See also Non Canonical Documents for more detail on early documents.

General Church History

God's Acts In History By Richard M. Riss
A Study in Church History Church history written by an articulate Catholic.
Early Sources of Christianity
The Ecole Initiative: Early Church History of the Web
Early Church Fathers
Christian Origins The Internet Ancient History Sourcebook
Index of Church Fathers
Wesley & Calvin on the Christian Life
Internet Resources for Biblical Studies
Noncanonical Homepage, including: OT Apocrypha, OT Pseudepigrapha, Apocryphal NT Acts, Apocryphal NT, Apocalypse, Apocryphal NT Gospels, Fathers of the Church, Writings in the names of Biblical Characters
Non-Canonical Documents (Wesley Center for Applied Theology),
Early Church Documents (A big collection from the ECOLE Initiative)
Writings of the Church Fathers/Doctors/Saints (American University),
Christian Classics Ethereal Library
The Early Church Fathers (a 38-volume collection of writings),
Jerome: Letters and Select Works
Gnostic scriptures and fragments in translation (The Virtual Library)
The Thunder: Perfect Mind, translated by Anne McGuire
Guide to Early Church Documents
Fathers of the Church (lots of texts from the New Advent site)
Check out Woman from The Catholic Encyclopedia
The Gregory of Nyssa Page
The Gospel of Thomas Page
Christian Classics Ethereal Library Large collection of important, public domain documents in the history of Christian origins published by Wheaton College.
The Dietrich Bonhoeffer Homepage
Early Sources of Christianity Material on early Christianity.
Ecole: Early Church History On-Line A history of the early church.
Gregory of Nyssa Page Translated texts
Guide to Early Church Documents Documents of early Church history. Created by John Brubaker and Gary Bogart of the Institute for Christian Leadership.
Project Wittenberg The product of the Rev. Bob Smith of Concordia Theological Seminary in cooperation with the Institute for Christian Leadership, bringing the works of Martin Luther and other Lutherans online.

General Topics about Christianity

Series on Christian Evidences by Richard M. Riss

A Chronology of Christianity

1AD-36?Life of Jesus Christ
1ADFirst year in Christian calendar (a.d. = anno Domini) (see 525), Augustus
(Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) is emperor of Rome
6Herod Archelaus deposed by Augustus; Samaria, Judea and Idumea annexed as
province Iudaea under direct Roman administration, cap. Caesarea
6-?Quirinius: Legate (Governor) of Syria, 1st Roman tax census of Iudaea
6-9Coponius: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
7-26Brief period of peace, free of revolt and bloodshed in Iudaea & Galilee
9-12?M. Ambivius: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
12?-15Annius Rufus: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
14-37Tiberius I emperor of Rome, b. 42BC
25?Assumption (Testament) of Moses, original Hebrew extant Latin (Apocrypha)
26-36Pontius Pilate: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
27-29?John the Baptist begins ministry (Luke 3,1-2) (15th year of Tiberius)
27-34?Jesus baptized by John the Baptist (Mk1:4-11)
33-34?John the Baptist arrested and killed by Herod Antipas (Luke 3,19-20)
33-36?Jesus' ministry
36?Jesus crucified, Friday, Nisan 14th, March 30th, [Ref: John, Unauthorized
Version/Fox] Last Supper would have been Thursday evening. (7Apr30 &
3Apr33 possible Fri/14/Nisan crucifixion dates)
36?-65?Period of oral tradition in Christianity between the time of Jesus and the time
the first gospel (Mark) is written, original Christians disperse throughout
Judea and Samaria (Acts 8,1ff), Peter leads the new Christian Church,
moves the Church headquarters to Rome
36?-67Period Peter leads the new Christian Church, moves the church headquarters
from Jerusalem to Rome
36?-37Paul of Tarsus has Stephen martyred and the Jerusalem church destroyed
37Paul of Tarsus is converted (Acts 9)
37-41Gaius Caligula emperor of Rome, declared himself god
37-41?Marullus: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
40Paul goes to Jerusalem to consult with Peter (Gal 1, 18-20)
41-54Claudius emperor of Rome, killed by poisoning by his wife Agrippina
44James, brother of John, executed by Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12, 1-3)
47-48Paul and Barnabas on Cyprus (Acts 13, 4-12)
48-49Council of Jerusalem, 1st Christian Council, doctrine regarding circumcision
and dietary law is agreed to by apostles and presbyters, written in a letter
addressed to "the brothers of Gentile origin in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia"
(Acts 15)
48-57?Paul writes Galations
49-50Paul in Corinth (Acts 18)
50?Peshitta translation begun, Hebrew OT->Syriac Aramaic, (Greek NT in 400)
50?Ascension of Isaiah, original written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
51-52Paul writes 1 Thes
51-52Paul writes 2 Thes
53-62Paul writes Phil
54-68Nero emperor of Rome
56Paul writes 1 Corin
57Paul writes Romans
57Paul writes 2 Corin
57Paul's last visit to Jerusalem [Acts21]
58Paul arrested, imprisoned in Caesarea [Acts25:4]
59Nero kills his mother, Agrippina
60Paul imprisoned in Rome (Acts 28,16)
61-63?Paul? writes Ephesians
61-63Paul writes Philemon
61-63Paul writes Colossians
61-63?Paul? writes 1,2 Timothy, Titus, known as "pastoral epistles"
62?James written by leader of Jerusalem community? (Gal 2,9?), "catholic"
62Paul martyred for treason in Rome
62{Being therefore this kind of person [i.e., a heartless Sadducee], Ananus,
thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died and
Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting [literally, "sanhedrin"] of
judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah,
James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had
transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.}
[JA20.9.1,Marginal Jew,p.57]
62Nero kills his wife Octavia and marries Poppaea Sabina
64Great fire of Rome, started by Nero and blamed on Christians, {Therefore to
squelch the rumor , Nero
created scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom
the common people called "Christians," [a group] hated for their abominable
crimes. Their name comes from Christ, who, during the reign of Tiberius, had
been executed by the procurator Pontius Pilate. Suppressed for the moment,
the deadly superstition broke out again, not only in Judea, the land which
originated this evil, but also in the city of Rome, where all sorts of
horrendous and shameful practices from every part of the world converge
and are fervently cultivated.} [Tacitus Annals 15.44;Marginal
64-95?1 Peter written in Rome, by Peter the apostle?, "catholic" epistle
65-125Period in which 4 Gospels, Acts, Revelations, and remaining epistles written
- Peter martyred before 1st Holy Gospel is written, 7 Popes before last
epistle is completed
65?Q written, (German:Quelle, meaning "source") a hypothetical Greek text used
in writing of Matthew and Luke
65-150Didache: Instructions of the Apostles written
65-150Dialogue of the Savior, Gospel of Peter
65-150Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224 fragments: pub. 1914
65-150Gospel of Thomas written, based on Q?, pub. 1959, Greek originals: Papyrus
Ox. 1,654-5
65-175Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840 fragments: pub. 1908
65-175Papyrus Egerton 2 (Unknown Gospel) fragments: pub. 1935/87, in Greek
from Palestine, one of the oldest extant Christian texts (~175)
65-250Papyrus Fayum (P. Vindob. G. 2325) fragments: pub. 1887
65-350"Jewish-Christian Gospels": 7 fragments of Gospel of the Ebionites and 7
fragments of Gospel of the Hebrews in Greek; 36 fragments of Gospel of the
Nazarenes in Aramaic; [Ref: NT Apocrypha, W. Schneemelcher, vol. 1]
66-70Roman-Jewish War: final destruction of Second Temple (Herod's Temple)
67Peter martyred, crucified upside down in Rome
67-78Pope Linus, 2nd Pope, succeeds Peter (Linus mentioned in 2 Tm 4,21)
67General Vespasian of Rome conquers Galilee
68Nero commits suicide, resurrects as "Nero redivivus", Rev's 666? (see 81)
68Galba emperor of Rome (6/68-1/69)
68Qumran (Essenes?) community destroyed by Rome, site of Dead Sea Scrolls
found in 1949
69Otho emperor of Rome (1/69-4/69)
69Vitellius emperor of Rome (6/69-12/69)
69Flavian Dynasty of Rome (Vespian, Titus, Domitian)
69-79Vespian emperor of Rome, quells unrest in Rome and Jerusalem
70Collapse of Jewish self-government in Judea and destruction of the Temple in
70Gospel according to Mark written in Rome, by Peter's interpreter? (1 Peter
5,13), original ending apparently lost, endings added c 400
70?"Signs Gospel" written, hypothetical Greek text used in Gospel of John to
prove Jesus is the Messiah
70-640Sanhedrin (High Court) period of Judaism, rise of house of Hillel
75-90Gospel according to Luke written, based on Mark and Q
75-90Acts of the Apostles written, same author as Gospel according to Luke
79-81Titus emperor of Rome, eldest son of Vespasian
79-91Pope Anacletus, 3rd Pope, known as "blameless" (as in Titus 1,7?)
79Mt Vesuvius, volcano overlooking Naples Bay, erupts, engulfs Pompeii
80-85Gospel according to Matthew written, based on Mark and Q, most popular in
early Church
81-96Domitian emperor of Rome, son of Vespasian, "Nero redivivus?" (see 68)
81-96Revelations written, by John (son of Zebedee) and/or a disciple of his
90-1001 John written, by author(s) of 4th gospel, "catholic" epistle
90-1002,3 John written, by "elder", disciple of John (son of Zebedee)?, "catholic"
90-100Gospel according to John written, by John (son of Zebedee) and others, only
eyewitness to Jesus?, disciple Jesus loved?, Gnostic?
90?Josephus claims exactly 22 Jewish (OT) books: 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns
91-101Pope Clement I, 4th Pope, (mentioned in Phil 4,3), wrote letter to Corinth in
95 called "1 Clement"
94"Jewish Antiquities", by Josephus in Aramaic, trans. to Grk., Testimonium
Flavianum: {At this time there appeared Jesus, a wise man. For he was a
doer of startling deeds, a teacher of people who receive the truth with
pleasure. And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many
of Greek origin. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the
leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him
previously did not cease to do so. And up until this very day the tribe of
Christians (named after him) has not died out.} [JA18.3.3 Meier redaction,
Marginal Jew, p.61]
96?Hebrews written, by ?
96-98Nerva emperor of Rome
98-116Trajan emperor of Rome, Roman empire reaches maximum size
100?Odes of Solomon, written in Greek or Syriac, ref by John? (Apocrypha)
100?Epistle of Barnabas, Christian exegesis of LXX (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
100?2 Clement, an old sermon but not by Clement (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
100?2 Esdras (Vg:4 Esdras), Hebrew?, claims 24 OT books (Vulgate & Peshitta)
100?Apocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch:Syriac, 3 Baruch:Greek) (Peshitta)
100?Paralipomena of Jeremiah (4 Baruch), written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
100?Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Aramaic and Hebrew fragments found
at Qumran Caves 1,4 (Armenian Bible)
100?Jude written, probably by doubting relative of Jesus (Mark 6,3), rejected by
some early Christians due to its reference to apocryphal Book of Enoch
(v14), "catholic" epistle
100-125?2 Peter written, by ?, not accepted into canon until early 400s, drew upon
Epistle of Jude, "catholic" epistle
100-150Secret Book (Apocryphon) of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Infancy
Gospels of Thomas and James, Secret Gospel (of Mark) (Complete Gospels)
101-109Pope Evaristus, 5th Pope
109-116Pope Alexander, 6th Pope
110?Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians, written by Polycarp (160) (AF)
110?"Letters of Ignatius", bishop of Antioch, martyred in Rome, his letters were
subjected to heavy Christian forgery esp. 4th cent. (Apostolic Fathers)
116-125Pope Sixtus I, 7th Pope
117-138Hadrian emperor of Rome, builds wall across Britain
125-350Period of Christianity during which the first Bible was assembled - Christians
are fiercely persecuted and then finally tolerated by the Roman Empire, Great
Plague in Rome
125-136Pope Telesphorus, 8th Pope, martyred
125?Papyrus 52: oldest extant NT fragment, p.1935, parts of Jn18:31-33,37-38
125?Shepherd of Hermas, written in Rome (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
130-200"Christian Apologists" writings against Roman Paganism by: Justin Martyr
(165), Athenagoras (180?), Aristides (145?), Theophilus of Antioch (185?),
Tatian (170), Quadratus (130?), Melito of Sardis (180?), Apollinaris of
Hierapolis (180?), also Epistle to Diognetus in Apostolic Fathers
130?"Gospel of Basilides", a 24 book commentary?, lost
130?Papias, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor, wrote: "Expositions of the Sayings
of the Lord", lost, widely quoted, see Eusebius (340) (AF)
130?Aquila of Pontus, Roman convert to Christianity then to Judaism, student of
Rabban Gamaliel, compiled literal Greek OT translation in Jabneh (Jamnia)
132-135Bar Kokhba Revolt: final Jewish revolt, Judea and Jerusalem erased from
maps, all of southern Syria renamed Palestine (coined by Herodotus)
138-161Antoninus Pius emperor of Rome
138-142Pope Hyginus, 9th Pope
140Letters of Marcion, produces his own canon without OT and using only a
heavily edited Luke + 10 Pauline Epistles, cites "Western" Gospel text-type
140?Apocalypse of Peter, written in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]
142-155Pope Pius I, 10th Pope
150?Gospel of the Egyptians, Coptic translation of orig. Greek (Nag Hammadi)
150?"Western Revisor" adds/subtracts from original Acts to produce "Western"
version which is 10% larger and found in Papyrus P29,38,48 and Codex
Bezae (D)
150?Papyrus Chester Beatty 6: R963, Greek Num 5:12-36:13, Deut 1:20-34:12
155-166Pope Anicetus, 11th Pope
160?Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, martyred at age 86: "Let. to Philip." (110)
160?Martyrdom of Polycarp, in Greek (Apostolic Fathers, ISBN:0-8010-5676-4)
161-180Marcus Aurelius emperor of Rome
164-180Great Plague in Roman Empire
166-174Pope Soter, 12th Pope, moved Easter from Nisan 14 to following Sunday
170Letters of Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, cites "Western" Gospel text-type
170Christian council on Montanist sect in Asia Minor
170Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, claims Christians were changing and
faking his own letters just as [he knew] they had changed the Gospels
170Tatian produces "Diatessaron" (Harmony) by blending 4 "Western" text-type
Gospels into 1
170?Symmachus, an Ebionite, writes an entirely new Greek OT translation
174-189Pope Eleutherius, 13th Pope
175?Acts of Paul (inc. 3 Cor.), in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]
180-192Commodus emperor of Rome
185-350Canon Muratorian, 1st extant for NT?, written in Rome by Hippolytus?,
excludes Hebrews, James, 1-2 Peter, 3 John; includes Wisdom of Solomon,
Apocalypse of Peter
189-198Pope Victor I, 1st Latin Pope, 14th Pope, excommunicated Eastern churches
that continued to observe Easter on Nisan 14 "Quartodeciman", (see 166,
190Christian council to determine "official" date of Easter
193-211Septimius Severus emperor of Rome
197Writings of Apollonius, uses the term "catholic" in reference to 1 John
198-217Pope Zephyrinus, 15th Pope
200Bishop of Antioch notes Gospel of Peter (see 65?) being used in Cilicia
200?Papyrus 66: 2nd Bodmer, John, 1956, "Alexandrian/Western" text-types:
Jn 1:1-6:11,35-7:52;8:12-14:26,29-30;15:2-26;16:2-4,6-7,10-
200?Papyrus 75: Bodmer 14-15, Luke & John, earliest extant Luke, ~Vaticanus;
17:15,19-18:18; 22:4-24:53; Jn1:1-7:52;8:12-11:45,48-57;12:3-
200?Papyrus 46: 2nd Chester Beatty, "Alexandrian" text-type: Rm5:17-6:3,5-
200?Papyrus 32: J. Rylands Library: Titus 1:11-15;2:3-8
200?Papyrus 64 (+67): Mt3:9,15;5:20-22,25-28;26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-
200?Old Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, Syr(s) & Syr(c), of "Western" text-type
200?Latin Bible translations begun in Carthage?, originals no longer extant
200?Sahidic Coptic cop(sa) Bible translations written in Alexendria
212-217Geta then Caracalla emperors of Rome
217-236Anti-Pope Hippolytus, bishop of Rome, "Logos" sect, 1st Anti-Pope
(illegitimate claimants of or pretenders to the papal throne)
217-222Pope Callistus I, 16th Pope
218-222Heliogabalus emperor of Rome
220Goths invade Asia Minor and Balkans
220?Clement of Alexandria, b.150?, bishop, cites "Alexandrian" NT text-type &
Secret Gospel of Mark & Gospel of the Egyptians; wrote: "Exhortations to the
Greeks";"Rich Man's Salutation";"To the Newly Baptized"; (Loeb Classics)
222-230Pope Urban I, 17th Pope
222-235Alexandar Severus emperor of Rome
223?Tertullian, wr: "de Spectaculis" (Latin): v30.6 cites rumor Jesus son of
prostitute, coined "New Testament", cites "Western" Gospel text-type (Loeb)
225?Papyrus 45: 1st Chester Beatty, Gospels (Caesarean), Acts (Alexandrian):
Mt20:24-32;21:13-19;25:41-26:39; Mk4:36-40;5:15-26,38-6:3,16-
25,36-50;7:3-15 ,25-8:1,10-26,34-9:9,18-31;11:27-12:1,5-8,13-
19,24-28; Lk6:31-41,45-7:7;9:26 -41,45-10:1,6-22,26-11:1,6-25,28-
46,50-12:12,18-37,42-13:1,6-24,29-14:10,17-33; Jn10:7-25,30-
11:10,18-36,42-57; Ac4:27-36;5:10-21,30-39;6:7-7:2,10-21,32-
225?Papyrus 967: Chester Beatty 9, Greek Ezekiel 11:25-end, ~Codex Vaticanus
230-236Pope Pontian, 18th Pope
230-250Christian council of Rome, Demetrius bishop of Alex. condemns Origen who in
248 cited a rumor recorded by Celsus that "Jesus fabricated the account of
his birth from a virgin. In reality, Jesus' mother was driven out by the
carpenter husband to whom she was betrothed because she had committed
adultery with a [Roman] soldier named Panthera [thus the ben Pantere of
Jewish sources]. Left poor and homeless, she gave birth to Jesus in secret.
Jesus later spent time in Egypt, where he hired himself out as a laborer,
learned magic, and so came to claim the title of God." [CC1.28-32, Marginal
Jew, Meier, p. 223]
236-238Maximus emperor of Rome, ends Christian schism in Rome by deporting Pope
Pontian and anti-Pope Hippolytus to Sardinia where they soon die
236-237Pope Anterus, 19th Pope
237-250Pope Fabian, 20th Pope
238-244Gordian I, II, Balbinus, Pupienus, Gordian III emperors of Rome
240-250Christian council of Carthage
244-249Philip the Arabian emperor of Rome
249-251Decius emperor of Rome
249Rome celebrates 1000th anniversary
250Rome steps up persecution of Christians, martyrs revered as saints
250Letters of Methodius, Pistis Sophia, Porphyry Tyrius; church fathers
250?Mandeans (followers of John the Baptist) begin compilation of "Ginza"
250?Papyrus 72: Bodmer 5-11+, pub. 1959, "Alexandrian" text-type: Nativity of
Mary; 3Cor; Odes of Solomon 11; Jude 1-25; Melito's Homily on Passover;
Hymn fragment; Apology of Phileas; Ps33,34; 1Pt1:1-5:14; 2Pt1:1-3:18;
250?Papyrus Chester Beatty: #5:R962: Gn8:13-9:2,24:13-46:33,Enoch91-105;
#7: I8:18-19:13,38:14-45:5,54:1=60:22; #8: Jr4:30-5:24; #10: Dn1-
251-253Gallus emperor of Rome
251-253Pope Cornelius, 21st Pope
251-258Anti-Pope Novatian, decreed no forgiveness for sins after baptism
253-260Valerian emperor of Rome, executes all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons
253-254Pope Lucius I, 22nd Pope
254Letters of Origen, Jesus and God one substance, adopted at Council of Nicaea
in 325, compiled "Hexapla": 6 versions of LXX side by side: Hebrew, Hebrew
transliterated in Greek, Aquila's Greek trans., Symmachus' Greek trans.,
Origen's revised LXX Greek trans., Theodotion's revised LXX; also
Quinta/Sexta/Septima trans., Tetragrammaton in square Hebrew script;
cites "Alexandrian" & "Caesarean" NT text-types; Eusebius claimed Origen
castrated himself for Christ due to Mt19:12 [EH6.8.1-3]
254-257Pope Steven I, 23rd Pope, major schism over rebaptizing heretics and
257-258Pope Sixtus II, 24th Pope, martyred
257Visigoths and Ostrogoths invade Black Sea area, Franks invade Spain
258Letters of Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, cites "Western" NT text-type, claims
Christians are freely forging his letters to discredit him
260-268Gallienus emperor of Rome, reverses Valerian, restores Roman Church
260-268Pope Dionysius, 25th Pope, rebuilds Roman Church after Valerian's massacre
264-268Christian council on Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch, founder of
Adoptionism (Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism)
264?Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, b.190?
268Goths sack Athens, Sparta, Corinth
268-270Claudius II emperor of Rome
269-274Pope Felix I, 26th Pope
270-275Aurelian emperor of Rome
275-283Pope Eutychian, 27th Pope, decreed that only beans and grapes be blessed at
275?Papyrus 47: 3rd Chester Beatty, ~Sinaiticus, Rv9:10-11:3,5-16:15,17-
276-282Marcus Aurelius Probus emperor of Rome
276Mani, b.215, crucified, founder of Manichaean Christian sect in Persia
283-296Pope Gaius, 28th Pope
284-305Diocletian emperor of Rome, notorius persecuter of Christians
285Roman empire partitioned into Western and Eastern empires
290-345St Pachomius establishes 1st monastery in Egypt
296-304Pope Marcellinus, 29th Pope, apostate, offered pagan sacrifices for
300?Bohairic Coptic cop(bo) Bible translations written in Alexandria
300?Hesychius of Alex., martyr, translates Hebrew OT to Greek, lost [Jerome]
300?Papyrus Berlin Codex of Greek Genesis; Papyrus Bodmer 24 of Greek Psalms;
Codex Freer of Greek Minor Prophets; all published in 1927
300?other 3rd century NT witnesses: P1:Mt1:1-9,12,14-20 P4:Lk1:58-59,62-
2:1, 6-7;3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35;5:3-8,30-6:16 P5:Jn1:23-31,33-
40;16:14-30;20:11-17, 19-20,22-25 P9:1Jn4:11-12,14-17 P12:Hb1:1
P15:1Cr7:18-8:4 P20:Jm2:19-3:9 P22:Jn15:25-16:2,21-32
P23:Jm1:10-12,15-18 P27:Rm8:12-22,24-27,33-9:3,5-9 P28:Jn6:8-
12,17-22 P29:Ac26:7-8,20 P30:1Th4:12-13,16-17;5:3,8-10,12-18,25-
28;2Th1:1-2 P38:Ac18:27-19:6,12-16 P39:Jn8:14-22 P40:Rm1:24-
27,31-2:3;3:21-4:8;6:4-5:16;9:16-17:27 P48:Ac23:11-17,23-29
P49:Ep4:16-29,31-5:13 P53:Mt26:29-40;Ac9:33-10:1 P65:1Th1:3-
2:1,6-13 P69:Lk22:41,45-48,58-61 P70:Mt2:13-16,22-3:1;11:26-
27;12:4-5;24:3-6,12-15 P80:Jn3:34 P87:Pm13-15,24-25
#0171:Mt10:17-23,25-32;Lk22:44-56,61-64 #0189:Ac5:3-21
#0220:Rm4:23-5:3,8-13 #0212(Diatessaron):Mt27:56-57;Mk15:40-
303-311Last persecution of Christians in Rome
304Letters of Victor, bishop of Pettau
306-337Emperor Constantine the Great, convert to Christianity
306-312Maxentius emperor of Western Roman Empire
306-308Pope Marcellus I, 30th Pope, tried removing prior Pope Marcellinus from
official records for apostasy, exiled from Rome by Maxentius for disturbing
the peace
310Pope Eusebius, 31st Pope, deported to Sicily with anti-Pope Heraclius by
311-314Pope Miltiades, 32nd Pope, Constantine gives Fausta's palace as papal
312Lucian, founded Exegetical School of Antioch, martyred
312Constantine defeats Maxentius at Milvian Bridge, reunites Roman Empire
313Edict of Milan, Constantine establishes toleration of Christianity
313Miltiades excommunicates Donatus for requiring rebaptism of apostates
314-335Pope Silvester I, 33rd Pope
314Council of Arles, called by Constantine against Donatist (Donatus) schism
317Letters of Lactantius, early Christian church father
321Constantine decrees Sunday as offical Roman-Christian day of rest
325Council of Nicaea, called by Constantine against Arianism (336), called 1st
great Christian council by Jerome, 1st ecumenical, 318 bishops attend,
Nicaean Creed
325?Fayyumic Coptic cop(mf) translation fragment of John 6:11-15:11
330Old Saint Peter's Basilica dedicated by Constantine, located over the
traditional burial site of Saint Peter the Apostle in Rome on Vatican Hill
331Seat of Roman Empire moved to Constantinople (formally Byzantium)
336-337Pope Mark, 34th Pope
336Arius, Greek theologian - Arianism (Jesus was a created being)
337-350Roman empire splits again, Constans emperor of West until 350
337-361Roman empire splits again, Constantius emperor of East until 361
337-352Pope Julius I, 35th Pope
338Jewish calendar modified with different year lengths to correct to Solar
340?Eusebius of Caesarea (260-340), theologian & church historian, cites
"Caesarean" NT text-type, wrote: "Ecclesiastical History" (EH); Loeb
Classics: 2 volumes {Papias, bishop of Hierapolis (130?), claims that John
the Elder, a disciple of Jesus, told him that Mark "was the interpreter of
Peter and wrote down carefully what he remembered of what had been said
or done by the Lord, but not in the right order." Also claims that "Matthew
composed the sayings in Hebrew [more likely Aramaic] and each one
translated them as he could."} [Ref: EH3.39.15, Unauthorized Version, Fox,
p.126-127] Eusebius' NT Canon: Recognized Books: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14
Pauline Epistles, 1Jn, 1Pt; Disputed Books: Rev, James, Jude, 2Pt, 2-3Jn,
Acts of Paul, Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, Didache, Gospel of the
Hebrews; Rejected Books: Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of
Andrew, John ... [EH3.25], used the term "catholic" to refer to all seven
epistles - James; 1,2,3 John; 1,2 Peter; Jude
350-400Period of time between the 1st Christian Bible and the 1st Western Christian
Bible, during which the books contained in Bibles varied
350Letters of Adamantius, Firmicus Maternus; early Christian church fathers
350?Codex Sinaiticus (S or ): earliest Christian Bible, (LXX - 2-
3Maccabees - Psalms of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT + Barnabas + Hermas),
missing Hermas31.7-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-
350?Codex Vaticanus (B): earliest Christian Bible (LXX - 1-4Maccabees - Psalms
of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT), missing Gn1-46:28, Ps105:27-137:6, 1Tm-
Phm, Heb9:14-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
350?Papyrus Antinoopolis of Book of Proverbs in Greek, published in 1950
350?Papyrus Chester Beatty: #4:R961: Greek Gn9:1-44:22; #11: Greek
Sir36:28- 37:22,46:6-47:2; #12: Greek Enoch93:12-13,94:7-8,97:6-
350?Papyrus Bodmer 45-46: Greek Susanna, Daniel 1:1-20 (Theodotion's LXX)
350?Canon Cheltenham: 24NT books (excludes James, Jude, Hebrews)
350?Akhmimic cop(ac) & Sub-Akhmimic cop(ac2) Coptic translations of John
350?Ulfilas, apostle to the Goths (Germans), translates Greek NT to Gothic
352-366Pope Liberius, 36th Pope
354-430St. Augustine, Latin Bishop considered the founder of formalized Christian
theology, church father
355-365Anti-Pope Felix II, Arianism (336), supported by Constantius II
360Huns invade Europe, scrolls begin to be replaced by books (Codex)
361-363Julian the Apostate emperor of East, attempts to revive Paganism
363Council of Laodicea names 26 NT books (excludes Revelations)
363Letters of Marius Victorinus, Acacius of Caesarea; early church fathers
364Council of Laodicea decrees death for Christians who keep 7th day Sabbath
366-384Pope Damasus I, 37th Pope, hired thugs to massacre rival Ursinians
366-367Anti-Pope Ursinus, leader of supporters of former Pope Liberius
367Athanasias, bishop of Alexandria, first citing of modern 27 NT canon
367Letters of Hilary of Poitiers, Lucifer of Calaris; early church fathers
367Athanasius, d.373, bishop of Alexandria, first cite of modern 27NT canon
370Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, Cyprus; cites 27NT + Wisdom of Solomon
370Doctrine of Addai at Edessa proclaims 17 book NT canon using Diatessaron
(instead of the 4 Gospels) + Acts + 15 Pauline Epistles (inc. 3 Corinthians)
373Letters of Ephraem Syrus, cites "Western" Acts text-type
378Letters of Titus of Bostra, Ambrosiaster, Priscillian; church fathers
379-395Theodosius the Great, last emperor of the united empire
380Feb 27, Christianity declared official state religion by Theodosius
381Council of Theodosius at Constantinople, 2nd ecumenical, Jesus had true
human soul
382-384Pope Damasus I has Jerome revise and unify Latin Bibles
383Roman legions begin to evacuate Britain
384Jerome presents Pope Damasus I with new Latin Gospels, originals lost
384-399Pope Siricius, 38th Pope, criticized Jerome
390Apollinaris of Laodicea, Jesus had human body but divine spirit
390Letters of Tyconius, Gregory of Nyssa, Didymus of Alex.; church fathers
391?Ammianus Marcellinus, b.330, Christian historian, wrote: "Res gestae"
393,397Augustine's Councils, cites exactly 27 NT books (see 354)
395Theodosius prohibits practice of Pagan rituals including Olympic Games
395Ausonius, b.310?, Christian governor of Gaul; Loeb Classics 2v (Latin)
396Alaric, king of the Visigoths, plunders Athens
397Ambrose, b.333?, bishop & governor of Milan, wrote: "de Fide" ...
399-401Pope Anastasius I, 39th Pope
400-484Era between 1st Western Christian Bible and the Great Schism - Christian
doctrine is formed, Roman empire ends
400?Vulgate Bible, by Jerome?, (340?-420) originals lost, Vulgate Latin text
becomes standard Western Christian Bible
400?Jerome cites "expanded" ending in Mark after Mark 16,14
400?Jerome adds Pericope of the Adultress (John 7,53-8,11)
400?Codex Vercellensis it(a): Latin Gospels, of "European" text-type
400?Peshitta Bible, Syriac (Aramaic) Vulgate, Syr(p), OT + 22 NT, excludes:
2Pt, 2-3Jn, Jude, Rev; Peshitta becomes standard Syrian Christian Bible
400?Codex Bobiensis it(k): ~half of Mt/Mk in Latin, "African" (Carthage) text-
type, has "shorter" ending of Mark after Mk16:8
401-417Pope Innocent I, 40th Pope, decreed Roman custom the norm for Christianity
401Visigoths invade Italy
403Letters of Epiphanius of Constantia, John Chrysostom; church fathers
410Visigoths sack Rome under king Alaric
414Letters of Nicetas of Remesiana, Orosius; early Christian church fathers
415Bishop Cyril of Alex. (444) expels Jews, kills Hypatia with oyster shells
416Visigoths take Spain
417-418Pope Zosimus, 41st Pope
418-422Pope Boniface I, 42nd Pope
418-419Anti-Pope Eulalius
418Franks take Gaul
420St. Jerome, (S.E. Hieronymus), b.340?, Latin scholar; (Loeb Classics)
422-432Pope Celestine I, 43rd Pope
423Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, notes Tatian's Harmony (170) in heavy use
431Council of Ephesus, 3rd ecumenical, decreed Mary the Mother of God
429Picts and Scots expelled from southern England by Anglo-Saxon-Jutes
430St. Augustine, b.354, origin of "Original Sin," church father & philosopher,
wrote: "The City of God", "Confessions"; Loeb Classics 10 v. (Latin)
430Letters of Marcus Eremita, Nilus of Ancyra; Christian church fathers
431Syrian Christianity splits into East (Nestorian-disagreed with Council of
Ephesus) and West (Jacobites)
432St Patrick begins mission in Ireland
432-440Pope Sixtus III, 44th Pope
433-453Attila the Hun, "Scourge of the Gods"
440-461Pope Leo I, 45th Pope
444Letters of Cyril of Alexandria, Arnobius the Younger; church fathers
450Mark's Resurrection of Jesus added to Bible (Mark 16, 9-20)
450?Codex Alexandrinus (A): (LXX - 1-2Maccabees + 14_Church_Odes + 27NT +
1-2Clement), missing 1K12:17-14:9, Ps49:20-79:11, Psalms of Solomon,
Mt1-25:6, Jn6:50-8:52, 2Cr4:13-12:6, 1Clement57.7-63.4,
2Clement12.5b-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
450?Codex Bezae (D): Greek/Latin Gospels + Acts; Codex Washingtonianus (W):
Greek Gospels; both of "Western" text-type: "fondness for paraphrase"
450?Codex Ephraemi Syri rescriptus (C): Greek LXX + 27NT, many gaps
450?Codex Marchalianus (Q): Greek LXX + Luke + John, many gaps
450?Codex Ambrosianus (F): Greek Genesis to Joshua
450?Codex Freer: Greek Deuteronomy and Joshua
450?Codex Colberto-Sarravianus: Origen's Greek Hexapla LXX of Gen-Judg
450?Codex Palatinus it(e): Latin Gospels, "African" (Carthage) text-type
450?Codex Veronensis it(b): Latin Gospels, "European/Vulgate" text-type
450?Syr(pal), Palestinian Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, of "Caesarean" text-type
450?std. Aramaic Targums, T. Onkelos of Torah, T. Jonathan of Prophets
451Council of Chalcedon, 4th ecumenical, declared Jesus is 2 natures, both
human and divine in one, a compromise solution of Jesus god/man schisms
451Nestorius of Constantinople, Nestorians: Mary was *not* "Mother of God"
451Letters of Hesychius, Quodvultdeus; early Christian church fathers
454Eutyches of Constantinople, Monophysites: Jesus was divine but not human
455Vandals sack Rome
457-474Pope Leo I, 46th Pope, becomes emperor of remaining (eastern) Roman
461-468Pope Hilarus, 47th Pope
463Letters of Prosper of Aquitaine, early Christian church father
466Letters of Shenute of Atripe, Theodoret of Cyrrhus; early church fathers
468-483Pope Simplicius, 48th Pope
474-491Zeno, eastern Roman emperor
476Official end of western Roman empire, last emperor Romulus Augustulus
480-547St. Benedict, founded the Benedictines
483-492Pope Felix III (II), 49th Pope
484-640Period between Great Schism and the destruction of the Library of Alexendria
- After the end of the Roman Empire, the Catholic Church sees a period of
turmoil and division, Europe's population "halved" by plague, great
earthquakes occur
484-519Acacian schism, over "Henoticon" divides Eastern (Greek) and Western
(Roman) churches. Photinus, deacon of Thessalonica, was of the Greek
church and held to the Acacian heresy, which denied the divine paternity of
Christ. Photinus persuaded emperor Anastasius I to accept the Acacian
484Letters of Vigilius of Thapsus, early Christian church father
489Zeno destroys Nestorian (451) school at Edessa, erects Church of St Simeon
491Armenian Church seceds from East (Byzantium) and West (Rome) churches
491-518Anastasius I eastern Roman emperor
492-496Pope Gelasius I, 50th Pope, "Vicar of Christ" is first used as another title
496-498Pope Anastasius II
498Nestorians (451) settle in Nisibis, Persia
498-514Pope Symmachus
514-523Pope Hormisdas
523-526Pope John I, martyr
498-506Anti-Pope Lawrence, Lawrencian schism
500Incense introduced in Christian church service, first plans of Vatican
500?Codex Sangallensis vg: earliest extant Latin Vulgate, Gospels
500?Codex Argenteus (got): earliest nearly complete Gothic (German), Gospels
500?Codex Cottonianus: Greek Genesis
502Narsai of Mealletha, Syrian poet, heads Nestorian school in Nisibis(498)
518-527Justin I: emperor of Byzantine (former eastern Roman) empire
524Boethius, b.480?, Roman Christian philosopher, wrote: "Theological
Tractates", "Consolation of Philosophy"; (Loeb Classics) (Latin)
525Dionysius Exiguus sets Christian calendar (a.d.) & Jesus' birth @ 23 Dec 1AD
526Earthquake in Antioch kills 250,000
526-530Pope Felix IV (III)
527-565Justinian the Great, Byzantine emperor
527Letters of Fulgentius, early Christian church father
529Justinian closes 1000yr Athen's School of Philosophy, declared Paganistic
530-532Pope Boniface II
530Anti-Pope Dioscorus
532-535Pope John II
533N. Africa captured by Belisarius from Vandals, becomes Byzantine province
534-870Malta becomes Byzantine province
535-536Pope Agapitus I
536-537Pope Silverius, martyr
537-555Pope Vigilius, involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspired with Justinian
and Theodora, excommunicated by N. African bishops in 550
539-562War between Byzantine empire and Persia
542Plague in Constantinople from Egyptian and Syrian rats, spreads to Europe
543Justinian condemns Origen (254), disastrous earthquakes hit the world
541-546Codex Fuldensis vg(F): Latin Vulgate, 27NT + Epistle to Laodiceans
544Justinian condemns the "3 Chapters" of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d.428) and
other writings of "2-natures" Christology of Council of Chalcedon (451)
547Pope Vigilius issues "Iudicatum" supporting Justinian's anti-"2-natures"
547Plague reaches Britain
548Letters of Apringius Pacensis, early Christian church father
550-1453Medieval Greek of Constantinople (Byzantium) becomes standard Greek
550Byzantine Greek Text, standard Eastern Bible, much smoothing & conflation
550St. David converts Wales to Christianity, crucifix becomes Christian icon
550?Codex Claromontanus (Dp): Greek/Latin Pauline Epistles + Canon of ~250AD
lists 27NT+Barnabas+Hermas+Acts_of_Paul+Apocalypse_of_Peter;
"Western" type
550?Codex Mediolanensis vg(M): Latin Vulgate Gospels
550?Codex Veronensis: Greek & Old Latin Psalms
5552nd Council of Constantinople, 5th ecumenical, called by Justinian
556-561Pope Pelagius I, selected by Justinian, endorsed "Iudicatum" (547)
561-574Pope John III, authorized by Justinian
565-578Justin II, Byzantine emperor
567Letters of Primasius, Cassiodorus; early Christian church fathers
572-628War between Byzantine empire and Persia
575-579Pope Benedict I, authorized by Justin II,
578-582Tiberius II, Byzantine emperor
579-590Pope Pelagius II, died of plague
582-602Maurice, Byzantine emperor
587Visigoths of Spain converted to Christianity
589Lombards of Italy converted to Christianity
590Plague in Rome
590-604Pope Gregory I, commanded that a way be found to collect and preserve the
singing of the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos (now known as
Gregorian Chant)
594End of plague which began in 542 and "halved" the population of Europe!
596St. Augustine of Canterbury sent to convert Britain to Christianity
600?Codex Harleianus vg(Z): Latin Vulgate Gospels
600?Codex Philoxenian/Harclean Syr(ph/h): Syriac 27NT, "Western" text-type
602-610Phocas, Byzantine emperor after killing Maurice
604-606Pope Sabinian, authorized by Phocas
606-607Pope Boniface III, authorized by Phocas
607-615Pope Boniface IV, authorized by Phocas
609Roman Pantheon (a Pagan Temple) renamed Church of Santa Maria Rotonda
610-641Heraclius, Byzantine emperor after killing Phocas
611Mohammed's reported vision of Allahon Mount Hira
614Persians take Damascas and Jerusalem and "Holy Cross of Christ"
615earliest records of some of Mohammed's teachings
615-618Pope Deusdedit
619-625Pope Boniface V, authorized by Heraclius
622-680Monothelite controversy: condemned at 6th Ecum. Council of Constantinople
622first year in Muslim calendar, The Hegira, 1a.h., (a.h. = anno hegirae)
624Mohammed marries Aisha, daughter of Abu Bekr
625Paulinus of Rome comes to convert Northumbria to Christianity
625-638Pope Honorius I
625Mohammed begins dictation of Qur'an (Koran) to his scribe
626King Edwin of Northumbria founds Edinburgh and begins Christianization
627Byzantines defeat Persians at Nineveh
628Emperor Heraclius wins back "Cross of Christ" from Persians
628Mohammed captures Mecca & writes to rulers of the world explaining Islam
629Heraclius recovers Jerusalem from Persians
629Pope Honorius I sides with Emperor Heraclius and Monothelites (622)
632Mohammed, b. 570?, Arab prophet and founder of Islam
632East Anglia Christianized
632Abu Bekr, first Islamic Caliph, seat at Medina
634Omar I, 2d Caliph, takes Syria/Persia/Egypt;defeats Heraclius in Holy War
635Christianization of Wessex
635-750Damascus becomes capital of Islamic Caliphs
636Southern Irish Church submits to Roman Catholicism
637Jerusalem captured by Islam
638Emp. Heraclius' "Ecthesis", decrees Christ of one nature: "Monothelites"
640Pope Severinus
640Library of Alexandria, "The Center of Western Culture," with 300,000
ancient papyrus scrolls, is completely distroyed.
640-1380Period between destruction of Library of Alexandria and the first complete
English translation of the Bible
640-642Pope John IV
642-649Pope Theodore I
649-654Pope Martin I, martyr
654-657Pope Eugene I
657-673Pope Vitalian
673-676Pope Adeodatus II
676-678Pope Donus
678-682Pope Agatho
682-684Pope Leo II
684-685Pope Benedict II
685-686Pope John V
686-687Pope Conon
687Anti-Pope Theodore
687Anti-Pope Paschal
687-701Pope Sergius I
690?Earliest Bible translations into England's vernacular, continued work by Bede
and others from this point forward
701-705Pope John VI
705-708Pope John VII
708Pope Sisinnius
708-715Pope Constantine
715-731Pope Gregory II
731-741Pope Gregory III
741-752Pope Zachary
750?Tower added to St Peter's Basilica at the front of the atrium
752-757Pope Stephen II (III)
757-768Pope Paul I
767Anti-Pope Constantine
768Anti-Pope Philip
768-772Pope Stephen III (IV)
772-795Pope Adrian I
795-816Pope Leo III
816-817Pope Stephen IV (V)
817-824Pope Paschal I
824-827Pope Eugene II
827Pope Valentine
827-844Pope Gregory IV
844Anti-Pope John
844-847Pope Sergius II
847-855Pope Leo IV
850?King Alfred translation of several Bible books into English vernacular, also
done by Aldhelm and Aelfric
855-858Pope Benedict III
855Anti-Pope Anastasius
856Earthquake in Corinth kills 45,000
858-867Pope Nicholas I
867-872Pope Adrian II
872-882Pope John VII
882-884Pope Marinus I
884-885Pope Adrian III
885-891Pope Stephen V (VI)
891-896Pope Formosus
896Pope Boniface VI
896-897Pope Stephen VI (VII)
897Pope Romanus
897-898Pope Theodore II
898-900Pope John IX
900-903Pope Benedict IV
903-904Pope Leo V
903Anti-Pope Christopher
904-911Pope Sergius III
911-913Pope Anastasius III
913-914Pope Landus
914-928Pope John X
928Pope Leo VI
928-931Pope Stephen VII (VIII)
931-936Pope John XI
936-939Pope Leo VII
939-942Pope Stephen VIII (IX)
942-946Pope Marinus II
946-955Pope Agapitus II
955-963Pope John XII
963-964Pope Leo VIII
964-965Pope Benedict V
965-973Pope John XIII
973-974Pope Benedict VI
974Anti-Pope Boniface VII
974-983Pope Benedict VII
983-985Pope John XIV
985-996Pope John XV
996-999Pope Gregory V
997Anti-Pope John XVI
999-1003Pope Sylvester II
1003-1004Pope John XVII
1004-1009Pope John XVIII
1009-1012Pope Sergius IV
1012-1024Pope Benedict VIII
1012Anti-Pope Gregory
1024-1032Pope John XIX
1032-1045Pope Benedict IX
1045Pope Sylvester III
1045Pope Benedict IX
1045-1046Pope Gregory VI
1046-1047Pope Clement II
1047-1048Pope Benedict IX
1048-1049Pope Damasus II
1049-1055Pope Leo IX
1054Split between Eastern and Western churches formalized, Orthodox Church
1055-1057Pope Victor II
1057-1059Pope Stephen IX (X)
1057Earthquake in Cilicia (Asia Minor) kills 60,000
1058Anti-Pope Benedict X
1059-1061Pope Nicholas II
1061-1073Pope Alexender II
1061Anti-Pope Honorius II
1073-1086Gregory VII
1080Anti-Pope Clement III
1086-1088Pope Victor III
1088-1099Pope Urban II
1095-129110 Crusades, 1st called by Pope Urban II, to restore Asia Minor to Byzantium
and conquer the Holy Land from the Turks
1099-1118Pope Paschal II
1100Anti-Pope Theodoric
1102Anti-Pope Albert
1105Anti-Pope Sylvester IV
1118-1119Pope Gelasius II
1118Anti-Pope Gregory VIII
1119-1124Pope Callistus II
1124-1130Pope Honorius II
1124Anti-Pope Celestine II
1130-1143Pope Innocent II
1130Anti-Pope Anacletus II
1138Anti-Pope Victor IV
1143-1144Pope Celestine II
1144-1145Pope Lucius II
1145-1153Pope Eugene III
1153-1154Pope Anastasius IV
1154-1159Pope Adrian IV
1159-1181Pope Alexander III
1159Anti-Pope Victor IV
1164Anti-Pope Paschal III
1168Anti-Pope Callistus III
1179Anti-Pope Innocent III
1181-1185Pope Lucius III
1185-1187Pope Urban III
1187Pope Gregory VIII
1187-1191Pope Clement III
1191Pope Celestine III
1198-1216Pope Innocent III
1206Rosary is reportedly given to St. Dominic by an apparition of Mary
1215Dominican order begun
1216-1227Pope Honorius III
1223Franciscan order begun
1225-1274Thomas Aquinas, theologian and philosopher
1227-1241Pope Gregory IX
1241-1243Pope Celestine IV
1243-1254Pope Innocent IV
1254-1261Pope Alexander IV
1260Date which a 1988 Vatican sponsered scientific study places the origin of the
Shroud of Turin
1261-1265Pope Urban IV
1265-1271Pope Clement IV
1271-1276Pope Gregory X
1276Pope Innocent V
1276Pope Adrian V
1276-1277Pope John XXI
1277-1294Pope Nicholas IV
1294Pope Celestine V
1294-1303Pope Boniface VIII
1303-1305Pope Benedict XI
1305-1316Pope Clement V
1316-1334Pope John XXII
1321?The Divine Comedy, by Dante Alighieri
1328Anti-Pope Nicholas V
1334-1342Pope Benedict XII
1342-1352Pope Clement VI
1350?English begins to emerge as the national language of England
1350?Renaissance begins in Italy
1352-1362Pope Innocent VI
1354Earliest extant documentation stating the existance of the Shroud of Turin
1362-1370Pope Urban V
1370-1378Pope Gregory XI
1378-1389Pope Urban VI
1378Anti-Pope Clement VII
1380-1517Period between the 1st complete English translation of the Bible and Martin
Luther's 95 Theses
1380-1382John Wycliffe, eminant theologian at Oxford, makes NT (1380) and OT (with
help of Nicholas of Hereford) (1382) translations in English, 1st complete
translation to English, included deutercanonical books, preached against
abuses, expressed unorthodox views of the sacraments (Penance and
Eucharist), the use of relics, and against celibacy of the clergy
1384John Purvey, follower of John Wycliffe, revises Wycliffe's translation
1389-1404Pope Boniface IX
1390?Wycliffe's teachings condemned repeatedly in England
1394Anti-Pope Benedict XIII
1404-1406Pope Innocent VII
1406-1417Pope Gregory XII
1408Council of Oxford forbids translations of the Scriptures into the vernacular
unless and until they were fully approved by Church authority, sparked by
Wycliffite Bible, Sir Thomas More said: "It neither forbiddith the translations
to be read that were already well done of old before Wycliffe's days, nor
damneth his because it was new but because it was naught; nor prohibiteth
new to be made but provideth that they shall not be read if they be made
amiss till they be by good examination amended." ("A Dialogue against
1409Anti-Pope Alexander V
1410Anti-Pope John XXIII
1412-1431St. Joan of Arc, French national heroine
1415Council of Florence condemns all of Wycliffe's works, but the actual Bibles
continued to be used after having the heretical prologue removed, and were
possessed by both religious houses and those of the nobility and tacitly
accepted by Catholics
1417-1431Pope Martin V
1431-1447Pope Eugene IV
1439Anti-Pope Felix V
1447-1455Pope Nicholas V
1453Byzantium succeeded by the Ottoman Empire
1455-1458Pope Callistus III
1458-1464Pope Pius II
1464-1471Pope Paul II
1466-1536Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch scholar, Greek NT used in many 16th century
1471-1484Pope Sixtus IV
1473-1481Sistine Chapel built, under supervision of Giovanni de Dolci
1478Inquisition established by Pope Sixtus IV
1483-1546Martin Luther, leader of Protestant reformation, preached that only faith
leads to salvation without mediation of clergy or good works, attacked
authority of the Pope, rejected priestly celibacy, recommended individual
study of the Bible (see 1517, 1522)
1484-1492Pope Innocent VIII
1488-1569Miles Coverdale, Augustinian friar who left the Order, repudiated
Catholicism, 1st Protestant Bishop of Exeter
1491-1556Ignatius of Loyola, founded the Jesuit order (see 1534)
1492Christopher Columbus's first voyage, discovers San Salvador - begins
Spanish colonization of the New World
1492-1503Pope Alexander VI
1503Pope Pius III
1503-1513Pope Julius II
1505-1572John Knox, Protestant reformer in Scotland (see 1560)
1506Pope Julius II orders the Old St Peter's Basilica torn down and authorizes
Donato Bramante to plan a new structure, demolition completed in 1606
1508-1512Michelangelo frescoes the Sistine Chapel's vaulted ceiling
1509-1547Henry VIII ruler of England
1509-1564John Calvin, preached predetermination, good conduct and success were signs
of election
1513-1522Pope Leo X
1517-1994Modern Era of Christianity - Luther, Calvin lay the seeds of modern
Protestantism, England breaks away from the Catholic Church
151795 Theses (Martin Luther)
1518-1532St Terese of Avila
1520Luther excommunicated
1522-1523Pope Adrian VI
1522Luther's German NT translation
1523-1534Pope Clement VII
1524South German peasant uprising, repressed with Luther's support, begins 1.5
century long religious wars
1525-1534Tyndale's translation of the NT from Greek text of Erasmus (1466) compared
against the Vulgate and the Pentateuch from the Hebrew (1525) compared to
Vulgate and Luther's German version (1530), first printed edition, used as a
vehicle by Tyndale for bitter attacks on the Church, reflects influence of
Luther's NT of 1522 in rejecting "priest" for "elder", "church" for
1530Augsburg Confession, Martin Luther founds the Lutheran Church
1531Reported apparition of Mary at Guadalupe, Mexico, considered "worthy of
belief" by the Catholic Church
1531Earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal kills 30,000
1534Henry VIII breaks England away from the Catholic church, confiscates
monastic property, beginning of Episcopal Church
1534-1550Pope Paul III
1534Jesuit order founded by Lyola (1491-1556), helped reconvert large areas of
Poland, Hungary, and S. Germany and sent missionaries to the New World,
India, and China
1535-1537Coverdale's Bible (see 1488), used Tyndale's (1525) translation along with
Latin and German versions, included Apocrypha at the end of the OT (like
Luther) as was done in later English versions, 1537 edition received royal
license, but banned in 1546
1536Tyndale put to death, left his OT translation in manuscript, English
ecclesiaastical authorities ordered his Bible burned because it was thought to
be part of Lutheran reform
1537-1551Matthew Bible, by John Rogers (1500-1555), based on Tyndale and
Coverdale received royal license but not authorized for use in public worship,
numerous editions, 1551 edition contained offensive notes (based on Tyndale)
1536-1541Michelangelo paints the Last Judgement
1539-1552Richard Taverner's (1505-1577) revisions of Matthew Bible, mostly NT
revisions since he didn't know Hebrew, 1st edition most reliable
1539-1569Great Bible, by Thomas Cromwell, 1st English Bible to be authorized for
public use in English churches, defective in many places, based on last
Tyndale's NT of 1534-1535, corrected by a Latin version of the Hebrew OT,
Latin Bible of Erasmus, and Complutensian Polyglot, last edition 1569, never
denounced by England
1542Conocation makes an unsuccessful attempt to correct the Great Bible against
the Vulgate
1543Parliament bans Tyndale's translation as a "crafty, false and untrue
transalation", although 80% of the words were in the RV
1545-1563Council of Trent, Catholic Reformation, or counter-reformation, met
Protestant challenge, clearly defining an official theology
1546King Henry VIII forbids anyone to have a copy of Tyndale's or Coverdale's NT
1547-1553Edward VI ruler of England
1549Book of Common Prayer (Episcopal Church)
1550-1555Pope Julius III
1550?St. Thomas More, Cranmer, and Foxe affirm the existence of English versions
of portions of the Bible, including the Gospels (11th century), Mark, Luke,
Epistles of Paul (14th century), Apocalypse (11th century)
1553-1558Mary I ruler of England, publications of English Scriptures cease (except for
Geneva NT of 1557), many clerics leave England
1553Pontifical Gregorian University founded at Vatican City
1555Pope Marcellus II
1555-1559Pope Paul IV
1556Beza's Latin NT
1558-1603Elizabeth I ruler of England
1559-1566Pope Pius IV
1560Geneva Bible, NT a revision of Matthew's version of Tyndale with use of
Beza's NT (1556), OT a thorough revision of Great Bible, appointed to be read
in Scotland (but not England), at least 140 editions
1560Scotch Presbyterian Church founded by John Knox (1505-1572), due to
disagreement with Lutherans over sacraments and church government
156339 Articles (Episcopal Church)
1566-1572Pope Pius V
1571Superior force of Turks intent upon conquering Christian Europe is beaten
decisively by Christian sailors reportedly calling upon the name of Our Lady
of the Rosary
1572-1585Pope Gregory XIII
1572-1606Bishop's Bible, an inadequate and unsatisfactory revision of the Great Bible
checked against the Hebrew text, 1st to be published in England by episcopal
1582Rheims NT, based on Coverdale, Bishops', Geneva, follows Wycliffe
1585-1590Pope Sixtus V
1590-1591Pope Urban VII
1590Sistine edition of the Vulgate
1590Michelangelo's dome in St Peter's Basilica completed
1591-1592Pope Innocent IX
1592-1605Pope Clement VIII
1596Ukranian Catholic Church forms when Ukranian subjects of the king of Poland
are reunited with Rome, largest Byzantine Catholic Church
1603-1625James I ruler of England, 1st to call himself King of Great Britain, became
official with Act of Union in 1707
1605Pope Leo XI
1605-1621Pope Paul V
1606Carlo Maderno redesigns St Peter's Basilica into a Latin cross
1609Baptist Church founded by John Smyth, due to objections to infant baptism
and demands for church-state separation
1609-1610Rheims-Douay Bible, 1st Catholic English translation, OT published in two
volumes, based on an unofficial Louvain text corrected by Sistine Vulgate
(1590), NT is Rheims text of 1582
1611-1800King James (Authorized) Version, based on Bishop's Bible of 1572 with use of
Rheims NT of 1582 - included Apocropha, alterations found in many editions
through 1800, revisors accused of being "damnable corrupters of God's
1621-1623Pope Gregory XV
1623-1644Pope Urban VIII
1625-1649Charles I ruler of England
1633AV published in Scotland
1644Long Parliament directed that only Hebrew canon only be read in the Church
of England (effectively removed the Apocropha)
1644-1655Pope Innocent X
1653-1658Oliver Cromwell ruler of England
1655-1667Pope Alexander VII
1658-1712Richard Cromwell ruler of England
1660-1685Charles II king of England, restoration of monarchy in England beginning under
Charles II, continuing through James II, reversed decision of Long Parliament
of 1644, reinstating the Apocrypha, reversal not heeded by non-conformists
1667-1670Pope Clement IX
1667Earthquake in Shemaka, Caucasia kills 80,000
1670-1676Pope Clement X
1676-1689Pope Innocent XI
1685-1688James II king of England, deposed
1689-1702William III king of England, with Mary II as queen until 1694
1689-1691Pope Alexander VIII
1691-1700Pope Innocent XII
1693Earthquake in Catania, Italy kills 60,000
1700-1721Pope Clement XI
1702-1714Anne queen of England
1714-1727George I king of England
1714AV published in Ireland
1718Catholic English version of NT by Dr. Nary, much less bulky than Reims-
1721-1724Pope Innocent XIII
1724-1730Pope Benedict XIII
1727-1760George II king of England
1730-1740Pope Clement XII
1730Catholic English version of NT, revision of Reims NT by Dr. Robert Witham
1738Methodist Church founded by Rev John Wesley
1738-1816New Catholic English versions of NT by Dr. Richard Challoner and Francis
Blyth O.D.C., Bernard MacMahon, Dr Troy
1740-1758Pope Benedict XIV
1752AV published in New World colonies
1755Earthquake in Northern Persia kills 40,000
1755Earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal kills 60,000 (estimated at 8.75 Richter)
1758-1769Pope Clement XIII
1760-1820George III king of England
1769-1775Pope Clement XIV
1775-1800Pope Pius VI
1776British colonies in America declare independance from England, American
1783Earthquake in Calabria, Italy kills 30,000
1797Earthquake in Quito, Ecuador kills 41,000
1800-1823Pope Pius VII
1801-1877Brigham Young, Mormon leader, colonized Utah
1811Dr. Hay's revision of Challoner's version
1820-1830George IV king of England
1822Earthquake in Aleppo, Asia Minor kills 22,000
1815Catholic Bible Society NT, based on Challoner's
1816-1829Challoner's 3rd revision, Dr. John Lingard's translation from Greek using
Vulgate when possible
1823-1829Pope Leo XII
1827Mormon Church founded by Joseph Smith as a result of reported visions of
the Angel Moroni
1829-1831Pope Pius VIII
1830-1837William IV king of England
1830Reported apparition of Mary in Paris, France, considered "worthy of belief"
by the Catholic Church
1831-1846Pope Gregory XVI
1832Church of Christ (Disciples) organized, made up of Presbyterians in distress
over Protestant factionalism and decline of fervor
1837-1901Victoria queen of England
1846-1878Pope Pius IX
1846Reported apparition of Mary in La Salette, France, considered "worthy of
belief" by the Catholic Church
1852-1922Charles Taze Russell, founded the Jehova's Witnesses movement in the 1870s
1858Reported apparition of Mary in Lourdes, France, considered "worthy of
belief" by the Catholic Church
1859-195990 Catholic NT editions, 56 Catholic editions of the whole Bible
1868Earthquakes in Peru and Ecuador kills 40,000
1869-1870First Vatican Council, 20th ecumenical, affirms doctrine of papal infallibility
(ie. when a pope speaks ex cathedra on faith or morals he does so with the
supreme apostolic authority, which no Catholic may question or reject)
1871Reported apparition of Mary in Pontmain, France, considered "worthy of
belief" by the Catholic Church
1875Earthquake in Colombia, Venezuela
1878-1903Pope Leo XIII
187814-point creed of the Niagara Bible Conference, used by Fundamentalists
1879Reported apparition of Mary in Knock, Ireland, considered "worthy of belief"
by the Catholic Church
1881-1894Revised Version, called for by Church of England, used Greek based on
Septuagint (B) and (S), Massoretic text used in OT, follows Greek order of
words, greater accuracy than AV, includes Apocrypha, scholarship never
1898-1904Twentieth Century NT, changed order of books to chronological
1901-1910Edward VII king of England
1901American Standard Version, recension of the RV, included words/phrases
preferred by Americans, follows Greek order of words
1901Pentecostal Church formed in Topeka, Kansas in reaction to loss of
evangelical fervor among Methodists and other denominations
1902Richard Weymouth NT, a careful literary translation
1903-1914Pope Pius X, most recent Pope to be canonized
1910-1936George V king of England
19105-point statement of the Presbyterian General Assembly, also used by
1910-1915The Fundamentals, a 12-volume collection of essays by 64 British and
American scholars and preachers, a foundation of Fundamentalism
1913-1924James Moffat Bible, 1st one man translation in almost 400 years
1914-1922Pope Benedict XV
1917Reported apparition of Mary in Fatima, Portugal, "miracle of the sun"
witnessed by between 70,000 and 100,000 people, considered "worthy of
belief" by the Catholic Church
1919World's Christian Fundamentals Association founded
1922-1939Pope Pius XI
1925Scopes Trial, caused division among Fundamentalists
1932Reported apparition of Mary in Beauraing, Belgium, considered "worthy of
belief" by the Catholic Church
1933Reported apparition of Mary in Banneux, Belgium, considered "worthy of
belief" by the Catholic Church
1936Edward VIII king of England, acceeded and abdicated
1936-1952George VI king of England
1936Westminster NT, unofficial Catholic version (not commissioned by the
1939-1958Pope Pius XII
1945-1955Knox Version, from Vulgate, asked for by English Hierarchy
1946-1952Revised Standard Version, revision of AV "based on consonantal Hebrew
text" for OT and best available texts for NT, done in response to changes in
English usage
1949Basic English Bible, only 1000 words, simple and direct style
1949Discovery of Qumran (Essenes?) scrolls, aka Dead Sea scrolls (see 68)
1952-PresentElizabeth II queen of England
1957United Church of Christ founded by ecumenical union of Congregationalists and
Evangelical & Reformed, representing Calvinists and Lutherans
1958-1963Pope John XXIII
1958J. B. Phillip's NT, uses only commonly spoken language
1959Statement of Faith (United Church of Christ)
1961New English Bible, renders original Basic English Bible for private use
1962-1965Second Vatican Council, 21st ecumenical, announced by Pope John XXIII in
1959, produced 16 documents which became official after approval by the
Pope, purpose to renew "ourselves and the flocks committed to us" (Pope
1963-1978Pope Paul VI
1966RSV Catholic Edition, a joint effort between Catholics and the Church of
England, a big step towards a common Catholic/Protestant Bible
1966Jerusalem Bible, translation from original languages based on Bible de
Jerusalem, Catholic version
1970Confraternity Version, new Catholic translation from the originals which
began before 1939 as a translation from the Vulgate, but ending up as a new
translation from the Hebrew (OT) and Greek (NT).
1971New American Standard Bible, updated the ASV using recent Hebrew and
Greek textual discoveries
1978Pope John Paul I
1978New International Version, used eclectic Greek text, Massoretic Hebrew
text, and current English style
1978-?Pope John Paul II, reaffirmed conservative moral traditions (The Splendor of
Truth) and the forbidding of women in the priesthood
1979-1982?New King James Bible, complete revision of 1611 AV, updates archaisms
while retaining style
1981-?Reported apparitions of Mary in Medjugorje, Yugoslavia, not yet
approved/disapproved by the Catholic Church

note:The primary sources used in assembling this list include a chronology by Paul Harvey, The World Almanac and Book of Facts, the Academic American Encyclopedia (on Compuserve), Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, and The English Versions of the Bible by John Berchmans Dockery O.F.M. Question marks on dates indicate approximate dates, question marks on other information indicates information which is theoretical and/or not universally accepted as fact.