Apepi (also Ipepi; Egyptian language ipp(i)) or Apophis (Greek Άποφις; regnal names Neb-Khepesh-Re, A-Qenen-Re and A-User-Re) was a
ruler of Lower Egypt during the fifteenth dynasty and the end of the Second Intermediate Period that was dominated by this foreign
dynasty of rulers called the Hyksos. According to the Turin Canon of Kings, he ruled over the northern portion of Egypt for forty
years, and would have ruled during the early half of the 16th century (BCE) if he outlived his southern rival, Kamose, but not Ahmose
I. Although his reign only entailed northern Egypt, Apepi was dominant over most of Egypt during the early portion of his reign, and
traded peacefully with the native, Theban Seventeenth dynasty to the south.
While he may have exerted suzerainty over Upper Egypt during the beginning of his reign, the seventeenth dynasty eventually assumed
control over this region, and the Hyksos were driven out of Egypt no more than fifteen years after his death.
Neb-Khepesh-Re (nb ḫpš rˁ), A-Qenen-Re (ˁ3 ḳn n rˁ) and A-User-Re (ˁ3 wsr rˁ) are three praenomina or throne names used by this same
ruler during various parts of his reign. While some Egyptologists once believed that there were two separate kings who bore the name
Apepi, namely Auserre Apepi and Aqenenre Apepi, it is now recognized that Khamudi succeeded Apepi I at Avaris and that there was only
one king named Apepi or Apophis. Nebkhepeshre or "Re is the Lord of Strength" was Apepi's first prenomen; towards the middle of
his reign, this Hyksos ruler adopted a new prenomen, Aqenenre, which translates as "The strength of Re is great." In the final decade
or so of his reign, Apepi chose Auserre as his last prenomen. While the prenomen was altered, there is no difference in the translation
of both Aqenenre and Auserre.
Rather than building his own monuments, Apepi generally usurped the monuments of previous pharaohs by inscribing his own name over two
sphinxes of Amenemhat II. Apepi is thought to have usurped the throne of northern Egypt after the death of his predecessor, Khyan,
since the latter had designated his son, Yanassi, to be his successor on the throne as a foreign ruler. He was succeeded by Khamudi,
the last Hyksos ruler. Ahmose I, who drove out the Hyksos kings from Egypt, established the 18th Dynasty.
In the Ramesside era, he is recorded as worshiping Seth in a monolatric way: "[He] chose for his Lord the god Seth. He didn't worship
any other deity in the whole land except Seth." Jan Assmann argues that because the Ancient Egyptians could never conceive of a "lonely"
god lacking personality, Seth the desert god, who was worshiped exclusively, represented a manifestation of evil.
Two of his sisters, Tani and Ziwat are known. Tani is mentioned on a door of a shrine in Avaris and on an offering table, Ziwat is
mentioned on a bowl.
A Prince Apepi, named on a seal (now in Berlin) is likely to have been his son. Apepi also had a daughter, named Herit, a vase belonging
to her was found in the tomb of Amenhotep I, which might indicate that at some point his daughter may have been married to a Theban
king. The vase, however, may just as well have been an item which was looted from Avaris after the eventual victory over the Hyksos
by Ahmose I.