General Links

Warfare in the Ancient World
Hugh Elton bibliography from Greece to Rome to Byzantine.

Catapult Museum Online
The use of the catapult to the present day.

E-Hawk Cadre Main Page - The Central Military Archive
This is the place for the student of military history and scholars alike. Combines all periods from Pre-Modern to Modern. An On-Line Military History Library with Sources, Reference Materials, Bibliographies, Articles, Book Reviews. Access them by time period, subject, alphabetically.

Ancient Galleys
History of the Greek fighting ships following the development of the ram as a weapon in about 800 BC.

The Ancient Greek World - History of Warfare
Before the early 5th century warfare wreaked only as much havoc as needed for political concessions. The Persian conflict brought total war. Amphora pictures of soldiers fighting.

The Ancient Greek World - Weapons and Armor
The basic soldiering equipment (panoply) cost the equivalent of a modern car. Pictures of bronze helmets and perfume container that looks like a helmet with warrior's head.

Anglo-Saxon Warfare
Relying on Tacitus, Beowulf, and the Finnesburh Fragment, this Angelcynn (living history society) site describes the Anglo-Saxons fyrdsman.

The Archaeological Museum at Olympia
Images of breastplate, helmet of Miltiades, and bronze battering ram.

Beginner's guide to Roman military equipment. Includes FAQ. Find out what the well dressed 1st Century Roman legionnaire wore.

Battle of Syme
Article by Caroline L. Falkner, from Ancient History Bulletin evaluating the importance of Spartan victory at the Ionian island of Syme as described by Thucydides.

Battles of the Roman Republic
Summaries of the following battles: Cannae, Zama, Cynoscephalae, Pharsalus, & Actium; written as the result of a class project. Includes images of Hannibal and the elephants, busts of Caesar, Augustus, and Scipio.

Catapaults of the Roman Empire
Romans developed the cheiroballista and the onager. Site discusses the Siege of Maiden Castle, nomenclature, and methods of procurement of siege engines.

The Celts in Battle
Polybius and Livy on the subject.

Cronologia De La Epoca De Las Guerras Punicas
Almost yearly timeline of events leading up to and through the Second Punic War. In Spanish.

Introduction to Ancient Siege Warfare
Explains the purposes of siege engines before describing specific sieges at Miletus, Thebes, Halicarnassus, Tyre, and Perinthus.

The Landings of Caesar in Britain, 55 and 54 BC
After Caesar finally established a camp in Britain, he had to leave. Maps of his troops' paths between Gaul and Britain.

Las Guerras De Roma Entre 264 Y 133
Roman War timeline from 264 to 133 BC. Includes Punic, Macedonian and wars in Spain. In Spanish.

Laws of War in the Roman Empire 350 to 380 AD
Laws of hospitality protected envoys. Military movements ceased during negotiations. Dediticii, those who had surrendered, were employed within the army were assigned to distant parts of the empire.

Military History of the Roman State
Bibliography relevant to Regnal Rome, Pyrrhus, punic Wars, Jugurthine War, Caesar in Gaul, Civil Wars, Jewish Revolt, Huns, Vandals, and many other campaigns.

Models of the Roman Legion
By Gary Brueggeman. If you've ever wondered how the Roman legions were arranged, you'll appreciate the graphics on this site. Excellent bibliography.

Naval Warfare in Ancient India
Article by Prithwis Chandra Chakravarti, from 1930 Indian Historical Quarterly includes literary evidence and conquests of Ceylon.

Neolithic Warfare, by Arther Ferrill
Fascinating, long article discounting popular misconceptions about early warfare, including the idea that slings require a good deal of space and that populations were too small for warfare on a modern scale.

Peloponnesian Wars
Article with accompanying maps of alliances of and schematics of the Peloponnesian Wars which began with Sparta and her allies laid seige to Periclean Athens in 431 BC.

The Persian Wars
Kent Factora's site, containing Persian War topical definitions, maps, timeline, and a seven item bibliography.

Reforms of Marius
Greg Ong's answer to an exam question. Primarily concerns Marius' military reforms which created a professional military.

The Roman Army: A Bibliography
Extensive list, including sections on Campaigns, Battles & Military Areas, Officers, Centurions & Optiones, Legions, Recruitment, Finance, and the Navy.

Roman History in Cumbria
Second, sixth and twentieth Roman legions were stationed in Cumbria. Supplemental aid was found by recruiting locals into the Auxiliary forces.

Roman Legionary Forces in Sicily
Edward D. Clark's article on Livy's account of the number of legions stationed on Sicily from 214 - 210 BC (during Punic War II).

Roman Military Organisation until 104 BC
Before the military reorganization of Marius, the Roman army went through 3 phases with the legion reduced from 8400 men to 4000.

Roman Military Sites in Britain
Glossary, bibliography, summary of military events, introduction to forts and camps built by the Roman army.

Homepage for the Society of Ancient Military Historians. Accepts members interested in promoting and sharing in the study of Ancient Military History.

Sargon's Eighth Campaign
Anthony Garia points out what we know about the Assyrian army from letters about Sargon's campaign in 714 BC.

Siege of Syracuse
Introduction, map, and relevant passages from Livy, Polybius, and Plutarch.

Sun Tzu on the Art of War
Lionel Giles' 1910 translation from the Chinese of the oldest military treatise in the world. Includes explanation of the treatise and legends about the military leader.

The Syracusan Expedition
Athens attacked the Spartan colony in Sicily in 425 and then again, under the influence of Alcibiades, in 415. Although in the first wave of battle, Athens gained the upper hand, ultimately, it lost not only the war but its political supremacy.

Tension Artllery in the Greek World
1995 article on Gastraphetes. Composite belly bow, whose research was commissioned by Dionysus I in 399 BC, made a welcome addition to seige warfare. Related section on the Sythians is unfinished.

The Trireme
Succinct article on the Athenian fighting ship. Includes specifications and consequences of owning a fleet of the state-of-the-art, polis financed ships.

Vocabulaire militaire grec
Using Latin letters for Greek in the html, brief article describes the context based meaning of Greek military vocabulary.

Warfare in the Greek World
Bibliography on topics of strategy, logistics, siege warfare, mercenaries, equipment, hoplites, etc.

Warhorse Simulations
Historical games. Also a page of free downloadable goodies from Warhorse Simulations.