Ramesses IX was the eighth king of the Twentieth Dynasty. He is thought to have reigned for about
seventeen or more years. During his reign, there was a scandal in which the tombs in the Theban
necropolis were being robbed which was recorded in the Abbott Papyrus. There were also campaigns by
Libyan bandits. He had a son, Montuherkhopshef, who did not live to succeed Ramesses. His tomb was found
in the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes).
Ramesses IX (also written Ramses) (originally named 'Amon-her-khepshef Khaemwaset' (1129 – 1111 BC) was the eighth king of the
Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. He was the third longest serving king of this Dynasty after Ramesses III and Ramesses XI. He is now
believed to have assumed the throne on I Akhet day 21 based on evidence presented by Jürgen von Beckerath in a 1984 GM
article. According to Papyrus Turin 1932+1939, Ramesses IX enjoyed a reign of 18 Years and 4 months and died in his 19th Year
in the first month of Peret between day 17 and 27. His throne name, Neferkare Setepenre, means "Beautiful Is The Soul of Re,
Chosen of Re." Ramesses IX is believed to be the son of Montuherkhopshef, a son of Ramesses III since Montuherkhopshef's wife,
the lady Takhat, bears the prominent title of King's Mother; no other 20th dynasty king had a mother with this name.
His reign is best known for the Year 16 tomb robberies, recorded in the Abbott Papyrus, the Leopold II-Amherst Papyrus and the Mayer
Papyri, when several royal and noble tombs in the Western Theban necropolis were found to have been robbed, including that of a 17th
Dynasty king, Sobekemsaf I. Paser, Mayor of Eastern Thebes or Karnak, accused his subordinate Paweraa, the Mayor of West Thebes
responsible for the safety of the necropolis, of being either culpable in this wave of robberies or negligent in his duties of
protecting the Valley of the Kings from incursions by tomb robbers. Paweraa played a leading part in the vizierial commission set up
to investigate, and, not surprisingly, it proved impossible for Paweraa to be officially charged with any crime due to the
circumstantiality of the evidence. Paser disappeared from sight soon after the report was filed. Ramesses IX brought a measure of
stability to Egypt after the wave of tomb robberies. He also paid close attention to Lower Egypt and built a substantial monument at
Most of his building works centre on the sun temple centre of Heliopolis in Lower Egypt where the most significant monumental works
of his reign are situated. However, he also decorated the wall to the north of the Seventh Pylon in the Temple of Amun-Re at
Karnak. Finally, his name has been found at the Dakhla Oasis in Western Egypt and Gezer at Palestine which may suggest a residual
Egyptian influence in Asia; the majority of the New Kingdom Empire's possessions in Canaan and Syria had long been lost to the Sea
Peoples by his reign. He is also known for having honoured his predecessors Ramesses II, Ramesses III and Ramesses VII.
Ramesses IX's son Mentuherkhepeshef did not live to succeed his father, although Montuherkhopshef had one of the most beautiful
tombs in the Valley of the Kings (KV19). The throne was instead assumed by Ramesses X whose precise relationship to Ramesses IX is
unclear. He might have been Ramesses IX's son, perhaps by the latter's wife Baketwernel since Baketwernel is designated as both a
King's wife, sister and mother respectively in Egyptian sources. The tomb of Ramesses IX, (KV6), has been open since antiquity, as
evidenced by the presence of Roman and Greek graffiti on the tomb walls. It is quite long in the tradition of the 'syringe' tunnels
of the later 19th and 20th Dynasties and lies directly opposite the tomb of Ramesses II in the Valley of the Kings; this fact may
have influenced Ramesses IX's choice of location for his final resting place due to its proximity to this great Pharaoh. In
1881, the mummy of Ramesses IX was found in the Deir el-Bahri cache (DB320).
In modern literature
The novel Ancient Evenings by Norman Mailer is told from the perspective of characters living during the reign of Ramesses IX,
including Ramesses IX himself.