Glossary of Latin Terms G


Gabii -orum, m. an ancient city of Latium; adj. Gabinus -a -um.

Gabinius -a -um, name of a Roman gens.

Gades -ium, f.a town in Hispania Baetica(now Cadiz); adj. Gaditanus -a -um.

gaesum -i, n. a long heavy javelin.

Gaetuli -orum, m. pl. a people in northwest Africa.

Gaius, abbrev. C., a Roman praenomen; fem. Gaia.

Galatae -arum, m. a Celtic people settled in Asia Minor, the Galatians.

Galba -ae, m. a cognomen of the Sulpician gens; esp. of Ser. Sulpicius, Roman emperor A.D. 68-69.

galbaneus -a -um, of galbanum; q.v.

galbanum -i, n. the resinous sap of a Syrian plant.

galbinus -a -um, greenish-yellow.

galea -ae, f. helmet.

galeo -are, to cover with a helmet; partic. galeatus -a -um, helmeted.

galericulum -i, n. skull-cap; wig.

galeritus -a -um, wearing a hood or skull-cap.

galerum -i, n. and galerus -i, m. skull-cap; wig.

galla -ae, f. oakapple.

Galli -orum, m. pl. the Gauls, a Celtic people, to the west of the Rhine and in the north of Italy; Gallia -ae, f. Gaul, land of the Gauls; Cisalpi- na = Northern Italy; Transalpina = France; adj. Gallicanus and Galli- cus -a -um, Gaulish; f. as subst., gallica, a slipper.

galliambus -i, m. a song of the priests of Cybele.

gallica; see Galli.

gallina -ae, f. hen.

gallinaceus -a -um, of poultry; 'gallus', a poultry cock.

gallinarius -a -um, of poultry; m. as subst., poultry farmer.

gallus -i, m. cock.

Gallus (1) a Gaul; see Galli.

Gallus (2) -i, m. usually plur. Galli -orum, m. a priest of Cybele.

ganea -ae, f. and ganeum -i, n. a brothel or low eating-house.

ganeo -onis, m. a debauchee.

Ganges -is, m. the river Ganges in India. Adj. Gangeticus -a -um; f. adj. Gangetis -idis = Indian.

gannio -ire, to yelp, snarl, growl.

gannitus -us, m. yelping, snarling.

Ganymedes -is, m. the cup-bearer of Jupiter.

garrio -ire, to chatter, prate, babble.

garrulitas -atis, f. chattering.

garrulus -a -um, talkative, chattering, babbling, noisy.

garum -i, n. fish-sauce.

Garumna -ae, f. a river in Gaul (now Garonne); Garumni -orum, m. pl. a people living on the Garonne.

gaudeo gaudere gavisus sum, to rejoice, be glad; with abl. of cause, to delight in; 'in sinu gaudere', to rejoice in secret.

gaudium -i, n. joy, gladness, delight; a source of delight.

gausape -is, and gausapum -i, n. woolen cloth with a long nap, frieze.

gaza -ae, f. the royal treasure of Persia; in gen., treasure, riches, wealth.

gelasinus -i, m. dimple.

gelidus -a -um, cold, frosty, icy; in act. sense, chilling; f. as subst. gelida -ae, cold water. Adv. gelide, coldly, feebly.

gelo -are, transit., to cause to freeze; intransit., to freeze.

gelu -us, n. (earlier gelus -us, m. and gelum -i, n.), frost, chill.

gemebundus -a -um, groaning, sighing.

gemellipara -ae, f. adj. twin-bearing.

gemellus -a -um, twin, paired, double; m. as subst. a twin.

geminatio -onis, f. doubling.

gemino -are: transit. to double; to join together, strike together, repeat; partic. geminatus -a -um, doubled; intransit., to be double.

geminus -a -um, twin, double; paired or half-and-half; similar, like; m. pl. as subst. gemini -orum, twins, esp. Castor and Pollux.

gemitus -us, m. a sigh, groan; of things, groaning, roaring.

gemma -ae, f. a bud or eye of a plant. Transf., a jewel, gem, precious stone; a jewelled goblet; a seal-ring, seal; a literary gem.

gemmatus -a -um, set or adorned with gems.

gemmeus -a -um, made of or set with jewels; bright.

gemmifer -fera -ferum, bearing or producing seeds.

gemmo -are, to bud; pres. partic. gemmans -antis, set with jewels, glittering like jewels.

gemo gemere gemui gemitum: intransit., to sigh, groan; of lions, to roar; of doves, to coo; of things, to creak; transit. to sigh over, lament, bemoan.

gena -ae, f. usually plur., cheek, cheeks and chin. Transf., eye-socket, eye.

Genava -ae, f. a town of the Allobroges (now Geneva).

genealogus -i, m. a genealogist.

gener -eri, m. a son-in-law; a granddaughter's husband; a brother-in-law.

generalis -e. (1) belonging to a kind, generic. (2) universal, general. Adv. generaliter, in general, generally.

generasco -ere, to be produced, come to birth.

generatim. (1) according to kinds or classes. (2) in general, generally.

generator -oris, m. begetter, producer.

genero -are, to beget, produce, bring to life.

generosus -a -um, of noble birth, noble, well-bred; of a place, producing well. Transf., of character, noble, magnanimous. Adv. generose, no- bly.

genesis -is, f. the constellation that presides over one's birth.

genetivus -a -um, inborn, innate; 'nomina', family names; 'casus', the genitive case.

genetrix -tricis, f. one who brings forth, a mother.

genialis -e. (1) relating to marriage. (2) relating to enjoyment; joyful, gay. Adv. genialiter, jovially, gaily.

geniculatus -a -um, knotty, full of knots.

genista (genesta) -ae, f. the plant broom.

genitabilis -e, fruitful, productive.

genitalis -e, creative, fruitful; 'dies', birthday; of Diana, pre- siding over births. Adv. genitaliter, in a fruitful manner.

genitivus; see genetivus.

genitor -oris, m. a begetter, father, producer.

genitura -ae, f. begetting, engendering; in astrology, nativity.

genius -i, m. the guardian spirit of a man or place, a genius; esp. of a spirit of enjoyment, one's taste, inclination; 'genium curare', to enjoy oneself. Transf., talent, genius.

geno; see gigno.

gens gentis, f. a clan, stock, people, tribe, nation. Transf., an off- spring, descendant; a district, country; esp. in partitive genit.: 'ubi gentium', where in the world?; plur., 'gentes', foreigners.

genticus -a -um, of a nation, national.

gentilicius -a -um, of a particular gens.

gentilis -e, of a gens; of a country, national.

gentilitas -atis, f. the relationship between the members of a gens.

genu -us, n. the knee.

Genua -ae, f. coast-town in Liguria (now Genoa).

genualia -ium, n. pl. garters.

genuinus (1) -a -um, natural, innate.

genuinus (2) -a -um, belonging to the cheek or jaw; 'dentes', the jaw- teeth; m. as subst. a jaw-tooth.

genus (1) -eris, n. birth, descent, origin; race, stock, family, house; hence offspring, descendants; sex; in gen., class, kind, variety, sort; in logic, genus; of action, etc., fashion, manner, way.

genus (2) -us = genu; q.v.

geographia -ae, f. geography.

geometres -ae, m. a geometer.

geometria -ae, f. geometry.

geometricus -a -um, geometrical; m. as subst., geometricus -i, a geo- meter; n. pl. geometrica, geometry.

georgicus -a -um, agricultural; n. pl. as subst. Georgica -orum, the Georgics of Vergil.

Germani -orum, m. pl. the Germans; adj. Germanus -a -um, German; f. as subst. Germania -ae, Germany; adj. Germanicus -a -um, German; m. as subst. Germanicus -i, a surname assumed after victories in Germany.

germanitas -atis, f. the relationship between brothers or sisters; brother- hood, sisterhood.

germanus -a -um, having the same parents; m. or f. as subst. own brother, own sister. Transf., brotherly, sisterly; genuine, real, true. Adv., germane, faithfully, honestly.

Germanus -a -um; see Germani.

germen -inis, n. an embryo; a bud, shoot or graft; fig., germ.

germino -are, to sprout forth.

gero (1) gerere gessi gestum. Lit. (1) to carry, bear; esp. to wear. (2) to bear, give birth to. Transf., to carry about, display an app- earance; 'personam gerere', to act a part; 'se gerere', to conduct oneself (with adv.); to carry about, entertain a feeling; to carry on, con- duct, manage business; 'res gestae', exploits, esp. warlike exploits.

gero (2) -onis, m. a carrier.

gerrae -arum, f. pl. wattled twigs. Transf., trifles, nonsense.

gerro -onis, m. a trifler, idler.

gerulus -i, m. porter, carrier.

Geryon -onis and Geryones -ae, m. myth., a king in Spain with three bodies, killed by Hercules.

gestamen -inis, n. that which is carried; that by which anything is carried, a carriage or litter.

gesticulatio -onis, f. pantomime, gesticulation.

gesticulor -ari, dep. gesticulate.

gestio (1) -onis, f. management, performance.

gestio (2) -ire, to exult, be excited, run riot; to desire, long for.

gestito -are, to carry often, wear often.

gesto -are, to carry, bear about; pass. to ride about.

gestor -oris, m. a tale-bearer, gossip.

gestus -us, m. carriage of the body, posture; esp. the gestures of an actor or orator.

Getae -arum, m. pl. a people of Thrace living near the Danube. Adj. Geticus -a -um, Thracian; adv. Getice, after the Getic fashion.

Getulus, etc. = Gaetuli, etc.; q.v.

gibba -ae, f. hump, hunch.

gibber -era -erum, hump-backed.

gibbus -i, m. hump, hunch.

Gigas -gantis, m. a giant; adj. Giganteus -a -um.

gigno gignere genui genitum, to beget, bear, bring forth; to cause.

gilvus -a -um, pale yellow.

gingiva -ae, f. gum (of the mouth).

glaber -bra -brum, bald; m. as subst., a page.

glacialis -e, icy.

glacies -ei, f. ice. Transf., hardness.

glacio -are, to freeze.

gladiator -oris, m. one hired to fight at public shows, a gladiator; hence bandit, brigand; 'gladiatoribus', at a show of gladiators.

gladiatorius -a -um, of gladiators, gladiatorial; n. as subst., gladiator's pay.

gladiatura -ae, f. the profession of gladiator.

gladius -i, m. sword.

glaeba; = gleba; q.v.

glaesum (glesum) -i, n. amber.

glandifer -fera -ferum, acorn-bearing.

glandium -i, n. a delicate glandule in meat.

glans glandis, f. mast; an acorn, chestnut, etc.. Transf., a bullet.

glarea -ae, f. gravel.

glareosus -a -um, gravelly, full of gravel.

glaucoma -atis, n. (also -ae, f.) disease of the eye, cataract.

glaucus -a -um, bluish- or greenish-gray.

gleba (glaeba) -ae, f. a lump or clod of earth; hence land, soil; a piece, lump of anything.

glebula -ae, f. a little clod or lump; a little farm or estate.

glesum; = glaesum; q.v.

glis gliris, m. dormouse.

glisco -ere, to grow up, swell up, blaze up.

globo -are, to form into a ball or mass.

globosus -a -um, spherical.

globus -i, m. a ball, globe, sphere; a troop, crowd, mass of people.

glomeramen -inis, n. a round mass, globe.

glomero -are, to form into a sphere, or rounded heap; in gen., to gather together, collect, amass.

glomus -eris, n. clue, skein, ball of thread.

gloria -ae, f. fame, renown, glory. Transf., of a member of a group, the pride, the glory; desire of glory, ambition, boastfulness; plur. glorious deeds.

gloriatio -onis, f. glorying, boasting.

gloriola -ae, f. a little glory.

glorior -ari, dep. to glory, boast, pride oneself.

gloriosus -a -um, famous, glorious; ambitious, pretentious, boastful. Adv. gloriose, gloriously; vauntingly, boastingly.

glubo -ere, to peel. Transf., to rob.

gluten -tinis, n. glue.

glutinator -oris, m. one who glues books, a bookbinder.

glutio (gluttio) -ire, to swallow, gulp down.

gluto (glutto) -onis, m. glutton.

Gnaeus -i, m. a Roman praenomen (shortened Cn.).

gnaritas -atis, f. knowledge.

gnarus -a -um; act., knowing, acquainted with, expert; pass., known.

Gnatho -onis, m. a parasite in the Eunuchus of Terence; in gen., para- site.

Gnatia; = Egnatia; q.v.

gnatus, gnavus = natus, navus; q.v.

Gnidus; = Cnidus; q.v.

Gnossus (Gnosus) -i, f. an ancient city of Crete, the residence of Minos; adj. Gnosius and Gnosiacus -a -um, Gnosian; Cretan; f. adj. Gnosias -adis, and Gnosis -idis, Cretan and as subst., Ariadne.

gobius (cobius) -i and gobio -onis, m. a gudgeon.

gonger; see conger.

Gorgo -gonis, f. also called Medusa, slain by Perseus; adj. Gorgoneus -a -um.

Gortyna -ae, f. an ancient city in Crete. 2

grabatus -i, m. a low couch, camp-bed.

Gracchus -i, m. a cognomen in the Gens Sempronia, esp. of Tiberius and Gaius, the 'Gracchi'. Adj. Gracchanus -a -um.

gracilis -e, slender, thin, slim; of style, etc. simple, without ornament.

gracilitas -atis, f. thinness, slenderness.

graculus -i, m. jackdaw.

gradarius -a -um, going step by step.

gradatim, adv. step by step, by degrees.

gradatio -onis, f. in rhetoric, climax.

gradior gradi gressus, dep. to step, walk.

Gradivus -i, m. a surname of Mars.

gradus -us, m. a step.(1) a step as made, a pace;'suspenso gradu', on tiptoe; 'gradum facere', to step; 'gradum inferre', to advance; hence in gen., an approach.(2) a step as climbed, a stair; hence any tier, gradation; a braid of hair; abstr., degree, stage; rank, posi- tion; milit., station, post.

Graeci -orum, m. pl. the Greeks; sing. Graecus -i, m. a Greek; as adj. Graecus -a -um, Greek; adv. Graece, in the Greek language; f. subst. Graecia -ae, f. Greece; 'Magna Graecia', the Greek colonists in the south of Italy; dim. Graeculus -i, m. a little Greek.

graecisso -are, to imitate the Greeks.

graecor -ari, dep. to imitate the Greeks.

Graii -orum, m. pl.= Graeci, the Greeks; adj. Graius -a -um.

Graiugena -ae, m. a Greek by birth.

grallator -oris, m. one that walks on stilts.

gramen -inis, n. grass, turf; any plant or herb.

gramineus -a -um, grassy, of grass; also of cane or bamboo.

grammaticus -a -um, literary, grammatical; as subst., m. a philologist, grammarian; f. sing. and n. pl. grammar, philology.

grammatista -ae, m. a teacher of grammar or languages.

granarium -i, n. granary.

grandaevus -a -um, very old.

grandesco -ere, to become great, old.

grandiculus -a -um, rather large.

grandifer -fera -ferum, producing great profits.

grandiloquus -a -um, speaking grandly; boastful.

grandinat -are, impers. it hails.

grandio -ire, to increase.

grandis -e, full-grown, big, great, large; in stature, tall; in years, old. Transf., great, important; of style, lofty, grand, sublime.

granditas -atis, f. of style, loftiness, sublimity.

grando -inis, f. hail, hailstorm.

granifer -fera -ferum, grain-carrying.

granum -i, n. grain, seed.

graphicus -a -um, concerned with painting; hence masterly, skilful; adv. graphice.

graphium -i, n. a stilus, a pointed instrument for writing on wax.

grassator -oris, m. an idler; a footpad.

grassor -ari, dep. to walk about, to loiter; to go about an undertaking; to proceed against somebody.

grates, f. pl. thanks; 'grates agere', to express thanks; 'habere', to feel gratitude.

gratia -ae, f. (1) charm, attraction, pleasantness; personif., the three Graces (Euphrosyne, Aglaia, Thalia). (2) favor with others; es- teem, regard, popularity. (3) a favor done, service, kindness; abl. gratia, on the account of; 'mea gratia', for my sake. (4) thank- fulness, thanks; in sing. and plur.: 'gratias agere', with dat. to ex- press thanks; 'gratias habere', to be grateful; abl. plur. gratiis or gratis, without recompense, for nothing, gratis.

gratificatio -onis, f. complaisance, obligingness.

gratificor -ari, dep. to oblige, gratify, do a favor for.

gratiosus -a -um, favored, beloved; showing favor, complaisant.

gratis; see gratia.

grator -ari, dep. to wish joy, to congratulate; to give thanks.

gratuitus -a -um, not paid for or not provoked, gratuitous, spontaneous; abl. sing. n. as adv. gratuito, gratuitously.

gratulabundus -a um, congratulating.

gratulatio -onis, f. wishing joy, congratulation; a thanksgiving festival.

gratulor -ari, dep. to wish a person joy, congratulate (with dat.); to give solemn thanks, esp. to the gods.

gratus -a -um, adj. (1) pleasing, welcome, agreeable; 'gratum facere', to do a favor. (2) thankful, grateful. Adv. grate, willingly, with pleasure; thankfully.

gravanter and gravate; from gravo.

gravatim, reluctantly.

gravedinosus -a -um, subject to colds.

gravedo -inis, f. cold in the head, catarrh.

graveolens -lentis, strong-smelling, rank.

gravesco -ere, to become heavy; to grow worse.

graviditas -atis, f. pregnancy.

gravido -are, to load, burden; to impregnate.

gravidus -a -um, heavy; laden, filled, full; pregnant.

gravis -e. (1) heavy; of sound, low, deep; fig. weighty, important; of character, dignified, serious; of style, elevated, dignified. (2) burdened, laden, weighed down; esp. pregnant. (3) burdensome, op- pressive; grievous, painful, unpleasant. Adv. graviter, heavily, weighti- ly, reluctantly,; grievously, painfully.

gravitas -atis, f. (1) weight; fig., consequence, importance; of char- acter, dignity, authority, seriousness.(2) heaviness; pregnancy, dull- ness, faintness. (3) pressure; fig., unpleasantness.

gravo -are, to load, burden; to heighten, exaggerate, increase; to oppress, burden, trouble; pass., to feel burdened or troubled by a thing. Adv. gravanter and gravate, reluctantly.

gregalis -e, of a herd or flock; common, ordinary; m. pl. as subst. com- panions, associates, accomplices.

gregarius -a -um, of a herd or flock; 'miles', a private soldier.

gregatim, in troops or crowds.

gremium -i, n. lap, bosom; womb.

gressus -us, m. a step; of a ship, course.

grex gregis, m. a herd, flock, drove; of people, a troop, band, esp. a philosophical sect or troop or soldiers; 'grege facto', in close order.

grunnio (grundio) -ire, to grunt like a pig.

grunnitus -us, m. the grunting of a pig.

grus gruis, m. and f. a crane.

gry, n. indecl. scrap, crumb. 1

gryllus -i, m. cricket, grasshopper.

gryps grypis, m. griffin. 1

gubernaculum (-aclum) -i, n. rudder, helm; hence direction, management, government.

gubernatio -onis, f. steering; direction, government.

gubernator -oris, m. helmsman, steersman, pilot; director, governor.

gubernatrix -icis, f. she that directs.

guberno -are, to steer a ship, be at the helm; in gen., to steer, direct, govern.

gubernum -i, n. = gubernaculum; q.v.

gula -ae, f. gullet, throat; hence greediness, gluttony.

gulosus -a -um, gluttonous.

gurges -itis, m. whirlpool, eddy; in gen., troubled water, a stream, flood, sea; fig., abyss, depth.

gurgulio (1) -onis, m. windpipe.

gurgulio (2) -onis, f.; see curculio.

gurgustium -i, n. hut, hovel.

gustatus -us, m. taste; appetite, flavor.

gusto -are, to taste, take a little of; to partake of, enjoy.

gustus -us, m. tasting; taste, flavor, a whet or relish.

gutta -ae, f. a drop; a spot or mark.

guttatim, drop by drop.

guttula -ae, f. a little drop.

guttur -uris, n. the windpipe, throat; gluttony.

guttus -i, m. a jug.

Gyaros -i, f. and Gyara -orum, n. a barren island in the Aegean, used as a place of exile under the empire.

Gyges -is and -ae, m. a king of Lydia, famous for his ring; adj. Gygaeus -a -um. 1

gymnasiarchus -i, m. the master of a gymnasium.

gymnasium -i, n. school of gymnastics, gymnasium; also a place for phil- osophical discussion.

gymnasticus -a -um, gymnastic.

gymnicus -a -um, gymnastic.

gynaeceum (and -ium) -i, n. the women's apartments in a Greek house.

gypso -are, to cover with gypsum; partic. gypsatus -a -um, covered with gypsum, whitened.

gypsum -i, n. gypsum; meton., a plaster figure.

gyrus -i, m. a circle, ring; esp. a course for training horses; in gen. orbit, circuit. 1