Sanakhte (Nebka)

Sanakhte (Nebka) in Tour Egypt

SANAKHTE, A MYSTERIOUS KING OF EGYPT'S 3RD DYNASTY BY JIMMY DUNN. Uncertainty swirls around the placement, and also the events of the 3rd Dynasty king known as Sanakhte (Sanakht). He may have been Nebka, who was known to manetho, and listed on both the Turin Cannon and the Abydos king list as the first king of this dynasty. However, this is problematic to say the least, for we base our belief that he was Nebka on a source that lists his Horus name, Sanakhte, together with a second name that ends with the element "ka" Most of the information we have on this king refers to him as Nebka. In fact, some sources list the two as separate kings, with Nebka founding the 3rd Dynasty and Sanakhte ruling later, perhaps after Khaba. However, despite this, mud seal impressions bearing the name of Nethery-khet Djoser from the Abydos tomb of the last king of the 2nd Dynasty Khasekhemuy and connected with the burial seem to suggest that Khasekhemuy's widow and her already ruling son Djoser were in charge of the king's burial. On the basis of sealing from the tomb of Khasekhemwy, which name her as "Mother of the King's Children," the wife of the last ruler of the 2nd Dynasty seems to have been one Nimaethap. The latter name was also found, with the title of "King's Mother", upon seal impressions from Mastaba K1 at Beit Khallaf, a gigantic monument dated to the reign of Djoser. Hence, on the basis that Djoser was succeeded by Sekhemkhet and of indications pointing to Khaba as the third in line, Nebka may have been the fourth king of the dynasty, to be equated with the Nebkara following Djoser-teti and preceding Huni in the Saqqara king list. Many theories regarding the rule of Sanakhte have been advanced, including the possibility that Sanakhte, as a member of a former ruling family, usurped the throne from the ruling family at the beginning of the dynasty. Hence, Djoser could have indeed buried his father, Khasekhemuy, and won back the throne from the usurper, Sanakhte. However, we are told that today, most Egyptologists do believe that he was a latter king of the Dynasty, even though most current documentary resources continue to equate Sanakhte with Nebka, as the 1st King of Egypt's noteworthy 3rd Dynasty who probably ruled from This near Abydos. Little is known of this king, despite a reign of some 18 or 19 years (others might attribute a much shorter reign of from five to seven years, which would allow a better fit for him ruling before Djoser), for his reign is missing from the Palermo Stone, and important source of information on this period of Egyptian history. However, Nebka is mentioned in Papyrus Westcar. The only large scale monumental building that can possibly be attributed to him is at Beit Khallaf (mastaba K2). His name also appears on the island of Elephantine in southern Egypt near Aswan on a small pyramid. Another of the few sources we have evidencing this king is a fragment of a sandstone relief from Wadi Maghara in the Sinai. It would seem that he, along with Djoser, began the exploitation in earnest of the mineral wealth of the Sinai peninsula, with its rich deposits of turquoise and copper. It shows the king's name in a serekh before his face. The relief depicts Sanakhte, who is about to smite an enemy, wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt. We also know of a priest of Nebka's mortuary cult who appears to have lived in the reign of Djoser. Some Egyptologists continue to believe that he may have been the brother of his famous successor, Djoser (or Zoser), or if not, perhaps his father, but apparently current thought among Egyptologists leans against this. It has been suggested that his tomb at Saqqara was incorporated into the Step Pyramid of Djoser, though little real evidence for this exists, but it has also been suggested that his is a little known monument that seems to nicely fill the typological lacuna between the Shunet el Zebib and the Step Pyramid at Saqqara.

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Sanakht in Wikipedia

Sanakht(e), generally identified with the Nebka of much later king lists, was probably either the first or second pharaoh of the Third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. The dates assigned to his reign by Shaw are ca. 2686-2667 BC; for various conjectures of other scholars, see the Ancient Egypt History and Chronology . Sanakht's name means strong protection. Biography Sanakht's position in the royal family is not entirely clear. It has been suggested that Sanakht married Queen Nimaethap. In this theory, Nimaethap is considered to be the daughter of Khasekhemwy with Sanakht and Nimaethap being the parents of Djoser (Netjerikhet). Others have suggested that Sanakht should be identified with Nimaethap's son Nebka and conjecture that he was the founder of the Third Dynasty. Presently Sanakht is more commonly thought to date to the Third Dynasty after Djoser. [1] While Sanakht's existence is attested by a mastaba tomb and a graffito, among other objects, his position as the founder of the Third Dynasty, as recorded by Manetho and the Turin Canon, has been seriously undermined by recent archaeological discoveries at Abydos. These discoveries establish that it was likely Djoser who helped bury-and thus succeed-Khasekhemwy, rather than Sanakht. This is determined from seals found at the entrance to the latter's tomb bearing Djoser's name.[2] It appears instead, that Sanakht was a later king of the third dynasty. Unlike Djoser, few relics survive from Sanakht's reign, which also casts serious doubts on the traditional figure of an eighteen year reign for this king, as given by both Manetho and the Turin Canon. It must be stressed that the Turin Canon and Manetho were more than one and two thousand years removed from the time of Egypt's third dynasty, and would be expected to contain some inaccurate or unreliable data. The Turin Canon, for instance, was transcribed on papyri that dates to the reign of the New Kingdom king, Ramesses II, who ruled Egypt from 1279-1213 BC. A large mastaba near Abydos contained some fragments bearing the name of Sanakht. It also contained skeletal remains, which may have been those of this king. Manetho also credited a certain late 2nd dynasty king he calls Sesochris as being particularly tall, which may refer to these remains.

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