Jovian in Roman Biography

Jo'vi-an, [Lat. Jovia'nus; Fr. Jovien, zho've-4N r ; It. Gioviano, jo-ve-4'no,] or, more fully, Jo-vl-a'nus Fla'vi'-us Clau'dl-us, Emperor of Rome, was born in Pannonia, 331 A.D. He early distinguished himself as a commander in the Roman army, and, though an avowed Christian, received many marks of distinction from Julian the Apostate, whom he accompanied on his unsuccessful expedition into Persia. At the death of that sovereign, in 363, Jovian was elected emperor by the army. The Roman troops were at that time in imminent clanger, both on account of the superior Persian forces by which they were hemmed in, and the great scarcity of provisions. Jovian, after bravely repelling several attacks of the enemy, formed a treaty, by which he agreed to give up the Roman conquests west of the Tigris. Returning, he spent some time at Antioch, where he annulled Julian's laws against the Christians and re-established the orthodox religion. He died in 364, at Dadastana, in Galatia, as he was proceeding to Constantinople. See Le Beau, "Histoire du Bas-Kmpire ;" Tillemont, " Histoire des Empereurs ;" Schenkel, " Historia Joviaui," 1617; La Bletterie, " Histoire de PEmpereur Jovien," 2 vols., 1748.

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Jovian in Wikipedia

Flavius Jovianus (331 – 17 February 364), commonly known as Jovian, was Roman Emperor from 363 to 364. Upon the death of emperor Julian during his Sassanid campaign, Jovian was hastily declared emperor by his soldiers. Jovian sought peace with the Persians on humiliating terms, and reestablished Christianity as the favored religion of the Empire. Rise to power - Jovian was born at Singidunum (today Belgrade, Serbia) in 331, son of (Flavius?) Varronianus, the commander of Constantius II's imperial bodyguards (comes domesticorum). He also joined the guards, and by 363 had risen to the same command that his father had once held. In this capacity, Jovian accompanied the Roman Emperor Julian on the Mesopotamian campaign of the same year against Shapur II, the Sassanid king. After a small but decisive engagement the Roman army was forced to retreat from the numerically superior Persian force. Julian was mortally wounded during the retreat and died on 26 June 363. The next day, after the aged Saturninius Secundus Salutius, praetorian prefect of the Orient, declined the purple, the choice of the army fell upon Jovian. His election caused considerable surprise, and it is suggested by Ammianus Marcellinus that he was wrongly identified with another Jovianus, chief notary (primicerius notariorum), whose name also had been put forward, or that during the acclamations the soldiers mistook the name Jovianus for Julianus, and imagined that the latter had recovered from his illness. Restoration of Christianity - Jovian, a Christian, reestablished Christianity as the favoured religion of the Roman Empire ending the brief revival of paganism under his predecessor Julian. Upon arriving at Antioch, he revoked the edicts of Julian against the Christians.[1] The Labarum of Constantine the Great again became the standard of the army.[2] He issued an edict of toleration, to the effect that, while the exercise of magical rites would be punished, his subjects should enjoy full liberty of conscience[3]. However, in 363 he issued an edict ordering the Library of Antioch to be burnt down[4], and another on 11 September subjecting the worship of ancestral gods to the death penalty, which, on 23 December, he also applied to participation in any pagan ceremony (even private ones)[5]. Jovian entertained a great regard for Athanasius, whom he reinstated on the archiepiscopal throne,[1] desiring him to draw up a statement of the orthodox faith. In Syriac literature Jovian became the hero of a Christian romance. From Jovian's reign until the 15th century Christianity remained the dominant religion of both the Western and Eastern Roman Empires, until the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. Rule - Jovian continued the retreat begun by Julian and, continually harassed by the Persians, succeeded in reaching the banks of the Tigris where Jovian, deep inside Sassanid territory, was forced to sue for a peace treaty on humiliatingly unfavourable terms. In exchange for his safety, he agreed to withdraw from the five Roman provinces conquered by Galerius in 298, east of the Tigris, that Diocletian had annexed and allow the Persians to occupy the fortresses of Nisibis, Castra Maurorum and Singara. The Romans also surrendered their interests in the Kingdom of Armenia to the Persians and the Christian king of Armenia, Arshak II, was to stay neutral in future conflicts between the two empires and was forced to cede part of his kingdom to Shapur. The treaty was widely seen as a disgrace and Jovian rapidly lost popularity. After arriving at Antioch, Jovian decided to rush to Constantinople to consolidate his political position there. He died on 17 February 364 after a reign of only eight months. During his return to Constantinople, Jovian was found dead in bed in his tent at Dadastana, halfway between Ancyra and Nicaea. His death has been attributed to either a surfeit of mushrooms or the poisonous carbon monoxide fumes of a charcoal warming fire. Jovian was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople.

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Ioviānus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Ioviānus, Flavius Claudius A Roman emperor, born A.D. 331, the son of Veronianus, of an illustrious family of Moesia, who had filled important offices under Constantine. Iovianus served in the army of Julian , in his unlucky expedition against the Persians; and when that emperor was killed, A.D. 363, the soldiers proclaimed him successor. His first task was to save the army, which was surrounded by the Persians, and in great distress for provisions. After repelling repeated attacks of the enemy, he willingly listened to proposals for peace, and accepted conditions offensive to Roman pride. Iovianus gave up the city of Nisibis to the Persians, the inhabitants withdrawing to Amida. On his arrival at Antioch, Iovianus, who was of the Christian faith, revoked the edicts of Julian against the Christians. He also supported the orthodox or Nicene creed against the Arians, and showed his favour to the bishops who had previously suffered from the Arians, and especially to Athanasius, who visited him at Having been acknowledged over the whole Empire, Iovianus set off during the winter to Constantinople. At Ancyra he assumed the consular dignity; but, a few days after, being at a place called Dadastana, in Galatia, he was found dead in his bed, having been suffocated, as some say, by the vapour of charcoal burning in his room; according to others, by the steam of the plaster with which it had been newly laid; while others, again, suspected him of having been poisoned or killed by some of his guards. He died February 16, A.D. 364, after a reign of only seven months. The army proclaimed Valentinianus as his successor (Amm. Marcell. xxv. 5 foll.).

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