infractio -onis, f. breaking; 'animi', dejection.

infragilis -e, unbreakable, strong.

infremo -fremere -fremui, to growl.

infrenatus -a -um, without bridle; see also infreno.

infrendeo -ere, to gnash with the teeth.

infrenis -e, without bridle, unbridled.

infrenus -a -um, without bridle, unbridled.

infreno -are, to bridle, rein in; to restrain, check.

infrequens -entis, scanty, thin, now crowded; of places, not full, scantily populated; of time, infrequent; of persons, not doing a thing often.

infrequentia -ae, f. fewness, scantiness, thinness; of places, emptiness, loneliness.

infringo -fringere -fregi -fractum, to break; to weaken, impair, discourage. Hence partic. infractus -a -um, broken, weakened, impaired.

infrons -frondis, leafless.

infructuosus -a -um, unfruitful, unproductive.

infucatus -a -um, colored.

infula -ae, f. a band, bandage; esp. a fillet, a headband worn by priests, suppliants, etc..

infundo -fundere -fudi -fusum, to pour in or on; with dat., to pour out for, hence to administer; 'se infundere', or pass. infundi, to pour over.

infusco -are, to make dark, blacken; to disfigure, stain.

ingemino -are: transit. to redouble, repeat; intransit. to be redoubled, to increase.

ingemisco -gemiscere (-escere) -gemui, to sigh or groan over.

ingemo -ere, to sigh or groan over (with dat.).

ingenero -are, to implant, generate.

ingeniosus -a -um, talented, able; of things, requiring talent or naturally fit, adapted. Adv. ingeniose, cleverly.

ingenium -i, n. nature, natural quality, constitution, character, esp. mental power, ability, genius; meton., a man of genius, or a clever invention.

ingens -entis, monstrous, vast, enormous.

ingenuitas -atis, f. free birth; noble-mindedness, uprightness, frankness.

ingenuus -a -um, native, natural, innate; free-born, of free birth, worthy of a free man, noble, honorable, frank. Adv. ingenue.

ingero -gerere -gessi -gestum, to carry or put in or upon; to press upon, force upon; of abuse, to heap on a person.

ingigno, only in perf. indic. ingenui, I implanted, and perf. partic. ingenitus -a -um, implanted.

inglorius -a -um, without fame, inglorious, undistinguished.

ingluvies -ei, f. crop, maw; meton., gluttony.

ingratiis or ingratis, unwillingly.

ingratus -a -um. (1) unpleasant, unpleasing. (2) unthankful, unrewar- ding. Adv. ingrate, unwillingly; ungratefully.

ingravesco -ere, to become heavy; to become a burden, or become weary; poet., to become pregnant.

ingravo -are, to weigh down; to aggravate.

ingredior -gredi -gressus, dep. to step in, enter, go in; to walk. Transf., to enter upon, begin on; with infin., to begin to.

ingressio -onis, f. an entering, going in; walking, gait, pace. Transf., beginning.

ingressus -us, m. going in, entering, entry; milit., an inroad; walking, stepping, movement. Transf., beginning.

ingruo -uere -ui, to fall upon, assail, attack.

inguen -guinis, n. the groin.

ingurgito -are, with reflex., to plunge oneself, or to glut, gorge oneself, gormandize.

ingustatus -a -um, untasted.

inhabilis -e, unmanageable; unfit, ill-adapted.

inhabitabilis -e, uninhabitable.

inhabito -are, to inhabit.

inhaereo -haerere -haesi -haesum, to stick in, cling to, cleave to.

inhaeresco -haerescere -haesi -haesum, to adhere to, begin to cling to.

inhalo -are, to breathe upon.

inhibeo -ere -ui -itum. (1) to hold in, check, restrain; naut., 'inhibere remis, navem retro inhibere', to back water. (2) to practice, use, em- ploy.

inhibitio -onis, f. restraining; 'remigum', backing water.

inhio -are, to gape; hence to covet, desire, long for.

inhonesto -are, to disgrace.

inhonestus -a -um: morally, degraded, dishonored; of things, dishonorable, shameful; physically, ugly, unsightly. Adv. inhoneste, dishonorably.

inhonoratus -a -um, not honored; unrewarded.

inhonorus -a -um, dishonored.

inhorreo -ere, to bristle.

inhorresco -horrescere -horrui, to begin to bristle, to bristle up; to shudder, quiver, esp. from fright.

inhospitalis -e, inhospitable.

inhospitalitas -atis, f. want of hospitality.

inhospitus -a -um, inhospitable.

inhumanitas -atis, f. cruelty, inhumanity; incivility, discourtesy; stinginess, niggardliness.

inhumanus -a -um, cruel, barbarous, inhuman; rude, uncivil; uncivilized. Adv. inhumane, inhumanly; inhumaniter, uncivilly.

inhumatus -a -um, unburied.

inibi, adv. therein, in that place; of time, near at hand.

inicio -icere -ieci -iectum. (1) to throw in, put in or into. Transf., to cause, inspire, occasion; in conversation, to throw in. (2) to throw on or over; 'manum inicere', to lay hands on, appropriate, take posses- sion of. Transf., to impose, lay on.

iniectio -onis, f. laying on.

iniectus -us, m. throwing on or over.

inimicitia -ae, f. enmity.

inimico -are, to make hostile, set at variance.

inimicus -a -um, unfriendly, adverse, hostile; of things, hurtful, prejudicial; m. or f. subst. enemy, foe. Adv. inimice, in an unfriendly manner.

iniquitas -atis, f. unevenness; unfavorableness, difficulty; unfairness, injustice, unreasonableness.

iniquus -a -um, uneven, unequal. Transf., of things, excessive, unbal- anced, adverse, disadvantageous; of contests, ill-matched; of terms, unfair, unfavorable; perverse, disgruntled; 'animo iniquo ferre', to take badly; m. pl. as subst. enemies. Adv. inique, unequally; un- fairly, adversely.

initio -are, to initiate.

initium -i, n. a beginning; 'ab initio', from the start; initio, at the start. Transf., in plur. elements, first principles; auspices; the beginning of a reign; a secret worship, mysteries.

initus -us, m. an entrance; a beginning.

iniucunditas -atis, f. unpleasantness.

iniucundus -a -um, unpleasant. Compar. adv. iniucundius.

iniudicatus -a -um, undecided.

iniungo -iungere -iunxi -iunctum, to join, attach, fasten to; to inflict upon, bring upon.

iniuratus -a -um, unsworn.

iniuria -ae, f. injury, injustice, wrong; iniuria, wrongly. Transf., a possession wrongfully obtained; revenge for an affront.

iniuriosus -a -um, doing wrong, unjust; harmful. Adv. iniuriose, wrong- fully.

iniurius -a -um, wrongful, unjust.

iniussu, abl. sing. m. without orders.

iniussus -a -um, unbidden, spontaneous.

iniustitia -ae, f. injustice; severity.

iniustus -a -um, unfair, unjust; harsh, oppressive; n. as subst. injustice. Adv. iniuste.

inlabefactus -a -um, unshaken, firm.

inlabor -labi -lapsus, dep. to glide into, fall into or upon.

inlaboro -are, to labor at.

inlacessitus -a -um, unattacked, unprovoked.

inlacrimabilis -e, unwept; not to be moved by tears, pitiless.

inlacrimo -are and inlacrimor -ari, dep. to weep over, bewail.

inlaesus -a -um, unhurt, uninjured.

inlaetabilis -e, gloomy, cheerless.

inlaqueo -are, to entrap, ensnare.

inlaudatus -a -um, unpraised, obscure; not to be praised, bad.

inlautus; see inlotus.

inlecebra -ae, f. allurement, attraction, charm; a decoy bird.

inlecebrosus -a -um, attractive, enticing; adv. inlecebrose.

inlectus (1) -a -um, unread.

inlectus (2) -us, m. enticement.

inlectus (3) -a -um, partic. of inlicio; q.v.

inlepidus -a -um, inelegant, rude, unmannerly; adv. inlepide.

inlex (1) -licis, c. a decoy, lure.

inlex (2) -legis, lawless.

inlibatus -a -um, undiminished, unimpaired.

inliberalis -e, unworthy of a free man, ungenerous, sordid, mean; adv. inliberaliter.

inliberalitas -atis, f. stinginess, meanness.

inlicio -licere -lexi -lectum, to entice, allure, decoy.

inlicitator -oris, m. a sham bidder at an auction, a puffer.

inlicitus -a -um, not allowed, illegal.

inlido -lidere -lisi -lisum, to strike, beat, dash against.

inligo -are, to bind, tie, fasten, attach, connect; to entangle, impede.

inlimis -e, free from mud, clean.

inlino -linere -levi -litum, to smear, daub; to spread something on a surface or to spread a surface with something.

inliquefactus -a -um, molten, liquefied.

inlitteratus -a -um, ignorant, illiterate.

inlotus (-lautus, -lutus) -a -um, unwashed, unclean.

inlucesco (-isco) -lucescere -luxi, to become light, begin to shine; inlucescit, it grows light, is daylight.

inludo -ludere -lusi -lusum, to play with, sport with; to mock, laugh at, ridicule; to maltreat.

inlumino -are, to light up, illuminate; to make clear, set off, adorn. Adv. inluminate, luminously, clearly.

inlusio -onis, f. irony.

inlustris -e, light, bright, brilliant; clear, plain, evident; distinguished, famous. Compar. adv. inlustrius, more clearly, more distinctly.

inlustro -are, to light up, make bright; to bring to light, make clear; to make illustrious, do honor to.

inluvies -ei, f. inundation, flood; mud, dirt.

inm-; see imm-.

innabilis -e, that cannot be swum in.

innascor -nasci -natus, dep. to be born in, arise in or upon. Hence partic. innatus -a -um, innate, inborn.

innato -are, to swim into; to swim or float in or upon.

innecto -nectere -nexui -nexum, to tie in, fasten, weave together; fig., to put together, connect, entangle, implicate.

innitor -niti -nixus, dep. to lean upon, support oneself by.

inno -nare, to swim in or on; to flow over; to sail over, navigate.

innocens -entis, harmless, inoffensive, blameless; adv. innocenter.

innocentia -ae, f. harmlessness, innocence, integrity.

innocuus -a -um: act. innocuous, harmless, blameless; pass. unhurt, unharmed. Adv. innocue, harmlessly.

innotesco -notescere -notui, to become known or noted.

innovo -are, to make new, renew.

innoxius -a -um: act. harmless, innocent; pass. unhurt, unharmed.

innuba -ae, unmarried, without a husband.

innubilus -a -um, unclouded, clear.

innubo -nubere -nupsi -nuptum, to marry into.

innumerabilis -e, countless, innumerable; adv. innumerabiliter.

innumerabilitas -atis, f. an infinite number.

innumeralis -e, countless, innumerable.

innumerus -a -um, countless, innumerable.

innuo -nuere -nui -nutum, to give a nod to, make a sign to.

innupta -ae, unmarried; as subst. a maiden.

innutrio -ire, to bring up in or among.

inoblitus -a -um, mindful.

inobrutus -a -um, not overwhelmed.

inobservabilis -e, imperceptible.

inobservantia -ae, f. negligence, carelessness.

inobservatus -a -um, unperceived.

inocciduus -a -um, never setting.

inoffensus -a -um, not struck, not stumbling; unhindered, unobstructed.

inofficiosus -a -um, undutiful, disobliging.

inolens -entis, without smell.

inolesco -olescere -olevi, to grow in or on.

inominatus -a -um, inauspicious, unlucky.

inopia -ae, f. want of means, need, poverty; helplessness.

inopinans -antis, not expecting, unawares; adv. inopinanter.

inopinatus -a -um: pass. unexpected, unlooked for; '(ex) inopinato', unexpectedly; act. not expecting.

inopinus -a -um, unexpected, unlooked for.

inops -opis, poor, helpless, in need; of language, weak, poor.

inoratus -a -um, not brought forward and heard.

inordinatus -a -um, disorderly, in confusion; n. as subst. disorder.

inornatus -a -um, unadorned, plain; unpraised, uncelebrated.

inp-; see imp-.

inquam inquis inquit, etc.; perf. inquii; say.

inquies -etis, unquiet, restless.

inquieto -are, to disturb.

inquietus -a -um, unquiet, restless.

inquilinus -i, m. tenant, lodger.

inquino -are, to befoul, pollute, stain, corrupt. Hence partic. inquinatus -a -um, dirty, foul, polluted; adv. inquinate.

inquiro -quirere -quisivi -quisitum, to search for; to investigate, inquire into; legal, to search for evidence against anyone.

inquisitio -onis, f. looking for, search; esp. search for evidence against; a looking into, investigation, inquiry.

inquisitor -oris, m. an inquirer; investigator; legal, one who searches for evidence to support an accusation.

inrasus -a -um, unshaved.

inraucesco -raucescere -rausi, to become hoarse.

inreligatus -a -um, unbound.

inreligiosus -a -um, irreligious, impious; adv. inreligiose.

inremeabilis -e, from which there is no return.

inreparabilis -e, that cannot be restored, irrecoverable.

inrepertus -a -um, not discovered.

inrepo -repere -repsi -reptum, to creep, crawl in; to insinuate oneself.

inreprehensus -a -um, unblamed, blameless.

inrequietus -a -um, restless, troubled.

inresectus -a -um, not cut, uncut.

inresolutus -a -um, not loosed, not slackened.

inretio -ire, to catch in a net, entangle.

inretortus -a -um, not turned or twisted back.

inreverens -entis, disrespectful; adv. inreverenter.

inreverentia -ae, f. want of respect, irreverence.

inrevocabilis -e, that cannot be called back, irrevocable; unalterable, implacable.

inrevocatus -a -um, not called back.

inrideo -ridere -risi -risum, to laugh at, mock, ridicule.

inridicule, without wit or humor.

inridiculo, predicative dat., for a laughing-stock.

inrigatio -onis, f. watering, irrigation.

inrigo -are, to conduct any liquid, to diffuse; to water, irrigate, inundate, flood over.

inriguus -a -um: act. watering, irrigating; refreshing; pass. watered, soaked.

inrisio -onis, f. laughing at, mocking, derision.

inrisor -oris, m. a laugher, mocker, derider.

inrisus -us, m. laughter, mockery, derision; dat. inrisui, for a laughing-stock.

inritabilis -e, irritable, easily roused.

inritamen -inis, n. incitement, inducement.

inritamentum -i, n. incitement, incentive.

inritatio -onis, f. stirring up, provoking, incitement.

inrito -are, to stir up, stimulate, incite, excite.

inritus -a -um, void, invalid; vain, ineffectual, useless.

inrogatio -onis, f. the imposing of a fine or penalty.

inrogo -are, to propose a measure against anyone; to inflict, impose.

inroro -are, to moisten (with dew); to trickle down upon.

inrumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum, to break in, burst in, rush in.

inruo -ruere -rui: transit. to fling in; intransit. to rush in.

inruptio -onis, f. bursting in, irruption.

inruptus -a -um, unbroken, unsevered.

insalubris -e, unhealthy.

insalutatus -a -um, ungreeted.

insanabilis -e, incurable.

insania -ae, f. madness, frenzy, senseless excess, extravagance; poetical rapture or inspiration.

insanio -ire, to be mad, rage, rave; to be inspired.

insanitas -atis, f. disease, unsoundness.

insanus -a -um, of unsound mind, mad, raving, senseless; of poets, inspired; of things, raging, stormy. Adv. insane, madly.

insatiabilis -e: pass. insatiable; act. that does not satiate, uncloying. Adv. insatiabiliter.

insaturabilis -e: pass. insatiable; act. that does not satiate, uncloy- ing. Adv. insaturabiliter.

inscendo -scendere -scendi -scensum, to climb on, ascend, mount.

insciens -entis, not knowing, unaware; in gen., ignorant. Adv. inscienter.

inscientia -ae, f. ignorance, inexperience.

inscitia -ae, f. inexperience, want of skill, ignorance.

inscitus -a -um, ignorant, unskillful, stupid. Adv. inscite.

inscius -a -um, ignorant, unskillful.

inscribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum, to write in or on, inscribe; to mark, impress; to entitle, mark as something;to ascribe, mark as belonging to.

inscriptio -onis, f. writing in or upon.

inscriptus (1) -a -um, unwritten.

inscriptus (2) -a -um, partic. from inscribo; q.v.

insculpo -sculpere -sculpsi -sculptum, to cut or carve in, engrave. Transf. to impress.

inseco -secare -secui -sectum, to cut into, notch.

insectatio -onis, f. close following, hot pursuit. Transf., abuse.

insectator -oris, m. pursuer, persecutor.

insecto -are and insector -ari, dep. to follow closely, pursue, harry; to harry with abuse, rail at, reproach.

insedabiliter, incessantly.

insenesco -senescere -senui, to grow old at or among.

insensilis -e, without sensation.

insepultus -a -um, unburied.

insequor -sequi -secutus, dep. to follow after, follow on; in time, to succeed; to pursue a subject; to pursue a person, censure, reproach; in gen., to attack, assail.

insero (1) -serere -sevi -situm, to graft in, implant. Hence partic. insitus -a -um, implanted, innate, incorporated.

insero (2) -serere -serui -sertum, to let in, introduce, insert; in gen., to connect, put in or among.

inserto -are, to insert, put into.

inservio -ire, to be a slave, to serve; to be devoted to.

insibilo -are, to hiss, whistle in.

insideo -ere, to sit in or on; to dwell, remain.

insidiae -arum, f. pl. an ambush; a trap, plot.

insidiator -oris, m. a man in ambush; a spy, waylayer.

insidior -ari, dep. to lie in ambush, lie in wait; to plot against, watch for.

insidiosus -a -um, deceitful, treacherous; adv. insidiose.

insido -sidere -sedi -sessum, to sit, settle, perch upon; milit., to occupy, beset; of ideas, etc., to sink in.

insigne -is, n. a distinguishing mark, token; badge, decoration, medal; pl. as abstr., distinctions, beauties.

insignio -ire, to mark, distinguish. Hence partic. insignitus -a -um, marked; conspicuous, clear; adv. insignite, remarkably.

insignis -e, distinguished, remarkable, extraordinary; adv. insigniter.

insilia, n. pl. the treadles of a loom, or perhaps leash-rods.

insilio -silire -silui, to leap, spring, jump in or on.

insimulatio -onis, f. accusation, charge.

insimulo -are, to charge, accuse, esp. falsely.

insincerus -a -um, tainted.

insinuatio -onis, f. rhet. t.t., gaining the favor of the audience.

insinuo -are, to introduce by turning, to insinuate; with (and occasionally without) reflex., to penetrate, work one's way in.

insipiens -entis, foolish; adv. insipienter.

insipientia -ae, f. foolishness.

insisto -sistere -stiti. (1) to set foot on, tread on; to enter on a journey, road, etc.; to set about a task; with dat., to follow hard upon, pursue. (2) to stand still in or on; to halt, stop, pause; to hesitate, doubt; to dwell upon a subject; to persist in a course.

insitio -onis, f. grafting.

insitivus -a -um, grafted; spurious.

insitor -oris, m. a grafter.

insitus -a -um, partic. from insero; q.v.

insociabilis -e, unable to combine.

insolabiliter, inconsolably.

insolens -entis, contrary to custom. Hence (1) unaccustomed, unused. (2) unusual, excessive, extravagant; arrogant, insolent. Adv. insolenter, unusually, contrary to custom; excessively, extravagantly; haughtily, arro- gantly.

insolentia -ae, f. (1) inexperience. (2) unusual character, novelty, extravagance, excess; pride, arrogance.

insolesco -escere, to become haughty or insolent.

insolidus -a -um, soft, tender.

insolitus -a -um. (1) unaccustomed. (2) unusual, strange, uncommon.

insomnia -ae, f. sleeplessness, loss of sleep.

insomnis -e, sleepless, without sleep.

insomnium -i, n. a bad dream.

insono -sonare -sonui, to make a noise in or with; to sound, resound.

insons -sontis, innocent, guiltless, harmless.

insopitus -a -um, unsleeping, watchful.

inspectio -onis, f. scrutiny, consideration.

inspecto -are, to look at, observe.

insperans -antis, not hoping, not expecting.

insperatus -a -um, unhoped-for, unexpected.

inspergo -spergere -spersi -spersum, to sprinkle in or on.

inspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum. (1) to look into, see into. (2) to view, examine, inspect; to consider.

inspico -are, to sharpen to a point.

inspiro -are, to breathe upon, blow upon, inspire.

inspoliatus -a -um, not plundered.

instabilis -e. (1) unstable, unsteady, inconstant. (2) not supporting, insecure.

instans -antis and instanter; from insto; q.v.

instantia -ae, f. presence; perseverance.

instar, n. (only nom. and acc. sing.), an image, likeness; usually with genit., in the sense corresponding to, like.

instauratio -onis, f. repetition, renewal.

instaurativus -a -um, renewed, repeated.

instauro -are. (1) to set up, establish. (2) to renew, restore; hence to repay, requite.

insterno -sternere -stravi -stratum, to spread over, cover over; 'equus instratus', saddled.

instigator -oris, m. an instigator.

instigatrix -tricis, f. an instigator.

instigo -are, to goad, incite, stimulate.

instillo -are, to drop in, pour in by drops, instil.

instimulator -oris, m. an instigator.

instimulo -are, to incite.

instinctor -oris, m. an instigator.

instinctu, abl. sing. m. by instigation.

instinctus -a -um, instigated, incited, impelled.

instita -ae, f. border or flounce on a robe.

institio -onis, f. standing still.

institor -oris, m. a hawker, peddler.

instituo -uere -ui -utum, to put in place, set in order; to set up, make ready, build, construct; abstr. to establish, introduce, arrange; to settle on a course, to undertake, resolve, determine; to appoint a person; to instruct, educate, train.

institutio -onis, f. arrangement; regular method; education, training.

institutum -i, n. an undertaking, purpose; an arrangement, institution, plan; an instruction, precept.

insto -stare -steti. (1) to stand in or on. (2) to be close to, follow closely, pursue eagerly; to devote oneself, persist, persevere; to insist, ask pressingly; of time and events, to approach, impend. Hence partic. instans -antis, present; pressing, urgent; adv. instan- ter, urgently.

instrenuus -a -um, inactive, lazy.

instrepo -ere -ui -itum, to rattle, clatter, creak.

instructio -onis, f. drawing up in order.

instructor -oris, m. a preparer.

instructus -us, m. provision; matter (in a speech).

instrumentum -i, n. equipment, tool, implement; dress; store, stock; any means to an end.

instruo -struere -struxi -structum, to build in or into; to set up, con- struct; furnish, hence to train a person; to prepare, provide; milit., to draw up the order of battle. Hence partic. instructus -a -um, equipped, supplied; of persons, trained, instructed.

insuavis -e, unpleasant, disagreeable.

Insubres -ium, the Insubrians, a people in Cisalpine Gaul; as adj. Insuber -bris -bre, Insubrian.

insudo -are, to sweat in or at.

insuefactus -a -um, accustomed to.

insuesco -suescere -suevi -suetum: intransit. to become used to; transit. to accustom, habituate anyone to.

insuetus (1) -a -um: of persons, unaccustomed, unused to; of things, unaccustomed, unusual.

insuetus (2) -a -um, partic. from insuesco; q.v.

insula -ae, f. an island. Transf., a detached house or block of flats.

insulanus -i, m. an islander.

insulsitas -atis, f. tastelessness, absurdity.

insulsus -a -um, unsalted, insipid; tasteless, foolish; adv. insulse.

insulto -are, to leap, prance in or on; to triumph over, insult.

insum -esse -fui, to be in or on; to be contained in, belong to.

insumo -sumere -sumpsi -sumptum, to take for a purpose, to expend.

insuo -suere -sutum, to sew in, sew up.

insuper: adv. above, overhead; over and above, in addition, besides; prep., with abl., besides.

insuperabilis -e, insurmountable, impassable; unconquerable.

insurgo -surgere -surrexi -surrectum, to rise up, raise oneself up; to increase in power or force; with dat. to rise up against.

insusurro -are, to whisper, whisper in the ear.

intabesco -tabescere -tabui, to melt or wither away gradually.

intactilis -e, that cannot be touched.

intactus (1) -a -um, untouched; untried, unspoilt, unhurt, virgin.

intactus (2) -us, m. intangibility.

intaminatus -a -um, unstained.

intectus (1) -a -um, partic. from intego; q.v.

intectus (2) -a -um, uncovered, unclothed; open, frank.

integellus -a -um, more or less pure, undamaged.

integer -gra -grum. (1) complete, whole, entire, intact; fresh, sound, unex- hausted; 'in integrum restituere', to restore to its former condition. (2) in quality, unspoilt, pure, fresh; morally, innocent, uncorrupted, pure; in thought or feeling, balanced, unbiased, impartial; of matters for discussion or action, unprejudiced, undecided; 'integrum est mihi', I am at liberty. (3) renewed, begun afresh. Hence adv. integre, wholly; honestly, uprightly, impartially; of style, purely, correctly

intego -tegere -texi -tectum, to cover, protect.

integrasco -ere, to break out afresh.

integratio -onis, f. renewing.

integritas -atis, f. unimpaired condition, soundness, health; uprightness, integrity; of style, purity, correctness.

integro -are, to make whole, heal, refresh; to renew, begin afresh.

integumentum -i, n. a covering, cloak, disguise.

intellectus -us, m. understanding, comprehension.

intellegentia -ae, f. perception; understanding, knowledge, taste; capacity, for understanding, intelligence.

intellego -legere -lexi -lectum, to discern, perceive; to understand, grasp; to understand character, judge, appreciate; to understand a term, take as its meaning. Hence partic. intellegens -entis, intelligent, understanding; having good sense or taste. Adv. intellegenter.

intemeratus -a -um, unspotted, undefiled.

intemperans -antis, extravagant, unrestrained, intemperate; adv. intempe- ranter.

intemperantia -ae, f. want of restraint, extravagance, excess.

intemperatus -a -um, intemperate, immoderate; adv. intemperate.

intemperies -ei, f. wildness, lack of restraint, excess.

intempestivus -a -um, unseasonable, untimely; immoderate. Adv. intempesti- ve, unseasonably.

intempestus -a -um, unwholesome, unhealthy; 'intempesta nox', the dead of night.

intemptatus -a -um, untried.

intendo -tendere -tendi -tentum. (1) to stretch, strain; abstr., to maintain, try to prove. (2) to extend, aim, direct; esp. to di- rect one's course; to apply the mind, direct the thoughts; to intend, aim at. Hence partic. intentus -a -um, stretched, tense, taut; of thought or feeling, anxious, intent; of speech, earnest; in gen. thorough, strict, rigorous. Adv. intente, earnestly, attentively.

intentatus (1); see intemptatus.

intentatus (2) -a -um, partic. from intento; q.v.

intentio -onis, f. stretching, straining; of the mind, effort, exertion, attention; an attack, accusation.

intento -are, to stretch towards or against, esp. threateningly.

intentus (1) -a -um, partic. from intendo; q.v.

intentus (2) -us, m. stretching out.

intepesco -tepescere -tepui, to become lukewarm.

inter, prep. with acc. between, among, amid; during, in the course of; with pronouns, 'inter se, inter nos', etc., between one another, mutu- ally.

interamenta -orum, n. pl. woodwork of a ship.

interaresco -ere, to become dry, decay.

intercalaris -e, inserted, intercalary.

intercalarius -a -um, inserted, intercalary.

intercalo -are, to insert; esp. to intercalate a day or month in the calendar.

intercapedo -inis, f. interval, pause, respite.

intercedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, to go between, come between, intervene; legal, to interpose, stand surety; to step between, withstand, protest against.

interceptio -onis, f. taking away.

interceptor -oris, m. one who takes away, an embezzler.

intercessio -onis, f. legal, becoming surety, going bail; polit., an exercise by the tribunes of their veto.

intercessor -oris, m. legal, surety, bail; polit., one who opposes, an obstructor.

intercido (1) -cidere -cidi. (1) to fall between, intervene. (2) to drop out, be lost, be forgotten, perish.

intercido (2) -cidere -cidi -cisum, to cut asunder, to demolish. Hence adv. intercise, piecemeal.

intercino -ere, to sing between.

intercipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum, to take by the way, intercept; to embezzle, appropriate; through death, to cut off, carry off prematurely; of roads to block.

intercludo -cludere -clusi -clusum, to shut off, block, hinder; to enclose, shut in.

interclusio -onis, f. stopping or blocking up; parenthesis.

intercolumnium -i, n. the space between two columns.

intercurro -currere -cucurri -cursum, to run between, to run through; to intercede; to be among, mingle with; to hasten in the meanwhile.

intercurso -are, to run between, run among.

intercursu, abl. sing. m. by running between, by the interposition.

intercus -cutis, under the skin; 'aqua', the dropsy.

interdico -dicere -dixi -dictum. (1) to stop by interposition, forbid, prohibit; 'interdicere aqua et igni', with dat., to outlaw. (2) to make an injunction, to order.

interdictio -onis, f. forbidding, prohibition; 'aquae et ignis', outlaw- ing.

interdictum -i, n. a prohibition; a praetor's interdict or provisional order.

interdiu (interdius), in the daytime, by day.

interdo -dare -datum, to put between or among, distribute.

interductus -us, m. interpunctuation.

interdum, sometimes, now and then.

interduo; see interdo.

interea, meanwhile; sometimes nevertheless, notwithstanding.

interemptor -oris, m. a murderer.

intereo -ire -ii -itum, to be lost, to perish.

interequito -are, to ride between.

interfatio -onis, f. speaking between, interruption.

interfatur -fari -fatus, dep. forms, to speak between, interrupt.

interfectio -onis, f. slaying.

interfector -oris, m. murderer.

interfectrix -tricis, f. murderess.

interficio -ficere -feci -fectum, to do away with, destroy, put an end to, kill.

interfio -fieri, to perish.

interfluo -fluere -fluxi -fluctum, to flow between.

interfodio -fodere -fodi -fossum, to dig into, pierce.

interfor; see interfatur.

interfugio -fugere, to flee between.

interfulgens -entis, shining or gleaming among.

interfusus -a -um, poured between, flowing between; 'maculis interfusa', stained here and there.

interiaceo -ere, to lie between or among.

interibi, meanwhile, in the meantime.

intericio -icere -ieci -iectum, to throw, cast, put among or between; 'anno interiecto', after an interval of a year.

interiectio -onis, f. interjection or parenthesis.

interiectus -us, m. throwing between; of time, an interval.

interim, meanwhile; sometimes however.

interimo -imere -emi -emptum, to take away, destroy, make an end of; to put out of the way, kill.

interior -ius, genit. -oris, inner, interior; remote from the sea, inland, nearer; in racing, on the inside. Transf., more secret, more inti- mate. Superl. intimus -a -um; q.v. Adv. interius, more inwardly, short, not far enough.

interitio -onis, f. destruction, ruin.

interitus -us, m. destruction, ruin.

interiungo -iungere -iunxi -iunctum, to join together, connect; also to unyoke.

interius; see interior.

interlabor -labi -lapsus, dep. to glide, flow between.

interlego -ere, to pluck here and there.

interlino -linere -levi -litum, to daub between; to erase, falsify by erasure.

interloquor -loqui -locutus, dep. to interrupt a person speaking.

interluceo -lucere -luxi, to shine or gleam between; to be transparent, let light through gaps.

interlunium -i, n. change of moon, time of new moon.

interluo -luere, to wash between.

intermenstruus -a -um, between two months; n. as subst. the time of the new moon.

interminatus (1) -a -um, unbounded, boundless.

interminatus (2) -a -um, partic. from interminor; q.v.

interminor -ari, dep. to threaten, forbid with threats; perf. partic. in pass. sense, forbidden with threats.

intermisceo -miscere -miscui -mixtum, to mix with, intermix.

intermissio -onis, f. leaving off, interruption.

intermitto -mittere -misi -missum: transit. to leave a space between, leave free; in space, to separate, break off; in time, to let pass; in gen., to discontinue, interrupt; 'vento intermisso', the wind having dropped; intransit. to cease, leave off.

intermorior -mori -mortuus, dep. to die off, perish suddenly; partic. intermortuus -a -um, swooning, half-dead; fig., lifeless.

intermundia -orum, n. pl. spaces between the worlds.

intermuralis -e, between walls.

internascor -nasci -natus, dep. to grow between or among.

internecio -onis, f. extermination, massacre.

internecivus (-necinus), murderous, deadly.

interneco -are, to exterminate.

internecto -ere, to bind together, bind up.

internodium -i, n. the space between two knots or joints.

internosco -noscere -novi -notum, to distinguish between.

internuntia -ae, f. a female messenger or go-between.

internuntio -are, to send messengers between parties.

internuntius -i, m. a messenger, mediator, go-between.

internus -a -um, inward, internal; domestic, civil.

intero -terere -trivi -tritum, to rub, crumble, pound in.

interpellatio -onis, f. interruption.

interpellator -oris, m. interrupter, disturber.

interpello -are, to interrupt, disturb, impede, obstruct.

interpolo -are, to furbish, vamp up; to falsify.

interpono -ponere -posui -positum, to place between or among, interpose; 'spatio interposito', after an interval; 'fidem', to pledge one's word; rarely, to falsify; with reflex., to engage in, interfere with.

interpositio -onis, f. putting in, insertion, introduction; rhet., parenthesis.

interpositu, abl. sing. m. by putting between, by interposition.

interpres -pretis, c. (1) a negotiator, mediator, messenger. (2) an expounder, explainer; prophet, prophetess; interpreter; translator.

interpretatio -onis, f. explanation, interpretation, translation. Transf., meaning, signification.

interpretor -ari, dep. (1) to put an interpretation upon, understand in a certain sense. (2) to translate.

interpunctio -onis, f. punctuation.

interpungo -pungere -punxi -punctum, to punctuate; partic. interpunctus -a -um, well-divided.

interquiesco -quiescere -quievi -quietum, to pause between.

interregnum -i, n. a period between two reigns, interregnum.

interrex -regis, m. a regent, temporary king or chief magistrate.

interritus -a -um, undaunted.

interrogatio -onis, f. questioning, interrogation; esp. legal, examina- tion of witnesses; in logic, an argument, syllogism; gram., inter- rogation.

interrogo -are, to ask, question, interrogate; esp. to examine a witness, or to accuse, bring an action against.

interrumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum, to break in the middle, sever, interrupt, disturb. Adv. from partic. interrupte, interruptedly, disconnectedly.

intersaepio -saepire -saepsi -saeptum, to enclose, hem in, block up.

interscindo -scindere -scidi -scissum, to cut open, cut off, tear apart.

interscribo -ere, to write between.

intersero (1) -serere -sevi -situm, to sow or plant between.

intersero (2) -serere -serui, to put or place between.

interspiratio -onis, f. breathing between, taking breath.

interstinctus -a -um, spotted, speckled.

interstinguo -ere, to extinguish.

interstringo -ere, to squeeze tight.

intersum -esse -fui, to be between; to be among, be present at, take part in (with dat.); in time, to intervene; abstr., to be between as a difference; rarely to differ, be different. Hence impers. interest, it makes a difference, it concerns; 'magni (or multum) mea interest', it makes a great difference to me.

intertextus -a -um, interwoven.

intertrimentum -i, n. loss, damage.

interturbatio -onis, f. disturbance, disquiet.

intervallum -i, n. distance between, interval (of time or space); difference, unlikeness.

intervenio -venire -veni -ventum, to come between, intervene; to interrupt (with dat.); to delay (with acc.).

interventor -oris, m. an interrupting visitor.

interventus -us, m. intervention, interference.

interverto (-vorto) -vertere -verti -versum, to intercept; to embezzle, purloin; to cheat, rob.

interviso -visere -visi -visum, to look in at, visit from time to time.

intestabilis -e, disqualified, dishonored, infamous.

intestatus -a -um, having made no will, intestate; n. abl. as adv., intestato, intestate.

intestinus -a -um, inward, internal; n. as subst., sing. and plur. the intestines.

intexo -texere -texui -textum, to weave in, plait in, interweave; to weave around, wind around.

intibum -i, n. endive, succory.

intimus (intumus) -a -um, superl. (compar. interior; q.v.), innermost, inmost; most profound, most secret, intimate; m. as subst. an inti- mate friend. Adv. intime, intimately; cordially, strongly.

intingo (-tinguo) -tingere -tinxi -tinctum, to dip in.

intolerabilis -e, unbearable, intolerable.

intolerandus -a -um, unbearable, unendurable.

intolerans -antis: act. impatient, unable to bear; pass. unbearable, intolerable. Adv. intoleranter, immoderately, impatiently.

intolerantia -ae, f. insufferable conduct, insolence.

intono -tonare -tonui, to thunder, thunder forth (esp. of speakers).

intonsus -a -um, unshorn, with long hair or beard; hence of persons, rude, rough; of country, wooded, not cleared.

intorqueo -torquere -torsi -tortum, to twist or turn round; of weapons, to hurl; partic. intortus -a -um, twisted, tangled.

intra: adv., inside; prep. with acc., inside, within, less than, short of.

intrabilis -e, that can be entered, accessible.

intractabilis -e, unmanageable, intractable.

intractatus -a -um, not handled, unattempted.

intremisco -tremiscere -tremui, to begin to tremble.

intremo -ere, to tremble, quake.

intrepidus -a -um, unconfused, calm; adv. intrepide, calmly.

intrico -are, to confuse, entangle.

intrinsecus, inside, inwardly, inwards.

intritus (1) -a -um, not worn away, unexhausted.

intritus (2)-a -um, partic. from intero; q.v.

intro (1), inwards, within.

intro (2) -are, to go in, enter.

introduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, to introduce, bring in, bring forward, present, suggest.

introductio -onis, f. bringing in, introduction.

introeo -ire -ii -itum, to go into, enter.

introfero -ferre -tuli -latum, to carry in.

introgredior -gredi -gressus, dep. to enter.

introitus -us, m. an entrance; means of entrance; passage; in gen., beginning, introduction.

intromitto -mittere -misi -missum, to send in, allow to enter.

introrsus (-orsum), inwards, inwardly, internally.

introrumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum, to break in, enter by force.

introspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum, to look into, look inside, observe, examine.

intubum; see intibum.

intueor -tueri -tutus, dep. to look at attentively, gaze at; to consider, contemplate, look to.

intumesco -tumescere -tumui, to swell, swell up; to increase; to swell with anger.

intumulatus -a -um, unburied.

intuor; see intueor.

inturbidus -a -um, undisturbed, quiet.

intus, adv. within, inside; to or from the inside; inwardly.

intutus -a -um. (1) unprotected. (2) unsafe, dangerous.

inula -ae, f. the plant elecampane.

inultus -a -um. (1) unavenged. (2) unpunished.

inumbro -are, to shade, overshadow.

inundatio -onis, f. inundation, flood.

inundo -are: transit. to overflow, inundate, stream over; intransit. to overflow with.

inungo -ungere -unxi -unctum, to anoint.

inurbanus -a -um, rude, unpolished; adv. inurbane.

inurgeo -urgere -ursi, to push, thrust against.

inuro -urere -ussi -ustum, to burn in or on, brand, imprint; to inflict; to crimp, curl, adorn.

inusitatus -a -um, unusual, strange, uncommon; adv. inusitate.

inutilis -e, useless, unserviceable, unprofitable; injurious, harmful. Adv. inutiliter.

inutilitas -atis, f. uselessness, unprofitableness; harmfulness.

invado -vadere -vasi -vasum. (1) to go in, enter, get in; to undertake. (2) to attack, fall upon, assail, usurp, seize.

invalesco -valescere -valui, to gather strength, become strong.

invalidus -a -um, weak, powerless.

invectio -onis, f. (1) importation. (2) invective.

inveho -vehere -vexi -vectum, to carry in, introduce; pass., or with re- flex., to drive, ride or travel, esp. to advance against, attack; of verbal attack, to inveigh.

invenio -venire -veni -ventum, to come upon, find, meet with, discover; to invent, devise; to procure, get, earn; pass., or with reflex., to show oneself. Hence partic. inventus -a -um, discovered; n. as subst. an invention, discovery.

inventio -onis, f. inventing, invention; the inventive faculty.

inventor -oris, m. inventor.

inventrix -tricis, f. inventor.

invenustus -a -um, not charming, unattractive; unhappy in love.

inverecundus -a -um, shameless, impudent.

invergo -ere, to tip or pour upon.

inversio -onis, f. irony; transposition; allegory.

inverto -vertere -verti -versum, to turn over, turn about; to transpose, alter, pervert. Hence partic. inversus -a -um, overturned, upside down.

invesperascit -ere, impers. it grows dark.

investigatio -onis, f. inquiry, investigation.

investigator -oris, m. inquirer, investigator.

investigo -are, to search out, track out.

inveterasco -ascere -avi, to become old; to become obsolete; to become established, fixed, rooted.

inveteratio -onis, f. inveterateness, permanence.

inveteratus -a -um, of long standing, established.

invicem, in turn, alternately; mutually, reciprocally.

invictus -a -um, unconquered, unsubdued; unconquerable, invincible.

invidentia -ae, f. envying, envy.

invideo -videre -vidi -visum, to envy, grudge, be envious of. Hence partic. invisus -a -um: pass. hated; act. hostile.

invidia -ae, f.: act. envy, jealously, ill-will; pass. odium, unpopu- larity. Transf. a source of ill-will.

invidiosus -a -um, envious; causing envy, envied; hateful. Adv. invidiose. jealously, bitterly.

invidus -a -um, envious, grudging.

invigilo -are, to watch over (with dat.).

inviolabilis -e, unassailable.

inviolatus -a -um, uninjured, unhurt; inviolable. Adv. inviolate, inviolately.

invisitatus -a -um, not seen; unusual, strange.

inviso -visere -visi -visum, to go to see, visit; to inspect, look at.

invisus (1) -a -um, partic. from invideo; q.v.

invisus (2) -a -um, unseen, secret.

invitamentum -i, n. invitation, attraction.

invitatio -onis, f. invitation, inducement.

invitatu, abl. sing. m. by invitation.

invito -are, to invite, summon; to receive, entertain; to induce, allure; with reflex., to treat oneself.

invitus -a -um, unwilling, against one's will; abl. absol., 'me invito', against my will. Adv. invite, unwillingly, against one's will.

invius -a -um, impassable, impenetrable; n. pl. as subst. trackless places.

invocatio -onis, f. calling upon, invocation.

invocatus (1) -a -um, uncalled, uninvited.

invocatus (2) -a -um, partic. from invoco; q.v.

invoco -are, to call in, call upon for help, invoke.

involatu, abl. sing. m. by the flight.

involito -are, to float or wave over.

involo -are, to fly at, seize or pounce upon.

involucrum -i, n. a wrap, cover.

involvo -volvere -volvi -volutum, to roll in or on; to envelop, wrap up, cover. Hence partic. involutus -a -um, rolled up; involved.

invulgo -are, to give information.

invulneratus -a -um, unwounded.

io, interj. hurrah! hi!.

Io (Ion) -us, f. an Argive girl, loved by Jupiter and changed into a cow; adj. Ionius -a -um, Ionian, of the sea between Italy and Greece, across which Io swam. 1

iocatio -onis, f. joke, jest.

ioco -are and iocor -ari, dep. to joke, jest.

iocosus -a -um, humorous, merry, facetious; adv. iocose.

iocularis -e, jocular, laughable; adv. ioculariter.

iocularius -a -um, laughable, droll.

ioculator -oris, m. joker.

ioculor -ari, dep. to joke, jest.

iocus -i, m. (plur. ioci and ioca), a joke, jest.

Iones -um, m. the Ionians; Ionia -ae, f. their country in Asia Minor; adj. Ioniacus and Ionicus -a -um, Ionian.

Iphigenia -ae, f. daughter of Agamemnon.

ipse -a -um, self; 'ego ipse', I myself; the very, actual; with numbers, et., just, exactly; of action, by oneself, of one's own ac- cord.

ira -ae, f. wrath, anger, rage; meton., cause of anger.

iracundia -ae, f. (1) angry disposition, irascibility. (2) state of anger, fury, wrath.

iracundus -a -um, inclined to anger, irascible; adv. iracunde, wrath- fully.

irascor -i, dep. to grow angry (with dat.); partic. iratus -a -um, angry.

Iris -ridis, f. messenger of the gods, and goddess of the rainbow. 1

ironia -ae, f. irony.

irr-; see inr-.

is ea id, he, she, it; this or that (person or thing); with qui (or ut), one (of those) who,; with et, -que, etc., and that too, and what is more; n. sing. id, on that account; 'id temporis', at that time; 'in eo est', the position is such, or, it depends on this; 'id est', that is, in explanation.

Isis -is and -idis, f. the Egyptian goddess Isis. 1

istac, by that way, in that direction.

iste ista istud, demonstr. pron. or adj. that of yours, that beside you; in speeches, referring to parties opposed to the speaker (opp. to hic, 'my client'); often contemptuous.

Ister; see Hister.

Isthmus (-os) -i, m. the Isthmus of Corinth.

istic (1) istaec istoc or istuc, that of yours.

istic (2), adv. over there, there by you; therein, in that.

istinc, from over there, thence.

istiusmodi or istius modi or istimodi, of that kind, such.

isto, adv. thither, to that place or thing.

istoc and istuc, thither.

Istri; see Histri.

ita, so, thus; interrog., 'itane?', really?; in answers, certainly; in narration, and so; with adj. or adv., so, so very; ita...ut, with subj., in such a way that, only on condition that.

Itali -orum and -um, m. the Italians; Italia -ae, f. Italy; adj. Italicus and Italus -a -um, Italian; f. adj. Italis -idis. 1

itaque, and so; therefore, for that reason.

item, adv. also, likewise.

iter itineris, n. going, way, direction; journey, march; right of way, per- mission to march; concr., way, road; fig., way, course, method.

iteratio -onis, f. repetition, iteration.

itero -are, to do a second time, repeat, renew.

iterum, again, a second time; 'iterum atque iterum', again and again.

Ithaca -ae and Ithace -es, f. an island in the Ionian Sea, home of Ulysses.

itidem, adv. likewise, also.

itio -onis, f. going, travelling.

ito -are, to go, move, travel.

itus -us, m. movement, going, departure.

iuba -ae, f. mane, crest.

Iuba -ae, m. name of two Numidian kings.

iubar -aris, n. beaming light, radiance; a heavenly body, esp. the sun.

iubatus -a -um, having a mane, crest.

iubeo iubere iussi iussum, to order, command, bid; 'salvere iubere', to greet; polit. to ratify an order. Hence, from perf. partic. iussum -i, n. an order, command.

iucunditas -atis, f. pleasantness, delightfulness, pleasure.

iucundus -a -um, pleasant, agreeable, delightful; adv. iucunde.

Iudaea -ae, f. Judea or Palestine; adj. and subst. Iudaeus -a -um, Jewish or a Jew.

iudex -icis, m. a judge; in plur., a panel of jurors.

iudicatio -onis, f. judicial investigation; judgment, opinion.

iudicatus -us, m. the office of business of judge.

iudicialis -e, of a court of justice, judicial.

iudiciarius -a -um, of a court of justice, judicial.

iudicium -i, n. a trial, legal investigation; a law-court; jurisdiction, judgment, considered opinion, decision; power of judging, discernment, understanding, good judgment.

iudico -are, to be a judge, judge, decide, declare; perf. partic., iudicatus -a -um, of persons, condemned; of things, decided.

iugalis -e, yoked together; m. pl. as subst. a team of horses. Transf., matrimonial, nuptial.

iugatio -onis, f. the training of vines on a trellis.

iugerum -i, n. a measure of land, about two thirds of an English acre.

iugis -e, perpetual, continuous, esp. of water.

iuglans -glandis, f. a walnut or walnut tree.

iugo -are, to bind together, connect, couple.

iugosus -a -um, mountainous.

iugulo -are, to cut the throat of, to butcher; to ruin, destroy.

iugulum -i, n. and iugulus -i, m. the throat.

iugum -i, n. (1) a yoke or collar. Transf., a team of oxen or horses; a pair, couple; a chariot; any bond, union; the bond of love, marriage-tie; the yoke of slavery. (2) a cross-bar; esp. the yoke under which the vanquished were sent; the beam of a pair of scales; a ridge between moun- tains; plur., poet., mountain heights.

Iugurtha -ae, m. a king of Numidia; adj. Iugurthinus -a -um.

Iulius -a -um, name of a Roman gens; including the family of the Caesars; 'mensis Iulius' or 'Iulius', the month of July.

Iulus -i, m. son of Aeneas.

iumentum -i, n. a beast of burden.

iunceus -a -um, made of rushes; like a rush.

iuncosus -a -um, full of rushes, rushy.

iunctio -onis, f. joining, connection.

iunctura -ae, f. a joining, joint; relationship; combination, putting together.

iuncus -i, m. a rush, reed.

iungo iungere iunxi iunctum, to join, unite, connect; to yoke, harness; to mate; 'amicitiam', to form. Hence partic. iunctus -a -um, connected, united, associated.

iunior; see iuvenis.

iuniperus -i, f. the juniper tree.

Iunius -a -um, the name of a Roman gens; 'mensis Iunius' or 'Iunius', the month of June.

Iuno -onis, f. the goddess Juno, Greek Hera, sister and wife of Jupiter; adj. Iunonius -a -um, Junonian.

Iuppiter Iovis, m. Jupiter, the Roman supreme god; 'sub Iove', in the open air.

iurator -oris, m. a sworn assessor.

iureiuro -are, to swear an oath.

iureperitus; = iurisperitus; q.v.

iurgium -i, n. altercation, quarrel, brawl.

iurgo -are: intransit. to quarrel, brawl; transit. to scold.

iuridicialis -e, relating to right or justice.

iurisconsultus -i, m. one learned in law, a lawyer.

iurisdictio -onis, f. the administration of justice; judicial authority.

iurisperitus or iureperitus -i, m. skilled or experienced in the law.

iuro -are, to swear, take an oath; 'in verba', to swear after a prescribed formula; perf. partic. in act. sense, iuratus -a -um, having sworn, under oath; also having been sworn.

ius (1) iuris, n. broth, soup.

ius (2) iuris, n. right, law; a court of justice; jurisdiction; right as conferred by law; 'iure', rightly.

iusiurandum iurisiurandi (or in two words), n. an oath.

iussu, abl. sing. m. by order, by command.

iussum -i, n. subst. from iubeo; q.v.

iustitia -ae, f. justice, fairness, equity.

iustitium -i, n. a suspension of legal business; in gen. pause, cessation.

iustus -a -um, just, equitable, fair; lawful, justified, proper; regular, perfect, complete, suitable. N. as subst., sing. iustum -i, justice, what is right; plur. iusta -orum, due forms and observances, esp. fu- neral rites. Adv. iuste, justly, rightly.

iuvenalis -e, youthful.

Iuvenalis -is, m. D. Iunius, a Roman writer of satires.

iuvencus -a -um, young; m. as subst., iuvencus -i, a young man, or young bullock; f. iuvenca -ae, a young woman, or young cow, heifer.

iuvenesco iuvenescere iuvenui, to come (or come back) to the prime of life.

iuvenilis -e, youthful; adv. iuveniliter, youthfully.

iuvenis -is, adj. young, youthful; as subst. a young man, young woman.

iuvenor -ari, dep. to act like a youth, be impetuous.

iuventa -ae, f. youth.

iuventas -atis, f. youth.

iuventus -utis, f. youth, the prime of life(between the ages of 20 and 45); meton., young men.

iuvo iuvare iuvi iutum. (1) to help, assist, aid. (2) to delight, please, gratify.

iuxta: adv. close by, near; in like manner, equally; prep. with acc., close to, near to; in time, just before; in gen. near to, just short of.

iuxtim, near, close by; equally.

Ixion -onis, m. king of the Lapithae in Thessaly, bound to a perpetually revolving wheel in Tartarus.