Caligula

Caligula in Roman Biography

Ca-lig'u-la, (Caius C*sar,) a Roman emperor, bom in 12 A.D., was the son of Germanicus and Agrippina, who was a granddaughter of the emperor Augustus. His childhood and youth were passed among the soldiers, with whom he became a favourite. By deep dissimulation he escaped from being a victim to the suspicion of Tiberius, who was the uncle of Germanicus and had adopted the latter as his heir. At the age of twenty-five Caligula succeeded Tiberius, with a general expression of popular favour. The first acts of his reign gave promise of clemency and moderation, by liberating prisoners of state, recalling exiles, etc. Before many months had ejapsed, he became a monster of cruelty, and indulged his vicious passions and appetites to the greatest excess. 1 le caused a temple to be erected to himself, and claimed divine honours. It is said that he wished the Roman people had but one head, that he might decapitate them at a single blow. A conspiracy was formed against him by Cassius Chaerea, who assassinated him in the year 41, whereupon his uncle Claudius became his successor. See Suetonius, "Lives of the Twelve Caesars;" Tacitus, "Annales;" Dion Cassiuc, "History of Rome."

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Caligula in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Caligŭla, Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanĭcus , son of Germanicus and Agrippina, was born A.D. 12, in the camp, probably in Germany, and was brought up among the legions (Calig. 8). Here he received from the soldiers the surname of Caligula, from his being arrayed, when quite young, like a common soldier, and wearing a pair of caligae, a kind of shoe or covering for the feet used chiefly by the common soldiers. This was done in order to secure towards him the goodwill of the troops. Caligula himself, however, disliked the appellation in after- days, and preferred that of Gaius Caesar, which is also his historical name. Upon his father's death he returned from Syria, and lived with his mother till her exile, when he removed to the residence of Livia Augusta, his great-grandmother, whose funeral oration he delivered in public, while he still wore the praetexta. He afterwards remained in the family of his grandmother, Antonia, until his twentieth year, when, being invited to Capreae by the emperor, he assumed the dress proper to manhood, but without the customary ceremonies. In the court of his grandfather, his naturally mean and vicious temper appeared in a servile compliance with the caprices of those in power, in a wanton love of cruelty towards the unfortunate, and in the most abandoned and unprincipled debauchery; so that Tiberius observed that he was Caligula. (Bronze bust in Paris.) breeding a second Phaethon for the destruction of the world. Tiberius had, by his testament, appointed his two grandsons, Gaius Caesar and Tiberius Gemellus, the latter the son of Drusus, joint heirs of the Empire. The first act of Caligula, however, was to assemble the Senate for the purpose of declaring the invalidity of the will; and this being readily effected, and Tiberius Gemellus being declared too young to rule, Gaius Caesar Caligula was immediately proclaimed emperor. This appointment was received with the most unbounded joy both at Rome and in the provinces, and the conduct of the new prince seemed at first to promise one of the most auspicious of reigns. But this was all dissimulation on his part-a dissimulation which he had learned under his wily predecessor-for Caligula esteemed it prudent to assume the appearance of moderation, liberality, and justice, till he should be firmly seated on the throne, and freed from all apprehension lest the claims of the young Tiberius might be revived on any offence having been taken by the Senate. He interred, in the most honourable manner, the remains of his mother and of his brother Nero, set free all state prisoners, recalled the banished, and forbade all prosecutions for treason. He conferred on the magistrates free and independent power. Although the will of Tiberius had been declared, by the Senate, to be null and void, he fulfilled every article of it, with the exception only of that above mentioned. When he was chosen consul, he took his uncle Claudius as his colleague. Thus he distinguished the first eight months of his reign by many actions dictated perhaps by hypocrisy, but which appeared magnanimous and noble to the eyes of the world, when he fell, on a sudden, dangerously ill, in consequence, as has been imagined, of a love-potion given him by his mistress, Milonia Caesonia (whom he afterwards married), with a view to securing his inconstant affections. On recovering from this malady, whether weary by this time of the restraints of hypocrisy, or actually deranged in his intellect by the inflammatory effects of the potion which he had taken (Juv.vi. 614), the emperor threw off all appearance of virtue and moderation, as well as all prudential considerations, and acted on every occasion with the mischievous violence of unbridled passions and wanton power; so that the tyranny of Tiberius was forgotten in the enormities of Caligula. The most exquisite tortures served him for enjoyments. During his meals he caused criminals, and even innocent persons, to be stretched on the rack and beheaded; the most respectable citizens were daily executed. In the madness of his arrogance he even considered himself a god, and caused the honours to be paid to him which were paid to Apollo, to Mars, and even to Iupiter. He built a temple to his own divinity. At one time he wished that the whole Roman people had but one head, that he might be able to cut it off at a single blow. He frequently repeated the words of Attius, Oderint dum metuant. One of his greatest follies was the building of a bridge of vessels between Baiae and Puteoli, in imitation of that of Xerxes over the Hellespont. He himself consecrated this grand structure with great splendour; and, after he had passed the night following in a revel with his friends, in order to do something extraordinary before his departure he caused a crowd of persons, without distinction of age, rank, or character, to be seized and thrown into the sea. On his return he entered Rome in triumph, because, as he said, he had conquered nature herself. After this he made preparations for an expedition against the Germans; passed, with more than 200,000 men, over the Rhine; but returned after he had travelled a few miles, and that without having seen an enemy. Such was his terror that when he came to the river, and found the bridge obstructed by the crowd upon it, he caused himself to be passed over the heads of the soldiers. He then went to Gaul, which he plundered with unexampled rapacity. Not content with the considerable booty thus obtained, he sold all the property of his sisters Agrippina and Livilla, whom he banished. He also sold the furniture of the old court, the clothes of Augustus, Agrippina, etc. Before he left Gaul he declared his intention of going to Coin of Caligula, with his head and that of Augustus (the latter crowned). Britain. He collected his army on the coast, embarked in a magnificent galley, but returned when he had hardly left the land, drew up his forces, ordered the signal of battle to be sounded, and commanded the soldiers to fill their helmets with shells, while he cried out, "This booty, ravished from the sea, is fit for my palace and the Capitol." When he returned to Rome he was desirous of a triumph on account of his achievements, but contented himself with an ovation. Discontented with the Senate, he resolved to destroy the greater part of the members and the most distinguished men of Rome, as was proved by two books which were found after his death, wherein the names of the proscribed were noted down, and of which one was entitled Gladius (Sword), and the other Pugillus (Dagger). He became reconciled to the Senate, however, when he found it worthy of him. He supported public brothels and gaming-houses in the palace, and received himself the entrance-money of the visitors. His horse, named Incitatus, was his favourite. This horse he made one of his priests, and, by way of insult to the Republic, declared it also consul. It was kept in an ivory stable and fed from a golden manger, and when it was invited to feast at the emperor's table gilded oats were served up in a golden basin of exquisite workmanship. He had even the intention of destroying the poems of Homer, and was on the point of removing the works and images of Vergil and Livy from all libraries-those of the former because, as he said, he was destitute of genius and learning; those of the latter because he was not to be depended upon as an historian. Caligula's morals were, from his youth upward, abominably corrupt, but after he had married and repudiated several wives, Caesonia retained a permanent hold on his affections. His extravagance equalled his cruelty, for in a single year he squandered the entire savings of Tiberius, some $28,000,000, a favourite amusement of his being to stand on a balcony and shovel goldpieces into the street. At length, a number of conspirators, at the head of whom were Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus, both tribunes of the praetorian cohorts, murdered him in the twenty-ninth year of his age, and the fourth of his reign, A.D. 41. His life was written by Suetonius. See Baring-Gould's Tragedy of the Caesars (London, 1893).

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Agis II in Wikipedia

Agis II (Gr. Ἄγις) (d. c. 401 BC) was the 17th Eurypontid king of Sparta, the eldest son of Archidamus II by his first wife, and half brother of Agesilaus.[1] He ruled with his Agiad co-monarch Pausanius.[2] Agis succeeded his father Archidamus in 427 BC, and reigned a little more than 28 years. In the summer of 426 BC, he led an army of Peloponnesians and their allies as far as the isthmus, with the intention of invading Attica; but they were deterred from advancing farther by a succession of earthquakes which happened when they had got so far.[3] In the spring of the following year he led an army into Attica, but quit it fifteen days after he had entered it.[4] In 419 BC, the Argives, at the instigation of Alcibiades, attacked Epidaurus; and Agis with the whole force of Lacedaemon set out at the same time and marched to the frontier city, Leuctra. No one, Thucydides tells us, knew the purpose of this expedition. It was probably to make a diversion in favor of Epidaurus.[5] At Leuctra the unfavorable aspect of the sacrifices deterred him from proceeding. He therefore led his troops back, and sent round notice to the allies to be ready for an expedition at the end of the sacred month of the Carnean festival; and when the Argives repeated their attack on Epidaurus, the Spartans again marched to the frontier town, Caryae, and again turned back, professedly on account of the aspect of the victims. In the middle of the following summer (418 BC) the Epidaurians being still hard pressed by the Argives, the Lacedaemonians with their whole force and some allies, under the command of Agis, invaded Argolis. By a skilful manoeuvre he succeeded in intercepting the Argives, and posted his army advantageously between them and the city. But just as the battle was about to begin, the Argive general Thrasyllus and Alciphron came to Agis and prevailed on him to conclude a truce for four months. Agis, without disclosing his motives, pulled his army back. On his return he was severely censured for having thus thrown away the opportunity of reducing Argos, especially as the Argives had seized the opportunity afforded by his return and taken Orchomenus. It was proposed to pull down his house, and inflict on him a fine of 100,000 drachmas. But on his earnest entreaty they contented themselves with appointing a council of war, consisting of 10 Spartans, without whom he was not to lead an army out of the city.[6] Shortly afterwards they received intelligence from Tegea, that, if not promptly reinforced, the party favorable to Sparta in that city would be compelled to surrender. The Spartans immediately sent their whole force under the command of Agis. He restored stability at Tegea, and then marched to Mantineia. By turning the waters to flood the lands of Mantineia, he succeeded in drawing the army of the Mantineans and Athenians down to the level ground. A battle ensued, in which the Spartans were victorious. The Battle of Mantinea was reckoned one of the most important battles ever fought between Grecian states.[7] In 417 BC, when news reached Sparta of the counter-revolution at Argos, in which the oligarchical and Spartan faction was overthrown, an army was sent there under Agis. He was unable to restore the defeated party, but he destroyed the long walls which the Argives had begun to carry down to the sea, and took Hysiae.[8] In the spring of 413 BC, Agis entered Attica with a Peloponnesian army, and fortified Decelea;[9] and in the winter of the same year, after the news of the disastrous fate of the Sicilian expedition had reached Greece, he marched northwards to levy contributions on the allies of Sparta, for the purpose of constructing a fleet. While at Decelea he acted largely independent of the Spartan government, and received embassies from the disaffected allies of the Athenians, as from the Boeotians and other allies of Sparta.[10] He seems to have remained at Decelea until the end of the Peloponnesian War. In 411 BC, during the administration of the Four Hundred, he made an unsuccessful attempt on Athens itself.[11] Afterwards the focus of the Peloponnesian War shifted to Asia, and Lysander assumed a greater role in the siege of Athens. After victory was secured, Agis voted to charge his Agiad co-monarch Pausanias with treason, but Pausanias was acquitted. [12] In 401 BC, the command of the war against the notoriously disloyal Elis was entrusted to Agis, who in the third year compelled the Eleans to sue for peace, acknowledge the freedom of their Perioeci (citizens of cities conquered by Sparta, who were given some privileges), and to allow Spartans to take part in the Olympic Games and sacrifices.[2] As he was returning from Delphi, where he had gone to consecrate a tenth of the spoil, he fell sick at Heraea in Arcadia, and died in the course of a few days after he reached Sparta.[13] He was buried in Sparta, with unparalleled solemnity and pomp.[2] Agis left a son, Leotychides, who however was excluded from the throne, as there was some suspicion with regard to his legitimacy. While Alcibiades was at Sparta he made Agis his enemy. Later writers assign as a reason that Agis suspected Alcibiades of having slept with his queen, Timaea (and fathered Leotychides).[14][15] It was probably at the suggestion of Agis that orders were sent out to Astyochus to put him to death. Alcibiades however received warning (according to some accounts from Timaea herself), and evaded the Spartans.[16][17]

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Caligula in Wikipedia

Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (31 August AD 12 – 24 January AD 41), commonly known as Caligula and sometimes Gaius, was Roman Emperor from 37 to 41. Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio- Claudian dynasty. Caligula's father Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of emperor Tiberius, was a very successful general and one of Rome's most beloved public figures. The young Gaius earned the nickname Caligula (the diminutive form of caliga meaning "little soldier's boot") from his father's soldiers while accompanying him during his campaigns in Germania. When Germanicus died at Antioch in 19 AD, his mother Agrippina the Elder returned to Rome with her six children where she became entangled in an increasingly bitter feud with Tiberius. This conflict eventually led to the destruction of her family, with Caligula as the sole male survivor. Unscathed by the deadly intrigues, Caligula accepted the invitation to join the emperor on the island of Capri in 31, where Tiberius himself had withdrawn five years earlier. At the death of Tiberius in 37, Caligula succeeded his great-uncle and adoptive grandfather...

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Agis II in Wikipedia

Agis II (Gr. Ἄγις) (d. c. 401 BC) was the 17th Eurypontid king of Sparta, the eldest son of Archidamus II by his first wife, and half brother of Agesilaus.[1] He ruled with his Agiad co-monarch Pausanius.[2] Agis succeeded his father Archidamus in 427 BC, and reigned a little more than 28 years. In the summer of 426 BC, he led an army of Peloponnesians and their allies as far as the isthmus, with the intention of invading Attica; but they were deterred from advancing farther by a succession of earthquakes which happened when they had got so far.[3] In the spring of the following year he led an army into Attica, but quit it fifteen days after he had entered it.[4] In 419 BC, the Argives, at the instigation of Alcibiades, attacked Epidaurus; and Agis with the whole force of Lacedaemon set out at the same time and marched to the frontier city, Leuctra. No one, Thucydides tells us, knew the purpose of this expedition. It was probably to make a diversion in favor of Epidaurus.[5] At Leuctra the unfavorable aspect of the sacrifices deterred him from proceeding. He therefore led his troops back, and sent round notice to the allies to be ready for an expedition at the end of the sacred month of the Carnean festival; and when the Argives repeated their attack on Epidaurus, the Spartans again marched to the frontier town, Caryae, and again turned back, professedly on account of the aspect of the victims. In the middle of the following summer (418 BC) the Epidaurians being still hard pressed by the Argives, the Lacedaemonians with their whole force and some allies, under the command of Agis, invaded Argolis. By a skilful manoeuvre he succeeded in intercepting the Argives, and posted his army advantageously between them and the city. But just as the battle was about to begin, the Argive general Thrasyllus and Alciphron came to Agis and prevailed on him to conclude a truce for four months. Agis, without disclosing his motives, pulled his army back. On his return he was severely censured for having thus thrown away the opportunity of reducing Argos, especially as the Argives had seized the opportunity afforded by his return and taken Orchomenus. It was proposed to pull down his house, and inflict on him a fine of 100,000 drachmas. But on his earnest entreaty they contented themselves with appointing a council of war, consisting of 10 Spartans, without whom he was not to lead an army out of the city.[6] Shortly afterwards they received intelligence from Tegea, that, if not promptly reinforced, the party favorable to Sparta in that city would be compelled to surrender. The Spartans immediately sent their whole force under the command of Agis. He restored stability at Tegea, and then marched to Mantineia. By turning the waters to flood the lands of Mantineia, he succeeded in drawing the army of the Mantineans and Athenians down to the level ground. A battle ensued, in which the Spartans were victorious. The Battle of Mantinea was reckoned one of the most important battles ever fought between Grecian states.[7] In 417 BC, when news reached Sparta of the counter-revolution at Argos, in which the oligarchical and Spartan faction was overthrown, an army was sent there under Agis. He was unable to restore the defeated party, but he destroyed the long walls which the Argives had begun to carry down to the sea, and took Hysiae.[8] In the spring of 413 BC, Agis entered Attica with a Peloponnesian army, and fortified Decelea;[9] and in the winter of the same year, after the news of the disastrous fate of the Sicilian expedition had reached Greece, he marched northwards to levy contributions on the allies of Sparta, for the purpose of constructing a fleet. While at Decelea he acted largely independent of the Spartan government, and received embassies from the disaffected allies of the Athenians, as from the Boeotians and other allies of Sparta.[10] He seems to have remained at Decelea until the end of the Peloponnesian War. In 411 BC, during the administration of the Four Hundred, he made an unsuccessful attempt on Athens itself.[11] Afterwards the focus of the Peloponnesian War shifted to Asia, and Lysander assumed a greater role in the siege of Athens. After victory was secured, Agis voted to charge his Agiad co-monarch Pausanias with treason, but Pausanias was acquitted. [12] In 401 BC, the command of the war against the notoriously disloyal Elis was entrusted to Agis, who in the third year compelled the Eleans to sue for peace, acknowledge the freedom of their Perioeci (citizens of cities conquered by Sparta, who were given some privileges), and to allow Spartans to take part in the Olympic Games and sacrifices.[2] As he was returning from Delphi, where he had gone to consecrate a tenth of the spoil, he fell sick at Heraea in Arcadia, and died in the course of a few days after he reached Sparta.[13] He was buried in Sparta, with unparalleled solemnity and pomp.[2] Agis left a son, Leotychides, who however was excluded from the throne, as there was some suspicion with regard to his legitimacy. While Alcibiades was at Sparta he made Agis his enemy. Later writers assign as a reason that Agis suspected Alcibiades of having slept with his queen, Timaea (and fathered Leotychides).[14][15] It was probably at the suggestion of Agis that orders were sent out to Astyochus to put him to death. Alcibiades however received warning (according to some accounts from Timaea herself), and evaded the Spartans.[16][17]

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