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Campaigns of Alexander the Great
Map of Alexander's Campaigns
The campaigns of Alexander the Great, whose empire is mentioned as the fourth kingdom in Dan 7:23, were of great importance for Israel. With the exception of Tyre, which was still a flourishing city off shore, which withstood siege for seven months in 332 A.D., the Phoenician ports quickly surrendered.
Once resistance at Gaza was broken, the way was open to Egypt, where Alexandria was founded (331 BC). Many towns along the route of march (indicated by the circle in circle) were named for Alexander (Alexandria, Alexandre and Alexandropolis).
Alexander III "the Great" was born in 356 B.C. and died at the young age of 33, in 323 B.C., but during his life he became one greatest military commanders in all of history. His major battles are marked on the map by the fiery sun symbol. Alexander conquered the vast Persian Empire which had swallowed up the territories of earlier empires: the Egyptian, Assyrian, and Babylonian. He ruled from Greece to India, and suddenly died in Babylon. He had no heir and so His kingdom was divided among four of his generals - Syria went to Seleucus, Egypt to Ptolemy. Greece to Cassander, and Thrace to Lysimachus. These four generals were known as the Diadochoi, which means "Successors" in Greek.
The prophecies of Daniel were written 250 years before Alexander was born, and yet they describe him and his kingdom in great detail. The prophet Daniel called Alexander the Great: the "Leopard", the "Horn" of Greece, and the "Mighty King" who would swiftly conquer the kingdoms of the world. Shortly afterward his kingdom would be broken and scattered like the wind, and four weaker kingdoms would remain.
Daniel 7:6 "After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it."
The Horn of Greece
Daniel 8:5-7 "And as I was considering, behold, an he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes. And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power. And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand."
The Great Horn
Daniel 8:5-7 "The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia. And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king. Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.
The Mighty King
Daniel 11:3-4 "And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will. And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those."
Daniel was considered to be the empire predicting prophet of all the Hebrew prophets, who foretold four kingdoms upon the face of the earth that would rise after Babylon:
1. The Kingdom of the Medes and Persians
2. The Kingdom of Greece
3. The Kingdom of Rome
4. The Future Roman Empire
Alexander the Great in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
9. His Influence:
Alexander is not to be estimated merely as a military conqueror. If he had been only this, he would have left no deeper impress on the world than Tamerlane or Attila. While he conquered Asia, he endeavored also to Hellenize her. He everywhere founded Greek cities that enjoyed at all events a municipal autonomy. With these, Hellenistic thought and the Hellenistic language were spread all over southwestern Asia, so that philosophers from the banks of the Euphrates taught in the schools of Athens. It was through the conquests of Alexander that Greek became the language of literature and commerce from the shores of the Mediterranean to the banks of the Tigris. It is impossible to estimate the effect of this spread of Greek on the promulgation of the gospel. Full Article
Alexander the Great in Smith's Bible Dictionary
(helper of men--brave) king of Macedon, surnamed the Great, the son of Philip and Olympias, was born at Pella B.C. 356, and succeeded his father B.C. 336. Two years afterwards he crossed the Hellespont (B.C. 334) to carry out the plans of his fathers and execute the mission of (Greece to the civilized world. He subjugated Syria and Palestine B.C. 334-332. Egypt next submitted to him B.C. 332, and in this year he founded Alexandria. In the same year he finally defeated Darius at Gaugamela, who in B.C. 330 was murdered. The next two years were occupied by Alexander in the consolidation of his Persian conquests and the reduction of Bactria. In B.C. 327 he crossed the Indus; turning westward he reached Susa B.C. 325, and proceeded to Babylon B.C. 324, which he chose as the capital of his empire. In the next year (B.C. 323) he died there of intemperance, at the early age of 32, in the midst of his gigantic plans; and those who inherited his conquests left his designs unachieved and unattempted. cf. Da 7:6; 8:5, 11:3 Alexander is intended in Da 2:39 and also Dani 7:6; 8:5-7; 11:3,4
the latter indicating the rapidity of his conquests and his power. He ruled with great dominion, and did according to his will, Da 11:3 "and there was none that could deliver .... out of his hand." Da 8:7 Full Article
The Bible Mentions "Greece" Many Times
Zechariah 9:13 - When I have bent Judah for me, filled the bow with Ephraim, and raised up thy sons, O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece, and made thee as the sword of a mighty man.
Acts 20:2 - And when he had gone over those parts, and had given them much exhortation, he came into Greece,
Acts 21:37 - And as Paul was to be led into the castle, he said unto the chief captain, May I speak unto thee? Who said, Canst thou speak Greek?
Revelation 9:11 - And they had a king over them, [which is] the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue [is] Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath [his] name Apollyon.
John 19:20 - This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, [and] Greek, [and] Latin.
Acts 16:1 - Then came he to Derbe and Lystra: and, behold, a certain disciple was there, named Timotheus, the son of a certain woman, which was a Jewess, and believed; but his father [was] a Greek:
Mark 7:26 - The woman was a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation; and she besought him that he would cast forth the devil out of her daughter.
Luke 23:38 - And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS.
Colossians 3:11 - Where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bond [nor] free: but Christ [is] all, and in all.
Acts 16:3 - Him would Paul have to go forth with him; and took and circumcised him because of the Jews which were in those quarters: for they knew all that his father was a Greek.
Romans 1:16 - For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.
Galatians 3:28 - There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.
Romans 10:12 - For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him.
Galatians 2:3 - But neither Titus, who was with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised:
The Bible Mentions Also Mentions "Alexandria"
Acts 28:11 - And after three months we departed in a ship of Alexandria, which had wintered in the isle, whose sign was Castor and Pollux.
Acts 18:24 - And a certain Jew named Apollos, born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, [and] mighty in the scriptures, came to Ephesus.
Acts 27:6 - And there the centurion found a ship of Alexandria sailing into Italy; and he put us therein.