First Century Jerusalem

"Whoever has not seen Jerusalem in its splendor has never seen a fine city."Babylonian Talmud (Succah, 51b)

Primary Sources for the Study of First Century Jerusalem: Josephus, The Mishnah, The New Testament, Pliny.

The Jerusalem of Herod the Great

The Jerusalem Jesus knew nowhere near resembled the city David conquered in the tenth century BC. At that time, it had been a small, isolated hill fortress, valued more for its location than its size or splendor. Yet from that time on it was known as the City of David, and the kings of David's dynasty, especially his son Solomon, had enlarged and beautified it.

In the sixth century BC, the army of Nebuchadnezzar leveled Jerusalem and drove its citizens into exile. During the long years of captivity in Babylon, the Jews in exiles' prayers and longings focused on the distant Holy City. But the city rebuilt by the Jews who returned a century later was far inferior to its former splendor. It was, ironically, the hated tyrant Herod the Great who restored Jerusalem to its former grandeur.

In the 33 years of his reign (37-4 B.C.), Herod transformed the city as had no other ruler since Solomon. Building palaces and citadels, a theatre and an amphitheatre, viaducts (bridges) and public monuments. These ambitious building projects, some completed long after his death, were part of the king's single-minded campaign to increase his capital's importance in the eyes of the Roman Empire.

No visitor seeing Jerusalem for the first time could fail to be impressed by its visual splendor. The long, difficult ascent from Jericho to the Holy City ended as the traveler rounded the Mount of Olives, and suddenly caught sight of a vista like few others in the world. Across the Kidron Valley, set among the surrounding hills, was Jerusalem, "the perfection of beauty," in the words of Lamentations, "the joy of all the world."

The view from the Mount of Olives was dominated by the gleaming, gold-embellished Temple which was located in the most holy spot in the Jewish world and really God's world. This was the Lord's earthly dwelling place, He mediated His throne here and raised up a people to perform rituals and ceremonies here that would foreshadow the coming of His Messiah kinsman redeemer who would be the lamb of God, slain for the sins of the whole world.

The Temple stood high above the old City of David, at the center of a gigantic white stone platform.

To the south of the temple was THE LOWER CITY, a group of limestone houses, yellow-brown colored from years of sun and wind. Narrow, unpaved streets and houses that sloped downward toward the Tyropean Valley, which ran through the center of Jerusalem.

Rising upward to the west was THE UPPER CITY, or Zion, where the white marble villas and palaces of the very rich stood out like patches of snow. Two large arched passageways spanned the valley, crossing from the Upper City to the temple.

A high, thick, gray stone wall encircled Jerusalem. It had been damaged, repaired and enlarged over the centuries, and in Jesus' day it was about 4 miles in circumference, bringing about 25,000 people into an area about a square mile. At intervals along the wall were massive gateways. Just inside each gate was a customs station, where publicans collected taxes on all goods entering or leaving the city.

Introduction to First Century Jerusalem


City of Jerusalem Illustration

The Model at the Holyland Hotel (Aerial View)

Quotes About Jerusalem

The Land of Jerusalem

Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.

Recent History of Jerusalem

Encyclopedia - Jerusalem

Heart Message

Adiabenian Palaces

Akeldama - Field of Blood

Antonia Fortress

City of David (Tomb)

Damascus Gate

Dyers Quarter

Gihon Spring

Golden Gate

Hasmonean Palace

Herod's Barracks

Herod's Bridge

Herod's Three Towers

Herod's Palace

Herod's Theater

Hezekiah's Tunnel

Hill of Calvary

Hinnom Valley

Hippicus Tower


Houses of the Lower City

Huldah Gates

Hyrcanus Monument

Kidron Valley

Lower City

Mariamne Tower

Market Pavilions

Jerusalem Model

Jerusalem Roads

Jerusalem Temple

Jerusalem Walls

Monument of Alexander Jannaeus

Mount of Olives

New City

Palace of Annas

Palace of Caiaphas

Phasael Tower

Pilate's Aqueduct

Pool of Bethesda

Pool of Siloam

Psephinus Tower

Robinson's Arch

Serpent's Pool

Synagogue of the Freedmen

Temple Facade

Royal Porticoes

Tomb of Absalom

Tomb of David

Tomb of Huldah

Tyropoeon Valley

Upper Agora

Upper City

Western Wall

Wilson's Arch

Women's Gate

Xystus Market

First Century Jerusalem