Niuserre Izi

Niuserre Izi in Tour Egypt

NIUSERRE, THE 6TH RULER OF THE 5TH DYNASTY - BY JIMMY DUNN. Niuserre (or Nyuserra, meaning "Possessed of Re's Power") was the sixth king of the 5th Dynasty. His throne name was Izi (or Isi, Ini, Iny). His Horus name was probably Setibtawy. We are not very sure how long he ruled Egypt because the Turin King list is somewhat damaged where this pharaoh is listed. We know that he ruled for at least 10 years, but Manetho's 44 years for his reign is considered unreliable. A reference to a Sed festival in his solar temple at Abu Gurab (named shesepu-ib-re) may, however, give him a reign of at least 30 years. Modern Egyptologists disagree on the dates of his reign as well as the length. For example, Peter A. Clayton gives him a reign from 2453-2422 BC, while Dodson says he reigned between 2432-2421. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt gives his reign as 2445-2421. Niuserre most likely succeeded his older brother, Neferefre, as Egypt's ruler. His mother and father were probably Neferirkare and Queen Khentkaus II, and from a fragment of a statue in his valley temple, we believe that he was married to Reput-Nebu. We know he was active in the Sinai, though an inscription found there of him smiting his enemies may be largely symbolic. He may have also participated in military campaigns against Libyans. He probably had copper and turquoise mined at Magharah in the Sinai, as did other kings of this period. There is also evidence that he probably traded with Punt for for malachite, myrrh, and electrum (a gold and silver alloy), as did Sahure before him. He constructed a pyramid, mortuary complex and valley temple at Abusir, as well as his solar temple a kilometer or so north of Abusir at Abu Gurab. his solar temple is one of the biggest and most complete in Egypt, as well as the only one completely constructed with stone. It contains many fine reliefs, including depictions of his Sed Festival and the world being created by the solar god. Further scenes depict representations of the seasons and the provinces of Egypt. It is probably that during his rule the solar cult was at its summit. Niuserre's reign seems to have been a profitable time for at least high officials. Some of their tombs, such as that of Ty at Saqqara and Ptahshepses at Abusir who we believe were from the reign of Niuserre, or some of the largest and best decorated in the Old Kingdom. Niuserre is also attested by a Faience plague found at the Satis temple on Elephantine, and other objects found at Byblos. There are also indications of his quarrying activities north of Abu Simbel at Gebel el-Asr Gneiss Quarries, where there was found a fragment of a 5th Dynasty stele bearing his name and cartouche.

Read More

Nyuserre Ini in Wikipedia

Nyuserre Ini, also spelt as Neuserre Izi or Niuserre Isi and sometimes Nyuserra (in Greek known as Rathoris), was a Pharaoh of Egypt during the Fifth dynasty. He is frequently given a reign of 24 or 25 years[1] and is dated from ca. 2445 BC to 2421 BC.[2] His prenomen, Niuserre, means "Possessed of Re's Power." Niuserre was the younger son of pharaoh Neferirkare Kakai by Queen Khentkaus II, and the brother of the short-lived king Neferefre. [3] He is often thought to have succeeded his brother directly, but there is some evidence to suggest that Shepseskare reigned between the two, albeit only for a few weeks. Possibly, the latter had attempted to restore the lineage of Sahure who might have been his father, deposing the lineage of Neferirkare Kakai in the process, but was unsuccessful. Niuserre's only known consort was Reptynub. A King's Daughter by the name of Khamerernebty (A) is thought to be the daughter of Niuserre. The identity of her mother is not known. Khamerernebty (A) was married to the vizier Ptahshepses.[4] Reign length In Manetho's Epitome, Nyuserre is assigned a reign of 44 years but this data is considered suspect. The Turin King List data for his reign is badly damaged although scholars have usually assumed that it was 24 years. The Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt who twice analysed the Turin King-list papyrus in the 1990s, however, notes that "Niuserre's reign is damaged. There is a distinct trace of a 10, 20 or 30, followed by a stroke after which the papyrus breaks off. Accordingly, the possibilities are 11-14, 21-24, and 31-34 years [for Nyuserre], and not just 24 years" as is conventionally assumed.[5] However, since a Sed Feast scene is noted for Nyuserre from his solar temple at Abu Gurab, a reign of more than 30 years can be suggested for this Pharaoh. The Czech Egyptologist Miroslav Verner who has been excavating the Old Kingdom pyramids on behalf of the University of Prague in Egypt since 1976 concurs with the view that Nyuserre had a reign in excess of 30 years. He bases his opinion here on this king's numerous building activities in Abusir which included the "construction of his own pyramid complex and two small complexes Lepsius no.XXIV and no.XXV for his wives,...the completion of the unfinished funerary monuments of his direct relatives Neferirkara, Khentkhaus II and Neferefra" as well as the completion of this king's substantial sun temple building complex at Abu Gurab. "Beautiful reliefs with the scenes of the sed-festival from this sun temple are occasionally considered as indirect evidence of a long reign for this king. Generally, the historical authenticity...of such reliefs is doubted since the sed-festival scenes very probably belonged in the Old Kingdom to the standard 'Bildprogram' of the royal funerary monuments. However, in Niuserre's case, the sed- festival scenes from Abu Ghurob [most probably reflect] the 30th jubilee of the king's ascension to the throne."[6] Nyuserre's burial place is a pyramid at Abusir located between those of pharaohs Sahure and Neferirkare Kakai. Its initial height was around 52m, with a base of about 79 square meters and a slope of 52 degrees. The volume of stone was a total of about 112,000 cubic meters. It was originally covered with fine limestone as shown by some remaining casing stones. The burial chamber and antechamber were both lined with fine limestone as well and roofed with 3 tiers of megalithic limestone beams 10 meters long weighing 90 tons each.[7] His queen, Reput-Nebu, was also buried nearby. His magnificent temple of the solar cult at Abusir is called the Joy of Re. While military campaigns to Libya and Asia are mentioned in documents of this period, we have no specific evidence regarding the military activities of this ruler.

Read More