Battle of Actium
Paragraph describing the conflict between Octavian and Mark Antony.


Caesar in Britain
Introduction and Caesar on the invasion of Britain.
The Landings of Caesar in Britain, 55 and 54 BC
Description of the invasions with map and photo of the modern beach where Caesar would have landed.

Macedonian Campaigns

Ancient Sieges: Philip II and Alexander Alexander's sieges at Miletus, Thebes, Halicarnassus, Tyre, and Perinthus.

Peloponnesian War

Nicias and the Fear of Failure Syndrome John Atkinson analyzes Nicias' moves and public reaction towards him throughout the war. From Ancient History Bulletin.
HWC: The Peloponnesian War Dr. Ellis Knox's series of 17 clear mini-essays from The Delian League through Periclean Athens, Alcibiades, and Results of the War.
Peloponnesian War Outline of the events of the Peloponnesian War.
Peloponnesian War Comprehensive introduction covering battles, strategies, Spartan and Athenian cultures, with Encyclopedia Britannica map of Ancient Greece.
Thucydides and the Ancient Simplicity Gregory Crane treats Thucydides as a realist in the same vein as Hobbes, Macchiavelli, and General Sherman in this working draft.
Thucydides: History of the Peloponnesian War
Richard Crawley's English translation of The History of the Peloponnesian War written about 431 BC. Discussion list.

Persian War

Battle at Thermopylae The Pass at Thermopylae was small enough to hold off the Persians, but when the Greeks learned a traitor had revealed an easier approach, 300 Spartans under Leonidas held off those Persians still left at the pass while the rest of the Greek army retreated.
Ionian Uprising After the Persians put down a revolt in Ionia, they headed to Central Greece.
Persian War Online Opening page of map-filled site. Other pages include background, Xerxes, Thermopylae, Artemisium, and Salamis.
The Persian Wars
Kent Factora's site, containing Persian War topical definitions, maps, timeline, and a seven item bibliography.
Xerxes' March Route A small map showing Xerxes' path.


Battle of Pharsalus Paragraph on Caesar's victorious battle against Pompey.

Punic Wars

Battle of Cannae Hannibal's rout of the Romans.
Battle of Zama Final battle of the Second Punic War where Scipio used Hannibal's Cannae strategy to defeat the Carthaginians.
Battles of the Ancient World Dates and occasional notes on the battles of the second Punic War.
Battles of the Roman Republic Summaries of battles of Cannae, Zama, Cynoscephalae, Pharsalus, & Actium. With pictures.
The Cornelii Scipiones The Scipio family tree from which comes Scipio Africanus, conqueror of Carthage.
Cronologia De La Epoca De Las Guerras Punicas Almost yearly timeline of events leading up to and through the Second Punic War. In Spanish.
Hannibal From De Viribus Illustris, by Cornelius Nepos (trans. by J. Thomas, 1995) in which Hannibal is praised as the bravest of men and most skilled of generals..
Las Guerras De Roma Entre 264 Y 133
Roman War timeline from 264 to 133 BC. Includes Punic, Macedonian and wars in Spain. In Spanish.
Outbreak of the Second Punic War Ten item bibliography of primary and secondary sources.
The Punic Wars Dr. Ellis Knox's page of 18 mini-essays on the wars for his History of Western Civilization site.
The Punic Wars 18 mini-essays on the 3 wars lasting from 264 - 146 BC written by Dr. E.L. Skip Knox.
Raleigh and the Punic Wars Sir Walter Raleigh wrote a world history while awaiting exection. Charles Salas gives the historical background to explain Raleigh's point of view.
Rome Goes to War Causes and results of the Punic and Macedonian wars from the Kent School.
Scipio Africanus - Military History Father, son, and uncle tried to defeat Hannibal and Hasdrubal. 25 year old Scipio finally defeated Hannibal in Carthage where he earned the title "Africanus."
Second Punic War Interactive map site showing locations/routes of 4 phases of the fighting. Uses Macromedia Shockwave (takes a while to load).
Second Punic War Web Chronology Project's site on the Second Punic War with interactive map.


Sargon's Eighth Campaign Anthony Garia points out what we know about the Assyrian army from letters about Sargon's campaign in 714 BC.


Battle of Syme Article by Caroline L. Falkner, from Ancient History Bulletin evaluating the importance of Spartan victory at the Ionian island of Syme as described by Thucydides.


Siege of Syracuse Introduction, map, and relevant passages from Livy, Polybius, and Plutarch.
The Syracusan Expedition Athens attacked the Spartan colony in Sicily in 425 and then again, under the influence of Alcibiades, in 415. Although in the first wave of battle, Athens gained the upper hand, ultimately, it lost not only the war but its political supremacy.