Glossary of Latin Terms P


pabulatio -onis, f. procuring fodder, foraging.

pabulator -oris, m. a forager.

pabulor -ari, dep. to forage, seek fodder.

pabulum -i, n. food, nourishment, fodder.

pacalis -e, peaceful.

pacifer -fera -ferum, peace-bringing.

pacificatio -onis, f. making of peace, pacification.

pacificator -oris, m. a peacemaker.

pacificatorius -a -um, peacemaking, pacific.

pacifico -are, to make peace; to appease, pacify.

pacificus -a -um, peacemaking, pacific.

paciscor pacisci pactus, dep. to make a bargain or agreement, to covenant, contract; transit. to stipulate for, bargain for; also to give in exchange. Perf. partic. in pass. sense, pactus -a -um, agreed upon, stipulated; betrothed. N. as subst. pactum -i, an agreement, treaty, pact; 'quo pacto?', how?; 'alio pacto', in another way.

paco -are, to pacify, make peaceful; poet. to make fruitful. Hence partic. pacatus -a -um, peaceful, quiet; n. as subst. a peaceful country.

pactio -onis, f. a bargain, contract, agreement, treaty.

pactor -oris, m. one who makes a contract or treaty, negotiator.

pactum; see paciscor.

pactus; see paciscor.

Pacuvius -i, m. a Roman tragic poet.

Padus -i, m. the river Po.

paean -anis, m. (1) the Healer, a surname of Apollo. (2) a hymn, paean.

paedagogus -i, m. a slave who accompanied children to and from school.

paedor -oris, m. dirt, filth.

paelex (pellex) -licis, f. a mistress, concubine.

paelicatus -us, m. concubinage.

Paeligni -orum, m. pl. an Italian tribe.

paene, nearly, almost.

paeninsula -ae, f. a peninsula.

paenitentia -ae, f. repentance, regret.

paeniteo -ere, to repent, regret, be sorry; impers. 'paenitet hominem', a person feels regret, is sorry; gerundive paenitendus -a -um, re- grettable, unsatisfactory.

paenula -ae, f. a travelling cloak, greatcoat.

paenulatus -a -um, wearing the paenula; q.v..

paeon -onis, m. a metrical foot, consisting of three short syllables and one long.

Paestum -i, n. a town in Lucania, famous for roses.

paetulus -a -um, with a slight cast in the eyes, squinting.

paetus -a -um, with a cast in the eyes, squinting.

paganus -a -um, belonging to a village, rural, rustic; m. as subst. a villager, countryman.

pagatim, in villages, by villages.

pagella -ae, f. a little page.

pagina -ae, f. a page of a letter, book, etc..

paginula -ae, f. a little page.

pagus -i, m. a village or country district; a canton.

pala -ae, f. a spade; the bezel of a ring.

Palaestina -ae and Palaestine -es, f. Palestine.

palaestra -ae, f. a gymnasium or wrestling school; wrestling. Transf., training in rhetoric.

palaestricus -a -um, of the palaestra, gymnastic; adv. palaestrice.

palaestrita -ae, m. the superintendent of a palaestra; q.v..

palam: adv. openly, publicly; prep., with abl., in the presence of.

Palatium -i, n. the Palatine Hill in Rome; in plur. a palace; adj. Palatinus -a -um.

palatum -i, n. and palatus -i, m. the roof of the mouth, palate; taste; critical judgment.

palea -ae, f. chaff.

palear -aris, n. the dewlap of an ox.

Pales -is, f. tutelary goddess of herds and shepherds; adj. Palilis -e; n. pl. as subst. Palilia -ium, the feast of Pales on the 21st of April.

palimpsestus -i, m. a palimpsest.

Palinurus -i, m. the pilot of Aeneas; a promontory on the coast of Lucania.

paliurus -i, m. a plant, Christ's thorn.

palla -ae, f. a long outer garment, esp. as worn by women and actors.

Pallas -adis and -ados, f. Athene, the Greek goddess of wisdom, identified with Minerva; adj. Palladius -a -um; n. as subst. Palladium -i, an image of Pallas.

palleo -ere, to be pale or yellow; partic. pallens -entis, pale, wan, yellow, pale green; causing paleness; drooping, weak.

pallesco pallescere pallui, to grow pale or yellow; with acc., to turn pale at.

palliatus -a -um, clad in a pallium, i.e. as a Greek (opp. togatus).

pallidulus -a -um, somewhat pale.

pallidus -a -um, pale, wan; causing paleness.

palliolum -i, n. a little Greek cloak; a hood.

pallium -i, n. a coverlet; a Greek mantle.

pallor -oris, m. paleness, fading.

palma -ae, f. (1) the palm of the hand; a hand; the blade of an oar. (2) the palm tree; a date; a palm broom; a palm branch as token of victory; hence victory, honor, glory.

palmaris -e, deserving the palm or prize, excellent.

palmarium -i, n. a masterpiece.

palmatus -a -um, embroidered with palm branches.

palmes -itis, m. a young branch, esp. of a vine.

palmetum -i, n. a palm grove.

palmifer -fera -ferum, abounding in palm trees.

palmosus -a -um, full of palms.

palmula -ae, f. the blade of an oar.

palor -ari, dep. to wander, stray.

palpebra -ae, f. eyelid.

palpito -are, to move quickly, tremble, throb.

palpo -are and palpor -ari, dep. to stroke; to coax, flatter, wheedle.

paludamentum -i, n. the military cloak.

paludatus -a -um, clad in the military cloak.

paludosus -a -um, marshy, boggy.

palumbes -is, m. and f. a wood pigeon, ring dove.

palus (1) -i, m. a pale, stake.

palus (2) -udis, f. a swamp, marsh, bog.

paluster -tris -tre, marshy, boggy.

pampineus -a -um, attached to or consisting of vine tendrils.

pampinus -i, m. and f. a vine tendril or vine leaf.

Pan Panos, m. the god of flocks, woods, and shepherds.

panacea -ae, f. a plant, supposed to heal all diseases; panacea, heal-all.

panaces -is, n. a plant, supposed to heal all diseases; panacea, heal-all.

panarium -i, n. a breadbasket.

panchrestus (panchristus) -a -um, good for everything.

pancratium (-on) -i, n. a gymnastic contest.

pando pandere pandi pansum and passum. (1) to stretch out, spread out, extend; 'crines passi', dishevelled hair. (2) to throw open, lay open, reveal, disclose. Hence partic. passus -a -um, spread out, esp. spread out to dry; n. as subst. raisin wine.

pandus -a -um, bent, curved, crooked.

pango pangere panxi, to fasten, fix, drive in. Transf. to compose, write. In perf. pepigi and supine pactum, to fix, settle, agree upon (cf. paciscor).

panicum -i, n. a kind of wild millet.

panis -is, m. bread; in plur. loaves.

panniculus -i, m. a little garment.

Pannonia -ae, f. Pannonia, a district on the middle Danube.

pannosus -a -um, ragged, tattered.

pannuceus (-ius) -a -um, ragged; wrinkled, shrivelled.

pannus -i, m. a piece of cloth; garment, rag.

Panormus -i, f. and Panormum -i, n. a town in Sicily (modern Palermo).

pansa -ae, f. splay-footed.

panthera -ae, f. a panther or leopard.

pantomimus -i, m. and pantomima -ae, f. a dancer, mime.

papae, interj. wonderful! indeed!.

papas -ae and -atis, m. a tutor.

papaver -eris, n. poppy.

papavereus -a -um, of the poppy.

papilio -onis, m. butterfly.

papilla -ae, f. nipple, teat, breast.

Papirius -a -um, name of a Roman gens.

pappo -are, to eat.

pappus -i, m. the wooly seed of certain plants.

papula -ae, f. a pimple.

papyrifer -fera -ferum, producing papyrus. 2

papyrus -i, m. and f. and papyrum -i, n. the plant papyrus; clothing or paper made from papyrus. 2

par paris, equal, like, a match; m. and f. as subst. a companion; n. as subst. the like, the equivalent, or a pair; 'par impar ludere', to play at odd and even; 'par est', it is appropriate. Hence adv. pariter, equally, alike; together, at the same time.

parabilis -e, easily procured.

parabola -ae and parabole -es, f. a comparison.

parasitus -i, m. and parasita -ae, f. a guest; in bad sense, a toady, parasite.

paratio -onis, f. preparing, preparation.

paratus (1) -a -um, partic. from paro; q.v.

paratus (2) -us, m. preparation, fitting out, equipment.

Parca -ae, f. a goddess of fate; pl. Parcae, the three Fates.

parco parcere peperci (and parci) parsum, to be sparing, economize; to spare, refrain from injuring (with dat.); to refrain from, keep oneself from; with infin. to forbear to.

parcus -a -um, sparing, thrifty, economical; moderate, sparing; of things, scanty, small, meager. Adv. parce, sparingly, economically.

pardus -i, m. a panther or leopard.

parens (1) -entis, partic. from pareo; q.v.

parens (2) -entis, c. a parent; sometimes grandfather, or ancestor; author, cause, origin.

parentalis -e, parental, of parents (or ancestors); n. pl. as subst., parentalia -ium, a festival in honer of the dead.

parento -are, to celebrate the parentalia. Transf. to avenge the dead.

pareo -ere, to appear, become evident. Transf. to obey, give way to; to be subject to, serve (with dat.); partic. parens -entis, obedient.

paries -etis, m. a wall, properly the wall of a house.

parietinae -arum, f. pl. old walls, ruins.

Parilia; see Pales.

parilis -e, similar, like, equal.

pario parere peperi partum; fut. partic. pariturus; to bring forth, bear, produce. Transf. to occasion, create, make, get.

Paris -idis, m. a Trojan prince who carried off Helen.

parma -ae, f. a small round shield, buckler.

parmatus -a -um, armed with the parma.

parmula -ae, f. a small round shield, buckler.

Parnasus (-os) -i, m. a mountain in Phocis, sacred to Apollo and the Muses; f. adj. Parnasis -idis, and adj. Parnasius -a -um.

paro -are, to set, put; to prepare, provide, furnish, obtain; to buy. Hence partic. paratus -a -um, prepared, ready; provided, equipped; of persons, skilled. Adv. parate, with preparation, readily.

parocha -ae, f. a supplying of necessaries.

parochus -i, m. an officer who looked after travelling ambassadors and magistrates. Transf. a host.

paropsis -idis, f. a dessert dish.

Paros (-us) -i, f. an island in the Aegean Sea, famous for marble; adj. Parius -a -um.

parra -ae, f. a bird of ill omen, perhaps owl.

parricida -ae, f. a parricide, one who murders a parent or near relative; polit. an assassin, traitor.

parricidium -i, n. the murder of a parent of any near relative; polit., assassination, treason.

pars partis, f. a part, piece, share; a direction, region; a side, party; an actor's role; in gen., usually plur., office, function, duty; '', some...others; 'pro (sua) parte, pro virile parte', to the best of ones's ability; 'magna ex parte', to a great extent; 'multis partibus', many times, much. Adv. partim, partly; used like a noun, some.

parsimonia -ae, f. thrift, economy.

Parthi -orum, m. pl. the Parthians; adj. Parthicus and Parthus -a -um; subst. Parthia -ae, Parthia.

particeps -cipis, sharing, participating in (with genit.); as subst., partner, comrade.

participo -are, to share with a person; to cause a person to share.

particula -ae, f. a small part, particle.

partim; see pars.

partio -ire and partior -iri, dep. to share out, distribute, divide; perf. partic. in pass. sense, partitus -a -um, divided; adv. partite, with proper divisions.

partitio -onis, f. division, sharing, distribution.

parturio -ire, to desire to bring forth, have the pains of labor; to teem with anything, be full of.

partus (1) -a -um, partic. from pario; q.v.

partus (2) -us, m. bearing, bringing forth, birth. Transf. young, offspring.

parum, too little, not enough (as adv. and subst.); 'parum habere', to think too little, be dissatisfied with. Compar. minus, less; sometimes not, not at all; 'sin minus', but if not. Superl. minime (minume), in the least degree, very little, least of all; sometimes not at all, by no means.

Parus; = Paros; q.v.

parumper, for a little while.

parvitas -atis, f. littleness, smallness.

parvulus -a -um, very small; of age, young, little.

parvus -a -um, little, small; slight, weak; of time, short; of age, young; of value, poor, insignificant; n. as subst. a little. Compar. minor, smaller, less; of time, shorter; of age, 'minor (natu)', younger; of value, inferior. Superl. minimus, smallest, least; n. as adv. minimum, very little. Rare superl. parvissimus.

pasco pascere pavi pastum. (1) transit. to feed, lead to pasture; to keep, support; to nourish; also to give as pasture. Transf. to feast, to gratify. Pass. as middle, to graze on; also to feast upon, delight in. (2) intransit., of animals, to graze, browse.

pascuus -a -um, for pasture or grazing; n. as subst. a pasture.

Pasithea -ae and Pasithee -es, f. one of the three Graces.

passer -eris, m. a sparrow or other small bird; a sea fish, a plaice or flounder.

passerculus -i, m. a little sparrow.

passim, here and there, far and wide; indiscriminately.

passum -i, n. subst. from pando; q.v.

passus (1) -a -um, partic. from pando; q.v.

passus (2) -a -um, partic. from patior; q.v.

passus (3) -us, m. a step, stride, pace; esp. as a measure of length = five Roman feet. Transf. footstep, track.

pastillus -i, m. a lozenge.

pastio -onis, f. pasture, pasturing.

pastor -oris, m. a herd; esp. a shepherd.

pastoralis -e, of shepherds, pastoral.

pastoricius -a -um, of shepherds, pastoral.

pastorius -a -um, of shepherds, pastoral.

pastus (1) -a -um, partic. from pascor; q.v.

pastus (2) -us, m. pasture, feeding; food, sustenance.

Patavium -i, n. a town in north Italy, birthplace of Livy (now Padua); adj. Patavinus -a -um.

patefacio -facere -feci -factum; pass. patefio -fieri -factus sum; to open, throw open, open up, make accessible; to bring to light, disclose, reveal.

patefactio -onis, f. throwing open, disclosing.

patella -ae, f. a dish, platter, plate.

pateo -ere, to be open, stand open, be accessible or exposed; to be revealed, disclosed, clear; to stretch out, extend. Hence partic. patens -entis open, unobstructed, accessible, exposed; also evident. Compar. adv. patentius, more openly.

pater -tris, m. father, sire; founder, head; 'pater familias', or 'famili- ae', head of a household; plur., patres, forefathers; also as a title of the senators, 'patres', or 'patres conscripti'; 'pater patriae', father of his country, a national hero.

patera -ae, f. a shallow dish, saucer.

paternus -a -um, of a father, paternal; native.

patesco patescere patui, to be opened, lie open; to be revealed; to spread out.

patibilis -e: pass. endurable, bearable; act. sensitive.

patibulum -i, n. a yoke as an instrument of punishment, a pillory.

patientia -ae, f. endurance, resignation; in bad sense, want of spirit.

patina -ae, f. a dish.

patior pati passus, dep. to suffer, undergo, experience; to permit, allow. Hence partic. patiens -entis, enduring, capable of enduring with genit.; patient; in bad sense, stubborn. Adv. patienter.

patrator -oris, m. accomplisher, achiever.

patria -ae, f. fatherland; see patrius.

patricius -a -um, of the patres, patrician, noble; m. as subst. a patrician.

patrimonium -i, n. property inherited from a father, patrimony.

patrimus -a -um, having a father still living.

patritus -a -um, inherited from one's father.

patrius -a -um, of a father, fatherly, paternal; hereditary; ancestral; native. F. as subst. patria -ae, (sc. terra), fatherland, native land.

patro -are, to accomplish, execute, achieve.

patrocinium -i, n. the services of a patron; esp. defence in a court of law; in gen. defence, protection; n. plur. patrocinia, clients.

patrocinor -ari, dep. to defend, protect.

patrona -ae, f. a protectress, patroness.

patronus -i, m. a protector, defender, patron; esp. an advocate in a court of law.

patruelis -e, descended from a father's brother; as subst. a cousin.

patruus (1) -a -um, adj. of an uncle.

patruus (2) -i, m. a father's brother, paternal uncle.

patulus -a -um, open, standing open; spreading, extended.

paucitas -atis, f. fewness, scarcity.

pauculus -a -um, very small; plur. very few.

paucus -a -um, oftener plur. pauci -ae -a, a few, little; as subst., m. pl. pauci, a few, the select few, the oligarchs; n. pl. pauca, a few words.

paulatim (paullatim), gradually, little by little.

paulisper (paullisper), for a little while.

paululus (paullulus) -a -um, very little; n. as subst., paululum, a very little; acc. and abl., as adv., a little.

paulus (paullus) -a -um, little, small; n. as subst. paulum, a little; acc. and abl., as adv. a little.

Paulus -i, m. the name of a gens in the gens Aemilia.

pauper -eris, poor; of things, scanty, meager.

pauperculus -a -um, poor.

pauperies -ei, f. poverty.

paupero -are, to make poor, to deprive.

paupertas -atis, f. poverty.

pausa -ae, f. cessation, end.

pausia -ae, f. a species of olive.

pauxillulus -a -um, very small, very little.

pauxillus -a -um, small, little; n. as subst. a little.

pavefactus -a -um, frightened, terrified.

paveo pavere pavi: intransit. to quake with fear, panic; transit. to quake at.

pavesco -ere: intransit. to begin to quake, take fright; transit. to be alarmed by.

pavidus -a -um, trembling, quaking, fearful; causing fear. Adv. pavide, fearfully.

pavimento -are, to pave.

pavimentum -i, n. a pavement of tiles, brick, stone, etc..

pavio -ire, to beat.

pavito -are: intransit. to shiver, tremble, quake with fear; transit. to quake at.

pavo -onis, f. peacock.

pavor -oris, m. trembling, quaking; fear, panic.

pax pacis, f. peace; calm, quiet; of the gods, grace, favor; 'pace tua', with your good leave.

pecco -are, to make a mistake, go wrong, err or sin; n. of partic. as subst. peccatum -i, an error, fault, sin.

pecorosus -a -um, rich in cattle.

pecten -inis, m. a comb; a weaver's comb; a rake; clasped hands; a quill, for striking the strings of the lyre; a shellfish, the scallop.

pecto pectere pexi pexum, to comb; to card; to thrash; partic. pexus -a -um, with the nap on, wooly.

pectus -oris, n. breast; heart, soul; mind.

pecu, n. plur. pecua, sheep, flocks; also pastures.

pecuarius -a -um, of sheep or cattle; as subst., m. a breeder of cattle, grazier; n. pl. herds of sheep or cattle.

peculator -oris, m. one who embezzles public money.

peculatus -us, m. embezzlement of public money.

peculiaris -e, of one's private property; one's own, special, peculiar; adv. peculiariter, specially.

peculium -i, n. small property, savings; esp. the savings of slaves and sons.

pecunia -ae, f. property, wealth; esp. money, cash.

pecuniarius -a -um, of money, pecuniary.

pecuniosus -a -um, wealthy, rich; lucrative.

pecus (1) -oris, n. cattle, herd, flock, esp. of sheep.

pecus (2) -udis, f. a single head of cattle; a beast, animal; esp. a sheep.

pedalis -e, a foot long (or wide).

pedarius -a -um, of a foot; '(senatores) pedarii', senators of inferior rank.

pedes -itis, m.: adj., going on foot; subst., a foot soldier; coll., infantry.

pedester -tris -tre, on foot, pedestrian; 'copiae', infantry; some- times, on land. Transf., simple, ordinary, prosaic; of style, written in prose.

pedetemptim, feeling one's way; gradually, cautiously.

pedica -ae, f. a fetter; a trap, snare.

pediculosus -a -um, lousy.

pedis -is, c. a louse.

pedisequus -i, m. and pedisequa -ae, f. a follower, attendant, lackey.

peditatus -us, m. infantry.

pedum -i, n. a shepherd's crook.

Pegasus (-os) -i, m. the winged horse which produced the fountain Hippocrene; adj. Pegaseius and Pegaseus -a -um; Pegasides, the Muses.

pegma -atis, n. a bookcase; a stage, scaffolding.

peiero and periuro -are, to commit perjury, forswear oneself; with acc., to swear falsely by.

peior; see malus.

pelagus -i, n., Greek plur. pelage, the open sea, the main.

pelamys -ydis, f. the young tunnyfish.

Pelasgi -orum, m. pl. the Greeks.

Peleus -ei and -eos, m. king of Thessaly, husband of Thetis, father of Achilles; Pelides -ae, m. son or grandson of Peleus.

Pelion -i, n. mountain range in Thessaly; adj. Peliacus and Pelius -a -um.

pellacia -ae, f. enticing, allurement.

pellax -acis, deceitful, seductive.

pellego; = perlego; q.v.

pellex; = paelex; q.v.

pellicio -licere -lexi -lectum, to entice, decoy, seduce.

pellicula -ae, f. a little skin or hide.

pellio -onis, m. a furrier.

pellis -is, f. a hide, skin; dressed hide, leather, felt; milit., a hut covered with skins.

pellitus -a -um, clothed in skins.

pello pellere pepuli pulsum, to strike, knock, beat; to impel, propel, move, affect; to drive away, dislodge, banish.

pelluceo; = perluceo; q.v.

Peloponnesus -i, f. the Peloponnese.

Pelops -opis, m. the father of Atreus and Thyestes.

peloris -idis, f. an edible shellfish, a clam.

pelta -ae, f. a small shield.

peltastes or -a -ae, m. a soldier armed with the pelta.

peltatus -a -um, armed with the pelta.

pelvis -is, f. a basin.

penarius -a -um, of or for provisions.

Penates -ium, m. pl. the Penates, Latin deities of the household and family. Transf. home, dwelling.

penatiger -gera -gerum, carrying the Penates.

pendeo pendere pependi, to hang; to hang upon, depend on; to hang loose, hover; to be suspended, discontinued; be in suspense, uncertain, undecided.

pendo pendere pependi pensum: transit. to cause to hang down; to weigh; to pay out money; to weigh, consider, judge, value, esteem; 'poenas, suppli- cia', to pay a penalty, suffer punishment; intransit. to weigh. Hence partic. pensus -a -um, weighed; esteemed, valued, prized; 'nihil pensi habere', to put no value upon, be indifferent about. N. as subst. pensum -i, wool weighed out to a spinner; hence, a day's work, task, duty.

pendulus -a -um, hanging; in suspense, undecided.

Penelopa -ae and Penelope -es, f. the wife of Ulysses.

penes, prep. with acc. in the possession of, in the power of, belonging to; 'penes se esse', to be in one's senses.

penetrabilis -e; pass. that can be passed through, penetrable; act., penetrating, piercing.

penetralis -e. (1) passing through, penetrating. (2) inward, internal. N. as subst. inner chambers, interior, esp. of a temple.

penetro -are: transit. to put into; to pass through or into, to penetrate; intransit. to make one's way in, to penetrate.

penicillus -i, m. a painter's brush or pencil; style.

peniculus -i, m. a brush; sponge.

penis -is, m. a tail.

penitus (1), adv. internally, inwardly, inside; deeply, through and through; widely.

penitus (2) -a -um, adj. inward, internal.

penna -ae, f. a feather; a wing.

pennatus -a -um, feathered, winged.

penniger -gera -gerum, feathered, winged.

pennipes -pedis, wing-footed.

pennipotens -entis, able to fly, winged; plur. as subst., birds.

pennula -ae, f. a little wing.

pensilis -e, hanging, pendent.

pensio -onis, f. a weighing out; hence paying, payment, day of payment; rent.

pensito -are, to weigh carefully, weigh out; hence to pay; to ponder, consider.

penso -are, to weigh carefully; to estimate, ponder, consider; to counter- balance, requite; to pay for, purchase one thing with another.

pensum; see penso.

Pentheus -ei and -eos, m. a king of Thebes.

penuria -ae, f. lack, want, penury.

penus -us and -i, c., penum -i, n., penus -oris, n. provisions, victuals.

peplum -i, n. and peplus -i, m. a robe of state.

per, prep. with acc.: of space, through, along, over; sometimes before, in the presence of; of time, throughout, during; in the course of, in a time of; of means or instrument, through, by, by means of, with, by way of; of cause, because of, on account of; 'per me licet', you may as far as I'm concerned; in entreaties, oaths, etc., in the name of.

pera -ae, f. bag, wallet.

perabsurdus -a -um, excessively absurd.

peraccommodatus -a -um, very convenient.

peracer -cris -cre, very sharp.

peracerbus -a -um, very sour, very harsh.

peractio -onis, f. finishing, completion.

peracutus -a -um, very sharp; very shrill; very sharp-witted. Adv. peracute.

peradulescens -entis, very young.

peraeque, quite equally.

peragito -are, to drive about violently, harass.

perago -agere -egi -actum. (1) to pass through; in words, to go over, mention. (2) to drive about, harass, disturb. (3) to carry through, complete, accomplish; legal, to prosecute until conviction.

peragratio -onis, f. wandering through.

peragro -are, to wander through, travel through.

peramans -antis, very loving; adv. peramanter.

perambulo -are, to walk through, pass through.

peramoenus -a -um, very pleasant.

peramplus -a -um, very large.

perangustus -a -um, very narrow; adv. peranguste.

perantiquus -a -um, very old.

perappositus -a -um, very suitable.

perarduus -a -um, very difficult.

perargutus -a -um, very wittily.

peraro -are, to plow through; to furrow the brow; to scratch letters, to write, write on.

perattentus -a -um, very attentive; adv. perattente.

perbacchor -ari, dep. to revel throughout.

perbeatus -a -um, very happy.

perbelle, very prettily.

perbene, very well.

perbenevolus -a -um, very well-disposed.

perbenigne, very kindly.

perbibo -bibere -bibi, to drink up, absorb; mentally, to imbibe, take in.

perblandus -a -um, very charming.

perbonus -a -um, very good.

perbrevis -e, very short; perbrevi, in a very short time; adv. perbreviter.

perca -ae, f. a fish, the perch.

percalefactus -a -um, thoroughly heated.

percalesco -calescere -calui, to become very warm.

percallesco -callescere -callui: intransit. to lose sensibility, become callous; transit. to get a good knowledge of.

percarus -a -um. (1) very dear, very costly. (2) very dear, much loved.

percautus -a -um, very cautious.

percelebro -are, to speak of commonly; pass. to be much mentioned.

perceler -is -e, very swift; adv. perceleriter.

percello -cellere -culi -culsum, to strike, push; to beat down, overturn, shatter, ruin; mentally, to daunt, unnerve.

percenseo -censere -censui, to count over, reckon; to survey, review; to travel through.

perceptio -onis, f. a receiving, grasping, gathering together.

perceptus; see percipio.

percio -cire -civi -citum and percieo -ciere, to stir up, set in motion; partic. percitus -a -um, aroused, excited; of character, excitable.

percipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum, to lay hold of, seize; to collect, gather, harvest, gain; with the senses, to feel, take in; mentally, to learn, grasp, understand. N. pl. of partic. as subst. percepta -orum, princi- ples, rules.

percitus; see percio.

percolo (2) -colere -colui -cultum, to adorn, decorate; to honor a person, revere greatly; to complete.

percolo (2) -are, to strain, as through a sieve.

percomis -e, very friendly.

percommodus -a -um, very fit; adv. percommode.

percontatio (percunct-) -onis, f. inquiry, investigation.

percontator (percunct-) -oris, m. an inquirer, asker of questions.

percontor (percunctor) -ari, dep. to sound; hence to inquire, interro- gate, investigate.

percoquo -coquere -coxi -coctum, to cook or heat thoroughly; to ripen; to scorch, blacken.

percrebresco -brescere -brui and percrebesco -bescere -bui, to become prevalent, get well known.

percrepo -crepare -crepui -crepitum, to resound, ring.

percunct-; see percont-.

percupidus -a -um, very fond.

percupio -cupere, to desire exceedingly.

percuriosus -a -um, very inquisitive.

percuro -are, to cure, heal thoroughly.

percurro -currere -cucurri and -curri -cursum, to run through, hasten through, travel through; in words, to run over, mention in passing; to run over in the mind or with the eye; to pass through stages.

percursatio -onis, f. travelling through.

percursio -onis, f. running through; rapid consideration.

percurso -are, to ramble over, rove about.

percussio -onis, f. striking, beating; esp. beating time; hence time, rhythm.

percussor -oris, m. a striker; esp. a murderer, assassin.

percussus -us, m. beating, knocking, striking.

percutio -cutere -cussi -cussum, to strike hard; to strike through, pierce, transfix; to strike down, cut down; mentally, to strike, shock; colloq. to deceive.

perdecorus -a -um, very comely.

perdelirus -a -um, senseless.

perdifficilis -e, very difficult; adv. perdifficiliter.

perdignus -a -um, very worthy.

perdiligens -entis, very diligent; adv. perdiligenter.

perdisco -discere -didici, to learn thoroughly.

perdiserte, very eloquently.

perditor -oris, m. destroyer.

perditus; see perdo.

perdiu, for a very long time.

perdiuturnus -a -um, lasting a very long time.

perdives -vitis, very rich.

perdix -dicis, c. partridge.

perdo -dere -didi -ditum (in pass., usually pereo, perire), to destroy, do away with, ruin; to lose; to waste, squander. Hence partic. perditus -a -um, miserable, ruined; morally lost, aban- doned, profligate. Adv. perdite, desperately, immoderately; in an abandoned manner.

perdoceo -docere -docui -doctum, to teach or instruct thoroughly; partic. perdoctus -a -um, very learned, very skilful; adv. perdocte.

perdomo -domare -domui -domitum, to tame or subdue thoroughly.

perduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, to lead through, bring along; conduct; to carry or construct buildings, from one point to another; to bring over to an opinion, to induce; in time, to continue, prolong; to smear over with a substance.

perductor -oris, m. a guide; a pimp, pander.

perdudum, a long time ago.

perduellio -onis, f. treason.

perduellis -is, m. a public enemy.

perduim -is -it, alternative pres. subj. of perdo; q.v.

perduro -are, to last long, endure.

peredo -esse -edi -esum, to eat up, devour; to consume, destroy.

peregre, adv. in, to or from a foreign country; abroad, from abroad.

peregrinabundus -a -um, travelling about.

peregrinatio -onis, f. travelling or staying in foreign countries; roaming.

peregrinator -oris, m. one who travels about.

peregrinitas -atis, f. the condition of a foreigner or alien; foreign manners.

peregrinor -ari, dep. to stay or to travel in foreign countries; to roam, wander, ramble; to be strange, foreign.

peregrinus -a -um, foreign, of a foreigner, strange; m. and f. as subst., a foreigner, stranger, esp. a foreign resident in Rome. Transf., inexperienced.

perelegans -antis, very elegant; adv. pereleganter.

pereloquens -entis, very eloquent.

peremnia, n. pl. the auspices taken on crossing any running water.

perendie, the day after tomorrow.

perendinus -a -um, relating to the day after tomorrow.

perennis -e, lasting throughout the year; durable, perennial.

perennitas -atis, f. duration, perpetuity.

perenno -are, to last many years.

pereo -ire -ii and -ivi -itum, (often as pass. of perdo), to go to waste, be ruined or lost, pass away, perish, die.

perequito -are, to ride through, ride round.

pererro -are, to wander through, ramble over; to look over, scan.

pereruditus -a -um, very learned.

perexiguus -a -um, very small, very scanty; of time, very short; Adv. perexigue, very scantily, very sparingly.

perfacetus -a -um, very witty, brilliant; adv. perfacete.

perfacilis -e, very easy; very courteous. N. acc. as adv. perfacile, very easily; very readily.

perfamiliaris -e, very familiar, intimate; m. as subst. a very great friend.

perfectio -onis, f. completion; perfection.

perfector -oris, m. a perfecter, finisher.

perfectus; see perficio.

perfero -ferre -tuli -latum, to carry through, bear to the end; 'se perferre', to betake oneself; of news, etc., to deliver, convey; of tasks, to bring to an end; of trouble, to bear, suffer, endure. Hence partic. perferens -entis, enduring, patient.

perfica -ae, f. adj. accomplishing, perfecting.

perficio -ficere -feci -fectum, to bring to an end, complete, finish, achieve; of time, to live through; of a pupil, to make perfect. Hence partic. perfectus -a -um, perfect, complete, finished; adv. perfecte.

perfidelis -e, very faithful.

perfidia -ae, f. faithlessness, treachery, falsehood.

perfidiosus -a -um, faithless, treacherous; adv. perfidiose.

perfidus -a -um, faithless, treacherous, false.

perfigo -figere -fixi -fixum, to pierce through, stab.

perflabilis -e, able to be blown through.

perflagitiosus -a -um, very shameful.

perflo -are, to blow through, blow over.

perfluctuo -are, to surge over.

perfluo -fluere -fluxi -fluxum, to stream through, run away.

perfodio -fodere -fodi -fossum, to dig through, pierce through; to excavate, make by digging.

perforo -are, to pierce through; to form by boring.

perfrequens -entis, much visited.

perfrico -fricare -fricui -fricatum and -frictum, to rub over; 'os, frontem', etc., to put on a bold face.

perfrigesco -frigescere -frixi, to catch a chill.

perfrigidus -a -um, very cold.

perfringo -fringere -fregi -fractum, to break through; to break in pieces, shatter.

perfruor -frui -fructus, dep. to enjoy to the full; to execute completely.

perfuga -ae, m. a deserter.

perfugio -fugere -fugi -fugitum, to flee away, take refuge; esp. to desert to the enemy.

perfugium -i, n. a place of refuge, shelter.

perfunctio -onis, f. performing, discharging.

perfundo -fundere -fudi -fusum, to pour over; to steep in a fluid, to dye; in gen. to steep in, fill with.

perfungor -fungi -functus, dep. to perform fully, execute, discharge; to go through, endure.

perfuro -ere, to rage furiously.

Pergamum -i, n. and Pergamus -i, f., also plur. Pergama -orum, n. the citadel of Troy; Troy.

pergaudeo -ere, to rejoice exceedingly.

pergo pergere perrexi perrectum, to continue, proceed, go on with.

pergrandis -e, very large, very great.

pergratus -a -um, very pleasant.

pergravis -e, very weighty, very important; adv. pergraviter.

pergula -ae, f. a balcony, outhouse; a shop, workshop; a school.

perhibeo -ere -ui -itum, to bring forward, cite; to maintain, assert, hold, say.

perhilum -i, n. a very little.

perhonorificus -a -um, very honorable, very respectful; adv. perhonorifice, very respectfully.

perhorresco -horrescere -horrui, to begin to shudder or tremble, esp. with fear; transit. to shudder at.

perhorridus -a -um, very dreadful.

perhumanus -a -um, very friendly, very civil; adv. perhumaniter.

Pericles -is, m. Athenian statesman.

periclitatio -onis, f. trial, experiment.

periclitor -ari, dep.: intransit. to try, make a trial, venture; to take a risk, be in danger; transit. to try, test, prove; to endanger, risk.

periculosus -a -um, dangerous, perilous; adv. periculose.

periculum (periclum) -i, n. a trial, proof, test, attempt; danger, peril, hazard; at law, a trial, action, suit; hence, a legal record or register.

peridoneus -a -um, very suitable.

perillustris -e, very evident; very distinguished.

perimbecillus -a -um, very weak.

perimo (peremo) -imere -emi -emptum, to do away with, destroy, kill, annihi- late. Transf. to thwart, frustrate.

perincommodus -a -um, very inconvenient; adv. perincommode.

perinde, adv. in like manner; 'perinde ac, ut, quam', just as; 'perinde ac si', just as if.

perindulgens -entis, very indulgent, very tender.

perinfirmus -a -um, very weak.

peringeniosus -a -um, very clever.

periniquus -a -um, very unfair; very discontented or unwilling.

perinsignis -e, very remarkable.

perinvitus -a -um, very unwilling.

periodus -i, m. a sentence, period.

Peripateticus -a -um, belonging to the Peripatetic or Aristotelian school of philosophy.

peripetasma -atis, n. curtain, hanging.

periratus -a -um, very angry.

periscelis -idis, f. garter or anklet.

peristroma -atis, n. curtain, coverlet, carpet, hanging.

peristylium -i, n. a court with a colonnade round it. 3

peristylum -i, n. a peristyle, a colonnade round a building. 3

peritia -ae, f. experience, skill.

peritus -a -um, experienced, skilful, practiced, expert; adv. perite.

periucundus -a -um, very pleasant; adv. periucunde.

periurium -i, n. false swearing, perjury.

periuro; = peiero; q.v.

periurus -a -um, perjured; lying.

perlabor -labi -lapsus, dep. to glide through, glide along.

perlaetus -a -um, very joyful.

perlate, adv. very widely.

perlectio -onis, f. perusal.

perlego (pellego) -legere -legi -lectum, to survey thoroughly, scan; to read through; 'senatum', to call over the roll of senators.

perlevis -e, slight; adv. perleviter.

perlibens; see perlibet.

perlubens; see perlibet.

perliberalis -e, well-bred, very liberal; adv. perliberaliter.

perlibet (perlubet) -ere, it is very pleasing; partic. perlibens (perlub-) -entis, very willing; adv. perlibenter (perlub-).

perlicio; = pellicio; q.v.

perlito -are, to offer an auspicious sacrifice.

perlongus -a -um, very long, tedious; adv. perlonge, very far.

perlubet; see perlibet.

perluceo (pelluceo) -lucere -luxi, to shine through; to be transparent.

perlucidulus -a -um, transparent.

perlucidus (pellucidus) -a -um, shining, bright; transparent.

perluctuosus -a -um, very mournful.

perluo -luere -lui -lutum, to wash, bathe.

perlustro -are, to traverse, pass through; to survey, examine.

permagnus -a -um, very great, very large.

permaneo -manere -mansi -mansum, to remain, stay, last, continue.

permano -are, to flow through, trickle through; to penetrate, extend. Adv. from partic. permananter, by flowing through.

permansio -onis, f. a remaining, abiding.

permarinus -a -um, going over the sea.

permaturesco -maturescere -maturui, to become thoroughly ripe.

permediocris -e, very moderate.

permeo -are, to go through, traverse.

permetior -metiri -mensus, dep. to measure out; traverse.

permirus -a -um, very wonderful.

permisceo -miscere -miscui -mixtum, to mix together, mingle thoroughly; to confuse, throw into confusion. Hence partic. permixtus -a -um, mixed; promiscuous; adv. permixte.

permissio -onis, f. yielding, surrender; permission, leave.

permissu, abl. sing. m. by permission.

permitialis -e, destructive, annihilating.

permities -ei, f. destruction, annihilation.

permitto -mittere -misi -missum, to let go; esp. of weapons, to hurl; to give up, yield, surrender, concede, sacrifice; to make allowance for; to allow, permit.

permixte; see permisceo.

permixtio -onis, f. mixture; confusion.

permodestus -a -um, very modest, very moderate.

permolestus -a -um, very troublesome; adv. permoleste, with much difficulty.

permolo -ere, to grind thoroughly.

permotio -onis, f. movement, agitation.

permoveo -movere -movi -motum, to move or stir up thoroughly; excite, agitate; to persuade, induce, influence a person.

permulceo -mulcere -mulsi -mulsum, to stroke; to charm, soothe, soften.

permultus -a -um, sing., very much; plur., very many; n. sing. as subst. very much.

permunio -ire -ivi -itum, to fortify completely, or finish fortifying.

permutatio -onis, f. complete change; exchange, interchange.

permuto -are, to change completely; to exchange, interchange.

perna -ae, f. a ham.

pernecessarius -a -um, very necessary; very intimate.

pernecesse, indecl. adj. very necessary.

pernego -are, to deny flatly; to persist in denying or refusing.

perniciabilis -e, deadly, destructive.

pernicies -ei, f. destruction, disaster, ruin, bane.

perniciosus -a -um, destructive, ruinous; adv. perniciose.

pernicitas -atis, f. swiftness, agility.

pernix -nicis, swift, nimble, agile; adv. perniciter.

pernobilis -e, very famous.

pernocto -are, to pass the night.

pernosco -noscere -novi -notum, to investigate or find out thoroughly; in perf. to know thoroughly.

pernotuit -uisse, it has become well known.

pernox -noctis, adj. all-night.

pernumero -are, to count out, reckon up.

pero -onis, m. a boot of untanned hide.

perobscurus -a -um, very obscure.

perodiosus -a -um, very troublesome.

perofficiose, very attentively.

peroleo -ere, to emit a strong smell.

peronatus -a -um, wearing leather boots.

peropportunus -a -um, very convenient; adv. peropportune.

peroptato, abl. sing. n. just as one would wish.

peroratio -onis, f. conclusion of a speech, peroration.

perornatus -a -um, very ornate.

perorno -are, to adorn greatly.

peroro -are, to speak form beginning to end, to plead a cause throughout, explain or state thoroughly; to conclude a speech, wind up, close.

perosus -a -um, hating, detesting.

perpaco -are, to pacify thoroughly.

perparvulus -a -um, very little.

perparvus -a -um, very little.

perpauci -ae -a, very few.

perpauculi -ae -a, very few.

perpaulum (perpaullum) -i, n. a very little.

perpauper -eris, very poor.

perpello -pellere -puli -pulsum, to push hard, drive along; to urge, compel, constrain.

perpendiculum -i, n. plumbline, plummet; 'ad perpendiculum', in a straight line.

perpendo -pendere -pendi -pensum, to weigh carefully; to consider, examine.

perperam, wrongly, falsely.

perpes -petis, continuous, unbroken.

perpessio -onis, f. suffering, endurance.

perpessu, abl. sing. m. in the enduring.

perpetior -peti -pessus, dep. to bear to the end, endure.

perpetro -are, to complete, accomplish, perform.

perpetuitas -atis, f. uninterrupted succession, continuity; 'ad perpetui- tatem', for ever.

perpetuo (1), adv. from perpetuus; q.v.

perpetuo (2) -are, to make continual, continue, perpetuate.

perpetuus -a -um, continuous, uninterrupted (in space or time). Transf., universal, general. Abl. as adv. perpetuo, uninterruptedly.

perplaceo -ere, to please greatly.

perplexabilis -e, intricate, obscure.

perplexor -ari, dep. to perplex.

perplexus -a -um, confused, intricate; obscure, ambiguous. Adv. perplexe and perplexim.

perplicatus -a -um, entangled, involved.

perpluit -ere, to let the rain through; to run away or pour like rain.

perpolio -ire, to polish thoroughly; perfect, complete. Hence partic. perpolitus -a -um, polished, accomplished, refined.

perpopulor -ari, dep. to lay waste, devastate completely.

perpotatio -onis, f. continued drinking, drinking bout.

perpoto -are, to continue drinking; to drink up.

perprimo -primere -pressi -pressum, to press hard.

perpugnax -acis, very pugnacious.

perpurgo (perpurigo) -are, to clean thoroughly. Transf. to explain thoroughly, clear up.

perpusillus -a -um, very small.

perputo -are, to explain fully.

perquam, very much, extremely.

perquiro -quirere -quisivi -quisitum, to search for eagerly; to inquire carefully into. Compar. adv. from perf. partic. perquisitius, more accurately.

perrarus -a -um, very uncommon; abl. as adv. perraro.

perreconditus -a -um, very abstruse.

perrepo -repere -repsi -reptum, to crawl through, creep over.

perrepto -are, to crawl through, crawl about.

perridiculus -a -um, very laughable; adv. perridicule.

perrogo -are, to ask in succession, to ask one after another.

perrumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum, to break through, burst through; to shatter, burst.

Persae -arum, m. pl. the Persians; sing. Persa and Perses -ae, m. a Persian; Persia -ae, f. Persia; Persis -idis, f., as adj., Persian, as subst., Persia; adj. Persicus -a -um.

persaepe, very often.

persalsus -a -um, very witty; adv. persalse.

persalutatio -onis, f. a general greeting.

persaluto -are, to greet in succession, greet all round.

persapiens -entis, very wise; adv. persapienter.

perscienter, very discreetly.

perscindo -scindere -scidi -scissum, to tear to pieces.

perscitus -a -um, very clever.

perscribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum, to write in full; to note down officially, enter; to make over or assign in writing.

perscriptio -onis, f. entry, noting down; assigning by written document.

perscriptor -oris, m. one who makes an entry.

perscruto -are and perscrutor -ari, dep. to search through, look through, examine, investigate.

perseco -secare -secui -sectum, to cut through, cut away, dissect.

persector -ari, dep. to pursue eagerly; to investigate.

persecutio -onis, f. prosecution.

persedeo (persideo) -sedere -sedi -sessum, to remain sitting.

persegnis -e, very languid.

persentio -sentire -sensi -sensum, to perceive distinctly, feel deeply.

persentisco -ere, to begin to perceive distinctly or feel deeply.

Persephone -es, f. Greek name of Proserpina q.v.

persequor -sequi -secutus, dep. to follow constantly, pursue to the end, hunt out, overtake; to strive after; to imitate; to proceed against an offender, punish, avenge; to accomplish an action, perform, execute; to treat a subject, expound, describe.

Perses (1) -ae and Perseus -ei, m. the last king of Macedonia, defeated by the Roman general Aemilius Paulus in 169 B.C.; adj. Persicus -a -um.

Perses (2) -ae, m. a Persian; see Persae.

Perseus -ei and -eos, m. Perseus, who killed Medusa, and rescued Andromeda.

perseverantia -ae, f. persistence.

persevero -are, to persist, persevere, continue. Hence partic. perseverans -antis, enduring, persistent; adv. perseveranter.

perseverus -a -um, very strict.

Persia; see Persae.

Persicus; see Persae and Perses.

persido -sidere -sedi -sessum, to sink in, settle down.

persigno -are, to note down, record.

persimilis -e, very like.

persimplex -icis, very simple.

persisto -ere, to remain constant, persist.

Persius -i, m. A. Persius Flaccus, a satirist in the reign of Nero.

persolvo -solvere -solvi -solutum, to unloose; hence to explain, expound; to pay, pay off, deal out.

persona -ae, f. a mask, esp. as worn by actors; hence role, part, character, personality.

personatus -a -um, masked; disguised, counterfeit.

persono -sonare -sonui -sonitum: intransit. to resound, sound forth; to shout; to perform upon a musical instrument; transit. to make resound; to proclaim loudly.

perspergo -ere, to sprinkle, moisten.

perspicax -acis, sharp-sighted.

perspicientia -ae, f. full awareness or knowledge.

perspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum, to see through, look through; to look at attentively, survey, examine; mentally, to regard, investigate, as- certain. Hence partic. perspectus -a -um, ascertained, fully known.

perspicuitas -atis, f. clearness, perspicuity.

perspicuus -a -um, transparent, bright; clear, evident. Adv. perspicue.

persterno -sternere -stravi -stratum, to pave thoroughly.

perstimulo -are, to goad on violently.

persto -stare -stiti -statum, to stand firm, remain standing; to remain unchanged, last, endure; to stand firm, persist, persevere.

perstringo -stringere -strinxi -strictum. (1) to press tight, bind tight; to deaden, dull the senses. (2) to graze, scratch; to touch upon a subject; to scold, blame, reproach a person.

perstudiosus -a -um, very eager; adv. perstudiose.

persuadeo -suadere -suasi -suasum, to persuade. (1) to convince of a fact; 'sibi persuadere', to satisfy oneself, be convinced. (2) to persuade, prevail upon a person to do a thing.

persuasio -onis, f. persuasion; a conviction, belief.

persuasu, abl. sing. m. by persuasion.

persubtilis -e, very fine; very subtle.

persulto -are, to leap, gambol, skip about, skip over.

pertaedet -taedere -taesum est. to cause weariness or disgust; cf. taedet.

pertempto -are, to prove, test, try; to weigh, consider, examine; to assail

pertendo -tendere -tendi, to push on, proceed, continue.

pertenuis -e, very slight.

perterebro -are, to bore through.

pertergeo -tergere -tersi -tersum, to wipe over; to brush.

perterreo -ere, to terrify.

perterricrepus -a -um, rattling terribly.

pertexo -texere -texui -textum, to weave throughout; to complete, accomplish.

pertica -ae, f. a long pole or rod.

pertimesco -timescere -timui, to become very much afraid.

pertinacia -ae, f. firmness, obstinacy, stubbornness.

pertinax -acis, adj. tenacious; tight-fisted, mean; firm, persistent, stubborn, obstinate. Adv. pertinaciter.

pertineo -tinere -tinui, to reach to, extend to; to tend towards, have as object or result; to relate to, belong to, apply to, attach to.

pertingo -ere, to stretch out, extend.

pertolero -are, to endure to the end.

pertorqueo -ere, to twist, distort.

pertractatio -onis, f. thorough handling, detailed treatment.

pertracto -are, to handle, feel; to treat, study, work upon.

pertraho -trahere -traxi -tractum, to drag, forcibly conduct; to entice, allure.

pertrecto; = pertracto; q.v.

pertristis -e, very sorrowful or austere.

pertumultuose, in an agitated manner.

pertundo -tundere -tudi -tusum, to bore through, perforate.

perturbatio -onis, f. confusion, disorder, disturbance; philosoph. a passion, emotion.

perturbatrix -icis, f. she that disturbs.

perturbo -are, to disturb thoroughly, confuse, disquiet, upset. Hence partic. perturbatus -a -um, confused, disturbed; adv. perturbate.

perturpis -e, very disgraceful.

pertusus; see pertundo.

perungo -ungere -unxi -unctum, to anoint thoroughly, besmear.

perurbanus -a -um, very polite or witty; oversophisticated.

peruro -urere -ussi -ustum, to burn up, consume, inflame; to gall, chafe; to pinch, nip with cold.

perutilis -e, very useful.

pervado -vadere -vasi -vasum. (1) to go through, pass through, pervade. (2) to reach, arrive at.

pervagor -ari, dep. to wander through, to rove about; to be widely spread, pervade. Hence partic. pervagatus -a -um, widespread, well known; com- mon, general.

pervagus -a -um, wandering everywhere.

pervarie, very variously.

pervasto -are, to lay waste completely.

perveho -vehere -vexi -vectum, to carry, lead, conduct, bring(to or through a place); pass. pervehi, to travel to or through.

pervello -vellere -velli, to pluck, pull, twitch; to stimulate; to pain, to disparage.

pervenio -venire -veni -ventum, to come through to, arrive at, reach, attain to, be passed to.

perversitas -atis, f. perversity.

perverto (pervorto) -vertere -verti -versum, to turn upside down, overturn, overthrow; to undermine, subvert, pervert; in speech, to trip up. Hence partic. perversus -a -um, crooked, awry, askew; distorted, per- verse. Adv. perverse.

pervesperi, very late in the evening.

pervestigatio -onis, f. examination, investigation.

pervestigo -are, to track out, investigate, search into.

pervetus -eris, very old.

pervetustus -a -um, very old.

pervicacia -ae, f. firmness, persistence; stubbornness, obstinacy.

pervicax -acis, firm, persistent; stubborn, obstinate; compar. adv. pervicacius, more stubbornly.

pervideo -videre -vidi -visum, to look over, survey; to see through, discern, distinguish.

pervigeo -ere, to flourish, bloom continually.

pervigil -ilis, always watchful.

pervigilatio -onis, f. a vigil, religious watching.

pervigilium -i, n. a vigil, religious watching.

pervigilo -are, to remain awake all night.

pervilis -e, very cheap.

pervinco -vincere -vici -victum, to conquer completely; to surpass, outdo; to induce, prevail upon; to carry one's point; to achieve, effect; to prove, demonstrate.

pervius -a -um, passable, accessible; n. as subst. a passage.

pervolgo; = pervulgo; q.v.

pervolito -are, to fly round, flit about.

pervolo (1) -are, to fly through, fly around.

pervolo (2) -velle -volui, to wish greatly.

pervoluto -are, to roll round; esp. to unroll and read a book.

pervolvo -volvere -volvi -volutum, to roll about; to unroll and read a book

pervorse; see perverto.

pervulgo (pervolgo) -are, to publish, make publicly known; to make generally available; to frequent, haunt a place. Hence partic. pervulgatus -a -um, very usual or well known.

pes pedis, m. the foot; 'pedem referre', to return; 'pedibus', on foot, also by land; 'servus a pedibus', an attendant, lackey; 'pedibus ire in sententiam', to support a proposal; milit., 'pedibus merere', to serve in the infantry; 'pedem conferre', to fight hand to hand. Transf. a foot of a table, chair, etc.; a metrical foot; a measure of length; 'pes (veli)', a rope or sheet, attached to the lower edge of a sail.

pessimus; see malus.

pessulus -i, m. a bolt.

pessum, to the ground, to the bottom, downwards; 'pessum ire', to sink, be ruined, perish; 'pessum dare', to destroy, ruin, put an end to.

pestifer -fera -ferum, pestilential, destructive, injurious;adv. pestifere.

pestilens -entis, unhealthy, fatal, noxious.

pestilentia -ae, f. an unhealthy condition; a plague, infectious disease, pest.

pestilitas; see pestilentia.

pestis -is, f. pest, pestilence, plague; destruction, ruin; curse, bane.

petasatus -a -um, wearing the petasus; hence equipped for a journey.

petaso -onis, m. the forequarter of pork.

petasus -i, m. a broad-brimmed felt hat, used by travellers.

petaurum -i, n. a springboard.

petesso (petisso) -ere, to long for, strive after.

petitio -onis, f. an attack, thrust, blow; a request, application; standing for office, candidature; at law, a suit, a right of claim, right to bring an action.

petitor -oris, m. a seeker; polit., a candidate; legal, a plaintiff.

petiturio -ire, to desire to stand for election.

petitus -us, m. an inclining towards.

peto -ere -ivi and -ii -itum, to make for, go to; to attack, assail; to seek, strive after; to ask for, beg, request, demand; polit., to stand for, canvass for; legal, to sue for; sometimes to fetch, derive.

petorritum (petoritum) -i, n. an open four-wheeled carriage.

Petronius -i, m. name of a Roman gens; esp. of a satirist under Nero.

petulans -antis, impudent, pert, wanton; adv. petulanter.

petulantia -ae, f. impudence, pertness, wantonness.

petulcus -a -um, butting with the head.

pexatus -a -um, wearing a garment with the nap on.

Phaedra -ae, f. daughter of Minos, wife of Theseus.

Phaedrus -i, m. a freedman of Augustus, author of Latin fables.

Phaethon -ontis, m. the son of Helios, killed trying to drive the chariot of his father.

phalangae (palangae) -arum, f. pl. rollers.

phalangitae -arum, m. pl. soldiers belonging to a phalanx.

phalanx -angis, f. an array of soldiers in close formation.

Phalaris -idis, m. a tyrant of Agrigentum.

phalerae -arum, f. pl. metal bosses; military decorations; horses' trappings.

phaleratus -a -um, wearing phalerae; q.v..

Phalerum -i, n. the oldest port of Athens.

phantasma -atis, n. an apparition.

pharetra -ae, f. a quiver.

pharetratus -a -um, wearing a quiver.

pharmaceutria -ae, f. sorceress.

pharmacopola (-es) -ae, m. a seller of drugs; a quack.

Pharsalus (-os) -i, f. a town in Thessaly, where Pompey was defeated by Caesar in 48 B.C..

Pharus (-os) -i, f., rarely m. an island off Alexandria, with a lighthouse; hence in gen., a lighthouse.

phaselus -i, m. and f. the kidney bean or French bean; a light bean-shaped boat.

Phasis -idis and -idos, m. a river in Colchis, flowing into the Black Sea; f. adj. Phasis -idis, and Phasianus -a -um, Colchian.

phasma -atis, n. a ghost, specter.

phiala -ae, f. a drinking vessel; a bowl, saucer.

Phidias -ae, m. an Athenian sculptor.

Philippi -orum, m. pl. a city in Macedonia, where Octavian and Antony defeated Brutus and Cassius.

Philippus -i, m. the name of several kings of Macedon; adj. Philippeus and Philippicus -a -um; f. as subst. Philippica -ae, one of the speeches of Demosthenes against Alexander, or of Cicero against Antony.

philologia -ae, f. love of learning, study of literature.

philologus -a -um, learned, literary; m. as subst. a scholar.

Philomela -ae, f. the daughter of Pandion, turned into a nightingale.

philosophia -ae, f. philosophy.

philosophor -ari, dep. to philosophize, apply oneself to philosophy.

philosophus -a -um, philosophical; m. and f. as subst. a philosopher.

philtrum -i, n. a love potion, philtre.

philyra -ae, f. the inner bark of the linden tree.

phimus -i, m. a dice box.

Phlegethon -ontis, m. a river in the infernal regions.

phoca -ae, f. and phoce -es, f. a seal.

Phocis -idis, f. a district in the north of Greece; adj. Phoceus -a -um.

Phoebe -es, f. the sister of Phoebus, the Moon goddess, Diana.

Phoebigena -ae, m. the son of Phoebus, Aesculapius.

Phoebus -i, m. Apollo, the sun god; hence subst. Phoebas -adis, f. a priestess of Phoebus, a prophetess; adj. Phoebeius and Phoebeus -a -um, of Phoebus.

Phoenice -es, f. Phoenicia; m. subst. Phoenices -um, the Phoenicians; f. subst. Phoenissa -ae, a Phoenician woman.

phoenicopterus -i, m. the flamingo.

phoenix -icis, m. the phoenix, a fabulous bird of Arabia.

phonascus -i, m. a teacher of music.

phrenesis -is, f. madness, frenzy.

phreneticus -a -um, mad, frantic.

Phrixus -i, m. a brother of Helle.

Phryges -um, m. pl. the Phrygians; sing. Phryx -ygis; Phrygia -ae, f. the country of the Phrygians in Asia Minor; adj. Phrygius -a -um, Phrygian; poet., Trojan.

phthisis -is, f. consumption.

phy, interj. pish! tush!. 1

phylarchus -i, m. the head of a tribe, an emir.

physica -ae and physice -es, f. physics, natural science.

physicus -a -um, relating to physics, physical; m. as subst. a scien- tist; n. pl. physica -orum, physics; adv. physice, in the manner of scientists.

physiognomon -onis, m. a physiognomist.

physiologia -ae, f. natural science.

piabilis -e, able to be atoned for.

piacularis -e, atoning, expiating; n. pl. as subst. expiatory sacrifice.

piaculum -i, n. a means of expiating or appeasing; sacrifice; remedy; punishment; a victim; an act needing expiation, a sin, crime.

piamen -inis, n. means of atonement or expiation.

pica -ae, f. a jay or magpie.

picaria -ae, f. a place where pitch is made.

picea -ae, f. the spruce fir.

Picenum -i, n. a district in central Italy.

piceus -a -um, of pitch; pitch-black.

pico -are, to smear with pitch.

pictor -oris, m. a painter.

pictura -ae, f. the art of painting; a painting, picture; 'pictura textilis', embroidery.

picturatus -a -um, painted; 'vestes', embroidered.

picus -i, m. a woodpecker.

Pieris -idis or -idos, f. a Muse; plur. Pierides, the Muses; adj. Pierius -a -um, Pierian, poetic.

pietas -atis, f. dutifulness, dutiful conduct; piety; patriotism; devotion; kindness.

piger -gra -grum, sluggish, unwilling, slow; 'campus', unfruitful. Adv. pigre.

piget -gere -guit -gitum est, impers., it causes annoyance (or regret or shame); it disgusts; 'piget me', with genit. I am disgusted with.

pigmentarius -a -um, a seller of paints and unguents.

pigmentum -i, n. paint, pigment; of style, ornament, decoration.

pignerator -oris, m. a mortgagee.

pignero -are, to give as a pledge, pawn, mortgage.

pigneror -ari, dep. to take as a pledge; to claim.

pignus -noris and -neris, n. a pledge, pawn, security; a wager, bet, stake; a token, assurance, proof; in plur. persons as pledges of love.

pigritia -ae, f. sluggishness, indolence.

pigrities -ei, f. sluggishness, indolence.

pigro -are and pigror -ari, dep. to be sluggish.

pila (1) -ae, f. a mortar.

pila (2) -ae, f. a pillar, pier; a bookstall.

pila (3) -ae, f. a ball; a game of ball.

pilanus; see triarius.

pilatus -a -um, armed with the pila or javelin.

pilentum -i, n. a carriage, coach.

pilleatus (pile-) -a -um, wearing the felt cap.

pilleolus (pile-) -i, m. a little cap, skullcap.

pilleus (pile-) -i, m. and pilleum -i, n. a felt cap, esp. as worn by manumitted slaves.

pilo -are, to deprive of hair.

pilosus -a -um, covered with hair.

pilum -i, n. the heavy javelin of the Roman infantry.

pilus (1) -i, m. a single hair; a trifle.

pilus (2) -i, m. a division of the triarii in the Roman army; 'primus pilus', the chief centurion of the triarii and of the legion.

Pindarus -i, m. a lyric poet of Thebes.

pinetum -i, n. a grove of pines.

pineus -a -um, made of pine wood or deal.

pingo pingere pinxi pictum, to paint, to draw; to embroider; to stain, dye; to decorate, adorn; in speech or writing, to embellish, depict.

pinguesco -ere, to become fat, grow fertile.

pinguis -e, fat; oily; rich, fertile; n. as subst. fatness, fat. Transf. thick, dense; heavy, stupid; easy, quiet.

pinguitudo -inis, f. fatness, broadness.

pinifer -fera -ferum, producing pines.

piniger -gera -gerum, producing pines.

pinna (1) -ae, f. a feather; a feathered arrow; a wing; a battlement along the top of a wall.

pinna (2) (pina) -ae, f. a species of mussel.

pinnatus -a -um, feathered, winged.

pinniger -gera -gerum, feathered, winged; 'piscis', having fins.

pinnirapus -i, m. a crestsnatcher, i.e. a kind of gladiator.

pinnula -ae, f. a small wing or feather.

pinso pinsere; pinsi and pinsui; pinsum pinsitum and pistum, to stamp, pound, crush.

pinus -i and -us, f. a fir or pine; anything made of pine wood, e.g. a torch, oar, ship.

pio -are, to appease, propitiate; to venerate; to make good, atone for.

piper piperis, m. pepper.

pipilo -are, to twitter, chirp.

pipulus -i, m. and pipulum -i, n. outcry.

Piraeeus and Piraeus -i, m. the Piraeus, the main port of Athens.

pirata -ae, m. pirate.

piraticus -a -um, piratical; f. as subst. piracy.

pirum -i, n. a pear.

pirus -i, f. a pear tree.

piscator -oris, m. a fisherman; a fishmonger.

piscatorius -a -um, of fishermen or fishing.

piscatus -us, m. fishes; fishing, a catch.

pisciculus -i, m. a little fish.

piscina -ae, f. a fish pond; a swimming-bath.

piscinarius -i, m. one fond of fish ponds.

piscis -is, m. a fish.

piscor -ari, dep. to fish.

piscosus -a -um, abounding in fish.

pistillum -i, n. a pestle.

pistor -oris, m. a grinder, miller; a baker.

pistrinum -i, n. a mill; bakery.

pistris -is and pistrix -tricis, f. a sea monster; a whale, shark, saw- fish. Transf. a small fast ship.

pituita -ae, f. phlegm, rheum.

pituitosus -a -um, full of phlegm.

pius -a -um, dutiful; godly, holy; patriotic; devoted, affectionate; in gen. honest, upright, kind.

pix picis, f. pitch.

placabilis -e; pass. easy to appease; act. appeasing.

placabilitas -atis, f. placability.

placamen -inis, n. means of appeasing.

placamentum -i, n. means of appeasing.

placatio -onis, f. soothing, appeasing.

placeo -ere -ui and -itus sum, -itum, to please, be agreeable to; impers. placet, it seems good, it is agreed or resolved. Hence partic. placitus -a -um, pleasing, agreeable; agreed upon. N. as subst. what is agreeable; plur. opinions, teaching.

placidus -a -um, quiet, still, gentle; adv. placide.

placitus; see placeo.

placo -are, to soothe, calm; to reconcile, appease. Hence partic. placatus -a -um, soothed, appeased; calm, gentle, quiet; adv. placate.

plaga (1) -ae, f. a blow, stroke; a wound.

plaga (2) -ae, f. a district, zone, region.

plaga (3) -ae, f. a net for hunting; a trap, snare.

plagiarius -i, m. a kidnapper; a plagiarist.

plagosus -a -um, fond of flogging.

plagula -ae, f. a bed-curtain.

planctus -us, m. beating; esp. beating of the breast, lamentation.

plango plangere planxi planctum, to beat, strike, esp. noisily; to strike the breast, head, etc., as a sign of grief; hence plangere and pass. plangi, to bewail.

plangor -oris, m. loud striking or beating; esp. beating of the head and breast, loud lamentations.

planipes -pedis, m. an actor who wore no shoes.

planitas -atis, f. plainness, distinction.

planitia -ae, f. a level surface, a plain.

planities -ei, f. a level surface, a plain.

planta -ae, f. (1) a green twig, cutting, graft; a plant. (2) the sole of the foot.

plantaria -ium, n. pl. young trees, slips.

planus (1) -a -um, even, flat; n. as subst. a plain, level ground; 'de plano', offhand, easily. Transf. plain, clear, intelligible. Adv. plane, distinctly, intelligibly; wholly, quite, thoroughly; in answers, certainly.

planus (2) -i, m. a vagabond, a charlatan.

platalea -ae, f. a water bird, the spoonbill.

platanus -i, f. the plane tree.

platea -ae, f. a street.

Plato (-on) -onis, m. the Greek philosopher, disciple of Socrates.

plaudo (plodo) plaudere plausi plausum, to strike, beat, clap together; to make a clapping noise, clap, applaud.

plausibilis -e, worthy of applause.

plausor -oris, m. an applauder at the theater.

plaustrum (plostrum) -i, n. a wagon, cart; Charles's Wain.

plausus -us, m. a noise of clapping; approbation, applause.

Plautus -i, m. T. Maccius, the Roman comic poet, born about 254 B.C. Adj. Plautinus -a -um.

plebecula -ae, f. the common people, mob, rabble.

plebeius -a -um, of the plebs or people, plebeian; common, low, mean.

plebes -ei and -i; = plebs; q.v.

plebicola -ae, m. a friend of the common people.

plebiscitum -i, n. a decree of the people.

plebs plebis, f. the plebeians, the common people, lower orders.

plecto (1); see plexus.

plecto (2) -ere, to punish; usu. pass. plector -i, to be punished (with blows).

plectrum -i, n. a stick with which the strings of a stringed instrument were struck; a quill. Transf. the lyre; lyric poetry.

Pleias -adis, f. a Pleiad; usually plur. Pleiades -adum, f. the Pleiads, the seven stars.

plenus -a -um, full, full of (with genit. or abl.); complete; plump, thick; pregnant; filled, satisfied; well-stocked, rich; of age, mature; of the voice, strong, loud; of style, full, copious. Adv. plene, fully, completely.

plerusque -raque -rumque and plur. plerique -raeque -raque, very many, a large part, the most part; n. sing. as subst. the greater part; acc. as adv. for the most part, mostly, commonly.

plexus -a -um, braided, plaited.

Plias; = Pleias; q.v.

plico -are -ui and -avi, -atum and -itum, to fold.

Plinius -a -um, name of a Roman gens; esp. of C. Plinius Secundus (Maior, the Elder), author of a Natural History, and C. Plinius Caecilius Secun- dus (Iunior, the Younger), author of letters, etc..

plodo; plaudo; q.v.

plorabilis -e, deplorable.

plorator -oris, m. a lamenter.

ploratus -us, m. weeping, lamenting.

ploro -are, to lament, wail; transit. to weep over, deplore.

plostellum -i, n. a little wagon.

plostrum; = plaustrum; q.v.

pluit pluere pluit or pluvit, it rains, a shower falls.

pluma -ae, f. a small, soft feather; down (esp. in pl.); meton. bolster, featherbed; the first down on the chin.

plumatus -a -um, covered with feathers.

plumbeus -a -um, leaden, of lead. Transf. dull, stupid; heavy, oppressive; bad.

plumbum -i, n. lead; a bullet; a leaden pipe; 'plumbum album', tin.

plumeus -a -um, downy, of fine feathers.

plumosus -a -um, feathered, downy.

pluo; see pluit.

plurimus; see multus.

plus; see multus.

plusculus -a -um, somewhat more, rather more.

pluteus -i, m. and pluteum -i, n. a shelter; milit. penthouse, shed, mantlet; breastwork, battlement. Transf. a board, couch, bookshelf.

Pluto (-on) -onis, m. the king of the underworld; adj. Plutonius -a -um.

pluvialis -e, of or from rain; bringing rain.

pluvius -a -um, of or from rain, bringing rain; f. as subst. pluvia -ae, rain.

pocillum -i, n. a little cup.

poculum -i, n. a drinking cup, goblet; a drink, draught.

podagra -ae, f. gout in the feet.

podex -icis, m. fundament, anus.

podium -i, n. a balcony, esp. in the amphitheater.

poema -atis, n. a poem.

poena -ae, f. money paid as atonement, a fine; in gen. punishment, penalty; loss, hardship; 'poenas dare', to be punished.

Poeni -orum, m. pl. the Carthaginians; sing. Poenus -i, m. a Carthagini- an; adj. Poenus, Punicus, Poenicus -a -um, Punic, Carthaginian.

poenio; = punio; q.v.

poenitet; see paenitet.

poesis -is, acc. -in, f. poetry.

poeta -ae, m. a maker; esp. a poet.

poeticus -a -um, poetical; f. as subst. poetica -ae and poetice -es, the art of poetry; adv. poetice.

poetria -ae, f. a poetess.

pol, interj. by Pollux! truly! really!.

polenta -ae, f. pearl barley, barley groats.

polio -ire, to polish, file, make smooth; esp. to cover with white, whiten; to adorn, finish off. Hence partic. politus -a -um, polished, refined, accomplished; adv. polite.

politia -ae, acc. -an, f. the Republic of Plato.

politicus -a -um, of the state, political.

politus; see polio.

pollen -inis, n. and pollis -inis, c. fine flour, meal.

pollentia -ae, f. power, might.

polleo -ere, to be strong, powerful, able; partic. pollens -entis, powerful, mighty.

pollex -icis, m. the thumb; also the big toe.

polliceor -ceri -citus, dep. to offer, promise; perf. partic. in pass. sense, pollicitus -a -um, promised. N. as subst. a promise.

pollicitatio -onis, f. an offer, promise.

pollicitor -ari, dep. to keep promising.

pollinctor -oris, m. an undertaker.

polluceo -lucere -luxi -luctum, to offer, serve up.

polluo -uere -ui -utum, to defile, pollute, dishonor; partic. pollutus -a -um, defiled, polluted; unchaste.

Pollux -ucis, m. the twin brother of Castor.

polus -i, m. the end of an axis, a pole; the sky, heaven.

Polyhymnia -ae, f. one of the Muses.

polypus -i, m. polypus.

pomarius -a -um, of fruit; m. as subst. a fruiterer; n. as subst., a fruit garden, orchard.

pomeridianus; = postmeridianus; q.v.

pomerium or pomoerium -i, n. a clear space beside the walls of a town.

pomifer -fera -ferum, fruit-bearing.

pomosus -a -um, abounding in fruit.

pompa -ae, f. a solemn procession; a suite, retinue; display, parade, ostentation.

Pompeii -orum, m. pl. a town in Campania, destroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius; adj. Pompeianus -a -um.

Pompeius (trisyl.) or Pompeius -a -um, name of a Roman gens; esp. of Cn. Pompeius, Pompey the Great (106-48 B.C.); adj. Pompeianus -a -um, belonging to Pompey.

Pompilius -a -um, name of a Roman gens; esp. of Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome.

pompilus -i, m. the pilot fish.

Pomptinus -a -um, Pomptine or Pontine; 'palus' or 'paludes', a marshy district in Latium.

pomum -i, n. any kind of fruit; a fruit tree.

pomus -i, f. a fruit tree.

pondero -are, to weigh, consider, ponder.

ponderosus -a -um, heavy, weighty; significant.

pondo (abl.) in weight; as indecl. subst. a pound, pounds.

pondus -eris, n. weight; a weight, burden, mass; balance; authority, influence.

pone, adv. behind, at the back; prep. with acc. behind.

pono ponere posui (posivi) positum (postum), to lay, put, place, set; to put in place, settle; to put aside, lay down, discard; to lay to rest, lay out for burial; milit. to post, station; of money, etc. to store, deposit, invest; to stake, wager; of food, to put on table, to serve; of buildings, to found, set up; of laws, etc. to establish, ordain; of persons, to appoint; of an artist, to represent, picture; to reckon, count, regard; to lay down, assert, cite. Hence partic. positus -a -um, in place; 'nix', fallen snow; of places, situated.

pons pontis, m. a bridge, gangway; the deck of a ship.

ponticulus -i, m. a little bridge.

pontifex -ficis, m. a pontiff, member of a Roman guild of priests.

pontificalis -e, pontifical.

pontificatus -us, m. the office of pontiff.

pontificus -a -um, pontifical.

Pontius -a -um, name of a Roman (originally Samnite) gens.

ponto -onis, m. a flat-bottomed boat, punt.

pontus -i, n. the sea.

Pontus -i, m. the Black Sea; also the country on the shores of the Black Sea; adj. Ponticus -a -um.

popa -ae, m. a junior priest or temple servant.

popanum -i, n. a sacrificial cake.

popellus -i, m. common people, rabble.

popina -ae, f. a cookshop, eating house; the food sold there.

popino -onis, m. a glutton.

poples -itis, m. the ham, hough; the knee.

populabilis -e, that can be laid waste, destructible.

populabundus -a -um, laying waste, devastating.

popularis -e. (1) belonging to the same people or country, native; as subst. fellow countryman, adherent, partner. (2) of the people or state; popular; democratic; m. pl. as subst. the popular party, the democrats. Adv. populariter, after the manner of the people, vulgar- ly; in a popular manner, like a demagogue.

popularitas -atis, f. fellow-citizenship; an attempt to please the people.

populatio -onis, f. laying waste, devastating, plundering.

populator -oris, m. a devastator, plunderer.

populeus -a -um, of the poplar.

populifer -fera -ferum, producing poplars.

populo -are and populor -ari, dep. to lay waste, devastate, plunder; to ruin, spoil, rob.

populus (1) -i, m. a people, political community, nation; as a section of the community, the people; in gen. the people, the public; hence any crowd, host, multitude.

populus (2) -i, f. the poplar.

porca -ae, f. a sow.

porcinus -a -um, of a swine or hog.

Porcius -a -um, name of a Roman gens.

porcus -i, m. a pig, hog.

porgo; = porrigo; q.v.

porrectio -onis, f. stretching out, extension.

porricio -ricere -rectum, to offer as a sacrifice.

porrigo (1) -rigere -rexi -rectum, to stretch out, extend; to offer, grant; pass. porrigi, to lie stretched out; partic. porrectus -a -um, stretched out, extended, long.

porrigo (2) -ginis, f. scurf, dandruff.

porro, forward, further; next, again, in turn; in time, far back, long ago, or in the future.

porrus -i, m. and porrum -i, n. a leek.

porta -ae, f. a gate.

portatio -onis, f. carrying, conveying.

portendo -tendere -tendi -tentum, to indicate, predict, presage. Hence n. of partic. as subst. portentum -i, a prodigy, portent; a wonderful story, marvelous tale; a monster, monstrosity.

portentificus -a -um, marvelous, miraculous.

portentosus -a -um, extraordinary, monstrous, unnatural.

portentum -i, n. subst. from portendo; q.v.

porthmeus, acc. -ea, m. ferryman.

porticula -ae, f. a little gallery or portico.

porticus -us, f. a portico, colonnade, arcade, gallery. Transf. the Stoic school of philosophers.

portio -onis, f. a part, section; 'pro portione', in proportion.

portitor (1) -oris, m. a customs officer.

portitor (2) -oris, m. a carrier; usually a boatman, ferryman.

porto -are, to bear, carry, convey, bring.

portorium -i, n. customs, harbor-dues; any toll, tax.

portula -ae, f. a little gate, postern.

portuosus -a -um, having many harbors.

portus -us, m. harbor, port; haven, refuge.

posco poscere poposci, to ask earnestly, request, call upon; poscimur, we are asked to sing; esp. to demand for punishment, or challenge to fight; of things, to demand, require.

positio -onis, f. placing, putting, posture; 'caeli', situation, climate.

positor -oris, m. founder, builder.

positura -ae, f. placing; situation, posture; ordering, formation.

positus -us, m. position, place, arrangement.

possessio -onis, f. a getting possession or possessing; occupation, enjoy- ment. Transf. a thing possessed, possession, property.

possessiuncula -ae, f. a small property.

possessor -oris, m. a possessor, occupier.

possideo -sidere -sedi -sessum, to possess, have, hold.

possido -sidere -sedi -sessum, to take possession of, occupy.

possum posse potui, to be able; one may, one can; to avail, have influence. Hence partic. potens -entis, able, powerful, capable; influential, effica- cious; with genit. master of. Adv. potenter, strongly, efficaciously; according to one's power.

post (older poste). Adv. behind, in the rear; of time, afterwards; 'multo post', much later. Prep. with acc. behind; of time, af- ter; in rank, etc. next after.

postea, thereafter, afterwards, next.

posteaquam, conj. after.

posteritas -atis, f. future generations, posterity.

posterus (poster) -a -um, subsequent, following, next, future; 'in posterum', for the next day or for the future; m. pl. as subst., posterity. Compar. posterior -us, next, later; inferior, worse; n. acc. as adv., posterius, later. Superl. postremus -a -um, hind- most, last; lowest, worst. N. abl. as adv., postremo, at last; n. acc. postremum, for the last time; 'ad postremum', at last. Superl. postumus -a -um, the last, last-born (esp. of children born after their father's death).

postfero -ferre, to consider of less account.

postgeniti -orum, m. pl. posterity, descendants.

posthabeo -ere -ui -itum, to consider of less account, put after.

posthac, hereafter, in future, afterwards.

posthinc (or post hinc), next.

posthoc (or post hoc), afterwards.

posticus -a -um, hinder, back; n. as subst. posticum -i, a back door.

postilena -ae, f. a crupper.

postilla, after, afterwards.

postis -is, m. a door post; plur. a door, doorway.

postliminium -i, n. the right to return home.

postmeridianus -a -um, of the afternoon.

postmodo, presently, soon.

postmodum, presently, soon.

postpartor -oris, m. heir.

postpono -ponere -posui -positum, to consider of less account, put after.

postquam (or post quam), conj. after, when.

postremo, etc.; see posterus.

postremus -a -um; see posterus.

postridie, the day after, on the next day.

postscaenium -i, n. the theater behind the scenes.

postscribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum, to write after.

postulatio -onis, f. a claim, demand, application; a complaint.

postulatum; see postulo.

postulatus -us, m. a legal complaint, accusation, suit.

postulo -are, to claim, demand, request; legal, to demand a writ, or to impeach, accuse a person; of things, to demand, require. N. of partic. as subst. postulatum -i, a demand.

postumus; see posterus.

potatio -onis, f. a drinking bout.

pote; see potis.

potens; partic. from possum; q.v.

potentatus -us, m. political power, supremacy.

potentia -ae, f. power, might, ability; efficacy, potency; esp. (unofficial) political power.

potestas -atis, f. power, ability, control. Esp. political supremacy, dominion; the authority of a magistrate, office, command; concr. an officer, magistrate. Transf. opportunity, possibility, occasion; 'facere potestatem', to give opportunity or permission; 'potestas est', it is possible.

potio (1) -onis, f. drinking; a drink, a draught; esp. a love-draught, philtre.

potio (2) -ire, to put in the power of.

potior (1) -iri, dep. to get possession of, to obtain; to possess, be master of.

potior (2); see potis.

potis, pote; able, capable; 'potis (or pote) est', can, is able (or possible). Compar. potior -us, preferable, better; n. acc. as adv. potius, rather, preferably. Superl. potissimus -a -um, best of all, chief, principal; n. as adv. potissimum, chiefly, above all.

poto potare potavi potatum and potum, to drink; esp. to drink heavily; of things, to absorb. Hence partic. potus -a -um: pass. drunk, drained; act. having drunk, drunken.

potor -oris, m. a drinker; esp. a tippler, drunkard.

potulentus (poculentus) -a -um, drinkable; drunk, intoxicated.

potus (1) -a -um, partic. from poto; q.v.

potus (2) -us, m. a drinking, draught.

prae. Adv. before, in front; 'prae quam', in comparison with. Prep. with abl. before; 'prae se ferre', to show, exhibit; in comparison with; on account of, because of.

praeacutus -a -um, sharpened to a point.

praealtus -a -um, very high or deep.

praebeo -bere -bui -bitum, to offer, hold out; to provide, supply, allow; with reflex. to present or show oneself in a certain character, behave as

praebibo -bibere -bibi, to drink before, drink to.

praebitor -oris, m. a furnisher, supplier.

praecalidus -a -um, very hot.

praecantrix -icis, f. a witch.

praecanus -a -um, prematurely gray.

praecaveo -cavere -cavi -cautum: intransit. to take precautions, be on one's guard; transit. to beware of, guard against beforehand.

praecedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, to go before, proceed, in space or time; in rank, etc. to surpass, excel.

praecello -ere, to surpass, excel; 'genti', to rule over; partic. praecellens -entis, excellent, distinguished, surpassing.

praecelsus -a -um, very high.

praecentio -onis, f. a musical prelude.

praeceps -cipitis: of motion, headlong, fast-falling, quick; of character, hasty, rash, blind; of places, steep, precipitous; hence, danger- ous. N. as subst. a steep place, precipice; danger; as adv. head- long.

praeceptio -onis, f. a preconception; a precept; the right to receive in advance.

praeceptor -oris, m. a teacher, instructor.

praeceptrix -tricis, f. a teacher, instructor.

praeceptum; see praecipio.

praecerpo -cerpere -cerpsi -cerptum, to pluck prematurely; to intercept.

praecido -cidere -cidi -cisum, to cut short, lop, mutilate; 'ancoras', to cut the cables; of speech, 'brevi praecidam', I will put it briefly. Hence partic. praecisus -a -um, broken off; of places, steep, preci- pitous; of speech, brief. Adv. praecise, briefly, in few words; absolutely, decidedly.

praecingo -cingere -cinxi -cinctum, to gird in front, surround with a girdle.

praecino -cinere -cinui -centum: intransit. to sing or play before; to sing an incantation; transit. to prophesy, predict.

praecipes; = praeceps; q.v.

praecipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum, to take before, receive in advance; 'iter', to get the start; mentally, to anticipate; to instruct, advise, warn. N. of partic. as subst. praeceptum -i, a command, rule, injunction.

praecipito -are: transit. to cast headlong down; to hurry along; intransit. to fall headlong, rush down. Adv. from pres. partic., praecipitanter, headlong.

praecipuus -a -um, peculiar, special; excellent, distinguished, extraordi- nary; as legal term, received beforehand. N. as subst. praecipuum -i, preeminence, superiority. Adv. praecipue, especially, chiefly, particu- larly.

praecisus; see praecido.

praeclarus -a -um, very bright, very clear; striking, beautiful; remarkable, excellent, famous; in bad sense, notorious. Adv. praeclare, very clearly; admirably, excellently.

praecludo -cludere -clusi -clusum, to close in front, shut up, make inaccessible.

praeco -onis, m. a public crier, a herald.

praecogito -are, to consider carefully beforehand.

praecognosco -cognoscere -cognitum, to learn beforehand.

praecolo -colere -cultum, to cultivate before; partic. praecultus -a -um, cultivated, adorned.

praecompositus -a -um, composed beforehand, studied.

praeconius -a -um, belonging to a praeco or crier. N. as subst. praeconium -i, the office of a crier; hence, publishing, making known; a public commendation.

praeconsumo -sumere -sumptum, to use up beforehand.

praecontrecto -are, to handle beforehand.

praecordia -orum, n. pl. the midriff, diaphragm; the stomach; the breast, heart (as seat of passion).

praecorrumpo -rumpere -ruptum, to bribe beforehand.

praecox -cocis and praecoquis -e, ripe before the time, premature.

praecultus; see praecolo.

praecurro -currere -cucurri and -curri -cursum, to run before, go on ahead; in time, to precede; in quality, to surpass. N. pl. of partic. as subst. praecurrentia -ium, antecedents.

praecursio -onis, f. going before, running ahead; rhet. preparation of the hearer.

praecursor -oris, m. a forerunner; milit. vanguard, advance guard; spy, scout.

praecursorius -a -um, sent in advance.

praecutio -cutere -cussi -cussum, to shake before, brandish before.

praeda -ae, f. spoils of war, plunder, booty; of animals, prey; in gen., plunder, gain.

praedabundus -a -um, plundering.

praedamno -are, to condemn before; 'spem', to give up hope.

praedatio -onis, f. plundering, pillaging.

praedator -oris, m. plunderer, robber; poet. hunter.

pradatorius -a -um, plundering, predatory.

praedelasso -are, to weary beforehand.

praedestino -are, to appoint beforehand.

praediator -oris, m. a buyer of landed estates.

praediatorius -a -um, relating to the sale of land.

praedicabilis -e, praiseworthy.

praedicatio -onis, f. making publicly known, proclamation; praising, commending.

praedicator -oris, m. a praiser, commender, public eulogist.

praedico (1) -are, to make publicly known, publish, proclaim, declare; to praise, commend; to boast.

praedico (2) -dicere -dixi -dictum, to say or name beforehand; to predict, foretell, prophesy; to warn, admonish, instruct. Hence n. of partic. as subst. praedictum -i, a prophecy, prediction; an order, command; a pre- vious agreement.

praedictio -onis, f. prophesying, predicting; rhet. a premising.

praedictum; see praedico.

praediolum -i, n. a small estate, little farm.

praedisco -ere, to learn before.

praedispositus -a -um, arranged at intervals beforehand.

praeditus -a -um, endowed, furnished, provided.

praedium -i, n. a farm, landed estate.

praedives -itis, very rich.

praedo -onis, m. robber, plunderer.

praedoceo -docere -doctum, to teach before.

praedor -ari, dep. to plunder, rob; carry off.

praeduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, to lead forward, bring in front.

praedulcis -e, very sweet.

praedurus -a -um, very hard, very strong.

praeemineo -ere, to project; to excel.

praeeo -ire -ivi and -ii -itum, to go before, precede; hence to go over beforehand verbally, say in advance, dictate; to order, command.

praefatio -onis, f. saying beforehand; a religious or legal form of words, formula; a preface, introduction.

praefectura -ae, f. the office of superintendent; esp. a subordinate provincial command. Transf. a town or district governed by a prae- fectus.

praefectus; see praeficio.

praefero -ferre -tuli -latum. (1) to carry in front; to show, display; to prefer; to anticipate. (2) to carry by; praeferri, to ride by.

praeferox -ocis, very bold, impetuous.

praeferratus -a -um, tipped with iron.

praefervidus -a -um, burning hot, very hot.

praefestino -are, to hasten prematurely; to hasten by.

praeficio -ficere -feci -fectum, to set over, appoint as superintendent. M. of partic. as subst. praefectus -i, an overseer, superintendent, civil or military officer; 'praefectus urbis', governor of the city (Rome).

praefidens -entis, overconfident.

praefigo -figere -fixi -fixum, to fix in front, fasten before; to tip, point with; to pierce through, transfix.

praefinio -ire, to fix, prescribe, appoint beforehand.

praefloro -are, to deprive of blossoms; fig. to diminish, lessen.

praefluo -fluere, to flow past.

praefoco -are, to choke, suffocate.

praefodio -fodere -fodi -fossum, to dig in front of; to bury previously.

praefor -fari -fatus, dep. to speak beforehand, esp. of prayers; 'divos', to invoke.

praefrigidus -a -um, very cold.

praefringo -fringere -fregi -fractum, to break off in front; partic. praefractus -a -um, of style, abrupt, disconnected; of character, stern, harsh; adv. praefracte.

praefulcio -fulcire -fulsi -fultum, to support, prop up; to use as a prop.

praefulgeo -fulgere -fulsi, to gleam, shine forth; with dat. to outshine.

praegelidus -a -um, very cold.

praegestio -ire, to desire exceedingly.

praegnans -antis, pregnant; full.

praegracilis -e, very slim, lank.

praegravis -e, very heavy; unwieldy, wearisome; stupefied.

praegravo -are, to press heavily upon, weigh down, oppress; to outweigh.

praegredior -gredi -gressus, dep. to go before, precede; to outstrip; to pass by, march by.

praegressio -onis, f. going before, precedence.

praegustator -oris, m. one who tastes before, a taster.

praegusto -are, to taste before.

praeiaceo -ere, to lie before.

praeiudicium -i, n. a previous judgment, preliminary decision or examination; a premature decision; an example, precedent.

praeiudico -are, to decide beforehand, give a preliminary judgment. Hence partic. praeiudicatus -a -um, previously decided; 'opinio prae- iudicata', a prejudice.

praeiuvo -iuvare -iuvi, to assist before.

praelabor -labi -lapsus, dep. to glide past, before or along.

praelambo -ere, to lick before, taste before.

praelego -legere -legi -lectum. (1) to read out as a teacher, to lecture upon. (2) to sail past, coast along.

praeligo -are, to bind in front; to bind up.

praelongus -a -um, very long.

praeloquor -loqui -locutus, dep. to speak beforehand or first.

praeluceo -lucere -luxi, to shine or carry a light before; with dat. to outshine, surpass.

praelusio -onis, f. prelude.

praelustris -e, very fine.

praemando -are, to order beforehand; n. pl. of partic. as subst. praeman- data -orum, a warrant of arrest.

praematurus -a -um, too early, premature.

praemedicatus -a -um, protected by medicine or charms.

praemeditatio -onis, f. a considering beforehand.

praemeditor -ari, dep. to practice or consider beforehand; perf. partic. in pass. sense, praemeditatus -a -um, considered beforehand.

praemetuo -ere, to fear beforehand, be apprehensive; adv. from partic., praemetuenter, apprehensively, anxiously.

praemitto -mittere -misi -missum, to send before, send on ahead.

praemium -i, n. that which is taken first, the pick; a gift, award, reward, recompense; poet. notable exploit.

praemolestia -ae, f. trouble beforehand.

praemolior -iri, dep. to prepare beforehand.

praemoneo -ere, to warn, advise beforehand; to foretell, presage.

praemonitus -us, m. prediction, warning.

praemonstro -are, to point out the way; to prophesy, predict.

praemordeo -mordere -mordi -morsum, to bite off; to pilfer.

praemorior -mori -mortuus, dep. to die prematurely.

praemunio -ire, to fortify in front; to secure, make safe.

praemunitio -onis, f. fortifying beforehand; rhet. preparation of one's hearers.

praenato -are, to swim before or past.

praeniteo -ere, to outshine.

praenomen -inis, n. the first name, usually standing before the gentile name (e.g. Marcus, in M.T. Cicero).

praenosco -ere, to get to know beforehand.

praenotio -onis, f. a preconception, innate idea.

praenubilus -a -um, very cloudy or dark.

praenuntio -are, to announce beforehand, foretell.

praenuntius -a -um, foretelling; as subst. a harbinger, token, omen.

praeoccupo -are, to seize beforehand, to preoccupy; to anticipate, prevent.

praeopto -are, to choose before, to prefer.

praepando -ere, to open wide in front, extend before.

praeparatio -onis, f. preparation.

praeparo -are, to make ready, prepare; 'ex praeparato', by arrangement.

praepedio -ire, to entangle, shackle, fetter; to hinder, impede, obstruct.

praependeo -ere, intransit. to hang before, hang in front.

praepes -petis, rapidly flying, swift; m. and f. as subst. a bird, esp. a bird of good omen.

praepilatus -a -um, having a button in front (of foils, etc.).

praepinguis -e, very fat or rich.

praepolleo -ere, to be very or more powerful.

praepondero -are, to outweigh, to turn the scale.

praepono -ponere -posui -positum, to put before; to put over, set over as commander, etc.; to prefer. Hence m. of partic. as subst. praepositus -i, a commander.

praeporto -are, to carry before.

praepositio -onis, f. placing before; preferring, preference; gram. a preposition.

praepossum -posse -potui, to have the chief power.

praeposterus -a -um, having the last first, inverted, perverse; adv. praepostere.

praepotens -entis, very powerful.

praeproperanter, very hastily.

praeproperus -a -um, over-hasty, precipitate; adv. praepropere.

praequam; see prae.

praequeror -queri -questus, dep. to complain beforehand.

praeradio -are, to outshine.

praerapidus -a -um, very rapid.

praerigesco -rigescere -rigui, to grow very stiff.

praeripio -ripere -ripui -reptum, to snatch before somebody else; to carry off before the time; to anticipate, forestall.

praerodo -rodere -rodi -rosum, to gnaw off, bite through.

praerogativus -a -um, asked before others (for vote, opinion, etc.); f. as subst. praerogativa -ae, the tribe or century voting first in the comitia hence the first century's vote; in gen. a previous choice; a sure sign, indication.

praerumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum, to break off in front. Hence partic. praeruptus -a -um, broken off; of places, steep, preci- pitous; of character, headstrong, hasty.

praes (1) praedis, m. a surety, security, one who stands bail.

praes (2), at hand.

praesaepes (praesaepis) -is, f. and praesaepe -is, n. and praesaepium -i, n., an enclosure; a crib, manger, stall; a hive; a haunt, lodging, tavern.

praesaepio -ire, to block up in front.

praesagio -ire, to presage, forebode, have a presentiment of.

praesagitio -onis, f. foreboding, presentiment.

praesagium -i, n. presage, presentiment, foreboding; prediction.

praesagus -a -um, foreboding; predicting.

praescisco -ere, to find out beforehand.

praescius -a -um, knowing beforehand, prescient.

praescribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum, to write before, set out in writing; put forward or use as a pretext; to outline; dictate; to prescribe, ordain, direct beforehand. Hence n. partic. as subst. praescriptum -i, a pre- scribed limit, regulation, rule.

praescriptio -onis, f. a title, inscription, introduction; a precept, rule; a pretext; legal, an objection, demurrer.

praeseco -secare -secui -sectum, to cut in front, cut short.

praesens; see praesum.

praesensio -onis, f. a presentiment, foreboding; preconception.

praesentia -ae, f. presence; 'animi', presence of mind; 'in praesentia', for the present; sometimes power, effect.

praesentio -sentire -sensi -sensum, to feel beforehand, have a presentiment of.

praesertim, especially, chiefly.

praeses -sidis, sitting before, protecting. As subst. a protector; also a chief, ruler, president.

praesideo -sidere -sedi -sessum, to sit before; to watch over, protect, guard; to preside over, manage, direct. M. of partic. as subst., prae- sidens, -entis, a president, ruler.

praesidiarius -a -um, on guard.

praesidium -i, n. sitting before; protection, help, support. Milit., guard, escort; a garrison; a post.

praesignifico -are, to indicate beforehand.

praesignis -e, distinguished, remarkable.

praesono -sonare -sonui, to sound forth.

praespargo -ere, to scatter in front.

praestabilis -e, distinguished, preeminent; in compar. preferable.

praestans; see praesto.

praestantia -ae, f. superiority, excellence.

praestes -stitis, protecting.

praestigiae -arum, f. pl. deception, illusion, juggling.

praestituo -stituere -stitui -stitutum, to prescribe, appoint beforehand.

praesto (1), adv. present, at hand, ready; with esse, to be at hand, be ready to help.

praesto (2) -stare -stiti -stitum. (1) to stand before; to be outstanding, surpass, excel; impers., praestat, it is better, preferable. (2) transit. to become surety for, answer for, be responsible for. Transf. to perform, execute, fulfil; to show, manifest, exhibit; to offer, pre- sent; with se and acc. to show oneself, behave as. Hence partic. praestans -antis, excellent, distinguished, eminent.

praestolor -ari, dep. to wait for, expect.

praestringo -stringere -strinxi -strictum, to bind up in front. Transf., to make blunt or dull.

praestruo -struere -struxi -structum. (1) to build in front; to block up, make impassable. (2) to build beforehand, to prepare.

praesul -sulis, c. a dancer.

praesultator -oris, m. a dancer.

praesulto -are, to leap or dance before.

praesum -esse -fui, to be before; to be over, preside over; to take the lead. Hence partic. (with compar.) praesens -entis, present, at hand, in space or time; 'in praesens (tempus)', for the present time; esp., immediate, ready; effective, powerful, helpful, resolute, determined.

praesumo -sumere -sumpsi -sumptum, to take beforehand; to anticipate; to take for granted. Hence partic. praesumptus -a -um, taken for granted, presumed.

praesutus -a -um, sewn over in front.

praetempto -are, to try or test beforehand.

praetendo -tendere -tendi -tentum, to stretch or hold out; pass. praetendi, of places, to lie before or in front. Transf. to hold out as a pretext, allege in excuse.

praetento; = praetempto; q.v.

praetepesco -tepescere -tepui, to glow beforehand.

praeter. Adv. except. Prep. with acc. beyond, past; beside, contrary to, beyond; more than; except; in addition to.

praeterago -ere, to drive past, drive by.

praeterea, besides, further; after this, hereafter.

praetereo -ire -ivi and oftener -ii -itum, to go by, pass by. Transf., to escape the notice of a person; to pass by, pass over, omit; to sur- pass, outstrip; to transgress. Hence partic. praeteritus -a -um, past, gone by.

praeterequito -are, to ride past, ride by.

praeterfero -ferre -tuli -latum, to carry past.

praeterfluo -fluere, to flow past, flow by.

praetergredior -gredi -gressus, dep. to pass by, go beyond.

praeteritus; see praetereo.

praeterlabor -labi -lapsus, dep. to glide by, flow by, slip away.

praetermeo -are, to pass by.

praetermissio -onis, f. leaving out, omission; passing over, neglecting.

praetermitto -mittere -misi -missum, to let pass, let go by; to neglect, omit; to pass over, overlook.

praeterquam or praeter quam, more than, beyond; after neg. except; with quod, apart from the fact that.

praetervectio -onis, f. a passing place.

praetervehor -vehi -vectus sum, to ride by, be carried past, march past, pass by.

praetervolo -are, to fly past; to slip by, escape.

praetexo -texere -texui -textum, to weave in front, form a border; to adorn; to cover, conceal; to put forward as a pretext. Hence partic. praetextus -a -um, bordered, esp. of the toga. F. as subst. praetexta -ae, f. a toga bordered with purple, worn by magis- trates and boys; also 'praetexta (fabula)', a tragedy with Roman char- acters. N. as subst. praetextum -i, a pretence, pretext.

praetextatus -a -um, wearing the toga praetexta; veiled; licentious.

praetextu, abl. sing. m. in outward appearance; under a pretext.

praetinctus -a -um, moistened beforehand.

praetor -oris, m. leader, chief; a magistrate, esp. one who helped the consuls by administering justice, commanding armies, etc.

praetorianus -a -um, belonging to the imperial bodyguard, praetorian.

praetorius -a -um. (1) relating to the praetor, praetorian. (2) relating to any general or commander; 'praetoria navis', flagship; 'cohors', the general's bodyguard. As subst.: m. praetorius -i, an ex-praetor or man of praetorian rank; n. praetorium -i, the official residence of the praetor or propraetor; a palace; also, the headquarters in a Roman camp.

praetrepido -are, to be hasty or impatient.

praetura -ae, f. the office of praetor.

praeumbro -are, to overshadow; to obscure.

praeustus -a -um, burnt at the end or tip; frostbitten.

praevaleo -valere -valui, to be very strong; to prevail, get the upper hand

praevalidus -a -um, very strong; 'terra', too productive.

praevaricatio -onis, f. collusion.

praevaricator -oris, m. an advocate guilty of collusion.

praevaricor -ari, dep., of an advocate, to have a secret understanding with the other side, to be guilty of collusion.

praevehor -vehi -vectus sum, to ride (or run) before or past.

praevenio -venire -veni -ventum, to come before, anticipate, get the start of.

praeverro -ere, to sweep before.

praeverto (praevorto) -vertere -verti -versum and praevertor -verti -versus sum; of preference, to put first, turn first to; of early action, to anticipate, outstrip, forestall; to surprise, preoccupy.

praevideo -videre -vidi -visum, to see before, foresee.

praevitio -are, to corrupt beforehand.

praevius -a -um, going before, preceding.

pragmaticus -a -um, skilled in business; m. as subst. a person who supplied speakers with material.

prandeo prandere prandi pransum, to take lunch; to lunch upon; perf. partic. in act. sense pransus -a -um, having lunched, well-fed.

prandium -i, n. a late breakfast or lunch.

pransus; see prandeo.

prasinus -a -um, leek-green.

pratensis -e, of a meadow.

pratulum -i, n. a little meadow.

pratum -i, n. a meadow; meadow-grass.

pravitas -atis, f. crookedness, deformity; perversity, depravity.

pravus -a -um, adj. crooked, deformed; perverse; depraved. Adv. prave.

Praxiteles -is and -i, m. a sculptor of Athens.

precarius -a -um, begged for, or got by entreaty; uncertain, precarious. N. abl. as adv. precario, by entreaty.

precatio -onis, f. begging, request, prayer.

preces; see prex.

preciae -arum, f. pl. a kind of vine.

precor -ari, dep. to beg, entreat, pray, invoke.

prehendo prehendere prehendi prehensum and prendo prendere prendi prensum, to lay hold of, seize, grasp; to catch, detain, arrest; to take in, mentally or by the senses.

prehenso and prenso -are, to lay hold of, clutch at. Transf. to canvass for votes.

prelum -i, n. a wine or olive press.

premo premere pressi pressum, to press; to step on, lie on; to hug, keep close to; to press hard, squeeze; to pursue closely, press upon; to press down, strike down; to disparage, slander; to press together, close; to check, curb. Hence partic. pressus -a -um, subdued, measured; of style, com- pressed, concise. Adv. presse, accurately, precisely, distinctly; of style, briefly, concisely.

prendo; = prehendo; q.v.

prensatio -onis, f. canvassing for office.

prenso; = prehenso; q.v.

pressio -onis, f. leverage or means of leverage.

presso -are, to press.

pressus (1) -a -um, partic. from premo; q.v.

pressus (2) -us, m. pressing, pressure.

prester -eris, m. a fiery whirlwind or a waterspout.

pretiosus -a -um, costly, precious, dear; of persons, extravagant. Adv. pretiose.

pretium -i, n. worth, value, price; 'esse in pretio', to be prized; 'operae pretium', worth while. Transf. prize, reward; a ransom; a bribe; punishment.

prex precis, f. (usually plur.) request, entreaty; esp. prayer to a god; sometimes a curse, execration.

Priamus -i, m. the last king of Troy; adj. Priameius -a -um.

Priapus -i, m. the god of gardens and vineyards.

pridem, long ago, long since.

pridie, on the day before.

primaevus -a -um, young, youthful.

primani -orum, m. pl. soldiers of the first legion.

primarius -a -um, in the first rank, distinguished.

primigenus -a -um, original, primitive.

primipilaris -is, m. the centurion of the first maniple of the triarii, the chief centurion of the legion.

primipilus; see pilus.

primitiae -arum, f. pl. first-fruits.

primitus, first, for the first time.

primordium -i, n. first beginning, origin; plur. often = atoms.

primoris -e, first, foremost; at the tip; 'primoribus labris', super- ficially; of rank, first, most distinguished.

primus; see prior.

princeps -cipis, adj. first, foremost. As subst. leader; polit., often as a title of the Roman emperor; milit., plur., principes, the second line in a Roman army, between the triarii and hastati.

principalis -e. (1) first, in time or rank. (2) of a prince. (3) of the principia in a Roman camp.

principatus -us, m. (1) first place, preeminence; rule, dominion. (2) beginning, origin.

principialis -e, original.

principium -i, n. beginning, origin; groundwork, foundation; in plur., elements, first principles; polit. the tribe or curia which voted first; milit., in plur. the front ranks or the headquarters in a camp.

prior prius, genit. -oris, compar. adj. fore, former, of place or time; higher in importance; m. pl. as subst. ancestors. N. acc. as adv., prius, before, previously; formerly; sooner, rather; prius quam, or priusquam, conj., before. Superl. primus -a -um, first, foremost, of place or time; of rank, etc. first, most distinguished; '(partes) primae', the leading part; 'in primis', especially. N. acc. as adv., primum, at first or for the first time. N. abl. primo, at first.

priscus -a -um, ancient, antique; of the old school, venerable; former, previous. Adv. prisce, in the old-fashioned way.

pristinus -a -um, former, previous, earlier.

prius; see prior.

privatim, privately, as a private person, in private life; at home.

privatio -onis, f. freeing, release.

privigna -ae, f. stepdaughter.

privignus -i, m. stepson.

privilegium -i, n. a special law, private law.

privo -are, to strip, deprive; to free, release. Hence partic. privatus -a -um, as adj. private, unofficial; 'in privato', in private; '(vir) privatus', a private person.

privus -a -um, single, every; distributively, one each; particular, special, one's own; with genit. deprived of.

pro (1), prep. with abl., before, in front of; for, on behalf of, in favor of; in place of; like, as good as; 'se pro cive gerere', to behave as a citizen; as a reward for; in proportion to, according to, by virtue of; 'pro virili parte', to the best of one's ability; 'pro eo quantum', in proportion as.

pro (2), interj. oh! ah!.

proavia -ae, f. a great-grandmother.

proavitus -a -um, ancestral.

proavus -i, m. a great-grandfather; an ancestor, forefather.

probabilis -e. (1) probable, credible. (2) acceptable, good. Adv. probabiliter, probably, credibly.

probabilitas -atis, f. probability, credibility.

probatio -onis, f. proving, trial, examination; approval, proof, demonstration.

probator -oris, m. one who approves, an approver.

probitas -atis, f. honesty, uprightness.

probo -are, to make or find good; to approve, pronounce good; with dat., to recommend to; with abl. to judge by a standard; in gen. to show, prove, demonstrate. Hence partic. probatus -a -um, found good, approved; acceptable.

probrosus -a -um, shameful, disgraceful, infamous.

probrum -i, n. abuse, reproach; ground for reproach, disgrace; infamous conduct, esp. unchastity.

probus -a -um, good, excellent, fine; morally good, upright, virtuous. Adv. probe, well, rightly, properly.

procacitas -atis, f. shamelessness, impudence.

procax -cacis, shameless, bold, impudent; adv. procaciter.

procedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, to go ahead, proceed, advance, continue; to come out, go out; of actions, etc. to turn out, result; sometimes to turn out well, to prosper.

procella -ae, f. a storm, tempest, gale; in fighting, charge, onset, wave.

procellosus -a -um, stormy, tempestuous.

procer -eris, m. a chief noble, prince.

proceritas -atis, f. height, length.

procerus -a -um, tall, long; compar. adv. procerius, farther forward.

processio -onis, f. a (military) advance.

procido -cidere -cidi, to fall forwards.

procinctu, abl. sing. m. being girded or equipped; readiness for battle.

proclamator -oris, m. a bawler.

proclamo -are, to call out, cry out.

proclino -are, to bend over, incline forwards.

proclivis -e, inclined forwards, sloping downwards; 'proclive', or 'per proclive', downwards. Transf. inclined, ready, prone; easy to do.

proclivitas -atis, f. a slope. Transf. inclination, tendency.

proclivus -a -um, inclined forward, sloping downwards. Transf. inclined, ready, prone; easy to do.

Procne (Progne) -es, f. wife of Tereus, changed into a swallow.

proco -are and procor -ari, dep. to ask, demand.

proconsul -sulis, m. (also pro consule), a proconsul, one who serves as a consul, in command of any army, or as governor of a province.

proconsularis -e, proconsular.

proconsulatus -us, m. the office of proconsul.

procrastinatio -onis, f. procrastination.

procrastino -are, to put off till tomorrow, defer.

procreatio -onis, f. begetting, procreation.

procreator -oris, m. begetter, creator.

procreatrix -icis, f. mother.

procreo -are, to beget; to produce, cause, make.

procresco -ere, to come forth, arise; to increase.

Procrustes -ae, m. a robber killed by Theseus.

procubo -are, to lie stretched out.

procudo -cudere -cudi -cusum, to hammer out, forge; to form, produce.

procul, far; at, to, or from a distance.

proculco -are, to tread on, trample down.

procumbo -cumbere -cubui -cubitum, to lean or bend forward; to fall down, sink down, be laid low.

procuratio -onis, f. taking care, management, administration. Esp. (1) the office of imperial procurator. (2) an attempt to propitiate a deity.

procurator -oris, m. a manager, bailiff, agent, factor; 'regni', a viceroy; under the empire, a financial agent or undergovernor.

procuratrix -tricis, f. she that governs.

procuro -are, to take care of, look after; to manage, administer; to be a procurator; to sacrifice in order to avert evil.

procurro -currere -curri and -cucurri -cursum, to run forward; of places, to project, jut out.

procursatio -onis, f. running forward, skirmishing.

procurso -are, to run forward; milit. to skirmish.

procursus -us, m. running forward; milit. advance, charge.

procurvus -a -um, bent forward.

procus (1) -i, m. = procer; q.v.

procus (2) -i, m. a wooer, suitor; a canvasser.

prodeo -ire -ii -itum, to advance, go forward; to project; to come out, appear.

prodico -dicere -dixi -dictum, to put off.

prodictator -oris, m. one who acts as dictator.

prodigentia -ae, f. profusion, prodigality.

prodigialis -e, dealing in wonders; adv. prodigialiter, wonderfully.

prodigiosus -a -um, unnatural, wonderful.

prodigium -i, n. a prodigy, portent; an enormity, an unnatural thing; a monster.

prodigo -igere -egi -actum, to drive forth; to spend, waste.

prodigus -a -um, profuse, extravagant; rich, abounding in. Adv. prodige.

proditio -onis, f. betrayal, treason.

proditor -oris, m. a betrayer, traitor.

prodo -dere -didi -ditum. (1) to put forth, bring forth; to show, publish; to appoint. (2) to forsake, betray. (3) to hand over, deliver, trans- mit.

prodoceo -ere, to teach, inculcate.

prodromus -i, m. forerunner.

produco -ducere -duxi -ductum, to bring forward, bring out, extend; to produce, bring up, advance, promote; to divulge, bring to light; in pronunciation, to lengthen out, make long; in time, to prolong, continue; also to put off, postpone. Hence partic. productus -a -um, extended, lengthened, prolonged; of syllables, pronounced long; n. pl. as subst., preferable things (in the Stoic philosophy). Adv. producte, long (of pronun- ciation).

productio -onis, f. extending, lengthening, prolonging.

proeliator -oris, m. warrior.

proelior -ari, dep. to give battle, fight, strive.

proelium -i, n. battle, fight, strife.

profano -are, to profane, desecrate.

profanus -a -um, not sacred; uninitiated; ordinary, common, profane; impious.

profectio -onis, f. departure; source, origin.

profecto, truly, really, indeed.

profero -ferre -tuli -latum. (1) to bring forth, bring forward, offer to publish, bring to light, reveal; to produce, cite, mention. (2) to advance, bring forward, impel. (3) to enlarge, extend; in time, to lengthen; also to put off, postpone.

professio -onis, f. declaration, profession. Transf. a register of persons and property; an occupation, art, profession.

professor -oris, m. an authority, expert.

professorius -a -um, authoritative.

profestus -a -um, not kept as a festival, common.

proficio -ficere -feci -fectum: of persons, to make progress, advance; of things, to be of use, assist, help.

proficiscor -ficisci -fectus, dep. to start forward, set out, depart; to arise or spring from an origin.

profiteor -fiteri -fessus, dep. to acknowledge, confess; to profess or declare oneself anything; to profess a science, art, etc.; to make any pub- lic statement; to offer, promise.

profligator -oris, m. a spendthrift.

profligo -are, to overthrow, overcome, ruin; to lower, debase; to bring almost to an end, nearly finish. Hence partic. profligatus -a -um, ruined, degraded.

proflo -are, to blow forth, breathe faster.

profluentia -ae, f. fluency.

profluo -fluere -fluxi -fluctum, to flow forth; to proceed. Hence partic. profluens -entis, flowing; f. as subst. (sc. aqua), running water; of style, flowing, fluent. Adv. profluenter.

profluvium -i, n. flowing forth.

profor -fari -fatus, dep. to say, speak, declare.

profugio -fugere -fugi: intransit. to flee away, escape; transit. to flee away from.

profugus -a -um, fleeing, fugitive; banished; migratory.

profundo -fundere -fudi -fusum, to pour forth, shed, cause to flow; pass., profundi, to stream forth. Transf., to stretch at full length; to release, discharge; to utter; to spend, sacrifice, give up; to lavish, squander. Hence partic. profusus -a -um, lavish, extravagant. Adv. profuse, in disorder; lavishly, extravagantly.

profundus -a -um, deep, profound; high; thick, dense; boundless. N. as subst. profundum -i, depth, abyss; poet. the sea.

profusus; see profundo.

progener -i, m. a granddaughter's husband.

progenero -are, to engender, produce.

progenies -ei, f. descent, lineage; progeny, offspring, descendants.

progenitor -oris, m. founder of a family, ancestor.

progigno -gignere -genui -genitum, to engender, bring forth.

prognatus -a -um, born, sprung from; m. as subst. a son.

Progne; see Procne.

progredior -gredi -gressus, dep. to go forth, go out; to go forwards, advance, proceed.

progressio -onis, f. advance, progress; increase; rhet. climax.

progressus -us, m. going forwards, advance, progress; increase.

proh; see pro, interj.

prohibeo -ere, to hold back, restrain, hinder; to forbid, prohibit; to preserve, defend, protect.

prohibitio -onis, f. hindering, prohibition.

proicio -icere -ieci -iectum, to throw forth; to fling forward; to put forward, cause to project (pass., to project); to fling out, throw away, abandon; to defer, put off. Hence partic. proiectus -a -um, jutting forward, prominent; stretched out, prostrate; hence abject, contemptible, downcast; with ad, addicted to.

proiectio -onis, f. throwing forwards, stretching out.

proiectu, abl. sing. m. by jutting out.

proinde and proin (o and i sometimes scanned as one syllable), consequently, therefore; foll. by ut or quam, just as; foll. by quasi, ac, ac si, just as if.

prolabor -labi -lapsus, dep. (1) to glide forward, slip along or out. (2) to fall forward or down.

prolapsio -onis, f. slipping, sliding.

prolatio -onis, f. bringing forward, mentioning; an extension; putting off, deferring.

prolato -are, extend, enlarge, lengthen; to put off, defer.

prolecto -are, to entice, allure.

proles -is, f. offspring, descendants, posterity; the young men of a race; of plants, fruit.

proletarius -i, m. a citizen of the lowest class, serving the state only by begetting children.

prolicio -licere -lixi, to lure forth, entice.

prolixus -a -um, wide, broad, long. Transf. willing, obliging; favorable. Adv. prolixe, freely, willingly.

prologus -i, m. prologue.

proloquor -loqui -locutus, dep. to speak out, say openly.

proludo -ludere -lusi -lusum, to play beforehand, to prelude.

proluo -luere -lui -lutum, to wash away or off; to wash clean.

prolusio -onis, f. a prelude, preliminary exercise.

proluvies -ei, f. an inundation; scouring, discharge.

promereo -ere -ui -itum and promereor -eri -itus, dep. to deserve; n. of partic. as subst. promeritum -i, deserts, merit.

Prometheus -ei and -eos, m. Prometheus, punished for stealing fire from heaven and giving it to mankind; adj. Prometheus -a -um.

promineo -ere -ui, to stand out, jut out, project, extend; partic. pro- minens -entis, jutting out, projecting; n. as subst. a projection.

promiscus -a -um, mixed, indiscriminate, promiscuous; commonplace, usual. Adv. promisce.

promiscuus -a -um, mixed, indiscriminate, promiscuous; commonplace, usual. Adv. promiscue.

promissio -onis, f. a promise.

promissor -oris, m. a promiser.

promitto -mittere -misi -missum, to let go forward, send forth; to let grow; to promise, undertake. Hence partic. promissus -a -um, let grow, long, hanging down. N. of partic. as subst. promissum -i, a promise.

promo promere prompsi promptum, to bring out, produce; to bring forward, disclose, express. Hence partic. promptus -a -um, ready, at hand; easy, visible, apparent; of persons, prepared, resolute, prompt. Adv. prompte.

promontorium -i, n. a mountain ridge; a promontory.

promoveo -movere -movi -motum, to move forwards, push onwards, make to advance; to extend; to postpone.

promptu, abl. sing. m.: 'in promptu esse', to be ready, easy, or manifest; 'in promptu ponere', to make manifest; 'in promptu habere', to have ready or have on show.

promptus -a -um, partic. from promo; q.v.

promulgatio -onis, f. publication, promulgation (of a proposed law).

promulgo -are, to publish, promulgate (esp. a proposed law).

promulsis -idis, f. hors d'oeuvres.

promunturium; see promontorium.

promus -i, m. a steward, butler.

promutuus -a -um, advanced, paid beforehand.

pronepos -potis, m. great-grandson.

proneptis -is, f. great-granddaughter.

pronoea -ae, f. providence.

pronuba -ae, f. (1) a matron attending a bride. (2) epithet of Juno, as the goddess presiding over marriage.

pronuntiatio -onis, f. public declaration; the decision of a judge, a judgment; in logic, a proposition; in rhetoric, delivery.

pronuntiator -oris, m. a relater.

pronuntio -are, to make publicly known, declare; in the senate, to announce a resolution; at a sale, to make a statement as to defects; rhet. to declaim, recite, deliver. N. of partic. as subst. pronuntiatum -i, in logic, a proposition.

pronurus -us, f. a grandson's wife.

pronus -a -um, inclined forward, stooping forward; rushing down or past; precipitous, steep. Transf. inclined, well-disposed, favorable; easy. Adv. prone, on a slope.

prooemium -i, n. preface, introduction, prelude.

propagatio -onis, f. spreading, propagation; extension, enlargement.

propago (1) -are, to spread, propagate plants; to extend, enlarge, prolong.

propago (2) -inis, f. a layer, slip or shoot (esp. of the vine); of men and animals, offspring, race, posterity.

propalam, publicly, in public.

propatulus -a -um, open, uncovered; n. as subst. an open place, unroofed space; 'in propatulo', publicly.

prope, adv. and prep.; compar. propius; superl. proxime. Adv. near, in space or time; nearly; propius, more nearly, more closely; proxime, of time, just now. Prep. with acc. near to, in space or time; in gen. approximating to, not far from.

propediem, at an early date, very soon.

propello -pellere -puli -pulsum, to drive before one, drive forth or away.

propemodo, almost, nearly.

propemodum, almost, nearly.

propendeo -pendere -pendi -pensum, to hang down; to preponderate; to incline, be favorable. Hence partic. propensus -a -um, weighty; tending, inclined, disposed; esp. favorably disposed. Adv. propense, readily, willingly.

propensio -onis, f. inclination, propensity.

properanter; see propero.

properantia -ae, f. haste, rapidity.

properatio -onis, f. haste.

propero -are: intransit. to hasten; transit. to hasten something, to accelerate, complete quickly. Adv. from pres. partic., properanter, hastily. Perf. partic. properatus -a -um, hasty; n. as subst., properatum -i, haste; abl. properato, in haste.

Propertius -i, m. Sex. Aurelius, a poet of the Augustan age.

properus -a -um, quick, rapid, hasty; adv. propere.

propexus -a -um, combed forwards, hanging down.

propino -are, to drink to anyone.

propinquitas -atis, f. nearness, proximity; friendship or relationship.

propinquo -are: intransit. to come near, draw near, approach; transit. to bring near, hasten on.

propinquus -a -um, near, close, neighboring; similar; nearly related, closely connected; as subst. a kinsman. Adv. propinque.

propior -us, genit. -oris, nearer, in space or time (cf. prope); more like; more closely connected; more suitable. Superl. proximus (proxumus) -a -um, very near, nearest; in time, next, following, or most recent; in rank, etc., next, next best; most like; most nearly connected; m. pl. as subst. near relations or close friends.

propitio -are, to soothe, appease.

propitius -a -um, favorable, gracious.

propius; see prope.

propola -ae, m. a retailer, huckster.

propolluo -uere, to pollute worse.

propono -ponere -posui -positum, to put on view, expose, display; to publish, relate, tell; to propose, promise, offer as a reward or hold over as a threat; to imagine, put before the mind; to propose to oneself, purpose, intend. N. of partic. as subst. propositum -i, a design, purpose; the subject or theme of a discourse; the first premise of a syllogism.

proporro, adv. further, moreover, or altogether.

proportio -onis, f. proportion, analogy, similarity.

propositio -onis, f. a purpose; the subject of a discourse; in logic, the first proposition of a syllogism.

propositum; see propono.

propraetor -oris, m. (and pro praetore), a praetor's deputy; an ex-praetor, sent as a governor to a province or given a military command.

proprietas -atis, f. a property, peculiarity; ownership.

propritim, peculiarly, specially.

proprius -a -um, one's own, special, peculiar, characteristic; lasting, permanent. Hence adv. proprie, exclusively, peculiarly, characteris- tically; in a proper sense.

propter. Adv. near, close by. Prep. with acc. near; on account of, because of.

propterea, adv. on that account, therefore.

propudium -i, n. a shameful action; a wretch, villain.

propugnaculum -i, n. a fortification, rampart, defence.

propugnatio -onis, f. defence.

propugnator -oris, m. a defender.

propugno -are, to skirmish in front; fight in defence, defend.

propulso -are, to drive back, repel, ward off.

proquaestore, an ex-quaestor who helped to govern a province.

proquam (or pro quam), in proportion as, according as.

prora -ae, f. the prow, bow of a ship; poet. a ship.

prorepo -repere -repsi, to creep forward, crawl forth.

proreta -ae, f. a look-out man.

proreus -i, m. a look-out man.

proripio -ripere -ripui -reptum, to snatch, tear, drag forth; 'se proripere', to rush forward.

prorogatio -onis, f. prolongation of a term of office; deferring.

prorogo -are, to prolong; to defer, put off.

prorsum, forwards, straight ahead. Transf. utterly, wholly; in a word, to sum up.

prorsus, forwards, straight ahead. Transf. utterly, wholly; in a word, to sum up.

prorumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum: transit. to cause to break out, to thrust out; 'prorupta audacia', unbridled; intransit. to burst forth, to break out.

proruo -ruere -rui -rutum: intransit. to rush forth, to fall down; transit. to fling forward or down, overthrow, destroy.

prosapia -ae, f. family, race, stock.

proscaenium -i, n. the stage of a theater.

proscindo -scindere -scidi -scissum, to tear up; to break up fallow land, plow up. Transf. to censure, defame, satirize.

proscribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum, to make publicly known, publish; to offer publicly for sale or hire, advertise; to confiscate; to proscribe, outlaw.

proscriptio -onis, f. an advertisement of sale; a proscription, outlawry.

proscripturio -ire, to desire a proscription.

proseco -secare -secui -sectum, to cut off; to plow up. N. of partic. as subst. prosectum -i, part of a victim cut out to be offered to a god; the entrails.

proseda -ae, f. a prostitute.

prosemino -are, to sow or scatter as seed; to disseminate.

prosequor -sequi -secutus, dep. to follow or accompany out, to 'see off'; in hostile sense, to attack, pursue; in gen. to attend; to go on with, continue; to imitate.

Proserpina -ae, f. the daughter of Ceres, carried off by Pluto to the lower world.

proseucha -ae, f. a (Jewish) house of prayer, a conventicle.

prosilio -ire -ui (-ivi and -ii), to spring up, leap forth.

prosocer -eri, m. a wife's grandfather.

prospecto -are, to look forward, look out upon, survey; to look forward to, expect.

prospectus -us, m. outlook, view, prospect; sight, gaze.

prospeculor -ari, dep. intransit. to explore, reconnoitre; transit. to look out for, wait for.

prosper (prosperus) -a -um, fortunate, favorable, lucky, prosperous; n. pl. as subst. prosperity, good fortune. Adv. prospere.

prosperitas -atis, f. prosperity, good fortune.

prospero -are, to make fortunate, cause to succeed.

prosperus; = prosper; q.v.

prospicientia -ae, f. foresight, precaution.

prospicio -spicere -spexi -spectum: intransit. to look forward, look out; to take care, exercise foresight; transit. to see ahead, make out in the distance; to look towards; to foresee; to look out for, provide, procure.

prosterno -sternere -stravi -stratum, to cast down; to debase; to overthrow, destroy, ruin.

prostituo -stituere -stitui -stitutum, to prostitute.

prosto -stare -stiti, to stand out, project; to be exposed for sale; to prostitute oneself.

prosubigo -ere, to dig up, root up.

prosum prodesse profui, to be useful, do good, benefit (with dat.).

protego -tegere -texi -tectum, to cover in front; to cover over, protect; to furnish with a roof.

protelum -i, n. a team of oxen; a series, succession.

protendo -tendere -tendi -tentum, to stretch forward, stretch out.

protenus; = protinus; q.v.

protero -terere -trivi -tritum, to trample under foot, tread down; to overthrow, rout, defeat; to drive away, push aside.

proterreo -ere, to scare away.

protervitas -atis, f. boldness, impudence; pertness.

protervus -a -um, bold, impudent; in milder sense, pert; of things, violent. Adv. proterve.

Proteus -ei and -eos, m. a god of the sea, with the power of changing himself into different shapes.

protinam, immediately, at once.

protinus (protenus), adv. forward, further on; of time, continuously or immediately.

protollo -ere, to put forward; to lengthen, prolong.

protraho -trahere -traxi -tractum, to draw forward, drag out; to bring to light, reveal, make known; to compel, force; to protract, defer.

protrudo -trudere -trusi -trusum, to push forward, thrust out; to put off, defer.

proturbo -are, to drive forward, drive away; to throw down, overcome.

prout, just as, according as.

proveho -vehere -vexi -vectum, to carry forward; to carry on; to advance, promote; pass. provehi, to ride forward, drive, sail, and fig. to be carried away. Hence partic. provectus -a -um, advanced, esp. in age.

provenio -venire -veni -ventum, to come on, appear; of grain, to come up, grow; of events, to result, come about; esp. to turn out well, succeed.

proventus -us, m. coming forth, growing; product, crop; result, issue, success.

proverbium -i, n. a proverb.

providentia -ae, f. foresight, foreknowledge; forethought, providence.

provideo -videre -vidi -visum, to look forward to, see at a distance; to see beforehand, foresee; to take precautions for or against, provide for, make preparations for. Hence partic. providens -entis, provident, prudent; adv. providenter. N. abl. of perf. partic. proviso, with forethought.

providus -a -um, foreseeing; providing, taking measures for; in gen., cautious, prudent.

provincia -ae, f. employment, sphere of duty, office, esp. that of a magis- trate. Transf. a country governed by a Roman magistrate, a province.

provincialis -e, of a province; m. as subst., esp. plur., inhabitants of a province, provincials.

provisio -onis, f. foresight; hence provision, planning.

proviso -ere, to look out for, go to see.

provisor -oris, m. one who provides for or against.

provisu, abl. sing. m. by foreseeing; by providing for or against.

provixisse, perf infin. having lived on.

provocatio -onis, f. a challenge; esp. an appeal to a higher court.

provocator -oris, m. a challenger; a kind of gladiator.

provoco -are, to call out; to excite, rouse, provoke; to challenge to a contest; legal, to appeal to a higher court.

provolo -are, to fly forth, to rush out.

provolvo -volvere -volvi -volutum, to roll forward, roll over and over; 'provolvere se' and 'provolvi', to throw oneself down, hence to de- base oneself.

provomo -ere, to vomit forth.

proximitas -atis, f. nearness; close connection; similarity.

proximus; see propior.

prudens -entis, foreseeing, aware; skilled, experienced, practiced; prudent, discreet, judicious; Adv. prudenter.

prudentia -ae, f. foresight; knowledge; sagacity, discretion.

pruina -ae, f. hoar-frost, rime.

pruinosus -a -um, frosty.

pruna -ae, f. a live coal.

prunitius -a -um, of plum tree wood.

prunum -i, n. a plum.

prunus -i, f. plum tree.

prurigo -inis, f. the itch.

prurio -ire, to itch.

prytaneum -i, n. the town hall in a Greek city.

prytanis -is, acc. -in, m. chief magistrate in a Greek state.

psallo psallere psalli, to play on or sing to a stringed instrument.

psalterium -i, n. a stringed instrument.

psaltria -ae, f. a female player on the cithara.

psecas -adis, f. an anointer of hair.

pseudothyrum -i, n. a secret door.

psithia (vitis) -ae, f. a kind of Greek vine.

psittacus -i, m. a parrot.

psychomantium or -eum -i, n. a place of necromancy. 1

ptisanarium -i, n. a decoction of crushed barley or rice.

pubens -entis, of plants, in full growth, luxuriant.

puber -eris; = pubes; q.v.

pubertas -atis, f. puberty, the age of maturity; signs of puberty, growth of hair, etc..

pubes (1) and puber -eris, arrived at the age of puberty, adult, ripe; m. pl. as subst. puberes -um, the men, adult male population.

pubes (2) -is, f. the signs of puberty, growth of hair, etc.; the youth, adult male population.

pubesco -bescere -bui, to grow up, arrive at maturity.

publicanus -a -um, of the farming of the public taxes; m. as subst. a farmer of the Roman taxes.

publicatio -onis, f. confiscation.

publicitus, at the public expense, in the public service; publicly.

publico -are, to confiscate; to make public, throw open, publish.

publicus -a -um, belonging to the people, public; 'res publica' or 'res- publica', the state. Transf. universal, general; common; ordinary. M. as subst. publicus -i, a state official; n. publicum -i, public territory; the public revenue, the treasury; an open place, the open street. Adv. publice, for the people, publicly, at the public expense; all together.

Publius -i, m. a Roman praenomen abbrev. P.

pudeo -ere, to be ashamed; usually 3rd person, to cause shame; often impers. pudet; 'te huius templi pudet', you are ashamed of. Hence ger- undive pudendus -a -um, shameful, disgraceful. Partic. pudens -entis, modest, shamefaced; adv. pudenter, modestly, bashfully.

pudibundus -a -um, modest, bashful.

pudicitia -ae, f. modesty, chastity, virtue.

pudicus -a -um, modest, chaste, virtuous; adv. pudice.

pudor -oris, m. feeling of shame, bashfulness, decency, honor; chastity, purity; that which causes shame, a disgrace.

puella -ae, f. a girl, maiden; a young woman, young wife, or sweetheart.

puellaris -e, girlish, maidenly. Adv. puellariter.

puellula -ae, f. a little girl.

puellus -i, m. a little boy.

puer -i, m. a child; in plur. children; esp. a boy, a lad; 'a puero, a pueris', from boyhood. Transf. a serving lad, page, slave.

puerilis -e, youthful, boyish; puerile, silly, childish. Adv. pueriliter, childishly.

pueritia -ae, f. boyhood.

puerperium -i, n. childbirth, labor.

puerperus -a -um, of childbirth; f. as subst. a woman in labor.

puertia; = pueritia; q.v.

puerulus -i, m. a little boy, young slave.

puga (pyga) -ae, f. the rump, buttocks.

pugil -ilis, m. a boxer, fighter with the caestus.

pugilatio -onis, f. fighting with the caestus; boxing.

pugillaris -e, that can be grasped with the fist; m. pl. as subst., pugillares -ium (sc. libelli), writing tablets.

pugio -onis, m. a dagger, dirk, poniard.

pugiunculus -i, m. a little dagger.

pugna -ae, f. fight, battle; battle-line, array; in gen. contest.

pugnacitas -atis, f. desire to fight, pugnacity.

pugnaculum -i, n. a fortress.

pugnator -oris, m. a fighter, combatant.

pugnax -acis, fond of fighting, combative; obstinate, contentious. Adv. pugnaciter.

pugno -are, to fight, give battle; to struggle, contend, fight; to strive, exert oneself.

pugnus -i, m. the fist.

pulchellus -a -um, pretty.

pulcher -chra -chrum and pulcer -cra -crum, beautiful, lovely; morally, excellent, fine. Adv. pulchre (pulcre), beautifully, finely; as exclamation, bravo! well done!.

pulchritudo -inis, f. beauty, excellence.

puleium (pulegium) -i, n. fleabane, penny-royal.

pulex -icis, m. a flea.

pullarius -i, m. feeder of sacred chickens.

pullatus -a -um, clad in dirty or black garments.

pullulo -are, to shoot up, sprout, burgeon, luxuriate.

pullus (1) -i, m. a young animal; esp. a chicken, chick.

pullus (2) -a -um, dark-colored, blackish; poet. sad, gloomy. N. as subst. a dark garment.

pulmentarium -i, n. a relish.

pulmentum -i, n. a relish; in gen. food, victuals.

pulmo -onis, m. the lung (usually plur.).

pulpa -ae, f. flesh.

pulpamentum -i, n. flesh, esp. tit-bits.

pulpitum -i, n. a platform or stage.

puls pultis, f. porridge, pulse.

pulsatio -onis, f. knocking, beating.

pulso -are, to strike, beat, knock; to stir, move, affect.

pulsus -us, m. beating, blow, push; influence, impulse.

pulto -are, to knock, strike.

pulvereus -a -um, full of dust, dusty.

pulverulentus -a -um, full of dust, dusty.

pulvillus -i, m. a little pillow.

pulvinar -aris, n. a couch, esp. one carrying images of the gods at the lectisternium (q.v.).

pulvinarium -i, n. anchorage.

pulvinus -i, m. pillow, cushion; a seat of honor.

pulvis -eris, m. (rarely f.) dust, powder. Transf. arena, scene of action; 'sine pulvere palma', prize without effort.

pumex -icis, m. pumice-stone; any soft, porous stone.

pumiceus -a -um, made of pumice-stone.

pumico -are, to polish with pumice-stone.

pumilio -onis, c. a dwarf.

pumilus -i, m. a dwarf.

punctim, by stabbing, by thrusting (opp. caesim).

pungo pungere pupugi punctum, to prick, puncture, stab; to touch, move, penetrate; to sting, vex, annoy. N. of partic. as subst. punctum -i, a prick, a little hole, small puncture; a point, spot. Hence a vote; a moment of time; in speech, etc., a short clause, section.

puniceus -a -um, purple, red.

Punicus; see Poeni.

punio (poenio) -ire and punior -iri, dep. to punish, avenge.

punitor -oris, m. punisher, avenger.

pupa -ae, f. a little girl; a doll.

pupilla -ae, f. (1) an orphan girl, ward, minor. (2) the pupil of the eye.

pupillaris -e, of an orphan or ward.

pupillus -i, m. an orphan or ward.

puppis -is, f. the poop or stern of a vessel; poet. the whole ship.

pupula -ae, f. the pupil of the eye.

purgamen -inis, n. (1) sweepings, filth. (2) a means of purgation.

purgamentum -i, n. sweepings, rubbish, filth.

purgatio -onis, f. cleaning out, cleaning; excusing, justification.

purgo -are. (1) to clean, cleanse, purify. Hence to excuse, defend, justify; to allege in defence. (2) to clear away, wash off.

purpura -ae, f. the purple-fish. Transf. purple dye, purple cloth; 'the purple', = high rank, etc..

purpuratus -a -um, clad in purple. M. as subst. a man of high rank, a courtier.

purpureus -a -um, purple-colored; dark red, dark brown. Transf. clad in purple; in gen. gleaming, bright, beautiful.

purus -a -um, clean, pure, cleared. Transf. without addition, simple, plain; morally, upright, pure; of style, pure, faultless; legal- ly, without conditions, absolute. N. as subst. the clear sky. Adv. pure and poet. puriter, purely, cleanly; of style, faultlessly.

pus puris, n. corrupt matter; bitterness.

pusillus -a -um, tiny; puny; petty, mean.

pusio -onis, m. little boy.

putamen -inis, n. cutting, paring, shell.

putator -oris, m. pruner.

puteal -alis, n. stone curb round the mouth of a well or sacred place.

putealis -e, of a well.

puteo -ere, to stink.

puter -tris -tre and putris -e, rotten, putrid; loose, crumbling, friable, flabby.

putesco putescere, to decay.

puteus -i, m. a well, pit.

putidus -a -um, rotten, stinking, foul; of style, affected, in bad taste; adv. putide, affectedly.

puto -are, to cleanse, clear; of trees, to lop. Transf. to clear up, settle, esp. of accounts; hence, to weigh up, ponder, reckon, estimate; to consider, believe, think; parenthetically, 'puto' or 'ut puto', I suppose.

putrefacio -facere -feci -factum, to make rotten or soft.

putresco -ere, to become rotten.

putridus -a -um, rotten, decayed.

putus -a -um, pure, unmixed, unadulterated.

pyga; = puga; q.v. 1

Pygmaei -orum, m. pl. the Pygmies, a race of dwarfs in Africa.

pyra -ae, f. funeral pyre.

pyramis -idis, f. pyramid; hence a cone. 1

pyropus -i, m. bronze.

Pyrrhus -i, m. (1) son of Achilles. (2) a king of Epirus, enemy of the Romans.

Pythagoras -ae, m. Greek philosopher of Samos (about 540 B.C.). 1

Pytho -us, f. the old name of Delphi; adj. Pythicus, Pythius -a -um, Delphic, relating to Apollo; f. as subst. the priestess of Apollo; n. pl. the Pythian games, celebrated every fourth year in honor of Apol- lo. 1

pyxis -idis, f. a little box, casket.