Glossary of Latin Terms B


babae or papae, interj. wonderful!.

Babylon -onis, f. a city on the Euphrates; Babylonia -ae, f. Babylonia, between the Euphrates and the Tigris; adj. Babylonicus and Babylonius -a -um.

baca (bacca) -ae, f. a berry, fruit; a pearl.

bacatus -a -um, set with pearls.

baccar (bacchar) -aris, n. and baccaris -is, f. a plant, perhaps sowbread.

Baccha -ae, f. a Bacchante, female worshipper of Bacchus.

Bacchanal -is, n. the place where Bacchus was worshipped; plur. Bacchanalia -ium, the Greek festival of Dionysus or Bacchus.

bacchatio -onis, f. revelling in Bacchanalian fashion.

bacchor -ari, dep. to celebrate the festival of Bacchus; as passive, of places, to be made the scene of Bacchic revels; in gen., to rage, rave like a Bacchante. Partic. bacchantes = Bacchae; see Baccha.

Bacchus -i, m. the god of wine; meton., the vine, or wine, or the Bacchic cry (Io Bacche). Adj. Baccheus, Bacchicus, Bacchius -a -um.

bacifer -fera -ferum, bearing berries.

bacillum -i, n. a little staff; esp. the lictor's staff.

baculum -i, n. and baculus -i, m. a staff, walking stick.

Baetis -is, m. a river in Spain; adj. Baeticus -a -um, relating to the Baetis; f. subst. Baetica -ae, f. the Roman province of Baetica on the Baetis.

Baiae -arum, f. pl. a holiday-resort on the coast of Campania; adj. Baianus -a -um.

baiulo -are, to carry a burden.

baiulus -i, m. a porter.

balaena -ae, f. a whale.

balanus -i, f. rarely m. an acorn, chestnut or date.

balatro -onis, m. buffoon, jester.

balatus -us, m. the bleating of sheep or goats.

balbus -a -um, stammering; adv. balbe.

balbutio -ire, to stammer, stutter; hence in speak obscurely.

Baliares (Baleares) -ium, f. pl. the Balearic Islands; adj. Baliaris -e, Baliaricus -a -um.

balineum or balneum -i, n. esp. in pl.; also heteroclite pl. balineae or balneae -arum; a bath, bathing place.

ballista -ae, f. a military engine for throwing large stones.

balneae; see balineum.

balnearius -a -um, belonging to the bath; n. pl. as subst. baths, bathing rooms.

balneator -oris, m. the keeper of a bath.

balneolum -i, n. a little bathroom.

balneum; = balineum; q.v.

balo -are, to bleat.

balsamum -i, n. the balsam tree, or its gum.

balteus -i, m. and balteum -i, n. a girdle.

barathrum -i, n. a pit, abyss; esp. of the lower world.

barba -ae, f. beard; 'promittere barbam', to let the beard grow.

barbaria -ae, f. a foreign country, as opposed to Greece and Rome; want of culture, rudeness, savagery.

barbaricus -a -um, foreign, i.e., not Greek or Roman.

barbaries -ei, f. a foreign country, as opposed to Greece and Rome; want of culture, rudeness, savagery.

barbarus -a -um, foreign, strange; uncultivated, rough, savage; as subst., a foreigner. Adv. barbare, like a foreigner; roughly, barbarously.

barbatulus -a -um, with a slight beard.

barbatus -a -um, bearded.

barbiger -gera -gerum, wearing a beard.

barbitos, m. and f. a lyre.

barbula -ae, f. a little beard.

bardocucullus -i, m. a Gallic overcoat.

bardus -a -um, stupid, slow, dull.

baris -idos, f. an Egyptian barge.

baritus (barritus) -us, m. a German war-cry.

baro -onis, m. a blockhead, simpleton.

barrus -i, m. elephant.

bascauda -ae, f. a basket.

basiatio -onis, f. kissing, a kiss.

basiator -oris, m. a kisser.

basilicus -a -um, royal, kingly, princely. M. as subst., the best cast of the dice; n. as subst., a royal robe; f. as subst., basilica -ae, a basilica, a building with double colonnades, where merchants met and courts were held. Adv. basilice, royally.

basio -are, to kiss.

basis -is and -eos, f. a pedestal, base; 'villae', foundation-wall; 'trianguli', base.

basium -i, n. a kiss.

Bassareus -ei, m. a name of Bacchus.

batillum (or vatillum) -i, n. a chafing-dish or shovel.

battuo (batuo) -are, to beat, knock.

baubor -ari, dep. to bark gently.

beatitas -atis, f. happiness, blessedness.

beatitudo -inis, f. happiness, blessedness.

beatus -a -um, partic. from beo; q. v.

Belgae -arum, m. pl. the Belgae, a warlike people in the north of Gaul.

bellaria -orum, n. pl. dessert.

bellator -oris, m. a warrior; as adj. warlike, courageous.

bellatorius -a -um, warlike.

bellatrix -icus, f. a warrior; as adj. warlike, courageous.

bellicosus -a -um, warlike.

bellicus -a -um, of war, warlike. N. as subst. bellicum -i, the signal for march or attack.

belliger -gera -gerum, waging war, warlike.

belligero -are, to wage war.

bellipotens -entis, mighty in war.

bello -are and bellor -ari, dep. to wage war, fight.

Bellona -ae, f. the goddess of war.

bellua; = belua; q.v.

bellulus -a -um, pretty, elegant.

bellum -i, n. (old form, duellum), war, fighting; 'in bello', or loc., 'belli', in time of war.

bellus -a -um, colloq., pretty, handsome; adv. belle.

belua -ae, f. a beast, large animal; as a term of reproach, monster, brute, beast.

beluosus -a -um, full of monsters.

Belus -i, m. a king, founder of Babylon. Hence f. pl. subst., Belides -um, the granddaughters of Belus, the Danaides.

bene, adv.; comp. melius; superl. optime; well, rightly, properly; 'bene

rem gerere', to succeed; with adj. or adv., thoroughly, very; as an exclamation, good, excellent; 'bene facis', I am obliged to you; 'bene facta' (or benefacta), good deeds, benefits.

beneficentia -ae, f. kindness.

beneficiarius -a -um, of a favor; m. pl. as subst., privileged soldiers.

beneficium -i, n. a kindness, favor, service; in political life, favor, distinction, promotion; also privilege, exemption.

beneficus -a -um, comp. -entior, superl. -entissimus, kind, generous, obliging.

Beneventum -i, n. a town in Samnium.

benevolens -entis, well-wishing, obliging.

benevolentia -ae, f. goodwill, kindness.

benevolus -a -um, kind, obliging, well-disposed; adv. benevole.

benignitas -atis, f. kindness, generosity.

benignus -a -um, kind, friendly, generous; of things, abundant, fruitful. Adv. benigne, kindly, generously; colloq., 'benigne dicis', much obliged (accepting or refusing an offer).

beo -are, to bless, enrich, make happy. Hence partic. beatus -a -um, happy, blessed, prosperous; well off; n. as subst. happiness. Adv. beate, happily.

beryllus -i, c. a beryl.

bes bessis, m. two-thirds.

bestia -ae, f. an animal without reason, a brute, beast.

bestiarius -a -um, belonging to animals; m. as subst., one who fought with wild beasts at the public shows.

bestiola -ae, f. a small animal.

beta (1) -ae, f. a vegetable, beet.

beta (2), n. indecl. beta, the second letter of the Greek alphabet.

bibliopola -ae, m. a book-seller.

bibliotheca -ae, and bibliothece -es, f. a collection of books, library.

bibo bibere bibi bibitum, to drink, drink in.

Bibracte -is, n. a town in Gaul.

bibulus -a -um, fond of drinking, thirsty; 'charta', blotting paper.

biceps -cipitis, two-headed.

bicolor -oris, of two colors.

bicorniger -geri, m. two-horned.

bicornis -e, two-horned, two-pronged; 'luna', the new moon; 'Rhenus', with two mouths.

bicorpor -oris, having two bodies.

bidens -entis, having two teeth. As subst.: m., a hoe with two crooked teeth; f., a sheep.

bidental -alis, n. a sacred enclosure.

biduum -i, n. a space of two days; abl., biduo, in the course of two days.

biennium -i, n. a space of two years.

bifariam, in two parts.

bifer -fera -ferum, of a tree, bearing fruit twice a year.

bifidus -a -um, split into two parts.

biforis -e, having two doors or openings.

biformatus -a -um, of double form.

biformis -e, of double form.

bifrons -frontis, with double forehead or countenance.

bifurcus -a -um, having two prongs or forks.

bigae -arum, f. pl. (and sing. biga -ae) a pair of horses, or a chariot drawn by a pair.

bigatus -a -um, stamped with the effigy of a pair of horses; m. as subst., a silver coin so marked.

biiugis -e and biiugus -a -um, yoked two together; m. pl. as subst., a pair of horses or a chariot drawn by a pair.

bilibra -ae, f. two pounds weight.

bilibris -e, weighing or containing two pounds.

bilinguis -e, having two tongues, or speaking two languages; hence double-tongued, treacherous.

bilis -is, f. gall, bile, anger, displeasure; 'atra (or nigra) bilis', black bile, i.e. melancholy, madness.

bilix -icis, having a double thread.

bilustris -e, lasting ten years.

bimaris -e, lying on two seas.

bimaritus -i, m. the husband of two wives.

bimatris -e, having two mothers.

bimembris -e, having two kinds of limbs; m. pl. as subst., Centaurs.

bimestris -e, lasting two months; 'porcus', a pig two months old.

bimulus -a -um, two years old.

bimus -a -um, two years old or lasting two years.

bini -ae -a, twofold. Hence two apiece, sometimes simply two; of things that match, a pair; 'findi in bina', to be cleft in twain; 'bis bina', twice two.

binoctium -i, n. a space of two nights.

binominis -e, having two names.

bipalmis -e, two palms or spans long or broad.

bipartitus or bipertitus -a -um, divided in two; abl. as adv., bipartito or bipertito, in two parts, in two ways.

bipatens -entis, doubly open, open in two directions.

bipedalis -e, two feet long, broad, thick or high.

bipennifer -fera -ferum, armed with a two-edged axe.

bipennis -e, having two wings or edges; f. as subst., a double-edged axe.

bipes -edis, having two feet; as subst. biped.

biremis -e, two-oared; f. as subst., a boat with two oars or a ship with two banks of oars.

bis, twice, two times.

Bistones -um, m. a Thracian people; adj. Bistonius -a -um, Bistonian or Thracian.

bisulcus -a -um, split into two parts, forked.

Bithynia -ae, f. a country in northwest Asia Minor.{2}

bito -ere, to go.

bitumen -inis, n. asphalt, bitumen.

bitumineus -a -um, bituminous.

bivius -a -um, having two ways or passages; n. as subst. bivium, a place where two roads meet.

blaesus -a -um, lisping, indistinct.

blandimentum -i, n. flattery, allurement.

blandior -iri, dep. to flatter, caress, coax, with dat. Hence partic. blanditus -a -um, charming.

blanditia -ae, f. flattery, allurement, attraction, charm.

blandus -a -um, flattering, caressing, alluring, tempting. Adv. blande and blanditer, flatteringly.

blatero -are, to chatter, babble.

blatta -ae, f. a cockroach.

boarius and bovarius -a -um, relating to cattle.

Boeoti -orum or -um, and Boeotii, m. pl. the inhabitants of Boeotia, a district in Greece to the west of Attica.

Boii -orum, m. pl. a Celtic people of north Italy, Germany and Gaul.

boletus -i, m. a mushroom.

bolus -i, m. a throw; hence the haul or catch of a fishing net.

bombus -i, m. a boom, deep hollow noise.

bombycinus -a -um, silken.

bombyx -ycis, m. and f. the silkworm, or silk.

bonitas -atis, f. goodness, excellence; esp. moral goodness, kindness, integrity.

bonus -a -um: compar. melior -ius; superl. optimus -a -um; good; in gen., good of its kind; 'nummi boni', genuine coin; 'bona aetas',youth; 'bona verba', words of good omen; 'bona pars', a good (considerable) proportion; in a particular respect of tools, workmen, etc. useful, efficient; morally, good, virtuous, honest, kind; polit., patriotic, loyal. N. as subst. bonum -i, good; in gen., profit, advantage; 'bonum publicum', the common weal; 'cui bono fuisset', for whose advantage; materially, usually pl., goods, property; morally, the good; 'summum bonum', the supreme good.

boo -are, to shout, roar, echo.

Bootes -ae, m. a constellation in the northern hemisphere.

Boreas -ae, m. the north wind; meton., the north. Adj. Boreus -a -um, northern.

bos bovis, c. (1) ox, bullock, cow; 'bos Lucas', elephant. (2) a kind of flat fish.

Bosporus (Bosphorus) -i, m. name of various straits, esp. those between Thrace and Asia Minor.

botulus -i, m. a sausage.

bovile; = bubile; q.v.

Bovillae -arum, f. pl. a town in Latium.

bovillus -a -um, relating to oxen.

brabeuta -ae, m. a judge, umpire.

bracae (braccae) -arum, f. pl. breeches, trousers.

bracatus (braccatus) -a -um, wearing breeches; 'Gallia Bracata', Gaul on the north side of the Alps.

bracchium -i, n. the forearm, arm from elbow to wrist; any limb of a living creature; any other thing like an arm, e.g. branch, spur, yard, outwork of a fortification, mole.

bractea (brattea) -ae, f. a thin plate of metal; gold leaf.

brassica -ae, f. cabbage.

breviarium -i, n. a summary, epitome.

breviloquens -entis, brief in speech.

breviloquentia -ae, f. brevity of speech.

brevis -e, short, in space or time; of water, shallow; of living things, conditions, etc., short-lived; of style, concise; n. abl. brevi, shortly, soon, briefly; n. pl. as subst. brevia -ium, shallows, shoals. Adv. breviter, shortly, briefly.

brevitas -atis, f. shortness, in space or time; of style, brevity, conciseness.

Briareus -ei, m. a giant with a hundred arms.

Britanni -orum, m. pl. the Britons; Britannia -ae, f. Britain; adj. Britannicus -a -um, British; m. sing. as a title commemorating success in Britain.

Bromius -i, m. a surname of Bacchus.

bruma -ae, f. the winter solstice; in gen., winter, wintry cold.

brumalis -e, relating to the shortest day; in gen., wintry.

Brundisium -i, n. a seaport in Calabria; adj. Brundisinus -a -um.

Brutti (Brutii, Brittii) -orum, m. the inhabitants of the southern extremity of Italy.

brutus -a -um, heavy, immoveable; dull, without feeling or reason.

Brutus -i, m. a cognomen of the Roman gens Iunia.

bubile -is, n. an ox-stall.

bubo -onis, m. the owl.

bubulcus -i, m. one who plows with oxen.

bubulus -a -um, related to cows or oxen; f. as subst. (sc. caro), beef.

bucca -ae, f. the cheek, esp. when puffed out. Transf., a declaimer, bawler; a parasite; a mouthful.

buccina, buccinator, etc.; v. bucina, etc.

buccula -ae, f. a small cheek; of a helmet, beaver, visor.

bucerus and bucerius -a -um, having ox's horns.

bucina -ae, f. a crooked trumpet or horn.

bucinator -oris, m. a trumpeter.

bucolica -orum, n. pl. pastoral poems.

bucula -ae, f. a heifer.

bufo -onis, m. a toad.

bulbus -i, m. an onion.

buleuterion -i, n. the place of meeting of a Greek council.

bulla -ae, f. a round swelling; in water, a bubble; on furniture or equipment, a boss, stud; 'bulla aurea', a golden ornament, an amulet.

bullatus -a -um, (1) inflated, bombastic, or perhaps, transitory. (2) wearing the bulla (q.v.).

bumastus -i, f. a kind of vine.

buris -is, m. the crooked hinder part of the plow.

bustuarius -a -um, belonging to the place where corpses were burned.

bustum -i, n. the place where corpses were burned and buried; hence grave, sepulchre.

buxifer -fera -ferum, producing the box tree.

buxus -i, f. and buxum -i, n. the evergreen box tree; box wood; an article made of box wood.

Byzantium -i, n. Byzantium, a Greek city on the Bosporus.