Camillus

Camillus in Roman Biography

Camillus, [Fr. Camille, kfrnei' or kS'me'ye,] (Marcus Furius,) acelebrated Roman dictator, whose history has been embellished with many fabulous exploits. After serving as military tribune, he was five times chosen dictator, and gained victories over the Falisci, Capenates, Volscians, and Fidenates. In his first dictatorship, which began in 396, he took Veii, after a long siege. About 390 n.c. he was condemned for peculation, and was exiled to Ardea. The Gauls under Brennus having pillaged Rome, Camillus was recalled, and, according to the popular account, gained two decisive victories over the invaders. He was chosen dictator, for the fifth time, in 367. He is said to have dissuaded the citizens from removing en masse from Rome to Veii after the former city had been ruined by the Gauls. Died in 364 B.C. Plutarch has written a life of Camillus. See Livy, " History of Rome ;" Niebuhr, " History of Rome,'' vol. i. ; Obkecht, " Dissertatio, M. F. Camillum repnesentans," 1693.

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Agis IV in Wikipedia

Agis IV (Gr. Ἄγις, c. 265 - 241 BC), the elder son of Eudamidas II, was the 24th king of the Eurypontid dynasty of Sparta.[1] Posterity has reckoned him an idealistic but impractical monarch.[2] Succession Agis succeeded his father as king in 245 BC, at around the age of 20, and reigned four years. In 243 BC, after the liberation of Corinth by Aratus, the general of the Achaean League, Agis led an army against him.[3] The interest of his reign, however, is derived his reaction to the domestic crisis of Sparta at the time of his succession.[2] Through the influx of wealth and luxury, with their concomitant vices, the Spartans had greatly degenerated from the ancient simplicity and severity of manners, and arrived at an extreme inequality in the distribution of wealth and property. Fewer than 700 families of the genuine Spartan stock (i.e. full citizenship) remained, and in consequence of the innovation introduced by Epitadeus, who procured a repeal of the law which secured to every Spartan head of a family an equal portion of land, the landed property had passed into the hands of very few individuals, so that fewer than 100 Spartan families held estates, while the poor were greatly burdened with debt.[1] Reforms Agis, who from his earliest youth had shown his attachment to the ancient discipline, undertook to reform these abuses, and re-establish the institutions of Lycurgus. To this end he proposed the abolition of all debts and a new partition of the lands. Another part of his plan was to give landed estates to the Perioeci. His schemes were warmly seconded by the poorer classes and the young men, and as strenuously opposed by the wealthy. He succeeded, however, in gaining over three very influential persons: his uncle Agesilaus (a man of large property, but who, being deeply involved in debt, hoped to profit by the innovations of Agis), Lysander (a descendant of the victor of Aegospotami) and Mandrocleides. Having arranged for Lysander to be elected one of the ephors, he laid his plans before the senate. He proposed that the Spartan territory should be divided into two portions, one to consist of 4500 equal lots, to be divided amongst the Spartans, whose ranks were to be filled up by the admission of the most respectable of the Perioeci and strangers; the other to contain 15,000 equal lots, to be divided amongst the remaining Perioeci.[1] The senate could not at first come to a decision on the matter. Lysander, therefore, convened the assembly of the people, to whom Agis submitted his measure, and offered to make the first sacrifice, by giving up his own lands and money, telling them that his mother, Agesistrate, and grandmother, who were both possessed of great wealth, with all his relations and friends, would follow his example. His generosity drew the applause of the multitude. The opposite party, however, headed by Leonidas II, Agis' Agiad co-monarch, who had formed his habits at the luxurious court of Seleucus II Callinicus, got the senate to reject the measure, though only by one vote. Agis decided to rid himself of Leonidas. Lysander accordingly accused him of having violated the laws by marrying a stranger and living in a foreign land. Leonidas was deposed, and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Cleombrotus, who cooperated with Agis. Loss of support Soon afterwards, however, Lysander's term of office expired, and the ephors of the following year were opposed to Agis, and looked to restore Leonidas. They brought an accusation against Lysander and Mandrocleides, of attempting to violate the laws. Alarmed at the turn events were taking, these two convinced the king to take the unprecedented step of deposing the ephors by force and to appoint others in their stead.[2] Leonidas, who had returned to the city, fled again, to Tegea, protected from Agis by Agesilaus, who persuaded Agis and Lysander that the most effective way to secure the consent of the wealthy to the distribution of their lands, would be to begin by cancelling the debts. Accordingly the debts were cancelled, and all bonds, registers, and securities were piled up in the market place and burned.[1] Agesilaus, having achieved his goal, contrived various pretexts for delaying the division of the lands. Meanwhile the Achaeans applied to Sparta for assistance against the Aetolians. Agis was accordingly sent at the head of an army. The cautious movements of Aratus gave Agis no opportunity to distinguish himself in battle, but he gained great credit by the excellent discipline he preserved among his troops. During his absence Agesilaus so angered the poorer classes by the continued postponement of the division of the lands, that they made no opposition when the enemies of Agis openly brought back Leonidas II and set him on the throne. Agis and Cleombrotus fled for sanctuary, the former to the temple of Athena Chalcioecus in Sparta, the latter to the temple of Poseidon (or Apollo) at Taenarum. Execution and legacy Cleombrotus was allowed to go into exile; he escaped death only because of the influence of his wife, Leonidas' daughter Chilonis. In 241 BC, Agis was betrayed by some friends and thrown into prison. Leonidas immediately came with a band of mercenaries and secured the prison, while the ephors entered it and went through the mockery of a trial. When asked if he did not repent of what he had attempted, Agis replied that he should never repent of so great a design, even in the face of death. He was condemned, and quickly executed by strangulation, the ephors fearing a rescue, as a great crowd of people had assembled around the prison gates. Agis, observing that one of his executioners was moved to tears, said, "Weep not for me: suffering, as I do, unjustly, I am in a happier case than my murderers." His mother Agesistrate and his grandmother were strangled on his body. Agis was the first king of Sparta to have been put to death by the ephors. Pausanias, who, however, is undoubtedly wrong, says that he fell in battle.[4] His widow Agiatis was forcibly married by Leonidas to his son Cleomenes III, but nevertheless the two developed for each other a mutual affection and esteem.[5][6] Considered by many writers too weak and good-natured to cope with the problems which confronted him, Agis was characterized by a sincerity of purpose and a blend of youthful modesty with royal dignity, which render him perhaps the most attractive figure in the whole of Spartan history. His life and death caught the romantic imagination of several ancient writers. He is the subject of a lost biography by Phylarchus, which was apparently very heavily relied upon by Plutarch when he wrote his own biography of the king.[2]

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Camillus in in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

A celebrated Roman, called the second Romulus, from his services to his country. After filling various important stations, and, among other achievements, taking the city of Veii, which had for the space of ten years resisted the Roman arms, he encountered at last the displeasure of his countrymen, and was accused of having embezzled some of the plunder of this place. Being well aware how the matter would terminate, Camillus went into voluntary exile, although his friends offered to pay the sum demanded of him. During this period of separation from his country, Rome, with the exception of the Capitol, was taken by the Gauls under Brennus (q.v.). Camillus, though an exile, was invited by the fugitive Romans at Veii to take command of them, but refused to act until the wishes of the Romans besieged in the Capitol were known. These unanimously revoked the sentence of banishment, and elected him dictator. The noble-minded Roman forgot their previous ingratitude, and marched to the relief of his country; which he delivered, after it had been for some time in the possession of the enemy. The Roman account says that Camillus, at the head of an army of forty thousand men, hastened to Rome, where he found the garrison of the Capitol on the point of purchasing peace from the invaders. "With iron, and not with gold," exclaimed Camillus, "Rome buys her freedom." An attack was instantly made upon the Gauls, a victory obtained, and the foe left their camp by night. On the morrow Camillus overtook them, and they met with a total overthrow. His triumphal entry into Rome was made amid the acclamations of thousands, who greeted him with the name of Romulus, Father of his Country, and Second Founder of the City. After performing another equally important service, in prevailing upon his countrymen to rebuild their city and not return to Veii, and after gaining victories over the Aequi, Volsci, Etrurians, and Latins, he died in the eighty-ninth year of his age, having been five times dictator, once censor, three times interrex, twice military tribune, and having obtained four triumphs (Camill.; Liv.v. 46 foll.; Flor.i. 13; Verg. Aen. vi. 825). We have touched on merely a few of the events connected with the history of Camillus, in consequence of the strong suspicion which attaches itself to the greater part of the narrative. In no instance, perhaps, have the family memorials of the Roman aristocracy more completely usurped the place of true history than in the case of Camillus. The part relative to the overthrow of the Gauls appears to be pure fiction. See Mommsen, Hist. of Rome, bk. ii. ch. 4.

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Agis IV in Wikipedia

Agis IV (Gr. Ἄγις, c. 265 - 241 BC), the elder son of Eudamidas II, was the 24th king of the Eurypontid dynasty of Sparta.[1] Posterity has reckoned him an idealistic but impractical monarch.[2] Succession Agis succeeded his father as king in 245 BC, at around the age of 20, and reigned four years. In 243 BC, after the liberation of Corinth by Aratus, the general of the Achaean League, Agis led an army against him.[3] The interest of his reign, however, is derived his reaction to the domestic crisis of Sparta at the time of his succession.[2] Through the influx of wealth and luxury, with their concomitant vices, the Spartans had greatly degenerated from the ancient simplicity and severity of manners, and arrived at an extreme inequality in the distribution of wealth and property. Fewer than 700 families of the genuine Spartan stock (i.e. full citizenship) remained, and in consequence of the innovation introduced by Epitadeus, who procured a repeal of the law which secured to every Spartan head of a family an equal portion of land, the landed property had passed into the hands of very few individuals, so that fewer than 100 Spartan families held estates, while the poor were greatly burdened with debt.[1] Reforms Agis, who from his earliest youth had shown his attachment to the ancient discipline, undertook to reform these abuses, and re-establish the institutions of Lycurgus. To this end he proposed the abolition of all debts and a new partition of the lands. Another part of his plan was to give landed estates to the Perioeci. His schemes were warmly seconded by the poorer classes and the young men, and as strenuously opposed by the wealthy. He succeeded, however, in gaining over three very influential persons: his uncle Agesilaus (a man of large property, but who, being deeply involved in debt, hoped to profit by the innovations of Agis), Lysander (a descendant of the victor of Aegospotami) and Mandrocleides. Having arranged for Lysander to be elected one of the ephors, he laid his plans before the senate. He proposed that the Spartan territory should be divided into two portions, one to consist of 4500 equal lots, to be divided amongst the Spartans, whose ranks were to be filled up by the admission of the most respectable of the Perioeci and strangers; the other to contain 15,000 equal lots, to be divided amongst the remaining Perioeci.[1] The senate could not at first come to a decision on the matter. Lysander, therefore, convened the assembly of the people, to whom Agis submitted his measure, and offered to make the first sacrifice, by giving up his own lands and money, telling them that his mother, Agesistrate, and grandmother, who were both possessed of great wealth, with all his relations and friends, would follow his example. His generosity drew the applause of the multitude. The opposite party, however, headed by Leonidas II, Agis' Agiad co-monarch, who had formed his habits at the luxurious court of Seleucus II Callinicus, got the senate to reject the measure, though only by one vote. Agis decided to rid himself of Leonidas. Lysander accordingly accused him of having violated the laws by marrying a stranger and living in a foreign land. Leonidas was deposed, and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Cleombrotus, who cooperated with Agis. Loss of support Soon afterwards, however, Lysander's term of office expired, and the ephors of the following year were opposed to Agis, and looked to restore Leonidas. They brought an accusation against Lysander and Mandrocleides, of attempting to violate the laws. Alarmed at the turn events were taking, these two convinced the king to take the unprecedented step of deposing the ephors by force and to appoint others in their stead.[2] Leonidas, who had returned to the city, fled again, to Tegea, protected from Agis by Agesilaus, who persuaded Agis and Lysander that the most effective way to secure the consent of the wealthy to the distribution of their lands, would be to begin by cancelling the debts. Accordingly the debts were cancelled, and all bonds, registers, and securities were piled up in the market place and burned.[1] Agesilaus, having achieved his goal, contrived various pretexts for delaying the division of the lands. Meanwhile the Achaeans applied to Sparta for assistance against the Aetolians. Agis was accordingly sent at the head of an army. The cautious movements of Aratus gave Agis no opportunity to distinguish himself in battle, but he gained great credit by the excellent discipline he preserved among his troops. During his absence Agesilaus so angered the poorer classes by the continued postponement of the division of the lands, that they made no opposition when the enemies of Agis openly brought back Leonidas II and set him on the throne. Agis and Cleombrotus fled for sanctuary, the former to the temple of Athena Chalcioecus in Sparta, the latter to the temple of Poseidon (or Apollo) at Taenarum. Execution and legacy Cleombrotus was allowed to go into exile; he escaped death only because of the influence of his wife, Leonidas' daughter Chilonis. In 241 BC, Agis was betrayed by some friends and thrown into prison. Leonidas immediately came with a band of mercenaries and secured the prison, while the ephors entered it and went through the mockery of a trial. When asked if he did not repent of what he had attempted, Agis replied that he should never repent of so great a design, even in the face of death. He was condemned, and quickly executed by strangulation, the ephors fearing a rescue, as a great crowd of people had assembled around the prison gates. Agis, observing that one of his executioners was moved to tears, said, "Weep not for me: suffering, as I do, unjustly, I am in a happier case than my murderers." His mother Agesistrate and his grandmother were strangled on his body. Agis was the first king of Sparta to have been put to death by the ephors. Pausanias, who, however, is undoubtedly wrong, says that he fell in battle.[4] His widow Agiatis was forcibly married by Leonidas to his son Cleomenes III, but nevertheless the two developed for each other a mutual affection and esteem.[5][6] Considered by many writers too weak and good-natured to cope with the problems which confronted him, Agis was characterized by a sincerity of purpose and a blend of youthful modesty with royal dignity, which render him perhaps the most attractive figure in the whole of Spartan history. His life and death caught the romantic imagination of several ancient writers. He is the subject of a lost biography by Phylarchus, which was apparently very heavily relied upon by Plutarch when he wrote his own biography of the king.[2]

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Camillus in Wikipedia

Marcus Furius Camillus (ca. 446 – 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent. According to Livy and Plutarch, Camillus triumphed four times, was five times dictator, and was honoured with the title of Second Founder of Rome. Camillus belonged to the lineage of the Furii, whose origin had been in the Latin city of Tusculum. Although this city had been a bitter enemy of the Romans in the 490s BC, after both Volsci and Aequi began to wage war against Rome, Tusculum joined Rome, unlike most Latin cities. Soon, the Furii integrated into the Roman society, accumulating a long series of magistrate offices. Thus the Furii had become an important Roman family by the 450s.[1] The father of Camillus was Lucius Furius Medullinus, a patrician tribune of consular powers. Camillus had more than three brothers: the eldest one was Lucius junior, who was both Roman Consul and tribune of consular powers. A younger brother was Spurius. The cognomen of Camillus was the denomination of the Roman acolytes of religious rituals. Coincidently, during Camillus' infancy, his relative Quintus Furius Paculus was the Roman Pontifex Maximus...

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