Augustine in Roman Biography

Au'gus-tiue, [Lat Aure'lius Augusti'nus ; Fr. Augustin, o'gu» tax'; It. Augustino, 6w-goos-tee'no,] Saint, the most illustrious Latin Father of the Church, was born at' Tagasta, in Numidia, on the 13th of November, 354 a.d. He was instructed in religion by his mother Monnica (or Monica,) who was a devout Christian. He also studied Greek, rhetoric, and philosophy at Madaura and Carthage. About the age of nineteen he was captivated with the heresy of the Manichaeans, to which he adhered for nine years. Having taught grammar and rhetoric at Tagasta, Carthage, and Rome, he was appointed professor of rhetoric and philosophy at Milan in 384. Amidst a career of immorality into which strong youthful passions had impelled him, he was seriously impressed by the sermons of Saint Ambrose. He experienced a decided conversion in 386, after deep conflicts, which he has described in his "Conns," an autobiography. Soon after this event he returned to Africa. He was ordained a priest about 391 by Valerius, Bishop of Hippo, whom he succeeded in 396. He distinguished himself as the adversary of the Donatists at the Council of Carthage in 401 a.d., and had a high reputation as an eloquent preacher. About 418 he produced two works against the Pelagians, " On the Grace of Christ," ("De Gratia Christi,") and' "On Original Sin," ("De Peccato Originali.") His capital work, entitled "On the City of God," ("De Civitate Dei,") was intended to subvert the foundations of paganism and establish those of Christianity, and to refute the opinion that the capture of Rome by Alaric, and other calamities of the empire, were caused by the prevalence of the new religion. It was finished about 426. He wrote many other works, among which are those " On Faith and Works," ("De Fide et Operibus,") and "On the Soul and its Origin," (" De Anima et ejus Origine.") He died at Hippo, during the siege of that city by the Vandals, on the 28th of August, 430 A.D. His habits simple and temperate, rather than ascetic. The best edition of his works is that published by the Benedictines at Paris, (ti'vols., 1679-1700.) "Of all the Fathers of the Latin Church," says Villemain, "Saint Augustine manifested the most imagination in theology, the most eloquence, and even sensibility, in scholasticism. ... lie writes as well on music as on free will; he explains the intellectual phenomena of memory as well as he reasons on the decline of the Roman Empire. His subtile and vigorous mind has often consumed on mystical problems an amount of sagacity which would have sufficed for the most sublime conceptions." See " Confessions of Saint Augustine ;" Possidius, " Vie de Saintin;" George Moringo, "Vie de Saint-Augustin," 1533; \ ie de Saint-Augustin," 1657; Tillemont, "Me'moi'res piques." (vol. xiii..) 1702; Rivtus, "Vita Sancti Augus- 1646 ; Poutoulat, "Vie de Saint-Augustin," 2d edition, 1852; makn. " Augustines Leben," 1844; Buti er, "Lives of the Iiaur, " Christliche Romische Theologie:" Villemain, "Tableau de 1'Eloquence chre'tienne au quatricme Steele," 1849; •'Nouvelle Biographie Ge*nerale."

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Augustīnus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Augustīnus Aurelius. One of the most renowned Fathers of the Christian Church, was born at Tagasté, a city of Africa, November 13th, A.D. 354, during the reign of the emperor Constantius II. He has related his own life in the work to which he gave the title of Confessiones, and it is from this source, together with the Retractationes, some of his letters, and the Vita Possidii of the semi-Pelagian Gennadius, that we derive our principal information respecting him. His parents sent him to Carthage to complete his education, but he disappointed their expectations by his neglect of serious study and his devotion to pleasure, for in his sixteenth year he became very fond of women. For fifteen years he was connected with one, by whom he had a son. He left her only when he changed his whole course of life. A book of Cicero's, the Hortensius, which has not come down to our times, led him to the study of philosophy; and when he found that this did not satisfy his feelings, he went over to the sect of the Manichaeans. He was one of their disciples for nine years; but, after having obtained a correct knowledge of their doctrines, he left them, and departed from Africa to Rome, and thence to Milan, where he announced himself as a teacher of rhetoric. St. Ambrose was bishop of this city, and his discourses converted Augustine to the orthodox faith. The reading of St. Paul's epistles wrought an entire change in his life and character. The Catholic Church has a festival (May 3) in commemoration of this event. He retired into solitude, wrote there many books, and prepared himself for baptism, which he received in the thirty-third year of his age, together with his son Adeodatus, from the hands of Ambrose. He returned to Africa, sold his estate, and gave the proceeds to the poor, retaining only enough to support him in a moderate manner. As he was once present in the church at Hippo, the bishop, who was a very old man, signified a desire to consecrate a priest to assist and succeed him. At the desire of the people, Augustine entered upon the holy office, preached with extraordinary success, and, in the year 395, became bishop of Hippo. He entered into a warm controversy with Pelagius concerning the doctrines of freewill, of grace, and of predestination, and wrote a book concerning them. Augustine maintained that men were justified merely through grace, and not through good works. He died August 28th, A.D. 430, while Hippo was besieged by the Vandals. There have been Fathers of the Church more learned-masters of a better language and a purer taste; but none have ever more powerfully touched the human heart and warmed it towards religion. Painters have therefore given him for a symbol a flaming heart. Augustine is one of the most voluminous of the Christian writers. His works, in Migne's Patrologia Latina, fill 16 volumes (xxxii.xlvii.). The first of these contains the works which he wrote before he was a priest, and his Retractationes and Confessiones; the former a critical review of his own writings, and the latter a curious and interesting picture of his life. The remainder of these volumes consist of a treatise On the City of God (De Civitate Dei); commentaries on Scripture; epistles on a great variety of subjects, doctrinal, moral, and personal; sermons and homilies; treatises on various points of discipline; and elaborate arguments against heretics. With the exception of those of Aristotle, no writings contributed more than Angustine's to encourage the spirit of subtle disputation which distinguished the scholastic ages. They exhibit much facility of invention and strength of reasoning, with more argument than eloquence and more wit than learning. Erasmus calls Augustine a writer of obscure subtlety, who requires in the reader acute penetration, close attention, and quick recollection, and by no means repays him for the application of all these requisites. It was St. Augustine who finally established the vocabulary of ecclesiastical Latinity, setting the stamp of his authority upon the new coinages that fill the pages of Tertullian. The best complete edition of his works is still that of the Benedictines, of which the last reprint was in 1836-40. There is an English translation of the whole in 15 vols. (Edinb. 1872-80). See Milman, Latin Christianity, 8 vols. (N. Y. and Lond. 1861-62); id. Hist. of Christianity, 3 vols., new ed. (N. Y. 1871); Cloth, Der heil. Kirchenlehrer Augustin (Aachen, 1840); Bindemann, Der heilige Augustin (Berlin, 1844-69); Dorner, Augustin, sein theologisches System und seine religionsphilos. Anschauung (Berlin, 1873); Poujoulat, Histoire de Saint Augustin, 6th ed. (Tours, 1875); Böhringer, Augustin (Stuttgart, 1877-78); and Reuter, Augustinische Studien (Gotha, 1887). See also Regnier, La Latinité des Sermons de Saint Augustin (Paris, 1887). There is a new critical edition of the works of St. Augustine in the Vienna collection of the Latin Fathers (Corp. Vindobon. vol. xii.), edited by F. Weihrich (Vienna, 1877).

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Augustine of Hippo in Wikipedia

Augustine of Hippo (/ɒˈɡʌstɨn/;[1] Latin: Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis;)[2] (November 13, 354 – August 28, 430), also known as Augustine, St. Augustine, or St. Austin[3] was Bishop of Hippo Regius. He was a Latin-speaking philosopher and theologian who lived in the Roman Africa Province. His writings were very influential in the development of Western Christianity. Augustine, a Latin church father, is one of the most important figures in the development of Western Christianity. He "established anew the ancient faith" (conditor antiquae rursum fidei), according to his contemporary, Jerome.[4] In his early years he was heavily influenced by Manichaeism and afterward by the Neo-Platonism of Plotinus.[5] After his conversion to Christianity and baptism (387), Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and different perspectives.[6] He believed that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, and he framed the concepts of original sin and just war. When the Roman Empire in the West was starting to disintegrate, Augustine developed the concept of the Church as a spiritual City of God (in a book of the same name), distinct from the material Earthly City.[7] His thought profoundly influenced the medieval worldview. Augustine's City of God was closely identified with the church, the community that worshipped God.[8] In the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion, he is a saint and pre-eminent Doctor of the Church, and the patron of the Augustinian religious order; his memorial is celebrated 28 August, the day of his death. He is the patron saint of brewers, printers, theologians, sore eyes, and a number of cities and dioceses.[citation needed] Many Protestants, especially Calvinists, consider him to be one of the theological fathers of Reformation due to his teaching on salvation and divine grace. In the Eastern Orthodox Church he is blessed, and his feast day is celebrated on 15 June.[9] Among the Orthodox, he is called Blessed Augustine, or St. Augustine the Blessed...

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