Israel The Internet Ancient History Sourcebook
Material Culture of the Ancient Canaanites, Israelites and Related Peoples (J.A. Abercrombie)
Sapanu Banco de Datos Filolsgicos Semmticos Noroccidentales (CSIC-Instituto de Filologma, Madrid)
Palestine Highlights (Oriental Institute; University of Chicago)
Harvard Semitic Museum
Reuben and Edith Hecht Museum (University of Haifa)
Israel Museum Homepage (Jerusalem)
Qadah Kinahnu—Canaan/Phoencia (Lilinah biti-Anat/Ellen Perlman)
Ashkelon Excavations
Israel's Archaeological Treasures
Biblical Jerusalem (1)
Biblical Jerusalem (2)
Map of Jerusalem (from Nehemiah to the present)
Hazor Excavations
Humanoid Sarcophagoi (photo)
Statuette of Deity (possibly El?) Late Bronze Age II, Megiddo (photo)
Informationen zu Jesus Sirach (Ben Sira) (Franz Böhmisch)
Philo of Alexandria
Sampler of Inscriptions Documenting Jews and Judaism in the Greco-Roman Diaspora Ross S. Kraemer
Philo: Ancient Mediterranean Studies at UC Davis

A Chronology of Events with a Timeline and Links (notes are in gray)

People of Israel
Internet Jewish History Sourcebook A companion sourcebook to the Ancient History Sourcebook, it covers Jewish history from its origins until the state of Israel.
Photo Gallery of Syria and Palestine [At St. Olaf]
Biblical Ancestors and Heroes [At Creighton]
Inscriptions from the Land of Isreal 330 BCE-614 CE [At Iath]
Israel from the Air [At] Pictures of archeological sites derived from the many peoples who built and ruled upon this land. Pictures of David's city, Masada, Acre, Meggido, Qumran, among others.
Timeline for the History of Judaism [At UC Davis]

Middle Kingdom period (Egypt): 2100-1780
Old Babylonian period: ca. 2000-1750

Pre-Israelite Canaan/Palestine/Syria
Danel's Need for a Son [At Creighton]
Baal vs. the Sea [At Creighton]
The Baal Epic [At AOL-Wiccan Site]
Myth of Baal [At Geocities-Qadash Kinahu Site]
The Descent of Anath into the Underworld: [At AOL-Wiccan Site]
A Canaanite Statue: Possibly El Late Bronze Age II, Megiddo, [At Oriental Institute] "El" is short for the name Elohim (the One true God of all peoples).
Ancient Near East Texts Related to the Bible [At Brandeis]
Qadash Kinahnu An attempt to "reconstruct" a Canaanite Temple of Baal, by a current believer.
Ezekiel 27
The Middle Bronze Age 2220-1570 BCE [At Brandeis] Lots of Images
The Late Bronze Age 1570-1200 BCE [At Brandeis]
The Iron Age 1200-550 BCE [At Brandeis]
Material Cultures of the Ancient Canaanites, Israelites, and Related Peoples [At Creighton]
An alternative index, using Tables, of Abercrombie's website.
Archeology of Syria-Palestine [At Creighton]
Resources for Biblical Studies
Diotima's Guide to Biblical Studies [Lots of resources at Diotima]
List of Non Biblical Documents Relating to OT History [At Yeshua]
Old Testament Life and Literature The entire book is online at (Secular)
Composition of the Pentateuch [At Creighton]
Genesis 6-9: Flood Story J and P [At Creighton]
Exodus 14: The Exodus According to J and P [At Creighton]

The Documentary Hypothesis (in case your'e interested)
The Documentary Hypothesis [Student Webpage: SCU]
The Creation Story in J and P Forms [At SCU]
The Flood Story in J and P Forms and as Parallel Text [At SCU]
Isaac's Birth in J and P Forms and as Parallel Text [At SCU]
History of the Development of the Documentary Hypothesis [At SCU]
Criticism of the Documentary Hypothesis [Modern Annotated Bibliography] Bible believing Jews and Christians have rejected the documentary hypothesis yet there are ongoing debates.
Hidden Messages and Bible Codes? From the Skeptical Inquirer. Discusses whether the Bible contains codes from God.

Who Where the Hebrews? [At][Modern Account] Useful maps.
The Hebrews [Modern Account][At WSU] The "Children of Israel"

Abraham and the Patriarchs (2000-1700 BCE)
Book of Genesis Abraham, Genesis 12-24 The Binding of Isaac, Genesis 22:1:19 Jacob, Genesis 25-36 Joseph, Genesis 37-50
The Gezer Calender 925 BC [At St. Olaf] The oldest example of written Hebrew.

***Chronological Approximations are in Gray***

Abraham & Sarah, Isaac & Ishmael: ca. 1850/1750/1700
Origin of traditions of the "Abrahamic covenant"
Traditions of Jacob/Israel and the 12 Patriarchs
Old Assyrian period: ca. 1900-1400
Hammurabi: ca. 1792-1750
Hittite empire: ca. 1750-1200
Hyksos in Egypt: ca. 1700-1550
Kassite period (Babylonia): ca. 1600-1150
New Kingdom period (Egypt): ca. l570-1085
Ugaritic texts: ca. 1500-1200
Middle Assyrian period: ca. 1400-900
Amarna period (Egypt): ca. 1400-1300
Mosaic period (Israel); ca. 1300-1200

Moses (around 1300-1200 BC)
Book of Exodus Exodus 1-15, The Exodus (1250 BC), Exodus 1-15 The Covenant, Exodus 20:22-23:33
Exodus 14: The Exodus According to J and P [At Creighton]
The Exodus and Sinai Covenant [At CUA]

Exodus from Egypt, Sinai Torah, Canaan Entry: ca. 1250-1200
Sea Peoples invade Egypt and Syro-Palestine: ca. 1200
Period of the Judges (Israel): ca. 1200-1050/1000

Conquest of the Land (around 1200-1050 BC)
Ronald A. Simkins: Traditional Models of the Israelite Settlement [At Creighton]
Stele of Merneptah [text] and Image of Mernetaph c. 1220 BCE [At ANET]
First non-biblical evidence of Israel in the Land, and only mention of Israel in Egyptian documents. See commentary [At Illuminations]
Stele of Merneptah c. 1220 BCE [At Christian Answers][Image and Discussion]
Joshua 1-12 - aggressive account
Judges 1-2 - peaceful account

The Judges (c.1200-1050 BCE)

Middle Babylonian period: ca. 1150-900
Hebrew prophets (Samuel-Malachi): ca. 1050-450
Monarchical period in Israel: ca. 1000-587
Saul (transitional king): ca. 1030-1010
David, making Jerusalem his capital: ca. 1010-970
Solomon, and building of the Temple: ca. 970-931
Secession of Northern Kingdom (Israel) from
Southern Kingdom (Judah): ca. 931
Neo-Assyrian period: 900-612
Israelite Prophets Amos, Hosea, Isaiah: 750-725
Northern Kingdom (Israel) destroyed: 722/721
Neo-Babylonian ("Chaldean") period: 612-538
Josiah (Judean King) and "Deuteronomic Reforms": 620
Judean Prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel: ca. 600-580
Southern Kingdom (Judah) and Temple destroyed -- Babylonian exile: 587/586
Judean Prophet "Second Isaiah": ca. 550

The National Monarchy (c.1020-586 BCE)
Problems with Philistines: 1-2 Samuel
The Ekron Inscription 7th Cent BCE [At St. Olaf]
Saul (c.1020-1000 BCE), 1 Samuel 8

David (1000-961 BCE)
Rise to Power: (1 Samuel 16:14-23; 17:1-11, 32-35)
The Succession Document (aka Court History): 2 Samuel:9-20; 1 Kings:1-2
The Tel Dan Inscription 9th-7th Cent BCE [At St. Olaf]
The Tel Dan Inscription Concerns the discovery of an Aramaic inscription in 1993, which may be first extrabiblical evidence for the House of David.

Solomon (961-922 BCE)
The United Kingdom of Israel, II Samuel 5-8; I Kings 4-6, 9-11
Building of the First Temple: I Kings 6-7; 2 Chronicles 3-4.
The Byt Yhwh Ostracon 9th-7th Cents. BCE [At St. Olaf] Image and text of the oldest extra biblical mention of Solomon's temple.

Israel and Judah (922-586 BCE)
Sennacherib's Campaign vs. Judea 701 BCE [At ANET]
Accounts of the Campaign of Sennacherib, 701 BCE
II Kings 15-17, Conquest of Israel by the Assyrians, 722BCE [At Northpark]
II Chronicles 36:9-23 and II Kings 23-25, Conquest of Judah by Babylon (Chaldea), 586 BCE [At Northpark]

The Exile (587-538 BCE)
Number of Exiles (4,600): Jeremiah 52:28-30
In Babylon, Psalm 136
First Isaiah, Isaiah 1, explaining the calamity [At Northpark]
Cyrus as Liberator, 539 BCE, Isaiah
Kurash (Cyrus) the Great: The Decree of Return for the Jews, 539 BCE From Persian and Biblical sources.

The Prophets (750-550 BCE)
Amos (8th Cent. BCE): Book of Amos
The first of the prophets to write.
Jeremiah (526-586 BCE), Jeremiah 7-8, 23, 31 The "new covenant" is foretold
Isaiah prophesies of the coming Messiah

Book of Job
Song of Songs: History of Interpretation [UPenn]
Sights and Sounds of the Song of Songs [UPenn] Includes audio files of Ashkenazi, Sephardie and Yemani cantors.

Judaism after the Babylonian Exile: ca. 538 BCE-70 CE

Persian Period: 538-333
Edict of Cyrus (first return from Exile): 538
Jerusalem ("Second") Temple rebuilt: 520-515
Judean Prophet Haggai: 520
Reformation led by Ezra and Nehemiah: 450-400
Torah (Pentateuch = first division of Jewish Scriptures) begins to gain recognition as Scripture: ca. 450
Hellenistic (Greek) period: 333-63
Alexander the Great conquers Palestine: 333/331
Judaism under Greek Ptolemies & Seleukids: ca. 320-168
"Septuagint" translation of Torah into Greek: ca. 250
Coming of Rome to the east Mediterranean: ca. 230-146
Prophets (second division of Jewish Scriptures) recognized by some as Scripture by ca. 200
Jewish Qumran community: ca. 200 BCE-135 CE
Jewish Maccabean revolt & Hasmonean rule: 168/167-63 BCE
Rome (Pompey) annexes Palestine: 63 BCE
Rule of Rome: ca. 146 BCE-400 CE

Hellenistic Judaisms: Diasporas

The Macabbees and After

The Revolt (175-135 BCE)

I Macabbees or longer selection, written. c. 100 BCE [At Northpark]

Hasmonean Rule (134-64 BCE)

Conquest By Pompey 63 BCE

Jews in the Diaspora

Petition to Authorize Elephantine Temple Reconstruction, 410 BCE [At St Olaf] A remarkable (Aramaic) document in which Jews living in Egypt petition to build a Temple to Yahweh at Elephantine in Egypt.
The Jews of Ptolemaic & Greco-Roman Egypt

Conflict with Rome
Josephus (37- after 93 CE): Complete Works [At CCEL] Includes Antiquities of the Jews, The Jewish War and Against Apion
Josephus (37- after 93 CE): Siege and Fall of Jerusalem 70CE [Jewish War 6:8][At PBS]
Josephus (37- after 93 CE): Masada [Jewish War 7:9][At PBS]
Roman Sources on the Jews and Judaism, 1 BCE-110 CE [This Site]Texts from Josephus, Augustus, Claudius, Strabo and Tacitus.
Roman Governors of Judea [At Trinity]
Documents on Jews and Judaism in the Greco-Roman Diaspora [At UPenn]
Rome and the Jews and Part II [Reed College]
Arch of Titus [Image - Showing Destruction of Jersualem][At Rhodes]

Herod the Great (Jewish Roman ruler of Palestine): 37-4 BCE
Hillel & Shammai (Jewish sages): turn of the era
Rome establishes direct rule of prefects in Judea: 6 CE
Philo Judaeus of Alexandria: ca. 13 BCE-after 41 CE
Joshua/Jesus "the Christ": before 4 BCE-ca. 30 CE
Gamliel/Gamaliel I (Jewish leader-scholar): fl. ca. 40 CE
Paul "the apostle" (Jewish "Christian"): fl. 36-64 CE
Josephus (Jewish leader, historian): ca. 37-100 CE
Christian Testament (NT) writings: ca. 50-125 CE

Hellenistic Judaism: Religious Development
Old Testament Pseudepigrapha [At Noncanonical Homepage] Full texts.
Old Testament Pseudepigrapha Web Page [At St. Andrews]

The Emergence of Judaism
Reforms By Hezekiah (r. 715-687 BCE): 2 Chronicles 30
The enforcement of Monotheism.
Hezekiah's Reforms and the Revolt against Assyria [At Emory/Bib.Arch]
Discovery of Deuteronomy (c.621 BCE): 2 Kings 18:4, 22
The Restoration of the Temple (c 520-515 BCE): Ezra 1:2-4, 6:3-5, Haggai 1-2
Ezra, excerpts [At Northpark]
Nehemiah (gov. c.445-c.433) and Ezra (mid-5th Cent. BCE) define the Community

The Invention of the Synagogue (much more coming in this section)
The Theodotos Inscription,1st Cent CE [At St. Olaf]
Ancient Synagogue Literary Library Contains many texts about the institution of the synagogue in the Second Temple period.

The Samaritans in the Hasmonean Period [At Ioudaios]

The Bible Considering the Circumstances
Josephus (37- after 93 CE): Against Apion 1:37-41
First mention of a five book Torah.

The Septuagint (?made under Ptolemy II r. 283-246 BCE)
The Letter of Aristeas 3rd Cent BCE [At Non-Canonical Homepage] The main source of the story of the composition of the Septuagint. The authorship is disputed.
Ryland Papyrus, #458, 150 BC
The Septuagint [At Catholic Encyclopedia]
An Informative Usenet Discussion of the LXX [at Wittgenstein's Net] Discusses the manuscripts, use in the NT, etc.

Philo Judaeus (c.30 BCE-45 CE)
Philo Judaeus (c.30 BCE-45 CE): The Creation of the World, c. 30 CE
Philo Judaeus (c.30 BCE-45 CE): On Ascetics 30 CE
Philo Judaeus (c.30 BCE-45 CE): On Eating the Passover Meal [At Jewish Heritage]
Resources on Philo

Competing Jewish Sects

1 Maccabees 7:12-25
Josephus (37- after 93 CE): Antiquities 13:10:6, 297
In Search of a Pharisee [At Ioudaios]
Current Scholarship on the Pharisees [At Ioudaios]




The Qumran Sect

The Dead Sea Scrolls
The Community Rule [At Non-Canonical Page]
Scrolls from the Dead Sea [Website-UNC] See the extensive text page.
Dead Sea Scroll Texts [At UPenn]
Dead Sea Scrolls [At LCongress]
Origin and Early History of the Qumran Sect [At Emory/Bib.Arch.][Modern Account]

Review of Martin Goodman: Mission and Conversion: Proselytizing in the Religious History of the Roman Empire, Journal of Early Christian Studies 4.1 (1996) 114-116 [At Johns Hopkins]

Rabbinic Judaism

The Talmud
Post Biblical Judaism [Online Course-U Alberta]
The Talmud
Page from the Babylonian Talmud [At Calgary]

Gender and Judaism
Gender Construction in J [At Creighton]
Various Articles on Gender and Israel [At Creighton]
Biblical Texts Concerning Kinship and Marriage [At Creighton]
People With a History: Ancient and Medieval Jews or here

Modern Perspectives on Ancient Israel
Abraham, Our Father and Theirs [At U Alberta]

Judaism Today (Coming Soon)

Early Christian Period of Development: 30-311 CE
Rabbinic Jewish Period of Talmud Development: 70-400/600 CE

First Jewish Revolt against Rome: 66-73
Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple: 70
Establishment of Jewish center for study at Yavneh/Jamnia
(Yohanan ben Zakkai), with rabbinic ordination: ca. 73
Gamaliel II excludes sectarians (including Christians) from the synagogues: ca. 90-100
Writings (third and last division of Jewish Scriptures) discussed and accepted as sacred scripture: ca. 90-150
Jewish Revolts against Rome outside Palestine: 114-117
Aqiba/Akiba active in consolidating Rabbinic Judaism: 120-135
Bar Kokhba rebellion (Second Jewish Revolt): 132-135
Jerusalem renamed, Jews forbidden to dwell there
Mishnah compiled/edited under Judah the Prince: ca. 200
Sporadic persecution of Christianity by Rome: to 311
Origen (Christian scholar, biblical interpreter): fl. 200-254
Babylonian Jewish Academy founded at Sura by Rab: ca. 220
Rise of Mani/Manichaean World Religion synthesis: 240-276
Babylonian Jews flourish (as does Manichaeism) under Persian King Shapur I: ca. 250
Early development of Christian monasticism in Egypt: 250-330
Eusebius (Christian author, historian): 263-339
Violent persecution of Christians by Emperor Diocletian: 303
Emperor Constantine embraces Christianity: 312/313

Consolidation & Dominance of Classical Christianity: 325-1517

Christian First Ecumenical Council, at Nicea (Asia Minor): 325
Jerusalem Christian construction under Constantine, Helena: 330
Jerome (Christian author, translator): ca. 325-420
Augustine (Christian author in North Africa): 354-430
Christianity becomes THE religion of Roman Empire: 380/391
Jewish Palestinian Talmud edited: ca. 400
Jewish Babylonian Talmud edited: ca. 400-600
Rome sacked by Visigoths: 410
Jewish office of Nasi/Prince abolished by Rome: 425
Christian Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon: 451
Benedictine Latin Christian monastery founded: 535

"Medieval" Period in the West: ca. 600-1500
Reception & Classical Development of Muhammad's Islamic Message: 610-1258

Muhammad ("the Prophet" of Islam): ca. 570-632
Prophetic call and start of Quranic revelations: ca 610
The hijra (emigration) from Mecca to Medina: 622
Capitulation of Mecca, rededication of Kaba: 630
Pope Gregory the Great: 590-604
Period of the Jewish Rabbinic Geonim: ca. 600-1300
The four "rightly guided caliphs" of Islam: 632-661
Jews permitted to return to Jerusalem under Islam: 638
Assasination of Ali (last of the four): 661
Umayyad Dynasty of Islam in Damascus (Syria): 661-750
Muslim Attacks on Christian Constantinople: 669, 674
Massacre of Ali's son Husayn and Shiites (Iraq): 680
John of Damascus (Christian scholar): ca. 675-749
Muslim Forces Attack Spain Successfully: 711
Islam repulsed at Tours (France), gateway to Europe: 732
Karaism founded (Jewish reaction to Rabbinic Judaism): ca. 760
Charlemagne (France; Holy Roman Empire: 800): 742-814
Abbasid Dynasty of Islam in Baghdad (Iraq) -- the "golden age" of Islamic culture: 750-1258
Abu Hanifa (Muslim theologian and jurist in Iraq): ??-767
Malik ibn Anas (jurist, collector of hadiths, Medina): 710-795
Caliph Harun al-Rashid rules in "1001 Nights" style: ca. 800
Mutazilite rationalism developed and debated: ca. 800-950
Caliph Mamun sponsors translations of Greek learning into Arabic (Arabic science flourishes): ca. 825
Ibn Hanbal (jurist, collector of hadiths, Baghdad): 855
Bukhari and Muslim (collectors of hadiths): 870 and 875
Shiite "twelvers" arise: 874
Continuation of Umayyad Muslim rule in Spain: to 12th century
Al-Ashari (ex-Mutazilite Muslim scholar): ??-935
Saadia Gaon (Rabbinic Jewish sage): 882-942
Execution of Hallaj, radical Persian Muslim mystic/sufi: 922
Golden Age in Spain (Islamic Umayyad dynasty): ca. 950-1150
Founding of Cairo (and soon thereafter Azhar University) by the Islamic Shiite Fatimid dynasty in Egypt: 969
Ibn Sina (Avicenna; Muslim Platonist philosopher): ??-1037
Final split ("schism") between Latin (Roman) and Greek (Byzantine) Classical Christian Churches: 1053/54
William the Conquerer (Norman) takes England: 1066
Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac; Jewish sage): 1040-1105
Ghazali (Persian Muslim scholar and mystic): 1058-1111
Crusades (Christian warfare with Islam in Palestine): 1095-1291
Crusaders (European Christians) capture Jerusalem: 1099
Judah Halevi (Jewish author): 1085-1140
Bernard of Clairvaux (Christian mystic): 1090-1153
Ibn Rushd (Averroes; Muslim Aristotleian philosopher): ??-1198
Maimonides (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon; Jewish scholar): 1135-1204
Saladin (1138-1193) overthrows Fatimid dynasty in Egypt: 1171
Saladin (Muslim) recaptures Jerusalem from crusaders: 1187
Ibn Arabi (Spanish Muslim mystic poet): 1165-1240
Muhammad Ghuri (Islam) conquers northern India: 1203
Francis of Assisi (Christian mystic): ca. 1181-1226
Pope Innocent III (Christian): 1198-1216
The Zohar (a Jewish kabalistic book): written ca. 13th century
Death of Genghis/Genghiz Khan (roving Mongol conquerer): 1227
Inquisition by Christians in Spain: ca. 1230
Jalal al-Din Rumi (Muslim mystic poet from Turkey): 1207-1273
Thomas Aquinas (Christian scholar): 1225-1274
Mamluk Islamic rule (new dynasty) in Egypt: 1254-1517
Fall of Islamic Abbasid dynasty to Hulagu (Mongol): 1258

Further Transitions and Rebuilding of Political Islam: 1258-1500

Expulsion of Jews from England: 1290/1291
Expulsion of Christian Crusaders from Syria: 1291
Italian Renaissance: 1300-1517
Expulsions of Jews from France: 1306-1394
John Wycliffe (Christian dissident leader): 1328-1384
Rise of the Ottoman Muslim dynasty in Turkey: 14th century
Timurlane/Tamurlane, Turkic ruler in central Asia: 1336-1405
Damascus sacked by Timurlane: 1400
Fall of Constantinople (Istanbul) to Ottoman Muslims: 1453
Gutenberg Bible printed (invention of printing press): 1456
Christian expulsion of Muslim Moors from Spain: 1492
Christian expulsion of Jews from Spain, Portugal: 1492, 1496

Islamic Political Dominance as far East as India: ca. 1500-1920
Reformation and Post-Reformation Christian Period: 1517-present
Jewish Transitions towards Modernity: ca.1550-1700

Dominance of Ottoman Muslim Empire in Turkey, etc.: 1500-1920
Victory of (Muslim Ottoman Turk) Selim I over Egypt: 1517
Ottoman Muslim rulers (later) claim the title "caliph"
Sulayman I, "the Magnificent," rules: 1520-1566
Dominance of Safavid Shiite Muslim dynasty in Iran: ca. 1500-1800
Dominance of Mughal Muslim dynasty in India: ca. 1500-1800
Babur (1483-1530, central Asia) begins conquest of India: 1525
Protestant Christian Reformation: ca. 1500-1650
Martin Luther: 1483-1546
Luther posts "95 theses" in Wittenburg, Germany: 1517
Luther preaches against Jews: 1542-1546
Thomas Cranmer: 1489-1556
William Tyndale: ca. 1494-1536
John Calvin: 1509-1564
Jewish ghettos instituted (Venice, Rome): 1516, 1555
Shulhan Aruk (code of Jewish law by Joseph Karo/Caro): published 1567/1571
Rene Descartes (scholar-philosopher): 1596-1650
Menasseh ben Israel (Jewish scholar-mystic): 1605-1657
Christian Puritans begin emigrations to America: 1620
Blaise Pascal (scholar): 1623-1662
Shabbatai Zvi (Jewish "messianic" leader): 1626-1676
Baruch/Benedict Spinoza (scholar, converted Jew): 1632-1677
Arrival of Jews in New Amsterdam (= New York, America): 1654
Jews readmitted to England by Oliver Cromwell: 1655
Jews expelled from Vienna: 1670

Jewish Modern and Contemporary Periods: ca. 1700-present

Israel Baal Shem Tov (founder of Jewish Hasidism): 1700-1760
Jonathan Edwards (American Christian preacher): 1703-1758
John and Charles Wesley (Christian): 1703-1791 and 1707-1788
First public Jewish synagogue in Berlin: 1712
Wahhabi "fundamentalist" movement arises in Islam: ca. 1750
Moses Mendelssohn (Jewish "enlightenment" scholar): 1729-1786
Napoleon (France): 1769-1821
American Revolution; religious freedom guaranteed: 1775-1781
French Revolution: 1789
French Jews given citizenship: 1790-1791
Napoleon, battle of the Pyramids in Islamic Egypt: 1798
Muslim Wahhabis capture Mecca & Medinah, raid Karbala: 1801-1804
Rise of the Jewish Reform movement in Europe (Abraham Geiger): mid-19th century
French occupation of Muslim Algiers: 1830
American Civil War: 1861-1865
Ghettos abolished in Italy: 1870
Reform Judaism in US establishes Union of American Hebrew Congregations: 1873
Start of mass migrations of eastern European Jews: 1881
French occupation of Muslim Tunisia: 1881
British occupation of Muslim Egypt: 1882
Reform Jewish Pittsburg Platform: 1885
Founding of Conservative Judaism, in US (Solomon Schechter): end of 19th century (Jewish Theological Seminary: 1886)
Theodore Herzl publishes The Jewish State (Zionism): 1896
First Jewish Zionist congress: 1897
Founding of the Modern Jewish Orthodox movement: early 20th century
Revolution by "young Turks" under Ottomans: 1908
Founding of Tel Aviv as Hebrew speaking Jewish city: 1909
World War I: 1914-1918

Islamic Unrest and Realignment in the Middle East: ca. 1914-present

Start of Arab revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule: 1916
British capture Baghdad: 1917
Balfour Declaration favors Jewish Palestinian State: 1917
Damascus taken by T.E.Lawrence and Arabs: 1918
Egyptian revolution: 1919
Kingdoms of Iraq and Jordan established: 1921
Overthrow of Ottoman Muslim rule by "young Turks" (Kemal
Ataturk) and establishment of secular state: 1923
Caliphate officially abolished: 1924
Pahlevi dynasty in Persia (= "Iran": 1935): 1925-1979
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia established: 1932
Adolph Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany: 1933
Jewish rights in Germany rescinded by Nuremberg laws: 1935
Reform Jewish Columbus Platform (Zionism, etc.): 1937
German Jewish synagogues burned down: 9 Nov 1938
World War II: 1939-1945
The Nazi German Holocaust against Jews: 1939/1942-1945
Partition of India and Pakistan: 1947
Declaration of independence of the State of Israel: 1948
Libya proclaims independence: 1952
Egyptian republic proclaimed, Nassar takes over: 1953, 1954
Sudan & Tunisia independence, Pakistan Republic: 1956
United Arabic Republic established: 1958
Founding of the Jewish Reconstructionist movement (as a distinct denomination; Mordecai Kaplan): 1960s
"Six Days War" reunites Jerusalem under Israeli control: 1967
"Yom Kippur War" in Israel: 1973
Ordination of first (Reform) Jewish woman rabbi in US: 1972
Ordination of first Reconstructionist Jewish woman rabbi: 1974
"Black Muslims" in America cultivate Sunni recognition: 1975
Ordination of first Conservative Jewish woman rabbi: 1984/1985
Persian Gulf War to maintain stability: 1990-1991

Historical Chart is from the Time-Line for the History of Judaism
Adopted from the University of Pennsylvania course
Religious Studies 014 (R. Kraft, revised Jan 1993)