In the springtime of 51 BC, Ptolemy Auletes died and left his kingdom in his will to his eighteen year old daughter, Cleopatra, and
her younger brother Ptolemy XIII who was twelve at the time. Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older
sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as well as a younger sister, Arsinoe IV. There were two younger brothers as well, Ptolemy XIII
and Ptolemy XIV. It is thought that Cleopatra VI may have died as a child and Auletes had Berenice beheaded. At Ptolemy Auletes'
death, Pompey, a Roman leader, was left in charge of the children. During the two centuries that preceded Ptolemy
Auletes death, the Ptolemies were allied with the Romans. The Ptolemies' strength was failing and the Roman Empire was rising. City
after city was falling to the Roman power and the Ptolemies could do nothing but create a pact with them. During the later rule of
the Ptolemies, the Romans gained more and more control over Egypt. Tributes had to be paid to the Romans to keep them away from
Egypt. When Ptolemy Auletes died, the fall of the Dynasty appeared to be even closer.
According to Egyptian law, Cleopatra was forced to have a consort, who was either a brother or a son, no matter what age, throughout
her reign. She was married to her younger brother Ptolemy XIII when he was twelve, however she soon dropped his name from any
official documents regardless of the Ptolemaic insistence that the male presence be first among co-rulers. She also had her own
portrait and name on coins of that time, ignoring her brother's. When Cleopatra became co-regent, her world was crumbling down around
her. Cyprus, Coele-Syria and Cyrenaica were gone. There was anarchy abroad and famine at home. Cleopatra was a strong-willed
Macedonian queen who was brilliant and dreamed of a greater world empire. She almost achieved it. Whether her way of getting it done
was for her own desires or for the pursuit of power will never be known for certain. However, like many Hellenistic queens, she was
passionate but not promiscuous. As far as we know, she had no other lovers other than Caesar and Antony. Many believe that she did
what she felt was necessary to try to save Alexandria, whatever the price.
By 48 BC, Cleopatra had alarmed the more powerful court officials of Alexandria by some of her actions. For instance, her mercenaries
killed the Roman governor of Syria's sons when they came to ask for her assistance for their father against the Parthians. A group of
men led by Theodotus, the eunuch Pothinus and a half-Greek general, Achillas, overthrew her in favor of her younger brother. They
believed him to be much easier to influence and they became his council of regency. Cleopatra is thought to have fled to Thebaid.
Between 51 and 49 BC, Egypt was suffering from bad harvests and famine because of a drought which stopped the much needed Nile
flooding. Ptolemy XIII signed a decree on October 27, 50 BC which banned any shipments of grain to anywhere but Alexandria. It is
thought that this was to deprive Cleopatra and her supporters who were not in Alexandria. Regardless, she started an army from the
Arab tribes which were east of Pelusium. During this time, she and her sister Arsinoe moved to Syria. They returned by way of Ascalon
which may have been Cleopatra's temporary base.
In the meantime, Pompey had been defeated at Pharsalus in August of 48 BC. He headed for Alexandria hoping to find refuge with
Ptolemy XIII, of whom Pompey was a senate-appointed guardian. Pompey did not realize how much his reputation had been destroyed by
Pharsalus until it was too late. He was murdered as he stepped ashore on September 28, 48 BC. The young Ptolemy XIII stood on the
dock and watched the whole scene. Four days later, Caesar arrived in Alexandria. He brought with him thirty-two hundred legionaries
and eight hundred cavalry. He also brought twelve other soldiers who bore the insignia of the Roman government who carried a bundle
of rods with an ax with a blade that projected out. This was considered a badge of authority that gave a clear hint of his
intentions. There were riots that followed in Alexandria. Ptolemy XIII was gone to Pelusium and Caesar placed himself in the royal
palace and started giving out orders. The eunuch, Pothinus, brought Ptolemy back to Alexandria. Cleopatra had no intentions of being
left out of any deals that were going to be made. She had herself smuggled in through enemy lines rolled in a carpet. She was
delivered to Caesar. Both Cleopatra and Ptolemy were invited to appear before Caesar the next morning. By this time, she and Caesar
were already lovers and Ptolemy realized this right away. He stormed out screaming that he had been betrayed, trying to arouse the
Alexandrian mob. He was soon captured by Caesar's guards and brought back to the palace. It is thought that Caesar had planned to
make Cleopatra the sole ruler of Alexandria. He thought she would be a puppet for Rome.
The Alexandrian War was started when Pothinus called for Ptolemy XIII's soldiers in November and surrounded Caesar in Alexandria with
twenty thousand men. During the war, parts of the Alexandrian Library and some of the warehouses were burned. However, Caesar did
manage to capture the Pharos lighthouse, which kept his control of the harbor. Cleopatra's sister, Arsinoe, escaped from the palace
and ran to Achillas. She was proclaimed the queen by the Macedonian mob and the army. Cleopatra never forgave her sister for this.
During the fighting, Caesar executed Pothinus and Achillas was murdered by Ganymede. Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile while he was
trying to flee.
Because of his death, Cleopatra was now the sole ruler of Egypt. Caesar had restored her position, but she now had to marry her
younger brother Ptolemy XIV, who was eleven years old. This was to please the Alexandrians and the Egyptian priests. Surely Caesar
went through all of this trouble for more than his infatuation with the queen of Egypt. It must have been out of arrogance and his
desire to get his hands on Egypt's vast resources. However, Cleopatra's intelligence and inheritance did have some influence as well.
In what must have been very calculated on his part, she became pregnant rather quickly. For him to have a son to carry the throne was
very appealing to him. Caesar and Cleopatra took an extended trip up the Nile for about two months. They stopped in Dendara where
Cleopatra was worshipped as a Pharaoh. Caesar would never have this honor. Caesar only left the boat to attend important business in
Syria just a few weeks before the birth of their son, Caesarion (Ptolemy Caesar) who was born on June 23, 47 BC.
During July of the year 46 BC, Caesar returned to Rome. He was given many honors and a ten-year dictatorship. These celebrations
lasted from September to October and he brought Cleopatra over, along with her entourage. The conservative Republicans were very
offended when he established Cleopatra in his home. Her social manners did not make the situation any better. She upset many.
Cleopatra had started calling herself the New Isis and was the subject of much gossip. She lived in luxury and had a statue made of
gold placed by Caesar, in the temple of Venus Genetrix . Caesar also openly claimed Caesarion as his son. Many were upset that he was
planning to marry Cleopatra regardless of the laws against bigamy and marriages to foreigners.
However, on the Ides of March of 44 BC, all of that came to an end. Caesar was assassinated outside the Senate Building in Rome. He
was killed in a conspiracy by his Senators. Many of the Senators thought he was a threat to the republic's well-being. It was thought
that Caesar was making plans to have himself declared king. After Caesar's murder, Cleopatra fled Rome and returned home to
Alexandria. Caesar had not mentioned Cleopatra or Caesarion in his will. She felt her life, as well as that of her child, was in
Upon returning to Alexandria, she had her consort, Ptolemy XIV, assassinated and established Caesarion as her co-regent at the age of
four. She found Egypt suffering from plagues and famine. The Nile canals had been neglected during her absence which caused the
harvests to be bad and the inundations low. The bad harvests continued from 43 until 41 BC. Trying to help secure recognition for
Caesarion with Caesar's former lieutenant Dolabella, Cleopatra sent Dolabella the four legions that Caesar had left in Egypt. Cassius
captured the legions which caused Dolabella to commit suicide at Laodicea during the summer of 43 BC. She was planning to join Mark
Antony and Octavian (who became Augustus) with a large fleet of ships after Dolabella's death, but was stopped by a violent storm.
Cleopatra watched in the time that followed, who would be the next power in Rome. After Brutus and Cassius had been killed and
Antony, Octavian and Lepidus were triumphant, Cleopatra knew which one she would have to deal with. Octavian went back to Italy very
ill, so Antony was the one to watch. Her son gained his right to become king when Caesar was officially divinized in Rome on January
1, 42 BC. The main object was the promotion of Octavian, but the triumvirs knew of Cleopatra's aid to Dolabella.
Cleopatra was invited by Mark Antony to Tarsus in 41 BC. She already knew enough about him to know how to get to him. She knew about
his limited strategic and tactical abilities, his blue blood, the drinking, his womanizing, his vulgarity and his ambition. Even
though Egypt was on the verge of economic collapse, Cleopatra put on a show for Mark Antony that even Ptolemy Philadelphos couldn't
have done better. She sailed with silver oars, purple sails with her Erotes fanning her and the Nereid handmaids steering and she was
dressed as Aphrodite, the goddess of love. This was a very calculated entrance; considered vulgar by many. It was a vulgar display to
attract the attention of a vulgar man. Mark Antony loved the idea of having a blue-blooded Ptolemy woman. His former mistress as well
as his current wife, Fulvia, were merely middle class.
Cleopatra and Antony spent the winter of 41 to 40 in Alexandria. According to some sources, Cleopatra could get out of him whatever
she wanted, including the assassination of her sister, Arsinoe. Cleopatra may not have had so much influence over him later on. He
took control of Cyprus from her. Actually it may have been Cleopatra who was the exploited one. Antony needed money and Cleopatra
could be generous when it benefited her as well.
In the spring of 40 BC, Mark Antony left Cleopatra and returned home. He did not see her for four years. Antony's wife, Fulvia had
gotten into a serious movement against Octavian over veterans' allotments of land. She fled to Greece and had a bitter confrontation
with Antony. She became ill and died there. Antony patched things up with Octavian that same autumn by marrying Octavian's sister,
Octavia. She was a beautiful and intelligent woman who had been recently widowed. She had three children from her first marriage. In
the meantime, Cleopatra had given birth to twins, one boy and one girl, in Alexandria. Antony's first child by Octavia was a girl.
Had Octavia given him a son, things might have turned out different. Antony kept the idea of the treasures of the Ptolemies and how
much he wanted it. When he finally did get the treasures, the standard interest rate in Rome fell from 12 percent to 4.
Mark Antony left Italy and went to deal with the Parthians. Octavia had just had another daughter and went with him just as far as
Corcyra. He gave her the excuse that he did not want to expose her to the dangers of the battles and sent her home. He told her that
she would be more use to him at home in Rome keeping peace with her brother, Octavian. However, the first thing that he did when he
reached Antioch, was to send for Cleopatra. Their twin children were officially recognized by Antony and were given the names of
Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene. Mark Antony gave her much land which was very essential to Egypt. He gave her Cyprus, the
Cilician coast, Phoenicia, Coele-Syria, Judea and Arabia. This allowed Egypt to be able to build ships from the lumber from Cilician
coast. Egypt then built a large fleet. Antony had planned a campaign against the Parthians. He obviously needed Cleopatra's support
for this and in 36 BC, he was defeated. He became more indebted to her than ever. They had just had a third child.
On their return to Syria, she met him and what was left of his army, with food, clothing and money. Early in 35 BC, he returned to
Egypt with her. Antony's wife, Octavia was in Athens with supplies and reinforcements waiting for her husband. He sent her a letter
telling her to not come any further. Her brother, Octavian, tried to provoke Antony into a fight. Octavian would release troops as
well as ships to try to force Antony into a war, which, by this time was almost inevitable. Antony might have been able to patch
things up with Octavia and her brother had he returned to Rome in 35 BC. Cleopatra probably did her best to keep him in Alexandria.
Octavia remained completely loyal to Antony through all of this.
In 34 BC, Antony had a campaign into Armenia, which was successful and financially rewarding. He celebrated his triumph with a parade
through Alexandria with Cleopatra presiding over as the New Isis. Antony presented himself as the New Dionysus as part of his dream
of the Graeco-Roman rule. Within a few days, a more political ceremony took place in which the children were given their royal titles
with Antony sitting on the throne as well. Ptolemy XV (Caesarion) was made the co-ruler with his mother and was called the King of
Kings. Cleopatra was called the Queen of Kings, which was a higher position than that of Caesarion's. Alexander Helios, which meant
the sun, was named Great King of the Seleucid empire when it was at its highest. Cleopatra Selene, which meant the moon, was called
Queen of Cyrenaica and Crete. Cleopatra and Antony's son, Ptolemy Philadelphos was named King of Syria and Asia Minor at the age of
two. Cleopatra had dreams of becoming the Empress of the world. She was very close to achieving these dreams and her favorite oath
was, "As surely as I shall yet dispense justice on the Roman Capital."
In 32 to 31 BC, Antony finally divorced Octavia. This forced the Western part of the world to recognize his relationship with
Cleopatra. He had already put her name and face on a Roman coin, the silver denarii. The denarii was widely circulated throughout the
Mediterranean. By doing this, Antony's relationship with the Roman allegiance was ended and Octavian decided to publish Antony's
will. Octavian then formally declared war against Cleopatra. Antony's name was nowhere mentioned in the official declaration. Many
false accusations were made against Cleopatra saying that she was a harlot and a drunken Oriental. These accusations were most likely
made out of fear of Cleopatra and Antony. Many probably thought that the New Isis would prevail and that Antony would start up a new
wave of world conquest and rule in a co-partnership from Alexandria. However, Octavian's navy severely defeated Antony in Actium,
which is in Greece, on September 2, 31 BC. Octavian's admiral, Agrippa, planned and carried out the defeat. In less than a year,
Antony half-heartedly defended Alexandria against the advancing army of Octavian. After the defeat, Antony committed suicide by
falling on his own sword in 30 BC.
After Antony's death, Cleopatra was taken to Octavian where her role in Octavian's triumph was carefully explained to her. He had no
interest in any relationship, negotiation or reconciliation with the Queen of Egypt. She would be displayed as a slave in the cities
she had ruled over. She must have had memories of her sister, Arsinoe, being humiliated in this way. She would not live this way, so
she had an asp, which was an Egyptian cobra, brought to her hidden in a basket of figs. She died on August 12, 30 BC at the age of
39. The Egyptian religion declared that death by snakebite would secure immortality. With this, she achieved her dying wish, to not
be forgotten. The only other ruler to cast a shadow on the fascination with Cleopatra was Alexander who was another Macedonian. After
Cleopatra's death, Caesarion was strangled and the other children of Cleopatra were raised by Antony's wife, Octavia.
Her death was the mark of the end of the Egyptian Monarchs. The Roman Emperors came into to rule in Egypt. The Ptolemies were
Macedonian in decent, but ruled as Egyptians, as Pharaohs. Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt.
What is often not associated with Cleopatra was her brilliance and her devotion to her country. She was a quick-witted woman who was
fluent in nine languages, however, Latin was not one of them. She was a mathematician and a very good businesswoman. She had a
genuine respect for Caesar, whose intelligence and wit matched her own. Antony on the other hand almost drove her insane with his
lack of intelligence and his excesses. She dealt with him and made the most of what she had to do. She fought for her country. She
had a charismatic personality, was a born leader and an ambitious monarch who deserved better than suicide.
Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; (Late 69 BC – August 12, 30 BC) was the last person to rule Egypt as an
Egyptian pharaoh – after her death Egypt became a Roman province.
She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt, and therefore was a descendant of one of Alexander the Great's generals who had
seized control over Egypt after Alexander's death. Most Ptolemeis spoke Greek and refused to learn Egyptian, which is the reason that Greek
as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents like the Rosetta Stone. By contrast, Cleopatra learned Egyptian and
represented herself as the reincarnation of an Egyptian Goddess.
Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes and later with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she
married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler. As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that
solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated her son with Caesar, Caesarion, to co-ruler in name.
After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus
(later known as Augustus). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus.
Her unions with her brothers produced no children. After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, Antony committed suicide.
Cleopatra followed suit, according to tradition killing herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC. She was briefly outlived by
Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh, but he was soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt became the Roman province of Aegyptus.
Though Cleopatra bore the ancient Egyptian title of pharaoh, the Ptolemaic dynasty was Hellenistic, having been founded 300 years before by
Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great. As such, Cleopatra's language was the Greek spoken by the
Hellenic aristocracy, though she was reputed to be the first ruler of the dynasty to learn Egyptian. She also adopted common Egyptian
beliefs and deities. Her patron deity was Isis, and thus, during her reign, it was believed that she was the re-incarnation and embodiment
of the goddess. Her death marked the end of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Hellenistic period and the beginning of the Roman era in the eastern
To this day, Cleopatra remains a popular figure in Western culture. Her legacy survives in numerous works of art and the many
dramatizations of her story in literature and other media, including William Shakespeare's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra, Jules Massenet's
opera Cléopâtre and the 1963 film Cleopatra. In most depictions, Cleopatra is put forward as a great beauty and her successive conquests of
the world's most powerful men are taken to be proof of her aesthetic and sexual appeal. In his Pensées, philosopher Blaise Pascal contends
that Cleopatra's classically beautiful profile changed world history: "Cleopatra's nose, had it been shorter, the whole face of the world
would have been changed."
1.1 Accession to the throne
1.2 Relation with Julius Caesar
1.3 Cleopatra in the Roman Civil War
1.4 Cleopatra and Mark Antony
2 Character and cultural depictions
6 Further reading
7 External links
Accession to the throne
The identity of Cleopatra's mother is unknown, but she is generally believed to be Cleopatra V Tryphaena of Egypt, the sister or cousin and
wife of Ptolemy XII, or possibly another Ptolemaic family member who was the daughter of Ptolemy X and Cleopatra Berenice III Philopator if
Cleopatra V was not the daughter of Ptolemy X and Berenice III. Cleopatra's father Auletes was a direct descendant of Alexander the
Great's general, Ptolemy I Soter, son of Arsinoe and Lacus, both of Macedon.
Centralization of power and corruption led to uprisings in and the losses of Cyprus and Cyrenaica, making Ptolemy's reign one of the most
calamitous of the dynasty. When Ptolemy went to Rome with Cleopatra, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena seized the crown but died shortly afterwards in
suspicious circumstances. It is believed, though not proven by historical sources, that Berenice IV poisoned her so she could assume sole
rulership. Regardless of the cause, she did until Ptolemy Auletes returned in 55 BC, with Roman support, capturing Alexandria aided by
Roman general Aulus Gabinius. Berenice was imprisoned and executed shortly afterwards, her head allegedly being sent to the royal court on
the decree of her father, the king. Cleopatra was now, at age 14, put as joint regent and deputy of her father, although her power was
likely to have been severely limited.
Ptolemy XII died in March 51 BC, thus by his will making the 18-year-old Cleopatra and her brother, the 10-year-old Ptolemy XIII joint
monarchs. The first three years of their reign were difficult, due to economic difficulties, famine, deficient floods of the Nile, and
political conflicts. Although Cleopatra was married to her young brother, she quickly made it clear that she had no intention of sharing
power with him.
In August 51 BC, relations between Cleopatra and Ptolemy completely broke down. Cleopatra dropped Ptolemy's name from official documents
and her face appeared alone on coins, which went against Ptolemaic tradition of female rulers being subordinate to male co-rulers. In 50 BC
Cleopatra came into a serious conflict with the Gabiniani, powerful Roman troops of Aulus Gabinius who had left them in Egypt to protect
Ptolemy XII after his restoration to the throne in 55 BC. This conflict was one of the main causes for Cleopatra's soon following loss of
The sole reign of Cleopatra was finally ended by a cabal of courtiers, led by the eunuch Pothinus, removing Cleopatra from power and making
Ptolemy sole ruler in circa 48 BC (or possibly earlier, as a decree exists from 51 BC with Ptolemy's name alone). She tried to raise a
rebellion around Pelusium, but she was soon forced to flee with her only remaining sister, Arsinoe...