In the springtime of 51 BC, Ptolemy Auletes died and left his kingdom in his will to his eighteen year old daughter, Cleopatra,
and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII who was twelve at the time. Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two
older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as well as a younger sister, Arsinoe IV. There were two younger brothers as well,
Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. It is thought that Cleopatra VI may have died as a child and Auletes had Berenice beheaded. At
Ptolemy Auletes' death, Pompey, a Roman leader, was left in charge of the children. During the two centuries that preceded
Auletes death, the Ptolemies were allied with the Romans. The Ptolemies' strength was failing and the Roman Empire was rising.
City after city was falling to the Roman power and the Ptolemies could do nothing but create a pact with them. During the later
rule of the Ptolemies, the Romans gained more and more control over Egypt. Tributes had to be paid to the Romans to keep them
away from Egypt. When Ptolemy Auletes died, the fall of the Dynasty appeared to be even closer.
According to Egyptian law, Cleopatra was forced to have a consort, who was either a brother or a son, no matter what age,
throughout her reign. She was married to her younger brother Ptolemy XIII when he was twelve, however she soon dropped his name
from any official documents regardless of the Ptolemaic insistence that the male presence be first among co-rulers. She also
had her own portrait and name on coins of that time, ignoring her brother's. When Cleopatra became co-regent, her world was
crumbling down around her. Cyprus, Coele-Syria and Cyrenaica were gone. There was anarchy abroad and famine at home. Cleopatra
was a strong-willed Macedonian queen who was brilliant and dreamed of a greater world empire. She almost achieved it. Whether
her way of getting it done was for her own desires or for the pursuit of power will never be known for certain. However, like
many Hellenistic queens, she was passionate but not promiscuous. As far as we know, she had no other lovers other than Caesar
and Antony. Many believe that she did what she felt was necessary to try to save Alexandria, whatever the price.
By 48 BC, Cleopatra had alarmed the more powerful court officials of Alexandria by some of her actions. For instance, her
mercenaries killed the Roman governor of Syria's sons when they came to ask for her assistance for their father against the
Parthians. A group of men led by Theodotus, the eunuch Pothinus and a half-Greek general, Achillas, overthrew her in favor of
her younger brother. They believed him to be much easier to influence and they became his council of regency. Cleopatra is
thought to have fled to Thebaid. Between 51 and 49 BC, Egypt was suffering from bad harvests and famine because of a drought
which stopped the much needed Nile flooding. Ptolemy XIII signed a decree on October 27, 50 BC which banned any shipments of
grain to anywhere but Alexandria. It is thought that this was to deprive Cleopatra and her supporters who were not in
Alexandria. Regardless, she started an army from the Arab tribes which were east of Pelusium. During this time, she and her
sister Arsinoe moved to Syria. They returned by way of Ascalon which may have been Cleopatra's temporary base.
In the meantime, Pompey had been defeated at Pharsalus in August of 48 BC. He headed for Alexandria hoping to find refuge with
Ptolemy XIII, of whom Pompey was a senate-appointed guardian. Pompey did not realize how much his reputation had been destroyed
by Pharsalus until it was too late. He was murdered as he stepped ashore on September 28, 48 BC. The young Ptolemy XIII stood
on the dock and watched the whole scene. Four days later, Caesar arrived in Alexandria. He brought with him thirty-two hundred
legionaries and eight hundred cavalry. He also brought twelve other soldiers who bore the insignia of the Roman government who
carried a bundle of rods with an ax with a blade that projected out. This was considered a badge of authority that gave a clear
hint of his intentions. There were riots that followed in Alexandria. Ptolemy XIII was gone to Pelusium and Caesar placed
himself in the royal palace and started giving out orders. The eunuch, Pothinus, brought Ptolemy back to Alexandria. Cleopatra
had no intentions of being left out of any deals that were going to be made. She had herself smuggled in through enemy lines
rolled in a carpet. She was delivered to Caesar. Both Cleopatra and Ptolemy were invited to appear before Caesar the next
morning. By this time, she and Caesar were already lovers and Ptolemy realized this right away. He stormed out screaming that
he had been betrayed, trying to arouse the Alexandrian mob. He was soon captured by Caesar's guards and brought back to the
palace. It is thought that Caesar had planned to make Cleopatra the sole ruler of Alexandria. He thought she would be a puppet
The Alexandrian War was started when Pothinus called for Ptolemy XIII's soldiers in November and surrounded Caesar in
Alexandria with twenty thousand men. During the war, parts of the Alexandrian Library and some of the warehouses were burned.
However, Caesar did manage to capture the Pharos lighthouse, which kept his control of the harbor. Cleopatra's sister, Arsinoe,
escaped from the palace and ran to Achillas. She was proclaimed the queen by the Macedonian mob and the army. Cleopatra never
forgave her sister for this. During the fighting, Caesar executed Pothinus and Achillas was murdered by Ganymede. Ptolemy XIII
drowned in the Nile while he was trying to flee.
Because of his death, Cleopatra was now the sole ruler of Egypt. Caesar had restored her position, but she now had to marry her
younger brother Ptolemy XIV, who was eleven years old. This was to please the Alexandrians and the Egyptian priests. Surely
Caesar went through all of this trouble for more than his infatuation with the queen of Egypt. It must have been out of
arrogance and his desire to get his hands on Egypt's vast resources. However, Cleopatra's intelligence and inheritance did have
some influence as well. In what must have been very calculated on his part, she became pregnant rather quickly. For him to have
a son to carry the throne was very appealing to him. Caesar and Cleopatra took an extended trip up the Nile for about two
months. They stopped in Dendara where Cleopatra was worshipped as a Pharaoh. Caesar would never have this honor. Caesar only
left the boat to attend important business in Syria just a few weeks before the birth of their son, Caesarion (Ptolemy Caesar)
who was born on June 23, 47 BC.
During July of the year 46 BC, Caesar returned to Rome. He was given many honors and a ten-year dictatorship. These
celebrations lasted from September to October and he brought Cleopatra over, along with her entourage. The conservative
Republicans were very offended when he established Cleopatra in his home. Her social manners did not make the situation any
better. She upset many. Cleopatra had started calling herself the New Isis and was the subject of much gossip. She lived in
luxury and had a statue made of gold placed by Caesar, in the temple of Venus Genetrix . Caesar also openly claimed Caesarion
as his son. Many were upset that he was planning to marry Cleopatra regardless of the laws against bigamy and marriages to
However, on the Ides of March of 44 BC, all of that came to an end. Caesar was assassinated outside the Senate Building in
Rome. He was killed in a conspiracy by his Senators. Many of the Senators thought he was a threat to the republic's well-being.
It was thought that Caesar was making plans to have himself declared king. After Caesar's murder, Cleopatra fled Rome and
returned home to Alexandria. Caesar had not mentioned Cleopatra or Caesarion in his will. She felt her life, as well as that of
her child, was in great danger.
Upon returning to Alexandria, she had her consort, Ptolemy XIV, assassinated and established Caesarion as her co-regent at the
age of four. She found Egypt suffering from plagues and famine. The Nile canals had been neglected during her absence which
caused the harvests to be bad and the inundations low. The bad harvests continued from 43 until 41 BC. Trying to help secure
recognition for Caesarion with Caesar's former lieutenant Dolabella, Cleopatra sent Dolabella the four legions that Caesar had
left in Egypt. Cassius captured the legions which caused Dolabella to commit suicide at Laodicea during the summer of 43 BC.
She was planning to join Mark Antony and Octavian (who became Augustus) with a large fleet of ships after Dolabella's death,
but was stopped by a violent storm.
Cleopatra watched in the time that followed, who would be the next power in Rome. After Brutus and Cassius had been killed and
Antony, Octavian and Lepidus were triumphant, Cleopatra knew which one she would have to deal with. Octavian went back to Italy
very ill, so Antony was the one to watch. Her son gained his right to become king when Caesar was officially divinized in Rome
on January 1, 42 BC. The main object was the promotion of Octavian, but the triumvirs knew of Cleopatra's aid to Dolabella.
Cleopatra was invited by Mark Antony to Tarsus in 41 BC. She already knew enough about him to know how to get to him. She knew
about his limited strategic and tactical abilities, his blue blood, the drinking, his womanizing, his vulgarity and his
ambition. Even though Egypt was on the verge of economic collapse, Cleopatra put on a show for Mark Antony that even Ptolemy
Philadelphos couldn't have done better. She sailed with silver oars, purple sails with her Erotes fanning her and the Nereid
handmaids steering and she was dressed as Aphrodite, the goddess of love. This was a very calculated entrance; considered
vulgar by many. It was a vulgar display to attract the attention of a vulgar man. Mark Antony loved the idea of having a blue-
blooded Ptolemy woman. His former mistress as well as his current wife, Fulvia, were merely middle class.
Cleopatra and Antony spent the winter of 41 to 40 in Alexandria. According to some sources, Cleopatra could get out of him
whatever she wanted, including the assassination of her sister, Arsinoe. Cleopatra may not have had so much influence over him
later on. He took control of Cyprus from her. Actually it may have been Cleopatra who was the exploited one. Antony needed
money and Cleopatra could be generous when it benefited her as well.
In the spring of 40 BC, Mark Antony left Cleopatra and returned home. He did not see her for four years. Antony's wife, Fulvia
had gotten into a serious movement against Octavian over veterans' allotments of land. She fled to Greece and had a bitter
confrontation with Antony. She became ill and died there. Antony patched things up with Octavian that same autumn by marrying
Octavian's sister, Octavia. She was a beautiful and intelligent woman who had been recently widowed. She had three children
from her first marriage. In the meantime, Cleopatra had given birth to twins, one boy and one girl, in Alexandria. Antony's
first child by Octavia was a girl. Had Octavia given him a son, things might have turned out different. Antony kept the idea of
the treasures of the Ptolemies and how much he wanted it. When he finally did get the treasures, the standard interest rate in
Rome fell from 12 percent to 4.
Mark Antony left Italy and went to deal with the Parthians. Octavia had just had another daughter and went with him just as far
as Corcyra. He gave her the excuse that he did not want to expose her to the dangers of the battles and sent her home. He told
her that she would be more use to him at home in Rome keeping peace with her brother, Octavian. However, the first thing that
he did when he reached Antioch, was to send for Cleopatra. Their twin children were officially recognized by Antony and were
given the names of Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene. Mark Antony gave her much land which was very essential to Egypt. He
gave her Cyprus, the Cilician coast, Phoenicia, Coele-Syria, Judea and Arabia. This allowed Egypt to be able to build ships
from the lumber from Cilician coast. Egypt then built a large fleet. Antony had planned a campaign against the Parthians. He
obviously needed Cleopatra's support for this and in 36 BC, he was defeated. He became more indebted to her than ever. They had
just had a third child.
On their return to Syria, she met him and what was left of his army, with food, clothing and money. Early in 35 BC, he returned
to Egypt with her. Antony's wife, Octavia was in Athens with supplies and reinforcements waiting for her husband. He sent her a
letter telling her to not come any further. Her brother, Octavian, tried to provoke Antony into a fight. Octavian would release
troops as well as ships to try to force Antony into a war, which, by this time was almost inevitable. Antony might have been
able to patch things up with Octavia and her brother had he returned to Rome in 35 BC. Cleopatra probably did her best to keep
him in Alexandria. Octavia remained completely loyal to Antony through all of this.
In 34 BC, Antony had a campaign into Armenia, which was successful and financially rewarding. He celebrated his triumph with a
parade through Alexandria with Cleopatra presiding over as the New Isis. Antony presented himself as the New Dionysus as part
of his dream of the Graeco-Roman rule. Within a few days, a more political ceremony took place in which the children were given
their royal titles with Antony sitting on the throne as well. Ptolemy XV (Caesarion) was made the co-ruler with his mother and
was called the King of Kings. Cleopatra was called the Queen of Kings, which was a higher position than that of Caesarion's.
Alexander Helios, which meant the sun, was named Great King of the Seleucid empire when it was at its highest. Cleopatra
Selene, which meant the moon, was called Queen of Cyrenaica and Crete. Cleopatra and Antony's son, Ptolemy Philadelphos was
named King of Syria and Asia Minor at the age of two. Cleopatra had dreams of becoming the Empress of the world. She was very
close to achieving these dreams and her favorite oath was, "As surely as I shall yet dispense justice on the Roman Capital."
In 32 to 31 BC, Antony finally divorced Octavia. This forced the Western part of the world to recognize his relationship with
Cleopatra. He had already put her name and face on a Roman coin, the silver denarii. The denarii was widely circulated
throughout the Mediterranean. By doing this, Antony's relationship with the Roman allegiance was ended and Octavian decided to
publish Antony's will. Octavian then formally declared war against Cleopatra. Antony's name was nowhere mentioned in the
official declaration. Many false accusations were made against Cleopatra saying that she was a harlot and a drunken Oriental.
These accusations were most likely made out of fear of Cleopatra and Antony. Many probably thought that the New Isis would
prevail and that Antony would start up a new wave of world conquest and rule in a co-partnership from Alexandria. However,
Octavian's navy severely defeated Antony in Actium, which is in Greece, on September 2, 31 BC. Octavian's admiral, Agrippa,
planned and carried out the defeat. In less than a year, Antony half-heartedly defended Alexandria against the advancing army
of Octavian. After the defeat, Antony committed suicide by falling on his own sword in 30 BC.
After Antony's death, Cleopatra was taken to Octavian where her role in Octavian's triumph was carefully explained to her. He
had no interest in any relationship, negotiation or reconciliation with the Queen of Egypt. She would be displayed as a slave
in the cities she had ruled over. She must have had memories of her sister, Arsinoe, being humiliated in this way. She would
not live this way, so she had an asp, which was an Egyptian cobra, brought to her hidden in a basket of figs. She died on
August 12, 30 BC at the age of 39. The Egyptian religion declared that death by snakebite would secure immortality. With this,
she achieved her dying wish, to not be forgotten. The only other ruler to cast a shadow on the fascination with Cleopatra was
Alexander who was another Macedonian. After Cleopatra's death, Caesarion was strangled and the other children of Cleopatra were
raised by Antony's wife, Octavia.
Her death was the mark of the end of the Egyptian Monarchs. The Roman Emperors came into to rule in Egypt. The Ptolemies were
Macedonian in decent, but ruled as Egyptians, as Pharaohs. Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt.
What is often not associated with Cleopatra was her brilliance and her devotion to her country. She was a quick-witted woman
who was fluent in nine languages, however, Latin was not one of them. She was a mathematician and a very good businesswoman.
She had a genuine respect for Caesar, whose intelligence and wit matched her own. Antony on the other hand almost drove her
insane with his lack of intelligence and his excesses. She dealt with him and made the most of what she had to do. She fought
for her country. She had a charismatic personality, was a born leader and an ambitious monarch who deserved better than
Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; (Late 69 BC – August 12, 30 BC) was the last person to rule Egypt as an
Egyptian pharaoh – after her death Egypt became a Roman province.
She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt, and therefore was a descendant of one of Alexander the Great's generals
who had seized control over Egypt after Alexander's death. Most Ptolemeis spoke Greek and refused to learn Egyptian, which is the
reason that Greek as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents like the Rosetta Stone. By contrast,
Cleopatra learned Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of an Egyptian Goddess.
Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes and later with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV,
whom she married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler. As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Gaius
Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated her son with Caesar, Caesarion, to co-ruler in name.
After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Iulius Caesar
Octavianus (later known as Augustus). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and another son,
Ptolemy Philadelphus. Her unions with her brothers produced no children. After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces,
Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed suit, according to tradition killing herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30
BC. She was briefly outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh, but he was soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt became
the Roman province of Aegyptus.
Though Cleopatra bore the ancient Egyptian title of pharaoh, the Ptolemaic dynasty was Hellenistic, having been founded 300 years
before by Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great. As such, Cleopatra's language was the
Greek spoken by the Hellenic aristocracy, though she was reputed to be the first ruler of the dynasty to learn Egyptian. She also
adopted common Egyptian beliefs and deities. Her patron deity was Isis, and thus, during her reign, it was believed that she was the
re-incarnation and embodiment of the goddess. Her death marked the end of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Hellenistic period and the
beginning of the Roman era in the eastern Mediterranean.
To this day, Cleopatra remains a popular figure in Western culture. Her legacy survives in numerous works of art and the many
dramatizations of her story in literature and other media, including William Shakespeare's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra, Jules
Massenet's opera Cléopâtre and the 1963 film Cleopatra. In most depictions, Cleopatra is put forward as a great beauty and her
successive conquests of the world's most powerful men are taken to be proof of her aesthetic and sexual appeal. In his Pensées,
philosopher Blaise Pascal contends that Cleopatra's classically beautiful profile changed world history: "Cleopatra's nose, had it
been shorter, the whole face of the world would have been changed."
1.1 Accession to the throne
1.2 Relation with Julius Caesar
1.3 Cleopatra in the Roman Civil War
1.4 Cleopatra and Mark Antony
2 Character and cultural depictions
6 Further reading
7 External links
Accession to the throne
The identity of Cleopatra's mother is unknown, but she is generally believed to be Cleopatra V Tryphaena of Egypt, the sister or
cousin and wife of Ptolemy XII, or possibly another Ptolemaic family member who was the daughter of Ptolemy X and Cleopatra Berenice
III Philopator if Cleopatra V was not the daughter of Ptolemy X and Berenice III. Cleopatra's father Auletes was a direct
descendant of Alexander the Great's general, Ptolemy I Soter, son of Arsinoe and Lacus, both of Macedon.
Centralization of power and corruption led to uprisings in and the losses of Cyprus and Cyrenaica, making Ptolemy's reign one of the
most calamitous of the dynasty. When Ptolemy went to Rome with Cleopatra, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena seized the crown but died shortly
afterwards in suspicious circumstances. It is believed, though not proven by historical sources, that Berenice IV poisoned her so
she could assume sole rulership. Regardless of the cause, she did until Ptolemy Auletes returned in 55 BC, with Roman support,
capturing Alexandria aided by Roman general Aulus Gabinius. Berenice was imprisoned and executed shortly afterwards, her head
allegedly being sent to the royal court on the decree of her father, the king. Cleopatra was now, at age 14, put as joint regent and
deputy of her father, although her power was likely to have been severely limited.
Ptolemy XII died in March 51 BC, thus by his will making the 18-year-old Cleopatra and her brother, the 10-year-old Ptolemy XIII
joint monarchs. The first three years of their reign were difficult, due to economic difficulties, famine, deficient floods of the
Nile, and political conflicts. Although Cleopatra was married to her young brother, she quickly made it clear that she had no
intention of sharing power with him.
In August 51 BC, relations between Cleopatra and Ptolemy completely broke down. Cleopatra dropped Ptolemy's name from official
documents and her face appeared alone on coins, which went against Ptolemaic tradition of female rulers being subordinate to male
co-rulers. In 50 BC Cleopatra came into a serious conflict with the Gabiniani, powerful Roman troops of Aulus Gabinius who had left
them in Egypt to protect Ptolemy XII after his restoration to the throne in 55 BC. This conflict was one of the main causes for
Cleopatra's soon following loss of power.
The sole reign of Cleopatra was finally ended by a cabal of courtiers, led by the eunuch Pothinus, removing Cleopatra from power and
making Ptolemy sole ruler in circa 48 BC (or possibly earlier, as a decree exists from 51 BC with Ptolemy's name alone). She tried
to raise a rebellion around Pelusium, but she was soon forced to flee with her only remaining sister, Arsinoe...
Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar (June 23, 47 BC – August 23, 30 BC), nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) Greek: Πτολεμαῖος ΙΕʹ
Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καῖσαρ, Καισαρίων, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr Philomḗtōr Kaĩsar, Kaisaríōn was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of
Egypt, who reigned, as a child, jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 44 BC. For eighteen days, up to
August, 30 BC he was sole pharaoh, when he was killed on orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus. He was the
eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, for whom he was named.
Ptolemy XV, sometimes referred to as "Ptolemy Caesar", most commonly known by his nickname Caesarion, was born in Egypt in 47 BC. His
mother insisted that he was the son of the Roman dictator Julius Caesar. Caesarion was said to have inherited Caesar's looks and
manner, but Caesar apparently did not officially acknowledge him. Nevertheless he may have allowed him to use his name. The matter
became contentious when Caesar's adopted son Octavian came into conflict with Cleopatra. His supporter Gaius Oppius wrote a pamphlet
which attempted to prove that Caesar could not have fathered Caesarion. Cleopatra also compared her relationship to her son with the
Egyptian goddess Isis and her miraculous child Horus.
Caesarion spent two of his early years, from 46–44 BC, in Rome, where he and his mother were Caesar's guests. Cleopatra hoped that her
son would eventually succeed his father as the head of the Roman Republic as well as Egypt. After Caesar's assassination on March 15,
44 BC, Cleopatra and Caesarion returned to Egypt. Caesarion was named co-ruler by his mother on September 2, 44 BC at the age of three,
although he was King in name only, with Cleopatra keeping actual authority all to herself.
During the tense period of time leading up to the final conflict between Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) and Octavian (future Emperor
Augustus), Antony shared control of the Republic in a triumvirate with Octavian and Lepidus, but Lepidus was forced into retirement by
Octavian in 36BC, leaving Antony and Octavian as rivals. Two years later, in 34BC, Antony granted various eastern lands and titles to
Caesarion and to his own three children with Cleopatra. Caesarion was proclaimed a god, son of god[disputed – discuss] and "King of
Kings". This grandiose title was "unprecedented in the management of Roman client-king relationships" and could be seen as "threatening
the 'greatness' of the Roman people". Most threatening to Octavian (whose claim to power was based on his status as Julius Caesar's
grandnephew and adopted son), Antony declared Caesarion to be Caesar's true son and heir. These proclamations, known as the Donations
of Alexandria, caused a fatal breach in Antony's relations with Octavian, who used Roman resentment over the Donations to gain support
for war against Antony and Cleopatra.
After the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium, Cleopatra seems to have groomed Caesarion to take over as "sole ruler
without his mother." She may have intended to go into exile, perhaps with Antony, who was hoping he would be allowed to retire, as
Lepidus had. When Octavian invaded Egypt in 30 BC, Cleopatra sent Caesarion, at the time 17 years old, to the Red Sea port of Berenice
for safety, with possible plans of an escape to India. Octavian captured the city of Alexandria on August 1, 30 BC, the date that marks
the official annexation of Egypt to the Roman Republic. Mark Antony had committed suicide prior to Octavian's entry into the capital;
Cleopatra followed his example by committing suicide on August 12, 30 BC. Caesarion's guardians, including his tutor, either were
themselves lured by false promises of mercy into returning the boy to Alexandria or perhaps even betrayed him; the records are unclear.
Plutarch says that Caesarion had actually escaped to India, but was falsely promised the kingdom of Egypt,
Caesarion, who was said to be Cleopatra's son by Julius Caesar, was sent by his mother, with much treasure, into India, by way of
Ethiopia. There Rhodon, another tutor like Theodorus, persuaded him to go back, on the ground that [Octavian] Caesar invited him to
take the kingdom.
Octavian is supposed to have had Caesarion executed in Alexandria, following the advice of Arius Didymus, who said "Too many Caesars is
not good" (a pun on a line in Homer). The exact circumstances of his death have not been documented; it is popularly thought that he
Octavian then assumed absolute control of Egypt. The year 30 BC was considered the first year of the new ruler's reign according to the
traditional chronological system of Egypt. In lists of the time Octavian himself appears as a Pharaoh and the successor to Caesarion.
Few images of Caesarion survive. He is thought to be depicted in a partial statue found in the harbor of Alexandria by Franck Goddio
in 1997. He is also portrayed twice in relief, as an adult pharaoh, with his mother on the Temple of Hathor at Dendera.
Egyptian names -
In addition to his Greek name and nicknames, Caesarion also had a full set of royal names in the Egyptian language:
These are usually translated as:
"Heir of the God who saves"
"Chosen of Ptah"
"Carrying out the rule of Ra" or "Sun of Righteousness"
"Living Image of Amun"...