Berenice IV was the oldest daughter of Auletes (Ptolemy XII
Neos Dionysos) and ruled for three years during his exile. At
the beginning of his exile, she co-ruled with her mother
Cleopatra V Tryphaena until the mother's death about a year
later. Berenice ruled as sole regent and was expected to
The one selected was Seleucus Kybiosaktes. After a few days,
she had her husband strangled. The second man she chose was
Archelaus. Her father finally paid out enough money and was
brought back to Egypt. Archelaus' army was defeated and Pompey
suggested that Auletes be returned to the throne. One of his
first acts was to have his daughter, Berenice, executed.
Berenice IV (Greek: Βερενίκη), (77 BC - 55 BC) born and died in Alexandria and was the daughter of Ptolemy XII of Egypt and
probably Cleopatra V of Egypt Tryphaena, sister of Cleopatra VI Tryphaena of Egypt, and the famous Cleopatra VII (lover of
Julius Caesar and Mark Antony). Berenice loved fashion, parties, and jewels. She was quite lazy and fearful, especially of
the peasants, slaves and any form of lower social class. She spoke only her native tongue, was poorly educated due to her
lack of work ethic, and ignored the peasants, making her a poor leader. Despite her flaws, she was a kind and loving person
towards her friends and family, and was also very beautiful.
In 58 BC, Ptolemy XII and Cleopatra VII fled to Rome in search of political and military aid against Berenice's elder
sister Tryphaena, who had become far too powerful. After Tryphaena's death in 57 BC, possibly poisoned on behalf of
Berenice, she at age 20 became the sole ruler of Egypt due to her father's absence, and with him and Cleopatra absent she
had no worry about being overthrown or overpowered and executed.
As a lone woman ruling Egypt, she was expected to marry and have a man as a co-regent. When she did not, her consuls forced
her to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but she had him strangled and remained as sole ruler. The public feared the Ptolemic
reign would fail to continue due to Berenice's foolishness. It is also believed she cared far too much for fashion and
luxuries, leading to rising expenses. She later married Archelaus, but he was not co-regent. Archelaus had been appointed
to the priesthood at Comana at Cappadocia by Pompey, and claimed to be a son of Mithridates VI. Strabo instead says his
father was Archelaus, a general of Mithridates VI in the First Mithridatic War who defected to the Romans.
The reign of Berenice ended in 55 BC when her father retook the throne with the aid of the Romans led by Aulus Gabinius,
and had Berenice beheaded. Archelaus, who according to Strabo had previously had a friendly relationship with Gabinius,
died in battle against the forces of Gabinius.