Glossary of Latin Terms C


caballus -i, m. pack-horse, nag, hack.

cachinnatio -onis, f. violent laughter.

cachinno (1) -are, to laugh aloud.

cachinno (2) -onis, m. jester, scoffer.

cachinnus -i, m. loud laughter.

cacoethes -is, n. an obstinate disease.

cacumen -inis, n. the extreme point, top, tip, zenith.

cacumino -are, to point, make pointed.

cadaver -eris, n. dead body, carcass.

cadaverosus -a -um, corpse-like.

Cadmus -i, m. the founder of Thebes; adj. Cadmeus -a -um, Theban.

cado cadere cecidi, to fall, sink, drop; 'vela cadunt', are furled; 'iuxta solem cadentem', in the west; of living beings, often to fall in death, die; hence to be destroyed, to subside, sink, flag, fail; 'cadere animis', to lose heart; with in or sub, to come under, be subject to; with in, to agree with, be consistent with; of events, to fall out, happen; of payments, to fall due.

caduceator -oris, m. herald.

caduceus -i, m. and caduceum -i, n. a herald's staff.

caducifer -fera -ferum, bearing the staff (of Mercury).

caducus -a -um, (1) falling or fallen. (2) inclined or ready to fall; esp. destined to die, devoted to death; in gen., transitory, frail, perishable.

cadus -i, m. jar or urn.

caecigenus -a -um, born blind.

Caecilius -a -um, name of a plebeian gens.

caecitas -atis, f. blindness.

caeco -are, to make blind or dark.

Caecubum -i, n. and Caecubus ager, a marshy district in Latium, famous for its wine; '(vinum) Caecubum', Caecuban wine.

caecus -a -um: act., blind, not seeing; intellectually or morally blind; uncertain, objectless; pass., unseen, hidden, obscure, dark.

caedes -is, f. cutting down, killing, slaughter. Transf., persons slain; blood shed in slaughter.

caedo caedere cecidi caesum. (1) to cut. (2) to beat, knock about. (3) to kill, slay.

caelamen -inis, n. bas-relief.

caelator -oris, m. chaser, engraver, carver.

caelatura -ae, f. the art of chasing or engraving; an engraving.

caelebs -libis, unmarried, single (of men); of trees, to which no vine is trained.

caeles -itis, heavenly; as subst., a dweller in heaven, god.

caelestis -e, belonging to heaven, coming from heaven; n. pl. as subst. things in heaven, heavenly bodies. Transf., belonging to the gods, celestial, divine, superhuman; as subst., esp. plur., the gods.

caelicola -ae, adj. dwelling in heaven; as subst. a god.

caelifer -fera -ferum, bearing the heavens.

Caelius -a -um, name of a Roman plebeian gens; 'Caelius mons', a hill in Rome.

caelo -are, to engrave or chase, to carve in bas-relief, to fashion.

caelum (1) -i, n. the burin or engraving tool.

caelum (2) -i, n. the heavens, sky, air, climate. Esp. heaven as the home of the gods; fig., heaven as the height of joy, renown, etc.

caementum -i, n. rough stone from the quarry.

caenosus -a -um, muddy.

caenum -i, n. mud, dirt, filth.

caepa (cepa) -ae, f. and caepe (cepe) -is, n. onion.

Caere, n. a very old city of Etruria; adj. Caeres -itis and -etis.

caerimonia -ae, f. holiness, sanctity; holy awe, reverence; religious usage, sacred ceremony.

caeruleus (poet. also caerulus) -a -um, blue, dark blue esp. of the sea or sky.

Caesar -aris, m. a Roman family name of the gens Iulia; esp. of C. Iulius Caesar, the general and dictator, and later of all emperors.

caesaries -ei, f. hair, a head of hair.

caesim, with cutting; fig. of style, in short sentences.

caesius -a -um, bluish gray (esp. of eyes).

caespes (cespes) -itis, m. a turf, sod. Transf. a hut or altar of turf.

caestus -us, m. gauntlet for boxers.

caetra (cetra) -ae, f. short Spanish shield.

caetratus -a -um, armed with the 'caetra'.

Caius; = Gaius; q.v.

Calabria -ae, f. the peninsula at the southeast extremity of Italy; adj. and subst. Calaber -bra -brum, Calabrian, a Calabrian.

calamister -tri, m. and calamistrum -tri, n. a curling-iron for the hair. Transf., excessive ornament or flourish in style.

calamistratus -a -um, curled with the curling-iron.

calamitas -atis, f. loss, failure, misfortune, damage, a reverse.

calamitosus -a -um: act., causing loss, destructive; pass., suffering loss, miserable. Adv. calamitose, disastrously.

calamus -i, m. reed; hence anything made of reed, e.g. a pen, a reed pipe, an arrow.

calathiscus -i, m. a small wicker basket.

calathus -i, m. a wicker basket; and of other containers, e.g. a milk-pail, wine-bowl.

calator -oris, m. attendant.

calcar -aris, n. spur.

calceamentum -i, n. covering for the foot.

calceo -are, to shoe, provide with shoes.

calceus -i, m. shoe.

calcitro -are, to kick; to resist obstinately.

calco -are, to tread, trample on.

calculus -i, m. a little stone, pebble. Esp. a piece used in the Roman game of draughts; a voting pebble; a counter for reckoning; hence a calculation.

caldus; = calidus; q.v.

Caledonia -ae, f. the highlands of Scotland; adj. Caledonius -a -um.

calefacio (calfacio) -facere -feci -factum, pass. calefio, etc., to make warm, heat; to disturb, excite.

calefacto -are, to make warm, heat.

Calendae; = Kalendae; q.v.

caleo -ere -ui, to be warm, to glow; of feeling, etc. to be inflamed, aroused, excited.

calesco -ere, to become warm, grow hot.

calidus (caldus) -a -um, warm, hot; fiery, passionate. F. sing. as subst., calida (calda) -ae, warm water; n. sing. calidum -i, warm wine and water.

caliendrum -i, n. a lady's wig.

caliga -ae, f. a stout shoe or boot (esp. a soldier's).

caligatus -a -um, wearing heavy boots; m. as subst., a private soldier.

caliginosus -a -um, foggy, misty, dark.

caligo (1) -inis, f. fog, mist, darkness. Transf., mental darkness, dullness; calamity, affliction, gloom.

caligo (2) -are: transit., to spread a dark mist around, to make dizzy; intransit., to be dark, misty.

Caligula -ae, m. a little soldier's shoe; nickname given by the soldiers to the emperor Gaius.

calix -icis, m. a drinking or cooking vessel.

calleo -ere, to be thick-skinned. Transf.: intransit., to be practiced, experienced; transit., to know by experience, understand.

calliditas -atis, f. expertness, cleverness.

callidus -a -um, experienced, clever, dexterous, skillful; in bad sense, cunning, subtle, sly. Adv. callide.

Calliope -es and Calliopea -ae, f. Calliope, the Muse of epic poetry.

callis -is, m. or f. narrow track, footpath, cattle track.

callosus -a -um, hard-skinned, solid.

callum -i, n. hard skin or flesh; toughness, insensibility.

calo (1) -are, to call, summon.

calo (2) -onis, m. a soldier's servant; in gen., a drudge.

calor -oris, m. warmth, heat, glow; passion, excitement.

Calpurnius -a -um, name of a Roman plebeian gens.

caltha -ae, f. a plant, prob. marigold.

calumnia -ae, f. trick, artifice, chicanery, craft; at law, a false accusation, or an action for false accusation.

calumniator -oris, m. a false accuser, pettifogger.

calumnior -ari, dep. to accuse falsely, misrepresent; in gen., to practice trickery.

calva -ae, f. the bald scalp of the head.

calvities -ei, f. baldness.

calvitium -i, n. baldness.

calvus -a -um, bald, without hair.

calx (1) -cis, f. the heel.

calx (2) -cis, f. rarely m. a stone, pebble; collectively,lime, chalk; meton., a goal (marked with chalk), an end.

Calypso -us, f. a nymph who entertained Ulysses.

camella -ae, f. a goblet.

camelus -i, m. and f. a camel or dromedary.

Camena -ae, f. usually pl., Latin goddesses of poetry, identified with the Greek Muses.

camera (camara) -ae, f. a vaulted chamber, vault; a flat covered boat.

Camillus -i, m. cognomen of several members of the gens Furia.

caminus -i, m. a forge, fireplace, fire.

cammarus -i, m. a crustacean, perhaps crayfish.

Campania -ae, f. a district of Central Italy.

campester -tris -tre: in gen., on level ground, flat; esp. relating to the Campus Martius and its exercises and elections. M. sing. as subst., a loin-cloth worn by wrestlers; n. pl. as subst., a plain.

campus -i, m. a level space, plain, field; esp. of the Campus Martius at Rome, as a place for various exercises, and for meetings of the comitia. Transf., any free space, field, or theater of action; any level surface; poet., the sea.

Camulodunum -i, n. a town in Britain (now Colchester).

camur -a -um, hooked, curved.

canalis -is, m. waterpipe, channel, canal.

cancelli -orum, m. pl. lattice, railing, grating. Transf., bounds, limits.

cancer -cri, m. crab; a sign of the Zodiac; meton., the south, or summer heat; the disease cancer.

candela -ae, f., a wax or tallow candle, taper; a cord coated with wax.

candelabrum -i, n. a candle-stick.

candeo -ere -ui, to shine white, glitter or glow with heat.

candesco -ere -ui, to begin to shine or glow.

candidatorius -a -um, relating to a candidate.

candidatus -a -um, clothed in white; as subst. a candidate for office.

candidulus -a -um, shining, dazzling.

candidus -a -um, shining white; of persons, with the suggestion of beauty, fair. Transf., of time or fortune, happy; of writing, clear, lucid; of character, honest, straightforward; of dress, clothed in white; 'sententia candida', a vote for acquittal. N. as subst. candidum -i, white color. Adv. candide, in white; clearly, candidly.

candor -oris, m. shining whiteness, luster; of character, sincerity, candor; of writing, clarity, simplicity.

caneo -ere -ui, to be white or hoary.

canesco -ere, to become white or hoary; hence to become old.

canicula -ae, f. little bitch sometimes a term of abuse. Transf., Dog- star, Sirius; the worst throw at dice.

caninus -a -um, of a dog, canine. Transf. snarling, spiteful;'littera', the letter R.

canis -is, f. dog, hound; of persons, as a term of abuse; in dice, the worst throw.

canistra -orum, n. pl. baskets.

canities -ei, f. whitish-gray color, esp. of the hair; meton., gray hair, old age.

canna -ae, f. reed. Transf., a reed pipe; a small boat.

cannabis -is, f. and cannabum -i, n. hemp.

Cannae -arum, f. pl. town in Apulia, where Hannibal defeated the Romans (216 B.C.). Adj. Cannensis -e.

cano canere cecini cantum, to sing or play. Intransit. to sing; of cocks, to crow; of frogs, to croak; also (with abl.), to play on an instrument; 'canere receptui', to sound the signal for retreat; of instruments, to sound. Transit.: (1) to sing with the voice.(2) to sing of, celebrate in song. (3) to sound or play an instrument. (4) to prophesy.

canor -oris, m. melody, song, sound.

canorus -a -um, melodious, harmonious, sweet-sounding; n. as subst., harmonious sound.

Cantabria -ae, f. a region in northwest Spain.

cantamen -inis, n. incantation.

cantharis -idis, f. a beetle; esp. the Spanish fly.

cantharus -i, m. a tankard; a sea-fish, the black bream.

cantherius -i, m. a gelding, nag.

canthus -i, m. the tire of a wheel.

canticum -i, n. a scene in Roman comedy, accompanied by music and dancing; a song; sing-song delivery in an orator.

cantilena -ae, f. an old song, twaddle, chatter.

cantio -onis, f. a song; an incantation, enchantment.

cantito -are, to sing or play often.

Cantium -i, n. a district in Britain (now Kent).

cantiuncula -ae, f. a flattering song.

canto -are -avi -atum, to sing or play. Intransit., of persons,to sing; of cocks, to crow; also to play on an instrument; of instruments, to sound. Transit. (1) to sing. (2) to sing of, celebrate, continually mention. (3) to predict.

cantor -oris, m. a singer, poet, musician; an actor.

cantus -us, m. song, melody, music, poetry; prophecy; incantation.

canus -a -um, whitish-gray; hence aged; m. pl. as subst.,gray hair.

capacitas -atis, f. breadth, capacity.

capax -acis, able to hold, broad, wide, roomy. Transf., receptive, able to grasp, capable, fit for.

capedo -inis, f. a bowl used in sacrifices.

capella -ae, f. a she-goat; a star in the constellation Auriga.

Capena -ae, f. a town in Etruria;: adj. Capenus -a -um; 'porta Capena', a gate in Rome at the beginning of the Via Appia.

caper -pri, m. he-goat.

capesso -ere -ivi and -ii -itum, to seize, grasp eagerly: of places, to strive to reach, to make for; of business, etc., to take up, undertake; 'rempublicam', to enter public life.

capillatus -a -um, hairy, having hair.

capillus -i, m. a hair; usually pl., or collect. sing., the hair of the head or beard.

capio capere cepi captum, to take. (1) in gen., to take, seize; of places, to choose, reach, or take possession of; of business, opportunities, etc. to take up, take in hand, adopt; of persons, to choose. (2) to catch, take in a violent or hostile manner; hence to attack, injure; pass. capi, to be injured or diseased; 'oculis et auribus captus', blind and deaf; also to charm, captivate, take in; at law, to convict. (3) to receive, esp. of money; in gen., to suffer, undergo, take on. (4) to take in, hold, contain, keep in; mentally, to grasp, comprehend.

capis -idis, f. a one-handled vessel.

capistro -are, to fasten with a halter.

capistrum -i, n. a halter.

capitalis -e, relating to the head, or to life. Transf., deadly, mortal; first, chief, distinguished. N. as subst. capital and capitale, a capital crime.

capito -onis, m. a man with a large head.

Capitolium -i, n. the temple of Jupiter at Rome, the Capitol; adj. Capitolinus -a -um; m. pl. as subst., superintendents of games in honor of Jupiter Capitolinus.

capitulum -i, n. a little head.

Cappadocia -ae, f. a district in Asia Minor.

capra -ae, f. a she-goat; also a star in the constellation Auriga.

caprea -ae, f. a roe.

Capreae -arum, f. pl. a small island off the Campanian coast (now Capri).

capreolus -i, m. a roebuck; in plur., props, supports.

capricornus -i, m. Capricorn, a sign of the Zodiac.

caprificus -i, f. the wild fig tree, and its fruit.

caprigenus -a -um, born of goats.

caprimulgus -i, m. goat-milker -- i.e. a countryman.

caprinus -a -um, relating to a goat.

capripes -pedis, goat-footed.

capsa -ae, f. a box or case, esp. for books.

capsarius -i, m. a slave who carried his young master's satchel.

capsula -ae, f. a little chest.

captatio -onis, f. an eager seizing; 'verborum', quibbling.

captator -oris, m. one who eagerly seizes; esp. a legacy-hunter.

captio -onis, f. (1) a cheat, deception. (2) harm, loss. (3) a fallacy, sophism.

captiosus -a -um, deceitful; captious; n. pl. as subst. sophistries. Adv. captiose.

captiuncula -ae, f. fallacy, quibble.

captivitas -atis, f. captivity, capture; collectively, a number of captives.

captivus -a -um, captured, taken esp. in war. Transf., of a prisoner. M. and f. as subst., a prisoner, captive.

capto -are, to seize, catch at; in gen., to strive after, desire, seek.

captus -us, m. catching, taking; hence power or manner of comprehension, idea.

Capua -ae, f. chief town of Campania.

capulus -i, m. (1) a coffin. (2) a handle;esp. the hilt of a sword.

caput -itis, n. the head; meton., a living individual, esp. of human beings, a person; also a person's life, existence; esp., in Rome, a man's political and social rights. Transf., of lifeless things, the top, summit, extremity; of rivers, etc., the source; of persons and things, the head, leader, chief, headquarters, chief point; of places, the capital.

carbaseus -a -um, made of canvas.

carbasus -i, f.: heteroclite pl. carbasa -orum, n.; flax; meton., anything made of flax, e.g. garments, curtains, sails.

carbo -onis, m. burning or burnt wood.

carbonarius -i, m. a charcoal burner.

carcer -eris, m. prison, cell; in plur., carceres, the starting-place of a race-course.

carchesium -i, n. a goblet with handles. Transf., the top of a mast, scuttle.

cardiacus -a -um, pertaining to the stomach; m. as subst., one who suffers from a disease of the stomach.

cardo -inis, m. a hinge; any pole or pivot: 'cardo duplex', the ends of the earth's axis; a cardinal point, main consideration.

carduus -i, m. a thistle.

carectum -i, n. a sedgy spot.

careo -ere -ui, to be without (with abl.); of a place, to absent oneself from.

carex -icis, f. rush, sedge.

caries, acc. -em, abl. -e, f. rottenness, decay.

carina -ae, f. the keel of a ship; meton., a ship, vessel.

cariosus -a -um, rotten, decayed.

caris -idis, f. a kind of crab.

caritas -atis, f. dearness, high price; esp. high cost of living. Transf., affection, love, esteem.

carmen -inis, n. a song, tune, vocal or instrumental; a poem, poetry, verse; a prediction; an incantation; a religious or legal formula.

Carmentis -is, and Carmenta -ae, f. a prophetess, mother of Evander; adj. Carmentalis -e.

carnifex -ficis, m. an executioner, hangman.

carnificina -ae, f. the work of a hangman; execution, torture.

carnifico -are, to behead, or mangle.

caro (1) -ere, to card.

caro (2) carnis, f. flesh.

carpentum -i, n. a two-wheeled carriage.

carpo carpere carpsi carptum, to pluck, pull off, select, choose out; and so to enjoy; of animals, to graze. Transf., to proceed on a journey; to pass over a place; to carp at, slander a person; to weaken, annoy, harass an enemy; to break up, separate, divide forces.

carptim,in pieces, in small parts; in different places; at different times.

carptor -oris, m. one who carves food.

carruca -ae, f. a four-wheeled carriage.

carrus -us, m. a four-wheeled baggage-wagon.

Carthago (Karthago) -inis, f. (1) the city of Carthage in N. Africa. (2) Carthago (Nova), a colony of the Carthaginians in Spain (now Cartagena). Adj. Carthaginiensis -e.

caruncula -ae, f. a small piece of flesh.

carus -a -um, adj. high-priced, dear, costly. Transf. dear, beloved.

casa -ae, f. hut, cottage, cabin.

caseolus -i, m. a little cheese.

caseus -i, m. cheese.

casia -ae, f. (1) a tree with an aromatic bark, like cinnamon. (2) the sweet-smelling mezereon.

Cassandra -ae, f. a prophetess, daughter of Priam.

casses -ium, m. pl. a net; a trap, snare; also a spider's web.

cassida -ae, f.; = cassis; q.v.

Cassiope -es, f. mother of Andromeda.

cassis -idis and cassida -ae, f. a metal helmet.

Cassius -a -um, the name of a Roman gens; adj. Cassianus -a -um.

cassus -a -um, empty, hollow ; with abl., devoid of. Transf., worthless, useless, vain; 'in cassum' or incassum as adv., in vain.

Castalia -ae, f. a spring on Mount Parnassus, sacred to Apollo and the Muses.

castanea -ae, f. a chestnut or chestnut tree.

castellanus -a -um, relating to a fortress; m. pl. as subst., the garrison of a fortress.

castellatim, in single fortresses.

castellum -i, n. a castle, fortress, fort; a shelter, refuge.

castigatio -onis, f. punishment, reproof.

castigator -oris, m. one who reproves or corrects.

castigo -are, to reprove, chasten, punish; to check, restrain. Hence partic. castigatus -a -um, restrained, orderly, neat.

castimonia -ae, f. purity.

castitas -atis, f. chastity.

castor -oris, m. the beaver.

Castor -oris, m. twin brother of Pollux. Hence, ecastor and mecastor, By Castor!.

castoreum -i, n. an aromatic excretion obtained from the beaver.

castrensis -e, pertaining to a camp.

castro -are, to castrate, enervate, weaken.

castrum -i, n.: sing., a castle, fort, fortress; plur. castra -orum, a camp, encampment; 'aestiva', summer quarters; 'hiberna', winter quarters. Transf., a day's march; martial service; a party, faction.

castus -a -um, clean, pure, chaste; with reference to religion, pious, religious, holy. Adv. caste, purely, piously, religiously.

casula -ae, f. a little hut, cottage.

casus -us, m. a falling, fall. Transf.: (1) what befalls, an accident, event, occurrence. (2) occasion, opportunity. (3) destruction, downfall, collapse; and, in gen., end. (4) in grammar, a case.

cataphractes -ae, m. a breastplate of iron scales.

cataphractus -a -um, mail-clad.

cataplus -i, m. the arrival of a ship; a ship that is arriving.

catapulta -ae, f. an engine of war, a catapult.

cataracta (catarracta) -ae, f. and cataractes -ae, m. a waterfall; a sluice or floodgate; a portcullis.

catasta -ae, f. a stage upon which slaves were exposed in the market.

cateia -ae, f. a kind of spear.

catella (1) -ae, f. a little dog, puppy.

catella (2) -ae, f. a little chain.

catellus (1) -i, m. a little dog, puppy.

catellus (2) -i, m. a little chain.

catena -ae, f. a chain, fetter. Transf.,(1) restraint.(2) a series.

catenatus -a -um, chained, bound, linked together; 'labores', continuous.

caterva -ae, f. crowd, troop, flock.

catervatim, in troops, in masses.

cathedra -ae, f. a chair; esp. a soft one for ladies, or one occupied by a professor.

Catilina -ae, m. L. Sergius, a Roman noble, killed at the head of a conspiracy in 62 B.C.. Hence adj. Catilinarius -a -um.

catillus -i, m. a small dish or plate.

catinus -i, m. a deep dish or bowl.

Cato -onis, m. a cognomen belonging to members of the gens Porcia; adj. Catonianus -a -um; subst. Catonini -orum. the party of M. Porcius Cato Uticensis, the younger Cato.

Catonium -i, n. the lower world (with a play on the word Cato).

Catullus -i, m. C. Valerius (c. 85-55 B.C.), the Roman lyric and epigrammatic poet.

catulus -i, m. a young animal, esp. a whelp, puppy.

catus -a -um, sharp, cunning; adv. cate.

cauda (coda) -ae, f. the tail of an animal.

caudex; = codex; q.v.

Caudium -i, n. an old city in Samnium, near the pass of the Caudine Forks. Adj. Caudinus -a -um.

caulae -arum, f. pl. a hole, opening; a sheep-fold.

caulis -is, m. the stalk of a plant; esp. of a cabbage.

caupo -onis, m. a small shopkeeper or inn-keeper.

caupona -ae, f. a tavern, inn.

cauponor -ari, dep. to trade.

cauponula -ae, f. a little inn.

Caurus (Corus) -i, m. the northwest wind.

causa (caussa) -ae, f. a cause, in all senses of the English word. (1) a reason, motive, pretext. (2) interest; abl., causa, on account of, for the sake of, with genit., mea, etc. (3) a case at law, law-suit, claim, contention; 'causam dicere', to plead. (4) situation, condition, case.

causarius -a -um, sickly, diseased; m. pl., milit., men invalided out of the army.

causidicus -i, m. an advocate, barrister (often used contemptuously).

causor -ari, dep. to give as a reason, or pretext; to plead, pretend.

causula -ae, f. a little cause or case.

cautes -is, f. a rough sharp rock.

cautio -onis, f. caution, care, foresight, precaution; legal, security, bail, bond.

cautor -oris, m. one who is on his guard, or who gives bail for another.

cautus -a -um, partic. from caveo; q.v.

cavaedium -i, n. an inner quadrangle.

cavea -ae, f. a hollow place, cavity. Esp. an enclosure, den, cage; the seats in a theater.

caveo cavere cavi cautum, to be on one's guard; with acc. to be on one's guard against; 'cave ignoscas', take care not to forgive; with ut and the subj., to take care that; with dat. of person, to take care for, provide for. Commercial and legal, to give security or to get security; also to provide, order, in a will, treaty or law. Hence partic. cautus -a -um: of persons, etc., cautious, wary, careful; of property, made safe, secured. Adv. caute, cautim, cautiously or with security.

caverna -ae, f. a hollow place, cavern; 'navis', the hold; 'caeli', the vault of heaven.

cavillatio -onis, f. raillery, jesting, irony. Transf., a quibbler.

cavillor -ari, dep. to jest, joke, satirize. Transf., to quibble.

cavo -are, to hollow out, excavate, pierce.

cavum -i, n. and cavus -i, m. a hollow, hole, cavity.

cavus -a -um, hollow, concave.

ce, a demonstrative particle joined on to pronouns and adverbs- e.g. hisce.

Cecrops -opis, m. the mythical first king of Athens; adj. Cecropius -a -um, Cecropian, Athenian.

cedo (1) cedere cessi cessum, to go, proceed: of things, to turn out, happen; to fall to the lot of a person; to change into something else; to go away, withdraw, retire; with dat., to give ground to, submit to, hence to be inferior to; transit., to grant, yield.

cedo (2) and plur. cette, colloquial imperat., give, hand over, out with it!.

cedrus -i, f. the cedar; meton. cedarwood or cedar oil.

celator -oris, m. a concealer.

celeber -bris -bre, filled, crowded; of places, frequented; of occasions, well attended; of sayings, often repeated; of persons and things, celebrated, famous, renowned.

celebratio -onis, f. a numerous assembly or attendance.

celebrator -oris, m. one who praises.

celebritas -atis, f. a crowd, multitude, numerous attendance; of a festival, celebration; in gen., fame, renown.

celebro -are, to visit frequently, or in large numbers; to fill; to celebrate, solemnize; to publish, make known; to sing the praise of, to honor; to practice often, repeat, exercise. Hence partic. celebratus -a -um: of places, much frequented: of festivals, kept solemn, festive; in gen., famous, celebrated.

celer -eris -ere, swift, quick, rapid; in a bad sense, hasty, rash. Adv. celere and celeriter.

Celeres -um, m.early name for Roman nobles, esp. the bodyguard of the kings

celeripes -edis, swift-footed.

celeritas -atis, f. quickness, swiftness.

celero -are: transit., to make quick, accelerate; intransit. to hasten.

cella -ae, f. a room; esp. a storeroom, or a garret, mean apartment; in a temple, the shrine of the god's image.

cellarius -a -um, of a storeroom; as subst. a cellarer.

celo -are, to hide, conceal, keep secret.

celox -ocis, swift, quick; f. as subst. a swift vessel, yacht.

celsus -a -um, upraised, lofty, elevated; in bad sense, proud, haughty.

Celtae -arum, m. pl. the Celts, esp. those of central Gaul. Adj. Celticus -a -um.

Celtiberi -orum, m. the Celtiberians, a people in the middle of Spain.

cena -ae, f. dinner, the main Roman meal; meton., a dish or course at a dinner.

cenaculum -i, n. a garret, attic.

cenatio -onis, f. a dining-hall.

cenatorius -a -um, relating to dinner; n. pl. as subst. clothes to dine in.

cenito -are, to dine often.

ceno -are: intransit. to dine, sup; transit. to dine on, to eat. Perf. partic. with middle meaning, cenatus, having dined, after dinner.

censeo censere censui censum, to estimate, to form or express an opinion or valuation of a person or thing; esp. of the censor at Rome, to take an account of the names and property of Roman citizens. In gen., to express an opinion, be of the opinion, vote, advise, recommend; of the senate, to resolve.

censor -oris, m. the censor, a Roman magistrate. Transf., a severe judge, rigid moralist.

censorius -a -um, relating to the censor; 'homo', an ex-censor; 'tabulae', the censor's lists. Transf., rigid, severe.

censura -ae, f. the censor's office, censorship. Transf., judgement.

census -us, m.the census, an enrolment of names and assessment of property. Transf., the censor's list; the amount of property necessary for enrolment in a certain rank; in gen., property, wealth.

centaureum and centaurium -i, n. the plant centaury.

Centaurus -i, m., a centaur, i.e. a monster of Thessaly, half man and half horse.

centeni -ae -a (poet. also sing.), a hundred together, a hundred each.

centesimus -a -um, the hundredth. F. sing. as subst. the hundredth part; hence a tax of one percent, or as interest on money, one percent, (reckoned at Rome by the month, therefore = 12 % per annum).

centiceps -cipitis, hundred-headed.

centies or centiens, a hundred times.

centimanus -a -um, hundred-handed.

cento -onis, m., patchwork; in war, coverings to ward off missiles or extinguish fires.

centum, a hundred; also any indefinitely large number.

centumgeminus -a -um, hundred-fold.

centumviralis -e, relating to the centumviri.

centumviri or centum viri -orum, m. pl. a bench of judges dealing with civil suits.

centunculus -i, m. a little piece of patchwork or a saddle-cloth.

centuplex -icis, a hundred-fold.

centuria -ae, f. a division of 100; a company of soldiers; a century, a part of the Roman people, as divided by Servius Tullius.

centuriatim, by centuries or companies.

centuriatus -us, m. a division into companies or centuries; the centurion's office.

centurio (1) -are, to divide into centuries; 'comitia centuriata', the assembly in which the whole Roman people voted in their centuries.

centurio (2) -onis, m. commander of a century, centurion.

centurionatus -us, m. an election of centurions.

cenula -ae, f. a little meal.

cenum; see caenum.

cera -ae, f. wax; a waxen writing tablet, wax seal, or waxen image.

cerarium -i, n. a fee for sealing a document.

cerastes -ae, m. the horned snake.

cerasus -i, f. a cherry tree or cherry.

Cerberus -i, m. the dog guarding Hades.

cercopithecus -i, m. a kind of ape.

cercurus -i, m. a species of vessel peculiar to Cyprus; a sea-fish.

cerdo -onis, m. a workman, artisan.

cerebrosus -a -um, hot-tempered.

cerebrum -i, n. the brain; the understanding; hot temper.

Ceres -eris, f. the Roman goddess of agriculture. Transf., bread, grain, corn. Adj. Cerealis -e; n. pl. as subst. the festival of Ceres on April 10.

cereus -a -um, waxen, or resembling wax; m. as subst., a wax taper.

cerintha -ae, f. the wax flower.

cerinus -a -um, wax-colored: n. pl. as subst. wax-colored garments.

cerno cernere crevi cretum, to separate, sift. Transf., to distinguish, with the senses, or with the mind; to decide, resolve, determine.

cernuus -a -um, falling headlong.

cero -are, to smear or cover with wax.

ceroma -atis, n. an ointment of oil and wax used by wrestlers.

ceromaticus -a -um, anointed with the ceroma.

cerritus -a -um, frantic, mad.

certamen -inis, n. contest, struggle.

certatim, adv. emulously, eagerly.

certatio -onis, f. contest, rivalry.

certe and certo, adv. from certus; q.v.

certo -are, to settle by contest; hence to contend, struggle, dispute.

certus -a -um, adj. settled, resolved, decided, of projects and persons; definite, certain, fixed; sure, to be depended on; of things as known, undoubted, sure; 'certum scio', I know for certain; 'pro certo habeo', I feel sure; of persons knowing, sure, certain; 'certiorem facere', to inform. Adv. certe and certo, certainly, assuredly.

cerula -ae, f. a little piece of wax.

cerussa -ae, f. white lead.

cerussatus -a -um, painted with white lead.

cerva -ae, f. hind; poet., deer.

cervical -alis, n. cushion, pillow.

cervicula -ae, f. a little neck.

cervinus -a -um, relating to a stag.

cervix -icis, f. the nape of the neck, the neck; 'dare cervices', to submit to the executioner.

cervus -i, m. stag, deer; pl., milit., stakes stuck in the ground as a palisade.

cespes; see caespes.

cessatio -onis, f. delaying, inactivity, laziness.

cessator -oris, m. one who loiters.

cessio -onis, f. a giving up, a cession.

cesso -are, to leave off, cease work, be idle, rest; of things, to be left alone, do nothing; so of land, lie fallow.

cestrosphendone -es, f. engine for hurling stones.

cestus (1) and cestos -i, m. a girdle.

cestus (2) -us, m.; see caestus.

cetarium -i, n. a fish-pond.

cetarius -i, m. a fishmonger.

ceteroqui or ceteroquin, otherwise, else.

ceterus -a -um, the other, the rest; usually plur., ceteri -ae -a; 'et cetera', and so on. Acc. n. sing. as adv. ceterum, otherwise, moreover, but.

Cethegus -i, m. C. Cornelius, a conspirator with Catiline, put to death by Cicero in 63 B.C..

cetra; see caetra.

cette; see cedo.

cetus -i, m. and cetos n.; plur. cete; any large sea-creature, such as whale, seal, dolphin.

ceu, adv., as, like as; sometimes as if.

Chalcis -idis or -idos, f. the chief city of Euboea.

Chaldaei -orum, m. pl. the Chaldaeans, famous as astrologers.

chalybeius -a -um, of steel.

chalybs -ybis, m. steel; an article made of steel such as a sword, a horse's bit, the tip of an arrow.

chane or channe -es, f. the sea perch.

Chaos, acc. Chaos, abl. Chao, n. boundless empty space. Hence the lower world; personified, Chaos, the father of Night and Erebus; the shapeless mass out of which the universe was made.

chara -ae, f. an edible root.

Charites -um, f. pl. the Graces, i.e. Aglaia, Euphrosyne, and Thalia.

Charon -ontis, m. Charon, who ferried souls over the Styx.

charta -ae, f. a leaf of Egyptian papyrus, paper; anything written on paper, a letter, poem, etc..

chartula -ae, f. a little paper, small piece of writing.

Charybdis -is, f. a whirlpool opposite the rock Scylla.

Chatti (Catti) -orum, m. pl. a Germanic people.

Chauci -orum, m. pl. a Germanic people on the coast of the North Sea.

chelydrus -i, m. an amphibious snake. 2

chelys, acc. -yn, f. the tortoise;hence, the lyre made out of its shell

cheregra and chiregra -ae, f. the gout in the hands.

Cherronesus and Chersoneus -i, f. a peninsula; esp. of Gallipoli or the Crimea.

chiliarches -ae, and chiliarchus -i, m. a commander of 1,000 soldiers; among Persians, chancellor, or prime minister.

Chimaera -ae, f. a monster killed by Bellerophon.

chimaerifer -fera -ferum, producing the Chimaera.

Chios or Chius -i, f. an island in the Aegean Sea, famous for wine and marble.

chirographum -i, n. an autograph, a person's own handwriting.

chironomos -i, and chironomon -ontis, m. a gesticulator, a mime.

chirurgia -ae, f. surgery.

chlamydatus -a -um, dressed in a chlamys.

chlamys -ydis, f. a large upper garment of wool.

choragium -i, n. the training and production of a chorus.

choragus -i, m. he who pays for a chorus.

choraules -ae, m. a flute-player, accompanying the chorus.

chorda -ae, f. cat-gut; usually as the string of a musical instrument.

chorea -ae, f. a dance in a ring.

choreus and chorius -i, m. the metrical foot afterwards called a trochee.

chorus -i, m. dance in a circle, choral dance. Transf., the persons singing and dancing, the chorus; hence a crowd, troop.

Christus -i, m. Christ; Christianus -i, m. a Christian.

chromis -is, c. a sea-fish.

chrysanthus -i, m. a flower, perhaps marigold.

chrysolithos -i, m. and f. chrysolite, or topaz. 1

chrysophrys, acc. -yn, f. a sea-fish. 1

cibarius -a -um, relating to food; n. pl. as subst., food, rations. Transf., (from the food of slaves), ordinary, common.

cibatus -us, m. food, nourishment.

ciborium -i, n. a large drinking vessel.

cibus -i, m. food, fodder, nourishment, sustenance.

cicada -ae, f. a cicada, or tree cricket.

cicatrix -icis, f. a scar; on plants, a mark of incision; also a patch on an old shoe.

cicer -eris, n. a chick-pea.

Cicero -onis, M. Tullius, Roman statesman, orator, and writer (106-43 B.C); adj. Ciceronianus -a -um.

cichoreum -i, n. succory or endive.

ciconia -ae, f. a stork.

cicur -uris, tame.

cicuta -ae, f. hemlock; poison extracted from the hemlock; a shepherd's pipe, made of hemlock stalk.

cieo ciere civi citum, to move, stir, agitate. Transf., to give rise to, excite, arouse; to summon; to call by name. Hence partic. citus -a -um, quick, speedy. Adv. cito, quickly; 'citius quam', sooner than, rather than.

Cilicia -ae, f. a region in Asia Minor.

Cimber -bri, m.; usually pl. Cimbri, the Cimbrians, a German tribe; adj. Cimbricus -a -um.

cimex -icis, m. a bug.

Cimmerii -orum, m. pl. (1) a Thracian people, living on the Dnieper. (2) a mythical people, living in eternal darkness.

cinaedus -i, m. a wanton or shameless person.

cincinnatus -a -um, having curled hair.

Cincinnatus -i, m. a cognomen of the gens Quinctia.

cincinnus -i, m. curled hair, a lock of hair. Transf., artificial rhetorical ornament.

Cincius -a -um, name of a Roman gens.

cinctura -ae, f. a girdle.

cinctus -us, m. a girding, a way of wearing the toga. Transf. a girdle.

cinctutus -a -um, girded.

cinefactus -a -um, turned to ashes.

cinerarius -i, m. an attendant who heated in hot ashes the irons for curling the hair.

cingo cingere cinxi cinctum, to surround or equip the head or body; pass., cingi, to gird oneself; in gen., to surround; esp. to surround with hostile intent, or for protection; of persons, to escort, accompany.

cingula -ae, f. a girdle.

cingulum -i, n. a girdle, sword-belt.

cingulus -i, m. a girdle of the earth, zone.

ciniflo -onis, m.; = cinerarius.

cinis -eris, m. rarely f. ashes.

Cinna -ae, m. a Roman cognomen, esp. of L. Cornelius Cinna, supporter of Marius, noted for his cruelty. Adj. Cinnanus -a -um.

cinnamomum or cinnamum -i, n. cinnamon.

cippus -i, m. a pale, stake; esp. a tombstone; plur., milit., palisades.

circa. Adv., around, round about. Prep. with acc.: of space, around, near; of persons, around or with; of time or number, about.

circamoerium -i, n.; = pomerium; q.v.

Circe -es and -ae, f. an enchantress, daughter of the Sun; adj. Circaeus -a -um.

Circeii -orum, m. pl. a town in Latium.

circensis -e, belonging to the circus; m. pl. as subst. (sc. ludi), the circus games.

circino -are, to form into a circle; hence to fly round.

circinus -i, m. a pair of compasses.

circiter, adv., and prep. with acc., about.

circlus; = circulus; q.v.

circueo; see circumeo.

circuitio and circumitio -onis, f. a going round, patrol. Transf., a roundabout way of speaking.

circuitus -us, m. a going round in a circle, circuit. Hence a roundabout way, circuitous course; also compass, circumference, extent; rhet., a period.

circulor -ari, dep. to gather in groups, or collect a group around oneself.

circulus (circlus) -i, m. a circle, circular figure, circuit; any circular body; a circle or group for conversation.

circum. Adv. roundabout, around. Prep. with acc. round, around, round about, near.

circumago -agere -egi -actum. (1) to turn round; esp. in the ceremonial manumission of a slave; of time, circumagi or circumagere se, to pass away, be spent; of the feelings, to influence, bring round. (2) to drive about from one place to another; to distract.

circumaro -are, to plow round.

circumcaesura -ae, f. the external outline of a body.

circumcido -cidere -cidi -cisum, to cut round, to cut, trim. Transf., to make less by cutting, diminish. Hence partic. circumcisus -a -um, of places,abrupt, steep,inaccessible; of style, abridged, brief.

circumcirca, all round about.

circumcludo -cludere -clusi -clusum, to shut in, enclose, surround.

circumcolo -ere, to dwell around, dwell near.

circumcurso -are, to run round.

circumdo -dare -dedi -datum, surround. (1) to put something round, with acc. of the thing placed, and dat. of that round which it is placed. (2) to surround with something, with acc. and abl. (rarely double acc.).

circumduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, to lead round, move or drive round. Transf., to cheat; to extend, amplify.

circumeo (circueo) -ire -ii or -ivi -itum, to go round; milit., to surround; to go the rounds of, to visit; hence to canvass or solicit. Transf., to cheat, circumvent.

circumequito -are, to ride round.

circumfero -ferre -tuli -latum, to carry round, take round; esp. of the eyes, to turn all round; in religion, to lustrate, purify , by carrying round consecrated objects. Transf., to spread, spread news.

circumflecto -flectere -flexi -flexum, to bend round, turn about.

circumflo -are, to blow round.

circumfluo -fluere -fluxi -fluxum, to flow round. Transf., to overflow, abound; with abl., to abound in.

circumfluus -a -um: act., flowing round, circumfluent; pass., flowed round, surrounded by water.

circumforaneus -a -um. (1) round the forum; 'aes', money borrowed from bankers. (2) attending at markets.

circumfundo -fundere -fudi -fusum. (1) to pour around; in pass., or with reflexive, to be poured round = to surround. (2) act., to surround, encompass, and pass., to be surrounded; usually with instrumental abl.

circumgemo -ere, to growl round.

circumgesto -are, to carry round.

circumgredior -gredi -gressus, dep. to go round, travel round.

circumiaceo -ere, to lie round about, adjoin.

circumicio -icere -ieci -iectum. (1) to throw round, put round. (2) to surround one thing with another. Hence partic. circumiectus -a -um, thrown round, so surrounding, adjacent.

circumiectus -us, m. a surrounding, enclosing.

circumitio; = circuitio; q.v.

circumligo -are. (1) to bind round, bind to. (2) to bind round with something.

circumlino -linere -litum. (1) to smear one thing over another. (2) to besmear with, bedaub; hence poet., to cover.

circumluo -luere, to wash round, flow round.

circumluvio -onis, f. alluvial land.

circummitto -mittere -misi -missum, to send round.

circummunio -ire, to wall round, to shut in by lines of circumvallation.

circummunitio -onis, f. circumvallation.

circumpadanus -a -um, near the river Po.

circumplector -plecti -plexus, dep. to embrace, enclose, surround.

circumplico -are, to fold round, wind round.

circumpono -ponere -posui -positum, to place or put round.

circumretio -ire, to enclose in a net, ensnare.

circumrodo -rodere -rosi, to gnaw round. Transf., to slander.

circumsaepio -saepire -saeptum, to hedge round, enclose.

circumscindo -ere, to tear off, round; to strip.

circumscribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum, to describe a circle round, to enclose in a circular line. Transf., (1) to confine, define, limit, restrict. (2) to set aside, exclude. (3) to take in, ensnare, defraud; 'vectigalia', to embezzle. Hence partic. circumscriptus -a -um, as rhet. t.t. rounded, periodic; also concise. Adv. circumscripte, in rhetorical periods, fully.

circumscriptio -onis, f. an encircling; hence circumference. Transf., (1) outline, boundary, limit; in rhetoric, a period. (2) swindling, defrauding.

circumscriptor -oris, m. a cheat, swindler.

circumseco -secare -sectum, to cut round.

circumsedeo -sedere -sedi -sessum, to sit round; esp. to besiege, beleaguer.

circumsessio -onis, f. encircling, beleaguering.

circumsido -ere, to besiege.

circumsilio -ire, to leap or jump round.

circumsisto -sistere -steti or -stiti, to stand round, surround.

circumsono -sonare -sonui: transit., to sound all around or to make to resound; intransit., to resound, to echo.

circumsonus -a -um, sounding all around.

circumspectio -onis, f. looking about, circumspection, caution.

circumspecto -are: intransit., to look round repeatedly; transit., to look round at or for.

circumspectus (1) -a -um; see circumspicio.

circumspectus (2) -us, m. looking round at; henceattention to; prospect, view all round.

circumspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum: intransit., to look round, esp. anxiously; hence to consider; transit., to look round at, survey; hence to consider carefully; also to look about for, seek for. Hence partic. circumspectus -a -um: pass., of things, deliberate, well considered; act., of persons, circumspect, cautious.

circumsto -stare -steti: intransit., to stand round or in a circle; partic. as subst., circumstantes, the bystanders; transit., to surround, beleaguer.

circumstrepo -ere, to make a loud noise around.

circumsurgens -entis, rising round.

circumtero -terere, to rub against on all sides.

circumtextus -a -um, woven all round.

circumtono -tonare -tonui, to thunder round.

circumtonsus -a -um, shorn all round; of discourse, artificial

circumvado -vadere -vasi, to attack from every side, to surround.

circumvagus -a -um, wandering round, flowing round.

circumvallo -are, to blockade, beleaguer.

circumvectio -onis, f. a carrying round of merchandise: 'portorium circumvectionis', transit dues; in gen., circuit, revolution.

circumvector -ari, to ride, or sail round; poet., to go through, describe.

circumvehor -vehi -vectus, to ride or sail round; poet., to describe.

circumvelo -are, to veil round, envelop.

circumvenio -venire -veni -ventum, to come round, surround, encircle. Transf., to beset, assail; to cheat, defraud.

circumvertor (-vortor) -verti, to turn oneself round.

circumvestio -ire, to clothe all round.

circumvolito -are, to fly round, rove about.

circumvolo -are, to fly round.

circumvolvo -volvere -volvi -volutum, to roll round; usually pass., to revolve.

circus -i, m. a ring, circle, orbit; 'candens', the milky way; also an oval course for races.

ciris -is, f. a bird, into which Scylla was transformed.

cirratus -a -um, curly-haired.

Cirrha -ae, f. a city near Delphi, sacred to Apollo; adj. Cirrhaeus -a -um.

cirrus -i, m. a lock, or ringlet of hair; the fringe of a garment.

cis, prep. with acc., on this side of, within.

Cisalpinus -a -um, on this (the Roman) side of the Alps.

cisium -i, n. a light two-wheeled vehicle.

Cisrhenanus -a -um, on this (the Roman) side of the Rhine.

cista -ae, f. a chest, box.

cistella -ae, f. a little chest or box.

cisterna -ae, f. reservoir, cistern.

cistophorus -i, m. an Asiatic coin.

cistula -ae, f. a little chest or box.

citatus -a -um, partic. from cito (2); q.v.

citer -tra -trum, on this side; usually compar. citerior -us, genit. -oris, on this side, nearer; superl. citimus -a -um, nearest.

cithara -ae, f. a stringed instrument, lyre, lute.

citharista -ae, m. a player on the cithara.

citharistria -ae, f. a female player on the cithara.

citharizo -are, to play the cithara.

citharoedus -i, m. one who plays the cithara, with voice accompanying.

cito (1), adv. from cieo; q.v.

cito (2) -are (1) to put in motion, excite, start up. (2) to summon, call forward, esp. for legal, political or military purposes; hence to appeal to, point to authorities, etc. Hence partic. citatus -a -um, quick, speedy: 'citato equo', at full gallop. Adv. citatim.

citra (abl. f. from citer). Adv. on this side, nearer. Prep. with acc., on this side, nearer than; of time, since; hence, in gen., short of, without.

citreus -a -um, belonging to the citrus tree or citron tree.

citro, adv. found only with ultro: 'ultro (et) citro', up and down, hither and thither.

citrus -i, m. (1) the citrus, a kind of African cypress. (2) the citron tree.

citus -a -um, partic. from cieo; q.v.

civicus -a -um, relating to a citizen, civic; 'civica (corona)', the civic crown, awarded to one who had saved the life of a Roman in war.

civilis -e, relating to a citizen, civic, civil; esp. 'ius civile', the Roman civil law or civil rights; befitting a citizen; hence, popular, affable, courteous; relating to public life or the state. Adv. civiliter, like a citizen, politely.

civilitas -atis, f. (1) the science of politics. (2) politeness, civility.

civis -is, c. citizen; also a fellow citizen;under a king, subject.

civitas -atis, f.: abstr., citizenship; concr., a union of citizens, state, commonwealth; the inhabitants of a city, townsfolk; (rarely) a city, town.

clades -is, f. destruction; in gen., disaster, injury, defeat.

clam. Adv., secretly, in secret; 'esse', to remain unknown. Prep. with acc. or abl., unknown to, without the knowledge of.

clamator -oris, m. a shouter, speaker.

clamito -are, to cry aloud, shout violently.

clamo -are, to call, shout, cry aloud; with object, to call to or upon a person, to shout something; sometimes to proclaim, declare.

clamor -oris, m. a loud shouting, cry; poet., of lifeless things, echo, reverberation.

clamosus -a -um: act., noisy, clamorous; pass., filled with noise.

clanculum. Adv. secretly, in secret. Prep. with acc. unknown to.

clandestinus -a -um, secret, clandestine; Adv. clandestino.

clangor -oris, m. sound, clang, noise.

clareo -ere, to be bright, to shine. Transf., to be evident; to be distinguished.

claresco clarescere clarui, to become clear to the senses. Transf., to become evident; to become illustrious.

clarigo -are, to demand satisfaction, used of the Fetials.

clarisonus -a -um, clearly sounding.

claritas -atis, f. clearness, brightness. Transf., clearness to the mind, plainness; fame, celebrity.

claritudo -inis, f. clearness, brilliancy. Transf. fame, celebrity.

claro -are, to make bright or clear. Transf., to make plain to the mind; to make illustrious.

clarus -a -um, bright, clear, distinct; poet., of the wind, making clear, bringing fair weather. Transf., to the understanding, clear, evident, plain; of reputation, illustrious, distinguished; in bad sense, notorious. Hence adj. clare, clearly, brightly, distinctly; illustriously.

classiarius -a -um, of the fleet; m. pl. as subst., marines.

classicus -a -um. (1) relating to the different classes of Roman citizens. (2) relating to the armed forces, esp. to the fleet: m. pl. as subst., marines: n. sing. as subst., the signal for battle or the trumpet giving this.

classis -is, f. a group as summoned, a division, class. (1) one of the classes into which Servius Tullius divided the Roman people. (2) the armed forces, esp. the fleet. (3) in gen., a class, group.

clatri -orum, m. pl. trellis, grating.

claudeo -ere and claudo -ere, to limp, halt, be lame.

claudicatio -onis, f. a limping.

claudico -are, to limp, be lame. Transf., to incline, be deflected; to halt, waver.

Claudius (Clodius) -a -um, the name of two Roman gentes; esp. of the emperor Claudius (10 B.C.-A.D. 54). Adj. Claudianus -a -um, Claudialis -e.

claudo (1) (cludo) claudere clausi clausum, to close, shut up, make inaccessible; of military positions, to blockade, invest; of prisoners, etc., to shut in, confine. Transf., to conclude; 'agmen', to bring up the rear. Hence partic. clausus -a -um, of character, close, reserved; n. as subst., an enclosed place.

claudo (2); = claudeo; q.v.

claudus -a -um, limping, lame. Transf., crippled, defective; poet., 'carmina alterno versu', elegiac verse.

claustrum -i, n. a means of closing or shutting in; bolt, bar; an enclosure, prison, den; a barricade, dam, fortress; milit., the key to a position.

clausula -ae, f. end, conclusion; in rhetoric, the close of a period.

clava -ae, f. a staff or cudgel.

clavarium -i, n. an allowance to soldiers for buying shoe-nails.

clavicula -ae, f. the tendril by which the vine clings to its prop.

claviger (1) -geri, m. the club-bearer, of Hercules.

claviger (2) -geri, m. the key-bearer, of Janus.

clavis -is, f. a key: 'claves adimere uxori', to separate from one's wife. Transf., a stick for trundling a hoop.

clavus -i, m. (1) a nail, spike. (2) a tiller, helm, rudder. (3) a stripe of purple on a tunic, worn broad by senators, narrow by knights.

clemens -entis, mild, kind, merciful; adv. clementer, gently.

clementia -ae, f. mildness, gentleness, mercy.

Cleopatra -ae, f. the queen of Egypt and mistress of Antony, defeated with him at Actium.

clepo clepere clepsi cleptum, to steal; 'se', to conceal oneself.

clepsydra -ae, f. a water clock, esp. as used to measure the time allotted to orators.

cliens -entis, m. a client, dependent on a patronus (q.v.); in gen., a vassal or ally.

clienta -ae, f. a female client.

clientela -ae, f. clientship, the relation between client and patron; hence in gen., dependence. Transf. (gen. pl.) clients.

clinamen -inis, n. inclination, swerving aside.

clinatus -a -um, inclined, leaning.

Clio -us, f. the Muse of history.

clipeatus -a -um, armed with a shield; m. pl. as subst., soldiers with shields.

clipeus -i, m. and clipeum -i, n. a (round) shield. Transf., the disk of the sun; a medallion portrait.

clitellae -arum, f. pl. a pack-saddle, pair of panniers, saddle-bag.

clivosus -a -um, hilly, steep.

clivus -i, m. a slope, rise, gradient.

cloaca -ae, f. a sewer, drain.

Cloacina -ae, f. the cleanser, surname of Venus.

Clodius; = Claudius; q.v.

Clotho, f. the spinner, one of the Parcae.

clueo -ere, I hear myself called, am named.

clunis -is, m. and f. the buttocks.

Clusium -i, n. a town of Etruria; adj. Clusinus -a -um,

Clytaemnestra -ae, f. wife of Agamemnon who killed her husband, and was killed by her son Orestes.

Cnidus (-os), or Gnidus (-os), -i, f. a town in Caria, famous for the worship of Venus; adj. Cnidius -a -um.

Cnossus; = Gnossus; q.v.

coacervatio -onis, f. a heaping up.

coacervo -are, to heap up, accumulate.

coacesco -acescere -acui, to become sour.

coacto -are, to compel.

coactor -oris, m. a collector of money; 'coactores agminis', the rear- guard.

coactu, abl. sing. m. by force, under compulsion.

coactum -i, n. subst. from cogo; q.v.

coaedifico -are, to build on.

coaequo -are, to level, make even.

coagmentatio -onis, f. a connection, binding together.

coagmento -are, to join together; 'pacem', to conclude.

coagmentum -i, n. a joining, joint.

coagulum -i, n. rennet or curds.

coalesco -alescere -alui -alitum, to grow together; to take root, grow; hence to become established or firm.

coangusto -are, to limit, confine.

coarcto, etc. = coarto, etc.; q.v.

coarguo -uere -ui, to show clearly, demonstrate fully; esp. to prove wrong or false.

coartatio -onis, f. a confining in a small space.

coarto -are, to confine, draw together; of discourse, to compress; of time, to shorten.

coccinatus -a -um, clad in scarlet.

coccinus -a -um, scarlet-colored; n. pl. as subst., scarlet clothes.

coccum -i, n. the berry of the scarlet oak; hence scarlet dye; sometimes scarlet cloth or garments.

coclea (cochlea) -ae, f. a snail or snail-shell.

cocleare (cochleare) -is, n. a spoon.

coclearium -i, n. a spoon.

Cocles, Roman cognomen, esp. of Horatius Cocles, the Roman who defended the bridge over the Tiber against Porsenna.

coctilis -e, baked; 'muri', made of burnt brick.

Cocytus and -os, -i, m. a river of the lower world.2

coda; see cauda.

codex (caudex) -dicis, m. the trunk of a tree; as a term of abuse, dolt, blockhead. Transf., a book (made up of wooden tablets, covered with wax); esp. an account-book, ledger.

codicarius -a -um, made of tree trunks.

codicilli -orum, m. little trunks, logs. Transf., small tablets for memoranda; hence a letter, petition, codicil, rescript.

coel-; see cael-.

coemo -emere -emi -emptum, to buy up.

coemptio -onis, f. a form of marriage; a fictitious sale of an estate.

coen-; see caen-.

coeo -ire -ii or -ivi -itum, to go or come together, assemble; of enemies, to engage; of friends, etc., to unite, combine; transit. 'societatem coire', to form an alliance; of things, to unite, come together; of blood, to curdle; of water, to freeze.

coepio coepere coepi coeptum (only the perfect-stem tenses are class.: see incipio), to begin, commence. N. of partic. as subst. coeptum -i, a thing begun or undertaken.

coepto -are, to begin or undertake (eagerly).

coeptus -us, m. (only in plur.), a beginning.

coerceo -cere -cui -citum, to enclose, shut in, confine, restrain; 'vitem', to prune.

coercitio -onis, f. confining, restraint; hence punishment.

coeruleus; = caeruleus; q.v.

coetus (coitus) -us, m. meeting together, union, assembly.

cogitatio -onis, f. thinking, conception, reflection, reasoning; sometimes a particular thought, idea or intention.

cogito -are, to turn over in the mind, to think, reflect; sometimes to intend, plan. Hence partic. cogitatus -a -um, considered, deliberate; n. pl. as subst. thoughts, reflections, ideas. Adv. cogitate, thoughtfully.

cognatio -onis, f. relationship, connection by blood; meton. persons re- lated, kindred, family; in gen., connection, agreement, resemblance.

cognatus -a -um, related, connected by blood; m. and f. as subst. a relation either on the father's or the mother's side. Transf., akin, similar.

cognitio -onis, f. getting to know, study, knowledge, acquaintance; recognition; legal inquiry, investigation; in plur., ideas.

cognitor -oris, m. a knower; legal, a witness or an attorney; in gen., a supporter.

cognomen -inis, n. a surname, family name.

cognomentum -i, n. a surname, a name.

cognominatus -a -um, of the same meaning; 'verba', synonyms.

cognominis -e, having the same name.

cognosco -gnoscere -gnovi -gnitum, to become acquainted with, get to know, learn; in perf. tenses, to know; to know again, recognize; of judges, to examine, hear, decide. Hence partic. cognitus -a -um, known, proved.

cogo cogere coegi coactum, to bring, drive, or draw to one point, to collect; to bring close together, compress; of liquids, etc. to thicken, curdle; milit., 'agmen cogere', to bring up the rear. Transf., to restrict, confine; to compel. Hence partic. coactus -a -um, constrained; n. as subst. thick cloth, felt.

cohaerentia -ae, f. coherence.

cohaereo -haerere -haesi -haesum: of a whole, to cohere, hold together; of one thing (or person), to cling, adhere, be connected to another.

cohaeresco -haerescere -haesi, to hang together.

coheres -edis, m. a coheir.

cohibeo -ere -ui -itum, to hold in, hold together; hence to confine, restrain, hold back, repress.

cohonesto -are, to do honor to.

cohorresco -horrescere -horrui, to shudder or shiver.

cohors -tis, f. an enclosure, yard. Transf., a troop, company, throng; milit., a cohort, the tenth part of a legion; 'praetoria cohors', the retinue of the governor of a province.

cohortatio -onis, f. exhortation, encouragement.

cohortor -ari, dep. to encourage, incite, exhort.

coitio -onis, f. a coming together, meeting; a faction, coalition, conspiracy.

coitus -us; see coetus.

colaphus -i, m. a cuff, box on the ear.

Colchis -idis, f. Colchis, a country on the Black Sea; adj. Colchicus and Colchus -a -um; f. adj. Colchis -idis.

coleus -i; see culleus.

coliphia (colyphia) -orum, n. a food used by athletes.

colis; see caulis.

Collatia -ae, f. a town in Latium; adj. Collatinus -a -um.

collinus -a -um, hilly, relating to a hill; 'porta Collina', a gate of Rome near the Quirinal Hill.

collis -is, m. hill, high ground.

collum -i, n. (collus -i, m.) neck.

collybus -i, m. exchange of money, or rate of exchange.

collyrium -i, n. eye-salve. 2

colo colere colui cultum, to cultivate, till, tend; to dwell in, inhabit a place; in gen., to take care of, attend to, foster, honor, worship, court. Hence cultus -a -um, cultivated, tilled, planted; n. pl. as subst., cultivated land. Transf., physically, tidy, well-dressed, smart; mentally, refined. Adv. culte, elegantly.

colocasia -orum, n. pl. the Egyptian bean.

colona -ae, f. a country-woman.

colonia -ae, f. a farm, estate; a colony; meton., colonists.

colonicus -a -um, relating to agriculture or to a colony.

colonus -i, m. a farmer, sometimes a tenant farmer; a colonist, inhabitant of a colony.

color (colos) -oris, m. color, tint, hue; esp. complexion; sometimes beautiful complexion, beauty. Transf., outward show, external appearance; cast, character, tone; an artful excuse.

coloro -are, to color; partic. coloratus -a -um, colored; of complexion, tanned, dark.

colosseus -a -um, colossal, gigantic.

colossicus -a -um, colossal, gigantic.

colossus -i, m. a colossus, statue larger than life; esp. that of Apollo at Rhodes.

coluber -bri, m. serpent, snake.

colubra -ae, f. female serpent.

colubrifer -fera -ferum, snake-bearing, snaky-haired (of Medusa).

colum -i, n. colander, sieve, strainer.

columba -ae, f. a pigeon, dove.

columbinus -a -um, belonging to a pigeon.

columbus -i, m. a male dove or pigeon.

columella -ae, f. a little column.

columen -inis, n. a height, summit, ridge; of buildings, roof, gable. Transf., chief, summit, crown; support, pillar.

columna -ae, f. pillar, column; columnae,pillars as signs of booksellers' shops in Rome; 'columnae Herculis', the pillars of Hercules. Transf., a support, pillar of the state; a water-spout.

columnarium -i, n. a tax on pillars.

columnarius -i, m. a rascal, thief.

colus -i and -us, f. or m., a distaff.

coma -ae, f. the hair of the head. Transf., leaves; rays of light.

comans -antis, hairy; 'galea', crested; 'stella', a comet.

comatus -a -um, hairy; Gallia Comata, a name for Transalpine Gaul; 'comata silva', in full leaf.

combibo (1) -bibere -bibi, to drink in, suck up.

combibo (2) -onis, m. a comrade in drinking.

comburo -urere -ussi -ustum, to burn up; hence to ruin or consume.

comedo -esse -edi -esum or -estum, to eat up, consume; of property, to waste, squander.

comes -itis, c. a fellow-traveller; hence a companion, comrade; sometimes attendant; in plur., comites, retinue.

cometes -ae, m. a comet.

comicus -a -um, of comedy, comic; esp. represented in comedy. M. as subst. an actor in comedy or writer of comedy. Adv. comice, in the manner of comedy.

cominus; = comminus; q.v.

comis -e, courteous, kind, friendly, obliging; adv. comiter.

comissabundus -a -um, revelling, rioting.

comissatio -onis, f. a revel, riotous procession.

comissator -oris, m. a reveller.

comissor -ari, dep. to revel.

comitas -atis, f. courtesy, friendliness, civility.

comitatus -us, m. train, retinue, following.

comiter, adv. from comis; q.v.

comitia; see comitium.

comitialis -e, relating to the comitia.

comitiatus -us, m. the assembly of the people in the comitia.

comitium -i, n. a place of assembly, esp. one in the forum at Rome; plur. comitia, the assembly of the Roman people for the election of magistrates, etc.: hence elections.

comito -are, to accompany;esp. as partic. comitatus -a -um,accompanied.

comitor -ari, dep. to attend, accompany, follow.

commaculo -are, to pollute.

commanipularis -is, m. a soldier belonging to the same company.

commeatus -us, m. free passage, going and coming; milit., leave of absence, furlough; also (often pl.) supply of provisions, food, forage.

commeditor -ari, dep. to practice, represent.

commemini -isse, to remember fully.

commemorabilis -e, worthy of mention, memorable.

commemoratio -onis, f. reminding, mention.

commemoro -are, to call to mind, recollect; to remind another, to mention, relate, recount.

commendabilis -e, commendable, praiseworthy.

commendaticius -a -um, giving recommendation.

commendatio -onis, f. recommendation; that which recommends, excellence.

commendator -oris, m. one that commends.

commendatrix -icis, f. one that commends.

commendo -are, to commit to the care or protection of anyone. Hence, in gen., to commit; to recommend; to set off, render agreeable.

commensus, partic. of commetior; q.v.

commentariolum -i, n. a short treatise.

commentarium -i, n. a memorandum, notebook; as the title of a book, a memoir (usually plur.); legal, a brief.

commentarius -i, m. a memorandum, notebook; as the title of a book, a memoir (usually plur.); legal, a brief.

commentatio -onis, f. reflection, careful consideration; practice.

commenticius -a -um, invented, fictitious.

commentor (1) -ari, dep. to consider thoroughly; to practice, prepare; to invent, compose, write.

commentor (2) -oris, m. an inventor.

commeo -are, to go up and down, come and go.

commercium -i, n. trade, commerce; meton. the right to trade, or an article of traffic, merchandise, or a place of trade, depot. Hence in gen., intercourse, communication.

commercor -ari, dep. to buy up.

commereo -ere (also commereor, dep.) to deserve fully; to commit a fault.

commetior -metiri -mensus, dep. to measure; sometimes to measure one thing against another, compare.

commeto -are, to go frequently.

commigro -are, to move in a body, migrate.

commilitium -i, n. companionship in war or military service; in gen., fellowship.

commilito -onis, m. a fellow-soldier.

comminatio -onis, f. threatening, threat.

commingo -mingere -minxi -mictum, to urinate on, defile.

comminiscor -minisci -mentus, dep. to think out, contrive, invent. Perf. partic. in passive sense, commentus -a -um, feigned, invented; n. as subst. commentum -i, n. fiction, invention, contrivance.

comminor -ari, dep. to threaten.

comminuo -uere -ui -utum, to make small, break up, diminish, weaken.

comminus, hand to hand, esp. in close combat; in gen., close up, close at hand.

commisceo -miscere -miscui -mixtum, to mix together, mix up.

commiseratio -onis, f. pity; rhet. the exciting of pity.

commiseresco -ere, to pity.

commiseror -ari, dep. to pity, bewail; of a speaker, to excite pity.

commissio -onis, f. a setting together: hence the start of games, contests, etc..

commissura -ae, f. a joining together, connection, joint.

committo -mittere -misi -missum. (1) to unite, connect, combine; esp. to bring together in a contest, to match: hence to compare. (2) to begin, set on foot, initiate: with ut and the subj., to bring it about that; esp. of crimes, etc., to commit, perpetrate, and of penalties, to incur. (3) to entrust, commit, esp. with reflex. N. partic. as subst. commissum -i, an undertaking; a crime, fault; a trust, secret.

commoditas -atis, f. proportion, fitness; hence a fit occasion, also convenience, advantage; of persons, kindness.

commodo -are, to make fit, adapt; hence to adapt oneself to a person; to please, oblige, serve; with acc. to furnish, lend, give.

commodus -a -um, to measure, in full, complete; hence proper, fit, appropriate; of persons, character, etc., friendly, obliging, pleasant. N. as subst. commodum -i, suitable time, opportunity, convenience; use, advantage, interest; remuneration; loan. N. acc. as adv. commodum, at the right time, opportunely; just then. Adv. commode, rightly, properly, fitly; pleasantly, comfortably, kindly.

commolior -iri, dep. to set in motion.

commonefacio -facere -feci -factum, to remind, warn a person, or to call to mind a thing.

commoneo -ere, to remind, warn a person, or to call to mind a thing.

commonstro -are, to show fully.

commoratio -onis, f. delaying, lingering.

commoror -ari, dep. to linger, stay; transit., to delay.

commotio -onis, f. violent movement, excitement.

commoveo -movere -movi -motum, to move violently, shake, disturb, carry about or away; 'nummum', to employ in commerce; esp. of the mind or passions, to excite, influence, upset; of abstract things, to start up, produce, cause. Hence partic. commotus -a -um, insecure, unsteady; excited, upset.

communicatio -onis, f. communicating, imparting.

communico -are. (1) to share out, give a share in; hence to communicate, impart a matter; without object, to take counsel, confer with a person. (2) to join, unite. (3) to take a share in, participate.

communio (1) -ire, to fortify thoroughly.

communio (2) -onis, f. sharing, mutual participation.

communis -e, shared, common, universal, public; 'loca', public places; 'loci', commonplaces; of persons, approachable, affable. N. as subst. commune, common property, esp. in plur.; state, commonwealth; 'in commune', for the public good, also in general. Adv. communiter, jointly, generally.

communitas -atis,, fellowship; sense of fellowship, affability.

commurmuror -ari, dep. to mutter, murmur.

commutabilis -e, changeable.

commutatus -us, m. change, alteration.

commuto -are, to change, alter; to exchange, barter, interchange.

como comere compsi comptum, to put together, make tidy, arrange, adorn; esp. of the hair. Hence partic. comptus -a -um, formed, framed; adorned, neat.

comoedia -ae, f. comedy.

comoedus -a -um, comic; m. as subst., a comic actor.

comosus -a -um, hairy; of plants, leafy.

compactio -onis, f. joining together.

compactum or compectum -i, n. an agreement.

compages -is, f. a joining together, connection: hence something that joins, a joint, seam, or something joined together, a structure.

compago -inis, f. a joining together.

compar -paris: as subst., an equal, companion, mate; as adj. like, similar.

comparabilis -e, capable of comparison, comparable.

comparatio (1) -onis, f. preparing, providing.

comparatio (2) -onis, f. a putting together; hence comparison.

comparativus -a -um, relating to comparison, comparative.

comparco (comperco) -parcere -parsi or -persi, to scrape together, save up.

compareo -parere -parui, to appear, be visible; to be present, be in existence.

comparo (1) -are, to prepare, get ready, provide; hence to arrange, settle.

comparo (2) -are, to couple together, esp. for a contest, to match. Transf., to liken, compare.

compasco -pascere -pastum, to feed (cattle) together.

compascuus -a -um, of common pasturage.

compellatio -onis, f. accosting, rebuking.

compello (1) -pellere -puli -pulsum, to drive together, collect; to force, compel.

compello (2) -are, to address, accost; esp. to reproach, rebuke; legal, to accuse before a court.

compendiarius -a -um, short; f. and n. as subst., a short cut.

compendium -i, n. saving, profit, advantage; shortening, abbreviation; 'compendi facere', to make short; in plur., short ways, short cuts.

compensatio -onis, f. balancing, compensation.

compenso -are, to weigh together, balance.

comperco; = comparco; q.v.

comperendinatio -onis, f. a putting off to the next day but one.

comperendinatus -us, m. a putting off to the next day but one.

comperendino -are, to remand to the next day but one.

comperio -perire -peri -pertum, to find out, discover, gain certain infor- mation of. Esp. used in perf. partic. compertus -a -um (1) known, un- doubted. (2) Of persons, convicted.

compes -pedis, f. a fetter or foot shackle.

compesco -pescere -pescui, to hold in, restrain, curb, check.

competitor -oris, m. a rival, competitor.

competo -petere -petivi and -petii -petitum, to come together, to meet. (1) to agree, coincide in point of time. (2) to be equal to, match; absol., to be competent, capable.

compilatio -onis, f. a pillaging; hence a compilation of documents.

compilo -are, to bundle together; hence to pack up and take off, to plunder, rob.

compingo -pingere -pegi -pactum, to put together, construct; to confine, lock up, conceal. Hence partic. compactus -a -um, constructed, built; hence firm, compact.

compitalicius -a -um, relating to the Compitalia.

compitalis -e, relating to or belonging to the crossroads; 'Lares', the deities who presided over crossroads. N. as subst. Compitalia -ium and -orum, the festival in honor of these deities.

compitum -i, n. a place where two roads meet, crossroads.

complaceo -cere -cui or -citus sum. (1) to please several persons at once. (2) to please exceedingly.

complano -are, to level, raze.

complector -plecti -plexus, dep. to embrace, surround, encompass. Transf., to hold fast, master; to attach oneself to, esteem; of the mind, to embrace, grasp, comprehend; to unite in oneself, to include.

complementum -i, n. a complement.

compleo -plere -plevi -pletum, to fill up; milit., to man, or to bring up to strength; of a sum, to make up; of fate, etc., to fulfill; of a task, to finish. Hence partic. completus -a -um, perfect, complete.

complexio -onis, f. connection, combination; in rhetoric, a summary or a period; in logic, the statement of a syllogism or a dilemma.

complexus -us, m. of persons, embrace, grasp, either in love or in combat; of things, compass or connection.

complico -are, to fold together;'complicata notio',confused, intricate.

comploratio -onis, f. lamentation.

comploratus -us, m. lamentation.

comploro -are, to bewail, lament.

complures -ium, several.

compluvium -i, n. roofless space in the center of a Roman house.

compono -ponere -posui -positum. (1) to put together; esp. of unlike persons or things, either to match as opponents, or to compare. (2) to make up a whole, compose. (3) to put in place, arrange, settle; of enemies, to reconcile. Hence partic. compositus -a -um, constructed, put together; arranged in order, settled; hence adapted to a purpose. Adv. composite, in an orderly way.

comporto -are, to bring together, collect.

compos -potis, having control of, possessed of, sharing in.

compositio -onis, f. putting together; of opponents, matching; composing, compounding; orderly arrangement, settlement.

compositor -oris, m. an arranger, adjuster.

compositura -ae, f. connection, joining.

compositus -a -um, partic. from compono; q.v.

compotatio -onis, f. drinking party.

compotor -oris, m. a drinking companion.

compotrix -icis, f. a drinking companion.

compransor -oris, m. a dinner companion.

comprecatio -onis, f. supplication.

comprecor -ari, dep. to pray to or for, supplicate.

comprehendo -prehendere -prehendi -prehensum and comprendo -prendere -prendi prensum, to grasp; to take together, unite; hence to embrace, include; to take firmly, seize; 'ignem', to catch fire; often of persons, to capture, arrest; of criminals, to catch red-handed. Transf., to comprehend, perceive.

comprehensibilis -e, comprehensible.

comprehensio -onis, f. (1) a taking together, uniting; rhet., a period. (2) seizing, arrest. Transf., comprehending, comprehension.

comprendo; = comprehendo; q.v.

compressio -onis, f. an embrace; compression of style, conciseness.

compressu, abl. sing. m. by pressing together; by embracing.

comprimo -primere -pressi -pressum, to press together; to press tightly; hence to embrace; to check, restrain, suppress. Hence compar. adv. compressius, more (or rather) concisely.

comprobatio -onis, f. approval.

comprobator -oris, m. one who approves.

comprobo -are. (1) to approve fully. (2) to confirm, prove, establish.

compromissum -i, n. reference to arbitrator.

compromitto -mittere -misi -missum, to agree to refer a cause to arbitration.

comptus (1) -a -um, partic. from como; q.v.

comptus (2) -us, m. a head-dress; a band, tie.

compungo -pungere -punxi -punctum, to prick, puncture; hence to tattoo.

computo -are, to reckon together, calculate, compute.

computresco -ere, to rot, putrefy.

Comum -i, n. a lake-side town in Cisalpine Gaul (now Como).

conamen -minis, n. effort, endeavor; concr., a support.

conatum -i, n. an undertaking.

conatus -us, m. an exertion, effort; sometimes impulse, inclination; an undertaking.

concaedes -ium, f. pl. a barricade of trees.

concalefacio -facere -feci -factum (pass. concalefio), to warm thoroughly.

concalesco -calescere -calui, to become thoroughly warm.

concallesco -callescere -callui, to become thoroughly hard; hence to become practiced or callous.

concavo -are, to hollow out, make concave.

concavus -a -um, hollow, vaulted, arched, concave; 'aqua', swelling.

concedo -cedere -cessi -cessum: intransit., to retire, withdraw; 'concedere vita', to die; hence to yield, submit, give way to, with dat.: 'concedere naturae', to die a natural death; transit., to yield, grant, give up; of faults, to pardon, overlook; of actions, to permit, allow.

concelebro -are, to visit often, or in large companies; to pursue an occupation eagerly; to celebrate a festivity; also to praise, extol a person or thing.

concenatio -onis, f. supping together.

concentio -onis, f. singing together, harmony.

concentus -us, m. singing together, harmony; hence agreement, unity, concord.

conceptio -onis, f. conception, becoming pregnant; drawing up of legal formulae.

conceptus -us, m. conceiving, pregnancy; collecting, or a collection.

concerpo -cerpere -cerpsi -cerptum, to tear to pieces.Transf.,to abuse.

concertatio -onis, f. contest, strife, dispute.

concertator -oris, m. a rival.

concertatorius -a -um, relating to a contest.

concerto -are, to strive eagerly.

concessio -onis, f. yielding, granting.

concessu, abl. sing. m. by permission, with leave.

concha -ae, f. a sea-shell; hence a shell-fish, esp. mussel or pearl- oyster or the fish yielding purple dye; poet., a pearl or purple dye. Transf., a vessel like a shell, e.g. a saltcellar or trumpet.

conchyliatus -a -um, dyed with purple or dressed in purple.2

conchylium -i, n. a shell-fish, esp. a mussel or oyster, or the shell-fish which yielded the purple dye: meton. purple dye or a purple garment.2

concido (1) -cidere -cidi, to fall down. Transf., to sink, perish; of winds, to subside; of persons, to be ruined, fail, esp. at law.

concido (2) -cidere -cidi -cisum, to cut up, cut down, destroy. Transf., to ruin, strike down. Hence partic. concisus -a -um, cut up small, brief, concise. Adv. concise.

concieo -ciere -civi -citum and concio -ire. (1) to collect, bring together. (2) to move violently, excite, arouse, stir up.

conciliabulum -i, n. a place of assembly.

conciliatio -onis, f. a bringing together, uniting, conciliating, causing of good-will; sometimes inclination.

conciliator -oris, m. one who brings about a result.

conciliatrix -icis, f. she who unites; hence a match-maker.

conciliatu, abl. sing. m., by union, by connection.

concilio -are, to bring together, unite, reconcile, win over; hence of results, to bring about, cause. Hence partic. conciliatus -a -um, won over, inclined, favorable.

concilium -i, n. bringing together, connection, assembling, union; esp. an assembly for deliberation, a council.

concinnitas -atis, f. elegance, harmony, esp. of style.

concinnitudo -inis, f. elegance, harmony, esp. of style.

concinno -are, to put together carefully, to arrange: hence to produce, cause.

concinnus -a -um, well put together; hence pleasing, elegant, neat, esp. of style. Adv. concinne, elegantly.

concino -cinere -cinui: intransit., to sing in chorus, play together; hence to agree in saying and in gen. to agree; transit., of songs, to sing together; of festivals, to celebrate; of the future, to prophesy.

concio (1) = concieo; q.v.

concio (2) -onis = contio; q.v.

concipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum. (1) to take together, contain, hold; of ideas, to express in a certain form of words. (2) to take completely in, absorb; of fluids, to suck in; of fire, to catch; of air, to draw in; often also to conceive. Transf., to take in, grasp by the senses or intellect; to conceive, imagine; of passions, to begin to feel; of action, to devise, esp. in bad sense.

concisio -onis, f. the breaking up of a clause into divisions.

concisus -a -um, partic. from concido (2); q.v.

concitatio -onis, f. violent movement. Hence tumult, sedition; also disturbance of mind, passion.

concitator -oris, m. one who stirs up.

concito -are, to move violently, stir up, excite; 'equum calcaribus', to spur to a gallop; 'aciem', to move forward the army. Hence in gen., to stir up, incite; of results, to cause, produce. Hence partic. concitatus -a -um, quick, rapid; excited, violent, passionate. Adv. concitate, excitedly.

concitor -oris, m. one who stirs up.

conclamatio -onis, f. loud or combined shouting.

conclamo -are. (1) to shout together or loudly; with ut, to demand loudly that; with acc. of a dead person, to bewail. (2) to call together.

conclave -is, n. a room, chamber.

concludo -cludere -clusi -clusum, to shut up, enclose, confine. Hence to include, comprise; to bring to an end; in logic, to argue, infer. Adv. from partic., concluse, with well-turned periods.

conclusio -onis, f. a shutting, closing; milit. a blockade. Transf., a close, conclusion; rhet., the conclusion of a speech, peroration or a period; in logic, a conclusion, consequence.

conclusiuncula -ae, f. a foolish inference.

concolor -oris, similar in color.

concoquo -coquere -coxi -coctum, to boil or cook thoroughly; hence to digest. Transf., to bear, endure, stomach; to consider well, deliberate upon.

concordia -ae, f. agreement, union, harmony.

concorditer, adv. from concors; q.v.

concordo -are, to agree, be in harmony.

concors -dis,of one mind or opinion, agreeing, harmonious.Adv. concorditer.

concrebresco -brescere -brui, to increase.

concredo -credere -credidi -creditum, to entrust, commit.

concremo -are, to burn down, burn entirely.

concrepo -are -ui -itum: intransit., to rattle, creak, clash; 'digitis concrepare', to snap the fingers; transit., to rattle, strike upon.

concresco -crescere -crevi -cretum, to grow, collect, be formed; to become stiff, congeal, harden. Hence perf. partic. concretus -a -um, compounded, congealed, stiff.

concretio -onis, f. a growing together, congealing; matter.

concrucio -are, to torture violently.

concubina -ae, f. a concubine.

concubinus -i, m. a man living with a concubine.

concubitus -us, m. lying or reclining together; hence copulation.

concubius -a -um, in the phrase 'concubia nocte', at the time of first sleep, at dead of night.

conculco -are, to tread down, trample under foot.

concumbo -cumbere -cubui -cubitum, to lie or recline together (at table); to lie with, have intercourse with.

concupisco -piscere -pivi or -pii -pitum, to desire eagerly, covet, aim at.

concurro -currere -curri (or -cucurri) -cursum, to assemble hurriedly, flock to one spot; to rush together, clash; esp. to meet in conflict, engage.

concursatio -onis, f. running together, concourse; hence coincidence; in gen., running about; milit., skirmishing.

concursator -oris, m. a skirmisher.

concursio -onis, f. running together, concourse; rhet., frequent repetition of a word.

concurso -are, to run about, rush to and fro; milit., to skirmish.

concursus -us, m. running together, concourse, union; a rushing together, clashing; a hostile encounter.

concussu, abl. sing. m. by shaking, by concussion.

concutio -cutere -cussi -cussum, to shake together, agitate, disturb.Hence, physically, to shatter, impair; of persons, to shake the clothes of, and so to examine; mentally, to alarm, trouble, excite.

condecoro -are, to adorn carefully.

condemnator -oris, m. one who causes condemnation, an accuser.

condemno -are, to condemn; of an accuser, to urge or effect the condemnation of a person; in gen., to blame, disapprove.

condenseo -ere, to make thick, press close together.

condenso -are, to make thick, press close together.

condensus -a -um, dense, thick.

condicio -onis, f. an arrangement, agreement. Hence (1) a condition, stipulation, provision; esp. conditions of marriage, marriage contract. (2) state, condition, place, circumstance.

condico -dicere -dixi -dictum, to make arrangements, agree, fix, settle; esp. to agree to dine with a person.

condignus -a -um, very worthy; adv. condigne.

condimentum -i, n. spice, seasoning, sauce, condiment.

condio -ire: of fruits, etc., to pickle, preserve; of corpses, to embalm; in gen., to season, temper. Hence partic. conditus -a -um, seasoned, savory.

condiscipula -ae, f. a schoolfellow.

condiscipulus -i, m. a schoolfellow.

condisco -discere -didici, to learn thoroughly.

conditio (1) = condicio; q.v.

conditio (2) -onis, f. pickling or seasoning.

conditor -oris, m. a founder; hence, in gen., contriver, composer, author.

conditorium -i, n. the place in which a corpse or its ashes are preserved.

condo -dere -didi -ditum. (1) to build, found; form, establish; of literary work, to compose, write a poem, etc., and also to write of a subject. (2) to put up, put away safely, store, to hide, withdraw; of corpses, to bury; of time, to pass, dispose of.

condocefacio -facere -feci -factum, to train, instruct, teach.

condolesco -dolescere -dolui, to suffer severely, feel much pain.

condonatio -onis, f. a giving away.

condono -are, to give away, present, give up, sacrifice; of debts, to excuse; of faults, to overlook, forgive; sometimes to forgive an injury for the sake of a third party (dat.).

conduco -ducere -duxi -ductum: transit., to bring or lead together, collect, unite, connect; as commercial term, to hire, also to contract for, farm; intransit., (3rd person only), to be of use, to profit, serve, (with dat.).

conducticius -a -um, hired.

conductio -onis, f. a bringing together, uniting; commerc., hiring, farming.

conductor -oris, m. one who hires; a contractor.

conduplico -are, to double.

conduro -are, to harden.

conecto -nectere -nexui -nexum, to fasten, tie together, connect, join, unite. Hence partic. conexus -a -um, joined, connected; n. as subst. logical connection.

conexio -onis, f. binding together; logical sequence.

conexus -us, m. connection, union.

confabulor -ari, dep. to talk, converse.

confarreatio -onis, f. a Roman form of marriage.

confarreo -are, to marry by the ceremony of confarreatio.

confatalis -e, determined by the same fate.

confectio -onis, f. (1) production, completion; 'tributi', complete exaction. (2) consumption.

confector -oris, m. one who produces or completes; a destroyer, consumer.

confercio -fercire -fertum, to press close together, compress, cram together; usually in perf. partic. confertus -a -um, compressed, dense; of troops, in close formation; with abl., stuffed with, full of; adv. confertim, compactly.

confero -ferre -tuli -latum. (1) to bring or put together, collect, concentrate; of money, etc. to contribute; milit., to bring into contact or collision; 'pedem (cum pede)', to fight foot to foot; 'signa conferre', to engage; of speech and ideas, to interchange, discuss; of diverse things, to compare. (2) to bring to a particular place, sphere, task, etc.; 'se conferre', to betake oneself, or to devote oneself; in time, to put off, postpone; of responsibility, to impute, attribute.

confertus; see confercio.

confervefacio -facere, to make very hot, melt.

confervesco -fervescere -ferbui, to begin to boil or glow.

confessio -onis, f. a confession, acknowledgment.

confessus -a -um, partic. from confiteor; q.v.

confestim, immediately, without delay.

conficio -ficere -feci -fectum. (1) to finish, make ready, bring about, accomplish; of arrangements, to conclude, settle; of time or space, to complete, pass through; of results, to produce, cause. (2) to get together, obtain, win over. (3) to use up, exhaust, consume; of food, to chew, eat and also to digest; of property, to waste; of living creatures, to destroy, kill; in gen., to weaken, wear out, esp. of persons. Hence partic. conficiens -entis, productive, efficient.

confictio -onis, f. a fabrication, invention.

confidens, confidenter; see confido.

confidentia -ae, f. confidence; in bad sense, impudence, boldness.

confido -fidere -fisus sum, to have complete trust in, be assured. Hence partic. confidens -entis, confident, self-reliant; in bad sense, bold, self-assured; adv. confidenter.

configo -figere -fixi -fixum, to fasten together; to pierce through,transfix, pin down.

confingo -fingere -finxi -fictum, to construct, fashion, fabricate.

confinis -e, having the same boundary, adjacent; m. as subst. a neighbor. Transf., closely allied, similar.

confinium -i, n. a confine, boundary, border.

confirmatio -onis, f. a thorough strengthening; of an institution, a securing, making firm; of a person,consolation, encouragement, support; of a fact or statement, confirmation, verification.

confirmator -oris, m. one who confirms.

confirmo -are, to make firm, strengthen, support; 'se confirmare', to recover strength; polit. to ratify; of persons, to strengthen in mind, encourage; of assertions, either to corroborate, establish or to affirm, state positively. Hence partic. confirmatus -a -um, encouraged, emboldened; of things, certain.

confisco -are, to lay up, preserve in a chest; to appropriate to the imperial treasury, to confiscate.

confisio -onis, f. confidence, assurance.

confiteor -fiteri -fessus, dep. to confess, admit, acknowledge; to reveal, make known. Hence partic. confessus -a -um: in act. sense, having confessed; pass., undoubted, acknowledged, certain.

conflagro -are, to blaze up, be well alight.

conflictio -onis, f. collision, conflict.

conflicto -are, pass. or intransit., to collide, contend; transit., to harass; pass. to be harassed or tormented.

conflictu, abl. sing. m. by striking together.

confligo -fligere -flixi -flictum: transit., to strike or throw together; to bring together in order to compare; intransit., to collide, clash, come into conflict.

conflo -are, to blow up, blow into flame; of metals, to melt or forge; of money, to coin. Transf., to excite; to forge, fabricate, put together.

confluo -fluere -fluxi, to flow, stream or flock together. Partic. confluens -entis, flowing together; m. sing. of pl. as subst. the confluence of two rivers; as a place-name Confluentes, f. pl. Coblenz.

confodio -fodere -fodi -fossum, to dig thoroughly; to stab, pierce through.

conformatio -onis, f. form, shape; 'vocis', expression; 'verborum', arrangement; philosoph., an idea; rhet., a figure of speech.

conformo -are, to form, to put together, to adapt one thing to another.

confragosus -a -um, rugged, uneven; n. pl. as subst., uneven places.

confragus -a -um = confragosus; q.v.

confremo -fremere -fremui, to murmur, make a noise.

confrico -fricare -fricui -fricatum, to rub hard.

confringo -fringere -fregi -fractum, to break to pieces; to destroy.

confugio -fugere -fugi, to fly, take refuge; to have recourse to.

confugium -i, n. a place of refuge.

confulcio -fulcire -fultus, to prop up.

confundo -fundere -fudi -fusum, to pour; to pour together, mingle, mix, join; hence to confuse, throw into disorder, trouble, disturb, upset. Hence partic. confusus -a -um, disorderly, confused; mentally, embarrassed, troubled. Adv. confuse.

confusio -onis, f. blending, union; confusion, disorder.

confuto -are, to check, repress; by speech, to put down, silence.

congelo -are: transit., to freeze, harden, thicken; intransit., to freeze up, become inert.

congemino -are, to redouble.

congemo -gemere -gemui: intransit., to sigh or groan loudly; transit., to bewail, lament.

conger -gri, m. a sea or conger eel.

congeries -ei, f. a heap, mass, esp. of wood; rhet., accumulation.

congero -gerere -gessi -gestum, to bring together, collect, pile up, accumulate; esp. to build up; in discourse, to bring together, comprise; of benefits, abuse, etc., to heap upon a person.

congesticius -a -um, heaped up.

congestus -us, m. a heaping together; of birds, the building of nests. Transf., a heap, mass.

congiarium -i, n. a donation (originally of wine, oil, etc.).

congius -i, m. a Roman liquid measure ( = six sextarii).

conglacio -are: intransit. to freeze, be inert; transit. to turn to ice.

conglobatio -onis, f. a heaping or crowding together.

conglobo -are, to form into a ball, press tightly together.

conglomero -are, to roll, twist, entangle.

conglutinatio -onis, f. cementing together, connection.

conglutino -are, to cement together, connect, bind closely.

congratulor -ari, dep. to wish joy to, congratulate.

congredior -gredi -gressus, dep. to meet, esp. in conflict; in words, to dispute, argue.

congregabilis -e, sociable, inclined to collect.

congregatio -onis, f. an assembling, society, union.

congrego -are, to collect into a flock or swarm; of men, to gather together; with reflex., or in pass., to swarm, assemble.

congressio -onis, f. meeting, intercourse, association.

congressus -us, m. a meeting; either a friendly meeting, social intercourse or a hostile encounter, combat.

congruentia -ae, f. agreement, symmetry, proportion.

congruo -uere -ui, to run together, come together, meet; in time, to coincide; in gen., to be suited to, correspond with, agree. Hence partic. congruens -entis, agreeing, fit, appropriate, suitable; 'concentus', harmonious, uniform; 'clamor', unanimous. Adv. congruenter, agreeably, suitably.

congruus -a -um, agreeing, fit, suitable.

conicio -icere -ieci -iectum, to throw together; to cast lots; mentally, to put two and two together, conjecture, guess; to interpret dreams, etc.; in gen., to throw, hurl; 'se conicere', to betake oneself, flee; of abstract things, to bring up, bring in; of money, to throw away.

coniectio -onis, f. hurling, throwing; conjectural interpretation.

coniecto -are, to throw together; hence to put two and two together; conclude, infer, guess.

coniector -oris, m. an interpreter.

coniectura -ae, f. a guess, conjecture, inference; interpretation of dreams and omens, divination.

coniecturalis -e, conjectural.

coniectus -us, m. a throwing or throwing together.

conifer -fera -ferum, cone-bearing.

coniger -gera -gerum, cone-bearing.

conitor -niti -nisus or -nixus, dep. to lean or press hard; to make a great effort, physical or mental; transit., of offspring, to bring forth with difficulty.

coniugalis -e, of marriage, conjugal.

coniugatio -onis, f. etymological connection of words.

coniugator -oris, m. one who connects.

coniugialis -e, of marriage, conjugal.

coniugium -i, n. a close connection, union; esp. marriage, wedlock; meton. a husband or wife.

coniugo -are, to bind together, connect.

coniunctio -onis, f. uniting, joining together, connection. grammat., a connecting particle, conjunction; of persons, union, association, connection (esp. by blood or marriage).

coniungo -iungere -iunxi -iunctum, to join together, connect, unite; 'amicitias', to form; esp. to unite persons by marriage, friendship, alliance, etc.. Hence partic. coniunctus -a -um, connected, joined, agreeing, allied; of place, with dat. bordering on, near; of time, contemporary; of persons, connected by blood or marriage or friendship. N. as subst., an inherent property or quality; rhet., connection. Adv. coniuncte, conjointly, in connection; intimately, on friendly terms; coniunctim, conjointly, in common.

coniunx (coniux) -iugis, c. a husband or wife; poet., a betrothed virgin, bride.

coniuratio -onis, f. a union confirmed by an oath; in bad sense, conspiracy, plot; meton., conspirators.

coniuro -are, to take an oath together;in bad sense, to plot, conspire; perf. partic. (in act. sense) coniuratus -a -um, sworn, united by oath; m. pl. as subst. conspirators.

coniux; = coniunx; q.v.

coniveo -nivere -nivi or -nixi, to close the eyes, wink, blink. Transf., to wink at, let pass.

conlabefacto -are, to cause to totter, to soften up.

conlabefio -fieri -factus, to be made to totter, to be softened or broken.

conlabor -labi -lapsus, dep. to fall or sink down, collapse; to fall down in a swoon or death.

conlaceratus -a -um, much lacerated or torn.

conlacrimatio -onis, f. a weeping together.

conlacrimo -are, to weep together or weep much; transit., to weep for.

conlacteus -i, m. a foster-brother.

conlactea -ae, f. a foster-sister.

conlatio -onis, f. a bringing together; 'signorum', a battle; of money, a contribution, collection. Transf. a comparison, simile, analogy.

conlatus -a -um, partic. from confero; q.v.

conlaudatio -onis, f. strong praise.

conlaudo -are, to praise very much.

conlaxo -are, to widen, extend.

conlecta -ae, f. a contribution in money.

conlecticius -a -um, gathered together; 'exercitus', quickly levied.

conlectio -onis, f. a gathering together, collection; rhet. a brief recapitulation; in logic, a conclusion, inference.

conlega -ae, m. a colleague, partner in office; in associate.

conlegium -i, n.; abstr., colleagueship; concr., persons united as colleagues, a body, guild, corporation, college.

conlibertus -i, m. a fellow-freedman.

conlibet or conlubet -bere -buit or -bitum est, impers., it pleases, is agreeable.

conlido -lidere -lisi -lisum, to strike or dash together, to bring into hostile collision.

conligatio -onis, f. a binding together, connection.

conligo (1) -ligere -legi -lectum, to gather or bring together, collect; poet., to gather into a smaller space, contract; 'conligere se' or 'animum' or 'mentem', to compose oneself, gain courage; in the mind, to put together, hence to infer, conclude.

conligo (2) -are, to bind, tie, fasten together, connect; sometimes to detain, hinder, tie down.

conlineo -are, to direct in a straight line.

conlino -linere -levi -litum, to besmear, bedaub.

conliquefactus -a -um, liquefied, melted.

conlocatio -onis, f. a placing, arrangement; esp. a giving in marriage.

conloco -are, to place, lay, set, arrange; of time, money, etc. to lay out, employ, spend; of persons, to settle, place; of troops, to billet, quarter; of women, to settle in marriage.

conlocupleto -are, to enrich.

conlocutio -onis, f. conversation.

conloquium -i, n. talk, conversation, conference.

conloquor -loqui -locutus, dep. to speak to, converse with, to treat or negotiate with.

conluceo -ere, to shine on all sides, be completely illuminated.

conludo -ludere -lusi -lusum, to play with; to have a secret understanding with, to act in collusion.

conluo -luere -lui -lutum, to wash thoroughly, rinse.

conlusio -onis, f. secret understanding.

conlusor -oris, m. a play-fellow; a fellow-gambler.

conlustro -are,to illuminate on all sides; to survey, look at on all sides.

conluvio -onis, f. collection of impurities, filth; of people, scum, rabble.

conluvies -ei, f. collection of impurities, filth; of people, scum, rabble.

conm-; see comm-.

conn-; see con-.

conopeum or conopium -i, n. a mosquito net.

conor -ari, dep. to undertake, try, strive.

conp-; see comp-.

conquassatio -onis, f. a violent shaking.

conquasso -are, to shake thoroughly, shatter.

conqueror -queri -questus, dep. to complain loudly (of).

conquestio -onis, f. a loud complaint.

conquestu, abl. sing. m. by loud complaint.

conquiesco -quiscere -quievi -quietum,to take rest, repose, be still, stop.

conquiro -quirere -quisivi -quisitum, to seek out, get together. Hence partic. conquisitus -a -um, carefully sought out, chosen, costly.

conquisitio -onis, f. search, collection; of soldiers, levying, conscription.

conquisitor -oris, m. a recruiting officer.

conr-; see corr-.

consaepio -saepire -saepsi -saeptum, to fence round, hedge in; n. of partic. as subst. consaeptum -i, an enclosure.

consalutatio -onis, f. mutual salutation.

consaluto -are, to greet (mutually), hail, salute.

consanesco -sanescere -sanui, to become healthy, get well.

consanguineus -a -um, related by blood, brotherly, sisterly; m. as subst., brother; f., sister; m. plur., relations.

consanguinitas -atis, f. relationship by blood, consanguinity.

conscelero -are, to defile with crime; partic. consceleratus -a -um, villainous, depraved.

conscendo -scendere -scendi -scensum, to ascend, mount, go up; 'equum', to mount on horseback; naut. (with or without 'navem', etc.), to go on board ship, embark.

conscensio -onis, f. embarkation.

conscientia -ae, f. knowledge shared with others, "being in the know", joint knowledge; knowledge shared with oneself, i.e. consciousness, esp. of right and wrong, a good or a bad conscience.

conscindo -scindere -scidi -scissum, to tear to pieces.

conscio -ire, to be conscious of evil.

conscisco -sciscere -scivi and -scii -scitum, to agree on, resolve, decree; to inflict upon oneself (with or without 'sibi').

conscius -a -um, sharing knowledge with others, privy to a thing, cognizant of; m. or f. as subst., an accomplice, fellow-conspirator; sharing knowledge with oneself, i.e. conscious, esp. of right and wrong.

conscribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum, to enter on a list, enroll; of troops, to levy; 'patres conscripti' ('patres et conscripti'), senators; to write, compose; of physicians, to prescribe; to write all over an object.

conscriptio -onis, f. writing, composition.

conseco -secare -secui -sectum, to cut up, dismember.

consecratio -onis, f. dedication, consecration; of dead emperors, apotheosis.

consecro -are, to consecrate; sometimes to dedicate to the gods below, to curse; of persons, to deify; in gen., to make holy or immortal.

consectarius -a -um, following logically, consequent; n. pl. as subst., logical conclusions, inferences.

consectatio -onis, f. eager pursuit, striving after.

consectatrix -icis, f. an eager pursuer, devoted friend.

consectio -onis, f. cutting to pieces.

consector -ari, dep. to follow, pursue eagerly; to make for, try to join, imitate, attain; in hostile sense, to chase, hunt.

consecutio -onis, f.: philosoph., an effect, consequence; rhet., order, connection, arrangement.

consenesco -senescere -senui, to become old, lose one's strength, decay.

consensio -onis, f. agreement, harmony, consent; in bad sense, plot, conspiracy.

consensus -us, m. agreement, concord; abl. consensu, unanimously; in bad sense, secret agreement, conspiracy.

consentaneus -a -um, agreeing, fit, suitable; 'consentaneum est', it is reasonable or suitable.

consentio -sentire -sensi -sensum; of physical sensation, to feel together; of thought or sentiment, to agree, assent, resolve unanimously; with acc. 'bellum', to resolve upon war; in bad sense, to plot, conspire; of things, to agree, harmonize. Hence partic. consentiens -entis, harmonious.

consepio; = consaepio; q.v.

consequentia -ae, f. a consequence, succession.

consequia -ae, f. = consequentia; q.v.

consequor -sequi -secutus, dep. (1) to follow, go after; in hostile sense, to pursue; to follow in time, follow logically, result. (2) to follow right up, reach, obtain, catch, get; of states and events, to befall, happen to a person; in speech or thought, to understand, grasp. Hence partic. consequens -entis, appropriate, consequent; n. as subst. a logical consequence.

consero (1) -serere -sevi -situm, to sow, plant. Transf., to cover.

consero (2) -serere -serui -sertum, to connect, join, twine together; milit., to join in conflict, esp. 'manum (or manus) conserere', to engage. Hence, from partic., adv. conserte, connectedly.

conserva -ae, f. fellow slave.

conservatio -onis, f. preservation, keeping, laying up.

conservator -oris, m. preserver.

conservo -are, to keep, preserve, maintain. Pres. partic. as adj., conservans -antis, preserving.

conservus -i, m. fellow slave.

consessor -oris, m. one who sits near, a neighbor; in court, an assessor.

consessus -us, m. assembly.

consideratio -onis, f. consideration, contemplation.

considero -are, to look at, regard carefully, contemplate; mentally, to consider, reflect upon. Hence partic. consideratus -a -um; pass.,well weighed, deliberate; act. of persons, cautious, circumspect. Adv. considerate, thoughtfully, carefully.

consido -sidere -sedi -sessum, to sit down, to settle; esp. to sit down in an assembly or court; milit., to take up one's position or encamp. Transf., of things,to settle, sink, subside; to be overcome or neglected; of ideas, to sink in; of feelings, to subside

consigno -are, to seal; to vouch for, authenticate; to record.

consiliarius -a -um, deliberating; m. as subst. an adviser, assessor, interpreter.

consiliator -oris, m. counsellor, adviser.

consilior -ari, dep. to consult, take counsel; to give counsel, advise.

consilium -i, n. (1) deliberation, consultation; meton., persons in consultation, an assembly, council;as a quality, judgement, understan- ding. (2) a resolution, plan; abl., consilio, intentionally, de- signedly. (3) advice, suggestion.

consimilis -e, exactly similar.

consipio -sipere, to be in one's right mind.

consisto -sistere -stiti -stitum, to take one's stand, place oneself; to stand still, stop; to be posted or to halt. Transf., of things, to fall to, come upon, rest on; to stop, stay; to stand firm; with abl. etc., to consist, be formed of.

consitio -onis, f. sowing, planting.

consitor -oris, m. sower, planter.

consitura -ae, f. sowing, planting.

consobrina -ae, f. cousin (on the mother's side).

consobrinus -i, m. cousin (on the mother's side).

consociatio -onis, f. union, connection.

consocio -are, to unite, connect, share, make common. Hence paric. consociatus -a -um, united, harmonious.

consolabilis -e, consolable.

consolatio -onis, f. consolation, encouragement, alleviation; consoling words.

consolator -oris, m. consoler.

consolatorius -a -um, consolatory.

consolor -ari, dep.: of persons, to console, comfort, encourage; of things, to alleviate, lighten.

consono -sonare -sonui. (1) to sound together; hence to harmonize, agree. (2) to resound, echo.

consonus -a -um, sounding together, harmonious, accordant, suitable.

consopio -ire, to lull to sleep, stupefy.

consors -sortis: act., sharing in, partaking of; as subst., brother or sister; as adj., brotherly, sisterly; pass., shared.

consortio -onis, f. companionship, partnership.

consortium -i, n. partnership, participation.

conspectus (1) -a -um, partic. form conspicio; q.v.

conspectus (2) -us, m.: act., seeing, looking, sight, view; hence mental view, survey; pass., appearance.

conspergo -spergere -spersi -spersum, to sprinkle or moisten by sprinkling.

conspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum, to catch sight of, behold, perceive; to look at with attention, watch; pass., conspici, to attract notice, be gazed at. Transf., to see mentally, understand. Hence partic. conspectus -a -um, visible; striking, remarkable, conspicuous. Gerundive conspiciendus -a -um, worth looking at, notable.

conspicor -ari, dep. to catch sight of, perceive.

conspicuus -a -um, visible; remarkable, striking, conspicuous.

conspiratio -onis, f. blowing or breathing together; harmony, agreement, union; in bad sense, conspiracy, plot.

conspiro -are, to blow or breathe together; of instruments, to blow together, sound together. Transf., to agree, harmonize in opinion and feeling; in bad sense, to conspire. Hence partic. conspiratus -a um, sworn together, united by oath; m. as subst., a conspirator.

consponsor -oris, m. a joint surety.

conspuo -spuere, to spit upon.

conspurco -are, to cover with dirt, defile.

consputo -are, to spit upon.

constans -antis, partic. from consto; q.v.

constantia -ae, f. steadiness, firmness.

consternatio -onis, f. fear, alarm, dismay, confusion; mutiny, tumult.

consterno (1) -sternere -stravi -stratum, to strew, scatter, cover by strewing. Hence partic. constratus -a -um, esp. 'constrata navis', a decked ship; n. as subst., flooring, deck.

consterno (2) -are, to throw into confusion, alarm, frighten; to stampede.

constipo -are, to press, crowd together.

constituo -stituere -stitui -stitutum, to cause to stand, set up, place, establish, settle; milit., to post, station, arrange, bring to a halt; to settle people in homes or quarters; to found, set up buildings, etc.. Transf., to appoint a person to an office; to settle, fix upon an amount, time, etc.: to decide about a fact, decide that; to decide on a course of action, decide to. Hence partic. constitutus -a -um, arranged, settled; n. as subst., anything arranged, settled or agreed upon.

constitutio -onis, f. the act of settling; settled condition, disposition; a regulation, order, ordinance; rhet., the issue, point in dispute.

consto -stare -stiti -statum. (1) to stand together; hence to be composed, consist; to depend upon, rest upon; to correspond, be consistent (with dat.); with abl., to cost. (2) to stand firm, stand still; to remain the same, be unaltered; of resolves, to be fixed, firm; of evidence, facts, etc., to be established, sure, well-known; impers. constat, it is agreed; in gen., to exist. Hence partic. constans -antis, steady, firm, unchanging, constant, consistent, resolute; adv. constanter, steadily, firmly.

constringo -stringere -strinxi -strictum, to bind together, bind fast, confine, restrain; in speech, to compress, abbreviate.

constructio -onis, f. putting together, building, construction.

construo -struere -struxi -structum, to heap up together; to construct, build up; to arrange.

constuprator -oris, m. a ravisher, debaucher.

constupro -are, to debauch, ravish, corrupt.

consuasor -oris, m. an adviser.

consuefacio -facere -feci -factum, to accustom, habituate.

consuesco -suescere -suevi -suetum: transit., to accustom, habituate; intransit., to accustom oneself; in perf., consuevi, I am accustomed; 'cum homine', to cohabit with a person. Hence partic. consuetus -a -um: of persons, accustomed to; of things, accustomed, usual.

consuetudo -inis, f. custom, usage, habit; of relations with persons, intimacy, familiar acquaintance; of lovers, intrigue.

consuetus -a -um, partic. from consuesco; q.v.

consul -sulis, m. a consul; plur., consules, the consuls, the two chief magistrates at Rome under the Republic; 'consul designatus', consul elect; 'pro consule', an officer in the place of a consul, a proconsul, e.g. a governor of a province.

consularis -e, (1) relating to a consul, consular. (2) having been a consul; m. as subst., an ex-consul, or provincial governor of consular rank. Adv. consulariter, in a manner worthy of a consul.

consulatus -us, m. the office of consul, consulship.

consulo -sulere -sului -sultum. (1) to reflect, consider, consult; with dat., to look to the interests of; as a result of deliberation, to come to a conclusion, to take measures; 'boni (or optimi) consulere', to take in good part. (2) to ask the advice of, consult. Hence partic. consultus -a -um: of things, well considered, deliberated upon; of persons, experienced (with genit.). N. as subst. consultum -i, the act of deliberation, reflection, consideration; the result of deliberation, a resolution, plan, decision; esp. a decree of the senate at Rome. Abl. as adv. consulto, deliberately, designedly. Adv. consulte, advisedly, after consideration.

consultatio -onis, f., a full consideration, deliberation; an asking for advice, inquiry.

consulto -are. (1) to consider maturely, weigh, ponder; with dat., to look to the interests of. (2) to consult, ask advice of.

consultor -oris, m. (1) an adviser. (2) one who asks advice, esp. legal advice; a client.

consummatio -onis, f. a summing up, adding up; a finishing, completion.

consummo -are, to add together, sum up; to form a whole, complete, perfect. Hence partic. comsummatus -a -um, complete, perfect.

consumo -sumere -sumpsi -sumptum, to spend, employ on a purpose; in gen., to use up, finish, waste away, destroy.

consuo -suere -sui -sutum, to stitch or put together; to form.

consurgo -surgere -surrexi -surrectum, to rise up, stand up, esp. to speak, or as a mark of respect. Transf., of persons, to be aroused to action; of things, to arise, break out.

consurrectio -onis, f. a general standing up.

contabesco -tabescere -tabui, to waste away gradually.

contabulatio -onis, f. planking, floor, story.

contabulo -are, to cover with boards, equip with floors or storys.

contactus -us, m. contact, touching; contagion.

contages -is, f. touch, contact.

contagio -onis, f. touching, contact; hence contagion, infection.

contagium -i, n. touching, contact; hence contagion, infection.

contamino -are, to pollute, infect; of authors, to blend (and so to spoil) Greek plays.

contego -tegere -texi -tectum, to cover, shield.

contemno -temnere -tempsi -temptum, to think meanly of, despise, contemn. Hence partic. contemptus -a -um, despised; despicable, contemptible.

contemplatio -onis, f. surveying, contemplation.

contemplor -ari, dep. to mark out; hence to look at attentively, survey, regard; to consider carefully.

contemptim, contemptuously.

contemptio -onis, f. contempt, scorn, disdain.

contemptor -oris, m. a despiser.

contemptrix -ricis, f., adj. and subst., a despiser, contemptuous.

contemptus (1) -a -um, partic. from contemno; q.v.

contemptus (2) -us, m. contempt, disdain.

contendo -tendere -tendi -tentum, to strain, stretch, exert; of missiles, to shoot, cast; intransit., to strive, strain, exert oneself, hasten; of statement, to assert with confidence, maintain.In relation to another: transit., to compare, contrast; intransit., to compete. Hence partic. contentus -a -um, strained, stretched, tense; eager, zealous. Adv. contente, eagerly, earnestly.

contente (1), adv. from contendo; q.v.

contente (2), adv. from contineo; q.v.

contentio -onis, f. exertion, effort, straining, striving. In relation to another, contrast, comparison; or combat, contest, strife.

contentus (1) -a -um, partic. from contendo; q.v.

contentus (2) -a -um, partic. from contineo; q.v.

conterminus -a -um, bordering upon, adjacent, near.

contero -terere -trivi -tritum, to rub away, grind, pound; in gen., to wear away, destroy, obliterate; of time, to consume, spend.

conterreo -ere, to terrify, frighten much.

contestor -ari, dep. to call to witness; 'litem', to start an action by calling witnesses; partic. contestatus -a -um, in pass. sense, witnessed to, approved.

contexo -texere -texui -textum, to weave or twine together, connect, unite, construct, form. Hence partic. contextus -a -um, interwoven, connected, united. Adv. contexte, in close connection.

contextus (1) -a -um, partic. from contexo; q.v.

contextus (2) -us, m. uniting, connection.

conticesco (conticisco) -ticescere -ticui, to become silent, be stilled, abate.

contignatio -onis, f. floor of planks.

contigno -are, to floor with planks.

contiguus -a -um, touching, contiguous, near; with dat., within reach of.

continens -entis, partic. from contineo; q.v.

continentia -ae, f. self-control, moderation, temperance.

contineo -tinere -tinui -tentum. (1) to hold together, keep together; hence to connect, join. (2) to keep in, surround, contain, confine; hence to include, comprise. (3) to hold back, constrain.Hence pres. partic. continens -entis. (1) lying near, adjacent. (2) hanging together, unbroken, continuous; f. as subst., a continent; n. as subst., rhet., a main point. (3) self-controlled, temperate, continent. Adv. continenter, without break, continuously; continently, temperately. Partic. contentus -a -um, contented, satisfied (with abl.).

contingo -tingere -tigi -tactum: transit., to touch, reach, grasp; to touch with something, smear or sprinkle with; hence to affect, infect (esp. in perf. partic.); geograph. to border on; intransit., to happen, befall, usually of good luck (with dat.).

continuatio -onis, f. unbroken continuance or succession; rhet., a period.

continuitas -atis, f. continuity, unbroken succession.

continuo (1), adv. from continuus; q.v.

continuo (2) -are, to connect up, unite, make continuous, form into a series; 'verba', to make into a sentence;'magistratum', to prolong.

continuus -a -um,connected up, hanging together, continuous, uninterrupted. N. abl. as adv. continuo, immediately, at once;in argument,necessarily, as an immediate consequence.

contio -onis, f. an assembly, public meeting. Transf. a speech made in such an assembly, or the speaker's platform.

contionabundus -a -um, haranguing, speaking in public.

contionalis -e, relating to a public assembly.

contionarius -a -um, relating to a public assembly.

contionator -oris, m. a popular orator, demagogue.

contionor -ari, dep. to attend an assembly; esp. to speak in a public assembly.

contiuncula -ae, f. a short harangue.

contorqueo -torquere -torsi -tortum,to twist, whirl, turn violently, contort; to whirl a spear, etc. in throwing, and so to hurl. Hence partic. contortus -a -um. (1) intricate, confused, complicated. (2) whirling; so powerful, vigorous. Adv. contorte,intricately.

contortio -onis, f. whirling, twisting, intricacy.

contra. Adv., opposite, over against, on the opposite side; of equivalence, in return, back; of difference, otherwise; of opposition,against. Prep. with acc., opposite to, over against; against, in opposition to.

contractio -onis, f. drawing together, contraction; 'orationis', abbreviation; 'animi', anxiety, depression.

contractus -a -um, partic. from contraho; q.v.

contradico -dicere -dixi -dictum, to gainsay, contradict.

contradictio -onis, f. a speaking against, contradiction.

contraho -trahere -traxi -tractum. (1) to draw together, collect, unite; to conclude or complete any arrangement; in gen., to cause, bring on, bring about; 'aes alienum', to contract debt. (2) to shorten, narrow, contract, reduce; 'frontem', to frown; 'vela', to furl one's sails; of the spirits, to depress. Hence partic. contractus -a -um, contracted, narrowed, straitened; of persons, retired, quiet.

contrarius -a -um, opposite, opposed, contrary; 'vulnera', wounds in front; with genit. or dat. opposed to; in gen. hostile,injurious. N. as subst. contrarium -i, the opposite; 'ex contrario', on the other side. Adv. contrarie, in an opposite direction or manner.

contrectatio -onis, f. touching, handling.

contrecto -are, to touch, feel, handle; of familiar handling, to violate; mentally, to consider.

contremisco -tremiscere -tremui: intransit., to tremble, quake; transit., to tremble before, be afraid of.

contremo -ere, to tremble, quake.

contribuo -tribuere -tribui -tributum, to brigade with, incorporate, unite; of contributions, to bring in.

contristo -are, to make sad or gloomy.

contritus -a -um, partic. from contero; q.v.

controversia -ae, f. a dispute esp. at law; 'sine controversia', indisputably.

controversiosus -a -um, strongly disputed.

controversus -a -um, disputed, controverted.

contrucido -are, to cut in pieces, hew down, slay.

contrudo -trudere -trusi -trusum, to thrust, push together.

contrunco -are, to cut in pieces.

contubernalis -is, c. (1) a messmate, comrade. (2) a young staff- officer.

contubernium -i, n. Concrete, a soldier's tent; the common dwelling of a male and female slave. Abstract, comradeship, companionship, intimacy; concubinage; junior staff duties.

contueor -tueri -tuitus, dep. to see, survey, look at attentively;mentally, to consider, reflect upon.

contuitu (contutu), abl. sing. m., by surveying.

contumacia -ae, f. firmness, stubbornness, obstinacy.

contumax -acis, firm, stubborn, obstinate; adv. contumaciter.

contumelia -ae, f. outrage, physical violence; of speech, insult, affront.

contumeliosus -a -um, adj. outrageous, insulting, abusive; adv. contumeliose.

contumulo -are, to bury, inter.

contundo -tundere -tudi -tusum, to bruise, crush, pound, beat up, break up, demolish.

contuor -i = contueor; q.v.

conturbatio -onis, f. disorder, confusion.

conturbo -are, to throw into disorder, disturb, distress; to ruin, make bankrupt.

contus -i, m. a pole used in boating; a long spear or pike.

conubium -i, n. marriage; intermarriage.

conus -i, m. a cone; the apex of a helmet.

convalesco -valescere -valui, to become strong, establish oneself; esp. to recover from a disease, get well.

convallis -is, f. an enclosed valley.

convaso -are, to pack up baggage.

convecto -are, to bring together, collect.

convector -oris, m. a fellow-traveller.

conveho -vehere -vexi -vectum, to bring together, carry into one place.

convello -vellere -velli -vulsum, to pluck up, pull away, wrench off; milit., 'convellere signa', to decamp; in gen., to weaken, overthrow, destroy.

convena -ae, c.: adj., coming together; as subst., in plur., a concourse, assembled multitude.

convenientia -ae, f. agreement, harmony, conformity.

convenio -venire -veni -ventum. (1) to meet: intransit.,to come together, assemble; legal, 'convenire in manum', of the wife, to come into the power of her husband; transit., to visit, meet, call upon. (2) to be fit, be suitable, be congenial; impers. 'convenit', it is fitting. (3) to agree; usually in pass. sense, to be agreed upon; impers., 'convenit', it is agreed. Hence partic. conveniens -entis, agreeing, unanimous, concordant; fit, appropriate, suitable; adv. convenienter, agreeably, suitably. N. of perf. partic. as subst., conventum -i, an agreement, compact.

conventiculum -i, n. a coming together, assembly, association; a place of meeting.

conventio -onis, f. assembly; agreement, compact.

conventum; see convenio.

conventus -us, m. coming together, assembly, union, congress; 'conventus agere', to hold assizes; in gen., agreement.

converro -verrere -verri -versum, to sweep together, brush up; to beat thoroughly; to scrape together.

conversatio -onis, f. frequent use; esp. frequent sojourn in a place, or regular dealings with a person.

conversio -onis, f. a turning round, alteration, or periodical return; rhet., rounding off of a period, or repetition of word at the end of a clause.

converso -are, to turn round often; pass., in middle sense, to live, consort, have dealings.

converto -vertere -verti -versum. (1) to turn round, whirl round; 'se convertere, to revolve, to turn back; milit., 'signa convertere', to wheel round; 'terga', or 'se', convertere. to flee. Transf., to change, alter; of books, to translate. (2) to turn in any direction, direct; 'conversus ad', facing. Transf., to direct, devote (esp. with reflex.; rarely intransit.); 'pecuniam publicam domum', to embezzle.

convestio -ire, to clothe; cover, surround.

convexus -a -um. (1) vaulted, arched, convex; n. as subst., arch. (2) sloping downward.

conviciator -oris, m. a railer, reviler.

convicior -ari, dep. to rail, revile.

convicium -i, n. a loud cry, shout, clamor; esp. abuse, reproach, insult; hence, in gen., censure, reproof.

convictio -onis, f. intercourse, familiarity; meton., familiar friends.

convictor -oris, m. a constant associate.

convictus -us, m. living together, intercourse; entertainment, feast.

convinco -vincere -vici -victum, to convict of a crime; to prove mistaken; of things, esp. crimes or mistakes, to prove anything conclusively, to demonstrate.

conviso -ere, to examine carefully; poet. to beam upon.

conviva -ae, m. guest.

convivalis -e, of a feast.

convivator -oris, m. a host.

convivium -i, n. a feast, entertainment, banquet; meton., the company assembled, guests.

convivo -vivere -vixi -victum, to live with, feast with.

convivor -ari, dep. to feast (as a guest).

convocatio -onis, f. calling together.

convoco -are, to call together, assemble, convoke.

convolo -are, to fly together, run together.

convolvo -volvere -volvi -volutum, to roll together or roll round; to intertwine.

convomo -ere, to vomit all over.

convulsus -a -um, partic. of convello; q.v.

cooperio -operire -operui -opertum, to cover up, envelop, overwhelm; 'lapidibus', to stone to death.

cooptatio -onis, f. election of a colleague, co-optation; 'censoria', filling up of the senate by the censors.

coopto -are, to choose, elect, co-opt.

coorior -oriri -ortus, dep. to arise, come forth together; of things, to appear, to break out; of people, to rise for insurrection or fight.

coortus -us, m. arising, breaking forth.

Coos (Cous) = Cos; q.v.

cophinus -i, m. basket, hamper.

copia -ae, f. plenty, abundance (of persons or things); milit., supplies, provisions; also troops, forces (esp. plur.). Transf., means, opportunity; with genit. of person, access to.

copiosus -a -um, richly provided, wealthy; plentiful, abundant; of speech, copious, eloquent. Adv. copiose, abundantly, plentifully, copious- ly.

copo, copona = caupo, caupona; q.v.

copula -ae, f. a link, bond, tie, connection; a rope, a leash; plur. grapnels.

copulatio -onis, f. union, connection.

copulo -are, to join together, unite, connect. Hence partic. copulatus -a -um, connected, united, coupled.

coquo coquere coxi coctum,to cook, prepare food; to burn, ripen; to digest; mentally,to think of, meditate, contrive a thing; to harass a person.

coquus (cocus) -i, m. and coqua -ae, f. a cook.

cor cordis, n. the heart; often as seat of emotions or thought, heart, mind, judgment; meton., a person.

coram. Adv. personally, openly, face to face. Prep. with abl., in the presence of.

corbis -is, m. and f. a wicker basket.

corbita -ae, f. a slow-sailing merchant vessel.

corculum -i, n. little heart.

Corcyra -ae, f. Corcyra, an island in the Ionian Sea. 2

cordatus -a -um, prudent, wise; adv. cordate.

Corduba -ae, f. a town in Hispania Baetica (now Cordova).

Corinthus -i, f. Corinth, a city of Greece.

Corioli -orum, m. pl. a town of the Volsci in Latium; adj. Coriolanus -a -um.

corium -i, n. hide, skin, leather; a leather thong, strap.

Cornelius -a -um, name of a Roman gens, including the Scipios. Adj. Cornelianus -a um.

corneolus -a -um, horny.

corneus (1) -a -um, horny, made of horn; like horn, hard.

corneus (2) -a -um, of cornel tree; of cornel wood.

cornicen -cinis, m. a horn-blower.

corniculum -i, n. a little horn; a horn-shaped decoration for soldiers.

corniger -gera -gerum, horned.

cornipes -pedis, horn-footed, hoofed.

cornix -icis, f. crow.

cornu -us, n. a horn; fig., strength, courage; anything made of horn, esp. a bow, trumpet, lantern; anything resembling a horn esp. a hoof, beak, tip of a helmet, end of a stick or spar, end of a promontory, wing of an army.

Cornucopia -ae, f. the horn of Amalthea, symbol of plenty.

cornum -i, n. the cornel-cherry; meton., a spear of cornel wood.

cornus -i (and -us), f. the cornel tree; hence the wood of the cornel tree, a spear of cornel wood.

cornutus -a -um, horned.

corolla -ae, f. a little crown.

corollarium -i, n. a garland of flowers; a present, gratuity.

corona -ae, f. garland, chaplet, crown; 'sub corona vendere', to sell into slavery prisoners of war (wearing chaplets). Transf., anything resembling a crown; a constellation; a circle of people, audience; milit., besiegers (or defenders) of a city.

coronarius -a -um, of a garland.

corono -are, to wreath, crown with a garland; to surround, enclose in a circle.

corporeus -a -um, of the body, bodily of flesh.

corpulentus -a -um, fat, stout.

corpus -poris, n. body, substance, matter; esp. the body of men and animals; flesh, the trunk; sometimes a corpse. Transf., a person, 'a body'; the 'body politic'; in gen., the main mass of a thing.

corpusculum -i, n. a little particle, atom; a small body.

corrado -radere -rasi -rasum, to scrape or rake together.

correctio -onis, f. straightening out, improvement, amendment.

corrector -oris, m. improver, amender, corrector.

correpo -repere -repsi -reptum, to creep, slink, crawl.

correptius, compar. adv. from corripio; q.v.

corrigia -ae, f. a shoe-string, boot-lace.

corrigo -rigere -rexi -rectum, to put straight, set right, reform, amend.

corripio -ripere -ripui -reptum, to seize, snatch up; 'pecuniam', to steal; 'viam', to hasten on a journey; 'se', to hurry off. Transf., of disease, etc., to attack; of the passions, to overcome; of persons, to blame, rebuke, accuse, bring to trial; in time, to shorten; hence, from partic., compar. adv. correptius, more shortly.

corroboro -are, to strengthen, invigorate.

corrodo -rodere -rosi -rosum, to gnaw away.

corrogo -are, to get together, collect by begging.

corrugo -are, to wrinkle up.

corrumpo -rumpere -rupi -ruptum. (1) to break up, annihilate, destroy. (2) to spoil, make worse, weaken; of documents, to falsify; of characters, to corrupt; 'corrumpere pecunia', to bribe. Hence partic. corruptus -a -um, spoilt, damaged, corrupt; adv. corrupte, corruptly, incorrectly.

corruo -ruere -rui: intransit. to fall to the ground, sink down, be ruined; transit. to throw down, overthrow.

corruptela -ae, f. corruption, bribery, seduction; meton., a corruptor.

corruptio -onis, f. corrupting; a corrupt state.

corruptor -oris, m. corrupter, seducer, briber.

corruptus -a -um, partic. from corrumpo; q.v.

cors; see cohors.

Corsica -ae, f. the island of Corsica; adj. Corsus and Corsicus -a -um.

cortex -ticis, m. and f. bark, rind, shell; esp. the bark of the cork tree, cork.

cortina -ae, f. a round kettle or cauldron; esp. the cauldron-shaped Delphic tripod: 'cortina Phoebi', the oracle of Delphi.

corulus; = corylus; q.v.

corus; = caurus; q.v.

corusco -are: transit., to move quickly, swing, shake; intransit., to tremble, flutter; of light, to twinkle, flash.

coruscus -a -um, shaking, trembling; of light, twinkling, flashing.

corvus -i, m. a raven; perhaps also a rook.

Corybantes -ium, m. pl. the priests of Cybele.

corycus -i, m. a sand-bag, a punch-ball.

coryletum -i, n. a hazel copse.

corylus -i, f. a hazel tree.

corymbus -i, m. a bunch of flowers or fruit, esp. a cluster of ivy berries.

coryphaeus -i, m. a leader, chief.

corytus or corytos -i, m. a quiver. 2

cos cotis, f. any hard, flinty stone; esp. a whetstone, grindstone.

Cos or Cous (Coos) Coi, f. a small island in the Aegean Sea; adj. Cous -a -um; n. sing. as subst., Coan wine; n. plur., Coan garments.

cosmeta -ae, m. a woman's valet.

cosmicos -a -um, of the world; m. as subst. a citizen of the world.

costa -ae, f. a rib or side.

costum -i, n. an eastern aromatic plant.

cothurnatus -a -um, in buskins; hence tragic, elevated.

cothurnus -i, m. a large hunting boot; a boot or buskin worn by tragic actors; hence tragedy, elevated style.

cotid. = cottid.; q.v.

cottana (cotona, coctona, coctana) -orum, n. pl. a kind of small fig.

coturnix -icis, f. a quail.

covinnarius -i, m. a soldier in a war chariot.

covinnus -i, m. a war-chariot; a travelling-chariot.

coxa -ae, f. the hip-bone.

coxendix -icis, f. the hip.

crabro -onis, m. a hornet.

crambe -es, f. cabbage.

crapula -ae, f. drunkenness; its aftereffects, 'hangover'.

cras, adv. tomorrow.

crassitudo -inis, f. thickness, density.

crassus -a -um, thick, dense, solid; 'aer', misty, heavy; of intellect, dull or uneducated. Adv. crasse, roughly, rudely.

Crassus -i, m. name of a family in the gens Licinia; q.v.

crastinus -a -um, of tomorrow; n. as subst. the morrow.

cratera -ae, f. and crater -eris, m. a bowl, esp. for mixing wine with water; the crater of a volcano; a constellation, the Bowl.

cratis -is, a wicker frame, hurdle, a harrow; milit. fascines; 'favorum', honeycomb; 'spinae', the joints of the backbone.

creatio -onis, f. choice, election.

creator -oris, m. maker, founder; parent.

creatrix -icis, f. maker, founder; parent.

creber -bra -brum; of space, thick, crowded together, close, numerous; with abl., crowded with, full of; of time, repeated, numerous, frequent; of persons, to signify repeated action, e.g. 'creber pulsat', he beats frequently. Adv. crebro, repeatedly, often.

crebresco (crebesco) -escere -ui, to become frequent, increase, gather strength.

crebritas -atis, f. frequency.

crebro, adv. from creber; q.v.

credibilis -e, credible, worthy of belief; adv. credibiliter, credibly.

creditor -oris, m. a creditor.

credo -dere -didi -ditum, to trust: with acc. and dat., to entrust, commit, esp. of secrets and money; n. of perf. partic. as subst., creditum, a loan; with dat., to trust in, rely upon; also with dat., to believe, give credence to; with acc., to believe as a fact, to accept as true; in gen., to believe, think, be of the opinion.

credulitas -atis, f. credulity.

credulus -a -um, believing easily, credulous, confiding.

cremo -are, to burn, consume with fire.

cremor -oris, m. juice, pulp, cream.

creo -are, to make, create, produce; to elect to an office; of parents, to beget, bear.

crepida -ae, f. sandal.

crepidatus -a -um, wearing sandals.

crepido -inis, f. a base, foundation, pedestal; a quay, pier, dam.

crepitacillum -i, n. a rattle.

crepitaculum -i, n. a rattle.

crepito -are, to rattle, creak, crackle, rustle.

crepitus -us, m. rattling, creaking, rustling, clattering; 'digitorum', snapping of the fingers.

crepo -are -ui -itum: intransit., to creak, rattle, rustle, crackle; 'digiti crepantis signa', a snapping of the fingers; transit., to make resound; to chatter about.

crepundia -orum, n. pl. a child's plaything; a rattle or amulet.

crepusculum -i, n. twilight.

cresco crescere crevi cretum. (1) to come into existence, spring forth, arise; past partic. cretus, sprung (from). (2) of what exists, to grow, grow up, increase in size, height, etc.; 'luna crescens', waxing; fig., to increase in fame, power, etc..

Creta -ae, f. and Crete -es, f. Crete. Hence m. adj. and subst. Cres -etis; f. adj. and subst. Cressa -ae; adj. Cretensis -e, and Creticus -a -um, Cretan.

creta -ae, f. chalk, or fuller's earth.

cretatus -a -um, chalked; hence in white.

cretio -onis, f. a declaration by an heir accepting an inheritance.

cretosus -a -um, abounding in chalk.

cretula -ae, f. white clay for sealing.

Creusa -ae, f. wife of Aeneas.

cribrum -i, n. a sieve.

crimen -inis, n. (1) an accusation, charge: 'esse in crimine', to be accused; meton., an object of reproach. (2) fault, guilt, crime; meton., cause of crime.

criminatio -onis, f. accusation, calumny, charge.

criminator -oris, m. accuser, calumniator.

criminor -ari, dep.: with acc. of person, to accuse, charge; esp. to calumniate; with acc. of offence, to complain of, bring up.

criminosus -a -um, reproachful, calumnious, slanderous; adv. criminose, by way of accusation, reproachfully.

crinalis -e, of or for the hair; n. as subst. a hair-band.

crinis -is, m. hair; esp. in pl.; of a comet, the tail.

crinitus -a -um, hairy, with long hair; 'stella crinita', a comet; 'galea', crested.

crispisulcans -antis, forked, wavy.

crispo -are, to curl; to move rapidly, brandish; intransit. partic. crispans -antis, curly, wavy.

crispulus -a -um, curly-haired, wavy.

crispus -a -um, curly, curly-headed; trembling, quaking.

crista -ae, f. the crest, plume; of a cock, the comb.

cristatus -a -um, with a crest, plume or comb.

croceus -a -um, of saffron; saffron-colored, golden, yellow.

crocinus -a -um, of saffron, saffron-colored, yellow; n. as subst., saffron oil.

crocodilus -i, m. crocodile.

crocotula -ae, f. a saffron-colored robe.

crocus -i, m. and crocum -i, n. the crocus; saffron, prepared from crocus; hence the color of saffron, yellow.

Croesus -i, m. a king of Lydia, famous for his wealth.

crotalia -orum, n. pl. earrings.

crotalistria -ae, f. a castanet-dancer.

crotalum -i, n. a castanet.

Croton -onis, c. a Greek town near the toe of Italy.

cruciamentum -i, n. torture.

cruciatus -us, m. torture, torment.

crucio -are, to torture, torment.

crudelis -e, adj. unfeeling, cruel; adv. crudeliter.

crudelitas -atis, f. cruelty, inhumanity.

crudesco -escere -ui, to become hard or violent.

cruditas -atis, f. overloading of the stomach, indigestion.

crudus -a -um, adj. (1) bleeding. (2) uncooked, raw; of material, fresh, not prepared; of fruit, unripe; in gen., green, fresh, immature, untimely; of food, undigested; of persons, stuffed, dyspeptic; of feeling, etc., hard, cruel; of the voice, harsh.

cruento -are, to make bloody, stain with blood.

cruentus -a -um, bloody, bloodthirsty; blood-red.

crumena -ae, f. a pouch, purse; store of money, funds.

cruor -oris, m. blood, gore; murder, slaughter.

crus cruris, n. the shin, shinbone, leg; of a bridge, pier, support.

crusta -ae, f. (1) crust, rind, shell, bark. (2) inlaid work, bas-relief, embossing.

crustulum -i, n. a little cake.

crustum -i, n. bread, cake.

crux crucis, f. a cross; hence torment, trouble; as a term of abuse, gallows bird.

crypta -ae, f. covered galley, vault, grotto.

crystallinus -a -um, of crystal; n. pl. as subst., crystal vases.

crystallus -i, f. and crystallum -i, n. crystal; a crystal drinking vessel; a precious stone looking like crystal.

cubicularis -e, of a bedchamber.

cubicularius -a -um, of a bedchamber; m. as subst. a chamberservant.

cubiculum -i, n. a bedroom.

cubile -is, n. bed; esp. marriage-bed; of animals, lair, den, nest; of bees, hives; in gen., seat, resting place.

cubital -talis, n. an elbow cushion.

cubitalis -e, one cubit long.

cubito -are, to lie down often.

cubitum -i, n. the elbow; a cubit.

cubitus -us, m. lying down.

cubo -are -ui -itum, to lie down, recline, esp. at table or in bed; to be ill in bed; 'cubitum ire', to go to bed; of things, to lie; partic. cubans, sloping.

cucullus -i, m. a hood, cowl.

cuculus -i, m. cuckoo.

cucumis -meris, m. cucumber.

cucurbita -ae, f. a gourd; a cupping-glass.

cudo -ere, to beat, pound, thresh; of metals, to forge, stamp, coin.

cuias -atis, of what country.

cuicuimodi, of whatever kind.

cuius (quoius) -a -um: interrog., whose?; relat., whose; 'quoia causa', wherefore.

cuiuscemodi, of whatever kind.

cuiusdammodi, of a certain kind.

cuiusmodi, of what kind?.

cuiusquemodi, of every kind.

culcita -ae, f. bolster, pillow.

culeus; = culleus; q.v.

culex -icis, m. gnat, midge.

culina -ae, f. kitchen; meton., food, fare.

culleus (culeus) -i, m. a leather sack.

culmen -inis, n. top, summit; the ridge of a roof; a stalk.

culmus -i, m. stalk, haulm, thatch.

culpa -ae, f. fault, blame; esp. the fault of unchastity; meton., a cause of error or sin.

culpo -are, to blame, find fault with, disapprove.

cultellus -i, m. a little knife.

culter -tri, m. a knife; a plowshare, coulter.

cultio -onis, f. cultivation, agriculture.

cultor -oris, m. a cultivator, planter, husbandman; with genit., an inhabitant, occupier of a place; a friend, supporter of a person; a worshipper of gods.

cultrix -icis, f. she who tends or takes care; an inhabitant.

cultura -ae, f. tilling, culture, cultivation, husbandry; 'animi', mental culture, cultivation; 'potentis amici', courting of.

cultus (1) -a -um, partic. from colo; q.v.

cultus (2) -us, m. tilling, cultivation, tending; in gen., care, careful treatment; 'deorum', reverence; 'animi', training, education;

culullus (culillus) -i, m. a drinking-vessel.

cum (1) prep. with abl., with, together with; at the same time as; 'cum eo quod','ut', or 'ne', on condition that.

cum (2) (older form quom) conj., when; whenever; since; although; cum...tum..., both...and....

Cumae -arum, f. pl. a city of Campania; adj. Cumanus and Cumaeus -a -um.

cumba (cymba) -ae, f. small boat, skiff.

cumera -ae, f. a corn-bin.

cuminum -i, n. a herb, cummin.

cumprimis; see primus.

cumque (cumque, quomque), adverb, usually found added to a relative, with the force of -ever, -sover.

cumulo -are, to heap up, pile up, increase, heighten; to fill up, overload; 'cumulatus laude', loaded with praise; also to crown, bring to perfection. Hence partic. cumulatus -a -um, heaped up, increased, enlarged; crowned, perfected. Adv. cumulate, abundantly, fully.

cumulus -i, m. heap, pile, mass; addition, increase, finishing touch.

cunabula -orum, n. pl. cradle.

cunae -arum, f. pl. cradle; of young birds, nest.

cunctabundus -a -um, loitering, dilatory.

cunctatio -onis, f. delay, lingering, hesitation.

cunctator -oris, m. one who delays.

cunctor -ari, dep. to delay, linger, hesitate;of things,to move slowly. Hence partic. cunctans -antis, lingering, slow; adv. cunctanter.

cunctus -a -um, all, all collectively, the whole.

cuneatim, in wedge formation.

cuneo -are, to secure with wedges; to shape like a wedge. Hence partic. cuneatus -a -um, pointed like a wedge.

cuneus -i, m. a wedge; troops in wedge formation; any triangular figure; often of the wedge-shaped compartments into which the seats of a theater were divided.

cuniculosus -a -um, full of rabbits (or caverns).

cuniculus -i, m. (1) a rabbit, cony. (2) an underground passage;milit., a mine.

cupa -ae, f. cask, butt.

cupiditas -atis, f. eager desire, passionate longing. Esp. ambition; avarice, factiousness, party spirit.

cupido -inis, f. and poet. m., longing, desire. Esp. desire for power, ambition, avarice; physical desire, love. Personified, Cupido -inis, m. Cupid, god of love; plur. Cupidines, Cupids; adj. Cupidineus -a -um.

cupidus -a -um, desirous, eager, keen. Esp. eager for power, ambitious; avaricious; physically, desirous, passionate; towards persons, attached, partial. Adv. cupide, eagerly, passionately.

cupio cupere cupivi or -ii -itum, to desire, long for ,wish for. Hence partic. cupiens -entis, longing, eager; as adj., with genit.; adv. cupienter.

cupitor -oris, m. one who desires.

cuppedia (1) -ae, f. taste for delicacies.

cuppedia (2) -orum, n. pl. delicacies, tid-bits.

cuppedinarius -i, m. a confectioner.

cuppedo; = cupido; q.v.

cupressetum -i, n. a cypress wood.

cupresseus -a -um, made of cypress wood.

cupressifer -fera -ferum, cypress-bearing.

cupressus -i (-us), f. the cypress; a casket of cypress wood.

cur (quor), why? wherefore?.

cura -ae, f. care; (1) care taken, carefulness, pains, attention, minding of things or persons; of business, management, administration; meton., an object of care, or a guardian, caretaker. (2) care felt, anxiety, worry, disquiet.

curalium -i, n. coral, esp. red coral.

curatio -onis, f. care, attention; esp. medical attention, healing, curing; of business, management, administration; 'frumenti', commission to buy corn; 'agraria', commission to divide land.

curator -oris, m. guardian, overseer.

curatus, partic. from curo; q.v.

curculio -onis, m. a weevil, corn-worm.

Cures -ium, f. a town of the Sabines; adj. Curensis -e.

Curetes -um, m. ancient inhabitants of Crete; adj. Curetis -idis= Cretan.

curia -ae, f. (1) a curia, a division of the Roman patricians; meton., the meeting place of a curia. (2) the meeting place of the senate, senate-house; at Athens, the Areopagus.

curialis -e, belonging to the same curia.

curiatim, by curiae.

curiatus -a -um, relating to curiae; 'comitia curiata', the original assembly of the Roman people.

curio -onis, m. the priest of a curia; a herald, crier.

curiositas -atis, f. inquisitiveness.

curiosus -a -um. (1) careful, attentive. (2) inquisitive. (3) wasted by cares. Adv. curiose, carefully; inquisitively.

curis or quiris, f. a spear.

curo -are, to care for, pay attention to, trouble about; with gerundive, to see to a thing being done; of business, to manage, administer; physically, to minister to, cure, rest; of business, to provide or procure money; 'curare Romae', to be in charge at Rome. Hence partic. curatus -a -um, cared for; showing care. Compar. adv. curatius, more carefully.

curriculum -i, n. running; a contest in running, race; raceground, course, lap; a racing chariot.

curro currere cucurri cursum, to run, hasten; esp. to run in a race; at sea, to sail; of time, to pass.

currus -us, m. a chariot, car; esp. one used in racing, or war, or at a triumph; meton., a triumph. Transf., a plow with wheels; a ship.

cursim, hastily, quickly.

cursito -are, to run up and down.

curso -are, to run hither and thither.

cursor -oris, m. a runner; a courier, messenger; a running footman.

cursus -us, m. running, rapid motion; course, direction, movement, journey.

curto -are, to shorten, abbreviate.

curtus -a -um, shortened, mutilated, defective; esp. gelded.

curulis -e, relating to a chariot; 'equi', horses provided for the Circus; 'curulis (sella)', the curule chair, official seat of consuls, praetors, and curule aediles.

curvamen -inis, n. curving, arching.

curvatura -ae, f. curving, arching.

curvo -are, to bend, arch, curve; to influence.

curvus -a -um, bent, bowed, arched, curved, winding; morally, crooked.

cuspis -idis, f. point, esp. of a spear; hence a spear, lance; a trident, a spit.

custodia -ae, f. watching, guarding, custody, care; milit., keeping guard, watch; of prisoners, custody, safekeeping; 'custodia libera', house-arrest. Transf., persons guarding, guards, sentinels; the station of the guard, post, prison; persons guarded, prisoners.

custodio -ire, to guard, watch, keep, take care of; to keep in sight, observe; to keep in prison, hold captive.

custos -odis, c. guardian, watchman, keeper, attendant; a jailer, sentinel, guard, spy.

cuticula -ae, f. skin, cuticle.

cutis -is, f. skin, hide, leather.

cyathus -i, m. a ladle for filling goblets with wine; as measure of capacity = one twelth of a sextarius.

cybaea -ae, f. (with or without navis) a merchantman.

Cybele or Cybebe -es, f. a Phrygian goddess, worshipped at Rome.

cyclas -adis, f. a female robe of state.

Cyclas -adis, f., plur., Cyclades, a group of islands in the Aegean Sea.

cyclicus -a -um, cyclic.

Cyclops -clopis, m. a Cyclops, gen. plur., Cyclopes, the Cyclopes, a gigantic one-eyed race; adj. Cyclopius -a -um.

cycneus or cygneus -a -um, belonging to the swan.

cycnus; = cygnus; q.v.

cygnus -i, m. the swan.

cylindrus -i, m. a cylinder, a roller.

Cyllene -es and -ae, f. a mountain in Arcadia, where Mercury was born. Adj. Cylleneus and Cyllenius -a -um.

cymba -ae, f. = cumba; q.v.

cymbalum -i, n. a cymbal.

cymbium -i, n. a small drinking-vessel.

Cynicus -a -um, Cynic, of the Cynic school.

cynocephalus -i, m. the dog-faced baboon.

Cynosura -ae, f. the constellation Ursa Minor.

Cynthus -i, m. a mountain in Delos, birthplace of Apollo and Diana; hence adj. as subst., m. Cynthius -i, Apollo, f. Cynthia -ae, Diana.

Cyparissus, f. = cupressus; q.v.

Cyprus or Cypros -i, f. the island of Cyprus; adj. Cyprius -a -um, Cyprian; f. as subst. Venus.

Cyrene -es and Cyrenae -arum, f. a city of northeastern Africa; adj. Cyrenaeus and Cyrenaicus -a -um, Cyrenaic; m. pl. as subst., the Cyrenaic philosophers.

Cythera -orum, n. pl. the island Cythera, sacred to Venus; adj. Cythereus and Cytereius -a -um, Cytherean; f. as subst. = Venus.

cytisus -i, c. clover or lucerne.