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nablium -i, n. a kind of harp or lyre.
nae; = ne (1); q.v.
naenia; = nenia; q.v.
Naevius -a -um, name of a Roman gens; esp. of Cn. Naevius, a poet of the third century B.C..
naevus -i, m. a mole on the body.
Naias -adis and Nais -idis (-idos); f. a water nymph, Naiad; adj. Naicus -a -um.
nam, conj. for.
namque, conj. for.
nanciscor nancisci nactus and nanctus, dep. to light upon, obtain, meet.
nanus -i, m. a dwarf.
Narbo -onis, m. town in southern Gaul (now Narbonne).
Narcissus -i, m. Narcissus, a beautiful young man changed into the flower of the same name.
nardum -i, n. nard.
nardus -i, f. nard.
naris -is, f. usually plur. nares -ium, the nostrils, nose.
narrabilis -e, able to be told.
narratio -onis, f. telling, relating; a narrative.
narratiuncula -ae, f. a short narrative.
narrator -oris, m. narration, narrative.
narratus -us, m. narration, narrative.
narro -are, to make known; to say, speak.
narthecium -i, n. a box for perfumes and medicines.
narus; = gnarus; q.v.
nascor nasci natus (and gnatus), dep. to be born; to come into existence, arise, be produced. Hence partic. natus -a -um, born, naturally fitted or constituted; 'pro re nata', under present circumstances; 'annos prope xc natus', almost ninety years old. As subst., m. a son; f. a daughter.
Nasica -ae, m. name of a family of the Scipios.
Naso -onis, m. cognomen of the poet Ovid.
nassa -ae, f. a basket for catching fish; a trap, snare.
nasturcium -i, n. a kind of cress.
nasus -i, m. the nose; 'naso suspendere adunco', to turn up the nose at, ridicule, mock.
nasutus -a -um, having a large nose; acute, sagacious, satirical.
natalicius -a -um, relating to birth; n. pl. as subst. a birthday party.
natalis -e, relating to birth, natal; m. as subst. a birthday; plur. birth, origin.
natatio -onis, f. swimming.
natator -oris, m. swimmer.
natio -onis, f. being born, birth; a tribe, race, people, esp. uncivilized; a species, stock, class.
natis -is, f., usually plur. nates -ium, the rump, buttocks.
nativus -a -um, born; native, natural; inborn, innate.
nato -are, to swim, float; to stream, flow; to swim with, be full of (with abl.); f. pl. of partic. as subst. natantes, fishes.
natrix -icis, f. a water snake.
natu, abl. sing. m. by birth; 'maior natu', older.
natura -ae, f. birth; nature, natural qualities or disposition, character; an element, substance, essence; 'rerum natura', nature, the world or universe.
naturalis -e, natural, relating to nature; naturaliter, naturally, by nature.
natus -a -um, partic. from nascor; q.v.
nauarchus -i, m. captain of a ship.
nauclerus -i, m. the master of a ship.
naucum -i, n. a trifle; in genit. 'non nauci habere', to think nothing of.
naufragium -i, n. shipwreck; wreckage; ruin, loss; 'naufragium facere', to suffer shipwreck.
naufragus -a -um, pass. shipwrecked; act. causing shipwreck.
naulum -i, n. fare, passage money.
naumachia -ae, f. a naval battle performed as a show.
nausea -ae, f. seasickness, nausea.
nauseo -are, to be seasick; to cause disgust, nauseate.
nauseola -ae, f. squeamishness.
nauta and navita -ae, m. sailor, mariner.
nauticus -a -um, of a sailor, nautical; m. pl. as subst. sailors.
navalis -e, of ships, naval, nautical; n. as subst. a station for ships; plur. a dockyard, or materials for ship-building.
navicula -ae, f. a little ship, boat.
navicularius -a -um, of (small) ships; f. as subst. the business of a ship-owner; m. as subst. a ship-owner.
navifragus -a -um, causing shipwreck.
navigabilis -e, navigable.
navigatio -onis, f. sailing, voyage.
naviger -gera -gerum, ship-bearing, navigable.
navigium -i, n. a vessel, ship.
navigo -are: intransit. to sail, voyage, go by sea; to swim; transit. to sail over, sail through, navigate.
navis -is, f. a ship, vessel; 'navis longa', a man-of-war; 'oneraria', a transport; 'praetoria', flagship.
navita; see nauta.
navitas (gnavitas) -atis, f. energy, zeal.
navo -are, to do energetically.
navus (gnavus) -a -um, zealous, energetic. Adv. naviter (gnaviter), energetically, completely.
ne (1), not, that not, lest; 'ne..quidem', not even, not..either.
ne (2) (nae), used before pronouns, indeed, truly.
-ne (3) (sometimes n'), interrogative enclitic particle.
Neapolis -is, f. (1) part of Syracuse. (2) a seaport (now Naples).
nebula -ae, f. vapor, fog, mist, cloud.
nebulo -onis, m. a good-for-nothing fellow.
nebulosus -a -um, misty, foggy.
nec and neque, not; and not, nor; rarely not even; 'neque enim', for...not; 'nec non', and also; 'nec tamen', and yet...not; 'nec...nec, neque...neque', neither...nor.
necdum (neque dum), and not yet.
necessarius -a -um, necessary, unavoidable, inevitable; pressing, urgent; closely connected; as subst. an intimate friend or relative; n. abl. necessario, and adv. necessarie, necessarily, unavoidably.
necesse, indecl. adj. n., used with esse and habere; necessary, unavoidable, inevitable, indispensable.
necessitas -atis, f. inevitability, necessity, urgency; plur. require- ments, necessary expenses. Transf. intimate connection, friendship, re- lationship.
necessitudo -inis, f. necessity, inevitableness; need, want. Transf., close connection, intimate friendship; plur., intimate friends, near relations.
necessum; = necesse; q.v.
necne, or not, generally in the second half of alternative questions.
necnon; see nec.
neco -are, to kill, slay, put to death.
necopinans -antis, not expecting, unaware.
necopinatus -a -um, unexpected; adv. necopinato.
necopinus -a -um; pass. unexpected; act. not expecting.
nectar -aris, n. nectar, the drink of the gods; honey, milk, wine.
nectareus -a -um, of nectar.
necto nectere nexui and nexi nexum, to tie, bind, fasten; to fetter, enslave; to affix, attach; to put together, devise.
necubi, lest anywhere, that nowhere.
necunde, lest from any quarter, that from no direction.
nedum, not to say; after (implied) negative, much less, still less; after affirmative, much more.
nefandus -a -um, not to be spoken of; abominable.
nefarius -a -um, impious, abominable; adv. nefarie.
nefas, n. indecl., what is contrary to divine command; sin, crime, abomination; 'per fas et nefas', by fair means or foul; as interj. monstrous!, dreadful!.
nefastus -a -um, forbidden, unholy; unlucky; sinful; 'dies nefasti', days on which no public business could be transacted.
negatio -onis, f. denying.
negito -are, to persist in denying.
neglectio -onis, f. neglect.
neglectus -us, m. neglect, disregard.
neglegentia -ae, f. carelessness, negligence.
neglego -legere -lexi -lectum, to neglect, disregard; to make light of, overlook, omit. Hence partic. neglegens -entis, careless; adv. neglegenter.
nego -are, to say no; to deny, say that...not; to deny a request, refuse to give or do.
negotialis -e, relating to business.
negotiatio -onis, f. banker's business.
negotiator -oris, m. a businessman; esp. a banker.
negotiolum -i, n. a little business.
negotior -ari, dep. to carry on business; esp. as a banker; m. of partic. as subst. negotians -antis, a businessman.
negotiosus -a -um, full of business, busy.
negotium -i, n. business, occupation, employment, task; pains, trouble, difficulty; a matter, piece of business.
Nemea -ae and Nemee -es, f. a valley in Argolis; adj. Nemeaeus -a -um, subst. Nemea -orum, n. pl. the Nemean games.
nemo -inis, c. no one, nobody; 'nemo non', everyone; 'non nemo', some or many.
nemoralis -e, of woods or groves; sylvan.
nemorensis -e, of woods or groves; sylvan.
nemorosus -a -um, full of groves; thickly leaved, full of foliage.
nempe, truly, certainly, to be sure.
nemus -oris, n. a wood, grove.
nenia -ae, f. a funeral song, dirge; an incantation; nursery ditty, lullaby.
neo nere nevi netum, to spin; to interweave.
nepa -ae, f. a scorpion; a crab.
nepos -otis, m. a grandson, a nephew; a descendant; a spendthrift.
Nepos -potis, m. C. Cornelius, a Roman historian, friend of Cicero.
neptis -is, f. a granddaughter.
Neptunus -i, m. Neptune, god of the sea; adj. Neptunius -a -um.
nequam, indecl. adj.; compar. nequior, superl. nequissimus; worthless, good for nothing, bad; adv. nequiter.
nequaquam, by no means, not at all.
neque; see nec.
nequedum; see necdum.
nequeo -ire -ivi and -ii -itum, to be unable.
nequiquam (nequicquam), in vain, to no purpose; without good reason.
nequitia -ae, f. worthlessness, badness; esp. extravagance.
nequities -ei, f. worthlessness, badness; esp. extravagance.
Nereus -eos and -ei, m. a sea god.
Nero -onis, m. a cognomen in the gens Claudia; esp. C. Claudius Nero, fifth Roman emperor (54-68).
nervosus -a -um, sinewy, nervous, strong, vigorous; adv. nervose.
nervulus -i, m. nerve, strength.
nervus -i, m. (usually plur.), sinew, tendon; fig. strength, vigor, energy; a string, esp. of an instrument; a strap, thong, fetter.
nescio -ire -ivi and -ii -itum, not to know, be ignorant; to fail to recognize; with infin. to be unable to do; nescio quis, quid, etc., I know not who or what, somebody, something.
nescius -a -um: act. not knowing, ignorant, unaware; not knowing how, unable (with infin.); pass. unknown.
Nestor -oris, m. the most experienced of the Greek heros at Troy.
neu; see neve.
neuter -tra -trum, neither. Transf., of neither sex, neuter. Adv. neutro, in neither direction, towards neither side.
neutiquam (ne utiquam), by no means, not at all.
neve or neu, and not, or not, nor (esp. followed by ut or ne).
nevis; see nolo.
nevult; see nolo.
nex necis, f. death; usually violent death, murder.
nexilis -e, tied together, plaited.
nexum -i, n. an arrangement by which a debtor pledged his liberty as security for debt.
nexus -us, m. a tying together, connecting, restraining; also in the sense of nexum, q.v.
ni (nei) and nive, if not, unless; also in the sense of ne, q.v.; 'quid ni?', why not?.
niceterium -i, n. reward of victory, prize.
nicto -are, to wink.
nidor -oris, m. vapor, reek.
nidulus -i, m. a little nest.
nidus -i, m. a nest.
niger -gra -grum, black, dark-colored; blackening; bad, unlucky; n. as subst. a black spot.
nigresco nigrescere nigrui, to become black, grow dark.
nigro -are, to be black; partic. nigrans -antis, black, dark.
nigror -oris, m. blackness.
nihil and contr. nil, nothing; 'nihil non', everything; 'non nihil', something; nihil, as internal acc., or adv., not at all.
nihildum, nothing as yet.
nihilum (nilum) -i, n. nothing; as adv., not at all; 'nihilominus', nevertheless.
nil; = nihil; q.v.
Nilus -i, m. the river Nile; adj. Niliacus -a -um.
nimbifer -fera -ferum, stormy.
nimbosus -a -um, rainy, stormy.
nimbus -i, m. cloud, mist; esp. a black rain-cloud; a storm, shower.
nimirum, undoubtedly, certainly, of course (often ironical).
nimis, very much; too much, excessively.
nimius -a -um, very great; too great, excessive; intemperate, immoderate. N. as subst. a great deal, much; also excess, too much.
ningo (ninguo) ningere ninxi, to snow; impers., ningit, it snows.
ningues -ium, f. pl. snow.
Niobe -es, f. and Nioba -ae, f. daughter of Tantalus, wife of Amphion.
nisi, if not, unless; after negatives and questions, except; 'nisi quod', except that.
nisus (1) (nixus) -us, m. pressing, straining, effort.
nisus (2) -a -um, partic. from nitor; q.v.
nitedula -ae, f. dormouse.
niteo -ere, to shine, glitter, be bright; to glow, be sleek, flourish. Hence partic. nitens -entis, shining, bright, sleek, blooming.
nitesco -ere, to begin to shine; to grow sleek.
nitidus -a -um, bright, shining; sleek, fat; flourishing, blooming. Transf. spruce, elegant; refined, polished. Adv. nitide.
nitor (1) niti nisus or nixus, dep. (1) to rest, lean, support oneself on; to trust in, depend on. (2) to strive, exert oneself, make an effort; of movement, to press on, climb up.
nitor (2) -oris, m. brilliance, brightness, splendor, glow, elegance.
nivalis -e, of snow, snowy.
nive; see ni, or neve.
niveus -a -um, of snow, snowy.
nivosus -a -um, snowy.
nix nivis, f. snow.
nixor -ari, dep. to lean upon; to strive, strain.
nixus (1); = nisus (1); q.v.
nixus (2); see nitor (1).
no nare navi, to swim. Transf. to sail, flow, fly.
nobilis -e, known; celebrated, renowned, infamous, notorious; of noble birth, highly bred; of things, fine.
nobilitas -atis, f. fame, celebrity; noble birth, nobility; meton. the aristocrats, the nobility; in gen. excellence, worth.
nobilito -are, to make known, make famous or notorious.
noceo -ere, to hurt, injure, harm (with dat.); partic. nocens -entis, hurtful, injurious, guilty, wicked; as subst. a guilty person.
noctiluca -ae, f. the moon.
noctivagus -a -um, wandering by night.
noctu, abl. from nox; q.v.
noctua -ae, f. owl.
noctuabundus -a -um, travelling by night.
nocturnus -a -um, by night, nightly, nocturnal.
nocuus -a -um, hurtful, injurious.
nodo -are, to knot, tie in a knot.
nodosus -a -um, full of knots, knotty.
nodus -i, m. a knot; a girdle; any tie, bond, connection, obligation; a knotty point, difficulty.
nolo nolle nolui, to be unwilling, wish not to, refuse.
nomas -adis, c. a nomad, esp. a Numidian.
nomen -inis, n. a name; 'nomen dare', to go for a soldier, enlist; 'nomen (hominis) deferre', to give information against, to accuse; 'nomina solvere', to pay debts; 'nomen Romanum', the Roman power; 'nomine meo', in my name, on my behalf.
nomenclator -oris, m. a slave who reminded his master of names.
nominatim, by name, expressly.
nominatio -onis, f. nomination to a public office.
nominito -are, to call regularly by name.
nomino -are, to name, give a name to, call; to mention, speak about; to make famous; to appoint, nominate to an office; to denounce, give information a- gainst. Hence partic. nominatus -a -um, well-known, celebrated.
nomisma -matis, n. a coin.
non (old forms noenum, noenu), not; 'non nihil', something; 'nihil non', everything; 'non quod, non quo', not that, not because; 'non ita', not very, not particularly; in questions = 'nonne?' q.v.; in com- mands = 'ne'; in answers, no.
Nonae -arum, f. the nones; the fifth day in all months, except March, May, July and October, when it was the seventh.
nonagesimus (-ensimus) -a -um, ninetieth.
nonagies (-iens), ninety times.
nonanus -a -um, belonging to the ninth legion.
nondum, adv. not yet.
nongenti -ae -a, nine hundred.
nonne, interrog. adv. asks a question to which an affirmative answer is expected.
nonnemo; see nemo.
nonnihil; see nihil.
nonnullus (non nullus) -a -um, some; in plur. several.
nonnumquam (non numquam), sometimes.
nonus -a -um, ninth; f. as subst. the ninth hour (roughly 3 P.M.).
nonusdecimus -a -um, nineteenth.
Noricum -i, n. Noricum, a country between the Alps and the Danube; adj. Noricus -a -um.
norma -ae, f. a rule, standard.
nos, plur. of ego; q.v.
noscito -are, to get to know, investigate, observe, perceive; to recognize.
nosco noscere novi notum, to become acquainted with, get to know; hence, in perfect tenses, to be acquainted with, know. Transf. to inquire into, investigate; to recognize; to approve, acknowledge. Hence partic. notus -a -um, known; famous; notorious, familiar, custom- ary; m. pl. as subst. friends, acquaintances.
noster -tra -trum, our, ours; of us, to us, for us; m. pl. nostri, our people.
nostras -atis, adj. of our country, native.
nota -ae, f. a mark, token, note, sign; in writing, a letter, character; a distinguishing mark, brand; hence sort, quality; also mark of dis- grace, stigma (esp. as imposed by the censor).
notabilis -e, remarkable, striking; adv. notabiliter.
notarius -i, m. secretary or shorthand writer.
notatio -onis, f. marking, noting, choice; the stigma of the censor.
notesco notescere notui, to become known.
nothus -a -um, illegitimate, bastard; hybrid, mongrel; in gen.spurious.
notio -onis, f. an examination, investigation; an idea, conception.
notitia -ae, f.: pass. being known, fame, celebrity; act. knowledge, acquaintance; hence idea, notion, conception.
notities -ei, f. idea, notion, conception.
noto -are, to mark, mark out, distinguish, denote; to observe; to write; to stigmatize (esp. of the censors).
notus (1) -a -um, partic. from nosco; q.v.
notus (2) (-os) -i, m. the south wind.
novacula -ae, f. a sharp knife or razor.
novalis -is, f. and novale -is, n. fallow land; a cultivated field; crops.
novatrix -icis, f. she that renews.
novellus -a -um, new, young; fresh, unfamiliar.
novem, indecl. numer., nine.
November and Novembris -bris, m. of the ninth month of the Roman year, of November; m. as subst. November.
novendecim, novemdecim, nineteen.
novendialis -e, of nine days; happening on the ninth day; lasting nine days.
noveni -ae -a, nine each, nine at a time; poet. nine.
Novensiles divi, gods whose worship had been introduced from foreign countries.
noverca -ae, f. stepmother.
novercalis -e, of or like a stepmother.
novicius -a -um, new, fresh; esp. of persons new to slavery.
novies (-iens), nine times.
novitas -atis, f. newness, novelty, strangeness; the condition of a 'novus homo' (see novus), newness of nobility; in pl. new acquaintances.
novo -are, to make new, renew, revive; to change, alter; to invent; 'novare res', to make a revolution.
novus -a -um, new, fresh, young; fresh, inexperienced; revived, refreshed; novel, unusual, extraordinary; 'novus homo', the first of a family to hold curule office; 'novae res', political changes, a revolution; 'novae tabulae', new account books (i.e. a cancellation of debts); N. as subst., a new thing, news, a novelty. Adv. nove, in a new or un- usual way. Superl. novissimus -a -um, latest, last, extreme; 'agmen', the rear; adv. novissime, lately, lastly, in the last place.
nox noctis, f. night; meton., sleep, darkness, gloom, death. Abl. form as adv. noctu, by night.
noxa -ae, f. harm, injury, damage; a fault, offence; punishment.
noxia -ae, f. a fault, offence, crime.
noxius -a -um, hurtful, injurious; culpable, guilty.
nubecula -ae, f. a little cloud; a troubled expression.
nubes -is, f. a cloud; fig. any dense mass; gloom; veil, concealment.
nubifer -fera -ferum, cloud-bearing.
nubigena -ae, c. born of a cloud.
nubilis -e, marriageable.
nubilus -a -um, cloudy, overcast; dark, gloomy; n. sing. as subst., cloudy weather; n. pl., clouds.
nubo nubere nupsi nuptum, to cover, veil; of a bride, to be married to, to marry (with dat.); f. of partic. nupta, married, or as subst., a bride.
nucleus -i, m. the kernel of a nut, the stone of fruits.
nudius, it is now the...day since (always with ordinal numerals); 'nudius tertius', the day before yesterday.
nudo -are, to make bare, strip, uncover; milit. to leave undefended; to strip, spoil, divest, deprive.
nudus -a -um, naked, bare, uncovered; defenseless, deprived; unadorned, plain; bare, mere, alone, only.
nugae -arum, f. pl. trifles, nonsense, stuff.
nugator -oris, m. a trifler, humbug.
nugatorius -a -um, trifling, frivolous, futile.
nugax -acis, trifling, frivolous.
nugor -ari, dep. to trifle, talk nonsense; to trick, cheat.
nullus -a -um, no, none, not any; nonexistent, ruined; 'nullo modo, nullo pacto', by no means; as a strong negative, not at all; as subst., esp. genit. and abl., no one.
num, interrog. particle, introducing a direct question to which a negative answer is expected, or an indirect question, in the sense whether.
Numa -ae, m. Pompilius, the second king of Rome.
Numantia -ae, f. a town in Spain.
numen -inis, n. nodding, a nod; as an expression of will, command, consent; of a deity, divine will, divine command; hence, in gen. divine majesty, divinity, deity.
numerabilis -e, able to be counted.
numero -are, to count; esp. to count out money, to pay; to count over possessions, i.e. to own; to reckon, consider. Hence partic. numeratus -a -um, counted out; in hard cash, in ready money; n. as subst. hard cash, money down.
numerosus -a -um. (1) numerous. (2) rhythmical, metrical, melodious. Adv. numerose.
numerus -i, m. (1) a number, reckoning, total; a mass; a mere number, cipher; a category, band, class; rank, position, regard, consideration. (2) mea- sure, part, respect; in music, meter, number, time. Abl. sing. as adv. numero, exactly, at the right time; too quickly, too soon.
Numida -ae, m. a Numidian.
Numitor -oris, m. king of Alba, grandfather of Romulus and Remus.
nummarius -a -um, belonging to money; bribed with money, venal.
nummatus -a -um, provided with money, rich.
nummularius -i, m. a money-changer.
nummulus -i, m. a little piece or sum of money.
nummus -i, m. a piece of money, coin; esp. the sesterce, a coin of small value.
numquam; = nunquam; q.v.
nunc, now, at present, as things are; of past or future time, then, already.
nuncupatio -onis, f. naming, pronouncement.
nuncupo -are, to name, call by name, to pronounce solemnly.
nundinae -arum, f. pl. market-day; the market-place; traffic, trade, business.
nundinatio -onis, f. the holding of a market, trade, business.
nundinor -ari, dep. to transact business, trade, traffic; to buy, esp. corruptly; to be present in great numbers.
nundinum -i, n. market-time.
nunquam (numquam), never; 'nunquam non', always; 'non nunquam', sometimes.
nuntiatio -onis, f. a declaration made by the augur.
nuntio -are, to announce, give notice.
nuntius -a -um, announcing, bringing news. M. as subst. nuntius -i: (1) a messenger. (2) a message, news; esp. an official notice.
nuper, lately, not long ago.
nupta -ae, f. subst. from nubo; q.v.
nuptiae -arum, f. pl. marriage, a wedding.
nuptialis -e, of marriage.
nurus -us, f. a daughter-in-law; any young married woman.
nusquam, nowhere, at (or to) no place; in nothing, on no occasion; to or for nothing; 'nusquam esse', not to exist.
nuto -are, to nod, keep nodding; to sway, waver.
nutricius -i, m. a tutor, guardian.
nutrico -are and nutricor -ari, dep. to suckle, nourish; to support, sustain.
nutricula -ae, f. nurse, nanny.
nutrimen -inis, n. nourishment.
nutrimentum -i, n. nourishment; support, training.
nutrio -ire and nutrior -iri, dep. to suckle, nourish, bring up; to make good, support, sustain.
nutrix -icis, f. a nurse, foster-mother.
nutus -us, m. a nod; command, will; gravitation, downward movement.
nux nucis, f. a nut; a nut tree.
nympha -ae and nymphe -es, f. a bride; 'Nymphae', the Nymphs.