Glossary of Latin Terms R


rabidus -a -um, raging, mad, savage; adv. rabide.

rabies -ei, f. madness, rage, fury, frenzy.

rabiosulus -a -um, rather furious.

rabiosus -a -um, raging, mad, savage; adv. rabiose.

Rabirius -a -um, name of a Roman gens.

rabula -ae, m. a bawling advocate.

racemifer -fera -ferum, bearing clusters.

racemus -i, m. a cluster, esp. of grapes.

radiatus -a -um, provided with spokes or rays.

radicitus, with or by the root; utterly.

radicula -ae, f. a little root.

radio -are and radior -ari, dep. to gleam, radiate.

radius -i, m. a staff, rod; the spoke of a wheel; the radius of a circle; in weaving, a shuttle; in botany, a kind of long olive. Transf., a ray, beam of light.

radix -icis, f. a root; the foot of a mountain; in gen. foundation, basis, origin.

rado radere rasi rasum, to scrape, shave, graze; to erase; to hurt, offend.

raeda -ae, f. a travelling carriage.

raedarius -i, m. a coachman.

ramale -is, n., usually plur., sticks, brushwood.

ramentum -i, n., usually plur., shavings, splinters, chips.

rameus -a -um, of branches.

ramex -icis, m. a rupture; plur., the lungs.

Ramnes and Ramnenses -ium, m. pl. one of the three tribes into which the early Roman citizens were divided.

ramosus -a -um, full of boughs, branching.

ramulus -i, m. a little branch, twig.

ramus -i, m. a bough, branch, twig.

rana -ae, f. a frog.

rancens -entis, stinking, putrid.

rancidulus -a -um, rather putrid.

rancidus -a -um, stinking, rank, offensive.

ranunculus -i, m. a little frog, tadpole.

rapacitas -atis, f. greediness.

rapax -acis, snatching, grasping, greedy.

rapiditas -atis, f. rapid flow, rapidity.

rapidus -a -um, rushing, swift, violent; adv. rapide.

rapina -ae, f. robbery, pillage; booty, plunder.

rapio rapere rapui raptum, to seize, snatch, tear away; to plunder a place; to hurry along a person or thing; 'se rapere', to rush off. Transf., to pervert, lead astray. N. of partic. as subst. raptum -i, plunder.

raptim, violently, hastily, hurriedly.

raptio -onis, f. carrying off, abduction.

rapto -are, to seize and carry off, to hurry away; to rob, plunder a place.

raptor -oris, m. a robber, plunderer.

raptus -us, m. tearing off, rending away; carrying off, abduction, rape; plundering.

rapulum -i, n. a little turnip.

rarefacio -facere -feci -factum, to make thin, rarefy.

raresco -ere, to become thin, to lose density; to widen out; to grow less.

raritas -atis, f. thinness; looseness of texture; fewness, rarity.

rarus -a -um, loose, thin; scattered, scanty, far apart; milit. in loose order; in gen. rare, infrequent; sometimes extraordinary, distinguished. Adv. raro, rare, seldom, rarely.

rasilis -e, scraped, smooth.

rastrum -i, n., plur. gen. rastri -orum, a hoe, rake, mattock.

ratio -onis, f. a reckoning, account, consideration, calculation; 'rati- onem ducere', to compute; any transaction, affair, business; a reason, motive, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, science; the reasoning faculty.

ratiocinatio -onis, f. reasoning; esp. a form of argument, syllogism.

ratiocinativus -a -um, argumentative; syllogistic.

ratiocinator -oris, m. a calculator, accountant.

ratiocinor -ari, dep. to compute, calculate; to argue, infer, conclude.

rationalis -e, reasonable, rational.

rationarium -i, n. a statistical account.

ratis -is, f. a raft; poet. a ship, boat.

ratiuncula -ae, f. a little reckoning, account; a poor reason; a petty syllogism.

ratus; see reor.

raucisonus -a -um, hoarsely sounding.

raucus -a -um, hoarse, harsh-sounding.

raudus (rodus, rudus) -eris, n. a rough mass, lump, esp. of copper money.

raudusculum -i, n. a small sum of money.

Ravenna -ae, f. a town in Gallia Cispadana, near the Adriatic.

ravus -a -um, tawny or grayish.

rea; see reus.

reapse, in truth, really.

rebellatio; see rebellio.

rebellatrix -icis, f. renewing war, rebellious.

rebellio -onis, f. a renewal of war, esp. by the conquered; a revolt.

rebellis -e, renewing war, insurgent.

rebellium; = rebellio; q.v.

rebello -are, to renew war, revolt, fight back.

reboo -are, to echo, resound; to make to resound.

recalcitro -are, to kick back; fig. to deny access.

recaleo -ere, to warm again.

recalesco -ere, to become warm again.

recalfacio -facere -feci -factum, to make warm again.

recandesco -candescere -candui, to grow white; to become hot, begin to glow.

recanto -are: intransit. to resound, echo; transit. to recall, recant; to charm away.

recedo -cedere -cessi -cessum, to go back, retreat, retire; to disappear.

recello -ere, to spring back, fly back.

recens -entis, new, fresh, young, recent; vigorous. As adv. recens, lately, recently.

recenseo -censere -censui -censum, to review, muster, examine; to recount.

recensio -onis, f. reviewing, mustering.

receptaculum -i, n. a reservoir, receptacle; a place of refuge, shelter, retreat.

recepto -are, to draw back, receive back, take in; to receive frequently, harbor.

receptor -oris, m. a receiver, harborer.

receptrix -tricis, f. a receiver, harborer.

receptus -us, m. drawing back; withdrawal, recantation; retiring, retreat, return; poet. a place of retreat.

recessim, backwards.

recessus -us, m. going back, retreat, withdrawal; a place of retreat, quiet place.

recidivus -a -um, returning, repeated.

recido (1)-cidere -ccidi -casurus, to fall back; to relapse, recoil, descend, sink, fall.

recido (2) -cidere -cidi -cisum, to cut back, lop away.

recingo -cingere -cinxi -cinctum, to ungird, loosen.

recino -ere, to resound, echo; transit. to cause to resound.

recipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum, to hold back, retain; to take back, fetch back; 'se recipere', to withdraw, retreat; to regain, recover; to to receive, accept, take to oneself; to receive hospitably. Transf. to accept, admit, allow; to accept an obligation; hence to guarantee, pro- mise, be responsible for. N. of partic. as subst. receptum -i, an engage- ment, guarantee.

reciproco -are, to move backwards and forwards; 'animam', to breathe.

reciprocus -a -um, going backwards and forwards; 'mare', ebbing.

recitatio -onis, f. a reading aloud.

recitator -oris, m. a reader aloud.

recito -are, to read aloud, read out, recite.

reclamatio -onis, f. loud disapprobation.

reclamito -are, to cry out against.

reclamo -are, to cry out against, contradict loudly; poet. to re-echo, resound.

reclinis -e, leaning backwards.

reclino -are, to bend back, cause to lean back.

recludo -cludere -clusi -clusum, to open; to reveal; 'fata', to relax.

recogito -are, to think again, reconsider.

recognitio -onis, f. inspection, examination.

recognosco -noscere -novi -nitum, to recognize, know again, recall; to review, inspect, investigate.

recolo -colere -colui -cultum, to cultivate or work again; to resume; to set up again, rehabilitate; to reflect upon, to recall.

recompono -ponere -positum, to readjust.

reconciliatio -onis, f. winning back, restoration.

reconciliator -oris, m. a restorer.

reconcilio -are, to restore, repair; of persons, to reunite, reconcile.

reconcinno -are, to restore, renovate, repair.

recondo -dere -didi -ditum, to put away, put back, store, hide. Hence partic. reconditus -a -um, put away, concealed; abstruse, profound; of character, reserved, mysterious.

reconflo -are, to rekindle.

reconligo -ligere -legi -lectum, to collect again, recover.

recoquo -coquere -coxi -coctum, to boil again, heat up again, recover.

recordatio -onis, f. recollection, remembrance.

recordor -ari, dep. to remember, recollect; to think of, ponder over.

recreo -are, to restore, refresh, invigorate, revive.

recrepo -are, to echo, resound.

recresco -crescere -crevi -cretum, to grow again.

recrudesco -crudescere -crudui, to become raw again, break out afresh.

rectio -onis, f. ruling, direction.

rector -oris, m. ruler, governor, director, guide; 'navis', steersman; of animals, driver or rider.

rectus; see rego.

recubo -are, to lie back, recline.

recumbo -cumbere -cubui, to lie back, recline (esp. at table); in gen., to sink down, fall down.

recuperatio -onis, f. recovery.

recuperator (reciperator) -oris, m. a recoverer; pl. recuperatores, a board of arbiters appointed by the praetors.

recuperatorius -a -um, of the recuperatores (q.v.).

recupero (recipero) -are, to regain, recover.

recuro -are, to restore, refresh.

recurro -currere -curri -cursum, to run back; to revert, return.

recurso -are, to run back, return.

recursus -us, m. return, return.

recurvo -are, to bend or curve backwards.

recurvus -a -um, bent or curved backwards; winding.

recusatio -onis, f. refusal; legal, a protest, counterplea.

recuso -are, to object to, protest against, refuse; legal, to take exception, plead in defense.

recutio -cutere -cussi -cussum, to strike back, cause to rebound.

reda; see raeda.

redamo -are, to love in return.

redarguo -guere -gui, to refute, disprove, contradict.

reddo -dere -didi -ditum. (1) to give back, restore; 'reddi', or 'se reddere', to return; in words, to repeat, recite; to reproduce by imitation, to represent, reflect. (2) to give in return; hence to answer; to translate, render, interpret; to make, render, cause to be. (3) to give as due; to pay up, deliver; fulfil; 'reddere ius', to administer justice.

redemptio -onis, f. a buying up, bribing; farming of taxes; buying back, ransoming, redemption.

redempto -are, to ransom, redeem.

redemptor -oris, m. buyer, contractor, farmer (of taxes).

redemptura -ae, f. contracting, farming (of taxes, etc.).

redeo -ire -ii (-ivi) -itum. (1) to go back, come back, return; 'ad se', to come to one's senses; redit, the matter comes up again. (2) of revenue, income, etc. to come in. (3) to fall back upon, be reduced or brought to.

redhalo -are, to breathe out again.

redhibeo -ere -ui -itum, to take back.

redigo -igere -egi -actum, to drive back, bring back; of money, etc. to draw in, call in; in gen. to bring or reduce to a condition; to reduce in number, value, etc.; to lessen, bring down.

redimiculum -i, n. a fillet, chaplet.

redimio -ire -ii -itum, to bind round, wreathe, crown.

redimo -imere -emi -emptum, to buy back, redeem; to ransom, recover; in gen. to buy up, contract for, farm, hire, procure.

redintegro -are, to restore, renew, repair.

redipiscor -i, dep. to get back.

reditio -onis, f. going back, return.

reditus -us, m. going back, return; 'in gratiam', reconciliation; of money, etc. returns, income, revenue.

redivia; see reduvia.

redivivus -a -um, renewed, renovated; n. as subst. old building materials used again.

redoleo -ere -ui, to emit an odor, smell of.

redomitus -a -um, tamed again.

redono -are, to give back; to give up.

reduco -ducere -duxi -ductum, to draw backwards, bring back, lead home; also to bring to a state or condition. Hence partic. reductus -a -um, drawn back; withdrawn, retired, remote, sequestered.

reductio -onis, f. bringing back, restoration.

reductor -oris, m. one who brings back.

reduncus -a -um, bent back, curved.

redundantia -ae, f. overflowing; redundancy.

redundo -are, to overflow, stream over; to be in excess, be copious, diffuse; to abound in (with abl.); to be left over, overflow, spread.

reduvia (redivia) -ae, f. a hangnail, whitlow.

redux -ducis, adj.: act. bringing back, restoring; pass. brought back, returned.

refectio -onis, f. repairing, restoring.

refello -fellere -felli, to refute, disprove.

refercio -fercire -fersi -fertum, to stuff, to cram; partic. refertus -a -um, stuffed, crammed, filled.

referio -ire, to strike back, strike again. Transf. to reflect.

refero referre rettuli relatum. (1) to carry back, bring back; 'referre pedem', or 'se', or pass. 'referri', to return, go back. (2) to bring again, restore, repeat; to echo; to reproduce, recall. (3) to say back, answer. (4) to bring as expected, pay up, deliver; to bring back a mes- sage, report; to refer a matter to authority; to enter in a record, etc., to register, put down, enter; to assign to a cause.

refert referre retulit, impers. it matters, it concerns, it makes a dif- ference; 'mea, illorum refert', it matters to me, to them.

refertus -a -um, partic. from refercio; q.v.

referveo -ere, to boil over.

refervesco -ere, to boil up, bubble up.

reficio -ficere -feci -fectum. (1) to make again, restore, repair, reestablish, refresh, revive. (2) to get back, receive, get.

refigo -figere -fixi -fixum, to unfasten, demolish, remove; of laws, to repeal, abrogate.

refingo -ere, to form anew.

reflagito -are, to ask back, demand again.

reflatu, abl. sing. m. by a contrary wind.

reflecto -flectere -flexi -flexum, to bend back, turn back, divert; intransit. to yield, retreat.

reflo -are: intransit. to blow back, blow contrary; transit. to blow out.

refluo -fluere -fluxi -fluxum, to flow back; to overflow.

refluus -a -um, flowing back.

reformator -oris, m. a reviver.

reformidatio -onis, f. dread, terror.

reformido -are, to dread, fear, shun, avoid.

reformo -are, to form again, mold anew.

refoveo -fovere -fovi -fotum, to warm again, revive, restore, refresh.

refractariolus -a -um, somewhat stubborn.

refragor -ari, dep. to oppose, withstand, thwart.

refreno -are, to rein back, hold in, restrain, curb.

refrico -fricare -fricui -fricatum, to rub again; to excite again, renew.

refrigeratio -onis, f. cooling, coolness.

refrigero -are, to cool off; pass. refrigerari, to cool oneself, grow cool, grow languid.

refrigesco -frigescere -frixi, to grow cold, cool down; to flag, fail, grow stale.

refringo -fringere -fregi -fractum, to break up, break open; to curb, check.

refugio -fugere -fugi: intransit. to flee back, run away; to shrink; of places, to recede; transit. to fly from, avoid.

refugium -i, n. refuge.

refugus -a -um, fugitive, receding, recoiling.

refulgeo -fulgere -fulsi, to gleam back, shine brightly, glitter.

refundo -fundere -fudi -fusum, to pour back, to make overflow.

refutatio -onis, f. refutation.

refutatu, abl. sing. m. by refutation.

refuto -are, to drive back, check, repress; to refute, disprove.

regalis -e, of a king, royal, regal; adv. regaliter, regally, tyrannically.

regelo -are, to thaw, warm.

regero -gerere -gessi -gestum, to carry back, throw back.

regia; see regius.

regificus -a -um, princely, splendid.

regigno -ere, to bring forth again.

Regillus -i, m. a lake in Latium, scene of a victory of the Romans over the the Latins, 496 B.C..

regimen -inis, n. control, guidance, rule, direction, government; a ruler, governor; poet. rudder.

regina -ae, f. queen; princess; lady, mistress, sovereign.

regio -onis, f. (1) a direction, line; esp. a boundary line, boundary: 'e regione', in a straight line, also opposite, over against (with genit. or dat.). (2) a region, district, province. Transf. sphere, department.

regionatim, according to districts.

Regium (Rhegium) -i, n. (1) a town in Gallia Cispadana. (2) a town in Calabria.

regius -a -um, of a king, royal, regal; splendid, magnificent. F. as subst. regia -ae, palace, court, the royal family; capital city. Adv. regie, royally; tyrannically.

regnator -oris, m. ruler, king.

regnatrix -tricis, f. adj. ruling.

regno -are: intransit. to be a king, reign; to be master, be a tyrant; to prevail; transit., in pass. regnari, to be ruled by a king.

regnum -i, n. (1) royal power, monarchy, supremacy; tyranny. (2) a realm, kingdom, estate.

rego regere rexi rectum, to guide, direct; to rule, govern, administer. Hence partic. rectus -a -um, ruled; as adj. straight; upright. Transf. right, correct, proper; honest, upright; natural, plain, straight- forward; n. as subst. right. Adv. recte, in a straight line; rightly, properly; 'recte est', all is well.

regredior -gredi -gressus, dep. to step back, go back; milit. to retire, retreat.

regressus -us, m. a going back, return, retreat; refuge, recourse.

regula -ae, f. a ruler, plank. Transf. a rule, pattern, model.

regulus -i, m. a petty king, or king's son, prince.

Regulus -i, m. surname in the gens Atilia.

regusto -are, to taste again or repeatedly.

reicio -icere -ieci -iectum, to throw back, throw behind, throw away; to drive off; of a storm, to drive back, cast up. Transf. to throw off, reject; to refer; in time, to put off; legal, to challenge a juror.

reiectio -onis, f. throwing back, rejection; legal, the challenging of a juror.

reiecto -are, to throw back.

relabor -labi -lapsus, dep. to glide back, fall back.

relanguesco -languescere -langui, to become faint; to slacken.

relatio -onis, f. carrying back, bringing back; polit. a report; gram. repetition.

relator -oris, m. one who makes a report.

relatus -us, m. a narrative; a report.

relaxatio -onis, f. relaxation, easing.

relaxo -are, to loosen, enlarge; to ease, lighten, relax.

relegatio -onis, f. banishment.

relego (1) -are, to send away; to put aside, reject; to banish.

relego (2) -legere -legi -lectum, to gather up again; of places, to pass again; of topics, to go over again.

relentesco -ere, to become languid again.

relevo -are, to lift again; to lighten; to relieve, alleviate.

relictio -onis, f. leaving, deserting.

relicuos; = reliquus; q.v.

relicus; = reliquus; q.v.

religatio -onis, f. tying up.

religio (relligio) -onis, f., of persons, scrupulousness, conscientious exactness; esp. religious scruple, awe, superstition, strict obser- vance; in gen. moral scruples, conscientiousness; of gods, etc., sanctity; an object of worship, holy thing or place.

religiosus (relligiosus) -a -um, of persons, scrupulous, conscientious; holy, strict, superstitious; of actions, either required or forbidden by religion; of gods, etc. holy, sacred. Adv. religiose, conscientious- ly, scrupulously; religiously.

religo -are, to tie on, fasten behind.

relino -linere -levi -litum, to unseal.

relinquo -linquere -liqui -lictum, to leave behind; at death, to bequeath; to leave unchanged; pass. to remain; to omit, leave out, pass over; to desert, abandon, forsake.

reliquiae (relliquiae) -arum, f. pl. remains, relics, remnant.

reliquus (relicus) -a -um, left behind, remaining, other; of a debt, outstanding; of time, remaining, future. N. as subst., sing. and plur., the rest, remainder; 'in reliquum', for the future.

relli-; see reli-.

reluceo -lucere -luxi, to glitter.

relucesco -lucescere -luxi, to become bright again.

reluctor -ari, dep. to struggle against, resist.

remaneo -manere -mansi -mansum, to remain behind, stay, continue.

remano -are, to flow back.

remansio -onis, f. remaining in a place.

remedium -i, n. means of healing, cure, remedy, medicine.

remeo -are, to go back, return.

remetior -metiri -mensus, dep. to measure again, go back over; perf. partic. sometimes pass. in meaning.

remex -migis, m. a rower.

remigatio -onis, f. rowing.

remigium -i, n. rowing. Transf. oars; crew.

remigo -are, to row.

remigro -are, to wander back, come back, return.

reminiscor -i, dep. to call to mind, recollect, remember.

remisceo -miscere -mixtum, to mix up, mingle.

remissio -onis, f. letting go back, letting fall, lowering; breaking off, interrupting; remitting; 'animi', relaxation, quiet.

remitto -mittere -misi -missum. (1) to send back, send again; throw back; echo. (2) to let go back, relax, loosen; to relieve, abate; with infin. to give up doing; intransit. to ease off. (3) to give up, yield; abandon, sacrifice; to forgive an offence, remit punishment. Hence partic. remissus -a -um, relaxed, mild, gentle; in bad sense, negligent, remiss. Adv. remisse.

remolior -iri, dep. to make soft again, to weaken.

remollesco -ere, to become soft again.

remollio -ire, to make soft again, to weaken.

remora -ae, f. delay, hindrance.

remoramen -inis, n. delay.

remordeo -mordere -morsum, to worry, haunt.

remoror -ari, dep.: intransit. to remain behind, linger, loiter; transit. to obstruct, hinder.

remotio -onis, f. putting away, removing.

removeo -movere -movi -motum, to move back, withdraw. Hence partic. remotus -a -um, removed, withdrawn, distant, far off, remote; adv. remote, far off, at a distance.

remugio -ire, to bellow again, bellow back.

remulceo -mulcere -mulsi, to stroke back.

remulcum -i, n. a tow rope.

remuneratio -onis, f. a recompense, return.

remuneror -ari, dep. to repay, reward.

remurmuro -are, to murmur back.

remus -i, m. an oar.

Remus -i, m. twin brother of Romulus.

renarro -are, to relate again.

renascor -nasci -natus, dep. to be born again, grow again.

renavigo -are, to sail back.

reneo -nere, to unravel.

renes -um, m. pl. the kidneys.

renideo -ere, to shine back, glitter; to beam with joy, laugh, smile.

renitor -i, dep. to oppose, withstand, resist.

reno (1) -nare, to swim back.

reno (2) -onis, m. a garment made of fur.

renodo -are, to tie back.

renovamen -inis, n. renewal.

renovatio -onis, n. renewal, renovation; 'renovatio singulorum annorum', compound interest.

renovo -are, to renew, restore, repair; to repeat.

renumero -are, to count over again; to pay back.

renuntiatio -onis, f. a formal report, public announcement.

renuntio -are: (1) to bring back word, report, announce. (2) to disclaim, refuse, renounce.

renuo -nuere -nui, to deny, refuse, reject.

renuto -are, to refuse, decline.

reor reri ratus, dep. to think, suppose, judge; partic., in pass. sense, ratus -a -um, determined, settled; 'ratum facere', to ratify, confirm, make valid; 'pro rata', in proportion.

repagula -orum, n. pl. bars or bolts; restraints, limits.

repandus -a -um, bent backwards, turned up.

reparabilis -e, that can be restored.

reparco; = reperco; q.v.

reparo -are, to restore, renew, make good; to get in exchange, purchase.

repastinatio -onis, f. digging up again.

repecto -pectere -pexum, to comb back.

repello repellere reppuli repulsum, to drive back, drive away; to banish, repel; 'a spe', to disappoint; 'criminationes', to refute.

rependo -pendere -pendi -pensum, to weigh back again; to ransom; to repay, requite.

repens -entis, sudden, unexpected; fresh, recent. Adv. repente, suddenly, unexpectedly.

repentinus -a -um, sudden, unexpected; n. abl. as adv. repentino, suddenly.

reperco (reparco) -percere -persi or -peperci, to spare, be sparing, abstain.

repercussus -us, m. reverberation; echo, reflection.

repercutio -cutere -cussi -cussum, to strike back, make rebound; perf. partic. repercussus -a -um, rebounding, reflected.

reperio reperire repperi repertum, to get again; to find, discover, ascertain, invent.

repertor -oris, m. discoverer, inventor.

repetentia -ae, f. recollection, remembrance.

repetitio -onis, f. repetition.

repetitor -oris, m. one who demands back.

repeto -ere -ivi and -ii -itum, to seek again, go back for or to; to ask back; 'res repetere', to demand satisfaction; '(pecuniae) repetundae', money claimed back, as having been extorted; to return to, renew, begin again; to trace back, deduce; to recollect, recall.

repetundus; see repeto.

repleo -plere -plevi -pletum, to fill again, fill up; to make full, fill, satisfy. Hence partic. repletus -a -um, filled, full.

replicatio -onis, f. rolling again, folding round.

replico -are, to unroll; to turn over, review.

repo repere repsi reptum, to creep, crawl.

repono -ponere -posui -positum, to lay back; to put aside, lay up, deposit, store; mentally, to reckon, place; to replace, restore; to replace by a substitute; to requite.

reporto -are, to bring back, carry back; of reports, to deliver.

reposco -ere, to ask back again; to demand as a right, claim.

repostor -oris, m. a restorer.

repotia -orum, n. pl. an after-party, second entertainment.

repraesentatio -onis, f. (1) vivid presentation, lively description. (2) payment in cash.

repraesento -are, to bring back, reproduce; to perform immediately, hasten on; 'pecuniam', to pay cash.

reprehendo -prehendere -prehendi -prehensum, and reprendo -prendere -prendi -prensum, to catch, hold fast, detain, check; to blame, reprove, censure; to refute.

reprehensio -onis, f. stopping, check; blame, censure; refutation.

reprehenso -are, to hold back, hold fast.

reprehensor -oris, m. a censurer, reprover; an improver, reformer.

repressor -oris, m. a restrainer.

reprimo -primere -pressi -pressum, to hold back, restrain, hinder, repress.

repromissio -onis, f. a counterpromise.

repromitto -mittere -misi -missum, to promise in return.

repto -are, to creep, crawl along.

repudiatio -onis, f. refusal, rejection.

repudio -are, to refuse, reject, disdain; to divorce.

repudium -i, n. divorce.

repuerasco -ere, to become a boy again, to frolic.

repugnantia -ae, f. incompatibility.

repugno -are, to fight against, oppose, resist; to be opposed, repugnant, inconsistent, incompatible. Hence partic. repugnans -antis, contrary, opposed; n. pl. as subst., contradiction; adv. repugnanter, unwillingly.

repulsa -ae, f. repulse, rejection; denial, refusal.

repulsans -antis, partic. beating back; 'colles verba repulsantes', echoing.

repulsu, abl. sing. m. by striking back, by reflection, by echoing.

repungo -ere, to prick again.

repurgo -are, to clean again; to purge away.

reputatio -onis, f. re-appraisal.

reputo -are. (1) to reckon back, count, compute. (2) to think over, reconsider.

requies -etis, f. rest, repose.

requiesco -quiescere -quievi -quietum, to rest, repose; pass. partic., requietus -a -um, rested, refreshed; 'ager', fallow.

requiro -quirere -quisii and -quisivi -quisitum, to ask for, look for, enquire after; to demand, desire; to miss, feel the want of.

res rei, f. a thing, object, matter, affair, circumstance; 'natura rerum', the world, the universe, nature; 'pro re', according to circumstance; esp. the real thing, fact, truth, reality; 're vera', in truth; possessions, property, wealth; interest, advantage, benefit; 'in rem', to one's advantage; cause, ground, reason; 'qua re, quam ob rem', wherefore; a matter of business; a law suit, action; 'res publica' or 'respublica', the republic, state, commonwealth; 'e republica', in the public interest.

resacro; = resecro; q.v.

resaevio -ire, to rage again.

resaluto -are, to salute back, greet in return.

resanesco -sanescere -sanui, to become sound again.

resarcio -sarcire -sartum, to patch up, mend, repair, restore.

rescindo -scindere -scidi -scissum, to tear back, cut away, break open; 'vulnus', to reopen; of laws, etc. to rescind, repeal.

rescisco -sciscere -scivi and -scii -scitum, to find out, ascertain.

rescribo -scribere -scripsi -scriptum, to write again, rewrite; to enrol again, transfer; to write back, answer in writing; in bookkeeping, to pay, repay.

reseco -secare -secui -sectum, to cut back, cut short.

resecro (resacro) -are, to implore again and again; to free from a curse.

resemino -are, to produce again.

resequor -sequi -secutus, dep. to follow again; 'dictis', to answer.

resero -are, to unbolt, open up, disclose, reveal.

reservo -are, to lay up, keep back, reserve; to save, preserve, keep.

reses -sidis, sitting; in active, calm, quiet.

resideo -sidere -sedi -sessum, to remain sitting, stay, rest.

resido -sidere -sedi -sessum, to sit down, settle, sink, subside, abate.

residuus -a -um, remaining, outstanding; 'pecuniae', arrears.

resigno -are, to unseal, open, reveal; to cancel, annul; to transfer, give back, resign.

resilio -silire -silui -sultum, to leap back, rebound; to shrink, contract.

resimus -a -um, bent backwards, turned up.

resina -ae, f. resin.

resipio -sipere, to have a flavor of anything.

resipisco -sipiscere -sipii and -sipivi, to recover one's senses; to become rational again.

resisto -sistere -stiti. (1) to stay, still, stop, continue; to recover one's footing. (2) to resist, oppose, withstand; usually with dat.

resolvo -solvere -solvi -solutum, to untie, loosen, open; to melt; to dissipate; to dispel; to release; to reveal; to weaken.

resonabilis -e, resounding.

resono -are: intransit. to resound, echo; transit. to make resound.

resonus -a -um, resounding, echoing.

resorbeo -ere, to swallow again, suck back.

respecto -are, to look eagerly back (at); to have a regard for, give thought to.

respectus -us, m. looking back; hence care, regard, consideration; looking around one; meton. refuge, retreat.

respergo -spergere -spersi -spersum, to sprinkle, splash.

respersio -onis, f. sprinkling.

respicio -spicere -spexi -spectum, to look behind, look back (at); to look back upon; to look to, provide for; to look to, depend upon; to have a re- gard for, care for, consider.

respiramen -inis, n. windpipe.

respiratio -onis, f. taking breath, respiration; exhalation.

respiratus -us, m. taking breath.

respiro -are. (1) to breathe back, blow in a contrary direction. (2) to breathe again, to take breath; to recover from fear, etc.; of things, to abate, decline.

resplendeo -ere, to glitter back, gleam again.

respondeo -spondere -spondi -sponsum: intransit. to match, correspond to, answer to; to resemble; legal, to answer to one's name, appear, be present; transit. to give an answer to a person or thing, to answer, reply. N. of partic. as subst. responsum -i, an answer, reply; a law- yer's opinion.

responsio -onis, f. a reply, answer.

responsito -are, to keep giving an answer or opinion.

responso -are, to keep answering; to re-echo; with dat. to defy, withstand.

responsum; see respondeo.

respublica; see res.

respuo -spuere -spui, to spit out, reject, refuse, repel.

restagno -are, to overflow, be swamped.

restauro -are, to restore, rebuild.

resticula -ae, f. a thin rope.

restinctio -onis, f. slaking, quenching.

restinguo -stinguere -stinxi -stinctum, to put out again, extinguish, quench, slake, destroy.

restio -onis, m. a rope-maker.

restipulatio -onis, f. a counter-engagement.

restipulor -ari, dep. to obtain a promise in return.

restis -is, f. a rope, cord.

restito -are, to remain behind, linger.

restituo -uere -ui -utum, to put back, replace, restore; to reinstate, reestablish; to repair, make good.

restitutio -onis, f. restoration, reinstatement.

restitutor -oris, m. restorer.

resto -stare -stiti. (1) to make a stand, resist, oppose. (2) to stand still, stay behind; to be left over, survive; to remain available or pos- sible; of the future, to await, be in store.

restringo -stringere -strinxi -strictum, to bind back, draw back; to confine, restrict, restrain. Hence partic. restrictus -a -um, close, tight; stingy; strict, severe. Adv. restricte, sparingly; strictly.

resulto -are, to spring back, rebound; to echo, resound; of style, to go jerkily.

resumo -sumere -sumpsi -sumptum, to take again, resume; to renew, repeat.

resupino -are, to throw down, prostrate.

resupinus -a -um, bent backwards, on one's back; also with head thrown back.

resurgo -surgere -surrexi -surrectum, to rise up again, appear again.

resuscito -are, to revive, resuscitate.

retardatio -onis, f. hindering.

retardo -are, to slow down, retard, impede.

rete -is, n. a net.

retego -tegere -texi -tectum, to uncover, reveal, open, disclose.

retempto -are, to attempt again.

retendo -tendere -tendi -tensum and -tentum, to slacken, unbend.

retentio -onis, f. keeping back; withholding.

retento (1) -are, to hold firmly; to preserve, maintain.

retento (2) = retempto; q.v.

retentus; see retempto.

retexo -texere -texui -textum, to unravel, undo, reverse; to cancel, annul; to retract; to revise.

retiarius -a -um, a gladiator using a net.

reticentia -ae, f. keeping silent.

reticeo -ere: intransit. to keep silence, say nothing; transit. to keep silent about.

reticulum -i, n. a little net; a net-bag; a hairnet.

retinacula -orum, n. pl. a rope, cable.

retinentia -ae, f. recollection.

retineo -tinere -tinui -tentum, to hold back, detain; to restrain; to keep, reserve, maintain. Hence partic. retinens -entis, tenacious.

retinnio -ire, to resound, ring again.

retono -are, to thunder back, resound.

retorqueo -torquere -torsi -tortum, to twist back, bend back.

retractatio -onis, f. (1) refusal, denial. (2) reconsideration.

retracto (retrecto) -are. (1) to handle again, undertake anew, reconsider. (2) to draw back, refuse, be reluctant; 'dicta', to withdraw.

retraho -trahere -traxi -tractum, to draw back; to hold back, withdraw; to draw on again, induce. Hence partic. retractus -a -um, withdrawn; distant, remote.

retribuo -tribuere -tribui -tributum, to give again or give as due.

retro, backwards, back, behind.

retroago -agere -egi -actum, to drive back, reverse.

retrorsum, backwards, behind, in return, in reversed order.

retrudo -trudere -trusum, to push back; perf. partic. retrusus -a -um, remote, obscure.

retundo retundere retudi (rettudi) retusum (retunsum), to hammer back, blunt, dull; to check or weaken; partic. retusus -a -um, dull, blunt.

reus -i, m. and rea -ae, f. a party in a law suit, whether plaintiff or defendant; esp. a defendant, accused person; in gen. one bound or answerable.

revalesco -valescere -valui, to become well again, be restored, recover.

reveho -vehere -vexi -vectum, to carry back; pass. to drive back, ride back, sail back.

revello -vellere -velli -vulsum, to tear back, pull away; to remove, banish

revelo -are, to unveil, lay bare.

revenio -venire -veni -ventum, to come back, return.

revera; see res.

reverentia -ae, f. respect, fear, awe.

revereor -vereri -veritus, dep. to revere, respect, fear; partic. reverens -entis, respectful, reverent; adv. reverenter; gerundive, reverendus -a -um, awesome, venerable.

reversio (revorsio) -onis, f. turning back, return, recurrence.

reverto (revorto) -vertere -verti and pass. revertor (revortor), to return, come back, revert.

revincio -vincire -vinxi -vinctum, to tie back, bind fast.

revinco -vincere -vici -victum, to beat back, subdue; to refute.

reviresco -virescere -virui, to grow green or strong again; to revive.

reviso -ere: intransit. to pay a fresh visit, return; transit. to come to see again, revisit.

revivisco -viviscere -vixi, to come to life again, revive.

revocabilis -e, able to be called back.

revocamen -inis, n. calling back, recall.

revocatio -onis, f. calling back; withdrawing, revocation.

revoco -are, to call again or back; to recall; to bring or get back, recover; to refer; to revoke.

revolo -are, to fly back.

revolubilis -e, able to be rolled back.

revolvo -volvere -volvi -volutum, to roll backwards; esp. to unroll or open a book; hence to go over again; pass. to roll back, come round again in the course.

revomo -vomere -vomui, to vomit up, disgorge.

revor-; see rever-.

rex regis, m. ruler, king, prince, chief; monarch, tyrant.

Rhadamanthus -i, m. brother of Minos, a judge in the lower world.

Rhea (1) Silvia, mother of Romulus and Remus.

Rhea (2) -ae, f. old name of Cybele.

rheda; = raeda; q.v.

Rhenus -i, m. the river Rhine.

rhetor -oris, m. a teacher of rhetoric, a rhetoritician.

rhetoricus -a -um, rhetorical; subst. f. rhetorica -ae and rhetorice -es, the art of oratory; m. pl. rhetorici -orum, teachers of rhetoric; adv. rhetorice, rhetorically.

rhinoceros -otis, m. a rhinoceros.

rho, n. indecl. the Greek name of the letter R.

Rhodanus -i, m. a river in Gaul (now the Rhone).

Rhodus (-os) -i, f. Rhodes; adj. Rhodius -a -um and Rhodiensis -e.

rhombus (-os) -i, m. (1) a magician's circle. (2) the turbot.

rhomphaea (rumpia) -ae, f. a long javelin.

rhythmicus -i, m. one who teaches rhythm.

rhythmus (-os) -i, m. rhythm.

rhytium -i, n. a drinking horn.

rica -ae, f. a veil.

ricinum -i, n. a small veil.

rictus -us, m. and rictum -i, n. the open mouth.

rideo ridere risi risum: intransit. to laugh, smile, look cheerful; with dat. to please; transit. to laugh at.

ridicularius -a -um, laughable, droll.

ridiculosus -a -um, laughable, droll.

ridiculus -a -um, exciting laughter; droll, humorous; absurd, ridiculous; m. as subst. a joker, jester; n. subst. a joke, jest. Adv. ridicule, humorously; absurdly.

rigeo -ere, to be stiff (esp. with cold); of hair, to stand on end; partic. rigens -entis, stiff.

rigesco rigescere rigui, to grow stiff; of hair, to stand on end.

rigidus -a -um, stiff, unbending, hard; stern, inflexible. Adv. rigide.

rigo -are, to lead or conduct water; to wet, moisten, bedew.

rigor -oris, m. stiffness, hardness, esp. from cold. Transf. sternness.

riguus -a -um: act. watering; pass. well-watered, irrigated.

rima -ae, f. a crack, fissure, leak.

rimor -ari, dep. to cleave; to probe, pry into, examine.

rimosus -a -um, full of cracks, leaky.

ringor -i, dep. to show the teeth; to snarl, be angry.

ripa -ae, f. bank, shore.

ripula -ae, f. a little bank.

riscus -i, m. a box, trunk.

risio -onis, f. laughter.

risor -oris, m. a laugher, mocker.

risus -us, m. laughing, laughter; ridicule; an object of ridicule.

rite, in due form, with proper ceremonies, properly, fitly, rightly.

ritus -us, m. usage, ceremony, rite; abl. ritu, with genit. after the manner of.

rivalis -is, m. a rival in love.

rivalitas -atis, f. rivalry (in love).

rivulus -i, m. small brook, rivulet.

rivus -i, m. a stream.

rixa -ae, f. quarrel, brawl, contention.

rixor -ari, dep. to quarrel, brawl, contend.

robiginosus -a -um, rusty.

robigo (rubigo) -inis, f. rust; blight, mildew; inaction, mental rust. Personif. Robigo (Rub-) -inis, f. or Robigus (Rub-) -i, m. a deity in- voked to preserve grain from mildew; Robigalia -ium, n. the festival of Robigo.

roboreus -a -um, oaken.

roboro -are, to strengthen, make firm.

robur -oris, n. hard wood; esp. oak, oak wood; a dungeon in Rome, also called the Tullianum; as a quality, hardness, strength; in gen. the pick, flower of anything.

robustus -a -um, of hard wood; esp. of oak, oaken; strong, powerful, firm.

rodo rodere rosi rosum, to gnaw, nibble at; to corrode, consume; to disparage, backbite, slander.

rogalis -e, of the funeral pile.

rogatio -onis, f. asking; a question; a request; a proposed law, a bill.

rogatiuncula -ae, f. a minor question or bill.

rogator -oris, m. one who asks; the proposer of a bill; a polling-clerk.

rogatu, abl. sing. m. at the request.

rogito -are, to ask eagerly.

rogo -are, to ask, inquire; to ask for, request; polit., 'rogare aliquem sententiam', to ask a person his opinion; 'rogare populum' or 'legem', to propose a law, introduce a bill; 'rogare magistratum', to offer a person for election.

rogus -i, m. a funeral pyre.

Roma -ae, f. Rome; adj. Romanus -a -um.

Romulus -i, m. son of Mars, founder and first king of Rome; adj. Romuleus and Romulus -a -um.

rorarii -orum, m. pl. light-armed troops, skirmishers.

roridus -a -um, bedewed.

rorifer -fera -ferum, dew-bringing.

roro -are: intransit. to drop dew, drip, be moist; transit. to bedew, moisten, water; to drip, let fall in drops.

ros roris, m. dew, moisture; 'ros marinus, rosmarinus', rosemary.

rosa -ae, f. a rose; a garland of roses; a rose tree.

rosarius -a -um, of roses; n. as subst. a rose garden.

roscidus -a -um, bedewed, dewy; dripping like dew; moistened.

Roscius -a -um, name of a Roman gens.

rosetum -i, n. a garden of roses.

roseus -a -um, of roses; rose-colored, rosy.

rosmarinus; see ros.

rostratus -a -um, having a beak, beaked, curved; 'columna rostrata', a pillar in the forum, adorned with ship's prows.

rostrum -i, n. beak, snout; a ship's prow; plur. rostra -orum, the speaker's platform in the Forum (ornamented with prows of ships).

rota -ae, f. a wheel; poet. a chariot.

roto -are, to whirl round, swing, brandish; pass. rotari, to revolve, to roll round.

rotundo -are, to round, make round.

rotundus -a -um, round, circular; sometimes spherical; rounded, complete, self-contained. Adv. rotunde, of style, elegantly, smoothly.

rubefacio -facere -feci -factum, to redden, make red.

rubellus -a -um, reddish.

rubeo -ere, to be red; to blush; partic. rubens -entis, red, blushing.

ruber -bra -brum, red, ruddy.

rubesco -bescere -bui, to become red.

rubeta (1) -ae, f. a species of toad.

rubeta (2) -orum, n. pl. bramble-thickets.

rubeus -a -um, of bramble.

Rubico -onis, m. a river, once the boundary between Italy and Cisalpine Gaul.

rubicundus -a -um, red, ruddy.

rubigo; = robigo; q.v.

rubor -oris, m. redness; a blush; modesty; shame, disgrace.

rubrica -ae, f. red earth; red ocher; a law with its title written in red.

rubus -i, m. a bramble bush; a blackberry.

ructo -are and ructor -ari, dep. to belch.

ructus -us, m. belching.

rudens -entis, m. a rope, halyard.

rudimentum -i, n. a trial, attempt, essay.

rudis (1) -e, rough, raw, uncultivated; unrefined, unskilled, awkward.

rudis (2) -is, f. a small stick; a foil (given to gladiators on their discharge).

rudo rudere rudivi ruditum, to bellow, roar.

rudus (rodus) -eris, n. broken fragments of stone.

rudus; = raudus; q.v.

rufus -a -um, red, ruddy.

ruga -ae, f. a wrinkle.

rugosus -a -um, wrinkled.

ruina -ae, f. falling down, collapse, ruin, destruction; the ruins of a building, debris.

ruinosus -a -um, going to ruin.

rumex -icis, f. sorrel.

Rumina -ae, f. a Roman goddess; 'Ruminalis ficus', a fig tree under which the she-wolf had suckled Romulus and Remus.

ruminatio -onis, f. chewing the cud; ruminating.

rumino -are, to chew the cud, ruminate.

rumor -oris, m. report, rumor, common talk, hearsay; general opinion, popular judgment.

rumpo rumpere rupi ruptum, to break, shatter, burst open; to cause to break forth; to destroy, violate, annul; to break off, interrupt.

rumusculus -i, m. trifling rumor, idle talk, gossip.

runa -ae, f. a dart.

runco -are, to weed, thin out.

ruo ruere rui rutum; fut. partic. ruiturus; intransit. to rush down, fall, collapse, be ruined; to rush along; to be precipitate; transit. to hurl down; also to cast up.

rupes -is, f. rock, cliff.

ruptor -oris, m. breaker, violator.

ruricola -ae, inhabiting or cultivating the country.

rurigena -ae, m. one born in the country, a rustic.

ruro -are and ruror -ari, dep. to live in the country.

rursus and rursum, backward, back; on the other hand, in return; again, afresh.

rus ruris, n. the country, a country seat, farm, estate; acc. rus, to the country; locative, ruri (or rure), in the country.

russus -a -um, red, russet.

rusticanus -a -um, of the country, rustic.

rusticatio -onis, f. living in the country.

rusticitas -atis, f. rustic manners, rusticity.

rusticor -ari, dep. to live in the country.

rusticulus -a -um, countrified; m. as subst. a rustic.

rusticus -a -um, of the country, rural, rustic; plain, simple; awkward, boorish; m. as subst. a countryman, a boor. Adv. rustice.

ruta -ae, f. the herb rue; bitterness, unpleasantness.

rutilo -are: intransit. to shine reddish; transit. to make red.

rutilus -a -um, red, golden, auburn.

rutrum -i, n. a spade, shovel.

rutula -ae, f. a little bit of rue.

Rutuli -orum, m. pl. an ancient people of Latium.