Au'gus-tiue, [Lat Aure'lius Augusti'nus ; Fr.
Augustin, o'gu» tax'; It. Augustino, 6w-goos-tee'no,]
Saint, the most illustrious Latin Father of the Church,
was born at' Tagasta, in Numidia, on the 13th of November,
354 a.d. He was instructed in religion by his
mother Monnica (or Monica,) who was a devout Christian.
He also studied Greek, rhetoric, and philosophy
at Madaura and Carthage. About the age of nineteen
he was captivated with the heresy of the Manichaeans, to
which he adhered for nine years. Having taught grammar
and rhetoric at Tagasta, Carthage, and Rome, he
was appointed professor of rhetoric and philosophy at
Milan in 384. Amidst a career of immorality into
which strong youthful passions had impelled him, he
was seriously impressed by the sermons of Saint Ambrose.
He experienced a decided conversion in 386,
after deep conflicts, which he has described in his "Conns,"
an autobiography. Soon after this event he
returned to Africa.
He was ordained a priest about 391 by Valerius,
Bishop of Hippo, whom he succeeded in 396. He distinguished
himself as the adversary of the Donatists at
the Council of Carthage in 401 a.d., and had a high
reputation as an eloquent preacher. About 418 he produced
two works against the Pelagians,
" On the Grace
of Christ," ("De Gratia Christi,") and' "On Original
Sin," ("De Peccato Originali.") His capital work, entitled
"On the City of God," ("De Civitate Dei,") was
intended to subvert the foundations of paganism and
establish those of Christianity, and to refute the opinion
that the capture of Rome by Alaric, and other calamities
of the empire, were caused by the prevalence of the
new religion. It was finished about 426. He wrote
many other works, among which are those " On Faith
and Works," ("De Fide et Operibus,") and "On the
Soul and its Origin," (" De Anima et ejus Origine.")
He died at Hippo, during the siege of that city by the
Vandals, on the 28th of August, 430 A.D. His habits
simple and temperate, rather than ascetic. The
best edition of his works is that published by the
at Paris, (ti'vols., 1679-1700.) "Of all the
Fathers of the Latin Church," says Villemain, "Saint
Augustine manifested the most imagination in theology,
the most eloquence, and even sensibility, in scholasticism.
... lie writes as well on music as on free will; he
explains the intellectual phenomena of memory as well
as he reasons on the decline of the Roman Empire.
His subtile and vigorous mind has often consumed on
mystical problems an amount of sagacity which would
have sufficed for the most sublime conceptions."
Confessions of Saint Augustine ;" Possidius,
" Vie de Saintin;"
George Moringo, "Vie de Saint-Augustin," 1533;
\ ie de Saint-Augustin," 1657; Tillemont, "Me'moi'res
piques." (vol. xiii..) 1702; Rivtus, "Vita Sancti Augus-
1646 ; Poutoulat, "Vie de Saint-Augustin," 2d edition, 1852;
Augustines Leben," 1844; Buti er, "Lives of the
Christliche Romische Theologie:" Villemain,
"Tableau de 1'Eloquence chre'tienne au quatricme Steele,"
•'Nouvelle Biographie Ge*nerale."
Aurelius. One of the most renowned Fathers of the Christian
Church, was born at Tagasté, a city of Africa, November
13th, A.D. 354, during the reign of the emperor Constantius
II. He has related his own life in the work to which he gave
the title of Confessiones, and it is from this source,
together with the Retractationes, some of his letters, and
the Vita Possidii of the semi-Pelagian Gennadius, that we
derive our principal information respecting him. His parents
sent him to Carthage to complete his education, but he
disappointed their expectations by his neglect of serious
study and his devotion to pleasure, for in his sixteenth
year he became very fond of women. For fifteen years he was
connected with one, by whom he had a son. He left her only
when he changed his whole course of life. A book of
Cicero's, the Hortensius, which has not come down to our
times, led him to the study of philosophy; and when he found
that this did not satisfy his feelings, he went over to the
sect of the Manichaeans. He was one of their disciples for
nine years; but, after having obtained a correct knowledge
of their doctrines, he left them, and departed from Africa
to Rome, and thence to Milan, where he announced himself as
a teacher of rhetoric. St. Ambrose was bishop of this city,
and his discourses converted Augustine to the orthodox
faith. The reading of St. Paul's epistles wrought an entire
change in his life and character. The Catholic Church has a
festival (May 3) in commemoration of this event. He retired
into solitude, wrote there many books, and prepared himself
for baptism, which he received in the thirty-third year of
his age, together with his son Adeodatus, from the hands of
Ambrose. He returned to Africa, sold his estate, and gave
the proceeds to the poor, retaining only enough to support
him in a moderate manner. As he was once present in the
church at Hippo, the bishop, who was a very old man,
signified a desire to consecrate a priest to assist and
succeed him. At the desire of the people, Augustine entered
upon the holy office, preached with extraordinary success,
and, in the year 395, became bishop of Hippo. He entered
into a warm controversy with Pelagius concerning the
doctrines of freewill, of grace, and of predestination, and
wrote a book concerning them. Augustine maintained that men
were justified merely through grace, and not through good
works. He died August 28th, A.D. 430, while Hippo was
besieged by the Vandals.
There have been Fathers of the Church more learned-masters
of a better language and a purer taste; but none have ever
more powerfully touched the human heart and warmed it
towards religion. Painters have therefore given him for a
symbol a flaming heart. Augustine is one of the most
voluminous of the Christian writers. His works, in Migne's
Patrologia Latina, fill 16 volumes (xxxii.xlvii.). The first
of these contains the works which he wrote before he was a
priest, and his Retractationes and Confessiones; the former
a critical review of his own writings, and the latter a
curious and interesting picture of his life. The remainder
of these volumes consist of a treatise On the City of God
(De Civitate Dei); commentaries on Scripture; epistles on a
great variety of subjects, doctrinal, moral, and personal;
sermons and homilies; treatises on various points of
discipline; and elaborate arguments against heretics. With
the exception of those of Aristotle, no writings contributed
more than Angustine's to encourage the spirit of subtle
disputation which distinguished the scholastic ages. They
exhibit much facility of invention and strength of
reasoning, with more argument than eloquence and more wit
than learning. Erasmus calls Augustine a writer of obscure
subtlety, who requires in the reader acute penetration,
close attention, and quick recollection, and by no means
repays him for the application of all these requisites. It
was St. Augustine who finally established the vocabulary of
ecclesiastical Latinity, setting the stamp of his authority
upon the new coinages that fill the pages of Tertullian.
The best complete edition of his works is still that of the
Benedictines, of which the last reprint was in 1836-40.
There is an English translation of the whole in 15 vols.
(Edinb. 1872-80). See Milman, Latin Christianity, 8 vols.
(N. Y. and Lond. 1861-62); id. Hist. of Christianity, 3
vols., new ed. (N. Y. 1871); Cloth, Der heil. Kirchenlehrer
Augustin (Aachen, 1840); Bindemann, Der heilige Augustin
(Berlin, 1844-69); Dorner, Augustin, sein theologisches
System und seine religionsphilos. Anschauung (Berlin, 1873);
Poujoulat, Histoire de Saint Augustin, 6th ed. (Tours,
1875); Böhringer, Augustin (Stuttgart, 1877-78); and Reuter,
Augustinische Studien (Gotha, 1887). See also Regnier, La
Latinité des Sermons de Saint Augustin (Paris, 1887). There
is a new critical edition of the works of St. Augustine in
the Vienna collection of the Latin Fathers (Corp. Vindobon.
vol. xii.), edited by F. Weihrich (Vienna, 1877).
Augustine of Hippo (/ɒˈɡʌstɨn/; Latin: Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis;) (November 13, 354 – August 28, 430),
also known as Augustine, St. Augustine, or St. Austin was Bishop of Hippo Regius. He was a Latin-speaking
philosopher and theologian who lived in the Roman Africa Province. His writings were very influential in the
development of Western Christianity.
Augustine, a Latin church father, is one of the most important figures in the development of Western Christianity.
He "established anew the ancient faith" (conditor antiquae rursum fidei), according to his contemporary, Jerome.
In his early years he was heavily influenced by Manichaeism and afterward by the Neo-Platonism of Plotinus.
After his conversion to Christianity and baptism (387), Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and
theology, accommodating a variety of methods and different perspectives. He believed that the grace of Christ
was indispensable to human freedom, and he framed the concepts of original sin and just war.
When the Roman Empire in the West was starting to disintegrate, Augustine developed the concept of the Church as a
spiritual City of God (in a book of the same name), distinct from the material Earthly City. His thought
profoundly influenced the medieval worldview. Augustine's City of God was closely identified with the church, the
community that worshipped God.
In the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion, he is a saint and pre-eminent Doctor of the Church, and the
patron of the Augustinian religious order; his memorial is celebrated 28 August, the day of his death. He is the
patron saint of brewers, printers, theologians, sore eyes, and a number of cities and dioceses.
Many Protestants, especially Calvinists, consider him to be one of the theological fathers of Reformation due to
his teaching on salvation and divine grace. In the Eastern Orthodox Church he is blessed, and his feast day is
celebrated on 15 June. Among the Orthodox, he is called Blessed Augustine, or St. Augustine the Blessed...